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Sample records for chez mycobacterium austroafricanum

  1. Catabolism of methyl ter-butyl ether (MTBE): characterization of the enzymes of Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012 involved in MTBE degradation; Catabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE): caracterisation des enzymes impliquees dans la degradation du MTBE chez Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes Ferreira, N.

    2005-11-15

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is added to gasoline to meet the octane index requirement. its solubility in water and its poor biodegradability made the use of MTBE a great environmental concern, particularly regarding aquifers. We previously isolated M austroafricanum IFP 2012 able to use MTBE as a sole source of carbon and energy and the MTBE pathway was partially characterized. In the present study, which aimed at isolating the genes involved in MTBE biodegradation in order to use them for estimation of MTBE biodegradation capacities in contaminated environment, we isolated a new M. austroafricanum strain, IFP 2015. A new degradation intermediate, the 2-methyl 1,2-propane-diol (2-M1,2-PD), the product of tert-butanol (TBA) oxidation, was identified. We also determined the enzymes induced during growth of M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 on MTBF. Then, using the tools of protein analysis and of molecular biology, we isolated and cloned the mpd genes cluster in the plasmid pCL4D. Heterologous expression of the recombinant plasmid in M smegmatis tmc2 155, showed the involvement of an 2-M1,2-PD dehydrogenase (MpdB) and a hydroxy-iso-butyr-aldehyde dehydrogenase (MpdC), encoded by mpdB and mpdC, respectively. Both enzymes were responsible for the conversion of 2-M 1,2-PD to hydroxy-isobutyric acid (HIBA). A further survey of different M austroafricanum strains, including IFP 2012, IFP 2015 and JOBS (ex-M vaccae) showed the link between the ability to grow on C{sub 2} to C{sub 16} n-alkanes and the MTBE and TBA degradation capacities. The alkB gene was partially sequenced in all these strains. Expression of alkB was demonstrated in M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 after growth on propane, hexane, hexadecane and TBA. Finally, we identified 2-propanol as the intermediate of HIBA degradation. The gene encoding the 2-propanol:p-N,N'-dimethyl-4-nitroso-aniline (NDMA) oxidoreductase was detected M austroafricanum IFP 2012. (author)

  2. Biodegradation of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate by Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2173

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compounds such as 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (2-EHN) are added to diesel fuel to improve ignition and boost cetane number. The production of 2-EHN reaches around 100000 tons per year in France, principally. Risks associated to its utilization are however poorly known because, in case of accidental release in the environment, nothing is known about its biodegradation. In this study, we aimed at (i) identifying bacterial strains able to degrade 2-EHN and compare their capabilities, (ii) elucidating the degradation pathway, and (iii) identifying the enzymes involved. Biodegradation of 2-EHN was first tested in biphasic cultures under conditions that reduce the toxicity and increase the availability of the hydrophobic substrate. Using optimized culture conditions, we showed that several strains of Mycobacterium austroafricanum were able to degrade 2-EHN. One of the most efficient strain (IFP 2173) which could grow at 2-EHN concentrations up to 6 g.L-1, was chosen to investigate the degradation pathway. On the basis of carbon balance determination and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis on the culture medium, I found that the degradation of 2-EHN was incomplete and gave rise to the accumulation of a metabolite. This metabolite was identified as β-methyl-γ-butyrolactone by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS analysis. The structure of the lactone indicated that 2-EHN was degraded through a pathway involving the hydroxylation of the methyl group of the main carbon chain, its oxidation into aldehyde an acid and a subsequent cycle of b-oxidation. Enzymes involved in the 2-EHN biodegradation pathway were looked for by a proteomic approach. Analyses by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that, when exposed to 2-EHN, strain IFP 2173 triggered the synthesis of a bunch of enzymes specialized in fatty acid metabolism such as β-oxidation enzymes, as well as alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. An exhaustive analysis of the IFP 2173 proteome resulted in the identification of more than 200

  3. Degradation of a recalcitrant xenobiotic compound: methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) metabolism by mycobacterium austroafricanum; Degradation d'un compose xenobiotique recalcitrant: metabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) par mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, A.

    2002-11-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is introduced up to 15% (vol/vol) in gasoline in order to obtain a good octane number and to prevent carbon monoxide emissions. However, as a consequence of storage tanks leakage, MTBE became one of the major pollutants of aquifers because of its very low biodegradability. The present study aimed at investigating the biodegradation of MTBE by Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012. The MTBE metabolic pathway was partially elucidated owing to the identification of some intermediates (tert-butyl formate (TBF), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a-hydroxy-isobutyric acid and acetone) and some enzymatic activities (MTBE/TBA monooxygenase (non hemic and inducible), TBF esterase, 2-propanol: NDMA oxidoreductase and another monooxygenase involved in acetone degradation). The involvement of TBF and the requirement of cobalt could be explanations for the low natural attenuation of MTBE; whereas the methoxy group does not seem to be implicated. (author)

  4. Characterization of arene di-oxygenases involved in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation in Mycobacterium sp. 6PY1; Caracterisation d'arene dioxygenases impliquees dans la biodegradation des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques chez Mycobacterium sp. 6PY1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuony, S.

    2005-06-15

    This thesis deals with the bacterial biodegradation of pollutants called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The bacterium Mycobacterium sp. 6PY1 was isolated from a polluted soil for its ability to use pyrene, a 4-ring PAH, as sole source of carbon and energy. To learn about the pyrene metabolic pathway, the identification of the enzymes involved in this process has been undertaken using a proteomic approach. This approach revealed the occurrence of two ring-hydroxylating di-oxygenases in strain 6PY1, which could catalyze the initial attack of pyrene. The goal of this study was to clone the genes encoding the di-oxygenases identified in Mycobacterium sp. 6PY1, over-express these genes in an heterologous system in order to facilitate the purification of the corresponding enzymes, and determine the biochemical and catalytic properties of these enzymes. The pdoA1B1 genes encoding the terminal component of a di-oxygenase were cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The catalytic properties of this enzyme, called Pdo1, were determined in vivo by measuring the oxidation products of 2- to 4-ring PAHs by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Analysis of the selectivity of the enzyme, as determined using GC-MS, showed that Pdo1 preferentially oxidized 3- or 4-ring PAHs, including phenanthrene and pyrene, but was inactive on di-aromatic compounds such as naphthalene and biphenyl. Pdo1 was unstable and was therefore purified in inactive form. The genes encoding a second di-oxygenase component were found in a locus containing two other catabolic genes. The pdoA2B2 genes encoded an enzyme called Pdo2 showing a narrow specificity towards 2- to 3-ring PAHs, and a high preference for phenanthrene. Pdo2 is an a3{beta}3 hexamer, containing [2Fe-2S] Rieske clusters which confer it a characteristic absorbance spectrum. A third set of genes possibly encoding another di-oxygenase was discovered in the genome of Mycobacterium sp. 6PY1. This set is closely

  5. DU COTÉ DE CHEZ SOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Smeets

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Le voyage en Hollande, au XIXe siècle, s'inscrit dans une longue tradition où résonnent les notions de liberté, tolérance et commerce, mais il acquiert aussi une spécificité étant donné l’importance que prend la figure du « chez soi » : les Pays-Bas, terre d'agrément où le voyageur français se sent à l'aise et où il aimerait, si possible, vivre. Proust, de ce point de vue-là, ne fait rien de neuf quand il rêve dans la Recherche d'une « vie domestique » en terre batave. Les Pays-Bas, pour le voyageur français au XIXe, c'est le home sweet home.

  6. Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 514 Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) WHAT IS MAC? HOW DO I KNOW ... THE BOTTOM LINE WHAT IS MAC? Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) is a serious illness caused by common ...

  7. MNINGE CHEZ LE NOURRISSON ET LENFANT

    OpenAIRE

    Larbaoui, Ismail; Mali, Mokhtar

    2010-01-01

    Au terme de cette étude la méningite reste parmis les maladies infectieuses les plus fréquentes chez l'enfant vue la diversite des germes en cause et l'absense d'une stratégie prophylactique adéquate .d'ou l'intéret d'élargir le programme national de vaccination en introduisant des nouveaux vaccins telque l'antihaemophilusA antiméningoccoque Le diagnostic positif repose éssentiellement sur les données de la ponction lombaire surtout la cytobiochimie du LCR vue la non disponi...

  8. Les pathologies parodentales chez l'enfant

    OpenAIRE

    CHOHRAOUI, Souaad; BASSAID, Nabila

    2012-01-01

    Comme l'enfant qui est n pleine croissance, son parodonte, lui aussi, s'adapte à toutes les variations physiologiques. Ce constant remaniement laisse apparaître des zones de plus grande s isceptibilité parodontale, comme des phénomènes inflammatoires pouvant êtrI physiologiques et/ou pathologiques. D'où la grande difficulté à pouvoir diagnosti uer une parodontite agressive chez le sujet jeune. Pour établir un tel dia g ostic, l'anamnèse, l'examen clinique, radiographique et ...

  9. Le stress professionnel chez les sapeurs pompiers

    OpenAIRE

    Cindy Lehmann

    2013-01-01

    Depuis une dizaine d'années, les risques psychosociaux font l'objet d'un intérêt particulier de la part des entreprises. En effet, la lutte contre ces risques participerait à l'augmentation de leurs performances. L'objet de notre travail de recherche est le stress professionnel chez les sapeurs-pompiers professionnels. Nous nous sommes demandé si l'organisation du travail et l'environnement socio-économique pouvaient être source de stress professionnel. Afin de répondre à cette problématique,...

  10. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...

  11. La formation du comportement de plainte chez le consommateur: recherche exploratoire chez des usagers de restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Moliner Velázquez, Beatriz; Berenguer Contrí, Gloria; Gil Saura, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Cette recherche aborde le processus de formation du comportement de plainte chez le consommateur. L´objectif général est d´approfondir sur la nature de ce type de réponse à l´insatisfaction, en décrivant sa formation à partir des apports d´un ensemble de variables puisées dans la littérature. En partant du fait que le comportement de plainte englobe trois types de réponses (de plainte, vis à vis des tiers, et privé), nous analysons l´effet provoqué par le niveau d´insatisfaction, la probabili...

  12. La volonté chez Bergson et Schopenhauer

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud François

    2014-01-01

    Les philosophies de Schopenhauer et de Bergson, comme d’ailleurs celle de Nietzsche, parlent d’une réalité qui se trouverait derrière des apparences utiles à la pratique. Dans les trois cas, cette réalité est désignée en termes de volonté. On aurait donc affaire, chez Schopenhauer et chez Bergson, à deux « ontologies de la volonté ». Mais il reste à savoir ce que les deux auteurs entendent par « volonté ». Deux différences majeures doivent être signalées : pour Schopenhauer, la volonté est la...

  13. Evolution du comportement de manipulation chez les strepsirrhiniens

    OpenAIRE

    Peckre, Louise; Fabre, Anne‑Claire; Herrel, Anthony; Wall, Christine; Pouydebat, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Les capacités de préhension des catarrhiniens ont été largement étudiées dans le cadre de problématiques cognitives, fonctionnelles et évolutives. Une importante variabilité dans les types de saisies utilisés, incluant des stratégies longtemps décrites comme spécifiques des humains, a ainsi été mise en évidence. Cependant, bien que la préhension soit impliquée dans de nombreuses activités chez tous les primates, elle reste peu étudiée chez les platyrrhiniens et les strepsirrhiniens. Ces derni...

  14. Photoconsommation d'oxygene chez Zea mays L.

    OpenAIRE

    Jolivet-Tournier, Pascale; Gerster, R.

    1983-01-01

    A l’aide de l’isotope stable 18 O, il a été possible de mesurer une photoconsommation d’oxygène au point de compensation en CO2 chez le maïs. Comme chez les végétaux de type C3, cette prise d’oxygène augmente en même temps que la concentration en O2 ; par contre, elle n’est fortement diminuée que lorsque la teneur en CO2 est très élevée (2 à 4 p. 100). Elle varie également en fonction du stade de développement du végétal. Ces résultats suggèrent l’existence d’un métabolisme photorespirato...

  15. Chosification et déchosification chez Simone de Beauvoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Rhéault

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available En appliquant aux textes de Simone de Beauvoir un modèle d’analyse du combat inspiré des travaux de Martin Buber, la présente étude propose de distinguer les stratégies philosophiques propres à chacun des combats décrits chez Simone de Beauvoir avant de proposer une explication quant à la similitude des stratégies littéraires.

  16. EFFECT OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS ON GROWTH OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS, MULTI DRUG RESISTANT MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS AND MYCOBACTERIUM OTHER THAN TUBERCULOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Shukla; Ajay Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Six plants of medicinal uses were tried for their inhibitory effect on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), multi drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR MTB) and Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis (MOTT). MTB, MDR MTB and MOTT were cultured in 12B medium vials for Bacterc 460 TB system and incubated at 37˚C. The vials were read in Bacterc 460 TB system. Garlic, Ocimum sanctum, onion and neem showed effectiveness towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis and multi drug resistant Mycobacterium...

  17. Le squelette et sa pathologie chez les reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Depas, Céline

    2012-01-01

    Les affections squelettiques sont de nature variée chez les reptiles. Elles nécessitent pour les individus une prise en charge adaptée et pour le clinicien une connaissance des particularités de leur squelette. Ce travail est une étude bibliographique divisée en trois parties. Dans un premier temps seront abordées la classification, l’anatomie et la physiologie osseuse des reptiles. Puis sera décrite la conduite à suivre lors d’une consultation, de l’anamnèse aux examens complémentaires. L’an...

  18. l'étude de la mycoflore superficielle chez le diabétique

    OpenAIRE

    Amimer, Leila; Belabbes, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Les mycoses superficielles demeurent une pathologie fréquente en pratique dermatologique en particulier chez les diabétiques où le diabète constituant à la fois un facteur favorisant et aggravant. L'objectif de notre travail était de déterminer la prévalence spécifique des mycoses superficielles chez les diabétiques, d'étudier la mycoflore superficielle chez eux et de rechercher les facteurs favorisants la survenue de ces lésions mycosiques. Nous rapportons une étude transversale ...

  19. L’étude de la mycoflore superficielle chez le diabétique

    OpenAIRE

    Amimer, Leila; Belabbes, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Les mycoses superficielles demeurent une pathologie fréquente en pratique dermatologique en particulier chez les diabétiques où le diabète constituant à la fois un facteur favorisant et aggravant. L’objectif de notre travail était de déterminer la prévalence spécifique des mycoses superficielles chez les diabétiques, d’étudier la mycoflore superficielle chez eux et de rechercher les facteurs favorisants la survenue de ces lésions mycosiques. Nous rapportons une étude transversale descripti...

  20. EFFECT OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS ON GROWTH OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS, MULTI DRUG RESISTANT MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS AND MYCOBACTERIUM OTHER THAN TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Shukla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Six plants of medicinal uses were tried for their inhibitory effect on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB, multi drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR MTB and Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis (MOTT. MTB, MDR MTB and MOTT were cultured in 12B medium vials for Bacterc 460 TB system and incubated at 37˚C. The vials were read in Bacterc 460 TB system. Garlic, Ocimum sanctum, onion and neem showed effectiveness towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis and multi drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis to some extent but ginger showed no effect at all. None of the plants studied had any inhibitory effect on Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis. Aloe vera had opposite effect on the growth and it was found to be assisting the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and multi drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The tests performed were in-vitro and the authors conlude that in-vivo the results may vary.

  1. Nature du code phonologique en lecture chez les personnes entendantes et chez les personnes sourdes : de la syllabe aux traits phonétiques

    OpenAIRE

    Bedoin, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    L'objectif principal de cette recherche est de mieux comprendre la nature du code phonologique participant à la reconnaissance de mot écrit, les unités qu'il implique et ses particularités chez les personnes entendantes et sourdes. Une première série de 8 expériences (amorçage et masquage) nous conduit à décrire ce code phonologique en termes de traits phonétiques chez les entendants : ils sont sensibles à des ressemblances de traits phonétiques entre phonèmes successifs. Nous décrivons des m...

  2. IMITATION ET COMMUNICATION CHEZ L’ ENFANT AVEC AUTISME

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiouis, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Notre étude teste les effets d’un entrainement à l’imitation sur le développement des compétences imitatives et communicatives chez les enfants avec autisme. Nous avons sélectionné un groupe composé de 21 enfants, âgés entre 4 et 10 ans, et diagnostiqués selon les critères de la CIM-10, de l’ADOS et de l’ADI-R. Nous avons suivi une procédure en trois temps : évaluation des performances imitatives, des apprentissages par imitation, de la communication non verbale et de l’intensité du trouble; ...

  3. Le cri de la nature chez Terrence Malick

    OpenAIRE

    Barnier, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Après avoir vu The Thin Red Line (La Ligne rouge, 1998), le spectateur se souviendra sûrement des voix des soldats qui se posent délicatement sur les images. Mais la plus grande partie du son de ce film se compose de musique et de bruits. Les oiseaux jouent un rôle prépondérant chez Terrence Malick. Passionné par l’ornithologie, il a souvent cherché à être le plus précis possible sur chacun des chants d’oiseaux qu’il place dans ses films. Lors du tournage de The New World (Le Nouveau monde, 2...

  4. La volonté chez Bergson et Schopenhauer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud François

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Les philosophies de Schopenhauer et de Bergson, comme d’ailleurs celle de Nietzsche, parlent d’une réalité qui se trouverait derrière des apparences utiles à la pratique. Dans les trois cas, cette réalité est désignée en termes de volonté. On aurait donc affaire, chez Schopenhauer et chez Bergson, à deux « ontologies de la volonté ». Mais il reste à savoir ce que les deux auteurs entendent par « volonté ». Deux différences majeures doivent être signalées : pour Schopenhauer, la volonté est la chose en soi. Bergson refuse la distinction kantienne entre phénomènes et chose en soi. D’autre part, pour Schopenhauer, l’expérience de la volonté est souffrance. Bergson, en revanche, la caractérise comme joie. Dans ces conditions, l’ontologie de la volonté prend une figure différente dans les deux cas. Ce sont ces deux figures que nous tentons de déterminer.The philosophy of Schopenhauer, that of Bergson and, by the way, that of Nietzsche, deal with a reality that is supposed to stand behind practically useful appearances. In the three cases, that reality is designated as a will. One could find therefore, in the works of Schopenhauer and Bergson, two “ontologies of will”. But one must still specify what the two authors mean by the word “will”. Two major differences must be notified: for Schopenhauer, will is the thing in itself. Bergson refuses the Kantian distinction between phenomena and thing in itself. Secondly, for Schopenhauer, the experience of will is suffering. Bergson, on the contrary, characterizes that experience as joy. For those reasons, the ontology of will takes a different shape in each case. We try to determine those two shapes.

  5. La Fécondation In Vitro chez les primates non-humains : Exemple du Papio anubis

    OpenAIRE

    Lacoste, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Les techniques de procréation médicalement assistée (PMA), contrairement à d'autres domaines, se sont d'abord développées chez l'Homme puis ont été transposées chez les primates non-humains (PNH). Les premières tentatives de Fécondation In Vitro (FIV) et d'insémination artificielle (IA) chez les PNH datent des années 70-80. Un bilan succinct des tentatives et réussites dans ce domaine concernant les grands singes et les espèces de primates modèles en expérimentation animale seront présentées....

  6. Le clonage somatique : un état des lieux chez les bovins et les petits ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Heyman, Yvan; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Vignon, Xavier; Richard, Christophe; Renard, Jean Paul

    2005-01-01

    Parmi les récentes biotechnologies de la reproduction chez les mammifères d’élevage, le clonage par transfert de noyaux somatiques constitue un pas en avant depuis la naissance de la brebis Dolly. Cet article fait le point sur les résultats actuels obtenus dans le monde chez les bovins et les petits ruminants, les limites de la technique et les applications potentielles. L’efficacité globale du clonage (nombre de jeunes nés /nombre d’embryons reconstitués) reste encore faible (≤ 7 %), mais el...

  7. Multiplication vegetative et conservation in vitro chez le poireau (Allium porrum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Dore, Claire

    1988-01-01

    La multiplication végétative est nécessaire pour répondre à des objectifs de production de semences chez plusieurs Allium cultivés. Le clonage in vitro apporte une solution intéressante mais l’effectif obtenu à partir de la plante mère est insuffisant. La méthode de multiplication par cycles successifs mise au point chez le poireau consiste à stimuler l’activité les méristèmes latents du plateau basal des plantules. La conservation in vitro permet de différer le repiquage en terre jusqu’...

  8. Contribution à la description anatomique du phytomère chez le genre Pistacia de la wilaya de Tlemcen

    OpenAIRE

    BELKHODJA, Yacine Karim

    2015-01-01

    Contribution à la description anatomique du phytomère chez le genre Pistacia de la wilaya de Tlemcen. Le pétiole des pistachiers étudiés présente un arrangement tissulaire composé de l'extérieur vers l'intérieur de la cuticule, de l'épiderme, de Collenchyme, de parenchyme cortical, de sclérenchyme, de phloème et du xylème. La feuille présente des stomates de type Paratétracytique chez Pistacia atiantica et pistachia vera et de type Anisocytique chez pistacia terebinthus. L'o...

  9. Disinfectant Susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Robert Henry

    1998-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium, an opportunistic human pathogen, infects between 25 and 50% of advanced-stage acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in the United States. M. avium has been isolated from many environmental sources including: natural waters, soils, and aerosols. M. avium has also been recovered from within municipal and hospital drinking water systems. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) infected with the simian HIV analog, SIV, have been shown to acquire M. avium infections...

  10. Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Kulka, Kathleen; Hatfull, Graham; Ojha, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of human tuberculosis, has an extraordinary ability to survive against environmental stresses including antibiotics. Although stress tolerance of M. tuberculosis is one of the likely contributors to the 6-month long chemotherapy of tuberculosis 1, the molecular mechanisms underlying this characteristic phenotype of the pathogen remain unclear. Many microbial species have evolved to survive in stressful environments by self-assembling in highly o...

  11. Exochelin Production in Mycobacterium neoaurum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium neoaurum is a soil saprophyte and obligate aerobic bacterium. This group of mycobacterium is relatively fast-growing. They form colonies on nutrient agar at 37ºC within 3 – 4 days. In natural soil habitats, bioavailability of iron is limited. To facilitate iron uptake, most mycobacteria produce siderophores. One example is exochelin, which is extracellular and water-soluble. In this report, the production of exochelin in M. neoaurum was induced in iron-deficiency, but repressed under iron-sufficiency growth conditions. It is however not induced under zinc-deficiency growth conditions. The growth of this mycobacterium was correlated with exochelin secretion under iron-deficiency culture conditions. When M. neoaurum was grown in defined medium containing 0.04 μg Fe(III/mL (final concentration, the production of exochelin reached a maximum and the corresponding cell growth was comparable to that under iron-sufficiency conditions. In this study, exochelin was purified from spent supernatant of M. neoaurum bysemi-preparative chromatography. When saturated ferric chloride solution was added into the purified exochelin, a ferri-exochelin complex was formed. It is proposed that iron uptake in M. neoaurum is exochelin-mediated.

  12. Le burnout chez les soignants: facteurs prédisposants et moyens de prévention

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Marlisa Orquidia Pereira; Nadot, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Ce travail porte sur le burn-out chez les soignants donnant des prestations dans des services de psychiatrie, soins aigus et palliatifs. D’après les statistiques, 43,5% de la population en suisse romande a déjà vécu un épisode de burn-out. Cette pathologie est principalement retrouvée chez les soignants qui sont en contact direct avec la souffrance d’autrui, ainsi que la mort.

  13. Voix-off et silences chez Isabel Coixet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Bénévent González

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Le recours presque systématique de la voix-off chez Isabel Coixet laisse présupposer une unité de sens qui reste à démontrer. L'originalité de A los que aman (1997, La vida secreta de las palabras (2005 et El mapa de los sonidos de Tokio (2009apparaît dans leur capacité à montrer une voix qui semble incarner la présence mais renvoie paradoxalement à l’absence. De fait, on pourra s'interroger sur l'acte de parole comme véritable lien entre le corps et le code quand la voix-off complète une confession salvatrice et révèle le sens du vécu. En effet, entre mémoire et prise de conscience, la voix-off dit surtout la douleur de la situation traumatique. Mais est-elle pour autant l'instrument de la catharsis ?El empleo casi sistemático de la voz en off en la obra de Isabel Coixet ofrece una unidad de sentido que incita a buscar más allá. La originalidad de tres películas en concreto - A los que aman (1997, La vida secreta de las palabras (2005 et El mapa de los sonidos de Tokio (2009- emerge de su capacidad a mostrar una voz que parece remitir a una presencia y sin embargo remite paradójicamente a una ausencia. De hecho, cabe interrogarnos sobre este acto de palabra que conlleva una verdadera unión del cuerpo y del código cuando la voz en off completa una confesión que ha de salvar y revela pues el sentido de lo vivido. En efecto entre memoria y toma de conciencia, la voz en off confiesa sobre todo el dolor del trauma. ¿ Apunta entonces tal proceso a la catarsis inadvertida en la confesión ?

  14. Méditation et pratique de soi chez Malebranche.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Dubreucq

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Une étude des Méditations pour se disposer à l’Humilité et à la pénitence qui les replace dans le cadre des pratiques de son époque, par exemple, chez François de Sales, celles de l’oraison, de la méditation et de la contemplation, permet d’apercevoir que l’une des thèses majeures du malebranchisme, la vision en Dieu, est un effet instauré dans le destinataire par un dispositif textuel. Celui-ci tire sa puissance prescriptive de l’a priori pratique où il s’inscrit. C’est à une opération de production de soi que l’exercice spirituel donne lieu : l’analyse des quatre premières Méditations chrétiennes et métaphysiques, en particulier, montre que c’est une organisation de la substance personnelle que provoque le travail spirituel sur soi. Celui-ci consiste à déterminer le rapport à soi comme relation d’une vision attentive à une activité illuminante, par un décentrement textuel du « je » vers le « tu ».One of the major Malebranche’s assertion, that we see truth in God, is not a mere theoretical thesis. I study first the Méditations pour se disposer à l’Humilité et à la pénitence and compare them with François de Sales’ spiritual exercitations, and show that prayer, meditation and contemplation constitute the practical frameworks of this period. The text of the Méditations is an apparatus which is fit to cause an effect in its target – the self of the reader : the vision in God. The practical a priori of the meditation provides the text with prescriptive power to transform the self. Then I study the Méditations chrétiennes et métaphysiques i-iv : we see that Malebranche set his textual apparatus so that it prescribes its receiver a form of « work-on-one’s-self ». The self is here produced by the organisation of relationship between attentive vision and lighting action, and this structure is built in the self by a movement, induced by the text, which leads the self from

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis: factores de virulencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinier Borrero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis es el agente causal de la tuberculosis, una de las enfermedades infecciosas más letales en el mundo. La única vacuna disponible para su control es el BCG, sin embargo, falla en la protección contra la tuberculosis pulmonar, siendo esta la forma más frecuente y responsable de la diseminación. La identificación de factores de virulencia del microorganismo causal pudiera ayudar en el desarrollo de un nuevo candidato vacunal que sea capaz de neutralizar la acción de esos determinantes patogénicos. El empleo de diferentes modelos animales ha permitido reproducir las etapas de la enfermedad, así como medir o cuantificar la virulencia de las distintas cepas circulantes de Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Las mutaciones génicas y otras técnicas de biología molecular han posibilitado dilucidar los genes específicos involucrados en la virulencia de este microorganismo que codifican para múltiples y complejos factores de diferente naturaleza.

  16. Détérioration de la vision des couleurs chez les alcooliques chroniques

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetnić, B.; Arnautova, S.

    1988-01-01

    Nous avons étudié les fonctions de la vue chez 16 alcooliques chroniques. Puis nous avons comparé les résultats obtenus avec les analyses des fonctions visuelles chez un groupe de contrôle de 16 non-alcooliques; ces personnes étant toutes de même âge et même sexe. Au cours d'un examen clinique détaillé de I'oeil, nous avons examiné les fonctions visuelles suivantes: l'acuité visuelle, le champ visuel, la motilité des bulbomoteurs et la vision des couleurs. Cette dernière a été examinée par le...

  17. Intrinsic macrolide resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buriánková, Karolína; Doucet-Populaire, F.; Weiser, Jaroslav; Dorson, O.; Gondran, A.; Ghnassia, J.; Pernodet, J.

    Praha, 2003, s. 76. [ESF Programme in Functional Genomics Conference /1./. Praha (CZ), 14.05.2003-17.05.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : mycobacterium Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  18. Prévention de la maladie thromboembolique veineuse chez le brûlé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, S.; El Farouki, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Les complications thromboemboliques sont considérées comme rares chez le patient brûlé. Leur incidence varie selon les études réalisées. Les patients brûlés présentent de nombreux facteurs de risque favorisant la survenue de ces complications. Le diagnostic clinique de la thrombose veineuse profonde et de l’embolie pulmonaire reste difficile vu leur évolution infraclinique et la non spécificité des signes cliniques. L’échodoppler veineux et l’angioscanner thoracique constituent les éléments clés dans la stratégie diagnostique de la thrombose veineuse profonde et de l’embolie pulmonaire chez les patients brûlés. Le traitement ne diffère pas de celui administré aux autres patients non brûlés et victimes de la thrombose veineuse profonde et de l’embolie pulmonaire. La prophylaxie controversée entre les auteurs, est un sujet d’actualité. Plusieurs praticiens et organismes recommandent son utilisation de routine chez les patients brûlés à risque. Elle reste le seul moyen capable d’empêcher la survenue de la maladie thromboembolique veineuse capable d’engager le pronostic vital chez ces patients. Nous rapportons 6 observations de patients brûlés ayant développé une maladie thromboembolique veineuse. PMID:26170780

  19. La leishmaniose viscérale chez l'adulte à propos de douze cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbella, Imane; Aich, Fatima; Elkhiyat, Majdouline; Khalki, Hanane; Khermach, Assya; Bergui, Imane; Tlemçani, Imane; Hassani, Moncef Amrani

    2016-01-01

    La leishmaniose viscérale est une maladie à transmission vectorielle liée essentiellement, au niveau de pourtour méditerranéen, à l'infection par leishmania infantum. Habituellement rare chez l'adulte, sa prévalence a récemment connu une augmentation y compris chez les sujets immunocompétents. Le but de notre étude est de présenter le profil épidémiologique de la leishmaniose viscérale chez l'adulte ainsi que l'importance du diagnostique biologique dans l'identification de cette maladie. Notre étude s'est étendue sur six ans de Janvier 2009 à Janvier 2014, et a colligé douze patients hospitalisés au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hassan II de Fès. L'altération de l’état général et la splénomégalie ont dominé le tableau clinique. Sur le plan biologique, l'anémie a été quasi constante. La confirmation diagnostique a consisté en la mise en évidence du parasite au niveau de la moelle. L’évolution sous traitement a été favorable pour tous nos patients. Ainsi, la recrudescence que connait la leishmaniose viscérale chez l'adulte et son tableau clinique peu spécifique doit la faire évoquer devant toute splénomégalie fébrile, afin de permettre un diagnostic et une prise en charge thérapeutique précoces. PMID:27347283

  20. Tuberculose multirésistante chez l'enfant: à propos de deux cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Hajar; Bricha, Myriem; Sqalli, Fatima-Ezzahra; Hammi, Sanaa; Bourkadi, Jamal-Eddine

    2016-01-01

    La tuberculose multirésistante chez l'enfant est une forme grave de la tuberculose, présentant un problème majeur de santé surtout dans les pays en voie de développement. Nous présentons le cas de deux enfants suivis dans notre formation pour tuberculose multirésistante mis sous schéma thérapeutique de deuxième ligne. PMID:27279953

  1. Piqures massives par un essaim d�abeilles chez un enfant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adnane Berdai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Les piqures multiples d�abeilles sont responsables d�envenimation severe. Nous rapportons un cas d�une attaque massive par un essaim d�abeilles chez un enfant de sept ans. Sa gravite est liee a la localisation cephalique et au nombre important des piqures qui etait d�environ 270. Ses complications etaient l�insuffisance renale, l�anemie et une conjonctivite. La prise en charge etait symptomatique avec bonne evolution clinique et biologique.

  2. Tuberculose multirésistante chez l'enfant: à propos de deux cas

    OpenAIRE

    Slimani, Hajar; Bricha, Myriem; Sqalli, Fatima-Ezzahra; Sanaa HAMMI; Bourkadi, Jamal-Eddine

    2016-01-01

    La tuberculose multirésistante chez l'enfant est une forme grave de la tuberculose, présentant un problème majeur de santé surtout dans les pays en voie de développement. Nous présentons le cas de deux enfants suivis dans notre formation pour tuberculose multirésistante mis sous schéma thérapeutique de deuxième ligne.

  3. Bilan de santé chez l’adulte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Jane; Ischayek, Amanda; Dubey, Vinita; Iglar, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Décrire les mises à jour apportées à Soins préventifs - Fiche de contrôle© pour aider les médecins à se tenir au fait des plus récentes recommandations en matière de soins de santé préventifs. Qualité des données Une recension dans la base de données Ovid MEDLINE a été effectuée à l’aide de mots-clés et d’autres paradigmes pertinents au bilan de santé périodique. Des sources secondaires, comme le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs, l’Agence de la santé publique du Canada, la base de données Trip et l’Infobanque de l’Association médicale canadienne, ont aussi fait l’objet d’une recherche. Nous avons révisé les recommandations relatives aux soins préventifs pour des adultes à risque moyen. Les recommandations de bonne qualité et passables sont présentées respectivement en caractères gras et italiques. Message principal La fiche de contrôle a été mise à jour en fonction des recommandations du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventif relatives au dépistage de l’obésité (2015), du cancer du col (2013), de la dépression (2013), de l’ostéoporose (2013), de l’hypertension (2012), du diabète (2012, 2013) et du cancer du sein (2011). D’autres mises à jour se fondent sur les recommandations d’autres organisations canadiennes concernant le dépistage du VIH (2013), le dépistage des infections transmises sexuellement (2013), les immunisations (2012 à 2014), le dépistage de la dyslipidémie (2012), le counseling en fertilité chez la femme (2011, 2012) et le dépistage du cancer colorectal (2010). Certaines recommandations antérieures ont été éliminées et d’autres, peu étayées par des données probantes, n’ont pas été incluses. Conclusion Soins préventifs - Fiche de contrôle a été mise à jour pour inclure les recommandations récentes afin de permettre aux médecins de famille d’offrir des soins complets et fondés sur des

  4. Porins Increase Copper Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Speer, Alexander; Rowland, Jennifer L.; Haeili, Mehri; Niederweis, Michael; Wolschendorf, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Copper resistance mechanisms are crucial for many pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, during infection because the innate immune system utilizes copper ions to kill bacterial intruders. Despite several studies detailing responses of mycobacteria to copper, the pathways by which copper ions cross the mycobacterial cell envelope are unknown. Deletion of porin genes in Mycobacterium smegmatis leads to a severe growth defect on trace copper medium but simultaneously increas...

  5. Bursitis Due to Mycobacterium goodii, a Recently Described, Rapidly Growing Mycobacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, N Deborah; Sexton, Daniel J.

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of olecranon bursitis due to Mycobacterium goodii in a 60-year-old man. Prior to recognition of his infection, he received intrabursal steroids and underwent olecranon bursectomy. His infection was cured with antimicrobial therapy consisting of doxycycline and ciprofloxacin. This case illustrates that previously unrecognized members of the Mycobacterium smegmatis group of mycobacteria have pathogenic potential.

  6. Les effets neurocognitifs de la vitamine D chez la personne âgée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annweiler Cédric

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Une alimentation saine, en particulier la consommation régulière d’aliments riches en vitamine D, est un facteur protecteur contre la survenue de pathologie démentielle chez la personne âgée. Outre ses propriétés traditionnellement reconnues de régulation du métabolisme phosphocalcique, la vitamine D est une hormone neurostéroïde indispensable au fonctionnement neurophysiologique (régulation de neurotransmetteurs et de neurotrophines avec, en plus, une action neuroprotectrice anti-inflammatoire et anti-oxydante. Au contraire son insuffisance, extrêmement prévalente chez la personne âgée, pourrait engendrer des dysfonctionnements du système nerveux central, expliquant en partie les troubles cognitifs rencontrés dans cette population. L’épidémiologie est cohérente avec cette notion et rapporte une association entre hypovitaminose D et trouble cognitif, que ce soit en population âgée générale ou chez le malade Alzheimer. Les essais d’intervention confirment la relation de causalité et quantifient l’efficacité cognitive de la supplémentation vitaminique D chez la personne âgée, ce qui suscite des perspectives en matière de prévention primo-secondaire des troubles cognitifs chez la personne âgée par un apport exogène de vitamine D. En particulier, tandis que les traitements anti-démence symptomatiques actuellement disponibles ne font que ralentir transitoirement le déclin cognitif, les futures possibilités de traitement pourraient reposer sur des combinaisons médicamenteuses luttant contre plusieurs mécanismes neurodégénératifs à la fois. À ce titre, la vitamine D améliore l’efficacité de la mémantine en termes de protection neuronale et de prévention du déclin cognitif au cours de la maladie d’Alzheimer.

  7. First Draft Genome Sequence of a Mycobacterium gordonae Clinical Isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, T.; Blagodatskikh, K.; Varlamov, D.; Sochivko, D.; Larionova, E.; Andreevskaya, S.; Andrievskaya, I.; Chernousova, L.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of the clinically relevant species Mycobacterium gordonae. The clinical isolate Mycobacterium gordonae 14-8773 was obtained from the sputum of a patient with mycobacteriosis. PMID:27365356

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium phlei Type Strain RIVM601174

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, A. M.

    2012-05-24

    Mycobacterium phlei is a rapidly growing nontuberculous Mycobacterium species that is typically nonpathogenic, with few reported cases of human disease. Here we report the whole genome sequence of M. phlei type strain RIVM601174.

  9. The draft genome of Mycobacterium aurum, a potential model organism for investigating drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae

    KAUST Repository

    Phelan, Jody

    2015-06-04

    Mycobacterium aurum (M. aurum) is an environmental mycobacteria that has previously been used in studies of anti-mycobacterial drugs due to its fast growth rate and low pathogenicity. The M. aurum genome has been sequenced and assembled into 46 contigs, with a total length of 6.02 Mb containing 5684 annotated protein-coding genes. A phylogenetic analysis using whole genome alignments positioned M. aurum close to Mycobacterium vaccae and Mycobacterium vanbaalenii, within a clade related to fast-growing mycobacteria. Large-scale genomic rearrangements were identified by comparing the M. aurum genome to those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. M. aurum orthologous genes implicated in resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs in M. tuberculosis were observed. The sequence identity at the DNA level varied from 68.6% for pncA (pyrazinamide drug-related) to 96.2% for rrs (streptomycin, capreomycin). We observed two homologous genes encoding the catalase-peroxidase enzyme (katG) that is associated with resistance to isoniazid. Similarly, two embB homologues were identified in the M. aurum genome. In addition to describing for the first time the genome of M. aurum, this work provides a resource to aid the use of M. aurum in studies to develop improved drugs for the pathogenic mycobacteria M. tuberculosis and M. leprae.

  10. Intérêt du dosage de la procalcitonine chez le sujet âgé

    OpenAIRE

    Stucker, Fabien; Hermann, François; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2007-01-01

    La procalcitonine a été étudiée à de nombreuses reprises chez l'adulte jeune présentant des infections bactérienne comme marqueur spécifique et précoce de l'inflammation, ainsi que comme prédicteur de la sévérité de l'atteinte. L'intérêt de son dosage chez la personne âgée n'a jamais été démontré. Une étude observationnelle a donc été conduite chez 218 patients âgés, non sélectionnés, admis en secteur hospitalier et les sensibilités (24%) et spécificité (94%) de la procalcitonine comme prédic...

  11. Intérêt du dosage de la procalcitonine chez le sujet âgé

    OpenAIRE

    Stucker, Fabien

    2006-01-01

    La procalcitonine a été étudiée à de nombreuses reprises chez l'adulte jeune présentant des infections bactérienne comme marqueur spécifique et précoce de l'inflammation, ainsi que comme prédicteur de la sévérité de l'atteinte. L'intérêt de son dosage chez la personne âgée n'a jamais été démontré. Une étude observationnelle a donc été conduite chez 218 patients âgés, non sélectionnés, admis en secteur hospitalier et les sensibilités (24%) et spécificité (94%) de la procalcitonine comme prédic...

  12. Chitin promotes Mycobacterium ulcerans growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Daniel; Chevillon, Christine; Colwell, Rita; Babonneau, Jérémie; Marion, Estelle; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans(MU) is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human infectious disease. However, both the ecology and life cycle of MU are poorly understood. The occurrence of MU has been linked to the aquatic environment, notably water bodies affected by human activities. It has been hypothesized that one or a combination of environmental factor(s) connected to human activities could favour growth of MU in aquatic systems. Here, we testedin vitrothe growth effect of two ubiquitous polysaccharides and five chemical components on MU at concentration ranges shown to occur in endemic regions. Real-time PCR showed that chitin increased MU growth significantly providing a nutrient source or environmental support for thebacillus, thereby, providing a focus on the association between MU and aquatic arthropods. Aquatic environments with elevated population of arthropods provide increased chitin availability and, thereby, enhanced multiplication of MU. If calcium very slightly enhanced MU growth, iron, zinc, sulphate and phosphate did not stimulate MU growth, and at the concentration ranges of this study would limit MU population in natural ecosystems. PMID:27020062

  13. Photovaporisation prostatique au laser chez les patients à haut risque hémorragique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouabdallah, Zakaria; Kharbouchi, Amine; Colau, Alexandre; Cariou, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Les patients sous traitement anticoagulant sont à risque élevé de saignement lors de la résection transurétrale de la prostate ou de l'adénomectomie par taille vésicale et ils se voient souvent récuser pour la chirurgie de l'hyperplasie bénigne de la prostate symptomatique. En Utilisant la photovaporisation de la prostate, les patients à haut risque peuvent subir en toute sécurité la chirurgie. Nous avons évalué l'innocuité et l'efficacité de la photovaporisation de la prostate (PVP) chez les patients sous anticoagulants en cours avec les dérivés de la coumarine, l'aspirine ou le clopidogrel, se plaignant de symptômes d'hypertrophie bénigne de la prostate. Méthodes Entre janvier 2009 et mai 2010, 47 hommes sous anticoagulation systémique ont subi une photovaporisation de la prostate. Les données ont été recueillies sur les caractéristiques démographiques, les comorbidités, les complications, la natrémie, l'hémoglobine, le débit urinaire maximal, le résidu post-mictionnel, l'IPSS et les complications. Résultats L'âge moyen était de 78 ans, le volume prostatique moyen était de 44g et le PSA était de 3.4ng/ml. Parmi les 10 patients (21.2%) étaient sous AVK, 27 (57.4%) étaient sous aspirine, 2 (4.2%) étaient sous clopidogrel, un sous fondaparinux et 6 (12.7%) étaient sous 2 anticoagulants ou plus. Le score ASA moyen était de 3. La durée moyenne de fonctionnement de l'appareil était de 38 minutes, l'énergie moyenne utilisée était de 200kJ. La durée moyenne d'hospitalisation était de 2 jours. Les complications survenant dans les 30 jours comprenaient une infection urinaire chez 5 patients (10.6%), une dysurie chez 4 patients et une hémorragie retardée chez 4 autres (8.5%). Un seul de ces patients a nécessité une transfusion sanguine et aucun patient n'a nécessité une réintervention. En 3 mois de suivi un seul patient a nécessité une incision du col vésical pour sclérose du col. Aucune incontinence

  14. Distribution, inegalite et concentration des revenus chez les immigrants ages au Canada, 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Basavarajappa, K.G.

    1999-01-01

    Bien qu'il existe d'abondantes etudes exposant les differences de revenu entre les immigrants et les autochtones ou entre les groupes d'immigrants eux meme, ces etudes ne tiennent pas compte de la distribution ni de la concentration des revenus. Comme ces deux aspects sont importants pour comprendre la repartition du bien-etre economique et le comportement des consommateurs chez ces groupes, ils jouent un role au niveau de la politique. En s'aidant des donnees du recensement de 1991, nous avo...

  15. La détresse respiratoire chez le nouveau né

    OpenAIRE

    FEROUI, Aicha Imene; BENMANSOUR, Wafaa

    2014-01-01

    - Notre étude dont le thème été la détresse respiratoire chez le nouveau née a révélé que la majorité des hospitalisations présenter cette maladie, qui est en rapport directe avec les modalités d’accouchement, et les premiers soins d’urgences qui sont primordiale et qui doivent être amélioré par l’enrichissement des différents moyens thérapeutique y-compris le surfactant qui est malheureusement indisponible au niveau de notre E.H.S.T.

  16. Prévention de la maladie thromboembolique veineuse chez le brûlé

    OpenAIRE

    Siah, S.; El Farouki, A.

    2014-01-01

    Les complications thromboemboliques sont considérées comme rares chez le patient brûlé. Leur incidence varie selon les études réalisées. Les patients brûlés présentent de nombreux facteurs de risque favorisant la survenue de ces complications. Le diagnostic clinique de la thrombose veineuse profonde et de l’embolie pulmonaire reste difficile vu leur évolution infraclinique et la non spécificité des signes cliniques. L’échodoppler veineux et l’angioscanner thoracique constituent les éléments c...

  17. Flexibilité et intentionnalité dans la communication gestuelle chez les grands singes1

    OpenAIRE

    Hobaiter, Catherine; Byrne, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    La communication gestuelle des grands singes est un système riche et complexe. Elle est utilisée de manière flexible dans l’intention de communiquer des objectifs précis à des individus particuliers - en tant que telle, elle partage la plupart des attributs de base du langage humain et permet de soutenir l'idée que les deux systèmes ont une racine évolutive commune. Des avancées significatives sur le sujet ont été faites grâce aux études longitudinales de la communication gestuelle chez les g...

  18. Piqures massives par un essaim d�abeilles chez un enfant

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Adnane Berdai; Smael Labib; Monia El Balbal; Mustapha Harandou

    2011-01-01

    Les piqûres multiples d'abeilles sont responsables d'envenimation sévère. Nous rapportons un cas d'une attaque massive par un essaim d'abeilles chez un enfant de sept ans. Sa gravité est liée à la localisation céphalique et au nombre important des piqûres qui était d'environ 270. Ses complications étaient l'insuffisance rénale, l'anémie et une conjonctivite. La prise en charge était symptomatique avec bonne évolution clinique et biologique.

  19. Piqures massives par un essaim d'abeilles chez un enfant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdai, Mohamed Adnane; Labib, Smael; El Balbal, Monia; Harandou, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    Les piqûres multiples d'abeilles sont responsables d'envenimation sévère. Nous rapportons un cas d'une attaque massive par un essaim d'abeilles chez un enfant de sept ans. Sa gravité est liée à la localisation céphalique et au nombre important des piqûres qui était d'environ 270. Ses complications étaient l'insuffisance rénale, l'anémie et une conjonctivite. La prise en charge était symptomatique avec bonne évolution clinique et biologique. PMID:22187598

  20. Dynamique et enzymologie de la digestion chez l'huitre Crassostrea gigas

    OpenAIRE

    Boucaud, C; Lebesnerais, C; Lubet, P.; Lihrmann, I

    1983-01-01

    Chez Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) des expériences d'alimentation contrôlée ont permis d'établir les modalités et la chronologie du transit alimentaire. Différentes activités enzymatiques en relation avec la digestion (glycosidases, esterases et peptidases) ont été localisées dans l'appareil digestif et ont permis de préciser les sites de digestion des glucides et des protides et les sites d'absorption. Un schéma explicatif des différentes étapes de la digestion est proposé.

  1. Les effets neurocognitifs de la vitamine D chez la personne âgée

    OpenAIRE

    Annweiler Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Une alimentation saine, en particulier la consommation régulière d’aliments riches en vitamine D, est un facteur protecteur contre la survenue de pathologie démentielle chez la personne âgée. Outre ses propriétés traditionnellement reconnues de régulation du métabolisme phosphocalcique, la vitamine D est une hormone neurostéroïde indispensable au fonctionnement neurophysiologique (régulation de neurotransmetteurs et de neurotrophines) avec, en plus, une action neuroprotectrice anti-inflammato...

  2. Effect of growth in biofilms upon antibiotic and chlorine susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare

    OpenAIRE

    Steed, Keesha

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare are environmental opportunistic pathogens whose source for human infection is water and soil. M. avium and M. intracellulare cause pulmonary infections (tuberculosis) in immunocompetent individuals and bacteremia in immunodeficient individuals (e.g. AIDS). One factor likely influencing the lack of success of antibiotic therapy in patients would be their ability to form biofilms. Growth in biofilms might result in antimicrob...

  3. Mycobacterium thermoresistibile as a source of thermostable orthologs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Thomas E.; Liao, Reiling; Phan, Isabelle; Myler, Peter J.; Grundner, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The genus Mycobacterium comprises major human pathogens such as the causative agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and many environmental species. Tuberculosis claims ∼1.5 million lives every year, and drug resistant strains of Mtb are rapidly emerging. To aid the development of new tuberculosis drugs, major efforts are currently under way to determine crystal structures of Mtb drug targets and proteins involved in pathogenicity. However, a major obstacle to obtaining crys...

  4. Macrolide resistance of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis comlex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buriánková, Karolína; Doucet-Populaire, F.; Weiser, Jaroslav; Dorson, O.; Gondran, A.

    Munster, 2003, s. 50. [Biology streptomycetes and related actinomycetes. Munster (DE), 27.02.2003-03.03.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/03/1014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : macrolide * mycobacterium * tuberculosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis monoarthritis in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenberg Alan M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A child with isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis monoarthritis, with features initially suggesting oligoarthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, is presented. This patient illustrates the need to consider the possibility of tuberculosis as the cause of oligoarthritis in high-risk pediatric populations even in the absence of a tuberculosis contact history and without evidence of overt pulmonary disease.

  6. Histopathologic features of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guarner, J; Bartlett, J; Whitney, EAS; Raghunathan, PL; Stienstra, Y; Asamoa, K; Etuaful, S; Klutse, E; Quarshie, E; van der Werf, TS; van der Graaf, WTA; King, CH; Ashford, DA

    2003-01-01

    Because of the emergence of Buruli ulcer disease, the World Health Organization launched a Global Buruli Ulcer Initiative in 1998. This indolent skin infection is caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. During a study of risk factors for the disease in Ghana, adequate excisional skin-biopsy specimens were

  7. Otomastoiditis Caused by Mycobacterium abscessus, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Ingen; F. Looijmans; P. Mirck; R. Dekhuijzen; M. Boeree; D. van Soolingen

    2010-01-01

    To the Editor: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasingly recognized as human pathogens (1). Otomastoiditis is a rare extrapulmonary NTM disease type first described in 1976; Mycobacterium chelonae-M. abscessus group bacteria, which are rapidly growing NTM, are the most frequent causative ag

  8. Investigating Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus Complex

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-17

    Keith Simmon, scientist at Isentio US discusses research that was done while he was at ARUP laboratories, discusses a new classification of Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus complex.  Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/22/2011.

  9. Detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by using PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) procedure using three primary set derived from repetitive DNA sequence specific to mycobacteria was used to diagnose pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The assay was specific for M. tuberculosis and could be used to detect the amount DNA less than 10-9g

  10. A single or multistage mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subunit vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention provides one or more immunogenic polypeptides for use in a preventive or therapeutic vaccine against latent or active infection in a human or animal caused by a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Furthermore a single or multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides is provided for administration for the prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additionally, nucleic acid vaccines, capable of in vivo expression of the multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides, is provided for prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis....

  11. Mycobacterium fortuitum lipoid pneumonia in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leissinger, M K; Garber, J B; Fowlkes, N; Grooters, A M; Royal, A B; Gaunt, S D

    2015-03-01

    A 1-year old female spayed German Shepherd dog was evaluated for acute onset of dyspnea. Pyogranulomatous inflammation and green globoid structures were present on aspirates of the affected lung. Impression smears and histopathology confirmed pyogranulomatous pneumonia, with large amounts of lipid corresponding to the green structures noted cytologically, and identified poorly staining bacterial rods within lipid vacuoles. Special stains confirmed the presence of acid-fast bacterial rods, and polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing identified the organism as Mycobacterium fortuitum. M. fortuitum pneumonia is well described in humans and has previously been reported in 4 dogs and 1 cat. Lipid was a prominent cytologic and histologic feature, as is often described in humans and in the single feline case report. Additionally, this case highlights the variable cytologic appearance of lipid, as well as Mycobacterium spp, which are classically nonstaining with Wright-Giemsa. PMID:24788402

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces pili during human infection

    OpenAIRE

    Alteri, Christopher J.; Xicohténcatl-Cortes, Juan; Hess, Sonja; Caballero-Olín, Guillermo; Girón, Jorge A.; Friedman, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is responsible for nearly 3 million human deaths worldwide every year. Understanding the mechanisms and bacterial factors responsible for the ability of M. tuberculosis to cause disease in humans is critical for the development of improved treatment strategies. Many bacterial pathogens use pili as adherence factors to colonize the host. We discovered that M. tuberculosis produces fine (2- to 3-nm-wide), aggregative, flexible pili that are recognized by IgG antibodie...

  13. Mycobacterium fortuitum abdominal wall abscesses following liposuction

    OpenAIRE

    Al Soub, Hussam; Al-Maslamani, Eman; Al-Maslamani, Mona

    2008-01-01

    We describe here a case of abdominal abscesses due to Mycobacterium fortuitum following liposuction. The abscesses developed three months after the procedure and diagnosis was delayed for five months. The clues for diagnosis were persistent pus discharge in spite of broad spectrum antibiotics and failure to grow any organisms on routine culture. This condition has been rarely reported; however, the increasing number of liposuction procedures done and awareness among physicians will probably r...

  14. Autophagy in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV infections

    OpenAIRE

    Espert, Lucile; Beaumelle, Bruno; Vergne, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) are among the most lethal human pathogens worldwide, each being responsible for around 1.5 million deaths annually. Moreover, synergy between acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tuberculosis (TB) has turned HIV/M.tb co-infection into a major public health threat in developing countries. In the past decade, autophagy, a lysosomal catabolic process, has emerged as a major host immune defense mechanism against in...

  15. Mycobacterium kansasii Pulmonary Diseases in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Jae-Joon; Park, Young-Kil; Lew, Woo Jin; Bai, Gill-Han; Han, Sung Koo; Shim, Young-Soo

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacterium kansasii is one of the most common cause of pulmonary diseases due to nontuberculous mycobacteria. We investigated the changing in the number of isolation of M. kansasii and the clinical characteristics of M. kansasii pulmonary disease in Korea. Through searching the database of the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis, we identified the cases of isolated M. kansasii from 1992 to 2002. The number of M. kansasii isolation had increased from once in 1992 to 62 in 2002. Fifteen patient...

  16. PCR identification of Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, E. A.; Williams, D L; Frothingham, R

    1997-01-01

    The attenuated bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine strain is derived from a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis. BCG is difficult to differentiate from other strains of M. bovis and other members of the M. tuberculosis complex by conventional methods. Recently, a genomic region designated RD1 was found to be present in all virulent M. bovis and M. tuberculosis strains tested but deleted from all BCG strains tested. With this information, a multiplex PCR method was developed to detect th...

  17. Inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, Hesham M., E-mail: heshambadr_aea@yahoo.co.uk [Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Abou Zaabal, P.O. Box 13759 Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-11-15

    The effectiveness of gamma irradiation on the inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese that prepared from artificially inoculated milk samples was studied. Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for the complete inactivation of these mycobacteria as they were not detected in the treated samples during storage at 4{+-}1 {sup o}C for 15 days. Moreover, irradiation of cheese samples, that were prepared from un-inoculated milk, at this effective dose had no significant effects on their gross composition and contents from riboflavin, niacin and pantothenic acid, while significant decreases in vitamin A and thiamin were observed. In addition, irradiation of cheese samples had no significant effects on their pH and nitrogen fractions contents, except for the contents of ammonia, which showed a slight, but significant, increases due to irradiation. The analysis of cheese fats indicated that irradiation treatment induced significant increase in their oxidation parameters and contents from free fatty acids; however, the observed increases were relatively low. On the other hand, irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties. Thus, irradiation dose of 2 kGy can be effectively applied to ensure the safety of soft cheese with regards to these harmful mycobacteria. - Highlights: > We examined the effectiveness of gamma irradiation on inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese. > Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for complete inactivation of these mycobacteria. > Irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties.

  18. Inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of gamma irradiation on the inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese that prepared from artificially inoculated milk samples was studied. Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for the complete inactivation of these mycobacteria as they were not detected in the treated samples during storage at 4±1 oC for 15 days. Moreover, irradiation of cheese samples, that were prepared from un-inoculated milk, at this effective dose had no significant effects on their gross composition and contents from riboflavin, niacin and pantothenic acid, while significant decreases in vitamin A and thiamin were observed. In addition, irradiation of cheese samples had no significant effects on their pH and nitrogen fractions contents, except for the contents of ammonia, which showed a slight, but significant, increases due to irradiation. The analysis of cheese fats indicated that irradiation treatment induced significant increase in their oxidation parameters and contents from free fatty acids; however, the observed increases were relatively low. On the other hand, irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties. Thus, irradiation dose of 2 kGy can be effectively applied to ensure the safety of soft cheese with regards to these harmful mycobacteria. - Highlights: → We examined the effectiveness of gamma irradiation on inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese. → Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for complete inactivation of these mycobacteria. → Irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties.

  19. Mycobacterium abscessus: a new antibiotic nightmare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessar, Rachid; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Reyrat, Jean Marc; Murray, Alan; Gicquel, Brigitte

    2012-04-01

    The intrinsic and acquired resistance of Mycobacterium abscessus to commonly used antibiotics limits the chemotherapeutic options for infections caused by these mycobacteria. Intrinsic resistance is attributed to a combination of the permeability barrier of the complex multilayer cell envelope, drug export systems, antibiotic targets with low affinity and enzymes that neutralize antibiotics in the cytoplasm. To date, acquired resistance has only been observed for aminoglycosides and macrolides, which is conferred by mutations affecting the genes encoding the antibiotic targets (rrs and rrl, respectively). Here we summarize previous and recent findings on the resistance of M. abscessus to antibiotics in light of what has been discovered for other mycobacteria. Since we can now distinguish three groups of strains belonging to M. abscessus (M. abscessus sensu stricto, Mycobacterium massiliense and Mycobacterium bolletii), studies on antibiotic susceptibility and resistance should be considered according to this new classification. This review raises the profile of this important pathogen and highlights the work needed to decipher the molecular events responsible for its extensive chemotherapeutic resistance. PMID:22290346

  20. La chirurgie coronaire sous circulation extra-corporelle chez le patient diabétique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutakiallah, Younes; Benzaghmout, Khadija; Aithoussa, Mahdi; Atmani, Nourreddine; Amahzoune, Brahim; Hatim, Abdedaim; Drissi, Mohamed; Benyass, Aatif; ElBekkali, Youssef; Boulahya, Abdelatif

    2014-01-01

    Nous rapportons les résultats de la chirurgie coronaire chez une population de coronariens diabétiques opérés sous circulation extra-corporelle dans le service de chirurgie cardiaque de l'hôpital militaire d'instruction Mohammed V de Rabat. C'est une étude rétrospective menée entre Janvier 2008 et Février 2012 (4 ans), portant sur 103 patients diabétiques consécutifs opérés pour pontage coronaire. L’âge moyen des patients était de 61±8,7ans (37-82ans) avec un sexe ratio (H/F) de 3,9. Tous les patients diabétiques de type 2 et sous traitement anti-diabétique ont été inclus dans cette étude. La sténose du tronc commun gauche était présente chez 26,2% des patients et 53,4% étaient tritronculaires. Quatre-vingt patients (78,6%) étaient insulino-nécessitant, l'Euro-score moyen était de 1,63±1% et le nombre moyen de pontage de 2,3±0,7. Les durées moyennes de la circulation extra-corporelle et du clampage aortique étaient respectivement de 134,4 ± 42 min et 76 ± 28 min. La mortalité hospitalière était de 2 décès (1,9%), les durées moyennes de ventilation artificielle, du séjour en réanimation et du séjour postopératoire étaient respectivement de 7h (5-16h), 48h (42-52h) et 15,6 ± 8,6 jours. Les complications postopératoires étaient l'infarctus du myocarde, l'infection de paroi, la médiastinite et le bas débit cardiaque chez respectivement 1,9%, 10,7%, 3,9% et 1,9% des patients. Il ressort de notre étude, que les facteurs prédictifs d'infection post opératoire étaient la durée de ventilation artificielle (p = 0,002), la durée de la circulation extra-corporelle (p < 0,001) en plus du tabac (p = 0,004) et de l'obésité (p = 0,005). Les patients ont été contactés par téléphone ou lors de la consultation régulière de contrôle. Le taux de suivi a atteint 92,1% et la survie à 2 ans était de 98,9% des patients contrôlés avec une mortalité tardive de 1% avec un décès suite à un accident vasculaire c

  1. Diagnostic et suivi de gestation chez la brebis : réalités et perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    El Amiri, Bouchra; Karen, A.; COGNIE, Y.; Sousa, N.M.; Hornick, J.-L.; Szenci, O.; Beckers, J.-F.

    2003-01-01

    Cet article décrit les différentes méthodes cliniques et de laboratoire utilisables pour établir le diagnostic de la gestation chez les ovins. Etant destinées à des applications dans les élevages, ces méthodes sont présentées en insistant sur la précocité de leur utilisation, sur les paramètres de sensibilité, de spécificité, d’exactitude de diagnostic positif, d’exactitude de diagnostic négatif et enfin sur leurs possibilités de dénombrement des fœtus. La méthode la plus précoce est le dosag...

  2. Les habiletés phonologiques chez des enfants sourds prélecteurs

    OpenAIRE

    PAIRE-FICOUT,L; Magnan, A.; ECALLE,J

    2003-01-01

    Deux tâches visant à tester les capacités à juger et à produire des rimes ont été proposées à trois groupes d'enfants prélecteurs de 5 ans (entendants, sourds ayant bénéficié du Langage Parlé Complété (LPC) et sourds sans LPC). Le LPC est un système manuel permettant un décodage complet de l'information phonologique. La variable similarité labiale a été manipulée afin d'examiner le rôle de cette modalité d'entrée visuelle sur l'habileté phonologique chez les enfants sourds. Les résultats indi...

  3. Syndrome Keratitis-Ichtyosis-Deafness (KID) chez un enfant togolais issu d'un mariage consanguin

    OpenAIRE

    Kombaté, Koussak; Saka, Bayaki; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Mouhari-Toure, Abass; Akakpo, Séfako; Belei, Eric; Gnassingbé, Wanguena; Djibril, Mohaman Awalou; Tchangaï-Walla, Kissem; Pitché, Palokinam

    2015-01-01

    Le syndrome KID est une affection génétique rare associant kératite, ichtyose et surdité. Nous rapportons un cas dont la surdité s'est compliquée de mutisme chez un enfant togolais issu d'un mariage consanguin.Il s'agissait d'une fillette de 9 ans admise en dermatologie pour une peau sèche et une kératodermie palmoplantaire évoluant depuis l'enfance, une surdité sévère et un mutisme total évoluant depuis la naissance. Il n'y avait pas d'histoire familiale connue de syndrome KID. Les parents d...

  4. Une activation possible de l’allèle Sf chez l’amandier

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández i Martí, Angel V.; Alonso Segura, José Manuel; Kodad, Ossama; Socias i Company, Rafel

    2011-01-01

    L'auto-compatibilité est devenue l'objectif prioritaire de la plupart des programmes d'amélioration génétique de l'amandier (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) pour éviter les problèmes liés à la présence du système d'auto-incompatibilité gamétophytique de l'amandier, comme chez d'autres espèces du genre Prunus, appartenant à la famille Rosaceae. L'auto-incompatibilité est un mécanisme des plantes qui empêche leur auto-fertilisation en favorisant le croisement entre les différents génotypes. Le locus S...

  5. Variabilité de la morphologie chez Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici

    OpenAIRE

    Henni, J.; Boisson, Claude; Geiger, Jean-Paul

    1994-01-01

    La variabilité morphologique chez #Fusarium oxysporum$ f. sp. #lycopersici$ a été recherchée à deux niveaux : au sein d'une population de conidies provenant du thalle d'un isolat (variabilité interclonale) et au sein d'une population de conidies provenant d'un thalle issu d'un clonage monospore (variabilité interclonale). Enfin, cette variabilité a été étudiée sur des cultures jeunes et âgées. L'ensemble des essais a été réalisé sur deux isolats. Les résultats mettent en évidence l'existence ...

  6. Un refus fasciné – L’ambivalence du religieux chez Tabucchi

    OpenAIRE

    De Poli, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Quand on lui demande quels livres il emporterait sur une île déserte, Tabucchi répond : « L’un de ceux-là, bien que je sois agnostique, serait, sans aucun doute, les Évangiles […], livre mystérieux, indéchiffrable même » (AE, p. 82). Quelle place peuvent prendre dès lors la religion et le religieux chez un auteur non religieux mais fasciné par les mystères et notamment par le plus grand de tous ? Si Tabucchi, qui se définit tour à tour agnostique, sceptique ou non croyant, récuse le dogmatism...

  7. Evaluation du virus myxomateux en tant que vecteur vaccinal chez les volailles

    OpenAIRE

    Perrenot, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Comme d'autres poxvirus, le virus myxomateux (vm) peut être utilisé comme vecteur de gènes d'intérêt vaccinal. la taille importante de son génome (162 kb) permet en effet la construction de souches recombinantes, codant pour des gènes étrangers de grande taille. cependant, avant de construire des vaccins recombinants destinés aux volailles, il faut s'assurer de l'innocuité et l'immunogénicité de vecteurs dérivés du virus myxomateux chez le poulet. l'objectif de cette étude est donc d'évaluer ...

  8. Rhida Chaïbi, Liberté et paternalisme chez John Stuart Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Guillot

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Le livre de Ridha Chaïbi, Liberté et paternalisme chez John Stuart Mill, est une étude de la définition et des limites du principe de liberté individuelle, tel qu’il est formulé dans On liberty. En se référant à cet ouvrage, qu’il s’agit de replacer dans l’ensemble de l’œuvre, l’auteur entend déterminer si ce principe est réellement, comme l’affirme John Stuart Mill, « très simple » et « absolu ». Dans ce contexte, le « paternalisme » doit être compris comme le principe qui justifie l’interve...

  9. Effets associes a la mutation "coquille blanche" chez la caille japonaise

    OpenAIRE

    Monvoisin, Jean Louis; Merat, P; Coquerelle, Gerard; Costa da Silva, Jose

    1989-01-01

    Nous avons recherché les effets directs ou maternels sur diverses performances associés à un gène autosomal récessif (we), responsable de l’absence de pigmentation des coquilles d’oeufs chez la caille japonaise. A partir d’animaux des deux sexes de même origine, respectivement de génotype hétérozygote We+ we et homozygote récessif wewe, les croisements réciproques ♂ we we x ♀ We+ we et ♂ We+ we X ♀ we we ont été réalisés deux années consécutives. Ces croisements donnaient tous deux des...

  10. Action d'energies lumineuses elevees sur la photosynthese et la photorespiration chez le ble

    OpenAIRE

    Katkat, A.V.; Ferron, F.; Coudret, A; Costes, Christiane

    1986-01-01

    L’ouverture stomatique, les échanges gazeux de la photosynthèse nette, les activités RuBPC et PEPC et les métabolismes photosynthétique - photorespiratoire ont été étudiés chez le blé sous un éclairement croissant de 40 à 2 000 μmoles. m2 . s - 1 Les trois premières études apportent, dans le cas du blé, une confirmation de résultats généralement admis. Les variations relatives des flux métaboliques conduisent à supposer que la photorespiration interviendrait dans la production tout autant...

  11. La grossesse chez la femme souffrant de schizophrénie

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomini, Stellio; Grandjean, Cynthia; Cordier, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    L'individu possède une perception mentale de ce qui le constitue se définissant par le "concept de soi". Chez la femme, la grossesse est susceptible d'altérer ce dernier, au travers d'un changement de rôle mais également par d'importants bouleversements de l'image corporelle, induisant dès lors une perturbation dans la façon qu'elle possède de se percevoir. Mais qu'en est-il lorsque la femme présente déjà au préalable des troubles de la perception de soi, comme dans une pathologie telle que l...

  12. Immunostimulatory Activity of Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG That Secretes Major Membrane Protein II of Mycobacterium leprae

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Masahiko; Maeda, Yumi; Inagaki, Katsuya

    2006-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that major membrane protein II (MMP-II) is one of the immunodominant antigens (Ags) of Mycobacterium leprae capable of activating T cells through Toll-like receptor 2. Based on the observation that Mycobacterium bovis BCG secreting a 30-kDa protein offered better protection against tuberculosis, we constructed a recombinant BCG strain (BCG-SM) that secretes MMP-II to improve the potency of BCG against leprosy. The secreted MMP-II protein from BCG-SM stimulated monoc...

  13. Transition Metal–α-Amino Acid Complexes with Antibiotic Activity against Mycobacterium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Karpin, George W.; Merola, Joseph S.; Joseph O. Falkinham

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic iridium-, rhodium-, and ruthenium-amino acid complexes with hydrophobic l-amino acids have antibiotic activity against Mycobacterium spp., including Mycobacterium bovis BCG and the rapidly growing species Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium chelonae. Concentrations of transition metal-amino acid complexes demonstrating hemolysis or cytotoxicity were 10- to 25-fold higher than were the MICs.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of vitamin B12-related metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Douglas B.; Comas, Iñaki; de Carvalho, Luiz P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation...

  15. Risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among children in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Melbye, Mads;

    2011-01-01

    To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection.......To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection....

  16. Surviving within the amoebal exocyst: the Mycobacterium avium complex paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drancourt Michel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of environmental mycobacteria have been previously demonstrated to resist free-living amoeba with subsequent increased virulence and resistance to antibiotics and biocides. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC comprises of environmental organisms that inhabit a wide variety of ecological niches and exhibit a significant degree of genetic variability. We herein studied the intra-ameobal location of all members of the MAC as model organisms for environmental mycobacteria. Results Type strains for M. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium chimaera, Mycobacterium colombiense, Mycobacterium arosiense, Mycobacterium marseillense, Mycobacterium timonense and Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense were co-cultivated with the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain Linc-AP1. Microscopic analyses demonstrated the engulfment and replication of mycobacteria into vacuoles of A. polyphaga trophozoites. Mycobacteria were further entrapped within amoebal cysts, and survived encystment as demonstrated by subculturing. Electron microscopy observations show that, three days after entrapment into A. polyphaga cysts, all MAC members typically resided within the exocyst. Conclusions Combined with published data, these observations indicate that mycobacteria are unique among amoeba-resistant bacteria, in residing within the exocyst.

  17. Mycobacterium marinum kan være vanskelig at diagnosticere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Seersholm, Niels; Nielsen, Signe Ledou; Gvozdenovic, Robert; Kofoed, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection is often delayed for months after presentation. In this case the diagnosis and correct treatment was delayed for ten months resulting in possible irreversible damage to the patient's infected finger. The main reason for the delay is lack of...... knowledge of the mycobacterium....

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium vaccae Type Strain ATCC 25954

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Y. S.

    2012-10-26

    Mycobacterium vaccae is a rapidly growing, nontuberculous Mycobacterium species that is generally not considered a human pathogen and is of major pharmaceutical interest as an immunotherapeutic agent. We report here the annotated genome sequence of the M. vaccae type strain, ATCC 25954.

  19. Les Determinants du Desir De Grossesse chez les Femmes Seropositives sous Traitement AntiRetroviral dans le District de Rwamagana

    OpenAIRE

    Claudien Uwanyirigira; Cyprien Munyanshongore

    2013-01-01

    L’étude vise à analyser les déterminants du désir de grossesse chez les femmes séropositives sous traitement anti-retroviral, afin de contribuer à la réduction de la transmission du virus de la mère à l’enfant. Elle a pour objectifs spécifiques de déterminer la proportion des grossesses chez les femmes à sérologie VIH positive, d’évaluer l’attitude du personnel de santé à l’égard des messages à donner aux femmes séropositives sous ARVs en ce qui concerne le désir de la grossesse, et relever l...

  20. STRESS OXYDATIF ET PROFIL NUTRITIONNEL CHEZ UNE POPULATION ATTEINTE DE CANCER COLORECTAL DANS LA REGION DE TLEMCEN

    OpenAIRE

    HAMIDI, Nabila

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer colorectal (CCR) occupe la deuxième place en termes d'incidence et de mortalité en Algérie. L'objectif de ce travail est l'étude des facteurs de risque de CCR chez une population au niveau de l'Ouest algérien. Une étude cas témoins a été menée auprès 70 personnes dont 30 cancéreux et 40 témoins, en vue de déterminer quelques paramètres du statut oxydant/antioxydant chez les cas de CCR. Les marqueurs de stress oxydatif(le Malonaldéhyde (MDA), les protéines carbonylées (PC...

  1. Apport des approches inspirees de la neuropsychologie au diagnostic d?autisme chez l?adulte: une etude de cas

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner, L; Baratta, A.; Henry, J; Di Santi, C.

    2010-01-01

    Resume Nous allons illustrer a partir d?un cas clinique les procedures diagnostiques des troubles du spectre autistique chez l?adulte, inspirees des theories neurocognitives actuelles. Nous relatons le cas d?un homme de 29 ans recu en consultation psychiatrique. Le diagnostic initialement retenu etait celui de personnalite evitante, compliquee de phobie sociale et d?un trouble depressif intercurrent. Malgre la diminution des symptomes anxieux et depressifs apres l?instauration d?un...

  2. Distribution et extension de la résistance chloroplatique aux atrazines chez les adventices annuelles en France

    OpenAIRE

    GASQUEZ, Jacques; BARRALIS, Gilbert; Aigle, N.

    1982-01-01

    La résistance chloroplastique aux triazines a été observée en France chez 13 espèces, dont les auteurs précisent l’importance agronomique et la distribution géographique ; les 3 espèces qui présentent la plus grande dispersion sont Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L. et Solanum nigrum L.

  3. A PULMONARY INFECTION CAUSED BY MYCOBACTERIUM PEREGRINUM– A CASE REPORT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatina T. Todorova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium peregrinum is a member of the group of rapidly growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM. It can be found in high frequency in natural and laboratory environments and is considered to be uncommonrare pathogen for both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals. Currently, pulmonary infections caused by Mycobacterium peregrinum are unusual and diagnosed only in limited number of cases. Here, we present a clinical case of elderly man (72 years with 1 month history of non-specific respiratory symptomatic. The patient was without underlying immunosuppressive condition or lung disease. Chest X-ray demonstrated persistent pleural effusion, opacities and cavitations in the right lobe. One of the sputum culturesgrewa rapidly growing mycobacterium and the isolated strain was found to be Mycobacterium peregrinumas identified by molecular genetic detection (PCR and DNA strip technology. To our knowledge, this is the third case in the world to report Mycobacterium peregrinumas a possible causative agent of pulmonary infection.

  4. Inositol monophosphate phosphatase genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parish Tanya

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacteria use inositol in phosphatidylinositol, for anchoring lipoarabinomannan (LAM, lipomannan (LM and phosphatidylinosotol mannosides (PIMs in the cell envelope, and for the production of mycothiol, which maintains the redox balance of the cell. Inositol is synthesized by conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to inositol-1-phosphate, followed by dephosphorylation by inositol monophosphate phosphatases (IMPases to form myo-inositol. To gain insight into how Mycobacterium tuberculosis synthesises inositol we carried out genetic analysis of the four IMPase homologues that are present in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. Results Mutants lacking either impA (Rv1604 or suhB (Rv2701c were isolated in the absence of exogenous inositol, and no differences in levels of PIMs, LM, LAM or mycothiol were observed. Mutagenesis of cysQ (Rv2131c was initially unsuccessful, but was possible when a porin-like gene of Mycobacterium smegmatis was expressed, and also by gene switching in the merodiploid strain. In contrast, we could only obtain mutations in impC (Rv3137 when a second functional copy was provided in trans, even when exogenous inositol was provided. Experiments to obtain a mutant in the presence of a second copy of impC containing an active-site mutation, in the presence of porin-like gene of M. smegmatis, or in the absence of inositol 1-phosphate synthase activity, were also unsuccessful. We showed that all four genes are expressed, although at different levels, and levels of inositol phosphatase activity did not fall significantly in any of the mutants obtained. Conclusions We have shown that neither impA, suhB nor cysQ is solely responsible for inositol synthesis. In contrast, we show that impC is essential for mycobacterial growth under the conditions we used, and suggest it may be required in the early stages of mycothiol synthesis.

  5. Mycobacterium fortuitum abdominal wall abscesses following liposuction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Soub Hussam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a case of abdominal abscesses due to Mycobacterium fortuitum following liposuction. The abscesses developed three months after the procedure and diagnosis was delayed for five months. The clues for diagnosis were persistent pus discharge in spite of broad spectrum antibiotics and failure to grow any organisms on routine culture. This condition has been rarely reported; however, the increasing number of liposuction procedures done and awareness among physicians will probably result in the identification of more cases. Combination antibiotic therapy with surgical drainage in more extensive diseases is essential for cure.

  6. Dormancy models for Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani M. Alnimr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dormancy models for Mycobacterium tuberculosis play important roles in understanding various aspects of tuberculosis pathogenesis and in the testing of novel therapeutic regimens. By simulating the latent tuberculosis infection, in which the bacteria exist in a non-replicative state, the models demonstrate reduced susceptibility to antimycobacterial agents. This minireview outlines the models available for simulating latent tuberculosis both in vitro and in several animal species. Additionally, this minireview discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these models for investigating the bacterial subpopulations and susceptibilities to sterilization by various antituberculosis drugs.

  7. Dormancy models for Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnimr, Amani M

    2015-01-01

    Dormancy models for Mycobacterium tuberculosis play important roles in understanding various aspects of tuberculosis pathogenesis and in the testing of novel therapeutic regimens. By simulating the latent tuberculosis infection, in which the bacteria exist in a non-replicative state, the models demonstrate reduced susceptibility to antimycobacterial agents. This minireview outlines the models available for simulating latent tuberculosis both in vitro and in several animal species. Additionally, this minireview discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these models for investigating the bacterial subpopulations and susceptibilities to sterilization by various antituberculosis drugs. PMID:26413043

  8. rBCG30-Induced Immunity and Cross-Protection against Mycobacterium leprae Challenge Are Enhanced by Boosting with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis 30-Kilodalton Antigen 85B

    OpenAIRE

    Gillis, Thomas P.; Tullius, Michael V.; Horwitz, Marcus A.

    2014-01-01

    Leprosy remains a major global health problem and typically occurs in regions in which tuberculosis is endemic. Vaccines are needed that protect against both infections and do so better than the suboptimal Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Here, we evaluated rBCG30, a vaccine previously demonstrated to induce protection superior to that of BCG against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis challenge in animal models, for efficacy against Mycobacterium leprae challenge in a murine m...

  9. Images of mycobacterium for nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.T.S.; Crispim, V.R. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mails: clima@con.ufrj.br; verginia@con.ufrj.br; Souza, H.V.C. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: hvcsouza@gmail.com; Silva, M.G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (brazil). Inst. de Microbiologia Prof. Paulo Goes]. E-mail: marlei_gomes@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) tuberculosis is responsible for 2.9 million deaths annually worldwide. The necessity for optimizing time to detect the tuberculosis bacillus (mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the sputum samples of affected individuals (TB patients) led to the development of a methodology based on the doping with boron of the bacillus, submission of the samples to thermal neutron beam and ionizing particles, generating nuclear reactions of the types: {sup 10}B (n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li and {sup 10} B({alpha}, p){sup 13}C. Images of these bacilli are obtained by means of the nuclear tracks produced in the CR-39 detector for particles products of these nuclear reactions, {alpha} and p. When the CR-39 is submitted to a chemical attack the traces are developed and the images of the microorganisms registered in the detector can be observed with a conventional light microscope, characterizing them by morphology. The use of this methodology results in images of the mycobacterium tuberculosis becoming more defined and enlarged than those obtained by bacilloscopy, in which the sample is submitted to the method of coloration of Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) and observed in light microscopy. (author)

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is resistant to streptolydigin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Alexander; Rowland, Jennifer L; Niederweis, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) undermine tuberculosis (TB) control. Streptolydigin is a broadly effective antibiotic which inhibits RNA polymerase, similarly to rifampicin, a key drug in current TB chemotherapeutic regimens. Due to a vastly improved chemical synthesis streptolydigin and derivatives are being promoted as putative TB drugs. The microplate Alamar Blue assay revealed that Streptococcus salivarius and Mycobacterium smegmatis were susceptible to streptolydigin with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 1.6 mg/L and 6.25 mg/L, respectively. By contrast, the MICs of streptolydigin and two derivatives, streptolydiginone and dihydrostreptolydigin, against Mtb were ≥ 100 mg/L demonstrating that Mtb is resistant to streptolydigin in contrast to previous reports. Further, a porin mutant of M. smegmatis is resistant to streptolydigin indicating that porins mediate uptake of streptolydigin across the outer membrane. Since the RNA polymerase is a validated drug target in Mtb and porins are required for susceptibility of M. smegmatis, the absence of MspA-like porins probably contributes to the resistance of Mtb to streptolydigin. This study shows that streptolydigin is not a suitable drug in TB treatment regimens. PMID:23591156

  11. Porins increase copper susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Alexander; Rowland, Jennifer L; Haeili, Mehri; Niederweis, Michael; Wolschendorf, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Copper resistance mechanisms are crucial for many pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, during infection because the innate immune system utilizes copper ions to kill bacterial intruders. Despite several studies detailing responses of mycobacteria to copper, the pathways by which copper ions cross the mycobacterial cell envelope are unknown. Deletion of porin genes in Mycobacterium smegmatis leads to a severe growth defect on trace copper medium but simultaneously increases tolerance for copper at elevated concentrations, indicating that porins mediate copper uptake across the outer membrane. Heterologous expression of the mycobacterial porin gene mspA reduced growth of M. tuberculosis in the presence of 2.5 μM copper by 40% and completely suppressed growth at 15 μM copper, while wild-type M. tuberculosis reached its normal cell density at that copper concentration. Moreover, the polyamine spermine, a known inhibitor of porin activity in Gram-negative bacteria, enhanced tolerance of M. tuberculosis for copper, suggesting that copper ions utilize endogenous outer membrane channel proteins of M. tuberculosis to gain access to interior cellular compartments. In summary, these findings highlight the outer membrane as the first barrier against copper ions and the role of porins in mediating copper uptake in M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis. PMID:24013632

  12. Images of mycobacterium for nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) tuberculosis is responsible for 2.9 million deaths annually worldwide. The necessity for optimizing time to detect the tuberculosis bacillus (mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the sputum samples of affected individuals (TB patients) led to the development of a methodology based on the doping with boron of the bacillus, submission of the samples to thermal neutron beam and ionizing particles, generating nuclear reactions of the types: 10B (n,α)7Li and 10 B(α, p)13C. Images of these bacilli are obtained by means of the nuclear tracks produced in the CR-39 detector for particles products of these nuclear reactions, α and p. When the CR-39 is submitted to a chemical attack the traces are developed and the images of the microorganisms registered in the detector can be observed with a conventional light microscope, characterizing them by morphology. The use of this methodology results in images of the mycobacterium tuberculosis becoming more defined and enlarged than those obtained by bacilloscopy, in which the sample is submitted to the method of coloration of Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) and observed in light microscopy. (author)

  13. Il y a cent ans paraissait Du côté de chez Swann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Fraisse

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pour restituer les circonstances et l’atmosphère dans lesquelles paraissait, il y a cent ans, Du côté de chez Swann, on peut d’abord rappeler ce qu’on a dit du livre à sa parution. Aux chroniqueurs journalistiques posent problème l’absence d’action, l’analyse minutieuse de détails, l’impression que l’auteur raconte sa vie sans choisir aucunement dans ses souvenirs. Proust apporte ici des réponses intéressantes, notamment dans une entrevue accordée au Temps la veille de la parution. Il met en valeur, a contrario, l’évolution des personnages dans le temps et le rôle de l’inconscient. Reste à remarquertout ce qu’un lecteur de 1913 ne pouvait deviner : la composition à long terme, donc la mise en scène initiale d’erreurs ultérieurement rectifiées, l’énigme du narrateur sans nom qui n’est pas Proust, et le sujet secret de l’oeuvre – l’histoire d’une vocation.

  14. Mycobacterium simiae Complex Infection in an Immunocompetent Child▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Andrea T; Goytia, Veronica K.; Starke, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria are ubiquitous in the environment but rarely infect immunocompetent patients. We describe a pediatric case of Mycobacterium simiae complex lymphadenitis in an immunocompetent child and review the natural history, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and current management of the disease.

  15. Lipids of 'Mycobacterium habana', a synonym of Mycobacterium simiae with vaccine potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mederos, L M; Valdivia, J A; Valero-Guillén, P L

    2006-01-01

    'Mycobacterium habana' was proposed as a distinct species within the genus Mycobacterium; however, it is actually a synonym of Mycobacterium simiae and included in the serotype I of this species. The potential use of 'M. habana' as a vaccine in both leprosy and tuberculosis has led to the analysis of its lipid composition in an attempt to define distinctive markers that could be used in the quality control of true strains of this bacterium. Lipids of taxonomic value (fatty and mycolic acids) are similar in 'M. habana' and M. simiae; nevertheless, they clearly differ on the basis of glycopeptidolipid (GPL) composition. Thus, contrary to M. simiae, most strains of 'M. habana' can be defined by the presence of three polar compounds, designated GPL-I, GPL-II and GPL-III, easily determined by thin-layer chromatography, and characterized, respectively, by the content of l-fucose, 2,4-di-O-Me-d-glucuronic acid, and 4-O-Me-d-glucuronic acid, as epitopes. PMID:16632407

  16. Inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese by gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Hesham M.

    2011-11-01

    The effectiveness of gamma irradiation on the inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese that prepared from artificially inoculated milk samples was studied. Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for the complete inactivation of these mycobacteria as they were not detected in the treated samples during storage at 4±1 °C for 15 days. Moreover, irradiation of cheese samples, that were prepared from un-inoculated milk, at this effective dose had no significant effects on their gross composition and contents from riboflavin, niacin and pantothenic acid, while significant decreases in vitamin A and thiamin were observed. In addition, irradiation of cheese samples had no significant effects on their pH and nitrogen fractions contents, except for the contents of ammonia, which showed a slight, but significant, increases due to irradiation. The analysis of cheese fats indicated that irradiation treatment induced significant increase in their oxidation parameters and contents from free fatty acids; however, the observed increases were relatively low. On the other hand, irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties. Thus, irradiation dose of 2 kGy can be effectively applied to ensure the safety of soft cheese with regards to these harmful mycobacteria.

  17. Tuberculosis:an experience from Mycobacterium smears and culture analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeehaida M; Siti Asma H; Siti Hawa H; Zaidah AR; Norbanee TH

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Simple tests like direct smear of the acid fast bacilli (AFB)and Mycobacterium culture could assist the diagnosis of tuberculosis.This study is aimed at reviewing the outcome of smears,culture results and con-tamination rate among specimens requested for AFB smear and Mycobacterium culture.Methods:Retrospec-tive laboratory data analysis requesting for Mycobacterium culture from January 2005 till December 2006 was done in a tertiary teaching hospital of Universiti Sains Malaysia,Kubang Kerian,Kelantan,Malaysia.Re-sults:Four hundred and sixty seven (36.6%)isolates grew from 1 277 specimens.Of these isolates,314 (67.2%)grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis,23 (4.9%)grew Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis and 38 (8.1%)grew contaminants.Among the M.tuberculosis cultures,165 (52.5%)had growth of more than 100 confluent colonies,whereas 39 cultures (12.4%)had growth of less than 19 colonies.Direct smear for AFB among smear positive cases showed presence of more than 50 bacilli /line in 231 (49.5%)cases and smear negative cases accounted for 63 (13.5%).Among smear positive cases,291 (94.5%)cultures grew Myco-bacterium species and another 17 (5.5%)cultures grew contaminants.In smear negative cases,32 (62.7%) cultures grew Mycobacterium species and 19 (37.3%)cultures grew contaminants.Conclusion:The results from data analysis of the Mycobacterium cultures should be critically utilized in order to review the laboratory performance and to improve its services in the future.Some of the data is also useful to the administrators of the hospital in terms of estimating the risk of occupational hazard faced by the health care workers.

  18. [Isolation frequency of the Mycobacterium genus in urine samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mederos, Lilian M; Sardiñas, Misleidis; García, Grechen; Martínez, María Rosarys; Reyes, Angélica; Díaz, Raúl

    2015-10-01

    Kidney infections caused by Mycobacterium genus are torpid and chronic evolution. In this study were analyzed 177 urine samples (included 110 from HIV patients) received between January 2006 and July 2014 in the National Reference Laboratory of Tuberculosis at Tropical Medicine Institute "Pedro Kourí" (IPK). The results were 17 isolates Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and 30 isolates of nontuberculous mycobacteria were detected. This study confirms the diagnostic importance of these infections especially in HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:26633121

  19. Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Aqueous Plant Extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Muna Mohammed Buzayan; Fauzia Rajab El-Garbulli

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activit...

  20. Mycobacterium abscessus skin infection after tattooing - Case report*

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, Pétra Pereira; Cruz, Rossilene Conceição da Silva; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes; Westphal, Danielle Cristine

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing mycobacterium that has been affecting people undergoing invasive procedures, such as videosurgery and mesotherapy. This bacterium has global distribution, being found in numerous niches. The frequency of published reports of infection by rapidly growing mycobacteria associated with tattooing procedures has increased in recent years. However, in Brazil there were no case reports of M. abscessus after tattooing in the literature until now. In this pa...

  1. Chlorhexidine decontamination of sputum for culturing Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Asmar, Shady; Drancourt, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the gold standard method for the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, after effective decontamination. Results: We evaluated squalamine and chlorhexidine to decontaminate sputum specimens for the culture of mycobacteria. Eight sputum specimens were artificially infected with 105 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans as contaminants. In the s...

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium xenopi Type Strain RIVM700367

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, A. M.

    2012-05-24

    Mycobacterium xenopi is a slow-growing, thermophilic, water-related Mycobacterium species. Like other nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. xenopi more commonly infects humans with altered immune function, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. It is considered clinically relevant in a significant proportion of the patients from whom it is isolated. We report here the whole genome sequence of M. xenopi type strain RIVM700367.

  3. A Mutant of Mycobacterium smegmatis Defective in Dipeptide Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, Achal; Green, Renee; Coles, Roswell; Condon, Michael; Connell, Nancy D.

    1998-01-01

    A mutant of Mycobacterium smegmatis unable to use the dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) as a sole carbon or nitrogen source was isolated. Carnosinase activity and the ability to grow on β-Ala and/or l-His were similar in the mutant and the wild type. However, the mutant showed significant impairment in the uptake of carnosine. This study is the first description of a peptide utilization mutant of a mycobacterium.

  4. La prévention des blessures non intentionnelles chez les enfants et adolescents autochtones au Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Banerji, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Les blessures non intentionnelles sont la principale cause de décès chez les enfants et adolescents autochtones canadiens, à un taux de trois à quatre fois la moyenne nationale. Non seulement les décès et les blessures invalidantes dévastent les familles et les communautés, mais elles font également d’énormes ravages sur les ressources de santé. L’absence de statistiques, de surveillance continue ou de programmes de prévention des blessures à l’égard des enfants et adolescents autochtones exa...

  5. Traitement syllabique en lecture chez des enfants sourds : effet du Langage Parlé Complété

    OpenAIRE

    PAIRE-FICOUT,L; Magnan, A.

    2001-01-01

    Une adaptation visuelle du paradigme de Mehler et al. (1981) est utilisée pour comparer le traitement de l'unité syllabique en lecture de mots isolés chez six enfants sourds pratiquant le LPC (système manuel qui permet de compléter l'information labiale) et six enfants sourds sans LPC. Les enfants doivent indiquer si une cible visuelle de deux ou trois lettres de structure syllabique CV ou CVC se trouve à l'initiale d'un mot (par exemple la cible BA ou BAL est présentée avant le mot BALADE ou...

  6. Méningo-encéphalite à Streptococcus agalactiae chez l'adulte non immunodéprimé

    OpenAIRE

    Rafai, Mostafa; Chouaib, Naoufal; Zidouh, Saad; Bakkali, Hicham; Belyamani, Lahcen

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae est un Streptocoque beta-hémolytique du groupe B (SGB), c'est un germe commensal occasionnel de la peau, du tube digestif et des voies génito-urinaires. Nous rapportons un cas inhabituel d'une méningo-encéphalite due au Streptococcus agalactiae (SGB) multisensible à l'antibiogramme chez un sujet adulte immunocompétent admis au service des urgences pour prise en charge de troubles de conscience fébrile. L’évolution clinique et biologique à J10 était favorable et le pat...

  7. Variations observees dans l'etat de developpement des systemes foliaire et racinaire chez la semence mure de mais

    OpenAIRE

    Juguet, M.; DERIEUX, M.; Duburcq, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    L’étude quantitative des racines et des feuilles préformées dans la semence mûre a été menée chez cinq hybrides de maïs, permettant de déterminer le « capital embryonnaire » disponible pour la germination. Parmi les différences observées, l’hybride A632 x W 117 se distingue par un plus grand développement des feuilles.

  8. Modélisation de la dynamique de l'intégration contextuelle du mouvement chez le primate

    OpenAIRE

    Tlapale, Émilien

    2011-01-01

    Dans cette thèse, nous étudions l'intégration du mouvement chez le primate. En se basant sur les connaissances actuelles concernant l'anatomie et les fonctions de deux aires corticales impliquées dans le mouvement, v1 et mt, nous expliquons un certain nombre de réponses perceptuelles et oculo-motrices rapportées dans la littérature. Tout d'abord, nous construisons un modèle récurrent d'intégration du mouvement se basant sur un nombre minimal d'hypothèses concernant les inter- actions cortical...

  9. Rapid differentiation of Mycobacterium xenopi from mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex by pyrolysis mass spectrometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Sisson, P. R.; Freeman, R.; Magee, J G; Lightfoot, N F

    1992-01-01

    Thirty four cultures of slow growing, Tween-80 negative mycobacteria were analysed by pyrolysis mass spectrometry. The results showed that pyrolysis mass spectrometry could positively distinguish strains of Mycobacterium xenopi from those of the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) complex. Pyrolysis mass spectrometry may be a useful technique for the rapid characterisation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in such clinical settings as their isolation from immunocompromised patients-for exa...

  10. Identification of a 25-kilodalton protein of Mycobacterium bovis BCG to distinguish BCG strains from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, D; Srivastava, B S; N. B. Singh; Srivastava, R.

    1996-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strains were compared with Mycobacterium tuberculosis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A 25-kDa protein observed in the BCG strains was absent in M. tuberculosis. Rabbit antibodies specific to the 25-kDa protein uniquely identified this protein in BCG strains but not in M. tuberculosis. It is suggested that the 25-kDa protein and polyclonal antibodies directed against this antigen can be exploited to distinguish BCG strains from M. ...

  11. Immunogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens in Mycobacterium bovis BCG-Vaccinated and M. bovis-Infected Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, A. S.; Skeiky, Y A; Al-Attiyah, R.; Alderson, M. R.; Hewinson, R. G.; Vordermeier, H M

    2006-01-01

    The development of novel vaccine strategies supplementing Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG) constitutes an urgent research challenge. To identify potential subunit vaccine candidates, we have tested a series of eight recently identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in M. bovis-infected and BCG-vaccinated cattle. These antigens were characterized on the basis of their ability to induce in vitro gamma interferon responses in infected or BCG-vaccinated calves. We were able to establish a hier...

  12. Evaluation of the Abbott LCx Mycobacterium tuberculosis Assay for Direct Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Human Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Garrino, M. G.; Glupczynski, Gerald; Degraux, J; Nizet, H; Delmée, Michel

    1999-01-01

    Seven hundred thirty-seven clinical samples from 460 patients were processed for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by a semiautomated ligase chain reaction commercial assay, the LCx Mycobacterium tuberculosis Assay (LCx assay) from Abbott Laboratories. Results were compared to those of direct microscopy and standard microbiological culture. Of 26 patients (5.7%) with a culture positive for M. tuberculosis, 22 (84.6%) were found positive by the LCx assay. The sensitivity o...

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiansong; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Chen, Zhiwei

    2016-05-01

    Following HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the second most deadly infectious disease in humans. The global TB prevalence has become worse in recent years due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) strains, as well as co-infection with HIV. Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has nearly been used for a century in many countries, it does not protect adult pulmonary tuberculosis and even causes disseminated BCG disease in HIV-positive population. It is impossible to use BCG to eliminate the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection or to prevent TB onset and reactivation. Consequently, novel vaccines are urgently needed for TB prevention and immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss the TB prevalence, interaction between M. tb and host immune system, as well as recent progress of TB vaccine research and development. PMID:27156616

  14. MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN DAIRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marchetti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The disease affects cows and other ruminants and causes high economic losses, mainly for dairy production. MAP may also have a role in the development of Crohn’s disease in humans. Infected animals shed viable MAP with milk and faeces and humans may assume MAP via the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Current methods of milk pasteurization are not sufficient to kill all MAP cells present in milk and MAP has been found in raw or pasteurized milk and isolated from cheese. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge about MAP in dairy production. We analyzed studies on milk contamination, effect of pasteurization and methods for identification of MAP that can be applied to dairy products.

  15. High Persister Mutants in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, Heather L.; Keren, Iris; Via, Laura E.; Lee, Jong Seok; Lewis, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis forms drug-tolerant persister cells that are the probable cause of its recalcitrance to antibiotic therapy. While genetically identical to the rest of the population, persisters are dormant, which protects them from killing by bactericidal antibiotics. The mechanism of persister formation in M. tuberculosis is not well understood. In this study, we selected for high persister (hip) mutants and characterized them by whole genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis. In parallel, we identified and characterized clinical isolates that naturally produce high levels of persisters. We compared the hip mutants obtained in vitro with clinical isolates to identify candidate persister genes. Genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, carbon metabolism, toxin-antitoxin systems, and transcriptional regulators were among those identified. We also found that clinical hip isolates exhibited greater ex vivo survival than the low persister isolates. Our data suggest that M. tuberculosis persister formation involves multiple pathways, and hip mutants may contribute to the recalcitrance of the infection. PMID:27176494

  16. Autoradiographic and metabolic studies of Mycobacterium leprae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly purified suspensions of Mycobacterium leprae show a progressive increase in incorporation of [3H]thymidine and [3H]DOPA in short-term cultures as shown by scintillation counting. The intact bacilli are known to have a high permeability barrier. The experiments described suggest that [3H]DOPA becomes trapped within this barrier and oxidized inside the bacilli. Tests by pre-treatment with diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDC inhibitor of DOPA), cold DOPA or hyaluronidase distinguish the uptake of [3H]DOPA by bacilli from the effects of connective tissue contamination. Similar increases in labelling of bacilli by scintillation counting of cultures, have been observed by autoradiography of the organisms. The scintillation method shows promise for rapidly identifying drug resistance in lepromatous patients relapsing while on treatment with dapsone (DDS) rifampicin, clofazimine or other anti-leprosy drugs. (author)

  17. Further characterization of Mycobacterium ulcerans toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockmeyer, W T; Krieg, R E; Reich, M; Johnson, R D

    1978-07-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans produces an exotoxin in culture which, when inoculated into guinea pig skin, causes inflammation, necrosis, edema, and other histopathological changes resembling those in infections of humans. The toxin was resistant to heat and to alkalies and was moderately acid labile. Toxic activity was destroyed by Pronase, phospholipase, lipase, amylase, and glucosidase but not by trypsin, collagenase, cellulase, lysozyme, hyaluronidase, or neuraminidase. Toxic activity was resistant to treatment with 2-mercaptoethanol, urea, guanidine hydrochloride, p-chloromercuribenzoate, ethylenediaminetetraacetate, and sodium deoxycholate but was destroyed by sodium m-periodate and sodium dodecyl sulfate. The toxin was precipitated by a wide range of ammonium sulfate concentrations. Extraction with chlorofrom-methanol or petroleum ether destroyed its activity. Isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation in KBr produced a high-density lipoprotein layer with a 24-fold increase in specific activity. The results indicate that this toxin is a high-molecular-weight phospholipoprotein-polysaccharide complex. PMID:30694

  18. Recherche d'enzymes impliquées dans la voie de biosynthèse de la carnitine chez Arabidopsis thaliana et étude préliminaire de mutants à teneur réduite en carnitine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yingjuan,

    2014-01-01

    La carnitine, un acide aminé crucial pour le transfert intracellulaire des acides gras chez les animaux et les micro-organismes, est présente chez les plantes mais son mode d'implication dans le métabolisme lipidique et dans le développement reste à déterminer. Afin d'étudier le rôle biologique de la carnitine chez Arabidopsis nous avons initié une recherche bioinformatique d'enzymes susceptibles de participer à sa synthèse dans le but d'obtenir des mutants à teneur réduite en carnitine. Des ...

  19. Evaluation of DNA microarray for detection of rifampin and isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of DNA microarray for rapid detection resistance to rifampin and isoniazid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates and identify suitable target sites for molecular genetic test. Methods Twenty-four clinical Mycobacterium

  20. Section traumatique de l'utérus non gravide chez une accidentée de voie publique: à propos d'un cas

    OpenAIRE

    Cédrick, Sangwa Milindi; Marius, Kitembo Feruzi; Mireille, Kakinga Zabibu; Nelly, Mukonda Sompo; Chamy, Cham Lubamba; Numbi, Kabamge; Mutomb, Jean Felix

    2015-01-01

    Dans cet article les auteurs rapportent un rare cas de section traumatique d'un utérus non gravide, chez une accidentée de voie publique reçu dans un tableau d'hemopéritoine aux services des urgences de l'hôpital General Provincial de Reference Jason Sendwe.

  1. Analyse de l'efficacité de l'accoutumance à l'eau chez l'enfant préscolaire

    OpenAIRE

    Mornard, Manhattan; Deflandre, Dorian; Delvaux, Anne; Cloes, Marc; Jidovtseff, Boris

    2014-01-01

    L'accoutumance à l'eau apparaît comme un prérequis indispensable à l'apprentissage des techniques de nage. Après différents tests chez des enfants en bas âge, l'étude confirme l'efficacité à l'accoutumance à l'eau. Peer reviewed

  2. Le tetanos chez le grand enfant dans un hôpital pédiatrique à Yaoundé, Cameroun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoto Njiki Kinkela, Mina; Nguefack, Félicitée; Mbassi Awa, Hubert; Chelo, David; Enyama, Dominique; Mbollo Kobela, Marie; Koki Ndombo, Paul Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Le tétanos est évitable par la vaccination, mais peut survenir en cas d'une immunisation incomplète. Nous avons mené une étude sur les dossiers médicaux des enfants admis pour tétanos entre 2008-2009 au Centre Mère et Enfant de la Fondation Chantal BIYA à Yaoundé. Le but était d'analyser les circonstances de survenue et les manifestations cliniques du tétanos chez le grand enfant, afin de proposer des stratégies de prévention adaptées au contexte camerounais. Le statut vaccinal était inconnu chez un patient, les autres (80%) n'avaient pas reçu de rappel vaccinal. Les portes d'entrée étaient les plaies aux membres, l'une était secondaire à une injection médicamenteuse. Tous ont présenté le tétanos généralisé. Le décès était survenu chez un patient. Le tétanos n'est pas rare chez le grand enfant au Cameroun. Il se dégage ainsi la problématique des rappels vaccinaux. PMID:22514771

  3. Etude morphométrique de l'oreille externe chez les jeunes adultes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyemb, Philippe Manyacka Ma; Sankale, Anne-Aurore; Ndiaye, Lamine; NDiaye, Aïnina; Gaye, Magaye

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Connaitre les dimensions normales de l'oreille externe constitue un pré-requis en chirurgie. Le but de ce travail est de déterminer les valeurs moyennes des différentes mesures morphométriques des oreilles gauches et droites dans notre population d’étude. Méthodes Notre groupe d’étude était constitué de 100 sujets adultes jeunes (50 femmes et 50 hommes) âgés de 18 à 25 ans, et exempts de traumatismes ou d'anomalies congénitale de l'oreille externe. Les différentes mesures répertoriées étaient représentées par: la hauteur totale de l'oreille, la largeur totale de l'oreille, la hauteur lobulaire, la largeur lobulaire, la distance tragus - anti-hélix, la distance tragus - hélix, ainsi que la projection de l'oreille. Résultats L’âge moyen de notre population d’étude était de 22 ans. La hauteur totale de l'oreille était respectivement de 61,6 et 60,3 mm chez les sujets de sexe masculin et féminin. La largeur totale retrouvée était respectivement de 32,5 et 30,8 mm. Pour toutes les distances mesurées, nous retrouvions des différences entre hommes et femmes, ainsi que d'un coté à l'autre. Conclusion Pour le clinicien, il est important de prendre en compte les mesures morphométriques de l'oreille externe non seulement dans un but diagnostic, mais également pour reproduire lors de sa reconstruction une oreille anatomiquement correcte. PMID:25932068

  4. La représentation de l’artiste chez J.-K.Huysmans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoko Fukuda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to situate J.-K. Huysmans' En ménage in his work as a whole and more generally in the tradition of the "roman d'art" in 19th Century French literature. "Roman d'art" works, such as the Goncourt brothers' Manette Salomon or Zola's OEuvre, often focus on the incompatibility of the artist's creative force and his love for a woman. Even if a woman appears as a muse at first, she often becomes an obstacle to the vocation of the artist.Even though the artist is very important in Huysmans' novels, he does not directly treat the opposition between love and creation. If a woman brings problems, it is not because of her influence on the creativity of the artist, but due to a particular theme developed by Huysmans: how to assure material comfort without being disturbed by 21 Ibid., p. 474. Fukuda, La représentation de l'artiste chez J.-K.Huysmans Nordlit 28, 2011 62 female presence? This problem is exaggerated by the artistic profession, which involves working at home.Not being capable of doing housework, Huysmans' hero cannot live totally alone. André, the hero of En ménage, leaves his wife who has been unfaithful to begin a single life with a housemaid. In his relationships with his wife, his housemaid and his lover, all he worries about is his work environment. Nevertheless, he ends up creating nothing, not because of a woman, but because of his own mediocrity and laziness. In this "roman d'art" without a muse, André's character is typical of Huysmans' comical but harsh realism, which subverts the myth of the artist torn between love and creation.

  5. Assessment of the probability of introducing Mycobacterium tuberculosis into Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar;

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a zoonosis caused by Mycobacterium spp. International trade in cattle is regulated with respect to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) but not Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), despite that cattle can become infected with both species. In this study we estimated the annual...

  6. Après le spectacle : les impacts psychosociaux de consommation de pornographie homosexuelle masculine chez les hommes gais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMON CORNEAU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette recherche qualitative exploratoire vise à mettre à jour les impacts psychosociaux possibles de consommation de pornographie homosexuelle masculine à travers les discours de 20 usagers gais de Toronto (Canada. La consommation de pornographie semble plus acceptée et normalisée chez les hommes gais que chez les hommes hétérosexuels. Une telle consommation peut avoir une incidence sur certains aspects de la santé sexuelle et de la santé mentale. L'analyse thématique du corpus de nos données nous révèle que les impacts peuvent se faire sentir au niveau de l'apprentissage, de l'édification de la fantasmatique, de la validation de la sexualité entre hommes, de l'ingérence dans la vie sexuelle et enfin, sur l'habituation et sur l'image de soi/image corporelle. À l'aide de l’analyse critique de discours, nous avons pu documenter les discours sociaux plus larges en jeu dans les récits des usagers et voir de quelle façon ils se positionnent à l'intérieur de ces mêmes discours.

  7. Evidences for anti-mycobacterium activities of lipids and surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Afzal; Singh, Sandeep Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is the most widespread and deadly airborne disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The two-pronged lethal effect on the bacteria using lipids/surfactants and anti-tubercular drugs may render the miniaturization of dose owing to synergistic and tandem effect of both. The current research has been focused on screening and evaluating various lipids/surfactants possessing inherent anti-mycobacterium activity that can ferry the anti-tubercular drugs. In vitro anti-mycobacterium activity was evaluated using agar well diffusion method. Furthermore, time-concentration dependent killing and DNA/RNA content release studies were performed to correlate the findings. The exact mechanism of bacterial killing was further elucidated by electron/atomic force microscopy studies. Finally, to negate any toxicity, in vitro hemolysis and toxicity studies were performed. The study revealed that capmul MCM C-8, labrasol and acconon C-80 possessed highest in vitro anti-mycobacterium activity. Electron/atomic force microscopy results confirmed in vitro studies and verified the killing of Mycobacterium owing to the release of cytoplasmic content after cell wall fragmentation and disruption. Moreover, the least hemolysis and hundred percent survivals rate of mice using the excipients demonstrated the safety aspects of explored excipients that can ferry the anti-tubercular drugs. The present study concluded the safe, efficient and synergistic activity of the explored excipients and anti-tubercular drugs in controlling the menace of tuberculosis. PMID:26712622

  8. Advances in molecular diagnostics for Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Desmond M

    2011-07-01

    The two most important molecular diagnostic techniques for bovine tuberculosis are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) because of its rapid determination of infection, and DNA strain typing because of its ability to answer important epidemiological questions. PCR tests for Mycobacterium bovis have been improved through recent advances in PCR technology, but still lack the sensitivity of good culture methods, and in some situations are susceptible to giving both false negative and false positive results. Therefore, PCR does not usually replace the need for culture, but is used to provide fast preliminary results. DNA typing of M. bovis isolates by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) was developed 25 years ago in New Zealand, and remains an important tool in the New Zealand control scheme, where the typing results are combined with other information to determine large and expensive possum poisoning operations. A range of other DNA typing systems developed for M. bovis in the 1990 s have assisted epidemiological investigations in some countries but are now less commonly used. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing and spoligotyping, either alone or together, have now become the preferred approaches as they are robust and amenable to electronic analysis and comparison. Spoligotyping gives only moderate discrimination but can be easily applied to large numbers of isolates, and VNTR typing provides better discrimination than all other methods except for REA. While the current typing techniques are sufficient for most epidemiological purposes, more discriminating methods are likely to become available in the near future. PMID:21420257

  9. Adsorbability of Mycobacterium phlei on hematite surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huifen Yang; Qiang Zhang; Zhuan Jiang

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption of microorganisms on the mineral surface is the base of microorganisms that are considered as mineral processing reagents. The principles of the use of a highly hydrophobic and negatively charged bacterium, Mycobacterium phlei, as a floc-culating-flotating agent for finely divided hematite were investigated. The flocculating-floating recovery is strongly dependent on the pH and the dosage of the bacterium. Generally the pH should be controlled over the range of 5.5-7, and the dosage should be controlled about 16 mg/L. The infrared spectrometry analysis indicates that the six functional groups of M. phlei, substituted aromatic compound groups, -(CH2)n-groups, -CH2(-CH3)groups, carbonyl groups, aromatic hydrocarbon groups, and carboxyl groups, are on the hematite surface, among which the first five ones contribute physical adsorption and only the carboxyl groups provide chemisorption. Microscopic analysis reveals that the dimensions and tight aggregation degree of the floes of hematite particles formed by M. phlei are also impacted by the pH and the content of M. phlei in flotation.

  10. Mycobacterium kansasii pulmonary diseases in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Jae-Joon; Park, Young-Kil; Lew, Woo Jin; Bai, Gill-Han; Han, Sung Koo; Shim, Young-Soo

    2005-12-01

    Mycobacterium kansasii is one of the most common cause of pulmonary diseases due to nontuberculous mycobacteria. We investigated the changing in the number of isolation of M. kansasii and the clinical characteristics of M. kansasii pulmonary disease in Korea. Through searching the database of the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis, we identified the cases of isolated M. kansasii from 1992 to 2002. The number of M. kansasii isolation had increased from once in 1992 to 62 in 2002. Fifteen patients with M. kansasii pulmonary disease were identified during the period January 1997 to December 2002. Twelve patients (80%) were male and fourteen (93%) were from highly industrialized areas. The most common symptom was a cough. Seven patients (47%) had a cavitary lesion and right upper lobe was most commonly involved. Patients responded well to isoniazid and rifampicin based regimens both bacteriologically and radiographically. In conclusion, M. kansasii isolation has increased, especially in highly industrialized areas, as well as other nontuberculous mycobacteria in Korea. PMID:16361804

  11. Genome Sequencing and Annotation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PR08 strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maaruf Jaafar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an acid fast bacterial species in the family Mycobacteriaceae and is the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis. Here, we report the genomic features of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of a patient diagnosed with both pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB. The isolated strain was identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis PR08 (MTB PR08. Genomic DNA of the MTB PR08 strain was extracted and subjected to whole genome sequencing using MiSeq (Illumina, CA,USA. The draft genome size of MTB PR08 strain is 4,292,364 bp with a G + C content of 65.2%. This strain was annotated to have 4723 genes and 48 RNAs. This whole genome shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number CP010895.

  12. Mycobacterium abscessus skin infection after tattooing--Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Pétra Pereira de; Cruz, Rossilene Conceição da Silva; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes; Westphal, Danielle Cristine

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing mycobacterium that has been affecting people undergoing invasive procedures, such as videosurgery and mesotherapy. This bacterium has global distribution, being found in numerous niches. The frequency of published reports of infection by rapidly growing mycobacteria associated with tattooing procedures has increased in recent years. However, in Brazil there were no case reports of M. abscessus after tattooing in the literature until now. In this paper, we describe the case of a patient with a nine-month history of lesion on a tattoo site. The diagnosis of infection with Mycobacterium abscessus was established by correlation between dermatological and histopathological aspects, culture and molecular biology techniques. The patient had significant improvement of symptoms with the use of clarithromycin monotherapy. PMID:26560222

  13. Therapeutic keratectomy for Mycobacterium abscessus keratitis after LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-Chen; Wang, I-Jong; Chen, Wei-Li; Hu, Fung-Rong

    2003-11-01

    We report successful treatment of a case of Mycobacterium abscessus keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with therapeutic lamellar keratectomy. A 34-year-old woman developed a 2 x 2 mm feathery infiltration within the interface inferior to the pupil margin with mild inflammation of the conjunctiva in her left eye 40 days after LASIK surgery. Bacterial culture from the infiltrates of the interface of the stromal bed revealed Mycobacterium abscessus. After combination antibiotic therapy including amikacin and ciprofoxacin was given for 6 weeks, infiltration persisted despite the development of necrosis in the flap tissue. Therapeutic lamellar keratectomy combined with flap removal was performed. No recurrence was found 1 year after the surgery. Therapeutic lamellar keratectomy with flap removal can provide an effective treatment modality for the management of post-LASIK Mycobacterium abscessus keratitis that is unresponsive to medical treatment. PMID:14724729

  14. Comparaison de l'évolution et du contrôle de l'activité des amylases et des protéases au cours du développement larvaire et des premiers stades juvéniles chez palaemon serratus, macrobrachium rosenbergii et penaeus japonicus (crustacea decapoda)

    OpenAIRE

    van Wormhoudt, A.

    1981-01-01

    L'évolution de l'activité des amylases et des protéases a été suivie au cours du développement larvaire chez 3 espèces de crustacés décapodes Natantia. Chez Palaemon serratus, Macrobrachium rosenbergii et Penaeus japonicus, l'augmentation des amylases est plus forte que celle des protéases. Ces changements apparaissent surtout à la fin des stades nauplius et des stades mysis chez les Penaeus et au cours des stades mysis chez Palaemon et Macrobrachium. Ils sont liés à des modifications du régi...

  15. Tuberculose chez le personnel de santé du secteur public au Burundi: fréquence et facteurs de risque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuku, Olivier; Ruhindiza, Bienvenu Mukuku; Mupepe, Alexis Kumba; Sawadogo, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de déterminer la fréquence de la tuberculose (TB) chez le personnel de santé du secteur public en charge des patients tuberculeux et d’évaluer les facteurs de risque de contracter la tuberculose chez ce personnel au Burundi. Méthodes Il s’agit d’une étude transversale à visée analytique réalisée auprès de 300 travailleurs prestant dans 30 centres de dépistage et de traitement de la TB (CDT) au Burundi du 16 octobre au 15 novembre 2012. Les paramètres sociodémographiques et professionnels ainsi que l’antécédent de vaccination BCG de travailleurs ayant été touché par la TB ont été analysé et comparé à ceux de travailleurs qui ne l’ont pas été. Le seuil de signification a été fixé à p risque de souffrir de la TB est de près de 4 fois chez les travailleurs âgés d’au moins 50 ans (OR=3,73; 1,53-9,08), chez ceux qui n’ont jamais reçu de vaccin de BCG (OR=3,73; 1,24-11,03), chez ceux qui n’ont pas de cicatrice vaccinale de BCG (OR=3,80; 1,67-8,62) et chez ceux qui travaillent depuis au moins 6 ans dans un CDT (OR=3,79; 1,44-9,96); ce risque est de 9 fois chez ceux qui sont mariés (OR=9,42; 1,26-70,23), de 8 fois chez ceux qui n’aèrent pas leurs salles de travail (OR=8,20; 1,48-48,23) et de 6 fois chez ceux qui ont comme profession nettoyeur ou aide-soignant (OR=6,12; 2,92-12,82). Par contre, aucune corrélation statistiquement significative n’a été observée entre le fait de souffrir de la TB et le sexe mais aussi le nombre d’heures de contact d’un travailleur avec un patient tuberculeux (p>0,05). Conclusion L’âge, l’antécédent de vaccination de BCG ainsi que la majorité de paramètres professionnels sont en association avec la maladie TB des travailleurs de CDT. D’où, la maîtrise de certains facteurs de risque s’avère important pour faire face au fardeau de la TB parmi le personnel hospitalier. PMID:24847402

  16. La notion d’égalité des chances chez Jeremy Bentham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Chauvet

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Jeremy Bentham’s (1748-1832 concept of equality of opportunity. Yet, the economic theory of justice developed by Bentham is not based on such concept. As he does not use the “equality of opportunity” concept in his work, we are not surprised that there are not any study in that field. Nevertheless, when we use this concept as a guide to read his work, we can cast new light on it. It allows  to understand not only his proposals on economic and social reforms as to the size of the State, but also political reforms proposals on the organization of public institutions. This contribution tries to demonstrate that the concept of equality of opportunity concept can not be ignored if we wish to get to the bottom of Bentham's theory and of his project of ensuring the "greatest happiness to the greatest number" project.La présente contribution étudie la notion d'égalité des chances chez Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832. En effet, Bentham n'est pas connu pour avoir conçu une théorie économique de la justice reposant sur une telle notion. Le fait qu'il n'utilise jamais l'expression "égalité des chances" dans ses textes n'est bien évidemment pas étranger à l'absence d'étude sur ce sujet. Pourtant, lorsque l'on adopte cette notion comme grille de lecture de son œuvre, il devient possible d'apporter un éclairage nouveau sur celle-ci. Elle permet non seulement de comprendre ses propositions en matière de réformes économique et sociale notamment en ce qui concerne le rôle de l'Etat, mais également en matière politique sur l'organisation des institutions publiques. Ce texte se propose de montrer que Bentham aurait pu être l’auteur d’une théorie de la justice car il en avait conçu tous les outils.

  17. Serovars of Mycobacterium avium Complex isolated from patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, D. S.; Giese, Steen Bjørck; Thybo, S.; Lerche, A.; Bennedsen, J.

    1994-01-01

    Danish isolates of Mycobacterium avium complex were serotyped by the use of seroagglutination. The most prevalent serovars among patients with AIDS (n = 89) were 4 and 6, while among non-AIDS patients the most prevalent serovars were 1, 6, and 4, with no major differences between those in patients...... with pulmonary disease (n = 65) and those in patients with lymph node infection (n = 58). The results suggest a Scandinavian distribution of serovars with a predominance of serovar 6 and fail to demonstrate any selective protection against different serovars by Mycobacterium bovis ECG vaccination....

  18. Etude protéomique du vieillissement musculaire chez la femme post-ménopausée

    OpenAIRE

    Gueugneau, Marine; Coudy-Gandilhon, Cécile; Chambon, Christophe; Picard, Brigitte; Bijislma, A.; Maier, A.; Attaix, Didier; Butler-Browne, G.; Bechet, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction et Méthodes : Une approche protéomique a été développée afin identifier de nouveaux biomarqueurs du vieillissement musculaire (sarcopénie). Des extraits totaux et sarcoplasmiques ont été préparés à partir de femmes ménopausées matures (54 ans) et âgées (78 ans). Sur un total de 1919 spots, 133 sont exprimés de façon différentielle chez les femmes âgées par rapport aux femmes matures, et la spectrométrie de masse (nanoLC-MS/MS) a permis d’identifier 74 protéines différentes. Résul...

  19. Les glandes salivaires sont une source de phéromone chez les larves d'abeilles (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Costagliola, Guy; Le Conte, Yves; Becard, Jean-Marc; De Vaublanc, G.; El Maataoui, Mohamed; Crauser, Didier; Plettner, E.; Slessor, K. N.; Union Internationale pour l'Etude des Insectes Sociaux

    2006-01-01

    La phéromone de couvain identifiée chez les larves d’abeilles possède des propriétés modificatrices et incitatrices sur les abeilles adultes. Afin de localiser la glande émettrice de la phéromone, ses constituants, des esters d’acides gras ont été dosés par couplage chromatographie gazeuse/spectrométrie de masse (GC-MS) dans plusieurs parties de la larve. Nous avons localisé ces esters dans la glande salivaire qui pourrait être une source de cette phéromone. Une étude histochimique décrit la ...

  20. Clonage de l'IGF-I et de son récepteur chez le turbot (Psetta maxima)

    OpenAIRE

    ELIES G.; Duval, H.; GROIGNO L.; Wolff, J.; Boeuf, G.; BOUJARD D.

    1998-01-01

    Les IGF, leurs récepteurs et leurs protéines de liaison constituent une famille moléculaire qui joue un rôle essentiel dans la régulation de la croissance et du développement. Nous nous sommes intéressés à la caractérisation moléculaire de l'IGF-l et de son récepteur (IGF-1R) chez le turbot (Psetta maxima), un poisson plat téléostéen. Par RT-PCR, nous avons clone un ADNc codant pour les quatre domaines de l'IGF-l mature. La protéine présente 70 à 96 % d'identité avec les autres IGF-I de verté...

  1. Extraction industrielle de protéines et de pigments chez la luzerne : état des lieux et perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Andurand , J.; Coulmier, D; Despres, J.L.; Rambourg , J.C.

    2010-01-01

    L’extraction industrielle de protéines et de pigments chez la luzerne permet d’obtenir à partir des feuilles de cette légumineuse un concentré protéique riche en pigments et en acides gras oméga 3. Ce process de pointe reste moins énergivore que la déshydratation classique, même en prenant en compte les importantes économies énergétiques de la filière de déshydratation de fourrages de ces deux dernières années. Aujourd’hui, les débouchés principaux de ce concentré sont le marché de matières p...

  2. Expérience vécue et pensée politique chez Simone Weil

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Binh, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Y-a-t-il une cohérence interne entre l'expérience vécue et la pensée politique chez Simone Weil ? Afin de ressaisir le questionnement de Simone Weil sur les conditions de possibilité de la liberté, notre recherche porte en premier lieu sur les critiques qu'elle a adressées aux théories philosophiques et politiques de Marx. Il s'agit donc tout autant d'analyser l'influence que Marx a pu avoir sur elle, que de prendre la mesure des écarts que sa critique l'a amenée à poser, et des principes phi...

  3. Dépression et niveau de fardeau chez les aidants familiaux des sujets déments en Tunisie

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Thabet, Jihène; Jaoua, Feriel; Charfi, Nada; Zouari, Lobna; Zouari, Nasreddine; Maalej, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Introduction La démence peut retentir lourdement sur les aidants familiaux du patient. Les objectifs de notre étude étaient de déterminer le niveau de fardeau et de la dépression chez les aidants familiaux de sujets déments, et d'identifier les facteurs associés à un niveau de fardeau élevé. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une enquête auprès de 65 aidants tunisiens. Les niveaux de fardeau et de la dépression ont été évalués par, respectivement, l'inventaire de Zarit et l’échelle de Beck. Résultats L...

  4. Identification et caractérisation de CASC5 chez des patients atteints de microcéphalie primaire

    OpenAIRE

    Genin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Un des aspects les plus marquants de l'évolution des grands singes est l'augmentation relative du volume du cerveau, et en particulier du néocortex, qui culmine chez Homo sapiens. La microcéphalie primaire est une anomalie congénitale du développement cérébral humain caractérisée par un cerveau normalement formé mais de petit volume. Il en existe une forme isolée, non syndromique, dont la majorité des cas sont d'origine génétique et transmis sur le mode autosomique récessif (MCPH), qui consti...

  5. Search for Mycobacterium leprae in wild mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Cristina Barboza Pedrini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is still a worldwide public health problem. Brazil and India show the highest prevalence rates of the disease. Natural infection of armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus with Mycobacterium leprae has been reported in some regions of the United States. Identification of bacilli is difficult, particularly due to its inability to grow in vitro. The use of molecular tools represents a fast and sensitive alternative method for diagnosis of mycobacteriosis. In the present study, the diagnostic methods used were bacilloscopy, histopathology, microbiology, and PCR using specific primers for M. leprae repetitive sequences. PCR were performed using genomic DNA extracted from 138 samples of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin of 44 D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus, Cabassous unicinctus, and C. tatouay armadillos from the Middle Western region of the state of São Paulo and from the experimental station of Embrapa Pantanal, located in Pantanal da Nhecolândia of Mato Grosso do Sul state. Also, the molecular analysis of 19 samples from internal organs of other road killed species of wild animals, such as Nasua nasua (ring-tailed coati, Procyon cancrivoros (hand-skinned, Cerdocyon thous (dog-pity-bush, Cavia aperea (restless cavy, Didelphis albiventris (skunk, Sphigurrus spinosus (hedgehog, and Gallictis vittata (ferret showed PCR negative data. None of the 157 analyzed samples had shown natural mycobacterial infection. Only the armadillo inoculated with material collected from untreated multibacillary leprosy patient presented PCR positive and its genomic sequencing revealed 100% identity with M. leprae. According to these preliminary studies, based on the used methodology, it is possible to conclude that wild mammals seem not to play an important role in the epidemiology of leprosy in the Middle Western region of the São Paulo state and in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state.

  6. Controlling strategy of dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan Yiling; Guo Shuliang

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to review the available literatures on control of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection and propose a new control strategy to shorten the course of TB chemotherapy.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly obtained from articles listed in PubMed.The search terms were "therapy (treatment) of tuberculosis," "therapy (treatment) of latent TB infection," and "vaccine of TB."Study selection Articles regarding treatment and vaccine of TB were selected and reviewed.Results The most crucial reason causing the prolonged course of TB chemotherapy is the dormant state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis).Nevertheless,there are,to date,no effective drugs that can directly kill the dormant cells of M.tuberculosis in clinical therapy.In accordance with the growth cycle of dormant M.tuberculosis in the body,the methods for controlling dormant M.tuberculosis include direct killing with drugs,prevention of dormant M.tuberculosis resuscitation with vaccines,and resuscitating dormant M.tuberculosis with preparations or drugs and then thoroughly killing these resuscitated M.tuberculosis by using anti-TB therapy.Conclusions The comprehensive analysis of the above three methods suggests that the drugs directly killing dormant cells are in clinical trials,TMC207 is the most beneficial for controlling TB.Because the side effect of vaccines is less and their action period is long,prevention of dormant cells resuscitation with vaccines is promising.The last control method makes it probable that when a huge number of active cells of M.tuberculosis have been killed and eradicated after 1-month short chemotherapy,only a strong short-term subsequent chemotherapy can completely kill and eradicate the remaining M.tuberculosis.This control strategy is expected to significantly shorten the course of TB chemotherapy and bring a new change and breakthrough in TB treatment.

  7. Clonage de l'IGF-I et de son récepteur chez le turbot (Psetta maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIES G.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Les IGF, leurs récepteurs et leurs protéines de liaison constituent une famille moléculaire qui joue un rôle essentiel dans la régulation de la croissance et du développement. Nous nous sommes intéressés à la caractérisation moléculaire de l'IGF-l et de son récepteur (IGF-1R chez le turbot (Psetta maxima, un poisson plat téléostéen. Par RT-PCR, nous avons clone un ADNc codant pour les quatre domaines de l'IGF-l mature. La protéine présente 70 à 96 % d'identité avec les autres IGF-I de vertébrés. Le clonage de la séquence codante entière du récepteur a nécessité la construction d'une banque d'ADNc d'embryons de turbots. Le récepteur est organisé en domaines dont la taille et les caractéristiques sont semblables à celles des autres récepteurs aux IGF de type 1 décrits chez les mammifères et le poulet. La région catalytique est particulièrement conservée. Dans certains domaines, notamment dans la région C-terminale du précurseur, quelques différences qui pourraient avoir une importance fonctionnelle sont cependant observées. Enfin, par RT-PCR, nous avons mis en évidence une régulation ontogénique du statut de polyadénylation des ARNm IGF-1R.

  8. Méningo-encéphalite à Streptococcus agalactiae chez l'adulte non immunodéprimé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafai, Mostafa; Chouaib, Naoufal; Zidouh, Saad; Bakkali, Hicham; Belyamani, Lahcen

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae est un Streptocoque beta-hémolytique du groupe B (SGB), c'est un germe commensal occasionnel de la peau, du tube digestif et des voies génito-urinaires. Nous rapportons un cas inhabituel d'une méningo-encéphalite due au Streptococcus agalactiae (SGB) multisensible à l'antibiogramme chez un sujet adulte immunocompétent admis au service des urgences pour prise en charge de troubles de conscience fébrile. L’évolution clinique et biologique à J10 était favorable et le patient à été transféré au service de neurologie pour complément de prise en charge secondaire. L'originalité de notre observation réside dans la rareté du type d'infection par ce germe puise qu'elle est la troisième à notre connaissance d'une méningo-encéphalite à Streptococcus agalactiae dans la littérature, c'est ainsi que même s'il est très rarement en cause, il doit être considéré comme une étiologie possible de méningo-encéphalite chez l'adulte en dehors de la grossesse, quelle que soit le statut immunitaire du patient, et sans méconnaitre le rôle du terrain sous-jacent dans l’émergence de cette pathologie infectieuse polymorphe est potentiellement grave. PMID:25995802

  9. Factores de virulencia de Mycobacterium tuberculosis Virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy P Maulén

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of human tuberculosis, causes annually three million deaths and latently infects about two billion people. Immunodeficiency caused by malnutrition, senescence or co-infection with HIVenhances the risk of developing active tuberculosis, either from a primary infection or by reactivation of a latent infection. The increasing appearance of multidrug-resistant strains to existing drugs is worrisome, since it leaves patients practically without treatment options. The understanding of the mechanisms of transmission, pathogenesis and virulence of M. tuberculosis is important. The analysis of its genome shows the presence of alternative sigma factors, transcriptional repressors and activators, two component signaling systems, metabolic enzymes and cellular secretory systems, that are associated with virulence in a series of pathogenic micro-organisms. Environmental stimuli such as pH, temperature, osmolality, oxygen availability are processed, activating or repressing virulence genes. The molecular mechanisms of action of these genes have been elucidated in in vitro and in vivo models.

  10. Analysis of lipids reveals differences between 'Mycobacterium habana' and Mycobacterium simiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mederos, L M; Valdivia, J A; Sempere, M A; Valero-Guillén, P L

    1998-05-01

    Fatty and mycolic acids and the pattern of glycolipids were studied in a collection of 34 strains of 'Mycobacterium habana' and in two strains of Mycobacterium simiae. Major glycolipids of these micro-organisms were assigned to the glycopeptidolipid (GPL) structural type, but both mycobacteria differed in the patterns obtained by TLC. The strains of 'M. habana' were separated into four groups (A-D), taking into account the presence or absence of several polar GPLs: group A contained GPL-I, GPL-II and GPL-III; group B contained GPL-I, GPL-II', GPL-II and GPL-III; group C contained GPL-II', GPL-II and GPL-III; group D did not contain any of these compounds. Fatty acids of both bacteria were similar, and ranged from 14 to 26 carbon atoms, hexadecanoic, octadecenoic and tuberculostearic acids being predominant. Mycolic acids were also similar by TLC and HPLC, and consisted of alpha-, alpha'- and ketomycolates. Partial structural analysis by MS carried out in strains 'M. habana' TMC 5135 and M. simiae ATCC 25275T revealed that alpha- and ketomycolates ranged, in general, from 79 to 87 carbon atoms, and alpha'-mycolates from 58 to 67 carbon atoms. The alpha- and ketomycolates belonged to several structural series, and minor variations were found between the two strain examined. The data obtained justified the synonymy between 'M. habana' and M. simiae but indicated, in turn, that the former can be distinguished on the basis of GPL analysis. Most strains of 'M. habana' can be defined by the presence of GPL-II and GPL-III, a finding that could be useful in the quality control of potential vaccine strains. PMID:9611792

  11. Resistance of Mycobacterium chelonei-like organisms to formaldehyde.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, P S; McGiboney, D L; Band, J. D.; Feeley, J C

    1982-01-01

    Mycobacterium chelonei-like organisms have been isolated from patients in two outbreaks of peritonitis involving chronic peritoneal dialysis machines routinely disinfected with 2 to 3% formaldehyde. Susceptibility studies revealed that water-adapted M. chelonei-like organism strains could survive 2 h of exposure to 10% formaldehyde.

  12. Tuberculosis in Alpacas (Lama pacos) Caused by Mycobacterium bovis▿

    OpenAIRE

    García-Bocanegra, I.; Barranco, I.; Rodríguez-Gómez, I. M.; Pérez, B.; Gómez-Laguna, J.; Rodríguez, S.; Ruiz-Villamayor, E.; Perea, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report three cases of tuberculosis in alpacas from Spain caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The animals revealed two different lesional patterns. Mycobacterial culture and PCR assay yielded positive results for M. bovis. Molecular typing of the isolates identified spoligotype SB0295 and identical variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) allele sizes.

  13. Osteomyelitis Because of Mycobacterium Xenopi in an Immunocompetent Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Martin; Seidl, Maximilian; Henneke, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 6-year-old, immunocompetent boy with chronic osteomyelitis of the calcaneus caused by Mycobacterium xenopi. Of note, typical histopathology was not visible on the first biopsy and developed only later over a period of 6 weeks, highlighting the difficult differential diagnosis of osteomyelitis caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. PMID:26418244

  14. Mycobacterium bovis hip bursitis in a lung transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, J M; Crespo, M; Silveira, F P; Kaplan, R; Aslam, S

    2016-02-01

    We present a report of extrapulmonary Mycobacterium bovis infection in a lung transplant recipient. M. bovis is acquired predominantly by zoonotic transmission, particularly from consumption of unpasteurized foods. We discuss epidemiologic exposure, especially as relates to the Mexico-US border, clinical characteristics, resistance profile, and treatment. PMID:26671334

  15. Mycobacterium marinum Infection After Exposure to Coal Mine Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, Moises A; Ribes, Julie A; Lohr, Kristine M; Evans, Martin E

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium marinum infection has been historically associated with exposure to aquariums, swimming pools, fish, or other marine fauna. We present a case of M marinum left wrist tenosynovitis and elbow bursitis associated with a puncture injury and exposure to coal mine water in Illinois. PMID:26835478

  16. Serodiagnosis of Mycobacterium abscessus complex infection in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Pressler, Tania; Taylor-Robinson, David;

    2015-01-01

    Early signs of pulmonary disease with Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC) can be missed in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A serological method could help stratify patients according to risk. The objective of this study was to test the diagnostic accuracy of a novel method for investigating...

  17. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Undetected by Tuberculin Skin Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. T.; Williams, A. J.; Brown, J. R.; Newton, S. M.; Šimšová, Marcela; Nicol, M. P.; Šebo, Peter; Levin, M.; Wilkinson, R. J.; Wilkinson, K. A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 173, - (2006), s. 1038-1042. ISSN 1073-449X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020406 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : adenylate cyclase * diagnostic tests and procedures * mycobacterium tuberculosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.091, year: 2006

  18. Extraction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA: a Question of Containment

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Wendy; Thibert, Louise; Schwartzman, Kevin; Behr, Marcel A.

    2005-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis requires substantial high-quality DNA. We demonstrated that, despite extraction treatments that might be expected to inactivate this organism, M. tuberculosis remained viable during this process. These data suggest that the extraction of M. tuberculosis DNA should be performed within containment until complete.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium interjectum Strain ATCC 51457T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Anthony; Asmar, Shady; Robert, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium interjectum is a nontuberculosis species rarely responsible for human infection. The draft genome of M. interjectum ATCC 51457T comprises 5,927,979 bp, exhibiting 67.91% G+C content, 5,314 protein-coding genes, and 51 predicted RNA genes. PMID:27231376

  20. Serovars of Mycobacterium avium Complex isolated from patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, D. S.; Giese, Steen Bjørck; Thybo, S.; Lerche, A.; Bennedsen, J.

    1994-01-01

    with pulmonary disease (n = 65) and those in patients with lymph node infection (n = 58). The results suggest a Scandinavian distribution of serovars with a predominance of serovar 6 and fail to demonstrate any selective protection against different serovars by Mycobacterium bovis ECG vaccination....

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Can Utilize Heme as an Iron Source▿

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Christopher M.; Niederweis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Most iron in mammals is found within the heme prosthetic group. Consequently, many bacterial pathogens possess heme acquisition systems to utilize iron from the host. Here, we demonstrate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis can utilize heme as an iron source, suggesting that M. tuberculosis possesses a yet-unknown heme acquisition system.

  2. Sensitivity of Mycobacterium bovis to common beef processing interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. Cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and a relevant zoonosis to humans, may be sent to slaughter before diagnosis of infection because of slow multiplication of the pathogen. Purpose. This study evaluates multiple processing interventi...

  3. Mycobacterium avium infection improved by microbial substitution of fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    We reported a case of Mycobacterium avium infection in which disease activity appeared to have been suppressed after fungal infection. After the increase in β-D-glucan, her symptoms of fever and chest pain disappeared. We think this phenomenon may be microbial substitution and mild fungal infection may improve the activity due to M avium.

  4. Tuberkulose forårsaget af Mycobacterium africanum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek, Dorte; Kjeldsen, Marianne Kirstine; Hansen, Nikolaj Friis; Kamper-Jørgensen, Zaza; Rasmussen, Erik Michael

    2010-01-01

    Tuberkulose (TB) forårsages af patogene arter fra Mycobacterium tuberculosis komplekset (MTBC) og har en incidens på cirka 7/100.000 i Danmark. På mistanke om TB hos en akut indlagt 40 årig afrikansk mand initieredes anti-TB behandling. Efter 13 timers indlæggelse afgik patienten ved døden. Fra...

  5. Genome-wide comparison of medieval and modern Mycobacterium leprae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuenemann, Verena J; Singh, Pushpendra; Mendum, Thomas A; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Jäger, Günter; Bos, Kirsten I; Herbig, Alexander; Economou, Christos; Benjak, Andrej; Busso, Philippe; Nebel, Almut; Boldsen, Jesper L; Kjellström, Anna; Wu, Huihai; Stewart, Graham R; Taylor, G Michael; Bauer, Peter; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Besra, Gurdyal S; Tucker, Katie; Roffey, Simon; Sow, Samba O; Cole, Stewart T; Nieselt, Kay; Krause, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy was endemic in Europe until the Middle Ages. Using DNA array capture, we have obtained genome sequences of Mycobacterium leprae from skeletons of five medieval leprosy cases from the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Denmark. In one case, the DNA was so well preserved that full de novo assembly...

  6. Adaptation and evolution of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.L. Bergval

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on drug resistance and the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Notwithstanding, many molecular mechanisms facilitating the emergence, adaptation and spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis have yet to be discovered. This thesis reports studies of the adaptive mech

  7. Variable host-pathogen compatibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gagneux, Sebastien; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Van, Tran; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Jong, Bouke C de; Narayanan, Sujatha; Nicol, Mark; Niemann, Stefan; Kremer, Kristin; Gutierrez, M Cristina; Hilty, Markus; Hopewell, Philip C; Small, Peter M

    2006-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies have reported human pathogens to have geographically structured population genetics, some of which have been linked to ancient human migrations. However, no study has addressed the potential evolutionary c

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium bovis Strain BCG-1 (Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikova, Evgeniya A; Shitikov, Egor A; Malakhova, Maja V; Kostryukova, Elena S; Ilina, Elena N; Atrasheuskaya, Alena V; Ignatyev, Georgy M; Vinokurova, Nataliya V; Gorbachyov, Vyacheslav Y

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovisBCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) is a vaccine strain used for protection against tuberculosis. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence ofM. bovisstrain BCG-1 (Russia). Extensive use of this strain necessitates the study of its genome stability by comparative analysis. PMID:27034492

  9. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine Strains to Antituberculous Antibiotics▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ritz, Nicole; Tebruegge, Marc; Connell, Tom G.; Sievers, Aina; Robins-Browne, Roy; Curtis, Nigel

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG is one of the most commonly administered vaccines. Complications, including disseminated BCG disease, are rare but increasingly reported in immunodeficient children. There is growing recognition of the importance of differences between BCG vaccine strains. We determined the susceptibilities of five genetically distinct BCG vaccine strains to 12 antituberculous drugs.

  10. Plasmid-encoded copper resistance and precipitation by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum.

    OpenAIRE

    Erardi, F X; Failla, M L; Falkinham, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    A copper-tolerant Mycobacterium scrofulaceum strain was able to remove copper from culture medium by sulfate-dependent precipitation as copper sulfide. Such precipitation of copper sulfide was not observed in a derivative that lacks a 173-kilobase plasmid. In addition, the plasmid-carrying strain has a sulfate-independent copper resistance mechanism.

  11. A Subinhibitory Concentration of Clarithromycin Inhibits Mycobacterium avium Biofilm Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, George; Young, Lowell S.; Bermudez, Luiz E.

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium causes disseminated infection in immunosuppressed individuals and lung infection in patients with chronic lung diseases. M. avium forms biofilm in the environment and possibly in human airways. Antibiotics with activity against the bacterium could inhibit biofilm formation. Clarithromycin inhibits biofilm formation but has no activity against established biofilm.

  12. Human Mycobacterium bovis Infections in London and Southeast England

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, M J; Brown, T. J.; Drobniewski, F. A.

    2012-01-01

    Variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) and spoligotyping analyses were used to assess transmission of Mycobacterium bovis between humans. VNTR was more discriminatory than spoligotyping. Low case numbers, despite a substantial animal reservoir, and resolution of all isolates provided no evidence of recent human-to-human transmission or recent significant infection from animals.

  13. In Vitro Killing of Mycobacterium ulcerans by Acidified Nitrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R.; Kuijper, S.; Benjamin, N.; Wansbrough-Jones, M.; Wilks, M.; Kolk, A. H. J.

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans, which causes Buruli ulcer, was exposed to acidified nitrite or to acid alone for 10 or 20 min. Killing was rapid, and viable counts were reduced below detectable limits within 10 min of exposure to 40 mM acidified nitrite. M. ulcerans is highly susceptible to acidified nitrite in vitro. PMID:15273132

  14. Early clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a new frontier in prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrall, A.J.; Netea, M.G.; Alisjahbana, B.; Hill, P.C.; Crevel, R. van

    2014-01-01

    Early clearance (EC) is the successful eradication of inhaled Mycobacterium tuberculosis before an adaptive immune response develops. Evidence for EC comes from case contact studies that consistently show that a proportion of heavily exposed individuals do not develop M. tuberculosis infection. Furt

  15. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, immunology and pathology of livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in ruminants leads to a chronic and progressive enteric disease (Johne’s disease) that results in loss of intestinal function, poor body condition, and eventual death. Transmission is primarily through a fecal-oral route in neonates but con...

  16. A case of Manila type Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Usami, Osamu; Nakajima, Chie; Endo, Shiro; Inomata, Shinya; Kanamori, Hajime; Hirakata, Yoichi; Uchiyama, Bine; Kaku, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Hattori, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A 76-year-old Japanese woman contracted a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB, Manila type) infection in Japan, despite never having traveled. However, her son was treated for TB in the Philippines 3 years before he stayed at her house. Spoligotyping allows us to identify the TB genotype and identify the route of infection.

  17. Differentiation of Mycobacterium chelonei from M. fortuitum by ciprofloxacin susceptibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, C. H.; Yates, M D; Uttley, A H

    1985-01-01

    Seventy-five strains of Mycobacterium fortuitum were inhibited by 3.0 mg/l ciprofloxacin but 36 strains of M. chelonei were resistant. The results correlated well with those obtained by the nitratase test. The ciprofloxacin sensitivity test is a useful supplement to the tests used to identify these two species.

  18. Procalcitonine, marqueur de mortalité précoce chez le sujet très âgé

    OpenAIRE

    Gavazzi, Gaetan; Stucker, Fabien; Herrmann, François; Graf, Jean-Daniel; Michel, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    La procalcitonine est un biomarqueur d'infection mais aussi de sévérité des infections, notamment chez les patients admis en hospitalisation en court séjour. Le pronostic des pathologies aiguës chez le sujet âgé est difficile à évaluer car il est à la fois lié à la pathologie aiguë et à d'autres facteurs tels que le statut fonctionnel ou les pathologies chroniques associées. Peu de biomarqueurs ont été étudiés dans ce cadre. L'objectif de cette étude était d'évaluer l'intérêt de la procalcito...

  19. Impact du Lab-score sur la prescription d'antibiotiques chez l'enfant avec état fébrile sans foyer

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, Laurence Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Le Lab-score, combinant les résultats de protéine C-Réactive (CRP), procalcitonine et stix urinaire, a démontré une excellente capacité de détection de l’infection bactérienne sévère chez l’enfant avec état fébrile sans foyer. Notre étude visait à analyser son impact prospectif sur la réduction du taux de prescription d’antibiotiques chez l’enfant de 7 jours à 3 ans souffrant d’un état fébrile sans foyer. Malgré les excellentes caractéristiques diagnostiques du Lab-score, l’utilisation de ce ...

  20. Les plantes provoquant des dermatites de contact chez l’Homme : intérêt en médecine vétérinaire

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Ngoc Dong, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Les dermatites de contact sont des réactions cutanées provoquées par des substances au contact de la peau. Les plantes font partie des substances souvent impliquées dans ce type d’affections. Chez l’Homme, les dermatites de contact liées aux plantes sont fréquentes et certaines sont même considérées comme des maladies professionnelles. Chez les animaux, ces dermatoses, bien que probablement sous-diagnostiquées, sont plus rarement rencontrées. Après avoir réalisé un bref récapitulatif des plan...

  1. Les capacités osmorégulatrices chez la crevette bleue Litopenaeus stylirostris, au cours de l’ontogenèse

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    L’étude de l’ontogenèse de l’osmorégulation a été entreprise chez la crevette bleue Litopenaeus stylirostris en Nouvelle-Calédonie. L’implication des tissus de la cavité branchiale dans la régulation ionique a été déterminée au préalable chez des juvéniles par immunolocalisation de trois transporteurs protéiques d’ions, ( la NKA, le co-transporteur NKCC1 et le CFTR ) et par la détection de ionocytes en microscopie électronique. Le rôle de la NKA a été particulièrement étudié et son implicatio...

  2. Paris Santé Nutrition. Une approche transversale pour lutter contre le surpoids et l'obésité chez les enfants de 5 à 15 ans

    OpenAIRE

    Laupeze, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Paris Santé Nutrition. Une approche transversale pour la lutte contre le surpoids et l’obésité chez les enfants de 5 à 15 ans. La question de l’obésité infantile est de plus en plus préoccupante en France. Cependant, une intervention précoce chez l’enfant en surpoids ou obèse est préconisée car elle limite l’évolution vers l’obésité à l’âge adulte. Depuis 2009, la ville de Paris, à travers le programme Paris Santé Nutrition, s’est donnée pour but de lutter contre l’obésité infantile. Elle mè...

  3. Analyse de l’interaction entre les gènes d’avirulence AvrLm3 et AvrLm4-7 chez Leptosphaeria maculans

    OpenAIRE

    Plissonneau, Clémence; Balesdent, Marie-Helene; Fudal, Isabelle; Rouxel, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans est un champignon ascomycète responsable de la nécrose du collet du colza, principale maladie sur cette culture. La méthode de lutte la plus utilisée contre cet agent pathogène est la lutte génétique. Celle-ci repose sur l'interaction entre un gène de résistance Rlm chez la plante et un gène d'avirulence AvrLm chez le champignon. L’un d’eux, AvrLm4-7, joue un rôle important dans la fitness fongique1 et a été cloné2. Récemment, nous avons mis en évidence une corrélation ...

  4. ETUDE DU PROFIL NUTRITIONNEL ET DETERMINTION DU STATUT OXYDATIF (PRO-OXYDANTS) CHEZ LES FEMMES ATTEINTES D’UN CANCER DU SEIN DANS LA REGION DE TLEMCEN

    OpenAIRE

    BOUCHELIT, Nesrine

    2014-01-01

    Le cancer du sein représente le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, considéré comme une maladie multifactorielle il fait intervenir les principaux déterminants génétiques, environnementaux et nutritionnels. Les objectifs de ce travail sont de faire une enquête sur des variables socio-économiques ainsi qu’une enquête alimentaire afin de chercher les facteurs de risque chez 33 femmes cancéreuses comparées à 20 femmes témoins et de déterminer certains marqueurs pro-oxydants, dans le but de ré...

  5. Anoplastie périnéale simple pour le traitement des malformations anorectales basses chez l'adulte, à propos de deux cas

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmoughit ECHCHAOUI; Benyachou, Malika; Hafidi, Jawad; Fathi, Nahed; Mohammadine, Elhamid; ELmazouz, Samir; Gharib, Nour-eddine; Abbassi, Abdellah

    2014-01-01

    Les malformations anorectales chez l'adulte sont des anomalies congénitales rares du tube digestif qui prédominent chez le sexe féminin. Notre étude porte sur deux observations de malformation anorectale basses vues et traitées au stade adulte par les 2 équipes (plasticiens et viscéralistes) à l'Hôpital Avicenne à Rabat. Il s'agit d'un homme de 24 ans avec une dyschésie anale l'autre cas est une femme de 18 ans avec une malformation anovulvaire Les caractéristiques cliniques combinées avec le...

  6. Relations entre le diabète sucré de type 2 et l'amyloïdose chez le chat : étude bibliographique

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    Les dépôts amyloïdes représentent l'altération la plus typique des îlots pancréatiques chez les personnes atteintes de diabète de type 2 (non-insulino-dépendant) et chez les chats diabétiques. Après avoir rappelé les définitions et les classifications du diabète sucré et de l'amyloïdose, les mécanismes de formation des dépôts amyloïdes dans le pancréas à partir de l'amyline (ou Insular Amyloid PolyPepide) sont exposés. Après présentation des différentes étiologies du diabète sucré, l'implicat...

  7. Rôle du quorum-sensing et prévalence des bactériophages chez la bactérie phytostimulatrice Azospirillum

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Mickaël

    2008-01-01

    Le but de ce travail était d'identifier les fonctions régulées par quorum-sensing (QS) chez la bactérie phytostimulatrice Azospirillum. Les effets phytobénéfiques in vitro des souches B518 et TVV3 (isolées du riz) ne sont pas altérées par l'inactivation des molécules signal impliquées dans le QS. La combinaison d'une approche ciblée et d'une approche globale par protéomique montre que le QS régule des fonctions liées à l'adaptation à la plante, notamment à la colonisation racinaire chez B518....

  8. Métastases pleuropulmonaires révélant un mélanome malin de la conjonctive chez un sujet jeune

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ouazzani, Hanane; Janah, Hicham; El Machichi, Sabah Alami; Achachi, Leila; Fihry, Mohamed Taoufiq El Fassy; El Ftouh, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Le mélanome de la conjonctive est une tumeur rare avec une incidence de 0,03 à 0,08 pour 100000 dans la population blanche. Le mélanome malin métastatique constitue environ 5% de toutes les tumeurs malignes secondaires du poumon. Nous rapportons un cas de métastase pleurale et pulmonaire d'un mélanome conjonctival de découverte fortuite chez un sujet jeune. PMID:27231507

  9. Apparences corporelles et politique matrimoniale chez les Habsbourg à la fin du Moyen Âge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Debris

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Résumé : Les mariages chez les Habsbourg de la fin du Moyen Âge ont une relation évidente avec les apparences puisqu’ils impliquent une dimension physique déterminante et double : objective et subjective. La procréation étant le premier but, il fallait que les époux fussent physiquement aptes mais aussi attirants. Les apparences intervenaient à différentes étapes dans les négociations matrimoniales : d’abord au niveau des motivations, puis des vérifications, enfin dans les rituels, parfois un peu étranges. Les portraits pouvaient aider au choix du conjoint, lorsque plusieurs projets concurrents étaient en lice, mais surtout illustraient les descriptions des ambassadeurs promus « entremetteurs », pourvu qu’ils fussent réalistes. Les négociateurs, à différents stades des tractations, pouvaient exiger de voir les fiancées putatives dûment préparées (la présentation de la fiancée ou Brautschau, même si elles n’avaient aucune voix au chapitre et étaient très jeunes. Enfin, l’examen était régulièrement complété par une enquête « médicale » pour juger du physique des fiancés, dans leur nudité, au risque d’une rétractation par clause suspensive. Finalement, cela n’enlevait pas l’appréhension lors de la première rencontre in persona entre les deux fiancés, qui jusque là avaient dû s’en remettre à des médiateurs pour ce qui toucherait leur vie intime.Abstract: Appearances had an evident impact on the Habsburg marriages at the end of the Middle Ages because it implied a decisive physical aspect, which is both objective and subjective. Procreation being the first goal, spouses had to be physically fit and be attracted to each other. Appearance played a role in the different steps of the nuptial negotiations : in the motivations, verifications and rituals. Portraits could help in choosing a partner, but above all, they helped to illustrate the descriptions made by the ambassadors

  10. La double-page chez Hirohiko Araki : l’ubris faite norme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Pigeat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Le style d’Araki se caractérise par un usage massif de la double-page, loin de l’usage ponctuel que l’on trouve habituellement dans les shonen. Elle témoigne d’une forme d’ubris qui se fait norme de composition c’est-à-dire qu’elle érige le principe de débordement en règle de structuration de l’action et des planches Elle est ainsi la marque de la démesure d’un auteur qui, sous l’apparence du manga populaire, et à travers les codes de ce dernier, élabore une œuvre d’une puissance et d’une sophistication rares..

    Pour appréhender ce phénomène, il nous faut d’abord observer concrètement l’usage que fait Hirohiko Araki de la double-page, les lieux du récit que celle-ci investit, la fréquence de ses manifestations, et la manière dont elle caractérise les différentes parties de la saga Jojo’s bizarre Adventure. L’ubris de la double-page met alors particulièrement en relief deux éléments centraux de la poétique d’Hirohiko Araki : le corps et le temps.  La double-page apparaît comme la réponse matérielle à ces corps qui débordent de la page classique, qui éclatent ou se dispersent de telle sorte que l’auteur doit étendre les limites de ce cadre pour les représenter. Le temps entre lui en scène à travers le détail : la double-page devient le règne d’un détail sur lequel le lecteur passe trop vite et auquel le héros accorde toute son attention. Enfin, la double-page possède chez Hirohiko Araki une dimension proprement esthétique que révèle clairement l’usage presque absolu qui en est fait dans la septième partie de Jojo’s bizarre Adventure, Steel Ball Run, et dans le volume Rohan au Louvre, même si l’on peut la deviner déjà auparavant. La double-page est un moment où l’énigme se présente au héros, se met en mouvement ou se trouve élucidée. Le règne de l’ubris s’affirme là, dans ces doubles-pages qui n’en sont finalement plus, dans cette

  11. Line probe assay for differentiation within Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Evaluation on clinical specimens and isolates including Mycobacterium pinnipedii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Marianne Kirstine; Bek, Dorte; Rasmussen, Erik Michael; Priemé, Anders; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard

    2009-01-01

    A line probe assay (GenoType MTBC) was evaluated for species differentiation within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). We included 387 MTBC isolates, 43 IS6110 low-copy MTBC isolates, 28 clinical specimens with varying microscopy grade, and 30 isolates of non-tuberculous mycobacteria...

  12. Animal-adapted members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex endemic to the southern African subregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Clarke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC cause tuberculosis (TB in both animals and humans. In this article, three animal-adapted MTC strains that are endemic to the southern African subregion – that is, Mycobacterium suricattae, Mycobacterium mungi, and the dassie bacillus – are reviewed with a focus on clinical and pathological presentations, geographic distribution, genotyping methods, diagnostic tools and evolution. Moreover, factors influencing the transmission and establishment of TB pathogens in novel host populations, including ecological, immunological and genetic factors of both the host and pathogen, are discussed. The risks associated with these infections are currently unknown and further studies will be required for greater understanding of this disease in the context of the southern African ecosystem.Keywords: dassie bacillus; ecology; evolution; host jump; Mycobacterium mungi; Mycobacterium suricattae; Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex; phylogeny

  13. Fluorescent Nanoparticle-Based Indirect Immunofluorescence Microscopy for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiyun Chen; Weihong Tan; Xiaojun Julia Zhao; Kemin Wang; Xiaoxiao He; Dilan Qin

    2007-01-01

    A method of fluorescent nanoparticle-based indirect immunofluorescence microscopy (FNP-IIFM) was developed for the rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. An anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibody was used as primary antibody to recognize Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and then an antibody binding protein (Protein A) labeled with Tris(2,2-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (RuBpy)-doped silica nanoparticles was used to generate fluorescent signal for microscopic examination. P...

  14. Mycobacterium avium Subsp. avium Infection in Four Veal Calves: Differentiation from Intestinal Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (Maa) is an intracellular pathogen belonging to the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC). Reservoirs of MAC are the natural environment, wildlife and domestic animals. In adult bovine, MAC infections are typically caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). Maa infections in bovine are rarely reported but may cause clinical disease and pathological lesions similar to those observed in paratuberculosis or those induced by members of...

  15. Rapid Detection and Immune Characterization of Mycobacterium abscessus Infection in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Steindor, Mathis; Nkwouano, Vanesa; MAYATEPEK, Ertan; Mackenzie, Colin R.; Schramm, Dirk; Jacobsen, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients are highly susceptible to infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Especially Mycobacterium abscessus infections are common but reliable diagnosis is hampered by non-specific clinical symptoms and insensitive mycobacterial culture. In the present study we established novel methods for rapid detection and immune characterization of Mycobacterium abscessus infection in cystic fibrosis patients. We performed Mycobacterium abscessus specific DNA-strip- and quantitati...

  16. Rapid detection and immune characterization of Mycobacterium abscessus infection in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathis Steindor

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis patients are highly susceptible to infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Especially Mycobacterium abscessus infections are common but reliable diagnosis is hampered by non-specific clinical symptoms and insensitive mycobacterial culture. In the present study we established novel methods for rapid detection and immune characterization of Mycobacterium abscessus infection in cystic fibrosis patients. We performed Mycobacterium abscessus specific DNA-strip- and quantitative PCR-based analyses of non-cultured sputum samples to detect and characterize Mycobacterium abscessus infections. Concomitantly in vitro T-cell reactivation with purified protein derivatives (PPDs from different mycobacterial species was used to determine Mycobacterium abscessus specific T-cell cytokine expression of infected cystic fibrosis patients. Four of 35 cystic fibrosis patients (11.4% were Mycobacterium abscessus culture positive and showed concordant DNA-strip-test results. Quantitative PCR revealed marked differences of mycobacterial burden between cystic fibrosis patients and during disease course. Tandem-repeat analysis classified distinct Mycobacterium abscessus strains of infected cystic fibrosis patients and excluded patient-to-patient transmission. Mycobacterium abscessus specific T-cells were detected in the blood of cystic fibrosis patients with confirmed chronic infection and a subgroup of patients without evidence of Mycobacterium abscessus infection. Comparison of cytokine expression and phenotypic markers revealed increased proportions of CD40L positive T-cells that lack Interleukin-2 expression as a marker for chronic Mycobacterium abscessus infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Direct sputum examination enabled rapid diagnosis and quantification of Mycobacterium abscessus in cystic fibrosis patients. T-cell in vitro reactivation and cytokine expression analyses may contribute to diagnosis of chronic Mycobacterium abscessus

  17. Relationships between Mycobacterium Isolates from Patients with Pulmonary Mycobacterial Infection and Potting Soils▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    De Groote, Mary Ann; Pace, Norman R.; Fulton, Kayte; Joseph O. Falkinham

    2006-01-01

    High numbers of mycobacteria, including known pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium chelonae, were recovered from aerosols produced by pouring commercial potting soil products and potting soil samples provided by patients with pulmonary mycobacterial infections. The dominant mycobacteria in the soil samples corresponded to the dominant species implicated clinically. Profiles of large restriction fragments obtained by pulsed-field gel e...

  18. High-catalase strains of Mycobacterium kansasii isolated from water in Texas.

    OpenAIRE

    Steadham, J E

    1980-01-01

    Isolation techniques with membrane-filtered potable water samples resulted in the isolation of potentially pathogenic high-catalase strains of Mycobacterium kansasii from 8 of 19 representative outlets in a small central Texas town. Mycobacterium gordonae was isolated from all samples, and Mycobacterium fortuitum was isolated from two samples. Data on chlorine levels are presented along with a possible explanation for the unusually high numbers of mycobacteria in these potable water samples. ...

  19. Isolation of Mycobacterium kumamotonense from a patient with pulmonary infection and latent tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Fanourios; Mavromanolakis, Dimitrios Nikitas; Zande, Marina Chari; Gitti, Zoe Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium kumamotonense is a novel, slow-growing non-chromogenic nontuberculous mycobacterium, which belongs to Mycobacterium terrae complex. We report, for the first time in Greece, the isolation of M. kumamotonense from an immunocompetent patient with pulmonary infection and latent tuberculosis. M. kumamotonense was identified by sequencing analysis of 16S rDNA and 65-kDa heat shock protein genes while by commercial molecular assays it was misidentified as Mycobacterium celatum. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the reference broth microdilution method. The strain was susceptible to amikacin, clarithromycin, rifampin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, rifabutin, ethambutol and linezolid. PMID:27080783

  20. Les Determinants du Desir De Grossesse chez les Femmes Seropositives sous Traitement AntiRetroviral dans le District de Rwamagana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudien Uwanyirigira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available L’étude vise à analyser les déterminants du désir de grossesse chez les femmes séropositives sous traitement anti-retroviral, afin de contribuer à la réduction de la transmission du virus de la mère à l’enfant. Elle a pour objectifs spécifiques de déterminer la proportion des grossesses chez les femmes à sérologie VIH positive, d’évaluer l’attitude du personnel de santé à l’égard des messages à donner aux femmes séropositives sous ARVs en ce qui concerne le désir de la grossesse, et relever les facteurs déterminant le désir d’avoir des enfants après la mise ne route d’un traitement par antirétroviraux . Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive transversale. Elle a été conduite auprès de 260 femmes infectées par le VIH sous ARVs et suivies dans les FOSA, ayant les services de VCT/PMTCT et des ARVs. L’étude montre que 26,9% des femmes ont été enceintes après avoir été informées de leur statut sérologique positif pour le VIH et que 38,5% des femmes séropositives sous traitement anti-rétroviral désirent avoir des enfants dans le futur. La majorité des femmes (82,7% reconnaissent l’importance de l’utilisation des contraceptifs alors que le pourcentage des femmes qui connaissent l’importance d’utiliser les ARVs pendant la grossesse et l’accouchement pour réduire le risque de transmission de la mère à l’enfant est de 76,9%. Les facteurs déterminant le désir de la grossesse parmi les femmes séropositives sont : La confiance attribuée aux anti-rétroviraux, la parité c’est-à-dire les femmes qui n’ont pas eu d’enfant ont un désir de maternité deux fois supérieur que les femmes qui ont eu au moins un enfant, et la non utilisation des méthodes contraceptives chez les femmes à sérologie VIH positives pour réduire le risque de transmission de la mère à l’enfant. Nous recommandons de renforcer l’intégration des activités de santé de la reproduction et de Planning

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence: insights and impact on vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delogu, Giovanni; Provvedi, Roberta; Sali, Michela; Manganelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The existing TB vaccine, the attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG, is effective in protecting infants from severe forms of the disease, while its efficacy in protecting adults from pulmonary TB is poor. In the last two decades, a renewed interest in TB resulted in the development of several candidate vaccines that are now entering clinical trials. However, most of these vaccines are based on a common rationale and aim to induce a strong T-cell response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recent advancements in the understanding of M. tuberculosis virulence determinants and associated pathogenic strategies are opening a new and broader view of the complex interaction between this remarkable pathogen and the human host, providing insights at molecular level that could lead to a new rationale for the design of novel antitubercular vaccines. A vaccination strategy that simultaneously targets different steps in TB pathogenesis may result in improved protection and reduced TB transmission. PMID:26119086

  2. Characterization of a Mycobacterium intracellulare Variant Strain by Molecular Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, M. C.; Palenque, E.; Navarro, M. C.; Nuñez, M. C.; Rebollo, M. J.; Garcia, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a Mycobacterium intracellulare variant strain causing an unusual infection. Several isolates obtained from an immunocompromised patient were identified as members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) by the commercial AccuProbe system and biochemical standard identification. Further molecular approaches were undertaken for a more accurate characterization of the bacteria. Up to seven different genomic sequences were analyzed, ranging from conserved mycobacterial genes such as 16S ribosomal DNA to MAC-specific genes such as mig (macrophage-induced gene). The results obtained identify the isolates as a variant of M. intracellulare, an example of the internal variability described for members of the MAC, particularly within that species. The application of other molecular approaches is recommended for more accurate identification of bacteria described as MAC members. PMID:11724827

  3. Les accidents de scooter chez l'enfant au CHU Aristide Le Dantec de Dakar: à propos de 74 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Azhar Salim; Ngom, Gabriel; Sow, Mamadou; Mbaye, Papa Alassane; Camara, Souleymane; Seck, Ndeye Fatou; Ndour, Oumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Les accidents de scooter sont de plus en plus fréquents à Dakar. Le but de ce travail est de rapporter les aspects épidémiologiques et lésionnels des ces accidents chez l'enfant à Dakar. Méthodes Une étude rétrospective et descriptive a été menée dans le Service de Chirurgie Pédiatrique du CHU Aristide Le Dantec de Dakar entre le 1er janvier 2009 et le 31 décembre 2011. Nous avons étudié divers paramètres dont la fréquence, les aspects sociodémographiques et lésionnels. Résultats Les accidents de scooter représentaient 12% des accidents de la voie publique. Ils étaient fréquents entre 12 heures et 14 heures (27%) et entre 18 heures et 20 heures (28,4%). Ils pouvaient survenir tous les jours et étaient fréquents pendant les mois d'avril (17,6%) et de juin (13,5%). Ils survenaient essentiellement dans la périphérie de Dakar (78%). La tranche de 3 à 8 ans (60,8%) était la plus touchée. Le sexe masculin était prédominant (sexe ratio de 1,5). Les piétons étaient les plus vulnérables (93,2%). La chute était le mécanisme dominant (98,7%). Les lésions touchaient surtout le membre inférieur (51,1%) et étaient constituées essentiellement de fracture. Conclusion La fréquence des accidents de scooter chez l'enfant est liée à l'urbanisation galopante et à l'accroissement du parc automobile dans une presqu’île. Les victimes sont essentiellement des piétons et présentent le plus souvent des fractures. PMID:27200137

  4. Prevalence of Multidrug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Mycobacteria growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livani S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Identification and monitoring ofmultidrugresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains (MDR ishighlighted by the high risk of their spreading in different areas.Prevalence of these strains was evaluated in Golestan province innortheast of Iran.Material and Methods: Drug susceptibility testing to Isoniazid andrifampin was carried out for 148 clinical samples that had grown inMycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT system, according to themanufacturer's instructions (Becton-Dickinson, USA. The associationof drug resistance frequency with demographic characteristics andgrowth time were investigated. The appropriate statistical tests, X2 andstudent Ttest were performed for comparison of these variants. A pvalue>0.05 was considered significant in all cases.Results: The turnaround time required for growth of Mycobacteriumtuberculosis in MGIT system was between 2 to 55 days (mean16.3±10.4 days. Of all samples studied, 17.6% and 3.4% wereresistant to Isoniazid and rifampin, respectively, and 3.4% (5 sampleswere MDR (CI 95%; 1- 6%. The turnaround time required fordetermining MDR cases was 9.6 days. No statistically significantassociation was found between the resistance to the drugs and none ofthe factors including sex, age, type of clinical sample, and positivity ofthe smear.Conclusion: The prevalence of MDR in the studied region wasdetermined to be 3.4% which is similar to the country-wideevaluations. The turnaround time for Mycobacterium growth and antidrug susceptibility result can be shortened by MGIT method.Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium GrowthIndicator Tube, Multidrug Resistant

  5. Treatment of the Mycobacterium chelonae Infection after Fat Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seok-Kwun; Choi, Ji-An; Kim, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Min-Su; Lee, Keun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    For recent years, use of autologous fat injection has increased significantly in facial contouring surgery. Along with such increase in use, complications like atypical mycoplasma infection have been also on the increasing trend. The authors report two cases of Mycobacterium chelonae infection that occurred after autologous fat injection. Patients were treated as infection that resistant to common antibiotics and results were negative to routine culture and Gram staining. Acid-fast bacillus s...

  6. Role of sulfhydryls in in vitro growth of Mycobacterium lepraemurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Dhople, A M; Hanks, J H

    1981-01-01

    In an attempt to evaluate various factors that influence the growth of Mycobacterium lepraemurium in NC-5 medium, the effects of sulfur and --SH compounds were investigated. Cysteine could be replaced by equimolar concentrations of other --SH compounds containing carboxyl group, and at lower concentrations by nonpolar sulfhydryl compounds. The oxidized form of sulfhydryls, as well as certain organic and inorganic reducing agents, did not support growth. The results suggest that the function o...

  7. Mycobacterium marinum Hand Infection in a “Sushi Chef”

    OpenAIRE

    Cennimo, David J.; Agag, Richard; Fleegler, Earl; Lardizabal, Alfred; Klein, Kenneth M.; Wenokor, Cornelia; Swaminathan, Shobha

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We present the case of a sushi chef with pain and swelling of his index finger and wrist for a year, unresponsive to antibiotics. Methods: Biopsy showed a xanthogranulomatous reaction and positive culture results for Mycobacterium marinum. Results: He was treated with minocycline, clarithromycin, and ethambutol. In addition, he underwent radical synovectomy of the lesion. Conclusion: The combined medical and surgical approach resulted in a positive outcome.

  8. Chlorine, Chloramine, Chlorine Dioxide, and Ozone Susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Robert H.; Joseph O. Falkinham; Norton, Cheryl D.; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and patient isolates of Mycobacterium avium were resistant to chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. For chlorine, the product of the disinfectant concentration (in parts per million) and the time (in minutes) to 99.9% inactivation for five M. avium strains ranged from 51 to 204. Chlorine susceptibility of cells was the same in washed cultures containing aggregates and in reduced aggregate fractions lacking aggregates. Cells of the more slowly growing strains wer...

  9. Siderocalin inhibits the intracellular replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Erin E; Srikanth, Chittur V; Sandgren, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    Siderocalin is a secreted protein that binds to siderophores to prevent bacterial iron acquisition. While it has been shown to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) in extracellular cultures, its effect on this pathogen within macrophages is not clear. Here, we show that...... findings are consistent with an important role for siderocalin in protection against M.tb infection and suggest that exogenously administered siderocalin may have therapeutic applications in tuberculosis....

  10. Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum in Acidic Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park▿

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ricardo; Fernandes, João,; Fernandes, Nuno; Oliveira, Fernanda; Cadete, Manuela

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum was found in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, in a system composed of two acidic (pH 3.0) springs with temperatures between 56°C at the source and 40°C at the confluence of both springs. Growth and survival assays at 56°C for 60 days were performed, confirming the origin of the strain.

  11. Dramatic reduction of culture time of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodbane, Ramzi; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-02-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture, a critical technique for routine diagnosis of tuberculosis, takes more than two weeks. Here, step-by-step improvements in the protocol including a new medium, microaerophlic atmosphere or ascorbic-acid supplement and autofluorescence detection dramatically shortened this delay. In the best case, primary culture and rifampicin susceptibility testing were achieved in 72 hours when specimens were inoculated directly on the medium supplemented by antibiotic at the beginning of the culture.

  12. Studium role fosfofruktokinasy A a B v metabolismu Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machová, Iva; Snášel, Jan; Pichová, Iva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 5 (2014), s. 542. ISSN 0009-2770. [Mezioborové setkání mladých biologů, biochemiků a chemiků /14./. 13.05.2014-16.05.2014, Milovy] Grant ostatní: European Research Council(XE) FP7-245187 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Mycobacterium tuberculosis * phosphofructokinase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  13. Sulfolipid-1 Biosynthesis Restricts Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth in Human Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, Sarah A.; Schelle, Michael W.; Holsclaw, Cynthia M.; Leigh, Clifton D.; Jain, Madhulika; Cox, Jeffery S.; Leary, Julie A.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, is a highly evolved human pathogen characterized by its formidable cell wall. Many unique lipids and glycolipids from the Mtb cell wall are thought to be virulence factors that mediate host–pathogen interactions. An intriguing example is Sulfolipid-1 (SL-1), a sulfated glycolipid that has been implicated in Mtb pathogenesis, although no direct role for SL-1 in virulence has been established. Previously, we described the bi...

  14. Production and Purification of Mycolyl Transferase B of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Aghababa, Haniyeh; Mobarez, Ashraf Mohabati; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Khoramabadi, Nima; Mobarhan, Mandana

    2011-01-01

    Background Antigen 85 complex of Mycobacterium tuberculosis includes three immunogenic proteins which are TB vaccine candidates of great importance. As they are very hard to be achieved in natural form, recombinant production of them fuels immunological experiments. Production of such apolar mycobacterial proteins located in the cell wall faces substantial challenges mainly regarding their solubility. This study reports the production of soluble recombinant Ag85B with an efficient yield. Mate...

  15. Metronidazole prevents reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Philana Ling; Dartois, Veronique; Johnston, Paul J.; Janssen, Christopher; Via, Laura; Goodwin, Michael B.; Klein, Edwin; Barry, Clifton E.; Flynn, JoAnne L.

    2012-01-01

    Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in low-oxygen microenvironments, such as caseous granulomas, has been hypothesized to have the potential to shorten therapy for active tuberculosis (TB) and prevent reactivation of latent infection. We previously reported that upon low-dose M. tuberculosis infection, equal proportions of cynomolgus macaques develop active disease or latent infection and that latently infected animals reactivated upon neutralization of TNF. Using this model we now s...

  16. Molecular Biology of Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tasha; Wolff, Kerstin A; Nguyen, Liem

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has become a curable disease thanks to the discovery of antibiotics. However, it has remained one of the most difficult infections to treat. Most current TB regimens consist of six to nine months of daily doses of four drugs that are highly toxic to patients. The purpose of these lengthy treatments is to completely eradicate Mycobacterium tuberculosis, notorious for its ability to resist most antibacterial agents, thereby preventing the formation of drug resistant mutants. O...

  17. Identification of gene targets against dormant phase Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy Dennis J; Brown James R

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects approximately 2 billion people worldwide and is the leading cause of mortality due to infectious disease. Current TB therapy involves a regimen of four antibiotics taken over a six month period. Patient compliance, cost of drugs and increasing incidence of drug resistant M. tuberculosis strains have added urgency to the development of novel TB therapies. Eradication of TB is affected by the abili...

  18. Secretion and anchoring of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in Lactobacillus plantarum

    OpenAIRE

    Tjåland, Rannei

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the LAB Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 as a delivery-vehicle for a human vaccine against infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Because lactic acid bacteria have a long record of safe oral consumption of lactic acid bacteria and are natural inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract, these bacteria are being extensively studied as potential vectors for production and in situ delivery of heterologous proteins. Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1is an intere...

  19. Mechanisms of recrudescence of Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, J H; Knight, B. C.; Ivanyi, J.

    1989-01-01

    The capacity of various immunosuppressive agents to cause a recrudescence of the replication of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in the spleens of chronically infected mice was investigated. The actions of three corticosteroid preparations, cyclosporin A, and anti-T-cell subset monoclonal antibodies were compared. Treatment of mice with hydrocortisone acetate, which depressed the number of splenic lymphocytes and suppressed T-cell responses, most effectively exacerbated the stationary BCG counts, at 4...

  20. In vitro susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to 10 antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, S K; Crawford, C E; Geddes, G L; Black, W A

    1988-01-01

    After preliminary in vitro screening of 10 antimicrobial agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the MICs of the 6 most promising agents against 27 clinical isolates were determined by agar dilution. The two quinolone compounds tested (difloxacin and A-56620) were the most active, each inhibiting 50% of the strains at concentrations of 4 micrograms/ml. M. tuberculosis strains previously shown to be resistant to isoniazid, streptomycin, rifampin, or ethambutol were as susceptible to these q...

  1. Amperometric immunosensor for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraiwa, Morgan; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Inoue, Shinnosuke; Annie L Becker; Weigel, Kris M.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has been a major public health problem, which can be better controlled by using accurate and rapid diagnosis in low-resource settings. A simple, portable, and sensitive detection method is required for point-of-care (POC) settings. This paper studies an amperometric biosensor using a microtip immunoassay for a rapid and low cost detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) in sputum. MTB in sputum is specifically captured on the functionalized microtip surface and detected ...

  2. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium abscessus to Antimycobacterial Drugs in Preclinical Models

    OpenAIRE

    Obregón-Henao, Andrés; Arnett, Kimberly A.; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Massoudi, Lisa; Creissen, Elizabeth; Andries, Koen; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Ordway, Diane J

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, Mycobacterium abscessus group strains have emerged as important human pathogens, which are associated with significantly higher fatality rates than any other rapidly growing mycobacteria. These opportunistic pathogens are widespread in the environment and can cause a wide range of clinical diseases, including skin, soft tissue, central nervous system, and disseminated infections; by far, the most difficult to treat is the pulmonary form. Infections with M. abscessus ar...

  3. Efflux Inhibition with Verapamil Potentiates Bedaquiline in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shashank; Cohen, Keira A.; Winglee, Kathryn; Maiga, Mamoudou; Diarra, Bassirou; Bishai, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Drug efflux is an important resistance mechanism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We found that verapamil, an efflux inhibitor, profoundly decreases the MIC of bedaquiline and clofazimine to M. tuberculosis by 8- to 16-fold. This exquisite susceptibility was noted among drug-susceptible and drug-resistant clinical isolates. Thus, efflux inhibition is an important sensitizer of bedaquiline and clofazimine, and efflux may emerge as a resistance mechanism to these drugs.

  4. Bioluminescence for Assessing Drug Potency against Nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vocat, Anthony; Hartkoorn, Ruben C; Lechartier, Benoit; Zhang, Ming; Dhar, Neeraj; Cole, Stewart T.; Sala, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Targeting dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis represents a challenge to antituberculosis drug discovery programs. We previously reported and validated the use of the streptomycin (STR)-dependent M. tuberculosis 18b strain as a tool for assessing drug potency against nonreplicating bacteria both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we generated a luminescent 18b strain, named 18b-Lux, by transforming the bacteria with a vector expressing the luxCDABE operon from Photorhabdus luminescens. Lucife...

  5. Cloning and Characterization of CYP51 from Mycobacterium avium

    OpenAIRE

    Pietila, Michael P.; Vohra, Pawan K.; Sanyal, Bharati; Wengenack, Nancy L.; Raghavakaimal, Sreekumar; Thomas, Charles F.

    2006-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) causes chronic lung disease in immunocompetent people and disseminated infection in patients with AIDS. MAC is intrinsically resistant to many conventional antimycobacterial agents, it develops drug resistance rapidly to macrolide antibiotics, and patients with MAC infection experience frequent relapses or the inability to completely eradicate the infection with current treatment. Treatment regimens are prolonged and complicated by drug toxicity or intoleranc...

  6. Ethionamide activation and sensitivity in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    DeBarber, Andrea E.; Mdluli, Khisimuzi; Bosman, Marlein; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Barry, Clifton E.

    2000-01-01

    Ethionamide (ETA) is an important component of second-line therapy for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Synthesis of radiolabeled ETA and an examination of drug metabolites formed by whole cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) have allowed us to demonstrate that ETA is activated by S-oxidation before interacting with its cellular target. ETA is metabolized by MTb to a 4-pyridylmethanol product remarkably similar in structure to that formed by the activation of isoniazid ...

  7. Molecular mechanisms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to drugs and copper.

    OpenAIRE

    Speer, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Es besteht ein dringender Bedarf für neue Anti-Tuberkulose-Medikamente aufgrund der Entstehung von multiresistenten Mycobacterium tuberculosis Stämmen. Die einzigartige Zellwand von M. tuberculosis bietet eine effiziente Permeabilitätsbarriere, die ein essentieller Teil der mycobakteriellen Zelle ist und einen entscheidenden Faktor zu der intrinsischen Antibiotikaresistenz von M. tuberculosis liefert. Daher sind Proteine, die zur Synthese der mykobakteriellen Zellwand benötigt werden wertvoll...

  8. Efficacy of Microencapsulated Rifampin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Quenelle, Debra C.; Staas, Jay K.; Winchester, Gary A.; Barrow, Esther L. W.; Barrow, William W.

    1999-01-01

    Rifampin is a first-line drug useful in the treatment of tuberculosis. By using biocompatible polymeric excipients of lactide and glycolide copolymers, two microsphere formulations were developed for targeted and sustained delivery of rifampin, with minimal dosing. A small-microsphere formulation, with demonstrated ability to inhibit intracellularly replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, was tested along with a large-microsphere formulation in an infected mouse model. Results revealed ...

  9. Mycobacteriosis, Mycobacterium chelonae, in a captive yellow stingray (Urobatis jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Elsburgh O; Dorn, Brian; Boone, Allison; Risatti, Guillermo; Gilbert-Marcheterre, Kelly; Harms, Craig A

    2013-06-01

    An adult yellow stingray (Urobatis jamaicensis) from a touch-tank exhibit developed a large abscess on the dorsal aspect of the calvarium and swollen soft tissue surrounding the left spiracle. A large amount of fluid exudate was drained from the abscess. Mycobacterium chelonae was diagnosed by cytology of the exudate and by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The animal was euthanized and disseminated mycobacteriosis was confirmed with histology. PMID:23805569

  10. Mycobacterium avium complex enteritis in HIV-infected patient

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Ishikane; Junko Tanuma

    2014-01-01

    Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is an important AIDS-defining opportunistic infection. The introduction of antimicrobial prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) markedly reduced the incidence of disseminated MAC infection and improved the survival of affected individuals. However, it seems that patients with new or recurrent MAC infection are still encountered in clinical practice. Our images captured the characteristic endoscopic findings of MAC duodenitis. The ...

  11. Detection of Autofluorescent Mycobacterium Chelonae in Living Zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Whipps, Christopher M.; Moss, Larry G.; Sisk, Dana M.; Murray, Katrina N.; Tobin, David M.; Moss, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium chelonae is widespread in aquatic environments and can cause mycobacteriosis with low virulence in zebrafish. The risk of infection in zebrafish is exacerbated in closed-recirculating aquatic systems where rapidly growing mycobacteria can live on biofilms, as well as in zebrafish tissues. We have discovered a method of identifying and visualizing M. chelonae infections in living zebrafish using endogenous autofluorescence. Infected larvae are easily identified and can be exclude...

  12. Zoonotic Mycobacterium bovis-induced Tuberculosis in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Borna; Dürr, Salome Esther; Alonso, Silvia; Hattendorf, Jan; Laisse, Cláudio J M; Parsons, Sven D. C.; van Helden, Paul D; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the global occurrence of zoonotic tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis or M. caprae infections in humans by performing a multilingual, systematic review and analysis of relevant scientific literature of the last 2 decades. Although information from many parts of the world was not available, data from 61 countries suggested a low global disease incidence. In regions outside Africa included in this study, overall median proportions of zoonotic TB of ≤1.4% in conn...

  13. Bloodstream Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among HIV patients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-23

    This podcast looks at bloodstream infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens among outpatients infected with HIV in Southeast Asia. CDC health scientist Kimberly McCarthy discusses the study and why bloodstream infections occur in HIV-infected populations.  Created: 9/23/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/23/2010.

  14. Disinfecting endoscopes: how not to transmit Mycobacterium tuberculosis by bronchoscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Leers, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from the bronchial washings of two patients who underwent bronchoscopy consecutively with the same bronchoscope. Active pulmonary tuberculosis was later confirmed in the first patient, whereas the second patient had clinical and serologic evidence of infection with respiratory syncytial virus. The bronchoscope had been cleaned with an iodophor disinfectant, which had not destroyed the tubercle bacilli. The agent recommended for chemical disinfection of ...

  15. Porins Are Required for Uptake of Phosphates by Mycobacterium smegmatis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wolschendorf, Frank; Mahfoud, Maysa; Niederweis, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient, but how phosphates cross the mycobacterial cell wall is unknown. Phosphatase activity in whole cells of Mycobacterium smegmatis was significantly lower than that in lysed cells, indicating that access to the substrate was restricted. The loss of the outer membrane (OM) porin MspA also reduced the phosphatase activity in whole cells compared to that in lysed cells. A similar result was obtained for M. smegmatis that overexpressed endogenous alkaline phospha...

  16. Multidrug Resistance of a Porin Deletion Mutant of Mycobacterium smegmatis

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, Joachim; Mailaender, Claudia; Etienne, Gilles; Daffé, Mamadou; Niederweis, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacteria contain an outer membrane of unusually low permeability which contributes to their intrinsic resistance to many agents. It is assumed that small and hydrophilic antibiotics cross the outer membrane via porins, whereas hydrophobic antibiotics may diffuse through the membrane directly. A mutant of Mycobacterium smegmatis lacking the major porin MspA was used to examine the role of the porin pathway in antibiotic sensitivity. Deletion of the mspA gene caused high-level resistance of...

  17. Cutaneous Mycobacterium abscessus Infection Associated with Mesotherapy Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkitisophon, Pranee; Rattanakaemakorn, Ploysyne; Tanrattanakorn, Somsak; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2011-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacterial skin infections have an increasing incidence. In immunocompetent patients, they usually follow local trauma. We present a case of cutaneous Mycobacterium abscessus infection following mesotherapy. The lesions were successfully treated with a combination of clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline. Atypical mycobacterial infection should be suspected in patients who develop late-onset skin and soft tissue infection after cutaneous injury, injection, and surgical intervention, particularly if they do not respond to conventional antibiotic treatment. PMID:21487459

  18. Cutaneous Mycobacterium abscessus Infection Associated with Mesotherapy Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Wongkitisophon, Pranee; Rattanakaemakorn, Ploysyne; Tanrattanakorn, Somsak; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2011-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacterial skin infections have an increasing incidence. In immunocompetent patients, they usually follow local trauma. We present a case of cutaneous Mycobacterium abscessus infection following mesotherapy. The lesions were successfully treated with a combination of clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline. Atypical mycobacterial infection should be suspected in patients who develop late-onset skin and soft tissue infection after cutaneous injury, injection, and surg...

  19. Structural and Functional Studies of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machová, Iva; Snášel, Jan; Dostál, Jiří; Brynda, Jiří; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Singh, M.; Tarábek, Ján; Vaněk, O.; Bednárová, Lucie; Pichová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2015), e0120682/1-e0120682/21. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 241587 - SYSTEMTB Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : crystal structure * noncovalent complexes * Mycobacterium tuberculosis * mechanism Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0120682

  20. Nitrosoguanidine sequential mutagenesis mapping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodley, C. L.; Baldwin, J N; Greenberg, J.

    1981-01-01

    Nitrosoguanidine-induced mutations occur at higher frequencies at the replication region than at other nonreplicating regions of the chromosome. Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis synchronized with phenylethanol were used to determine the order of replication for 10 genes controlling drug resistance. Use of M. tuberculosis provided a 10-h replication map with good resolution because of the slow rate of deoxyribonucleic acid replication. The direction of chromosome replication could not be...

  1. Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium microti) in wild field vole populations

    OpenAIRE

    Burthe, S.; BENNETT, M; Kipar, A.; LAMBIN, X.; Smith, A.; Telfer, S.; BEGON, M.

    2007-01-01

    Vole tuberculosis (TB; Mycobacterium microti) is an understudied endemic infection. Despite progressing slowly, it causes severe clinical pathology and overt symptoms in its rodent host. TB was monitored for 2 years in wild field voles in Kielder Forest, UK. The prevalence of characteristic cutaneous TB lesions was monitored longitudinally at 4 sites, with individuals live-trapped and repeatedly monitored. A prevalence of 5·2% of individuals with lesions was recorded (n=2791). In a cross-sect...

  2. A vitamin B12 transporter in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gopinath, Krishnamoorthy; Venclovas, Česlovas; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Sacchettini, James C.; McKinney, John D.; Mizrahi, Valerie; Warner, Digby F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12-dependent enzymes function in core biochemical pathways in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate pathogen whose metabolism in vivo is poorly understood. Although M. tuberculosis can access vitamin B12 in vitro, it is uncertain whether the organism is able to scavenge B12 during host infection. This question is crucial to predictions of metabolic function, but its resolution is complicated by the absence in the M. tuberculosis genome of a direct homologue of BtuFCD, the only bact...

  3. Inducible and Acquired Clarithromycin Resistance in the Mycobacterium abscessus Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Rubio

    Full Text Available Clarithromycin was considered the cornerstone for the treatment of Mycobacterium abscessus complex infections. Genetic resistance mechanisms have been described and many experts propose amikacin as an alternative. Nevertheless, clarithromycin has several advantages; therefore, it is necessary to identify the non-functional erm(41 allele to determine the most suitable treatment. The aims of this study were to characterize the molecular mechanisms of clarithromycin resistance in a collection of Mycobacterium abscessus complex isolates and to verify the relationship between these mechanisms and the antibiogram.Clinical isolates of M. abscessus complex (n = 22 from 16 patients were identified using four housekeeping genes (rpoB, secA1, sodA and hsp65, and their genetic resistance was characterized by studying erm(41 and rrl genes. Nine strains were recovered from the clinical isolates and subjected to E-test and microdilution clarithromycin susceptibility tests, with readings at 3, 7 and 14 days.We classified 11/16 (68.8% M. abscessus subsp. abscessus, 4/16 (25.0% M. abscessus subsp. bolletii, and 1/16 (6.3% M. abscessus subsp. massiliense. T28 erm(41 allele was observed in 8 Mycobacterium abscessus subps. abscessus and 3 Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii. One strain of M. abscessus subsp. bolletii had an erm(41 gene truncated and was susceptible to clarithromycin. No mutations were observed in rrl gene first isolates. In three patients, follow-up of initial rrl wild-type strains showed acquired resistance.Most clinical isolates of M. abscessus complex had inducible resistance to clarithromycin and total absence of constitutive resistance. Our findings showed that the acquisition of resistance mutations in rrl gene was associated with functional and non-functional erm(41 gene. Caution is needed when using erm(41 sequencing alone to identify M. abscessus subspecies. This study reports an acquired mutation at position 2057 of rrl gene

  4. Cell-Autonomous Effector Mechanisms against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    MacMicking, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Few pathogens run the gauntlet of sterilizing immunity like Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). This organism infects mononuclear phagocytes and is also ingested by neutrophils, both of which possess an arsenal of cell-intrinsic effector mechanisms capable of eliminating it. Here Mtb encounters acid, oxidants, nitrosylating agents, and redox congeners, often exuberantly delivered under low oxygen tension. Further pressure is applied by withholding divalent Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+, as well as...

  5. Characterization of the Manila Family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, James T.; Qian, Lishi; MONTOYA, Jaime C.; Musser, James M.; van Embden, Jan D. A.; van Soolingen, Dick; Kremer, Kristin

    2003-01-01

    Forty-eight Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were obtained from patients living in metropolitan Manila, Republic of the Philippines. Three molecular typing methods, IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism, spoligotyping, and DNA sequencing of the oxyR, gyrA, and katG loci, established that these strains have restricted diversity and are members of a related genetic group of organisms. Comparison of the DNA fingerprint patterns with those in international databases confirmed the uniq...

  6. Disseminated Mycobacterium celatum disease with prolonged pulmonary involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsche, Cecilie Blenstrup; Svensson, Erik; Wejse, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium celatum is a rare cause of human infection, causing disseminated disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Infections localized to the lungs and the lymph nodes have also been reported in immunocompetent individuals. The existing literature on the subject is limited as are experience...... treatment. The treatment regimen was changed to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and pyrazinamide and the treatment duration was prolonged to a total of 24 months, with good effect....

  7. Study of the Rifampin Monoresistance Mechanism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Yu; Lu, Jie; Wang, Yufeng; Song, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shengfen; Zhao, Yanlin

    2013-01-01

    Rifampin (RIF) susceptibility is a key factor in determining the treatment effectiveness of the standardized treatment regimens. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, both target gene mutation and the efflux pump play major roles in the resistance to antituberculosis drugs. By eliminating RIF-resistant strains with rpoB mutation, the choice of RIF-monoresistant strains may allow us to identify the RIF-specific efflux pump genes. This study explored the RIF monoresistance mechanism in M. tuberculosis...

  8. Mycobacterium chimaera pulmonary infection complicating cystic fibrosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolain Jean-Marc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium chimaera is a recently described species within the Mycobacterium avium complex. Its pathogenicity in respiratory tract infection remains disputed. It has never been isolated during cystic fibrosis respiratory tract infection. Case presentation An 11-year-old boy of Asian ethnicity who was born on Réunion Island presented to our hospital with cystic fibrosis after a decline in his respiratory function over the course of seven years. We found that the decline in his respiratory function was correlated with the persistent presence of a Mycobacterium avium complex organism further identified as M. chimaera. Conclusion Using sequencing-based methods of identification, we observed that M. chimaera organisms contributed equally to respiratory tract infections in patients with cystic fibrosis when compared with M. avium subsp. hominissuis isolates. We believe that M. chimaera should be regarded as an emerging opportunistic respiratory pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis, including young children, and that its detection warrants long-lasting appropriate anti-mycobacterial treatment to eradicate it.

  9. Phospholipase C in Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Faramarzi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Phospholipase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis plays an important role in pathogenesis through breaking up phospholipids and production of diacylglycerol. In this study, we examined the Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from Iranian patients for the genes encoding this enzyme."nMaterials and Methods: DNA extraction was performed using CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide from positive culture specimens in tuberculosis patients. PCR was then used to amplify the plcA, plcB, plcC genes of Beijing strain, and non-Beijing strains were identified by spoligotyping."nResults: Of 200 specimens, 19 (9.5% were Beijing strain and 181 (90.5% were non-Beijing strains. The results of PCR for Beijing strains were as follows: 16 strains (84.2% were positive for plcA, 17 (89.4% were positive for plcB and 17 (89.4% were positive for plcC genes. The standard strain (H37RV was used as control."nConclusion: The majority of Beijing strains have phospholipase C genes which can contribute to their pathogenesis but we need complementary studies to confirm the role of phospholipase C in pathogenecity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  10. Phospholipase C in Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsamadi, ES; Farnia, P; Jahani Sherafat, S; Esfahani, M; Faramarzi, N

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives Phospholipase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis plays an important role in pathogenesis through breaking up phospholipids and production of diacylglycerol. In this study, we examined the Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from Iranian patients for the genes encoding this enzyme. Materials and Methods DNA extraction was performed using CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) from positive culture specimens in tuberculosis patients. PCR was then used to amplify the plcA, plcB, plcC genes of Beijing strain, and non-Beijing strains were identified by spoligotyping. Results Of 200 specimens, 19 (9.5%) were Beijing strain and 181 (90.5%) were non-Beijing strains. The results of PCR for Beijing strains were as follows: 16 strains (84.2%) were positive for plcA, 17 (89.4%) were positive for plcB and 17 (89.4%) were positive for plcC genes. The standard strain (H37RV) was used as control. Conclusion The majority of Beijing strains have phospholipase C genes which can contribute to their pathogenesis but we need complementary studies to confirm the role of phospholipase C in pathogenecity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:22347572

  11. Multiple Cavitary Pulmonary Nodules Caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sang Hoon; Kim, Seo Ree; Choi, Joon Young; Choi, Jae Woo; Ko, Yu Mi; Jang, Sun Hee; Park, Jun Kyu; Sung, Ye Gyu; Park, Yun Jung; Oh, Su Yun; Bahk, Se Young; Lee, Ju Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasingly recognized as an important cause of chronic pulmonary infections. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which is composed of two species, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracelluare, is the most commonly encountered pathogen associated with NTM lung disease. MAC pulmonary infection typically presents in a fibrocavitary form or a nodular bronchiectatic form. However, there have been atypical presentations of MAC pulmonary infections, including solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). There have been several previous reports of SPN due to MAC infection in the United States, Japan, and Korea. In 2009, Sekine and colleagues reported a case of MAC pulmonary infection presenting with multiple nodules. To date, however, there have been no cases of NTM lung infection with multiple cavitary pulmonary nodules, and neither a fibrotic change nor nodular bronchiectasis. The present case showed a multiple cavitating nodular lung infection due to MAC, which is very rare and different from the typical presentation of MAC pulmonary infections. We also showed that percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration can be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate a case of multiple cavitary nodules. PMID:27468344

  12. Lipoarabinomanano (LAM de Mycobacterium spp: Respuesta inmune inducida en terneros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jolly

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La paratuberculosis es una enfermedad que afecta al ganado vacuno cuyo agente etiológico es el Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis. El LAM es el principal componente antigénico de superficie de las micobacterias, y se lo considera de relevancia en la patogenia de las enfermedades que éstas causan. Un extracto enriquecido en LAM fue obtenido a partir de un cultivo de Mycobacterium spp. y empleado para inocular terneros. Se evaluó en ellos la respuesta inmune humoral y celular inducida por la vacunación. Los resultados de este estudio demuestran que el extracto enriquecido en LAM resultó ser inmunogénico en todos los animales inoculados, obteniéndose títulos considerables de anticuerpos específicos, sin generar falsos positivos a la prueba de intradermorreacción con el derivado proteico purificado utilizado para el diagnóstico de la tuberculosis bovina. Estos hallazgos justifican continuar el trabajo en esta línea intentando finalmente establecer si el LAM es un candidato potencial para la elaboración de una vacuna a subunidades contra la paratuberculosis bovina.Paratuberculosis is a chronic enteric disease affecting cattle. The causative agent is Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. LAM is the main antigenic component of mycobacterial surface, and it is considered a key virulence factor involved in its pathogenicity. A LAM-enriched extract obtained from a culture of Mycobacterium spp. was prepared with incomplete Freund's adjuvant for calves inoculation. Specific antibodies response and delayed-type hypersensitivity to intradermal injection of purified protein derivative antigen (PPD from Mycobacterium bovis were then evaluated in inoculated animals. Our results demonstrate that anti-LAM antibodies can be successfully obtained in calves immunized with LAM-enriched extract, without generating cross-reaction with PPD of M. bovis. This work could represent the initial step in order to determine the relevance of

  13. Protective and therapeutic efficacy of Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing HBHA-hIL12 fusion protein against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmin Zhao

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a major worldwide health problem. The only vaccine against TB, Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG, has demonstrated relatively low efficacy and does not provide satisfactory protection against the disease. More efficient vaccines and improved therapies are urgently needed to decrease the worldwide spread and burden of TB, and use of a viable, metabolizing mycobacteria vaccine may be a promising strategy against the disease. Here, we constructed a recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis (rMS strain expressing a fusion protein of heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA and human interleukin 12 (hIL-12. Immune responses induced by the rMS in mice and protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB were investigated. Administration of this novel rMS enhanced Th1-type cellular responses (IFN-γ and IL-2 in mice and reduced bacterial burden in lungs as well as that achieved by BCG vaccination. Meanwhile, the bacteria load in M. tuberculosis infected mice treated with the rMS vaccine also was significantly reduced. In conclusion, the rMS strain expressing the HBHA and human IL-12 fusion protein enhanced immunogencity by improving the Th1-type response against TB, and the protective effect was equivalent to that of the conventional BCG vaccine in mice. Furthermore, it could decrease bacterial load and alleviate histopathological damage in lungs of M. tuberculosis infected mice.

  14. Degradation and O-methylation of chlorinated phenolic compounds by Rhodococcus and Mycobacterium strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Häggblom, M M; Nohynek, L J; Salkinoja-Salonen, M. S.

    1988-01-01

    Three polychlorophenol-degrading Rhodococcus and Mycobacterium strains were isolated independently from soil contaminated with chlorophenol wood preservative and from sludge of a wastewater treatment facility of a kraft pulp bleaching plant. Rhodococcus sp. strain CG-1 and Mycobacterium sp. strain CG-2, isolated from tetrachloroguaiacol enrichment, and Rhodococcus sp. strain CP-2, isolated from pentachlorophenol enrichment, mineralized pentachlorophenol and degraded several other polychlorina...

  15. Mycobacterium alsense sp. nov., a scotochromogenic slow grower isolated from clinical respiratory specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tortoli, Enrico; Richter, Elvira; Borroni, Emanuele;

    2016-01-01

    "Mycobacterium alsiense", although reported in 2007, has not been validly published so far. The polyphasic characterization of the three strains available so far led us to the conclusion that they represent a distinct species within the genus Mycobacterium. The proposed new species grows slowly a...

  16. Risk factors for Mycobacterium abscessus infection in cystic fibrosis patients; a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verregghen, M.; Heijerman, H.G.; Reijers, M.; Ingen, J. van; Ent, C.K. van der

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is a nontuberculous mycobacterium that is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Factors that predispose CF patients to infection by this environmental bacterium remain unknown. In a case-control study of 22 CF patients with M.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of the Mycobacterium immunogenum Type Strain CCUG 47286

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén-Luchoro, Daniel; Seguí, Carolina; Aliaga-Lozano, Francisco; Salvà-Serra, Francisco; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Ramírez, Antonio; Ruiz, Mikel; Lalucat, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium immunogenum type strain CCUG 47286, a nontuberculous mycobacterium. The whole genome has 5,573,781 bp and covers as many as 5,484 predicted genes. This genome contributes to the task of closing the still-existing gap of genomes of rapidly growing mycobacterial type strains. PMID:27231356

  18. Comparative Functional Genomics and the Bovine Macrophage Response to Strains of the Mycobacterium Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Rue-Albrecht, Kévin; Magee, David A; Killick, Kate E; Nalpas, Nicolas C; Gordon, Stephen V.; MacHugh, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterial infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality in cattle and are also potential zoonotic agents with implications for human health. Despite the implementation of comprehensive animal surveillance programs, many mycobacterial diseases have remained recalcitrant to eradication in several industrialized countries. Two major mycobacterial pathogens of cattle are Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agents of bovine tube...

  19. mmr, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Gene Conferring Resistance to Small Cationic Dyes and Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    De Rossi, Edda; Branzoni, Manuela; Cantoni, Rita; Milano, Anna; Riccardi, Giovanna; Ciferri, Orio

    1998-01-01

    The mmr gene, cloned from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was shown to confer to Mycobacterium smegmatis resistance to tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP), erythromycin, ethidium bromide, acriflavine, safranin O, and pyronin Y. The gene appears to code for a protein containing four transmembrane domains. Studies of [3H]TPP intracellular accumulation strongly suggest that the resistance mediated by the Mmr protein involves active extrusion of TPP.

  20. Development of a new DNA extraction protocol for PFGE typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodousi, Arash; Arash, Ghodousi A; Vatani, S; Darban-Sarokhalil, Davood; Omrani, Maryam; Fooladi, A; Fooladi, Aa; Khosaravi, A; Khosaravi, Ad; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2012-03-01

    A modified pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocol was developed and applied to clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to reduce the cost of using lyticase. This protocol reduces the expense of PFGE typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex as it removes the use of lyticase during the spheroplast formation from these bacteria. PMID:22783461

  1. Failure of PCR-Based IS6110 Analysis To Detect Vertebral Spondylodiscitis Caused by Mycobacterium bovis

    OpenAIRE

    Steensels, Deborah; Fauville-Dufaux, Maryse; Boie, Johan; De Beenhouwer, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is responsible for a zoonosis originating in cattle. We report a case of a man with vertebral spondylodiscitis caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Diagnosis was complicated because of the lack of IS6110. These strains are rare, but microbiologists should be aware of their existence.

  2. Web-Accessible Database of hsp65 Sequences from Mycobacterium Reference Strains▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Jianli; Chen, Yuansha; Lauzardo, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacteria include a large number of pathogens. Identification to species level is important for diagnoses and treatments. Here, we report the development of a Web-accessible database of the hsp65 locus sequences (http://msis.mycobacteria.info) from 149 out of 150 Mycobacterium species/subspecies. This database can serve as a reference for identifying Mycobacterium species.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of a Mycobacterium africanum Clinical Isolate from Antioquia, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, U. A.; Solano, J. S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rouzaud, F.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium africanum is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Most commonly found in West African countries, it has scarcely been described in South America. Here, we report the first genome sequence of a Colombian M. africanum clinical isolate. It is composed of 4,493,502 bp, with 4,069 genes. PMID:27257203

  4. Mycobacterium alsiense, a novel, slowly growing species isolated from two patients with pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Elvira; Tortoli, Enrico; Fischer, Arno;

    2007-01-01

    A previously undescribed, slowly growing Mycobacterium species was isolated from pulmonary specimens of two patients, one from Denmark and one from Italy. The isolates showed unique 16S rRNA internal transcribed spacers and hsp65 sequences: the 16S rRNA was most closely related to Mycobacterium...

  5. Systeme microfluidique d'analyse sanguine en temps reel pour l'imagerie moleculaire chez le petit animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convert, Laurence

    De nouveaux radiotraceurs sont continuellement développés pour améliorer l'efficacité diagnostique en imagerie moléculaire, principalement en tomographie d'émission par positrons (TEP) et en tomographie d'émission monophotonique (TEM) dans les domaines de l'oncologie, de la cardiologie et de la neurologie. Avant de pouvoir être utilisés chez les humains, ces radiotraceurs doivent être caractérisés chez les petits animaux, principalement les rats et les souris. Pour cela, de nombreux échantillons sanguins doivent être prélevés et analysés (mesure de radioactivité, séparation de plasma, séparation d'espèces chimiques), ce qui représente un défi majeur chez les rongeurs à cause de leur très faible volume sanguin (˜1,4 ml pour une souris). Des solutions fournissant une analyse partielle sont présentées dans la littérature, mais aucune ne permet d'effectuer toutes les opérations dans un même système. Les présents travaux de recherche s'insèrent dans le contexte global d'un projet visant à développer un système microfluidique d'analyse sanguine complète en temps réel pour la caractérisation des nouveaux radiotraceurs TEP et TEM. Un cahier des charges a tout d'abord été établi et a permis de fixer des critères quantitatifs et qualitatifs à respecter pour chacune des fonctions de la puce. La fonction de détection microfluidique a ensuite été développée. Un état de l'art des travaux ayant déjà combiné la microfluidique et la détection de radioactivité a permis de souligner qu'aucune solution existante ne répondait aux critères du projet. Parmi les différentes technologies disponibles, des microcanaux en résine KMPR fabriqués sur des détecteurs semiconducteurs de type p-i-n ont été identifiés comme une solution technologique pour le projet. Des détecteurs p-i-n ont ensuite été fabriqués en utilisant un procédé standard. Les performances encourageantes obtenues ont mené à initier un projet de ma

  6. Collaboration and involvement of persons with lived experience in planning Canada's At Home/Chez Soi project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Geoffrey; Macnaughton, Eric; Curwood, Susan Eckerle; Egalité, Nathalie; Voronka, Jijian; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Kirst, Maritt; Flowers, Linsay; Patterson, Michelle; Dudley, Michael; Piat, Myra; Goering, Paula

    2016-03-01

    Planning the implementation of evidence-based mental health services entails commitment to both rigour and community relevance, which entails navigating the challenges of collaboration between professionals and community members in a planning environment which is neither 'top-down' nor 'bottom-up'. This research focused on collaboration among different stakeholders (e.g. researchers, service-providers, persons with lived experience [PWLE]) at five project sites across Canada in the planning of At Home/Chez Soi, a Housing First initiative for homeless people with mental health problems. The research addressed the question of what strategies worked well or less well in achieving successful collaboration, given the opportunities and challenges within this complex 'hybrid' planning environment. Using qualitative methods, 131 local stakeholders participated in key informant or focus group interviews between October 2009 and February 2010. Site researchers identified themes in the data, using the constant comparative method. Strategies that enhanced collaboration included the development of a common vision, values and purpose around the Housing First approach, developing a sense of belonging and commitment among stakeholders, bridging strategies employed by Site Co-ordinators and multiple strategies to engage PWLE. At the same time, a tight timeline, initial tensions, questions and resistance regarding project and research parameters, and lack of experience in engaging PWLE challenged collaboration. In a hybrid planning environment, clear communication and specific strategies are required that flow from an understanding that the process is neither fully participatory nor expert-driven, but rather a hybrid of both. PMID:25689287

  7. Valorisation de tourteaux de soja issus d’une production locale non OGM chez les fabricants d’aliments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Cadre Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available L’opportunité de mettre en place une filière française intégrée de la production de graines de soja à l’utilisation du tourteau, est liée à la faisabilité économique de celle-ci et notamment à la valorisation des coproduits. L’étude réalisée à l’échelle territoriale (Sud-Ouest et Rhône Alpes, démontre qu’un tourteau de soja gras local possède de nombreux débouchés rémunérateurs liés ou non, à son caractère non OGM et à son image « terroir » chez les fabricants d’aliments pour animaux de rente. Cela lui confère un intérêt économique face à un tourteau d’importation (standard ou non OGM, qui peut cependant varier en fonction du contexte de prix, mais aussi en fonction des décisions de mise en marché qui seront prises par les opérateurs concernés (contractualisation ou non dans des filières locales de qualité.

  8. Distribution épidémiologique de l'infection à VIH chez les femmes enceintes dans les dix régions du Cameroun et implications stratégiques pour les programmes de prévention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billong, Serge-Clotaire; Fokam, Joseph; Billong, Edson-Joan; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Essi, Marie-Josée; Fodjo, Raoul; Sosso, Samuel-Martin; Gomba, Armelle; Mosoko-Jembia, Joseph; Loni-Ekali, Gabriel; Colizzi, Vittorio; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kani; Monebenimp, Francisca; Nfetam, Jean-Bosco Elat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le Cameroun se situe dans un contexte d’épidémie généralisée du VIH. La sous-population des femmes enceintes, facilement accessible au sein de la population générale, représente une cible probante pour mener la surveillance du VIH et estimer l’évolution épidémiologique. L'objectif de notre étude était d’évaluer la distribution épidémiologique du VIH chez les femmes enceintes. Méthodes Étude transversale menée en 2012 chez 6521 femmes enceintes (49,3% âgées de 15-24 ans) en première consultation prénatale (CPN1) dans 60 sites des 10 régions Camerounaises. L'algorithme en série a été utilisé pour le sérodiagnostic du VIH. Résultats La prévalence du VIH était de 7,8% (508/6521), avec une différence non significative (p = 0,297) entre milieu rural (7,4%) et milieu urbain (8,1%). En zone rurale, cette prévalence variait de 0,7% à l'Extrême-Nord à 11,8% au Sud. Cependant, en zone urbaine elle variait de 4% à l'Ouest à 11,1% au Sud-Ouest. Suivant l’âge, la prévalence était plus élevée (11,3%) chez les femmes de 35-39 ans. Suivant le niveau de scolarisation, la prévalence du VIH était plus faible (4,4%) chez celles non-scolarisées, et plus élevée (9,3%) chez celles ayant un niveau primaire. Selon la profession, l'infection était plus élevée chez les coiffeuses (15,5%), secrétaires (14,8%), commerçantes (12,9%) et institutrices/enseignantes (10,8%). Conclusion La prévalence du VIH reste élevée chez les femmes enceintes au Cameroun, sans distinction entre milieux rural et urbain. Les stratégies de prévention devraient s'orienter préférentiellement chez les femmes enceintes âgées, celles du niveau d'instruction primaire, et celles du secteur des petites et moyennes entreprises. PMID:26090037

  9. Comparative analysis of mycobacterium and related actinomycetes yields insight into the evolution of mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Abigail

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequence of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb strain H37Rv has been available for over a decade, but the biology of the pathogen remains poorly understood. Genome sequences from other Mtb strains and closely related bacteria present an opportunity to apply the power of comparative genomics to understand the evolution of Mtb pathogenesis. We conducted a comparative analysis using 31 genomes from the Tuberculosis Database (TBDB.org, including 8 strains of Mtb and M. bovis, 11 additional Mycobacteria, 4 Corynebacteria, 2 Streptomyces, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, Nocardia farcinia, Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Propionibacterium acnes, and Bifidobacterium longum. Results Our results highlight the functional importance of lipid metabolism and its regulation, and reveal variation between the evolutionary profiles of genes implicated in saturated and unsaturated fatty acid metabolism. It also suggests that DNA repair and molybdopterin cofactors are important in pathogenic Mycobacteria. By analyzing sequence conservation and gene expression data, we identify nearly 400 conserved noncoding regions. These include 37 predicted promoter regulatory motifs, of which 14 correspond to previously validated motifs, as well as 50 potential noncoding RNAs, of which we experimentally confirm the expression of four. Conclusions Our analysis of protein evolution highlights gene families that are associated with the adaptation of environmental Mycobacteria to obligate pathogenesis. These families include fatty acid metabolism, DNA repair, and molybdopterin biosynthesis. Our analysis reinforces recent findings suggesting that small noncoding RNAs are more common in Mycobacteria than previously expected. Our data provide a foundation for understanding the genome and biology of Mtb in a comparative context, and are available online and through TBDB.org.

  10. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare cellulitis occurring with septic arthritis after joint injection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdoch David M

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulitis caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare has rarely been described. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is a rare cause of septic arthritis after intra-articular injection, though the causative role of injection is difficult to ascertain in such cases. Case presentation A 57-year-old with rheumatoid arthritis treated with prednisone and azathioprine developed bilateral painful degenerative shoulder arthritis. After corticosteroid injections into both acromioclavicular joints, he developed bilateral cellulitis centered over the injection sites. Skin biopsy showed non-caseating granulomas, and culture grew Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. Joint aspiration also revealed Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection. Conclusion Although rare, skin and joint infections caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare should be considered in any immunocompromised host, particularly after intra-articular injection. Stains for acid-fast bacilli may be negative in pathologic samples even in the presence of infection; cultures of tissue specimens should always be obtained.

  11. Role of genotype® mycobacterium common mycobacteria/additional species assay for rapid differentiation between Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and different species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amresh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM may or may not have same clinical presentations, but the treatment regimens are always different. Laboratory differentiation between MTBC and NTM by routine methods are time consuming and cumbersome to perform. We have evaluated the role of GenoType® Mycobacterium common mycobacteria/additional species (CM/AS assay for differentiation between MTBC and different species of NTM in clinical isolates from tuberculosis (TB cases. Materials and Methods: A total of 1080 clinical specimens were collected from January 2010 to June 2012. Diagnosis was performed by Ziehl-Neelsen staining followed by culture in BacT/ALERT 3D system (bioMerieux, France. A total of 219 culture positive clinical isolates (BacT/ALERT® MP cultures were selected for differentiation by p-nitrobenzoic acid (PNB sensitivity test as and BIO-LINE SD Ag MPT64 TB test considering as the gold standard test. Final identification and differentiation between MTBC and different species of NTM were further confirmed by GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS assay (Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany. Results: Out of 219 BacT/ALERT® MP culture positive isolates tested by PNB as 153 MTBC (69.9% and by GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS assay as 159 (72.6% MTBC and remaining 60 (27.4% were considered as NTM species. The GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS assay was proved 99.3% sensitive and 98.3% specific for rapid differentiation of MTBC and NTM. The most common NTM species were; Mycobacterium fortuitum 20 (33.3% among rapid growing mycobacteria and Mycobacterium intracellulare 11 (18.3% among slow growing mycobacteria. Conclusion: The GenoType® Mycobacterium assay makes rapid and accurate identification of NTM species as compared with different phenotypic and molecular diagnostic tool and helps in management of infections caused by different mycobacteria.

  12. Diagnostic Value of Animal-Side Antibody Assays for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti Infection in South American Camelids▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Rhodes, Shelley; Dean, Gillian; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Meylan, Mireille; Vordermeier, HMartin; Zanolari, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti. Two serological methods, rapid testing (RT) and the dual-path platform (DPP) assay, were evaluated using naturally infected SAC. The study population included 156 alpacas and 175 llamas in Great Britain, Switzerland, and the United States. TB due to M. bovis (n = 44) or M. microti (n = 8) in 35 alpacas and 17 llamas was diagnosed by gross pathology examination and culture. Control ani...

  13. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of molecules constituent of different essential oils with antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade-Ochoa, Sergio; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; Sánchez-Torres, Luvia E; Villanueva-García, Manuel; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca E.; Rodríguez-Valdez, Luz María; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Essential oils and their constituents are commonly known for their antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic activity, and there are also reports on the antimycobacterial properties, but more experimental data are needed for the description of the mechanism of action or structural (and molecular) properties related to the antimicrobial activity. Methods Twenty-five constituents of essential oils were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and Mycobacterium bovis AN5 b...

  14. L'accident ischémique cérébral chez le sujet jeune: à propos de 6 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammassi, Naziha; Sassi, Yosra Ben; Aloui, Asma; Kort, Youssef; Abdelhedi, Haykel; Cherif, Ouahida

    2015-01-01

    Les accidents ischémiques cérébraux (AIC) du sujet jeune se caractérisent par une panoplie d’étiologies différentes de celles des accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) du sujet âgé d'où l'intérêt de bien creuser devant une telle atteinte à la recherche surtout d'une thrombophilie ou d'une cardiopathie emboligène. Cependant, il ne faut pas négliger une exposition de plus en plus accrue du sujet jeune à des facteurs de risque cardio-vasculaires tel le tabagisme qui accélère le processus d'athérosclérose, étiologie principale d'AVC tout âge confondu. Nous avons rétrospectivement collecté les données de six patients âgés de moins de 45 ans qui ont été hospitalisés dans notre service pour un AIC. La moyenne d’âge était de 35,3 et les hommes représentaient 16% de notre série. L'enquête étiologique a conclu à un syndrome des anticorps anti-phospholipides secondaire à un syndrome de Gougerot Sjögren chez l'un des patients, un déficit en protéine S chez deux patients et un syndrome de Sneddon chez un autre. Les causes d'AIC n'ont pas été identifiées dans les deux autres cas. Un traitement à base d'anti-vitamines K ou d'antiagrégants plaquettaires a été instauré en cas d’étiologie révélée. PMID:26889323

  15. Aspects échographiques de la glande thyroïde chez la femme enceinte à Lubumbashi : Ultrasongraphical thyroid features in pregnant woman in Lubumbashi, DR Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Twite, K Eugène; Habimana, Laurence; Bernard, Pierre,; Donnen, Philippe; Makenga, JC; Kat, K Françoise; Kitwa, K Eric; Mpoyo, K E; Twite , B E; Kalwaba , K S; Gruson, Damien; Mutamba, L G; Kalenga , M K Prosper; Robert, Annie

    2010-01-01

    Résumé Contexte. La glande thyroïde est soumise à plusieurs influences pendant la grossesse. L’état gravide peut induire une augmentation relative du volume glandulaire, tout comme il peut favoriser des modifications architecturales sous forme de nodules, susceptibles de dégénérer en cancer thyroïdien. Objectif. décrire les modifications morphologiques de la glande thyroïde chez les femmes enceintes vivant en milieu carencé en iode. Méthode. Une étude transversal...

  16. Profil épi,démiologique des AVC ischémiques chez le sujet jeune De 15 à 45 ans entre 2005 et 2009

    OpenAIRE

    BELHADJ, Salima; BENDJELLOL, Aicha; CHER IF, Imane; Derkaoui, Mohammed; TOUI4HRIA, Mokhtaria.

    2010-01-01

    La prévention de l'AVC chez l'adulte jeune passe par le dépistage des facteurs de risque. Le dépistage de l'HTA doit être précoce. Celui des autres facteurs de risque doit être généralisé. Le recyclage du personnel médical est indispensable pour éviter l'iatrogénie. Nos pays devraient se doter de moyens de transports médicaux qui sont utiles dans toutes les pathologies et surtout dans les urgences.

  17. Troubles du sommeil chez les enfants présentant un Trouble Déficit d'Attention avec/sans Hyperactivité: analyse polysomnographique et spectrale

    OpenAIRE

    Ditisheim, Saskia Isabel; Haenggeli, Charles-Antoine; Sforza, Emilia

    2008-01-01

    Les enfants avec un Trouble Déficit d'Attention avec/sans Hyperactivité (TDAH) peuvent rapporter différents troubles subjectifs du sommeil. Cependant, il n'existe pas dans la littérature de données décrivant des modifications objectives de la structure du sommeil. Etant donné que l'analyse spectrale de l'EEG de veille a montré des anomalies spectrales chez ces enfants, nous avons étudié par analyse spectrale l'EEG de sommeil et exploré topographiquement ces modifications afin de déterminer si...

  18. Troubles du sommeil chez les enfants présentant un Trouble Déficit d'Attention avec/sans Hyperactivité : analyse polysomnographique et spectrale

    OpenAIRE

    Ditisheim, Saskia Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Les enfants avec un Trouble Déficit d'Attention avec/sans Hyperactivité (TDAH) peuvent rapporter différents troubles subjectifs du sommeil. Cependant, il n'existe pas dans la littérature de données décrivant des modifications objectives de la structure du sommeil. Etant donné que l'analyse spectrale de l'EEG de veille a montré des anomalies spectrales chez ces enfants, nous avons étudié par analyse spectrale l'EEG de sommeil et exploré topographiquement ces modifications afin de déterminer si...

  19. Premiers résultats de sex-ratio, puberté et dimorphisme sexuel chez le Paraha peue (Platax orbicularis) en élevage.

    OpenAIRE

    Gasset, Eric; Joufoques, Vaiana; David, Rarahu; Maamaatuaiahutapu, Moana; Teissier, Alexandre; Tamata, Thierry; Dupieux, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    Cette première étude du sex-ratio menée chez Platax orbicularis en élevage donne d’importantes indications dans l’optique d’optimiser la gestion des productions (1) de lots de futurs géniteurs issus d’un plan de croisement et (2) des lots d’alevins destinés à la production en cages. La poursuite du suivi des lots en cours et des nouvelles familles produites (sans tri des alevins et avec marquage magnétique individuel des poissons) permettra de confirmer sans doute ces indications et d’oriente...

  20. Les biotechnologies de la reproduction chez les bovins et leurs applications réelles ou potentielles en sélection

    OpenAIRE

    Colleau, J Jacques; Heyman, Y; Renard, Jean Paul

    1998-01-01

    Cet article décrit les bases de plusieurs biotechnologies de la reproduction chez les bovins : superovulation et transplantation embryonnaire, sexage des embryons, ponction des ovocytes in vivo et fécondation in vitro, clonage embryonnaire et clonage somatique. On précise leurs limites techniques actuelles, leurs perspectives d’amélioration et leurs coûts respectifs. Les conséquences de leur utilisation dans les programmes d’amélioration génétique sont analysées tant au niveau de la situation...

  1. Étude de la capacité antioxydante en lien avec la reproduction chez l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas

    OpenAIRE

    Béguel, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Le "coût de la reproduction" est un concept qui définit qu'un investissement à la reproduction élevé a un prix qui se paye ultérieurement par une accélération de la sénescence. Cela peut notamment traduire des compromis entre la reproduction et d'autres fonctions physiologiques comme la défense antioxydante. Chez l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas, la reproduction représente une fonction physiologique majeure. Dans le cadre des études effectuées pour comprendre les mortalités estivales affecta...

  2. La violence amoureuse dans les relations amoureuses chez les adolescents: comment aider les jeunes victimes institutionnalisées à se reconstruire?

    OpenAIRE

    Délèze, Aurélie; Jaggi, Jennifer; Lorenz, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    De nos jours, la violence dans les relations amoureuses chez les adolescents est un sujet tabou, voire effrayant. Les adolescents ont une propension de plus en plus forte à l’agressivité, notamment de par ce qui leur est transmis par le biais et au travers des médias, des jeux vidéo, etc. De ce fait, leurs relations interpersonnelles s’en trouvent passablement influencées et, conséquemment, perturbées. Ces raisons impliquent que les professionnels ont de la difficulté à mettre en place des st...

  3. Génomique comparative des bactéries Dickeya solani et Pectobacterium wasabiae, pathogènes émergents chez Solanum tuberosum

    OpenAIRE

    Khayi, Slimane

    2015-01-01

    Les bactéries pectinolytiques appartenant aux genres Pectobacterium et Dickeya spp. sont des agents pathogènes chez Solanum tuberosum. Ces bactéries sont responsables de la maladie de la jambe noire et de la pourriture molle lors de la culture et du stockage des tubercules. Ce travail de thèse est divisé en deux axes: 1) Etude dela diversité d'une population du pathogène D. solani par approche de génomique comparée afin de mieux comprendre la structure génomique de cette espèce émergente. 2) ...

  4. Des usages limités des tic chez des professionnels de l’Éducation et du conseil dans le social

    OpenAIRE

    Kellner, Catherine; Massou, Luc; Morelli, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Constatant l’existence d’usages restreints ou de non-usages des tic chez des travailleurs sociaux lors de travaux précédents, les auteurs ont mené une étude qualitative portant sur des professionnels de l’éducation et du conseil dans le social (éducateurs spécialisés, éducateurs de jeunes enfants, conseillers conjugaux et familiaux) pour comprendre les raisons de la limitation de leurs usages des outils informatiques et en particulier de l’internet. Au-delà d’une simple juxtaposition de cause...

  5. Les hormones thyroïdiennes, leurs récepteurs et l'évolution de la métamorphose chez les Chordés.

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Mathilde

    2008-01-01

    DANS L'ETUDE DES PROCESSI D'EVOLUTION DU DEVELOPPEMENT, LES FACTEURS DE TRANSCRIPTION SONT IMPORTANTS CAR ILS REGULENT L'EXPRESSION GENIQUE AU COURS DU DEVELOPPEMENT. PARMI CES FACTEURS, LES RECEPTEURS NUCLEAIRES (RNS) ONT UN STATUT PARTICULIER CAR LEUR ACTIVITE EST REGULEE PAR UN LIGAND. DURANT MA THESE, JE ME SUIS INTERESSEE A L'EVOLUTION DES RNS CHEZ LES CHORDES (TELS QUE LES VERTEBRES, LES TUNICIES ET L'AMPHIOXUS) EN ETUDIANT DEUX RNS PARTICULIERS : LES RECEPTEURS AUX OESTROGENES (ER) ET ...

  6. Effets du régime cafeteria sur les marqueurs du statut oxyqanII antioxydant (sang, foie, muscle) chez la rate wistar au &de la ' gestation.

    OpenAIRE

    ATTARI, Faiza

    2014-01-01

    Résumé: Une suralimentation prolongée provoque une obésité avec installation des troubles K ' métaboliques. Le but de ce travail est de déterminer les effets du régime cafeteria, un régime hyperlipidique et hypercalorique, sur le métabolisme des lipides, des glucides et le statut oxydant/ antioxydant chez la rate pendant la gestation. Le régime cafeteria induit une obésité suite à une hyperphagie, associée à une augmentation du tissu adipeux, à une hyperglycémie, et une hype...

  7. Carence en fer, anémie et anémie ferriprive chez les donneurs de sang à Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzengu-Lukusa, Franck; Yuma-Ramazani, Sylvain; Sokolua-Mvika, Eddy; Dilu-Keti, Angèle; Malenga-Nkanga, Blanchard; Shuli, Jean Baptiste; Nzongola-Nkasu, Donatien Kayembe; Mbayo-Kalumbu, Ferdinand; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Introduction En République Démocratique du Congo (RDC), plus d'un million de don de sang ont été réalisés entre 2007 et 2011. Cependant, aucun bilan portant sur la carence en fer et l'anémie ferriprive, conséquence d'un don de sang chez les donneurs de sang (DS), n'est disponible dans ce pays. L'objectif de cette étude était d'estimer la prévalence de la carence en fer, de l'anémie et de l'anémie ferriprive chezles DS au Centre National de Transfusion Sanguine (CNTS) à Kinshasa en RDC. Méthodes Entre Décembre 2012 et Août 2013, une étude transversale a été menée au CNTS où des DS éligibles au don de sang ont été inclus. Les informations socio démographiques et des prélèvements sanguins ont été collectés de manière simultanée au don de sang. La ferritine sérique a été dosée pour évaluer la carence en fer en utilisant la technique ELISA. L'hémogramme a été réalisé en vue d’évaluer et mettre au point l'anémie. Résultats Au total 386 DS ont été inclus dans cette étude. La prévalence de la carence en fer et de l'anémie ferriprive étaient respectivement de 63,2% (244/386) et 25,9% (100/386) des DS. Une anémie a été trouvée chez 36.5% (141/386) au moment du don de sang. Conclusion La carence en fer, l'anémie et l'anémie ferriprive demeurent très fréquentes chez les DS à Kinshasa. Ces résultats suggèrent la révision des tests biologiques utilisés dans le recrutement des DS au CNTS. Par ailleurs le dosage de la ferritine s'impose en routine chez les DS rég PMID:27303590

  8. Traitement hormonal de la ménopause et risque de diabète chez les femmes de la cohorte E3N

    OpenAIRE

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fournier, Agnès; Fabre, Alban; Simon, Nicolas; Mesrine, Sylvie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Balkau, Beverley; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    International audience Deux essais randomisés américains ont mis en évidence une diminution du risque de diabète chez les femmes qui prenaient un traitement hormonal de la ménopause. L'objectif de ce projet est de voir si ces résultats sont applicables à la population française, où les traitements sont différents de ceux utilisés aux États-Unis

  9. Novel Species Including Mycobacterium fukienense sp. Is Found from Tuberc-ulosis Patients in Fujian Province, China, Using Phylogenetic Analysis of Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan Yuan; LI Yan Bing; HUANG Ming Xiang; ZHAO Xiu Qin; ZHANG Li Shui; LIU Wen En; WAN Kang Lin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify the novel species ‘Mycobacterium fukienense’ sp. nov of Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus complex from tuberculosis patients in Fujian Province, China. Methods Five of 27 clinical Mycobacterium isolates (Cls) were previously identified as M. chelonae/abscessus complex by sequencing the hsp65, rpoB, 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region (its), recA and sodA house-keeping genes commonly used to describe the molecular characteristics of Mycobacterium. Clinical Mycobacterium isolates were classified according to the gene sequence using a clustering analysis program. Sequence similarity within clusters and diversity between clusters were analyzed. Results The 5 isolates were identified with distinct sequences exhibiting 99.8% homology in the hsp65 gene. However, a complete lack of homology was observed among the sequences of the rpoB, 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region (its), sodA, and recA genes as compared with the M. abscessus. Furthermore, no match for rpoB, sodA, and recA genes was identified among the published sequences. Conclusion The novel species, Mycobacterium fukienense, is identified from tuberculosis patients in Fujian Province, China, which does not belong to any existing subspecies of M. chelonea/abscessus complex.

  10. Mycobacterium smegmatis infection of a prosthetic total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffo, Zaid; Ognjan, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The most common organisms causing prosthetic knee joint infections are staphylococci. However, arthroplasty infections with atypical microbial pathogens, such as Mycobacteria can occur. Due to the rarity of mycobacterial prosthetic joint infections, diagnosis, treatment, and management of these atypical infections represent a clinical challenge. A 71-year old female post-operative day 40 after a left total knee arthroplasty was hospitalized secondary to left knee pain and suspected arthroplasty infection. She had failed outpatient oral antimicrobial treatment for superficial stitch abscess; and outpatient IV/Oral antimicrobials for a clinical postoperative septic bursitis. Ultimately, resection arthroplasty with operative tissue acid fast bacterial cultures demonstrated growth of the Mycobacterium smegmatis group. Post-operatively, she completed a combination course of oral doxycycline and levofloxacin and successfully completed a replacement arthroplasty with clinical and microbial resolution of the infection. To our knowledge, literature review demonstrates three case of knee arthroplasty infection caused by the Mycobacterium smegmatis group. Correspondingly, optimal surgical procedures and antimicrobial management including antimicrobial selection, treatment duration are not well defined. Presently, the best treatment options consists of two step surgical management including prosthesis hardware removal followed by extended antimicrobial therapy, followed by consideration for re-implantation arthroplasty. Our case illustrates importance of considering atypical mycobacterial infections in post-operative arthroplasty infections not responding to traditional surgical manipulations and antimicrobials. For an arthroplasty infection involving the atypical Mycobacterium smegmatis group, two step arthroplasty revision, including arthroplasty resection, with a combination of oral doxycycline and levofloxacin can lead to successful infection resolution, allowing for a

  11. Intracardiac tuberculomas caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Czopowicz, Michał; Olkowski, Arkadiusz; Łobaczewski, Andrzej; RZEWUSKA, Magdalena; Sapierzyński, Rafał; Wiatr, Elżbieta; Garncarz, Magdalena; Frymus, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper presents an unusual form of disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a dog. The infection lasted at least one year and its main gross lesions were massive cardiac tuberculomas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of heart tuberculomas in a dog. Case presentation A 9-year-old mixed-breed male dog weighing 10 kg was referred to the clinic for cardiological evaluation before general anesthesia. The echocardiography revealed a lump of about 20 ...

  12. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Andrade de Prince

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib. B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae, cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.

  13. Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from thecomplete genome sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, S.T.; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    1998-01-01

    Countless millions of people have died from tuberculosis, a chronic infectious disease caused by the tubercle bacillus. The complete genome sequence of the best-characterized strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, H37Rv, has been determined and analysed in order to improve our understanding of the....... tuberculosis differs radically from other bacteria in that a very large portion of its coding capacity is devoted to the production of enzymes involved in lipogenesis and lipolysis, and to two new families of glycine-rich proteins with a repetitive structure that may represent a source of antigenic variation....

  14. Cloning of a species-specific antigen of Mycobacterium bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, A J; Duffield, B J; Plackett, P

    1988-01-01

    A DNA library from a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis was constructed in the expression vector lambda gt11, and the library was probed with antisera to M. bovis. Clones expressing M. bovis antigens were isolated and characterized by using M. bovis-specific monoclonal antibodies that recognize a 22,000-molecular-weight protein (MPB70). MPB70 is a major protein antigen of the vaccine strain of M. bovis BCG and of virulent M. bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. Of 32 clones ...

  15. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG as an HIV Vaccine Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Rosamund; Chege, Gerald; Shephard, Enid; Stutz, Helen; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 has resulted in a devastating AIDS pandemic. An effective HIV/AIDS vaccine that can be used to either, prevent HIV infection, control infection or prevent progression of the disease to AIDS is needed. In this review we discuss the use of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the tuberculosis vaccine, as a vaccine vector for an HIV vaccine. Numerous features make BCG an attractive vehicle to deliver HIV antigens. It has a good safety profile, elicits long-lasting cellular immune responses and in addi...

  16. Solvent-Augmented Mineralization of Pyrene by a Mycobacterium sp

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, I. Y.; Bartha, R.

    1996-01-01

    The biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants is constrained, in part, by their solid physical state and very low water solubility. Searching for ways to overcome these limitations, we isolated from soil a bacterium capable of growing on pyrene as a sole source of carbon and energy. Acid-fast stain, morphology, and fatty acid profile identified it as a Mycobacterium sp. In a mineral salts solution, the isolate mineralized 50% of a 250-(mu)g/ml concentration of [(sup14)C]pyr...

  17. TuberQ: a Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein druggability database

    OpenAIRE

    Radusky, Leandro; Defelipe, Lucas A.; Lanzarotti, Esteban; Luque, Javier; Barril, Xavier; Marti, Marcelo A.; Turjanski, Adrián G.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012 an estimated 8.6 million people developed tuberculosis (TB) and 1.3 million died from the disease [including 320 000 deaths among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive people]. There is an urgent need for new anti-TB drugs owing to the following: the fact that current treatments have severe side effects, the increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the negative drug–drug interactions with certain HIV (or other disease) treatments a...

  18. Secretion of human interleukin 2 by recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, D.; Kunimoto, D Y

    1995-01-01

    The human interleukin 2 (huIL-2) gene was introduced into Mycobacterium bovis BCG by using the integrative vector pMV306. To express and secrete huIL-2 from BCG, two different plasmids, CI and CII, were made. In CI, the huIL-2-encoding region was under the control of the alpha-antigen promoter of BCG; in CII, the expression of huIL-2 was regulated by the heat shock protein 60 promoter. A signal peptide sequence isolated from the naturally secreted alpha-antigen of BCG was inserted between the...

  19. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection Occurring after Exposure to Mycobacterium marinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani S. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous infections caused by Mycobacterium marinum have been attributed to aquarium or fish exposure after a break in the skin barrier. In most instances, the upper limbs and fingers account for a majority of the infection sites. While previous cases of necrotizing soft tissue infections related to M. marinum have been documented, the importance of our presenting case is to illustrate the aggressive nature of M. marinum resulting in a persistent necrotizing soft tissue infection of a finger that required multiple aggressive wound debridements, followed by an amputation of the affected extremity, in order to hasten recovery.

  20. Traitements didactiques preventifs d'un type de conceptions erronees en sciences physiques chez des eleves du secondaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Andre

    Dans un contexte constructiviste, les connaissances anterieures d'un individu sont essentielles a la construction de nouvelles connaissances. Quelle qu'en soit la source (certaines de ces connaissances ont ete elaborees en classe, d'autres ont ete elaborees par interaction personnelle de l'individu avec son environnement physique et social), ces connaissances, une fois acquises, constituent les matieres premieres de l'elaboration des nouvelles conceptions de cet individu. Generalement, cette influence est consideree comme positive. Cependant, dans un milieu scolaire ou l'apprentissage de certaines conceptions enchassees dans un programme d'etudes et enterinees par l'ensemble d'une communaute est obligatoire, certaines connaissances anterieures peuvent entraver la construction des conceptions exigees par la communaute. La litterature abonde de tels exemples. Cependant, certaines connaissances anterieures, en soi tout a fait conformes a l'Heritage, peuvent aussi, parce qu'utilisees de facon non pertinente, entraver la construction d'une conception exigee par la communaute. Ici, la litterature nous donne peu d'exemples de ce type, mais nous en fournirons quelques-uns dans le cadre theorique, et ce sera un d'entre eux qui servira de base a nos propos. En effet, une grande proportion d'eleves inscrits a un cours de sciences physiques de la quatrieme secondaire, en reponse a un probleme deja solutionne durant l'annee et redonne lors d'un examen sommatif, "Pourquoi la Lune nous montre-t-elle toujours la meme face?", attribue principalement la cause de ce phenomene a la rotation de la Terre sur son axe. En tant que responsable de l'enseignement de ce programme d'etudes, plusieurs questions nous sont venues a l'esprit, entre autres, comment, dans un contexte constructiviste, est-il possible de reduire chez un eleve, l'impact de cette connaissance anterieure dans l'elaboration de la solution et ainsi prevenir la construction d'une conception erronee? Nous avons teste nos

  1. Les maladies chroniques non transmissibles chez les militaires sénégalais: étude transversale en 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Ndiaye Abdoul; Mohamed, Seck Sidy; Badara, Tall Alioune; Boubacar, Gueye; Gallo, Sow Papa; Awa, Gaye; Anta, Tal-Dia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Les maladies chroniques non transmissibles (MCNT) constituent un problème de santé publique. La transition épidémiologique coexiste avec les maladies infectieuses. En Afrique subsaharienne, leur ampleur est peu connue et l'OMS recommande aux pays à faible et moyen revenu de réaliser des enquêtes STEPS portant sur les comportements, des mesures physiques et biochimiques. L'absence de données au niveau national justifie cette étude auprès d'un groupe spécifique. L'objectif de l’étude était de déterminer la prévalence des MCNT et de leurs facteurs de risque chez les militaires Sénégalais. Méthodes Une enquête transversale a été réalisée incluant les militaires âgés de 25 à 60 ans. La participation était volontaire et l'accord des autorités hiérarchiques a préalablement été obtenu. Un sondage stratifié à deux niveaux a été utilisé permettant d'avoir un échantillon ajusté de 1513 individus. Les données ont été saisies avec le logiciel EPI Info 6 et analysées à l'aide de R. Un score de risque a été déterminé sur la base de cinq facteurs. Résultats Les résultats préliminaires concernent 1125 personnes. L’âge moyen était de 39,7 ±9,1 ans et le sex-ratio de 28,6. La prévalence du tabagisme actif était de 17,3% et ne variait pas significativement entre les différentes catégories d’âge. L’âge moyen auquel ils ont commencé à fumer était de 20,8 ±4,05 ans. La consommation médiane de fruits et légumes était de l'ordre de 4 par jour et seulement 5,7% des enquêtés prenaient au moins 5 portions par jour. Environs 72% des enquêtés avaient une activité physique intense ou modérée. Les prévalences de la surcharge pondérale, de l'HTA et du diabète étaient de 30,5%, 28,4% et 3,0% respectivement alors que la maladie rénale chronique était retrouvée chez un seul cas. Le calcul du score de risque cardiovasculaire a montré que 39,1% des militaires étaient à risque élevé (≥3 facteurs

  2. Mycobacterium avium Subsp. avium Infection in Four Veal Calves: Differentiation from Intestinal Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Goepfert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (Maa is an intracellular pathogen belonging to the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC. Reservoirs of MAC are the natural environment, wildlife and domestic animals. In adult bovine, MAC infections are typically caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map. Maa infections in bovine are rarely reported but may cause clinical disease and pathological lesions similar to those observed in paratuberculosis or those induced by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC. Therefore, differentiation of MAC from MTBC infection should be attempted, especially if unusual mycobacterial lesions are encountered. Four veal calves from a fattening farm dying with clinical signs of otitis media, fever, and weight loss were submitted for necropsy. Samples from affected organs were taken for histologic investigation, bacteriologic culture, and bacterial specification using PCR. Macroscopic thickening of the intestinal mucosa was induced by granulomatous enteritis and colitis. Intracytoplasmic acid-fast bacteria were detected by Ziehl-Neelsen stains and PCR revealed positive results for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Clinical and pathological changes of Maa infection in veal calves had features of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and the MTBC. Therefore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection should be considered in cases of granulomatous enteritis in calves.

  3. Prevalence and antibiogram profile of Mycobacterium spp. in poultry and its environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rubayet Reza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an attempt was undertaken to know the prevalence and antibiogram profile of Mycobacterium spp. in poultry and its immediate environments. A total of 130 samples comprising of droppings (n=80, egg washing (n=18, drinking water (n=14, hand washing from farm workers (n=6 and litter (n=12 were collected from six poultry farms located in and around Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU. Samples were inoculated onto 7H10 Middlebrook agar and incubated aerobically at 37ºC for 7-14 days. Identification of Mycobacterium spp. was performed by colonial morphology, acid fast staining, and biochemical tests. Molecular identification of Mycobacterium spp. at genus level was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay targeting 65-kDa heat shock protein gene. Antibiogram profile of Mycobacterium spp. was performed against five antibiotics namely Rifampin, Azithromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Streptomycin and Doxycycline by disc diffusion method. Three Mycobacterium spp. were isolated from dropping samples of poultry. The overall prevalence of Mycobacterium spp. was 2.3% (n=3/130. All the isolates were resistant to Rifampin and sensitive to Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin. Data of this study indicated that multidrug resistant Mycobacterium spp. are prevalent in the poultry farms of the study area which underscore the need of implementation of good biosecurity to poultry husbandry practice to ensure poultry and human health.

  4. [Flotation mechanism on Mycobacterium phlei and adsorption of Pb2+ by collectors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong-qin; Wei, De-zhou

    2006-02-01

    The possibility of removal of heavy metals from waste water by adsorption flotation using Mycobacterium phlei as adsorbent was investigated, and the collection mechanism of collectors on adsorbent was analyzed. From the single flotation tests, it shows that cationic collectors have a stronger collecting ability for Mycobacterium phlei than anionic collectors. The adsorptive flotation experiment shows that floatability process occurred within 10 minutes, the recovery of Mycobacterium phlei and the removing rate of Pb2+ are high by using cationic collectors during pH value from 4 to 7. At 45mmol/L of Di-buty lamine as collector, and 4.75 of pH, the recovery of Mycobacterium phlei and the removing rate of Pb2+ are 92 % and 98%. The isoelectric point of Mycobacterium phlei is 3.09 at pH of the solution, which increased when Pb2+ or Di-buty lamine is adsorption by Mycobacterium phlei. The good floatability of Mycobacterium phlei with cationic collectors results from the intense zeta potential on the surface of cell, Adsorptive flotation may have practical applications for the removal of hazardous metals from contaminated water supplies. PMID:16686201

  5. Les discussions reprennent chez Gate Gourmet CONFLIT. Les negociations pour une nouvelle CCT se derouleront sous l'égide de la Chambre genevoise des relations collectives de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Mutter, F

    2003-01-01

    "Dialogue renoue chez Gate Gourmet a Geneve...cela serait la seconde fois seulement que la CRCT agirait de la sorte. L'unique precedent remonte a un different opposant le CERN à certains de ses employes" (1/2 page).

  6. Épistémologie de la biologie et conceptualisation du vivant chez des futurs enseignants et biologistes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simard Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available L’ensemble des résultats présentés dans cet article relève d’une étude doctorale qui s’est intéressée à l’histoire de la biologie et aux grandes conceptions qui ont alimenté la construction des savoirs en biologie jusqu’à présent (Simard, 2015 [1]. À cet égard, un ensemble de conceptions du vivant a été sélectionné et circonscrit afin de développer un nouvel outil d’évaluation estimant la présence de l’une ou l’autre de ces conceptions chez les futurs enseignants et biologistes. Pour certaines conceptions s’avérant désuètes, la problématique est qu’elles se voient reconduites, encore aujourd’hui, dans la pensée scientifique. C’est alors en termes d’obstacle épistémologique historique à une conceptualisation contemporaine du vivant qu’elles sont appréhendées. Cette caractérisation de la conceptualisation du vivant et l’identification de conceptionsobstacles sont un passage nécessaire afin d’étudier, ultérieurement, les processus d’apprentissage et l’élaboration de séquences didactiques en les considérant au profit d’une compréhension actuelle du vivant. Enfin, est présentée brièvement l’influence positive que peut avoir une formation scientifique en biologie sur la conceptualisation du vivant et sur les conceptions-obstacles, qui se voient alors décliner*.

  7. La prévention des blessures non intentionnelles chez les enfants et adolescents autochtones au Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Anna

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les blessures non intentionnelles sont la principale cause de décès chez les enfants et adolescents autochtones canadiens, à un taux de trois à quatre fois la moyenne nationale. Non seulement les décès et les blessures invalidantes dévastent les familles et les communautés, mais elles font également d’énormes ravages sur les ressources de santé. L’absence de statistiques, de surveillance continue ou de programmes de prévention des blessures à l’égard des enfants et adolescents autochtones exacerbe les coûts en matière de main-d’œuvre et de santé. Les communautés autochtones sont hétérogènes sur le plan culturel, qu’il s’agisse de l’accès aux ressources ou même des risques et des types de blessures. Pourtant, en général, ces communautés sont beaucoup plus susceptibles d’être pauvres, d’habiter dans un logement insalubre et d’éprouver de la difficulté à accéder aux soins de santé, des facteurs qui accroissent le risque et les conséquences des blessures. Il existe un besoin urgent de surveillance des blessures, de recherche, de renforcement des capacités, de diffusion des connaissances et de programmes de prévention des blessures qui sont axés sur les populations autochtones. Pour prévenir les blessures de manière efficace, il faut adopter des démarches multidisciplinaires, coopératives et durables, fondées sur des pratiques exemplaires, tout en étant spécifiques et sensibles sur le plan culturel et linguistique.

  8. Poétique de la reconstruction : espace, objet et identité chez Alain Robbe-Grillet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pascoal Domingos Perugini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Résumé: Nous essaierons d’analyser la représentation de l’espace et des objets chez Alain Robbe-Grillet dans le cadre d’une problématique sur l’identité. Si le nouveau romancier rompt avec les modalités traditionnelles de représentation de l’univers romanesque, c’est qu’il joue sans cesse avec les signes qui permettent de déterminer l’identité des éléments du décor. Nous exposerons ainsi quelques tensions dialectiques par lesquelles l’auteur perçoit et conçoit l’espace et ses objets, afin de montrer que ses procédés relèvent d’une poétique de la reconstruction. Mots-clés: Alain Robbe-Grillet; poétique; espace; objet; identité.Abstract: We will try to analyze the space’s and the object’s representation in Alain Robbe-Grillet’s works as part of a problem about the identity. If the nouveau romancier breaks with the traditional representation forms of the novel’s universe, it’s because he plays constantly with the signs that enable to determine the identity of the décor’s elements. Thus, we will expose some dialectical tensions by which the author perceive and conceive the space and its objects, in order to show that his techniques constitute a poetics of the reconstruction. Keywords: Alain Robbe-Grillet; poetics; space; object; identity.

  9. Diagnostic moléculaire du complexe Mycobacterium tuberculosis résistant à l'isoniazide et à la rifampicine au Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désire, Ilboudo; Cyrille, Bisseye; Florencia, Djigma; Souba, Diande; Albert, Yonli; Valerie, Bazie Jean Telesphore; Rebecca, Compaore; Charlemagne, Gnoula; Tamboura, Djibril; Rémy, Moret; Virginio, Pietra; Simplice, Karou Damintoti; Martial, Ouedraogo; Jacques, Simpore

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cette étude a eu pour objectifs de diagnostiquer la tuberculose pulmonaire par l'examen microscopique et par la PCR des crachats et de déterminer les bases moléculaires de la résistance à la rifampicine et à l'isoniazide. Méthodes Le diagnostic du Complexe Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (CMTB) a été effectué par microscopie après coloration au Ziehl Nielsen et par PCR en temps réel en utilisant le kit d'identification du complexe MTB (Sacace Biotechnologie, Italie). Les résistances à la Rifampicine et à l'Isoniazide ont été étudiées par la technique de la PCR en utilisant le kit MTB résistance 8 (Sacace, Biotechnologie). Résultats Sur les 59 patients diagnostiqués pour la tuberculose pulmonaire, 59,3% étaient positifs en microscopie optique et 44,1% étaient positifs par PCR en Temps réel. Les résistances à la rifampicine (rpoB) et à l'isoniazide (katG et inhA) ont été observées chez 9 patients. La résistance à la rifampicine était due aux mutations (Asp516Val, Ser531Trp, Leu533Pro) et celle à l'isoniazide par les substitutions Ser315Thr du gène katG et C209T du gène inhA. Les multi résistances à la rifampicine et à l'isoniazide ont été observées dans 55,5% des échantillons et concernaient les associations: ropBAsp513Val + inhAC209T et rpoBLeu533Pro + katGSer315Thr. Conclusion La PCR en temps réel qui permet l'identification des allèles mutants rpoB, katG et inhA de M. tuberculosis est un outil de diagnostic épidémiologique de grande importance car elle permet de déterminer le niveau de résistance à la rifampicine et à l'isoniazide. PMID:26491516

  10. Full genome sequence of a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Mamuna; Abidi, Soad; Mikkelsen, Heidi; Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Jungersen, Gregers; Ussery, David

    We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown on......, consisting of 4317 unique gene families. Comparison with M. avium paratuberculosis strain K10 revealed only 3436 genes in common (~70%). We have used GenomeAtlases to show conserved (and unique) regions along the Ejlskov2007 chromosome, compared to 2 other Mycobacterium avium sequenced genomes. Pan......-genome analyses of the sequenced Mycobacterium genomes reveal a surprisingly open and diverse set of genes for this bacterial genera....

  11. Rare diagnosis of nodular lymphangitis caused by Mycobacterium marinum: MDCT imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycobacterium marinum is an atypical mycobacterium that usually causes a solitary nodule on the hand (“fish tank granuloma”) or less commonly, secondary erythematous channels and nodules spread along lymphatic drainage of the extremity, mimicking sporothricoid skin lesions of nodular lymphangitis. This report presents a case of this rare entity, a nodular lymphangitis caused by Mycobacterium marinum. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) imaging was very useful in determining the morphology (cellulitis with a few small subcutaneous nodules and channels) and the extension of the lesion

  12. Accurate Detection of Rifampicin-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Soo Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 alone, the death rate among the 9.0 million people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB worldwide was around 14%, which is unacceptably high. An empiric treatment of patients infected with TB or drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB strain can also result in the spread of MDR-TB. The diagnostic tools which are rapid, reliable, and have simple experimental protocols can significantly help in decreasing the prevalence rate of MDR-TB strain. We report the evaluation of the 9G technology based 9G DNAChips that allow accurate detection and discrimination of TB and MDR-TB-RIF. One hundred and thirteen known cultured samples were used to evaluate the ability of 9G DNAChip in the detection and discrimination of TB and MDR-TB-RIF strains. Hybridization of immobilized probes with the PCR products of TB and MDR-TB-RIF strains allow their detection and discrimination. The accuracy of 9G DNAChip was determined by comparing its results with sequencing analysis and drug susceptibility testing. Sequencing analysis showed 100% agreement with the results of 9G DNAChip. The 9G DNAChip showed very high sensitivity (95.4% and specificity (100%.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in women with unexplained infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Eftekhar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genital tuberculosis (GTB is an important cause of female infertility, especially in developing countries. The positive results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR in endometrial GTB in the absence of tubal damage raise the possibility of the detection of sub-clinical or latent disease, with doubtful benefits of treatment. Objective: To evaluate the mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in endometrial biopsy samples collected from unexplained infertile women attending Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility by using PCR techniques. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 144 infertile women with unexplained infertility aged 20-35 years old and normal Histro-saplango graphy findings were enrolled. Endometrial biopsy samples from each participant were tested for mycobacterium tuberculosis detecting by PCR. In 93 patients, peritoneal fluid was also taken for culture and PCR. Results: The PCR results of endometrial specimens were negative in all cases, demonstrating that there was no GTB infection among our patients. Conclusion: Our results showed that GTB could not be considered as a major problem in women with unexplained infertility. Although, studies have indicated that PCR is a useful method in diagnosing early GTB disease in infertile women with no demonstrable evidence of tubal or endometrial involvement.

  14. Mycobacterium haemophilum osteomyelitis: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read Ron

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium haemophilum is a slow-growing, fastidious, iron-requiring microorganism that, relative to other non-tuberculous mycobacterial species, has rarely been documented as a cause of human infection. This microorganism appears to be acquired via environmental exposure although its natural habitat and mode of acquisition are unknown. It has primarily been implicated as a cause of ulcerating cutaneous or subcutaneous nodular skin lesions, particularly in immunocompromised patients, although infections at extracutaneous sites have also been described. Osteomyelitis, while rarely documented, appears to be an important complication of infection with M. haemophilum in these patients. Case presentation We describe a unique case of culture-confirmed M. haemophilum osteomyelitis in an adult woman with polycythemia vera and review the world literature on bone infections due to this organism. Conclusion Mycobacterium haemophilum is an important but infrequently encountered cause of osteomyelitis in immunocompromised patients, often requiring months to years of medical therapy, with or without surgery, to effect a clinical cure.

  15. [Tuberculosis cutis luposa gigantea with Mycobacterium bovis detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnekoh, B; Schütt-Gerowitt, H; Thiele, B; Mahrle, G

    1990-10-01

    In an 80-year-old woman, retired farmworker, we observed lupus vulgaris extending over more than half of her leg. The extreme size of the affected area made us talk of a giant form in this case. Bacteriological investigation revealed Mycobacterium bovis. The minimal amount of tuberculin required to induce a positive intradermal reaction was 10 IU (GT Behring). Another case with similar dimensions (reported by Christiansen in 1967) had been caused by Mycobacterium avium and developed over a period of at least 5 years. The vast cutaneous affection of our patient, in contrast, had developed within only one year, starting from a brownish macula of the size of a palm on her upper leg. This macula - presumably the manifestation of quiescent lupus vulgaris - had not changed for more than 40 years. This late exacerbation of post-primary tuberculosis might have been favored by the patient's reduced immunologic resistance on account of her advanced age. In addition, local cofactors - namely ankylosis of her knee and contact eczematous dermatitis - have to be considered. In accordance with the resistogram, the disease responded to monotherapy with isoniazide. PMID:2291294

  16. Dielectrophoretic characterization of antibiotic-treated Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shinnosuke; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Becker, Annie L; Weigel, Kris M; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Cangelosi, Gerard A; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has become a serious concern for proper treatment of patients. As a phenotypic method, dielectrophoresis can be useful but is yet to be attempted to evaluate Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex cells. This paper investigates the dielectrophoretic behavior of Mycobacterium bovis (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, BCG) cells that are treated with heat or antibiotics rifampin (RIF) or isoniazid (INH). The experimental parameters are designed on the basis of our sensitivity analysis. The medium conductivity (σ(m)) and the frequency (f) for a crossover frequency (f(xo1)) test are decided to detect the change of σ(m)-f(xo1) in conjunction with the drug mechanism. Statistical modeling is conducted to estimate the distributions of viable and nonviable cells from the discrete measurement of f (xo1). Finally, the parameters of the electrophysiology of BCG cells, C(envelope) and σ(cyto), are extracted through a sampling algorithm. This is the first evaluation of the dielectrophoresis (DEP) approach as a means to assess the effects of antimicrobial drugs on M. tuberculosis complex cells. PMID:26231690

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Aqueous Plant Extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Mohammed Buzayan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activity using the BACTEC MGIT960 susceptibility test method. The aqueous extracts of Ceratonia siliqua L, Helichrysum stoechas (L. Moench and Thymus algeriensis did not show any activity against M. tuberculosis in different concentrations. The aqueous extract of Marrubium vulgare L. from Syria showed high activity against M. tuberculosis. Marrubium alysson L., Marrubium vulgare L., Pistacia lentiscus L, Quercus coccifera L, Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link, showed varying degrees of activity against M. tuberculosis. The results of this study show that aqueous extracts from six different medicinal plants have different effects against M. tuberculosis in vitro.

  18. Response of inbred mice to aerosol challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, S A; Kim, Y; Hashim, R; Wang, G Z; Dimmer, C; Smith, D W

    1987-08-01

    An autosomal dominant gene (Bcg), which maps to mouse chromosome 1, has been shown to confer on mice resistance to attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG Montreal, Salmonella typhimurium, and Leishmania donovani. Most animal models used for the study of the Bcg gene have involved intravenous injection of a large number of microorganisms (greater than 10(4) CFU). The present study examines the effect of the Bcg gene on the resistance of inbred mice to challenge via the respiratory route with 5 to 10 CFU of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The number of tubercle bacilli recovered from the lung lobes indicates that the growth kinetics of the microorganism did not differ between BCG-resistant and BCG-susceptible strains of mice. The number of tubercle bacilli recovered from the spleen was also similar among strains. Although there were reproducible differences in the time of first recovery of bacilli from the spleen, these differences appeared to be unrelated to the expression of the Bcg gene. When mice were challenged with purified protein derivative, all strains responded similarly as observed by measurements of footpad swelling. PMID:3112014

  19. Antigenic characterization of dimorphic surface protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuba, Takashi; Siddiqi, Umme Ruman; Hattori, Toshio; Nakajima, Chie; Fujii, Jun; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2016-05-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv0679c protein is a surface protein that contributes to host cell invasion. We previously showed that a single nucleotide transition of the Rv0679c gene leads to a single amino acid substitution from asparagine to lysine at codon 142 in the Beijing genotype family. In this study, we examined the immunological effect of this substitution. Several recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis and characterized with antisera and two monoclonal antibodies named 5D4-C2 and 8G10-H2. A significant reduction of antibody binding was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot analysis in the Lys142-type protein. This reduction of 8G10-H2 binding was more significant, with the disappearance of a signal in the proteins expressed by recombinant mycobacteria in western blot analysis. In addition, epitope mapping analysis of the recombinant proteins showed a linear epitope by 5D4-C2 and a discontinuous epitope by 8G10-H2. The antibody recognizing the conformational epitope detected only mycobacterial Asn142-type recombinant protein. Our results suggest that a single amino acid substitution of Rv0679c has potency for antigenic change in Beijing genotype strains. PMID:27190237

  20. Mycobacterium-Infected Dendritic Cells Disseminate Granulomatous Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jeffrey S; Rayasam, Aditya; Schreiber, Heidi A; Fabry, Zsuzsanna; Sandor, Matyas

    2015-01-01

    The disappearance and reformation of granulomas during tuberculosis has been described using PET/CT/X-ray in both human clinical settings and animal models, but the mechanisms of granuloma reformation during active disease remains unclear. Granulomas can recruit inflammatory dendritic cells (iDCs) that can regulate local T-cell responses and can carry bacteria into the lymph nodes, which is crucial for generating systemic T-cell responses against mycobacteria. Here, we report that a subset of mycobacterium-infected iDCs are associated with bacteria-specific T-cells in infected tissue, outside the granuloma, and that this results in the formation of new and/or larger multi-focal lesions. Mycobacterium-infected iDCs express less CCR7 and migrate less efficiently compared to the non-infected iDCs, which may support T-cell capture in granulomatous tissue. Capture may reduce antigen availability in the lymph node, thereby decreasing systemic priming, resulting in a possible regulatory loop between systemic T-cell responses and granuloma reformation. T-cell/infected iDCs clusters outside the granuloma can be detected during the acute and chronic phase of BCG and Mtb infection. Our studies suggest a direct role for inflammatory dendritic cells in the dissemination of granulomatous inflammation. PMID:26515292

  1. Diesel Pollution Biodegradation: Synergetic Effect of Mycobacterium and Filamentous Fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU-QING LI; HONG-FANG LIU; ZHEN-LE TIAN; LI-HUA ZHU; YIN-GHUI WU; HE-QING TANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To biodegrade the diesel pollution in aqueous solution inoculated with Mycobacterium and filamentous fungi.Methods Bacteria sampled from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated sites in Karamay Oilfield were isolated and identified as Mycobacterium hyalinum (MH) and cladosporium. Spectrophotometry and gas chromatography (GC) were used to analyze of the residual concentrations of diesel oil and its biodegradation products. Results From the GC data, the values of apparent biodegradation ratio of the bacterial strain MH to diesel oil were close to those obtained in the control experiments. Moreover, the number of MH did not increase with degradation time. However, by using n-octadecane instead of diesel oil, the real biotic degradation ratio increased to 20.9% over 5 days of degradation. Cladosporium strongly biodegraded diesel oil with a real degradation ratio of up to 34% after 5 days treatment. When the two strains were used simultaneously, a significant synergistic effect between them resulted in almost cornplete degradation of diesel off, achieving a total diesel removal of 99% over 5 days of treatment, in which one part of about 80% and another part of about 19% were attributed to biotic and abiotic processes, respectively. Conclusion The observed synergistic effect was closely related to the aromatics-degrading ability of Cladosporium, which favored the growth of MH and promoted the bioavailability of diesel oil.

  2. Accurate Detection of Rifampicin-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Keum-Soo; Nimse, Satish Balasaheb; Kim, Hee Jin; Yang, Jeongseong; Kim, Taisun

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 alone, the death rate among the 9.0 million people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) worldwide was around 14%, which is unacceptably high. An empiric treatment of patients infected with TB or drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strain can also result in the spread of MDR-TB. The diagnostic tools which are rapid, reliable, and have simple experimental protocols can significantly help in decreasing the prevalence rate of MDR-TB strain. We report the evaluation of the 9G technology based 9G DNAChips that allow accurate detection and discrimination of TB and MDR-TB-RIF. One hundred and thirteen known cultured samples were used to evaluate the ability of 9G DNAChip in the detection and discrimination of TB and MDR-TB-RIF strains. Hybridization of immobilized probes with the PCR products of TB and MDR-TB-RIF strains allow their detection and discrimination. The accuracy of 9G DNAChip was determined by comparing its results with sequencing analysis and drug susceptibility testing. Sequencing analysis showed 100% agreement with the results of 9G DNAChip. The 9G DNAChip showed very high sensitivity (95.4%) and specificity (100%). PMID:26999135

  3. Tuberculosis patients co-infected with Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an urban area of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Roberto Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study, mycobacteria specimens from 189 tuberculosis (TB patients living in an urban area in Brazil were characterised from 2008-2010 using phenotypic and molecular speciation methods (pncA gene and oxyR pseudogene analysis. Of these samples, 174 isolates simultaneously grew on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ and Stonebrink (SB-containing media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whereas 12 had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis based on the DNA analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples (paraffin blocks. One patient produced two sputum isolates, the first of which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, and the second of which only grew on SB media and presented phenotypic profiles of Mycobacterium bovis. One patient provided a bronchial lavage isolate, which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, but had molecular profiles of M. bovis from paraffin block DNA analysis, and one sample had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis identified from two distinct paraffin blocks. Moreover, we found a low prevalence (1.6% of M. bovis among these isolates, which suggests that local health service procedures likely underestimate its real frequency and that it deserves more attention from public health officials.

  4. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis in Sahiwal cattle from an organized farm using ante-mortem techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filia, Gursimran; Leishangthem, Geeta Devi; Mahajan, Vishal; Singh, Amarjit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) and detection of Mycobacterium bovis in cattle from an organized dairy farm. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 animals (93 females and 28 males) of 1 year and above were studied for the prevalence of bovine TB using single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test, bovine gamma-interferon (γ-IFN) enzyme immunoassay, and polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Results: Out of total 121 animals, 17 (14.04%) animals were positive reactors to SICCT test while only one (0.82%) animal for γ-IFN assay. By PCR, Mycobacterium TB complex was detected in 19 (15.70%) animals out of which 4 (3.30%) animal were also positive for M. bovis. Conclusions: Diagnosis of bovine TB can be done in early stage in live animals with multiple approaches like skin test followed by a molecular technique like PCR which showed promising results. PMID:27182134

  5. Coinfección por Mycobacterium malmoense y Mycobacterium tuberculosis en paciente con el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian María Mederos Cuervo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de coinfección por Mycobacterium malmoense y Mycobacterium tuberculosis en un paciente cubano con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (sida, que producía enfermedad respiratoria y hepática respectivamente. Los cultivos realizados a partir de las muestras de esputo demostraron la presencia de una cepa micobacteriana no pigmentada de crecimiento lento perteneciente al grupo III de Runyon e identificada como Mycobacterium malmoense. A partir de los cultivos del tejido hepático extraído laparoscópicamente se aisló una cepa posteriormente identificada como Mycobacterium tuberculosis. El estudio anatomopatológico confirmó el diagnóstico de tuberculosis, el paciente recibió tratamiento específico y evolucionó clínicamente bien. Se reporta un caso infrecuente de coinfección por Mycobacterium, el cual describe el primer reporte de tuberculosis hepática en una paciente con sida en Cuba.

  6. Coinfección por Mycobacterium malmoense y Mycobacterium tuberculosis en paciente con el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian María Mederos Cuervo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de coinfección por Mycobacterium malmoense y Mycobacterium tuberculosis en un paciente cubano con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (sida, que producía enfermedad respiratoria y hepática respectivamente. Los cultivos realizados a partir de las muestras de esputo demostraron la presencia de una cepa micobacteriana no pigmentada de crecimiento lento perteneciente al grupo III de Runyon e identificada como Mycobacterium malmoense. A partir de los cultivos del tejido hepático extraído laparoscópicamente se aisló una cepa posteriormente identificada como Mycobacterium tuberculosis. El estudio anatomopatológico confirmó el diagnóstico de tuberculosis, el paciente recibió tratamiento específico y evolucionó clínicamente bien. Se reporta un caso infrecuente de coinfección por Mycobacterium, el cual describe el primer reporte de tuberculosis hepática en una paciente con sida en Cuba.

  7. Inferring patient to patient transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from whole genome sequencing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryant, J.M.; Schürch, A.C.; Deutekom, van H.; Harris, S.R.; Beer, de J.L.; Jager, de V.C.L.; Kremer, K.; Hijum, van S.A.F.T.; Siezen, R.J.; Borgdorff, M.; Bentley, S.D.; Parkhill, J.; Soolingen, van D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is characterised by limited genomic diversity, which makes the application of whole genome sequencing particularly attractive for clinical and epidemiological investigation. However, in order to confidently infer transmission events, an accurate knowledge of th

  8. Inferring patient to patient transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from whole genome sequencing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Bryant (Josephine); A. Schürch (Anita); H. van Deutekom (Henk); S.R. Harris (Simon); J.L. de Beer (Jessica); V. de Jager (Victor); K. Kremer (Kristin); S.A.F.T. van Hijum (Sacha); R.J. Siezen (Roland); M.W. Borgdorff (Martien ); S.D. Bentley (Stephen); J. Parkhill (Julian); D. van Soolingen (Dick)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is characterised by limited genomic diversity, which makes the application of whole genome sequencing particularly attractive for clinical and epidemiological investigation. However, in order to confidently infer transmission events, an accurate kno

  9. Inferring patient to patient transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from whole genome sequencing data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryant, J.M.; Schurch, A.C.; Deutekom, H. van; Harris, S.R.; Beer, J.L. de; Jager, V. de; Kremer, K.; Hijum, S.A.F.T. van; Siezen, R.J.; Borgdorff, M.; Bentley, S.D.; Parkhill, J.; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is characterised by limited genomic diversity, which makes the application of whole genome sequencing particularly attractive for clinical and epidemiological investigation. However, in order to confidently infer transmission events, an accurate knowledge of th

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of vitamin B12-related metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas B. Young

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation. Differences in the B12 synthesis pathway, methionine biosynthesis, fatty acid catabolism, and DNA repair and replication are consistent with adaptations to different environmental niches and pathogenic lifestyles. While there is no evidence of further gene acquisition during expansion of the M. tuberculosis complex, the emergence of other forms of genetic diversity provides insights into continuing host-pathogen co-evolution and has the potential to identify novel targets for disease intervention.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Strain G-12-005

    OpenAIRE

    Berland, Jean-Luc; de Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Bablishvili, Nino; Gauthier, Marie; Paranhos-Baccalà, Glaucia; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Infection caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a growing concern, especially in eastern Europe. We report an annotated draft genome sequence of M. tuberculosis strain G-12-005 obtained from a patient in Georgia.

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Mycobacterium immunogenum, Obtained from a Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the draft genome sequences of six Mycobacterium immunogenum isolated from a chloraminated drinking water distribution system simulator subjected to changes in operational parameters. M. immunogenum, a rapidly growing mycobacteria previously reported as the cause of hyp...

  13. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  14. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals a Possible Novel Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium Species with High Pathogenic Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Siew Woh; Dutta, Avirup; Wong, Guat Jah; Wee, Wei Yee; Ang, Mia Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria have been reported to cause a wide range of human diseases. We present the first whole-genome study of a Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium sp. UM_CSW (referred to hereafter as UM_CSW), isolated from a patient diagnosed with bronchiectasis. Our data suggest that this clinical isolate is likely a novel mycobacterial species, supported by clear evidence from molecular phylogenetic, comparative genomic, ANI and AAI analyses. UM_CSW is closely related to the Mycobacterium avium complex. While it has characteristic features of an environmental bacterium, it also shows a high pathogenic potential with the presence of a wide variety of putative genes related to bacterial virulence and shares very similar pathogenomic profiles with the known pathogenic mycobacterial species. Thus, we conclude that this possible novel Mycobacterium species should be tightly monitored for its possible causative role in human infections. PMID:27035710

  15. Pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a horse: zoonotic concerns and limitations of antemortem testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of disease. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid...

  16. Early Antibody Response Against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis Antigens in Subclinical Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Background Our laboratories have previously reported on the experimental infection of cattle with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) using an intratonsillar infection model. In addition, we have recently developed a partial protein array representing 92 M. par...

  17. Simple method for production of internal control DNA for Mycobacterium tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction assays.

    OpenAIRE

    Dewit, D.; Wootton, M.; Allan, B; Steyn, L

    1993-01-01

    A simple method for the production of internal control DNA for two well-established Mycobacterium tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction assays is described. The internal controls were produced from Mycobacterium kansasii DNA with the same primers but at a lower annealing temperature than that used in the standard assays. In both assays, therefore, the internal control DNA has the same primer-binding sequences at the target DNA. One-microgram quantities of internal control DNA which was not c...

  18. Mycobacterium asiaticum infection in a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Willott, Jessica; Isaza, Ramiro; Fiorello, Christine; Reinhard, Mary

    2006-09-01

    A 4-yr-old, intact male red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas) was evaluated because of a 6-mo history of an enlarging axillary mass. Diagnostic findings included a positive intradermal tuberculin test, persistent severe leukocytosis, and hyperglobulinemia. A nontuberculous mycobacterium species isolated from the mass was identified as Mycobacterium asiaticum using 16s ribosomal DNA sequencing and high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:17319146

  19. In Vitro Activity of Selected West African Medicinal Plants against Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Valere Tsouh Fokou; Abena Adomah Kissi-Twum; Dorothy Yeboah-Manu; Regina Appiah-Opong; Phyllis Addo; Lauve Rachel Tchokouaha Yamthe; Alvine Ngoutane Mfopa; Fabrice Fekam Boyom; Alexander Kwadwo Nyarko

    2016-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is the third most prevalent mycobacteriosis, after tuberculosis and leprosy. The currently recommended combination of rifampicin-streptomycin suffers from side effects and poor compliance, which leads to reliance on local herbal remedies. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimycobacterial properties and toxicity of selected medicinal plants. Sixty-five extracts from 27 plant species were screened against Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium smegmatis, u...

  20. An orphan gyrB in the Mycobacterium smegmatis genome uncovered by comparative genomics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. Jain; V. Nagaraja

    2002-11-01

    DNA gyrase is an essential topoisomerase found in all bacteria. It is encoded by gyrB and gyrA genes. These genes are organized differently in different bacteria. Direct comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis genomes reveals presence of an additional gyrB in M. smegmatis flanked by novel genes. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of GyrB from different organisms suggests that the orphan GyrB in M. smegmatis may have an important cellular role.

  1. Emergence of Potential Superbug Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Lessons from New Delhi Mutant-1 Bacterial Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, Taha; Abraham, Suraj; Islam, Azharul

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that certain bacterial strains attain the New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) enzyme and become resistant to a broad range of antibiotics. Similarly, more dangerous “superbugs” of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensive drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are gradually emerging through rapid genetic mutation caused by prescription non-compliance or unsupervised indiscriminate use of anti-tubercular drugs or other antibiotics. Mycobacterium...

  2. A fatal case of pulmonary infection by Mycobacterium colombiense in Para State, Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretto, Adriana Rodrigues; Felício, João Soares; Sales, Lucia Helena Messias; Yamada, Elizabeth Sumi; Lopes, Maria Luiza; da Costa, Ana Roberta Fusco

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a heterogeneous group of species found in several environmental sources and that exhibit variable degrees of pathogenicity. Among the MAC members, Mycobacterium colombiense has been related to pulmonary disease and disseminated infection in HIV-infected patients in Colombia. Lymphadenopathy cases have also been reported. We have described a fatal case of M. colombiense pulmonary disease in a Brazilian patient without evidence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunosuppression. PMID:27133309

  3. A Web-Based Platform for Designing Vaccines against Existing and Emerging Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Vir, Pooja; Singla, Deepak; Gupta, Sudheer; Kumar, Shailesh; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2016-01-01

    Development of an effective vaccine against drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is crucial for saving millions of premature deaths every year due to tuberculosis. This paper describes a web portal developed for assisting researchers in designing vaccines against emerging Mtb strains using traditional and modern approaches. Firstly, we annotated 59 genomes of Mycobacterium species to understand similarity/dissimilarity between tuberculoid, non-tuberculoid and vaccine strains at gen...

  4. Identification of specific metabolites in culture supernatant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using metabolomics: exploration of potential biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Susanna KP; Lam, Ching-Wan; Curreem, Shirly OT; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lau, Candy CY; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Ngan, Antonio HY; To, Kelvin KW; Chan, Jasper FW; Hung, Ivan FN; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick CY

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies have reported the use of metabolomics for Mycobacterium species differentiation, little is known about the potential of extracellular metabolites of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) as specific biomarkers. Using an optimized ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–quadruple time of flight–mass spectrometry (UHPLC–ESI–Q–TOF–MS) platform, we characterized the extracellular metabolomes of culture supernatant of nine MTB strains and nine non-t...

  5. Genetic Incorporation of Unnatural Amino Acids into Proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Feng; Robbins, Scott; Guo, Jiantao; Shen, Weijun; Schultz, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    New tools are needed to study the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), to facilitate new drug discovery and vaccine development. We have developed methodology to genetically incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in Mycobacterium smegmatis, BCG and Mtb, grown both extracellularly in culture and inside host cells. Orthogonal mutant tRNATyr/tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase pairs derived from Methanococcus jannaschii and evolved in Es...

  6. Attenuated Host Resistance against Mycobacterium bovis BCG Infection in Mice Lacking Osteopontin

    OpenAIRE

    Nau, Gerard J.; Liaw, Lucy; Chupp, Geoffrey L.; Berman, Jeffrey S.; Hogan, Brigid L.M.; Young, Richard A.

    1999-01-01

    Expression of the cytokine osteopontin (OPN) is elevated in granulomas caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We tested the hypothesis that OPN contributes to host protection in a mouse model of mycobacterial infection. When infected with Mycobacterium bovis BCG, mice lacking a functional OPN gene had more severe infections characterized by heavier bacterial loads and a delayed clearance of the bacteria. The OPN-null mice had greater granuloma burdens consistent with the elevated bacterial loa...

  7. Effects of diet and genetics on Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine efficacy in inbred guinea pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, M K; Bartow, R A; Mintzer, C L; McMurray, D. N.

    1987-01-01

    Strain 2 and strain 13 guinea pigs were vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and placed on low-protein or protein-adequate diets. Five weeks later all animals were infected by the respiratory route with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv organisms. Four weeks postchallenge, guinea pigs were skin tested with purified protein derivative and sacrificed. Protein deficiency resulted in significant reductions in body weight and thymus weight and in an impairment in the ability to control ...

  8. Pathogenic Mycobacterium bovis strains differ in their ability to modulate the proinflammatory activation phenotype of macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Marcelle RM; Amaral Eduardo P; Ribeiro Simone CM; Almeida Fabricio M; Peres Tanara V; Lanes Verônica; D’Império-Lima Maria; Lasunskaia Elena B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis, remains one of the leading infectious diseases worldwide. The ability of mycobacteria to rapidly grow in host macrophages is a factor contributing to enhanced virulence of the bacteria and disease progression. Bactericidal functions of phagocytes are strictly dependent on activation status of these cells, regulated by the infecting agent and cytokines. Pathogenic mycobacteria can survive the hostile...

  9. Gene Expression, Bacteria Viability and Survivability Following Spray Drying of Mycobacterium smegmatis

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Hunter Lauten; Pulliam, Brian L.; Jessica DeRousse; Deen Bhatta; Edwards, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We find that Mycobacterium smegmatis survives spray drying and retains cell viability in accelerated temperature stress (40 °C) conditions with a success rate that increases with increasing thermal, osmotic, and nutrient-restriction stresses applied to the mycobacterium prior to spray drying. M.smegmatis that are spray dried during log growth phase, where they suffer little or no nutrient-reduction stress, survive for less than 7 days in the dry powder state at accelerated temperature stress ...

  10. Rare Complication after Stripping Operation: A Case Report of Mycobacterium Abscessus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Morimoto, Keisuke; Manago, Eri; Iioka, Hiroshi; Asada, Hideo; Nakagawa, Chiyo; Mikasa, Keiichi; Taniguchi, Shigeki; Kuwahara, Masamitsu

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is an acid-fast nontuberculous mycobacterium that grows rapidly in culture. The organism is found in dust, soil, and water and after trauma, it may infect skin and soft tissue. The organism is rarely found in humans, and infections occurring after cardiovascular surgery are rare clinical events. To our knowledge, only a few cases of hemodialysis arteriovenous graft infection and endocarditis caused by M. abscessus have been described. We reported a first case of patien...

  11. Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme versus Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Typing Mycobacterium abscessus Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Gabriel Esquitini; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Duarte, Rafael da Silva; Freitas, Denise; Palaci, Moises; Hadad, David Jamil; Lima, Karla Valéria Batista; Lopes, Maria Luiza; Ramos, Jesus Pais; Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Caldas, Paulo César; Heym, Beate; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of infections by rapidly growing mycobacteria following invasive procedures, such as ophthalmological, laparoscopic, arthroscopic, plastic, and cardiac surgeries, mesotherapy, and vaccination, have been detected in Brazil since 1998. Members of the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group have caused most of these outbreaks. As part of an epidemiological investigation, the isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In this project, we performed a lar...

  12. Vertebral Osteomyelitis Caused by Mycobacterium abscessus Surgically Treated Using Antibacterial Iodine-Supported Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium abscessus infections rarely develop in healthy individuals, and mostly they occur in immunocompromised hosts. Vertebral osteomyelitis due to Mycobacterium abscessus is very rare and only three previous cases of spinal infection caused by Mycobacterium abscessus have been reported. Mycobacterium abscessus isolates are uniformly resistant to antituberculous agents and can display a virulent biofilm-forming phenotype. The patient was a 67-year-old woman with vertebral osteomyelitis of the L1-2. She was healthy without immune-suppressed condition, history of trauma, or intravenous drug use. The smear examination of the specimen harvested by CT-guided puncture of the paravertebral abscess revealed Mycobacterium abscessus. Her disease condition did not abate with conservative treatment using antimicrobial chemotherapy. Radical debridement of the vertebral osteomyelitis and anterior reconstruction from T12 to L2 using antibacterial iodine-supported instrumentation were performed. Chemotherapy using clarithromycin, amikacin, and imipenem was applied for 6 months after surgery as these antibiotics had been proven to be effective to Mycobacterium abscessus after surgery. Two years after surgery, the infected anterior site healed and bony fusion was successfully achieved without a recurrence of infection.

  13. « Ces animaux qu’on appelle hommes ». Animalité et monstruosité chez Cyrano et Foigny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Bellemare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Au dix-septième siècle, la querelle de la « nouvelle philosophie », qui oppose Descartes à Gassendi, repose notamment sur la question, polémique, de la différenciation entre l’homme et l’animal. En effet, toute définition de l’animal engage aussi et parallèlement une réflexion sur l’homme. Les répercussions de ce débat philosophique s’observent dans la littérature viatique au sens large, mais plus particulièrement dans sa variante libertine et antichrétienne. En misant sur l’indécision formelle du genre viatique, qui oscille entre fiction romanesque et réalité testimoniale, les récits de voyage libertins tirent philosophiquement profit du principe relativiste que le genre impose par définition. Or, la médiation de l’inconnu par le connu se manifeste de manière encore plus brutale lorsque le voyage s’effectue dans l’ailleurs utopique. De la même façon que le récit de voyage met à distance la culture du voyageur entrant en contact avec celle de l’autre, le discours sur l’animal reflète également le discours sur soi. Dans l’Autre monde (1657 de Cyrano de Bergerac et la Terre australe connue (1676 de Gabriel de Foigny, deux romans hybrides qui mêlent récits de voyage et discours utopique, la frontière qui sépare ontologiquement l’homme de la bête s’atténue et se trouble. En souterrain, toute une anthropologie libertine s’esquisse chez Cyrano et Foigny, qui correspond à une expression singulière du « moi ».

  14. Prévalence de l'hépatite B chez les personnes infectées par le VIH à Parakou au Bénin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovonou, Comlan Albert; Amidou, Salimanou Ariyoh; Kpangon, Amadohoué Arsène; Traoré, Yacoubou Adam; Godjedo, Togbemabou Primous Martial; Satondji, Assongba Joseph; Wachinou, Ablo Prudence; Issa-Djibril, Fatioulaye Mahamadi; Fourn, Léonard; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Gandaho, Prosper

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La co-infection avec l'hépatite B est l'un des défis majeurs de la prise en charge du VIH depuis l'amélioration de l'accès aux antirétroviraux en Afrique. La présente étude visait à estimer la prévalence de l'hépatite B chez les personnes séropositives au VIH à Parakou et décrire les facteurs associés. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale menée de Mai 2011 à Juin 2012 dans le service de Médecine du CHU de Parakou. Ont été inclus tous les adultes séropositifs au VIH vus en consultation ou hospitalisés. Les données ont été collectées par interviews et dépouillement de dossiers médicaux. L'antigène HBs a été recherché par un test rapide et l'ALAT a été dosé. L'analyse des données a été faite avec le logiciel EpiInfo 3.5.1. Les proportions ont été comparées grâce au test de Chi-deux ou au test de Fisher au seuil de significativité de 5%. Un modèle de régression logistique multivariable a permis d'expliquer la prévalence de l'hépatite B. Résultats Sur les 744 sujets inclus on a dénombré 555 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 35,5 + 10,1 ans. La prévalence de l'hépatite B a été estimée à 16,9% (IC95: 14,3%-19,9%). Cette prévalence était plus élevée chez les sujets originaires du Borgou/Alibori et ceux au stade 4 de l'OMS. Conclusion La prévalence de la co-infection VIH/VHB au CHU Parakou est élevée. Le dispositif national de prise en charge et de prévention de l'hépatite B chez les personnes séropositives au VIH doit être renforcé. PMID:26097629

  15. First isolation ofMycobacterium setense from hospital water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davood Azadi; Abass Daei Naser; Hasan Shojaei

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To present the findings of a study on isolation of four unrelated environmental strains ofMycobacterium setense (M. setense) from hospital environment and help to assess the natural habitat and the mode of transmission in man. Methods: The water samples were collected from hospital departments and cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen and Sauton's media. The isolates, i.e.,AW3-2,AW5,AW11 andAW18 were subjected to identification by conventional and molecular tests including sequencing analysis of16S rRNA. Results: The water isolates revealed the phenotypic and molecular features which were consistent withM. setense including a genus specific amplicon of thehsp65 gene and 99.6% similarities with those of M. setenseCIP:109395T16S rRNA gene sequences. Conclusions: The current report will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis and path of transmission of this opportunistic pathogen to human.

  16. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium malmoense in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Al-Moamary

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense was first described in northern Europe and the United Kingdom in 1977. Since then, reports have appeared with increasing frequency. Cases have, however, rarely been reported from the United States, and, until now, none have been reported in Canada. This may reflect either true low prevalence of the disease or underdiagnosis by laboratories due to slow growth of the organism. This report describes a case of pulmonary disease caused by M malmoense in a 44-year-old man from British Columbia who was successfully treated with an 18-month course of conventional antituberculous drugs combined with a macrolide. This is the first report of this disease in British Columbia and, to our knowledge, in Canada.

  17. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG as an HIV vaccine vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Rosamund; Chege, Gerald; Shephard, Enid; Stutz, Helen; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2010-06-01

    HIV-1 has resulted in a devastating AIDS pandemic. An effective HIV/AIDS vaccine that can be used to either, prevent HIV infection, control infection or prevent progression of the disease to AIDS is needed. In this review we discuss the use of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the tuberculosis vaccine, as a vaccine vector for an HIV vaccine. Numerous features make BCG an attractive vehicle to deliver HIV antigens. It has a good safety profile, elicits long-lasting cellular immune responses and in addition manufacturing costs are affordable, a necessary consideration for developing countries. In this review we discuss the numerous factors that influence generation of a genetically stable recombinant BCG vaccine for HIV. PMID:20353397

  18. Mycobacterium bovis infection in a captive herd of Sika deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsky, M L; Morton, D; Piehl, J W; Gelberg, H

    1992-05-15

    Infection with Mycobacterium bovis was diagnosed in a small privately owned herd of Sika deer. After postmortem examination of a deer with progressive pulmonary disease, diagnosis of infection with M bovis was confirmed by bacteriologic culture. The 2 remaining deer in this herd were euthanatized, necropsied, and confirmed to be infected with M bovis. Three cats in contact with the deer were also euthanatized and necropsied. One of these cats had lesions suggestive of mycobacterial infection in the colon and mesenteric lymph nodes. Infection of this cat with M bovis was not confirmed by bacterial culture. Mycobacteriosis, infrequently encountered in clinical veterinary practice, may be confused with disease caused by other infective agents or neoplasia. The zoonotic potential of these bacteria and a recent increase in human tuberculosis warrants continued surveillance of companion and food animal populations for mycobacterial infection. PMID:1612999

  19. [Isolation of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare from a hepatic biopsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Aroldo; Mederos, Lilian; Capó, Virginia

    2002-01-01

    A 64 years-old patient, who was a farmer suffering from chronic fever for two years, loss of weight and acute asthenia, was studied. He was admitted to "Pedro Kourí" Tropical Medicine Institute where the studies were conducted and revealed a globular sedimentation rate of 116 mm in 2 hours, and anemia of 9,8g% hemoglobin. The laparoscopic study indicated hepatic granulomatosis that was confirmed by hepatic biopsy in which a sample was taken from the liver to be microbiologically and cytologically examined. By microbiological methods, a non-pigmented slowly-growing strain was isolated, which was classified by conventional diagnostic techniques for the non-tuberculous mycobacteria classification and the alternative diagnosing technique known as bidimensional thin layer chromatography to confirm the previous classification and set the mycolic acid patterns. The isolated strain belonged to group III of Rynyon and was identified as Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. PMID:15849945

  20. Siderocalin inhibits the intracellular replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Erin E; Srikanth, Chittur V; Sandgren, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    variant form of siderocalin, which is expressed only in the macrophage cytosol, inhibited intracellular M.tb growth as effectively as the normal, secreted form, an observation that provides mechanistic insight into how siderocalin might influence iron acquisition by the bacteria in the phagosome. Our...... siderocalin expression is upregulated following M.tb infection of mouse macrophage cell lines and primary murine alveolar macrophages. Furthermore, siderocalin added exogenously as a recombinant protein or overexpressed in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line inhibited the intracellular growth of the pathogen. A......Siderocalin is a secreted protein that binds to siderophores to prevent bacterial iron acquisition. While it has been shown to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) in extracellular cultures, its effect on this pathogen within macrophages is not clear. Here, we show that...

  1. Human Xenobiotic Nuclear Receptor PXR Augments Mycobacterium tuberculosis Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagyaraj, Ella; Nanduri, Ravikanth; Saini, Ankita; Dkhar, Hedwin Kitdorlang; Ahuja, Nancy; Chandra, Vemika; Mahajan, Sahil; Kalra, Rashi; Tiwari, Drishti; Sharma, Charu; Janmeja, Ashok Kumar; Gupta, Pawan

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can evade host defense processes, thereby ensuring its survival and pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of nuclear receptor, pregnane X receptor (PXR), in M. tuberculosis infection in human monocyte-derived macrophages. In this study, we demonstrate that PXR augments M. tuberculosis survival inside the host macrophages by promoting the foamy macrophage formation and abrogating phagolysosomal fusion, inflammation, and apoptosis. Additionally, M. tuberculosis cell wall lipids, particularly mycolic acids, crosstalk with human PXR (hPXR) by interacting with its promiscuous ligand binding domain. To confirm our in vitro findings and to avoid the reported species barrier in PXR function, we adopted an in vivo mouse model expressing hPXR, wherein expression of hPXR in mice promotes M. tuberculosis survival. Therefore, pharmacological intervention and designing antagonists to hPXR may prove to be a promising adjunct therapy for tuberculosis. PMID:27233963

  2. Mycobacterium bovis meningitis in young Nigerian-born male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Lillebæk, Troels; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan;

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark, tuberculous meningitis is rare. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with Mycobacterium bovis is even rarer and has only been seen three times since 1992. We present a case of M. bovis meningitis in a previously healthy young Nigerian-born male, who had been exposed to unpasteurized...... dairy products in Nigeria but had no known contact with larger mammals. Before the development of meningitis, the patient had several contacts with the health system due to fever and non-specific symptoms. Finally, upon hospital admission, the patient was diagnosed with M. tuberculosis complex...... meningitis and treated empirically. After 13 days he was discharged without neurological sequelae. Later, the culture revealed M. bovis and treatment was adjusted accordingly....

  3. Mycobacteriosis due to Mycobacterium genavense in six pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoop, R K; Böttger, E C; Ossent, P; Salfinger, M

    1993-04-01

    Six cases of mycobacteriosis due to Mycobacterium genavense in three budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), one orange-winged amazon (Amazona amazonica), one flycatcher (Cyanoptila cyanomelana), and one zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) are discussed. Gross lesions associated with the infection included a high degree of muscular wasting (five cases), hepatomegaly (four cases), and thickening of the wall of the small intestine (four cases). Granulomas were found in the lung (one case) and the subcutis (one case). Acid-fast bacilli were detected in the liver of all six birds. Only the use of acidic BACTEC mediums consistently led to growth, whereas the egg-based medium failed. These findings point to a possible role of the environment as a reservoir for M. genavense. PMID:8463407

  4. Pathogenesis, Immunology, and Diagnosis of Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phagocytosis of tubercle bacilli by antigen-presenting cells in human lung alveoli initiates a complex infection process by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a potentially protective immune response by the host. M. tuberculosis has devoted a large part of its genome towards functions that allow it to successfully establish latent or progressive infection in the majority of infected individuals. The failure of immune-mediated clearance is due to multiple strategies adopted by M. tuberculosis that blunt the microbicidal mechanisms of infected immune cells and formation of distinct granulomatous lesions that differ in their ability to support or suppress the persistence of viable M. tuberculosis. In this paper, current understanding of various immune processes that lead to the establishment of latent M. tuberculosis infection, bacterial spreading, persistence, reactivation, and waning or elimination of latent infection as well as new diagnostic approaches being used for identification of latently infected individuals for possible control of tuberculosis epidemic are described.

  5. A robust SNP barcode for typing Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Francesc; McNerney, Ruth; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Glynn, Judith R.; Perdigão, João; Viveiros, Miguel; Portugal, Isabel; Pain, Arnab; Martin, Nigel; Clark, Taane G.

    2014-01-01

    Strain-specific genomic diversity in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is an important factor in pathogenesis that may affect virulence, transmissibility, host response and emergence of drug resistance. Several systems have been proposed to classify MTBC strains into distinct lineages and families. Here, we investigate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as robust (stable) markers of genetic variation for phylogenetic analysis. We identify ~92k SNP across a global collection of 1,601 genomes. The SNP-based phylogeny is consistent with the gold-standard regions of difference (RD) classification system. Of the ~7k strain-specific SNPs identified, 62 markers are proposed to discriminate known circulating strains. This SNP-based barcode is the first to cover all main lineages, and classifies a greater number of sublineages than current alternatives. It may be used to classify clinical isolates to evaluate tools to control the disease, including therapeutics and vaccines whose effectiveness may vary by strain type. PMID:25176035

  6. Mycobacterium avium complex enteritis in HIV-infected patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Ishikane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC infection is an important AIDS-defining opportunistic infection. The introduction of antimicrobial prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy (ART markedly reduced the incidence of disseminated MAC infection and improved the survival of affected individuals. However, it seems that patients with new or recurrent MAC infection are still encountered in clinical practice. Our images captured the characteristic endoscopic findings of MAC duodenitis. The gastrointestinal (GI tract appears to be a common port of entry for MAC infection in patients with AIDS. Early recognition of GI MAC infection by endoscopy in HIV-infected patients and initiation of anti-MAC therapy and ART may reduce morbidity and mortality.

  7. Detection of Autofluorescent Mycobacterium Chelonae in Living Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipps, Christopher M.; Moss, Larry G.; Sisk, Dana M.; Murray, Katrina N.; Tobin, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Mycobacterium chelonae is widespread in aquatic environments and can cause mycobacteriosis with low virulence in zebrafish. The risk of infection in zebrafish is exacerbated in closed-recirculating aquatic systems where rapidly growing mycobacteria can live on biofilms, as well as in zebrafish tissues. We have discovered a method of identifying and visualizing M. chelonae infections in living zebrafish using endogenous autofluorescence. Infected larvae are easily identified and can be excluded from experimental results. Because infection may reduce fertility in zebrafish, the visualization of active infection in contaminated eggs of transparent casper females simplifies screening. Transparent fish are also particularly useful as sentinels that can be examined periodically for the presence of autofluorescence, which can then be tested directly for M. chelonae. PMID:24451037

  8. Revealing of Mycobacterium marinum transcriptome by RNA-seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Wang

    Full Text Available Transcriptome analysis has played an essential role for revealing gene expression and the complexity of regulations at transcriptional level. RNA-seq is a powerful tool for transcriptome profiling, which uses deep-sequencing technologies to directly determine the cDNA sequence. Here, we utilized RNA-seq to explore the transcriptome of Mycobacteriummarinum (M. marinum, which is a useful model to study the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. Two profiles of exponential and early stationary phase cultures were generated after a physical ribosome RNA removal step. We systematically described the transcriptome and analyzed the functions for the differentiated expressed genes between the two phases. Furthermore, we predicted 360 operons throughout the whole genome, and 13 out of 17 randomly selected operons were validated by qRT-PCR. In general, our study has primarily uncovered M. marinum transcriptome, which could help to gain a better understanding of the regulation system in Mtb that underlines disease pathogenesis.

  9. Cell-autonomous effector mechanisms against mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMicking, John D

    2014-10-01

    Few pathogens run the gauntlet of sterilizing immunity like Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). This organism infects mononuclear phagocytes and is also ingested by neutrophils, both of which possess an arsenal of cell-intrinsic effector mechanisms capable of eliminating it. Here Mtb encounters acid, oxidants, nitrosylating agents, and redox congeners, often exuberantly delivered under low oxygen tension. Further pressure is applied by withholding divalent Fe²⁺, Mn²⁺, Cu²⁺, and Zn²⁺, as well as by metabolic privation in the form of carbon needed for anaplerosis and aromatic amino acids for growth. Finally, host E3 ligases ubiquinate, cationic peptides disrupt, and lysosomal enzymes digest Mtb as part of the autophagic response to this particular pathogen. It is a testament to the evolutionary fitness of Mtb that sterilization is rarely complete, although sufficient to ensure most people infected with this airborne bacterium remain disease-free. PMID:25081628

  10. Laboratory Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection and Disease in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James J; Starke, Jeffrey R; Revell, Paula A

    2016-06-01

    Diagnosis of tuberculosis in children is challenging; even with advanced technologies, the diagnosis is often difficult to confirm microbiologically in part due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease. Clinical diagnosis lacks standardization, and traditional and molecular microbiologic methods lack sensitivity, particularly in children. Immunodiagnostic tests may improve sensitivity, but these tests cannot distinguish tuberculosis disease from latent infection and some lack specificity. While molecular tools like Xpert MTB/RIF have advanced our ability to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to determine antimicrobial resistance, decades old technologies remain the standard in most locales. Today, the battle against this ancient disease still poses one of the primary diagnostic challenges in pediatric laboratory medicine. PMID:26984977

  11. Enhancement of humoral immune responses. I. Potentiating influence of purified protein derivative on the invitro immune response of spleen cells sensitized to Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscoplat, C C; Setcavage, T M; Thoen, C O; Kim, Y B

    1976-01-01

    Addition of purified protein derivate (PPD) to suspension cultures of spleen cells from swine sensitized to Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium resulted in marked enhancement of antisheep erythrocyte plaque-forming cells after stimulation with sheep erythrocytes. The enhancing effect appeared early in the response and was specific for the sensitizing antigen. The enhancing effect was dependent upon the presence of both sheep erythrocytes and PPD in the culture system. PPD had no effect in the absence of sheep erythrocytes. Addition of PPD to cells from nonsensitized animals did not produce any enhancing effect. PMID:797671

  12. Virulence, Immunogenicity, and Protective Efficacy of Two Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Strains Expressing the Antigen ESAT-6 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Lang; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Huidong; Wang, Xiaoying

    2003-01-01

    We constructed two recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG (rBCG) strains expressing ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, named rBCG-1 and rBCG-2. rBCG-1 contained the ESAT-6 gene linked to BCG hsp60 and expressed a fusion protein, while rBCG-2, with a secretory sequence, could secret ESAT-6 into the culture medium. There was no evidence for increased virulence of the two rBCG strains when we made a comparison between them and BCG with regard to organ bacterial loads, lung histology, and surviva...

  13. Comportamento tintorial do Mycobacterium leprae: revisão histórica Tinctorial behavior of Mycobacterium leprae: a historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Góes Siqueira

    1983-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi feita revisão histórica sobre os corantes utilizados na identificação do Mycobacterium leprae. Foram analisadas para cada corante, sua composição química, propriedades tintoriais e a capacidade de assimilação pelo bacilo nas diversas técnicas de coloração.A historical review was made of the dyes utilized to identify the Mycobacterium leprae. The chemical composition and the tinctorial properties of these substances and the dye assimilation capacity of the bacilli were analyzed.

  14. Morphologic characterization of Mycobacterium marinum by neutron radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genus Mycobacterium shares many characteristics with the genera Corynebacterium and Actinomyces, among which, similar genome content of bases Guanine-Cytosine and the production of branched long-chain fatty acids called mycolic acids should be enhanced. Mycobacteria are strict aerobic, considered weakly Gram-positive, rod-shaped microorganisms, not possessing flagella. They are intracellular infecting and proliferating in the interior of macrophages, they do not form spores, produce toxins or have capsule. Optimal growth temperature and rate are variable. The genus encompasses approximately 120 known species; however, the present study focuses the characterization of Mycobacterium marinum. This species is generally pathogenic causing deep skin infections. Colonies grow slowly at temperatures around 37 degree C. The aim of this study is to speed the process of M. Marinum morphologic characterization and, in the future, apply it to other species of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM. In relation to conventional microbiologic essays that usually demand 28 days for colony growth, nuclear testing, using the neutron radiography technique, prove to be much faster. The samples were initially sterilized at the Mycobacteria Laboratory/IMPPG/UFRJ using hypochlorite solution, gluta + formaldehyde and warmed distilled water, according conventional protocols. Then, they were incubated with sodium borate, deposited over CR-39 sheets, fixed with casein (only the first and third sample) and irradiated with a thermal neutron beam generated at the J-9 channel of the Argonauta reactor from the IEN/CNEN. To this end, the following parameters were optimized: incubation time, irradiation time and CR-39 developing time. The images registered in CR-39 were visualized with the help of a Nikon E-400 optical microscope and captured with a Cool pix 995 digital camera. The results showed that the technique produces enlarged images, making it easier the morphologic characterization of

  15. Genomics of glycopeptidolipid biosynthesis in Mycobacterium abscessus and M. chelonae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Gilles

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outermost layer of the bacterial surface is of crucial importance because it is in constant interaction with the host. Glycopeptidolipids (GPLs are major surface glycolipids present on various mycobacterial species. In the fast-grower model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis, GPL biosynthesis involves approximately 30 genes all mapping to a single region of 65 kb. Results We have recently sequenced the complete genomes of two fast-growers causing human infections, Mycobacterium abscessus (CIP 104536T and M. chelonae (CIP 104535T. We show here that these two species contain genes corresponding to all those of the M. smegmatis "GPL locus", with extensive conservation of the predicted protein sequences consistent with the production of GPL molecules indistinguishable by biochemical analysis. However, the GPL locus appears to be split into several parts in M. chelonae and M. abscessus. One large cluster (19 genes comprises all genes involved in the synthesis of the tripeptide-aminoalcohol moiety, the glycosylation of the lipopeptide and methylation/acetylation modifications. We provide evidence that a duplicated acetyltransferase (atf1 and atf2 in M. abscessus and M. chelonae has evolved through specialization, being able to transfer one acetyl at once in a sequential manner. There is a second smaller and distant (M. chelonae, 900 kb; M. abscessus, 3 Mb cluster of six genes involved in the synthesis of the fatty acyl moiety and its attachment to the tripeptide-aminoalcohol moiety. The other genes are scattered throughout the genome, including two genes encoding putative regulatory proteins. Conclusion Although these three species produce identical GPL molecules, the organization of GPL genes differ between them, thus constituting species-specific signatures. An hypothesis is that the compact organization of the GPL locus in M. smegmatis represents the ancestral form and that evolution has scattered various pieces throughout the

  16. Epidemic of Postsurgical Infections Caused by Mycobacterium massiliense▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rafael Silva; Lourenço, Maria Cristina Silva; Fonseca, Leila de Souza; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Amorim, Efigenia de Lourdes T.; Rocha, Ingrid L. L.; Coelho, Fabrice Santana; Viana-Niero, Cristina; Gomes, Karen Machado; da Silva, Marlei Gomes; de Oliveira Lorena, Nádia Suely; Pitombo, Marcos Bettini; Ferreira, Rosa M. C.; de Oliveira Garcia, Márcio Henrique; de Oliveira, Gisele Pinto; Lupi, Otilia; Vilaça, Bruno Rios; Serradas, Lúcia Rodrigues; Chebabo, Alberto; Marques, Elizabeth Andrade; Teixeira, Lúcia Martins; Dalcolmo, Margareth; Senna, Simone Gonçalves; Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello

    2009-01-01

    An epidemic of infections after video-assisted surgery (1,051 possible cases) caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and involving 63 hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, occurred between August 2006 and July 2007. One hundred ninety-seven cases were confirmed by positive acid-fast staining and/or culture techniques. Thirty-eight hospitals had cases confirmed by mycobacterial culture, with a total of 148 available isolates recovered from 146 patients. Most (n = 144; 97.2%) isolates presented a PRA-hsp65 restriction pattern suggestive of Mycobacterium bolletii or Mycobacterium massiliense. Seventy-four of these isolates were further identified by hsp65 or rpoB partial sequencing, confirming the species identification as M. massiliense. Epidemic isolates showed susceptibility to amikacin (MIC at which 90% of the tested isolates are inhibited [MIC90], 8 μg/ml) and clarithromycin (MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml) but resistance to ciprofloxacin (MIC90, ≥32 μg/ml), cefoxitin (MIC90, 128 μg/ml), and doxycycline (MIC90, ≥64 μg/ml). Representative epidemic M. massiliense isolates that were randomly selected, including at least one isolate from each hospital where confirmed cases were detected, belonged to a single clone, as indicated by the analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. They also had the same PFGE pattern as that previously observed in two outbreaks that occurred in other Brazilian cities; we designated this clone BRA100. All five BRA100 M. massiliense isolates tested presented consistent tolerance to 2% glutaraldehyde. This is the largest epidemic of postsurgical infections caused by RGM reported in the literature to date in Brazil. PMID:19403765

  17. Morphologic characterization of Mycobacterium marinum by neutron radiographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jaqueline Michele da; Crispim, Verginia Reis, E-mail: vrcrispim@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (CT/UFRJ) Centro Tecnologico, Engenharia Nuclear, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Marlei Gomes da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (CCS/UFRJ), Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Instituto de Microbiologia Professor Paulo de Goes (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The genus Mycobacterium shares many characteristics with the genera Corynebacterium and Actinomyces, among which, similar genome content of bases Guanine-Cytosine and the production of branched long-chain fatty acids called mycolic acids should be enhanced. Mycobacteria are strict aerobic, considered weakly Gram-positive, rod-shaped microorganisms, not possessing flagella. They are intracellular infecting and proliferating in the interior of macrophages, they do not form spores, produce toxins or have capsule. Optimal growth temperature and rate are variable. The genus encompasses approximately 120 known species; however, the present study focuses the characterization of Mycobacterium marinum. This species is generally pathogenic causing deep skin infections. Colonies grow slowly at temperatures around 37 degree C. The aim of this study is to speed the process of M. Marinum morphologic characterization and, in the future, apply it to other species of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM. In relation to conventional microbiologic essays that usually demand 28 days for colony growth, nuclear testing, using the neutron radiography technique, prove to be much faster. The samples were initially sterilized at the Mycobacteria Laboratory/IMPPG/UFRJ using hypochlorite solution, gluta + formaldehyde and warmed distilled water, according conventional protocols. Then, they were incubated with sodium borate, deposited over CR-39 sheets, fixed with casein (only the first and third sample) and irradiated with a thermal neutron beam generated at the J-9 channel of the Argonauta reactor from the IEN/CNEN. To this end, the following parameters were optimized: incubation time, irradiation time and CR-39 developing time. The images registered in CR-39 were visualized with the help of a Nikon E-400 optical microscope and captured with a Cool pix 995 digital camera. The results showed that the technique produces enlarged images, making it easier the morphologic characterization of

  18. Flux géniques et dispersion chez un rongeur à démographie cyclique dans un paysage agricole intensif

    OpenAIRE

    Gauffre, Bertrant

    2009-01-01

    La dispersion est un trait d'histoire de vie qui joue un rôle majeur dans le fonctionnement des populations naturelles. Comprendre ce phénomène et son évolution est aujourd'hui déterminant pour la gestion des populations dans des écosystèmes de plus en plus anthropisés. Cette étude s'est attachée à caractériser la dispersion et ses déterminants chez le campagnol des champs, Microtus avalis, dans un paysage agricole de l'Ouest de la France. L'instabilité spatio-temporelle des agroécosystèmes e...

  19. La réplication de l'ADN chez l'euryarchaea Pyrococcus Abyssi : mise en place et dynamique du complexe

    OpenAIRE

    Rouillon, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    La replication de l'ADN se fait par le biais d'un complexe protéique appelé réplisome. La compréhension des aspects structuraux et dynamiques nécessite sa reconstitution in vitro à partir des sous-unités individuelles. Chez tous les organismes vivants, la phase d'élongation de l'ADN, effectuée par les ADN polymérases, met en jeu un facteur de processivité (PCNA) qui est chargé sur l'ADN par un facteur de chargement (RF-C). Généralement, les protéines des archées, impliquées dans la réplicatio...

  20. Les boiteries chez la vache laitière. Synthèse des résultats de l'enquête éco-pathologique continue

    OpenAIRE

    Faye, Bernard; Barnouin, Jacques

    1988-01-01

    La pathologie du pied chez la vache laitière représente un ensemble d’affections qui touche en moyenne près d’un animal sur cinq dans les élevages, et peut représenter un véritable fléau économique dans certaines exploitations très atteintes. Cette pathologie paraît fortement liée au système de production c’est-à-dire à la nature du bâtiment (19,3 % de boiteries en stabulation libre permanente vs 9,7 % en stabulation entravée), au degré d’intensification de l’élevage (plus grande sensibilité ...

  1. Analyse pharmacothérapeutique chez la personne âgée aux urgences et renforcement du lien ville-hôpital

    OpenAIRE

    Faure, Rémi; Moch, Céline; France, Mathilde; Castel-Kremer, Elisabeth; Favre, Muriel; Tazarourte, Karim; Paillet, Carole; Pivot, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : L’optimisation de la prise en charge médicamenteuse et la coopération ville-hôpital constituent un axe majeur d’amélioration de la qualité et de la sécurité des soins. L’objectif de cette étude était de mettre en place une nouvelle activité pharmaceutique aux urgences pour diminuer l’iatrogénie médicamenteuse chez la personne âgée (PA) et renforcer le lien ville-hôpital.Matériels et méthodes :Il s’agit d’une étude prospective, monocentrique. Les patients de plus de 75 ans admis...

  2. Contribution à l'étude de l'anatomie fonctionnelle de l'oreille et de la surdité chez les carnivores domestiques

    OpenAIRE

    Simeon, Ludovic

    2003-01-01

    L'étude de la surdité chez les Carnivores domestiques est, à l'heure actuelle, une pathologie peu décrite en médecine vétérinaire. Ainsi, ce travail constitue une synthèse bibliographique des données disponibles sur ce thème en médecine vétérinaire (et parfois en médecine de l'homme). En effet, pour pouvoir, par la suite, bien appréhender les mécanismes pathologiques de la surdité, la première partie de ce travail est consacrée aux bases anatomiques (embryologie comprise) et physiologiques...

  3. Aspects moléculaires et biochimiques des stylicines, peptides multifonctionnels identifiés chez la crevette bleue du Pacifique Litopenaeus stylirostris (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Rolland, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    Les travaux présentés dans ce mémoire ont été motivés par l’importance économique de l’élevage de la crevette bleue du pacifique Litopenaeus stylirostris dont les fortes mortalités sont principalement dues au développement de maladies bactériennes et virales. Ils ont consisté en la caractérisation des deux premiers membres d’une famille originale de peptides multifonctionnels présents chez les crevettes pénéides, les stylicines. Ces peptides, nommés stylicines 1 et 2, sont des peptides anioni...

  4. Effets antiépileptiques de la neurostimulation asservie dans un modèle d'épilepsie chez le rat

    OpenAIRE

    Saillet, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    Malgré un traitement pharmacologique et chirurgical adapté, les crises d'épilepsie persistent chez environ 20% des patients. La neurostimulation des circuits générateurs et/ou de contrôle des crises constitue actuellement la principale approche thérapeutique non lésionnelle innovante dans certaines formes d'épilepsies pharmaco-résistantes qui ne peuvent bénéficier d'une chirurgie résective curative. L'objectif de ce travail a été de développer un nouveau système de stimulation intracérébrale ...

  5. Obstacles à la prévention du VIH/SIDA chez les populations migrantes d'origine sub-saharienne: Travail de Bachelor

    OpenAIRE

    Graff, Alexandre; Rappazzo, Barbara; Salsac, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Contexte : 68% des personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA dans le monde proviennent d’Afrique sub-saharienne. En Suisse une personne migrante d’origine sub-saharienne a 20,5 fois plus de risque d’être infectée par cette maladie qu’une personne autochtone. But : l’objectif de cette revue de littérature est d’identifier les obstacles à la prévention et au dépistage du VIH/SIDA chez les populations migrantes d’origine sub-saharienne et dégager des pistes d’intervention pour la discipline infirmière. Mé...

  6. Jeux et enjeux d’écriture chez Chrétien de Troyes: l’exemple de «Cligès»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Lucia Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, nos propomos descrever a estética da trama irônica presente na escritura de Chrétien de Troyes, tomando por base seu romance Cligès. A destacar algumas estratégias passíveis de criar o fenômeno irônico, estaremos também mostrando o poder de sedução que emana desta escritura.Nous nous proposons, dans cet artible, de décrire l’esthétique du jeu ironique chez Chrétien de Troyes, em puisant dans son roman Cligès. Enn dégageant qulques unes dês stratégies susceptibles de créer le phénomène ironique, nous montrerons, à la fois, le pouvoir de séduction qui emane de cette écriture.

  7. Contribution à l’étude de la morphologie et du développement de l’encéphale, en particulier du cervelet, chez le mouton

    OpenAIRE

    Salouci, Moustafa

    2016-01-01

    De nombreuses maladies virales émergentes chez le mouton génèrent des anomalies congénitales au niveau du système nerveux central (SNC), or, peu d'informations sont disponibles dans la littérature sur l’anatomie et le développement du cerveau du mouton, en particulier en ce qui concerne le cervelet. Par ailleurs, il s’avère que le mouton pourrait représenter un bon modèle expérimental animal pour l’étude de certaines pathologies survenant pendant le développement embryonnaire de l’encéphale. ...

  8. Etude du métabolisme des amines biogènes chez les bactéries lactiques du vin

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnin-Jusserand, Maryse

    2011-01-01

    Les amines biogènes sont des composés allergènes, notamment rencontrés dans les produits fermentés tel que le vin. Les bactéries lactiques du vin, dont Oenococcus oeni, le principal acteur de la fermentation malolactique, sont capables de produire ces molécules, à partir de précurseurs azotés. Afin de réduire la teneur en amines biogènes, il est nécessaire de comprendre le rôle de cette production, chez les souches impliquées dans la synthèse de ces métabolites. Le projet européen BiamFood FP...

  9. Prédicteurs d’infection chez de patients traités par rituximab pour des maladies autoimmunes y compris la polyarthrite rhumatoïde

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarou, Ilias

    2015-01-01

    Le rituximab (RTX) est de plus en plus utilisé chez les patients souffrant de polyarthrite rhumatoïde (PR) et autres maladies autoimmunes systémiques (MAS). Souvent sa prescription est reportée ou complètement évitée en cas de lymphopénie B. Cette étude rétrospective de 161 patients traités par du RTX pour PR et autres MAS dans les Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève visait à investiguer si le compte des LyB avant le traitement est prédictif du risque d’infection ultérieure et à identifier les ...

  10. Cd-rom traitant des techniques de sédation, tranquillisation et d'anesthésie générale chez les carnivores domestiques

    OpenAIRE

    Estrade, Céline

    2004-01-01

    Ce CD-Rom traite des méthodes utilisées pour réaliser toute manoeuvre de sédation, de tranquillisation et d'anesthésie générale. Le déroulement pratique de l'anesthésie générale comprend plusieurs étapes : la préanesthésie, l'induction, l'entretien et enfin le réveil. La gestion de ces phases ainsi que leur surveillance tout au long de l'anesthésie doivent être maîtrisées pour éviter tout incident per-anesthésique ; l'anesthésie n'étant pas un acte bénin, même chez les animaux en bonne santé....

  11. La calcification testiculaire chez les boucs de centres d'insémination artificielle : étude clinique et répercussion sur la production de semence

    OpenAIRE

    Guillot, Julie

    2002-01-01

    La calcification testiculaire a été étudiée chez 259 jeunes boucs de 2 centres d'insémination artificielle (CAPRI-IA et INRA-SEIA), en première saison sexuelle. A l'examen échographique des testicules, les lésions apparaissent comme des foyers hyperéchogènes plus ou moins nombreux dans le parenchyme testiculaire. Le pourcentage de boucs atteints augmente de 51% à 78% entre 1999 et 2001 et est plus élevé dans la race Alpine (71%) que dans la race Saanen (56%). Il n'y a pas d'influence de l'âge...

  12. Effets de l’administration intramusculaire du butorphanol et de l’instillation oculaire du tropicamide sur l’ouverture pupillaire et la pression intraoculaire chez le chien‎

    OpenAIRE

    Grillot, Aure-Eline

    2015-01-01

    Le but de cette étude était d’évaluer chez le chien sédaté par le butorphanol si la mydriase induite par l’instillation de tropicamide était retardée, et si l’augmentation de la pression intraoculaire (PIO) par le butorphanol était renforcée par celle-ci. Douze chiens Beagles sains ont reçu une injection intramusculaire de butorphanol 0,2 mg/kg ou de NaCl 0,9%. Des mesures du diamètre pupillaire et de la PIO ont été réalisées sur les yeux de chaque chien dont un tiré au sort ayant reçu une in...

  13. Guillain André & Pry René. Compétence et incompétence sociales chez l’enfant

    OpenAIRE

    Tartas, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    L’ouvrage Compétence et incompétence sociales chez l’enfant co-écrit par A. Guillain et R. Pry et publié aux Presses universitaires de la Méditerranée en 2012 regroupe différentes recherches des auteurs publiées précédemment dans différents articles ainsi que deux écrits inédits. L’objectif de l’ouvrage est de clarifier la notion de « compétence/incompétence sociales » en jeu dans différentes activités pratiques et sémiotiques (narration graphique, différents types de jeux, usages d’objets te...

  14. Une vie cachée chez les diables. L’irréligion de Jeanne Fery, ex-possédée et pseudo-religieuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Houdard

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ce fut assez au démon de dire à Ève qu’elle deviendrait savanteen mangeant du fruit de l’arbre défendu,et que le bien et le mal serait l’objet de sa connaissance.Il n’en fallait pas davantage pour la faire consentir.Jacques D’Autun, L’incrédulité savante et la crédulité ignorante, 1671.Au printemps 1948, un gros volume de 600 pages paraît chez l’éditeur catholique Desclée de Brouwer, dans la collection des Études carmélitaines, portant comme titre, Satan. Depuis les années trente, la revue es...

  15. La lipogenèse chez le lapin. Importance pour le contrôle de la teneur en lipides de la viande

    OpenAIRE

    Gondret, Florence

    1999-01-01

    La teneur en lipides d’un tissu est la résultante de plusieurs flux métaboliques (dépôt, synthèse, utilisation). Cet article présente les principales caractéristiques de la synthèse des lipides chez le lapin, dans le muscle comparativement aux tissus adipeux visibles et au foie. Le potentiel de synthèse de novo exprimé par le muscle augmente avec l’âge de l’animal, en parallèle à l’accumulation des triglycérides dans les adipocytes intramusculaires. L’activité des enzymes qui fournissent le N...

  16. Étude descriptive de la prise en charge des anomalies de la phase de latence chez la primipare dans trois maternités d'Auvergne‎

    OpenAIRE

    Boeufgras, Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    Les anomalies de la phase de latence (dystocie de démarrage et faux travail d'accouchement) sont fréquentes, en particulier chez la primipare. Leur prise en charge est néanmoins délicate et varie d'une maternité à l'autre, en l'absence de recommandations précises sur le sujet. L'étude avait pour objectif de décrire la prise en charge (PEC) des patientes consultant pour contractions utérines régulières et douloureuses sans modification du col, dans 3 maternités d'Auvergne de niveaux différents...

  17. Un diverticule géant para urétéral chez l’enfant révélé par une masse pelvienne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassogué, Amadou; Diarra, Alkadri; Benzekri, Younes; Doumbia, Aliou; Bouabdallah, Youssef; Traoré, Zacharia; Tizniti, Siham; Mellas, Soufiane; Tazi, Mohammed Fald; Ammari, Jalal Eddine El; Khallouk, Abdelhak; Fassi, Mohammed Jamal El; Farih, My Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Nous rapportons un cas de diverticule géant para-urétéral chez un enfant de 18 mois, du point de vue des aspects cliniques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques. Aucune anomalie associée n’a été relevée. Le patient était un enfant de sexe masculin, et la symptomatologie était dominée par la rétention aiguë d’urine et la présence d’une infection urinaire. La chirurgie a consisté en une diverticulectomie laparoscopique avec réimplantation urétéro-vésicale. L’évolution a été favorable avec disparition des signes urinaires. PMID:24940473

  18. Isabelle Montin : « Le Retour du travail : travail et société chez John Dewey »

    OpenAIRE

    Nouët, Clotilde

    2014-01-01

    Le séminaire « Travail, Culture, Sociétés », qui analyse la culture et la société des mondes anglophones à partir de la question du travail, a accueilli, le 6 février 2014, une intervention d’Isabelle Montin portant sur : « Le retour du travail : travail et société chez John Dewey. » Isabelle Montin travaille sur les pragmatistes américains classiques et s’intéresse particulièrement à la théorie sociale et esthétique de Dewey. Le regain d’intérêt suscité depuis une trentaine d’années par l’œ...

  19. Prévention des déficiences nutritionnelles chez les personnes sans-abri : intérêt d’un aliment de rue enrichi

    OpenAIRE

    Darmon, Nicole; Briend, André

    2006-01-01

    Pour mieux prévenir la dénutrition et les déficiences vitaminiques et minérales chez les personnes en situation d’exclusion, nous avons mis au point un aliment enrichi facile à consommer dans la rue : le Vitapoche®. Il s’agit d’une pâte chocolatée résistante à la contamination bactérienne, emballée dans un sachet hermétique. Cette pâte est naturellement riche en potassium et en acides gras oméga-3. Elle a été enrichie en calcium, zinc et vitamines C, B1, B9, PP, B12, E et D, afin que chaque s...

  20. Complications du diverticule de Meckel (DM) chez l'adulte: à propos de 11 cas au CHU-Yalgado Ouédraogo au Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Ouangré, Edgar; Zida, Maurice; Bazongo, Moussa; Sanou, Adama; Bonkoungou, Gilbert Patindé; Doamba, Rodrigue Namékinsba; Sawadogo, Elie Yamba; Ouédraogo, Sidziguin; Zongo, Nayi; Traore, Si Simon

    2015-01-01

    Le diverticule de Meckel (DM) est la persistance partielle du canal omphalomésentérique. Ses complications sont rares. Le diagnostic est le plus souvent per opératoire. L'objectif a été de décrire les complications du diverticule de Meckel chez l'adulte dans le service de chirurgie générale et digestive du CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo. Il s'est agi d'une étude transversale descriptive sur 10 ans (janvier 2004-décembre 2013) portant sur les dossiers des patients âgés de plus de 15 ans ayant présenté ...

  1. Evaluation de l'efficacité d'un entraînement métacognitif chez des adolescents souffrant de psychose

    OpenAIRE

    Orcel S.

    2011-01-01

    Contexte :¦La formation et le maintien d'idées délirantes et des hallucinations, qui sont des symptômes clé de la psychose, s'expliquent en partie par la présence de biais cognitifs. La faisabilité, l'adhérence au traitement, l'utilité subjective et également l'efficacité d'un entraînement métacognitif (EMC) permettant de corriger ces biais cognitifs ont été démontrées chez des adultes schizophrènes. Par contre, aucune étude ne s'est intéressée à ces aspects dans une population adolescente at...

  2. Le tetanos chez le grand enfant dans un hôpital pédiatrique à Yaoundé, Cameroun

    OpenAIRE

    Ntoto Njiki Kinkela, Mina; Nguefack, Félicitée; Mbassi Awa, Hubert; Chelo, David; Enyama, Dominique; Mbollo Kobela, Marie; Koki Ndombo, Paul Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Le tétanos est évitable par la vaccination, mais peut survenir en cas d'une immunisation incomplète. Nous avons mené une étude sur les dossiers médicaux des enfants admis pour tétanos entre 2008-2009 au Centre Mère et Enfant de la Fondation Chantal BIYA à Yaoundé. Le but était d'analyser les circonstances de survenue et les manifestations cliniques du tétanos chez le grand enfant, afin de proposer des stratégies de prévention adaptées au contexte camerounais. Le statut vaccinal était inconnu ...

  3. Role de la position de la feuille dans l'assimilation et le transport du carbone chez le trefle blanc (Trifolium repens L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Robin, C.; Chone, T.; GUCKERT, Armand

    1987-01-01

    L’étude de l’assimilation photosynthétique et du transport des assimilats chez le trèfle blanc a pour objet de préciser le rôle de la feuille dans l’établissement des relations source-puits. Des marquages courts au 14CO2 sont effectués sur les 8 limbes initiés par le stolon obtenu en conditions contrôlées par bouturage d’apex. Le profil photosynthétique de l’ensemble des limbes du stolon met en évidence un effet « âge du limbe source» pour l’assimilation du 14CO2. Les limbes 2, 3 et 4 son...

  4. Effet du stress hydrique osmotique sur la germination des graines chez les provenances de Cèdre du Liban (Cedrus Libani A. Rich.) d'origine Turque

    OpenAIRE

    Dirik, Hüseyin

    2000-01-01

    On a étudié l'effet du stress hydrique osmotique sur la germination des graines chez les provenances de Cèdre du Liban. En utilisant le polyéthylène glycol (PEG-6000) pour préparer les niveaux différents de stress hydrique osmotique suivant les traitements envisagés (0, $-2$, $-4$, $-6$ bars) on a procédé à la comparaison expérimentale des facultés germinatives et des temps moyens de germination des graines de dix provenances. Les résultats essentiels obtenus sont les suivants : d'une façon g...

  5. Méta-analyses des effets chimioprotecteurs de la curcumine et du thé vert sur la cancérogenèse colorectale chez les rongeurs

    OpenAIRE

    Clauzure, Cédric

    2007-01-01

    L'étude de l'effet chimioprotecteur, chez les rongeurs, de la curcumine et du thé vert contre le cancer du côlon est l'objet de plusieurs publications. Mais il en ressort des résultats contradictoires. Après des rappels bibliographiques sur le cancer du côlon, les polyphénols et la technique méta-analytique, l'auteur réalise des méta-analyses à partir de 15 articles pour la curcumine et de 17 pour le thé vert. Il apparaît que la curcumine diminue significativement le nombre de foyers de crypt...

  6. Diagnostic post-mortem des intoxications chez les carnivores domestiques‎ : intérêts et limites de l’autopsie. Etude de 23 cas d’intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Goube, Anaïs

    2015-01-01

    diagnostic des intoxications chez les carnivores domestiques repose sur la confrontation d’éléments épidémiologiques, cliniques, nécropsiques et analytiques après exclusion d’autres étiologies. Une autopsie rigoureuse et méthodique suivie d’une description lésionnelle est essentielle et à portée de tout praticien qui choisit alors les prélèvements pertinents pour l’analyse toxicologique. Basée sur des données épidémiologiques et l’étude de 23 cas recueillis auprès des ENV, cette thèse présent...

  7. Regulation et de-regulation du metabolisme photosynthetique en reponse aux variations du milieu chez les vegetaux du type C3

    OpenAIRE

    Coudret, A; Ferron, F.

    1982-01-01

    Chez des espèces de type C3, il est montré l’importance de la photorespiration comme processus métabolique à la fois diversifiant et régulant les voies de biosynthèses. Elle permet donc d’éliminer un excès de pouvoir réducteur lorsque les végétaux sont soumis à des conditions extérieures défavorables. L’influence de ces conditions est également étudiée sur les p-carboxylations et le métabolisme de l’alanine. La signification des modulations observées du métabolisme photosynthétique dans le...

  8. Nontuberculous mycobacterial ocular infections--comparing the clinical and microbiological characteristics between Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium massiliense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Sang Chu

    Full Text Available To analyze the clinical characteristics of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM ocular infections and the species-specific in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility.In 2000 to 2011 at the National Taiwan University Hospital, multilocus sequencing of rpoB, hsp65 and secA was used to identify NTM isolates from ocular infections. The clinical presentation and treatment outcomes were retrospectively compared between species. Broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations of amikacin (AMK, clarithromycin (CLA, ciprofloxacin (CPF, levofloxacin (LVF, moxifloxacin (MXF and gatifloxacin (GAF against all strains. The activities of antimicrobial combinations were assessed by the checkerboard titration method.A total of 24 NTM strains (13 Mycobacterium abscessus and 11 Mycobacterium massiliense were isolated from 13 keratitis, 10 buckle infections, and 1 canaliculitis cases. Clinically, manifestations and outcomes caused by these two species were similar and surgical intervention was necessary for medically unresponsive NTM infection. Microbiologically, 100% of M. abscessus and 90.9% of M. massiliense ocular isolates were susceptible to amikacin but all were resistant to fluoroquinolones. Inducible clarithromycin resistance existed in 69.3% of M. abscessus but not in M. massiliense isolates. None of the AMK-CLA, AMK-MXF, AMK-GAF, CLA-MXF and CLA-GAF combinations showed synergistic or antagonistic effect against both species in vitro.M. abscessus and M. massiliense are the most commonly identified species for NTM ocular infections in Taiwan. Both species were resistant to fluoroquinolones, susceptible to amikacin, and differ in clarithromycin resistance. Combined antimicrobial treatments showed no interaction in vitro but could be considered in combination with surgical interventions for eradication of this devastating ocular infection.

  9. Le syndrome des jambes sans repos: fréquence et facteurs de risque chez l'hémodialysé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumeila, Illiassou; Keita, Salia; Elhassani, Anis; Sidibé, Mohamed; Alaoui, Khadija; Kabbali, Nadia; Arrayhani, Mohamed; Sqalli, Tarik

    2015-01-01

    Le syndrome des jambes sans repos (SJSR) ou syndrome d'impatience musculaire est un trouble moteur caractérisé par des sensations désagréables dans les jambes. Les causes sont mal connues et sa fréquence est estimée entre 25% et 75% chez les hémodialysés. Il s'agit d'une étude transversale monocentrique menée au centre d'hémodialyse du CHU Hassan II de Fès (hôpital Al Ghassani) entre décembre 2012 et janvier 2013. Nous avons défini le syndrome de jambes sans repos selon la définition de l'international restless legs study group de 2003 reposant sur 4 critères essentiels au diagnostic. L'international restless legs syndrome scale (IRLES) a été coté par un même néphrologue pour mesurer la sévérité du syndrome des jambes sans repos. 84 hémodialysés ont répondu au questionnaire avec 41,7% de cas de SJSR dont 6,6% de formes graves. Nous avons retrouvé une association entre le SJSR et la carence martiale p(0,018), la néphropathie initiale p(0,041), l'HTA p(0,026) et le sexe féminin p(0,024). Dans notre série, il ressort que la carence martiale et l'HTA sont les principaux facteurs de risque modifiables de ce syndrome chez nos patients. Les facteurs traditionnels comme le tabagisme, l’âge supérieur à 50 ans et la dialyse inadéquate ne sont pas associés à ce trouble dans notre série. PMID:26015849

  10. Oxygénation par lunettes nasales et effets sur la FiO2 et la gazométrie artérielle chez le chien sain

    OpenAIRE

    Perrin, Robin

    2012-01-01

    L’oxygène est le médicament le plus utilisé dans les unités d’urgences et soins intensifs. De nombreuses techniques d’administration servent régulièrement a administrer de l’O2 aux patients critiques, cependant, peu d’informations sont disponibles concernant la relation entre la FiO2 et les débits chez le chien. Le but de cette étude est la détermination de la relation entre la FiO2, la gazométrie artérielle et les débits d’O2 utilisés par lunettes nasales chez le chien sain. L’augmentation d...

  11. Evaluation du probiotique bactérien Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M chez la crevette pénéide Litopenaeus stylirostris en Nouvelle- Calédonie

    OpenAIRE

    Castex, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    Pediococcus acidilacticii MA18/5M est un probiotique bactérien (BACTOCELL®) qui a démontré son efficacité chez plusieurs espèces d'animaux terrestres et aquatiques. Cette thèse avait pour objectif d'investiguer plus en détails les effets de ce probiotique chez les crevettes pénéides d'élevage. Pour cette étude, nous avons choisi une approche globale replaçant la problématique dans un modèle d'interactions entre trois compartiments : la crevette, sa microflore intestinale et le probiotique. Ap...

  12. Etude comparative de la tomodensitométrie et de l’imagerie par résonance magnétique dans le diagnostic des tumeurs intracrâniennes chez le chien et le chat

    OpenAIRE

    Dangy, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Les techniques d’imagerie médicale modernes sont utilisées dans l’exploration des affections intracrâniennes chez l’homme et se développent en médecine vétérinaire. Malgré des inégalités d’accès dues au manque d’infrastructures et au coût élevé de réalisation de ces examens, la tomodensitométrie et l’imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) sont devenues les examens complémentaires de choix lors de troubles neurologiques d’origine centrale intracrânienne chez le chien et le chat. Si la tomoden...

  13. Des lieux de soins alternatifs où se construisent des altérités communes représentations de la maladie et du traitement chez les guérisseurs citadins et leurs patients en Russie

    OpenAIRE

    Khaskelberg, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Le présent travail vise à étudier les représentations de la maladie chez les guérisseurs citadins et chez leurs patients en Russie, aussi bien par le biais d’entretiens semi-directifs que par nos propres observations des pratiques de guérison. L’étonnante popularité présentée par le recours aux soins alternatifs en Russie postsoviétique nous a motivée à nous questionner quant à leurs fonctions dans une société en pleine mutation socio-économique. L'aperçu de la littérature locale sur le trava...

  14. Les infections urinaires chez les patients insuffisants rénaux chroniques hospitalisés au service de néphrologie: profil bactériologique et facteurs de risque

    OpenAIRE

    Chemlal, Abdeljalil; Ismaili, Fatiha Alaoui; Karimi, Ilham; Elharraqui, Ryme; Benabdellah, Nawal; Bekaoui, Samira; Haddiya, Intissar; Bentata, Yassamine

    2015-01-01

    L'infection urinaire chez l'insuffisant rénal est fréquente et particulière dans sa prise en charge diagnostique et thérapeutique. L'objectif de notre étude est de déterminer le profil bactériologique et d’étudier les facteurs de risque des infections urinaires chez le patient insuffisant rénal chronique en milieu de néphrologie. Etude prospective débutée en Septembre 2012 menée au service de néphrologie à l'hôpital régional d'Oujda de l'oriental Marocain. Ont été inclus tous les patients hos...

  15. Aspects descriptifs du VIH/SIDA chez les sujets âgés de 50 ans et plus suivis au Centre de Traitement Agréé de Bafoussam - Cameroun

    OpenAIRE

    Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier; Djomassi, Lucienne Dempouo; Monebenimp, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La littérature scientifique dispose de très peu de données relatives à l’épidémiologie du VIH chez les sujets âgés en Afrique subsaharienne. Au Cameroun, les caractéristiques épidémiologiques de l'infection par le VIH chez les sujets âgés de 50 ans et plus ne sont pas documentées. Méthodes Dans une étude de cohorte rétrospective et une enquête transversale, nous avons comparé les caractéristiques clinico-biologiques et la survie post thérapeutique des patients âgés de 50 ans et p...

  16. Motricité globale et graphique : observations et remédiations chez neuf cents trente sept élèves de maternelle et de primaire normaux apprenant et en difficulté

    OpenAIRE

    Pécheux-Grimm, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Cet article descriptif rapporte l'essentiel de vingt trois années d'observation continue concernant neuf cents trente sept élèves de maternelle et de primaire, normaux apprenants comme en difficulté. Il a pour but de dresser un tableau en motricité globale et en motricité graphique avec des patterns spécifiques bien dessinés, parfaitement repérable dès les petites classes et fréquemment présent chez de nombreux enfants en difficulté, dont la plupart ont été envoyés ensuite chez l'orthophonist...

  17. Modifications dans les premières étapes de l'assimilation photosynthétique du carbone chez le maïs sous l'effet du génotype

    OpenAIRE

    Morot-Gaudry, Jean-Francois; Farineau, J.; Rocher, J.P.; Jolivet, E.

    1981-01-01

    L’étude des réactions de carboxylations photosynthétiques chez les maïs « WH x WJ » et « INRA 508 » montre qu’une baisse de l’activité photosynthétique chez le maïs « WH x WJ », par rapport au maïs « INRA 508 », s’accompagne de déviations métaboliques au sein des premières réactions qui assurent le transfert du carbone du CO2 atmosphérique vers les composés du cycle de CALVIN-BENSON, via les acides malique et aspartique. Le même comportement métabolique en relation avec la photosynthèse...

  18. L'effet d'un cours de formation sur la reconnaissance d'un état confusionnel aigu: une étude exploratoire chez les étudiants en soins infirmiers

    OpenAIRE

    Cornut, Sonam; Meyer, Rebecca; Verloo, Henk

    2013-01-01

    L’état confusionnel aigu (ECA), plus connu sous le nom de delirium dans les pays anglophones, est le trouble cognitif aigu le plus important chez la personne âgée. La nondétection et donc la non-prise en charge d’ECA peut avoir de graves conséquences sur l’état mental, physique et sur la survie de la personne âgée. D’importantes limites de connaissances chez les infirmiers ont été relevées quant à la détection et la capacité de faire la distinction entre un ECA et d’autres troubles psychiatri...

  19. Comparison of the Real-Time PCR Method and the Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct Test for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Pulmonary and Nonpulmonary Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Lemaître, Nadine; Armand, Sylvie; Vachée, Anne; Capilliez, Odile; Dumoulin, Christine; Courcol, René J.

    2004-01-01

    Real-time PCR was compared to Amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct Test (AMTDII) for 100 clinical specimens. The overall sensitivities of the real-time PCR method and AMTDII were similar for respiratory and nonrespiratory specimens. However, real-time PCR seemed to be less susceptible to amplification inhibitors than AMTDII.

  20. Fecal volatile organic compound profiles from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as indicators of Mycobacterium bovis exposure or Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serve as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Vaccination with M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is being considered for management of bovine tuberculosis in deer. Presently, no...

  1. The Impact of a 24 Month Housing First Intervention on Participants’ Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: Results from the At Home / Chez Soi Toronto Site Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Woodhall-Melnik; Vachan Misir; Vered Kaufman-Shriqui; Patricia O'Campo; Vicky Stergiopoulos; Stephen Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals experiencing homelessness have high rates of overweight and obesity. Unhealthy weights and homelessness are both associated with increased risk of poor health and mortality. Using longitudinal data from 575 participants at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi randomized controlled trial, we investigate the impact of receiving a Housing First intervention on the Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference of participants with moderate and high needs for...

  2. L’évaluation du risque cardiaque avant l’utilisation de stimulants chez les enfants et les adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, SA; Warren, AE; Hamilton, RM; Gray, C; Gow, RM; Sanatani, S; Côté, J-M; Lougheed, J; LeBlanc, J; Martin, S; Miles, B; Mitchell, C; Gorman, DA; Weiss, M; Schachar, R

    2009-01-01

    Les décisions en matière de réglementation et les documents scientifiques au sujet de la prise en charge du trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH) soulèvent des questions quant à l’innocuité des médicaments et à l’évaluation convenable à effectuer avant le traitement afin de déterminer la pertinence d’une pharmacothérapie. Ce constat est particulièrement vrai en présence de cardiopathies structurelles ou fonctionnelles. Le présent article contient l’analyse des données disponibles, y compris les publications révisées par des pairs, des données tirées du site Web de la Food and Drug Administration des États-Unis au sujet des réactions indésirables déclarées chez des enfants qui prennent des stimulants, ainsi que des données de Santé Canada sur le même problème. Des lignes directrices consensuelles sur l’évaluation pertinente sont proposées d’après l’apport des membres de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie, de la Société canadienne de cardiologie et de l’Académie canadienne de psychiatrie de l’enfant et de l’adolescent, qui possèdent notamment des compétences et des connaissances précises tant dans le secteur du TDAH que de la cardiologie pédiatrique. Le présent document de principes prône une anamnèse et un examen physique détaillés avant la prescription de stimulants et s’attarde sur le dépistage des facteurs de risque de mort subite, mais il ne contient pas de recommandations systématiques de dépistage électrocardiographique ou de consultations avec un spécialiste en cardiologie, à moins que les antécédents ou que l’examen physique ne le justifient. Le document contient un questionnaire pour repérer les enfants potentiellement vulnérables à une mort subite (quel que soit le type de TDAH ou les médicaments utilisés pour le traiter). Même si les recommandations dépendent des meilleures données probantes disponibles, le comité s’entend pour affirmer que

  3. Demonstration of Cord Formation by Rough Mycobacterium abscessus Variants: Implications for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Olivares, Francesc; Byrd, Thomas F.; Julián, Esther; Brambilla, Cecilia; Luquin, Marina

    2011-01-01

    In low-income countries some infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria are misdiagnosed as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. In most of these settings the observation of microscopic cords is the only technique used to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the laboratory. In this article we definitively demonstrate that Mycobacterium abscessus, an emerging pulmonary pathogen, also forms microscopic cords.

  4. Disseminated Mycobacterium chelonae Infection in a Patient Receiving an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor for Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bark, Charles M.; Traboulsi, Rana S.; Honda, Kord; Starnes, Autumn M.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Rodriguez, Benigno

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of disseminated cutaneous Mycobacterium chelonae infection in a patient with head and neck cancer on salvage chemotherapy, including the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor cetuximab. Mycobacterium chelonae should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous infections in cancer patients receiving epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

  5. Mycobacterium tilburgii” Infection in Two Immunocompromised Children: Importance of Molecular Tools in Culture-Negative Mycobacterial Disease Diagnosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tilburgii” is a nontuberculous mycobacterium that cannot be cultured by current techniques. It is described as causing disseminated disease in adults. We present the first cases of disseminated disease in 2 immunocompromised children. This paper stresses the importance of molecular techniques for correct mycobacterial identification and guidance to immunological diagnosis.

  6. Fluorescent Nanoparticle-Based Indirect Immunofluorescence Microscopy for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyun Chen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A method of fluorescent nanoparticle-based indirect immunofluorescence microscopy (FNP-IIFM was developed for the rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. An anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibody was used as primary antibody to recognize Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and then an antibody binding protein (Protein A labeled with Tris(2,2-bipyridyldichlororuthenium(II hexahydrate (RuBpy-doped silica nanoparticles was used to generate fluorescent signal for microscopic examination. Prior to the detection, Protein A was immobilized on RuBpy-doped silica nanoparticles with a coverage of ∼5.1×102 molecules/nanoparticle. With this method, Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bacterial mixture as well as in spiked sputum was detected. The use of the fluorescent nanoparticles reveals amplified signal intensity and higher photostability than the direct use of conventional fluorescent dye as label. Our preliminary studies have demonstrated the potential application of the FNP-IIFM method for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples.

  7. Présence de trois espèces de grégarines (Apicomplexa : Eugregarinorida chez l’Annélide Polychete Marphysa sanguinea (Montagu, 1815 dans le lac de Tunis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbarhoumi M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Trois espèces de grégarines ont été trouvées dans des spécimens de l’annélide polychète Marphysa sanguinea récoltés dans le lac de Tunis : Bhatiella marphysae Setna, 1931, parasite de Marphysa sanguinea (Inde, Europe; Ferraria cornucephala iwamusi H. Hoshide, 1956, parasite de Marphysa iwamusi (Japon ; et Viviera sp. qui présente des similitudes avec Viviera marphysae Schrével, 1963, aussi décrite chez Marphysa sanguinea (France. Ces grégarines sont rapportées pour la première fois chez ce dernier hôte en Tunisie. Bhatiella marphysae et Viviera sp. appartiennent à la famille des Lecudinidae (Aseptatorina. La présence d’un septum proto-deutoméritique est confirmée chez Ferraria cornucephala qui doit être maintenue dans les Polyrhabdinae.

  8. The first case of cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong WK

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Wenkai Zong,* Xiaodong Zhang,* Hongsheng Wang, Xiu Lian Xu, Qiuling Wang, Weiwei Tian, Ya LI Jin, Qinxue Wu, Meiyu Tang Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, National Center for STD and Leprosy Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The authors present the first, to the best of their knowledge, reported case of cutaneous infection caused by Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum. A 42-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic reddish papules, nodules, plaques, and patches on the right side of her face and on her forehead that had persisted for 5 years, with the lesions gradually increasing in size over that time. No previous intervening medical treatment had been applied. No history or evidence of immunosuppression was found. A skin biopsy was performed for routine histological examination. Samples of lesioned skin were inoculated on Löwenstein–Jensen medium to determine the presence of acid-fast bacilli. Ziehl–Neelsen staining was used to confirm the presence of the organism. In vitro drug susceptibility testing was conducted using the microtiter plate method. Mycobacterium was identified by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of the hsp65 and 16S rDNA genes. Cultures for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, as well as fungus, were also conducted. Routine histopathology revealed granulomatous changes without caseation. Ziehl–Neelsen staining showed that the organisms in both the lesions and the cultures were acid-fast bacilli. The cultured colonies were grown in Löwenstein–Jensen medium and incubated at two different temperatures (32°C and 37°C for 2–3 weeks, developing pigmentation both in the dark and in the light. In vitro drug susceptibility tests showed that the organism was sensitive to clarithromycin and

  9. Networked T cell death following macrophage infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H-F Macdonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depletion of T cells following infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb impairs disease resolution, and interferes with clinical test performance that relies on cell-mediated immunity. A number of mechanisms contribute to this T cell suppression, such as activation-induced death and trafficking of T cells out of the peripheral circulation and into the diseased lungs. The extent to which Mtb infection of human macrophages affects T cell viability however, is not well characterised. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that lymphopenia (<1.5 × 10(9 cells/l was prevalent among culture-positive tuberculosis patients, and lymphocyte counts significantly improved post-therapy. We previously reported that Mtb-infected human macrophages resulted in death of infected and uninfected bystander macrophages. In the current study, we sought to examine the influence of infected human alveolar macrophages on T cells. We infected primary human alveolar macrophages (the primary host cell for Mtb or PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells with Mtb H37Ra, then prepared cell-free supernatants. The supernatants of Mtb-infected macrophages caused dose-dependent, caspase-dependent, T cell apoptosis. This toxic effect of infected macrophage secreted factors did not require TNF-α or Fas. The supernatant cytotoxic signal(s were heat-labile and greater than 50 kDa in molecular size. Although ESAT-6 was toxic to T cells, other Mtb-secreted factors tested did not influence T cell viability; nor did macrophage-free Mtb bacilli or broth from Mtb cultures. Furthermore, supernatants from Mycobacterium bovis Bacille de Calmette et Guerin (BCG- infected macrophages also elicited T cell death suggesting that ESAT-6 itself, although cytotoxic, was not the principal mediator of T cell death in our system. CONCLUSIONS: Mtb-Infected macrophages secrete heat-labile factors that are toxic to T cells, and may contribute to the immunosuppression seen in tuberculosis as well as

  10. An acidic sphingomyelinase Type C activity from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Garza, Jorge; González-Salazar, Francisco; Quinn, Frederick D; Karls, Russell K; De La Garza-Salinas, Laura Hermila; Guzmán-de la Garza, Francisco J; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Sphingomyelinases (SMases) catalyze the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide and phosphorylcholine. Sphingolipids are recognized as diverse and dynamic regulators of a multitude of cellular processes mediating cell cycle control, differentiation, stress response, cell migration, adhesion, and apoptosis. Bacterial SMases are virulence factors for several species of pathogens. Whole cell extracts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains H37Rv and CDC1551 were assayed using [N-methyl-(14)C]-sphingomyelin as substrate. Acidic Zn(2+)-dependent SMase activity was identified in both strains. Peak SMase activity was observed at pH 5.5. Interestingly, overall SMase activity levels from CDC1551 extracts are approximately 1/3 of those of H37Rv. The presence of exogenous SMase produced by M. tuberculosis during infection may interfere with the normal host inflammatory response thus allowing the establishment of infection and disease development. This Type C activity is different from previously identified M. tuberculosis SMases. Defining the biochemical characteristics of M. tuberculosis SMases helps to elucidate the roles that these enzymes play during infection and disease. PMID:26948102

  11. Farnesol, a Potential Efflux Pump Inhibitor in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The active multidrug efflux pump (EP has been described as one of the mechanisms involved in the natural drug resistance of bacteria, such as mycobacteria. As a result, the development of efflux pumps inhibitors (EPIs is an important topic. In this study, a checkerboard synergy assay indicated that farnesol both decreased the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of ethidium bromide (EtBr 8-fold against Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis mc2155 ATCC 700084 when incorporated at a concentration of 32 μg/mL (FICI = 0.625 and decreased MIC 4-fold at 16 μg/mL (FICI = 0.375. Farnesol also showed synergism when combined with rifampicin. A real-time 96-well plate fluorometric method was used to assess the ability of farnesol to inhibit EPs in comparison withfour positive EPIs: chlorpromazine, reserpine, verapamil, and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP. Farnesol significantly enhanced the accumulation of EtBr and decreased the efflux of EtBr in M. smegmatis; these results suggest that farnesol acts as an inhibitor of mycobacterial efflux pumps.

  12. The regulation of sulfur metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula K Hatzios

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb has evolved into a highly successful human pathogen. It deftly subverts the bactericidal mechanisms of alveolar macrophages, ultimately inducing granuloma formation and establishing long-term residence in the host. These hallmarks of Mtb infection are facilitated by the metabolic adaptation of the pathogen to its surrounding environment and the biosynthesis of molecules that mediate its interactions with host immune cells. The sulfate assimilation pathway of Mtb produces a number of sulfur-containing metabolites with important contributions to pathogenesis and survival. This pathway is regulated by diverse environmental cues and regulatory proteins that mediate sulfur transactions in the cell. Here, we discuss the transcriptional and biochemical mechanisms of sulfur metabolism regulation in Mtb and potential small molecule regulators of the sulfate assimilation pathway that are collectively poised to aid this intracellular pathogen in its expert manipulation of the host. From this global analysis, we have identified a subset of sulfur-metabolizing enzymes that are sensitive to multiple regulatory cues and may be strong candidates for therapeutic intervention.

  13. Biochemical Characterization of Uracil Phosphoribosyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, Anne Drumond; Ducati, Rodrigo Gay; Rosado, Leonardo Astolfi; Bloch, Carlos Junior; Prates, Maura Vianna; Gonçalves, Danieli Cristina; Ramos, Carlos Henrique Inacio; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Santos, Diogenes Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) catalyzes the conversion of uracil and 5-phosphoribosyl-α-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) to uridine 5′-monophosphate (UMP) and pyrophosphate (PPi). UPRT plays an important role in the pyrimidine salvage pathway since UMP is a common precursor of all pyrimidine nucleotides. Here we describe cloning, expression and purification to homogeneity of upp-encoded UPRT from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtUPRT). Mass spectrometry and N-terminal amino acid sequencing unambiguously identified the homogeneous protein as MtUPRT. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that native MtUPRT follows a monomer-tetramer association model. MtUPRT is specific for uracil. GTP is not a modulator of MtUPRT ativity. MtUPRT was not significantly activated or inhibited by ATP, UTP, and CTP. Initial velocity and isothermal titration calorimetry studies suggest that catalysis follows a sequential ordered mechanism, in which PRPP binding is followed by uracil, and PPi product is released first followed by UMP. The pH-rate profiles indicated that groups with pK values of 5.7 and 8.1 are important for catalysis, and a group with a pK value of 9.5 is involved in PRPP binding. The results here described provide a solid foundation on which to base upp gene knockout aiming at the development of strategies to prevent tuberculosis. PMID:23424660

  14. Isolation of Mycobacterium fortuitum from fish tanks in Alborz, Iran.

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    Shirin Akbari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish mycobacteriosis is caused by the non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Infected fish are normally the primary source of infection, although non-tuberculous Mycobacteria can be found in the environment. The present study was designed to investigate the few recently found suspected cases of mycobacteriosis in Iranian ornamental fish tanks.Pathological specimens including granolumas from autopsied fish were used to inoculate Lowenstein-Jensen medium. Genomic material was extracted from all acid-fast positive cultures. The mycobacterial identity of bacterial isolates was authenticated using a PCR assessment targeting a 543 bp-long stretch of 16Sr RNA gene. Further more, a PCR assessment targeting a 294 bp-long stretch of heat shock protein hsp65 was performed and the amplicons were sequenced to identify the isolates.Characteristic mycobacterial bacilli were identified both in light and fluorescent microscopy of bacterial culture from all the suspected specimens. PCR-amplification of DNA templates from all isolates successfully resulted in production of the expected products. Existence of Mycobacterium fortuitum was confirmed by comparison analysis of nucleotide sequencing at hsp65 gene.The present work clearly shows mycobacteria are important in pathology of ornamental fish diseases. People who are keeping fish as pet in their homes should be cantioned about the bacterial contamination risks arise from close contact with exotic ornamental species of fish.

  15. Thioridazine Alters the Cell-Envelope Permeability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; Mulder, Arnout; de Haas, Petra E W; de Ru, Arnoud H; Heerkens, Evy M; Amaral, Leonard; van Soolingen, Dick; van Veelen, Peter A

    2016-06-01

    The increasing occurrence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis exerts a major burden on treatment of this infectious disease. Thioridazine, previously used as a neuroleptic, is active against extensively drug resistant tuberculosis when added to other second- and third-line antibiotics. By quantitatively studying the proteome of thioridazine-treated Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we discovered the differential abundance of several proteins that are involved in the maintenance of the cell-envelope permeability barrier. By assessing the accumulation of fluorescent dyes in mycobacterial cells over time, we demonstrate that long-term drug exposure of M. tuberculosis indeed increased the cell-envelope permeability. The results of the current study demonstrate that thioridazine induced an increase in cell-envelope permeability and thereby the enhanced uptake of compounds. These results serve as a novel explanation to the previously reported synergistic effects between thioridazine and other antituberculosis drugs. This new insight in the working mechanism of this antituberculosis compound could open novel perspectives of future drug-administration regimens in combinational therapy. PMID:27068340

  16. Sulfolipid-1 biosynthesis restricts Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth in human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Sarah A; Schelle, Michael W; Holsclaw, Cynthia M; Leigh, Clifton D; Jain, Madhulika; Cox, Jeffery S; Leary, Julie A; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2012-05-18

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, is a highly evolved human pathogen characterized by its formidable cell wall. Many unique lipids and glycolipids from the Mtb cell wall are thought to be virulence factors that mediate host-pathogen interactions. An intriguing example is Sulfolipid-1 (SL-1), a sulfated glycolipid that has been implicated in Mtb pathogenesis, although no direct role for SL-1 in virulence has been established. Previously, we described the biochemical activity of the sulfotransferase Stf0 that initiates SL-1 biosynthesis. Here we show that a stf0-deletion mutant exhibits augmented survival in human but not murine macrophages, suggesting that SL-1 negatively regulates the intracellular growth of Mtb in a species-specific manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SL-1 plays a role in mediating the susceptibility of Mtb to a human cationic antimicrobial peptide in vitro, despite being dispensable for maintaining overall cell envelope integrity. Thus, we hypothesize that the species-specific phenotype of the stf0 mutant is reflective of differences in antimycobacterial effector mechanisms of macrophages. PMID:22360425

  17. Detecting robust time-delayed regulation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Rajapakse Jagath C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time delays are often found in gene regulation though most techniques of building gene regulatory networks are not capable of capturing such phenomena. Here we look at the delays in the DNA repair system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is unusually slow in the bacteria. We propose a method based on a skip-chain model to study this phenomena in gene networks. The Viterbi paths of the underlying Markov chains find the most likely regulatory interactions among genes, taking care of very long delays. Using the derived networks, we discuss the delayed regulations and robustness of the DNA damage seen in the bacterium. Results We evaluated our method on time-course gene expressions after DNA damage with Mitocyin C. Several time-delayed interactions were observed with our analysis. The presence of hubs in the networks indicates that a small number of transcriptional factors regulate the rest of the system. We demonstrate the use of priors to overcome over-fitting problem in the generation of networks. We compare our results with the gene networks derived with dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN. Conclusion Different transcription networks are active at different stages, and constant feedback and regulation is maintained throughout the activities of a biological pathway. Skip-chain models are capable of capturing, long distant and the time-delayed regulations. Use of a Dirichlet prior over parameters and Gibbs prior over structure can greatly reduce the over-fitting in the new model.

  18. Hetero-oligomeric MspA pores in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenok, Mikhail; Niederweis, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The porin MspA of Mycobacterium smegmatis is a biological nanopore used for DNA sequencing. The octameric MspA pore can be isolated from M. smegmatis in milligram quantities, is extremely stable against denaturation and rapidly inserts into lipid membranes. Here, we show that MspA pores composed of different Msp subunits are formed in M. smegmatis and that hetero-oligomers of different Msp monomers increase the heterogeneity of MspA pores designed for DNA sequencing. To improve the quality of preparations of mutant MspA proteins, all four msp genes were deleted from the M. smegmatis genome after insertion of an inducible porin gene from M. tuberculosis. In the msp quadruple mutant M. smegmatis ML712 no Msp porins were detected and mutant MspA proteins were produced at wild-type levels. Lipid bilayer experiments demonstrated that MspA pores isolated from ML712 formed functional channels and had a narrower conductance distribution than pores purified from M. smegmatis with background msp expression. Thus, the M. smegmatis msp quadruple mutant improves the homogeneity of MspA pores designed for DNA sequencing and might also facilitate the identification and functional characterization of other mycobacterial pore proteins. PMID:26912121

  19. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Mycobacterium bovis and BCG Vaccine Strains

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Ge

    2013-09-01

    BCG is the only licensed human vaccine currently available against TB. Derived from a virulent strain of M. bovis, the vaccine was thought to have struck a balance between reduced virulence and preserved immunogenicity. Nowadays, BCG vaccine strains used in different countries and vaccination programs show clear variations in their genomes and immune protective properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the proteomic profile on Mycobacterium bovis and five BCG strains Pasteur, Tokyo, Danish, Phipps and Birkhaug by Tandem Mass Tag® (TMT®)-labeling quantitative proteomic approach. In total, 420 proteins were identified and 377 of them were quantitated for their relative abundance. We reported the number and relationship of differential expressed proteins in BCG strains compared to M. bovis and investigated their functions by bioinformatics analysis. Several interesting up-regulated and down-regulated protein targets were found. The identified proteins and their quantitative expression profiles provide a basis for further understanding of the cellular biology of M. bovis and BCG vaccine strains, and hopefully would assist in the design of better anti-TB vaccine and drugs.

  20. ESX-5-deficient Mycobacterium marinum is hypervirulent in adult zebrafish

    KAUST Repository

    Weerdenburg, Eveline M.

    2012-02-15

    ESX-5 is a mycobacterial type VII protein secretion system responsible for transport of numerous PE and PPE proteins. It is involved in the induction of host cell death and modulation of the cytokine response in vitro. In this work, we studied the effects of ESX-5 in embryonic and adult zebrafish using Mycobacterium marinum. We found that ESX-5-deficient M.marinum was slightly attenuated in zebrafish embryos. Surprisingly, the same mutant showed highly increased virulence in adult zebrafish, characterized by increased bacterial loads and early onset of granuloma formation with rapid development of necrotic centres. This early onset of granuloma formation was accompanied by an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and tissue remodelling genes in zebrafish infected with the ESX-5 mutant. Experiments using RAG-1-deficient zebrafish showed that the increased virulence of the ESX-5 mutant was not dependent on the adaptive immune system. Mixed infection experiments with wild-type and ESX-5 mutant bacteria showed that the latter had a specific advantage in adult zebrafish and outcompeted wild-type bacteria. Together our experiments indicate that ESX-5-mediated protein secretion is used by M.marinum to establish a moderate and persistent infection. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Role of Cathepsins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Survival in Human Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, David; Marques, Joana; Pombo, João Palma; Carmo, Nuno; Bettencourt, Paulo; Neyrolles, Olivier; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Anes, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    Cathepsins are proteolytic enzymes that function in the endocytic pathway, especially in lysosomes, where they contribute directly to pathogen killing or indirectly, by their involvement in the antigen presentation pathways. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that survives inside the macrophage phagosomes by inhibiting their maturation to phagolysosomes and thus avoiding a low pH and protease-rich environment. We previously showed that mycobacterial inhibition of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB results in impaired delivery of lysosomal enzymes to phagosomes and reduced pathogen killing. Here, we elucidate how MTB also controls cathepsins and their inhibitors, cystatins, at the level of gene expression and proteolytic activity. MTB induced a general down-regulation of cathepsin expression in infected cells, and inhibited IFNγ-mediated increase of cathepsin mRNA. We further show that a decrease in cathepsins B, S and L favours bacterial survival within human primary macrophages. A siRNA knockdown screen of a large set of cathepsins revealed that almost half of these enzymes have a role in pathogen killing, while only cathepsin F coincided with MTB resilience. Overall, we show that cathepsins are important for the control of MTB infection, and as a response, it manipulates their expression and activity to favour its intracellular survival. PMID:27572605

  2. Roles of Mucosal Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

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    Wu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB, is one of the world's leading infectious causes of morbidity and mortality. As a mucosal-transmitted pathogen, Mtb infects humans and animals mainly through the mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract. Apart from providing a physical barrier against the invasion of pathogen, the major function of the respiratory mucosa may be to serve as the inductive sites to initiate mucosal immune responses and sequentially provide the first line of defense for the host to defend against this pathogen. A large body of studies in the animals and humans have demonstrated that the mucosal immune system, rather than the systemic immune system, plays fundamental roles in the host’s defense against Mtb infection. Therefore, the development of new vaccines and novel delivery routes capable of directly inducing respiratory mucosal immunity is emphasized for achieving enhanced protection from Mtb infection. In this paper, we outline the current state of knowledge regarding the mucosal immunity against Mtb infection, including the development of TB vaccines, and respiratory delivery routes to enhance mucosal immunity are discussed.

  3. Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic pigs in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Suzanne S; Crawshaw, Timothy R; Smith, Noel H; Palgrave, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), infects a wide range of wild and domestic mammals. Despite a control programme spanning decades, M. bovis infection levels in cattle in Great Britain (GB) have continued to rise over recent years. As the incidence of infection in cattle and wildlife may be linked to that in swine, data relating to infection of pigs identified at slaughter were examined in this study. Between 2007 and 2011, almost all M. bovis-infected pigs originated from farms in the South-West and West-Midland regions of England. The data suggest that pigs raised outdoors or on holdings with poor biosecurity may be more vulnerable to infection with M. bovis. In the majority of cases, the same strains of M. bovis were found in pigs and cattle, despite that fact that direct contact between these species was rarely observed. Genotyping and geographical mapping data indicated that some strains found in pigs may correlate better with those present in badgers, rather than cattle. In consequence, it is proposed that pigs may represent a useful sentinel for M. bovis infection in wildlife in GB. Given the potential implications of this infection for the pig industry, and for the on-going effort to control bovine TB, the importance of understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of M. bovis infection, as well as monitoring its prevalence, in pigs should not be underestimated. PMID:24095608

  4. Amperometric immunosensor for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, Morgan; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Inoue, Shinnosuke; Becker, Annie L.; Weigel, Kris M.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has been a major public health problem, which can be better controlled by using accurate and rapid diagnosis in low-resource settings. A simple, portable, and sensitive detection method is required for point-of-care (POC) settings. This paper studies an amperometric biosensor using a microtip immunoassay for a rapid and low-cost detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in sputum. MTB in sputum is specifically captured on the functionalized microtip surface and detected by electric current. According to the numerical study, the current signal on the microtip surface is linearly changed with increasing immersion depth. Using a reference microtip, the immersion depth is compensated for a sensing microtip. On the microtip surface, target bacteria are concentrated and organized by a coffee-ring effect, which amplifies the electric current. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, both the sample processing and rinsing steps are presented with the use of deionized water as a medium for the amperometric measurement. When applied to cultured MTB cells spiked into human sputum, the detection limit was 100 CFU mL-1, comparable to a more labor-intensive fluorescence detection method reported previously.

  5. Bioluminescence for assessing drug potency against nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocat, Anthony; Hartkoorn, Ruben C; Lechartier, Benoit; Zhang, Ming; Dhar, Neeraj; Cole, Stewart T; Sala, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    Targeting dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis represents a challenge to antituberculosis drug discovery programs. We previously reported and validated the use of the streptomycin (STR)-dependent M. tuberculosis 18b strain as a tool for assessing drug potency against nonreplicating bacteria both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we generated a luminescent 18b strain, named 18b-Lux, by transforming the bacteria with a vector expressing the luxCDABE operon from Photorhabdus luminescens. Luciferase expression was demonstrated under replicating conditions, and, more importantly, luminescence levels significantly above background were detected following STR removal. The sensitivity of STR-starved 18b-Lux to approved and candidate antituberculosis therapeutic agents was evaluated by means of a luciferase assay in a 96-well format. Results mirrored the data obtained with the standard resazurin reduction microplate assay, and the luminescence readout allowed time course assessments of drug efficacy in vitro. Specifically, we proved that bedaquiline, the rifamycins, and sutezolid displayed time-dependent activity against dormant bacteria, while pyrazinamide and SQ109 showed bactericidal effects at the highest concentrations tested. Overall, we established the optimal conditions for an inexpensive, simple, and very sensitive assay with great potential for future applications. PMID:25896710

  6. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium abscessus to antimycobacterial drugs in preclinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón-Henao, Andrés; Arnett, Kimberly A; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Massoudi, Lisa; Creissen, Elizabeth; Andries, Koen; Lenaerts, Anne J; Ordway, Diane J

    2015-11-01

    Over the last 10 years, Mycobacterium abscessus group strains have emerged as important human pathogens, which are associated with significantly higher fatality rates than any other rapidly growing mycobacteria. These opportunistic pathogens are widespread in the environment and can cause a wide range of clinical diseases, including skin, soft tissue, central nervous system, and disseminated infections; by far, the most difficult to treat is the pulmonary form. Infections with M. abscessus are often multidrug-resistant (MDR) and require prolonged treatment with various regimens and, many times, result in high mortality despite maximal therapy. We report here the evaluation of diverse mouse infection models for their ability to produce a progressive high level of infection with M. abscessus. The nude (nu/nu), SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency), gamma interferon knockout (GKO), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) knockout mice fulfilled the criteria for an optimal model for compound screening. Thus, we set out to assess the antimycobacterial activity of clarithromycin, clofazimine, bedaquiline, and clofazimine-bedaquiline combinations against M. abscessus-infected GKO and SCID murine infection models. Treatment of GKO and SCID mice with a combination of clofazimine and bedaquiline was the most effective in decreasing the M. abscessus organ burden. PMID:26303795

  7. A case of chronic otitis media caused by Mycobacterium abscessus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hisashi; Ito, Makoto; Hatano, Miyako; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Maruyama, Yumiko; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2010-10-01

    Although it appears very uncommon in adult COM, Mycobacterium abscessus should be considered as a possible cause of a chronically draining ear. Multi-antibiotic chemotherapy including high-dose clarithromycin can effectively treat adult COM cased by M. abscessus. The first case report of adult chronic otitis media (COM) caused by M. abscessus is described here. A 61-year-old woman presented persistent otorrhea for 2 months, despite treatment with standard antimicrobial drugs. Physical examination revealed a small perforation of the tympanic membrane and edematous middle ear mucosa. Mycobacterial cultures and PCR yielded non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM); M. abscessus. Intravenous panipenem/betamipron and amikacin and oral clarithromycin were administered for 36 days. Computed tomography of the temporal bone showed improved aeration in the tympanic cavity, but soft tissue shadow remained unchanged in the mastoid 31 days after starting medication. She therefore underwent tympano-mastoidectomy at 36 days. At surgery, inflammation remained in the middle ear, and edematous pale mucosal tissue was noted around the stapes and ossicular chain. Histopathologic examination showed inflammation and granulation tissue, but no caseating necrosis or acid-fast bacilli. After surgery the symptoms resolved and remained well without evidence of infection recurrence 12 months after the operation. PMID:20206453

  8. Genome-wide discovery of small RNAs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Miotto

    Full Text Available Only few small RNAs (sRNAs have been characterized in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their role in regulatory networks is still poorly understood. Here we report a genome-wide characterization of sRNAs in M. tuberculosis integrating experimental and computational analyses. Global RNA-seq analysis of exponentially growing cultures of M. tuberculosis H37Rv had previously identified 1373 sRNA species. In the present report we show that 258 (19% of these were also identified by microarray expression. This set included 22 intergenic sRNAs, 84 sRNAs mapping within 5'/3' UTRs, and 152 antisense sRNAs. Analysis of promoter and terminator consensus sequences identified sigma A promoter consensus sequences for 121 sRNAs (47%, terminator consensus motifs for 22 sRNAs (8.5%, and both motifs for 35 sRNAs (14%. Additionally, 20/23 candidates were visualized by Northern blot analysis and 5' end mapping by primer extension confirmed the RNA-seq data. We also used a computational approach utilizing functional enrichment to identify the pathways targeted by sRNA regulation. We found that antisense sRNAs preferentially regulated transcription of membrane-bound proteins. Genes putatively regulated by novel cis-encoded sRNAs were enriched for two-component systems and for functional pathways involved in hydrogen transport on the membrane.

  9. Importance of Porins for Biocide Efficacy against Mycobacterium smegmatis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Elrike; Schmidt, Stefan; Niederweis, Michael; Steinhauer, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacteria are among the microorganisms least susceptible to biocides but cause devastating diseases, such as tuberculosis, and increasingly opportunistic infections. The exceptional resistance of mycobacteria to toxic solutes is due to an unusual outer membrane, which acts as an efficient permeability barrier, in synergy with other resistance mechanisms. Porins are channel-forming proteins in the outer membrane of mycobacteria. In this study we used the alamarBlue assay to show that the deletion of Msp porins in isogenic mutants increased the resistance of Mycobacterium smegmatis to isothiazolinones (methylchloroisothiazolinone [MCI]/methylisothiazolinone [MI] and octylisothiazolinone [2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one; OIT]), formaldehyde-releasing biocides {hexahydrotriazine [1,3,5-tris (2-hydroxyethyl)-hexahydrotriazine; HHT] and methylenbisoxazolidine [N,N′-methylene-bis-5-(methyloxazolidine); MBO]}, and the lipophilic biocides polyhexamethylene biguanide and octenidine dihydrochloride 2- to 16-fold. Furthermore, the susceptibility of the porin triple mutant against a complex disinfectant was decreased 8-fold compared to wild-type (wt) M. smegmatis. Efficacy testing in the quantitative suspension test EN 14348 revealed 100-fold improved survival of the porin mutant in the presence of this biocide. These findings underline the importance of porins for the susceptibility of M. smegmatis to biocides. PMID:21398489

  10. Importance of porins for biocide efficacy against Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Elrike; Schmidt, Stefan; Niederweis, Michael; Steinhauer, Katrin

    2011-05-01

    Mycobacteria are among the microorganisms least susceptible to biocides but cause devastating diseases, such as tuberculosis, and increasingly opportunistic infections. The exceptional resistance of mycobacteria to toxic solutes is due to an unusual outer membrane, which acts as an efficient permeability barrier, in synergy with other resistance mechanisms. Porins are channel-forming proteins in the outer membrane of mycobacteria. In this study we used the alamarBlue assay to show that the deletion of Msp porins in isogenic mutants increased the resistance of Mycobacterium smegmatis to isothiazolinones (methylchloroisothiazolinone [MCI]/methylisothiazolinone [MI] and octylisothiazolinone [2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one; OIT]), formaldehyde-releasing biocides {hexahydrotriazine [1,3,5-tris (2-hydroxyethyl)-hexahydrotriazine; HHT] and methylenbisoxazolidine [N,N'-methylene-bis-5-(methyloxazolidine); MBO]}, and the lipophilic biocides polyhexamethylene biguanide and octenidine dihydrochloride 2- to 16-fold. Furthermore, the susceptibility of the porin triple mutant against a complex disinfectant was decreased 8-fold compared to wild-type (wt) M. smegmatis. Efficacy testing in the quantitative suspension test EN 14348 revealed 100-fold improved survival of the porin mutant in the presence of this biocide. These findings underline the importance of porins for the susceptibility of M. smegmatis to biocides. PMID:21398489

  11. Mechanisms of cell accumulation induced by Mycobacterium bovis BCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octávio Menezes-de-Lima-Júnior

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria, specially Mycobacterium tuberculosis are among the micro-organisms that are increasing dramatically the number of infections with death, all over the world. A great number of animal experimental models have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the host response against these intracellular parasites. Studies of airway infection in guinea-pigs and rabbits, as well as, in mice intravenously infected with BCG have made an important contribution to our understanding of the virulence, pathogenesis and the immunology of mycobacterial infections. Although, there are few models to study the mechanisms of the initial inflammatory process induced by the first contact with the Mycobacteria, and the relevance of the acute generation of inflammatory mediators, cytokines and leukocyte infiltration to the development of the mycobacterial infection. In this work we reviewed our results obtained with a model of M. bovis BCG-induced pleurisy in mice, describing the mechanisms involved in the leukocyte influx induced by BCG at 24 hr. Different mechanisms appear to be related with the influx of neutrophils, eosinophils and mononuclear cells and distinct inflammatory mediators, cytokines and adhesion molecules are involved in the BCG-induced cell accumulation.

  12. An Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Case due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Hale Turan Özden

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an inflammatory and demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that is characterized by multifocal involvement of the white matter. Our patient was a 27-year-old female patient who had given birth to a baby with caesarean in another hospital. After four days upon the parturition, she was admitted to our hospital’s general intensive care unit with a poor general status, confusion and a fever. She was diagnosed with ADEM according to the clinical, laboratory and radiological findings. In addition to her antibiotic treatment (meropenem that had been given in the previous health care facility, corticosteroid therapy was also started. The patient passed away due to the ventilator-associated pneumonia infection on the 10th day of her admission. Mycobacterium tuberculosis proliferation was observed in the cerebrospinal fluid after her death. As it is reported in literature, tuberculosis is a rare cause of ADEM. In conclusion, it should be noted that M. tuberculosis can be a rare cause of ADEM in regions where the disease is endemic. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(1: 28-31

  13. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia complicated with Mycobacterium fortuitum infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP) is a rare disorder caused by the aspiration or inhalation of fat or oil. We report a case of vegetable oil-induced ELP complicated with Mycobacterium fortuitum infection. An 82-year-old woman underwent radiation therapy for carcinoma of the maxillary sinus. Seven months later, she was referred to our hospital for evaluation of persistent cough and abnormal chest roentgenogram. She underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). The BAL fluid separated into 2 distinct layers, an upper yellowish layer and a lower aqueous layer, containing a large number of vacuolated macrophages, and was positive for M. fortuitum. We subsequently found that the patient had regularly consumed a nutritional product, consisting mostly of vegetable oil, for dry mouth caused by radiation therapy. She was placed on antimicrobial and corticosteroid therapy but with little relief. Aspiration of vegetable oil used for radiation therapy-induced xerostomia caused ELP superimposed with M. fortuitum infection. Lipids in alveoli might have pathogenetic effects on mycobacterial infection. (author)

  14. Lymphatic endothelial cells are a replicative niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Thomas R.; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Repnik, Urska; Russell, Matthew R.G.; Borel, Sophie; Diedrich, Collin R.; Rohde, Manfred; Wainwright, Helen; Collinson, Lucy M.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Griffiths, Gareth; Gutierrez, Maximiliano G.

    2016-01-01

    In extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the most common site of infection is within the lymphatic system, and there is growing recognition that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are involved in immune function. Here, we identified LECs, which line the lymphatic vessels, as a niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lymph nodes of patients with tuberculosis. In cultured primary human LECs (hLECs), we determined that M. tuberculosis replicates both in the cytosol and within autophagosomes, but the bacteria failed to replicate when the virulence locus RD1 was deleted. Activation by IFN-γ induced a cell-autonomous response in hLECs via autophagy and NO production that restricted M. tuberculosis growth. Thus, depending on the activation status of LECs, autophagy can both promote and restrict replication. Together, these findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for hLECs and autophagy in tuberculosis pathogenesis and suggest that hLECs are a potential niche for M. tuberculosis that allows establishment of persistent infection in lymph nodes. PMID:26901813

  15. Mycobacterium avium in pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis): 28 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrenstien, Lisa A; Finnegan, Mitchell V; Woodford, Nina L; Mansfield, Kristin G; Waters, W Ray; Bannantine, John P; Paustian, Michael L; Garner, Michael M; Bakke, Antony C; Peloquin, Charles A; Phillips, Terry M

    2006-12-01

    The Columbia basin subpopulation of pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis was listed as endangered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service in November 2001, and no pygmy rabbits have been seen in the wild since spring 2002. Captive propagation efforts have attempted to increase population size in preparation for reintroduction of animals into central Washington. Disseminated mycobacteriosis due to Mycobacterium avium has been the most common cause of death of adult captive pygmy rabbits. Between June 2002 and September 2004, mycobacteriosis was diagnosed in 28 captive adult pygmy rabbits (representing 29% of the captive population), in contrast to 18 adult pygmy rabbits dying of all other causes in the same time period. Antemortem and postmortem medical records were evaluated retrospectively to describe the clinical course of mycobacteriosis in pygmy rabbits, physical examination findings, and diagnostic test results in the diagnosis of mycobacteriosis in pygmy rabbits. Various treatment protocols, possible risk factors for mortality, and recommendations for prevention of mycobacteriosis were evaluated also. Compromised cell-mediated immunity appears to be the best explanation at this time for the observed high morbidity and mortality from mycobacterial infections in pygmy rabbits. PMID:17315435

  16. MYCOBACTERIUM COMPLEX IDENTIFICATION BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A HAWAII

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are different ways for identification of Mycobacteria. One of the most sensitive method is HPLC of phenacyl esters of mycolic acids of Mycobacteria for rapid identification of them after their primary cultures. This study uses HPLC for rapid identification and dissociation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Methods: In this study we use HPLC patterns of mycolic acids for identification three important species of mycobacteria (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. bovis BCG from other mycobacterial species. All the strains were obtained from Tuberculosis and Pulmonary Diseases Research Center. HPLC conditions was as follows: HPLC: Model 1200 Cecil, Column: URP C-18 25X4.6 mm, Detector: U.V variable wave length at 254 nm, Elution: Gradient of methanol/chloroform. Flow rate: 2.5 ml/min. Results: HPLC leads to obtaining chromatograms which on its X-axis retention times (of different peaks which exist in the sample and on its Y-axis U.V absorbance (of these peaks were drown. These chromatograms in M. bovis and M. tuberculosis samples are similar with each other but differs from BCG ones. Discussion: On the basis of different retention times and numbers of the peaks which present in each chromatogram, we can differentiate between M. bovis, M. tuberculosis and BCG from other Mycobacteria. Also, with this method we can identify BCG from M. bovis and M. tuberculosis (because BCG has 9 and M. bovis and M. tuberculosis has 7 characteristic peaks in their chromatograms.

  17. Molecular Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Gencer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To survey the circulating strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Turkey, all clinical isolates (381 patients recovered in laboratories in six cities during one-month periods were collected and typed by IS6110-DNA fingerprinting and spoligotyping. Drug susceptibilities were also determined. About 23% of the isolates were resistant to one or more drugs and about 4% were multidrug resistant (i.e., resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin. IS6110-DNA fingerprints and spoligotypes were obtained from 368 and 374 strains, respectively. Of the 374 isolates spoligotyped, 87 (23% displayed unique spoligotypes and 287 (77% displayed one of 34 spoligotypes (2-77 isolates per pattern. The clustered spoligotypes included ones that matched spoligotypes of the T (37% of isolates, LAM (20%, Haarlem (8% and Beijing (2% families. Of the 368 isolates IS6110-typed, 232 (63% displayed unique IS6110-fingerprint patterns and 136 (37% displayed one of 35 patterns (2-34 isolates per pattern. When IS6110 fingerprinting and spoligotyping information were combined for the 381 isolates tested, 273 isolates (72% displayed unique genotypes and 108 isolates (28% displayed one of 34 genotypes (2-24 isolates per genotype. In summary, many different strains are circulating in Turkey with no single strain appearing to be dominant as has been observed in other areas of the world with high tuberculosis incidence.

  18. A robust SNP barcode for typing Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains

    KAUST Repository

    Coll, Francesc

    2014-09-01

    Strain-specific genomic diversity in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is an important factor in pathogenesis that may affect virulence, transmissibility, host response and emergence of drug resistance. Several systems have been proposed to classify MTBC strains into distinct lineages and families. Here, we investigate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as robust (stable) markers of genetic variation for phylogenetic analysis. We identify ∼92k SNP across a global collection of 1,601 genomes. The SNP-based phylogeny is consistent with the gold-standard regions of difference (RD) classification system. Of the ∼7k strain-specific SNPs identified, 62 markers are proposed to discriminate known circulating strains. This SNP-based barcode is the first to cover all main lineages, and classifies a greater number of sublineages than current alternatives. It may be used to classify clinical isolates to evaluate tools to control the disease, including therapeutics and vaccines whose effectiveness may vary by strain type. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  19. An unusual cause of prosthetic joint infection: Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgül Mete

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a rare cause of prosthetic joint infection. Early diagnosis is critical for a good treatment response.Here, we report a case of prosthetic joint infection due to M.tuberculosis. A32-year old woman was admitted toour clinic for fever and drainage of right hip with prosthesis. After several interventions, she was diagnosed as prostheticinfection due to M.tuberculosis. Although the diagnosis was delayed because of the difficulties to yield M.tuberculosis,the outcome was good with medical therapy for 12-month and staged exchange of prosthesis.Approach to diagnosis must involve the histopathological examination of the tissue, mycobacterial cultures and acidfaststaining and when repeated cultures and examination of histological samples from infected joints are negative,tuberculosis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection. While the treatment modalitiesvary in English literature, it is clear that treatment must involve both medical and surgical approaches. J MicrobiolInfect Dis 2012; 2(2: 72-75Key words: Prosthetic joint, infection, tuberculosis

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to antituberculosis drugs in Mozambique

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    Germano Manuel Pires

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the drug resistance profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mozambique. METHODS: We analyzed secondary data from the National Tuberculosis Referral Laboratory, in the city of Maputo, Mozambique, and from the Beira Regional Tuberculosis Referral Laboratory, in the city of Beira, Mozambique. The data were based on culture-positive samples submitted to first-line drug susceptibility testing (DST between January and December of 2011. We attempted to determine whether the frequency of DST positivity was associated with patient type or provenance. RESULTS: During the study period, 641 strains were isolated in culture and submitted to DST. We found that 374 (58.3% were resistant to at least one antituberculosis drug and 280 (43.7% were resistant to multiple antituberculosis drugs. Of the 280 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases, 184 (65.7% were in previously treated patients, most of whom were from southern Mozambique. Two (0.71% of the cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were confirmed to be cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was most common in males, particularly those in the 21-40 year age bracket. CONCLUSIONS: M. tuberculosis resistance to antituberculosis drugs is high in Mozambique, especially in previously treated patients. The frequency of M. tuberculosis strains that were resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin in combination was found to be high, particularly in samples from previously treated patients.

  1. Role of porins for uptake of antibiotics by Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilchanka, Olga; Pavlenok, Mikhail; Niederweis, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The outer membrane of mycobacteria presents an effective permeability barrier for many antibiotics. Transport pathways across this membrane are unknown for most drugs. Here, we examined which antibiotics utilize the porin pathway across the outer membrane of the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis. Deletion of the porins MspA and MspC drastically increased the resistance of M. smegmatis ML10 to beta-lactam antibiotics, while its beta-lactamase activity remained unchanged. These results are consistent with the ninefold-reduced outer membrane permeability of the M. smegmatis porin mutants for cephaloridine and strongly indicate that beta-lactam antibiotics rely on the porin pathway. The porin mutant ML10 accumulated less chloramphenicol and norfloxacin and was less susceptible to these antibiotics than wild-type M. smegmatis. These results demonstrated that small and hydrophilic antibiotics use the Msp porins for entering the cell. In contrast to norfloxacin, the hydrophobic moxifloxacin was 32-fold more effective in inhibiting the growth of M. smegmatis, presumably because it was able to diffuse through the lipid membrane. Structural models indicated that erythromycin, kanamycin, and vancomycin are too large to move through the MspA channel. This study presents the first experimental evidence that hydrophilic fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol diffuse through porins in mycobacteria. Thus, mutations resulting in less efficient porins or lower porin expression levels are likely to represent a mechanism for the opportunistic pathogens M. avium, M. chelonae, and M. fortuitum, which have Msp-like porins, to acquire resistance to fluoroquinolones. PMID:18559650

  2. Mycobacterium bovis: realities and challenges for the veterinary biopharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Domínguez Odio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis is the main etiological agent of bovine tuberculosis, bacterial diseases of world distribution, chronicle, of easy transmission, debilitating, zoonotic and antropozoonotic that affects any organ and which can be presented without symptoms On this base, it was carried out a study with the objective of approaching the current state and the scientific-technological projections for the prevention and diagnosis of the bovine tuberculosis, caused by M. bovis. It was demonstrated that the 45.09% of the original articles on inmunoprophylaxis against bacteria, registered in the Scopus database and contextualised until principles of 2014, were focused toward M. bovis. In spite of the advances in molecular biology and the hopes deposited in the Ag85A, Rv0287, Rv0288, Rv0251c, MPB70, MPB83, ESAT-6 and CFP-10 molecules, jointly with their combinations, it will continue absent in the market an effective, safety and differentiating vaccine; as well as a robust DIVA diagnosis system. It can be concluded that in the next 5 years, an officially recognized vacinal formulation will continue absent and that the tuberculin test in spite of its weaknesses will continue being the main tool of surveillance.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in Southwest Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ojo, Olabisi O

    2010-10-01

    Tuberculosis has had significant effects on Ireland over the past two centuries, causing persistently higher morbidity and mortality than in neighbouring countries until the last decade. This study describes the results of genotyping and drug susceptibility testing of 171 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated between January 2004 and December 2006 in a region of Ireland centred on the city of Cork. Spoligotype comparisons were made with the SpolDB4 database and clustered 130 strains in 23 groups, forty-one strains showed unique Spoligotyping patterns. The commonest spoligotypes detected were ST0137 (X2) (16.9%), and ST0351 (15.8%) (\\'U\\' clade). The major spoligotype clades were X (26.2%), U (19.3%), T (15.2%), Beijing (5.9%), Haarlem (4.7%), LAM (4.1%), BOVIS (1.75%), with 12.9% unassigned strains. A 24-locus VNTR genotyping produced 15 clusters containing 49 isolates, with high discrimination index (HGDI>0.99). A combination of Spoligotyping and VNTR reduced the number of clustered isolates to 47 in 15 clusters (27.5%). This study identified ST351 as common among Irish nationals, and found a low rate of drug resistance with little evidence of transmission of drug resistant strains. Strain clustering was significantly associated with age under 55 years and Irish nationality. Only strains of Euro-American lineage formed clusters. Molecular typing did not completely coincide with the results of contact investigations.

  4. Lymphatic endothelial cells are a replicative niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Thomas R; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Repnik, Urska; Russell, Matthew R G; Borel, Sophie; Diedrich, Collin R; Rohde, Manfred; Wainwright, Helen; Collinson, Lucy M; Wilkinson, Robert J; Griffiths, Gareth; Gutierrez, Maximiliano G

    2016-03-01

    In extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the most common site of infection is within the lymphatic system, and there is growing recognition that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are involved in immune function. Here, we identified LECs, which line the lymphatic vessels, as a niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lymph nodes of patients with tuberculosis. In cultured primary human LECs (hLECs), we determined that M. tuberculosis replicates both in the cytosol and within autophagosomes, but the bacteria failed to replicate when the virulence locus RD1 was deleted. Activation by IFN-γ induced a cell-autonomous response in hLECs via autophagy and NO production that restricted M. tuberculosis growth. Thus, depending on the activation status of LECs, autophagy can both promote and restrict replication. Together, these findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for hLECs and autophagy in tuberculosis pathogenesis and suggest that hLECs are a potential niche for M. tuberculosis that allows establishment of persistent infection in lymph nodes. PMID:26901813

  5. Cytokines and Mycobacterium leprae induce apoptosis in human Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rosane B; Sampaio, Elizabeth P; Aarestrup, Fernando; Teles, Rosane M B; Silva, Tatiana P; Oliveira, Ariane L; Antas, Paulo R Z; Sarno, Euzenir N

    2005-10-01

    The development of deformities during the course of leprosy disease is a major public health concern worldwide. It is possible that cytokine production and apoptosis of Schwann cells (SCs) directly affect nerve degeneration and regeneration leading to injury of the myelin sheath and axon. In the present study, the expression of TNFalpha, TGFbeta, and their receptors, in addition to cell death triggered by cytokines or whole Mycobacterium leprae were investigated in a human SC line. The results showed the presence of TNF-Rs and TGF-RII on the SC membrane and the shedding of TNF-Rs during the culture period. Evaluation of cell death was performed through TUNEL and flow cytometry techniques. TNFalpha/TGFbeta combination as well as M. leprae infection triggered an increase in the apoptosis rate in the cultured SC. Moreover, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay revealed that M. leprae upregulated the expression of such cytokines and their receptors on the SC line. Despite the detection of TNFalpha mRNA, no protein was found in the culture supernatants. The data indicate that induction of SC death after cell interaction with M. leprae may, in fact, be implicated in the pathogenesis of nerve damage, which can most likely be modulated by in vivo cytokine production. PMID:16215460

  6. PolyTB: A genomic variation map for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    KAUST Repository

    Coll, Francesc

    2014-02-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the second major cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide. Recent advances in DNA sequencing are leading to the ability to generate whole genome information in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC). The identification of informative genetic variants such as phylogenetic markers and those associated with drug resistance or virulence will help barcode Mtb in the context of epidemiological, diagnostic and clinical studies. Mtb genomic datasets are increasingly available as raw sequences, which are potentially difficult and computer intensive to process, and compare across studies. Here we have processed the raw sequence data (>1500 isolates, eight studies) to compile a catalogue of SNPs (n = 74,039, 63% non-synonymous, 51.1% in more than one isolate, i.e. non-private), small indels (n = 4810) and larger structural variants (n = 800). We have developed the PolyTB web-based tool (http://pathogenseq.lshtm.ac.uk/polytb) to visualise the resulting variation and important meta-data (e.g. in silico inferred strain-types, location) within geographical map and phylogenetic views. This resource will allow researchers to identify polymorphisms within candidate genes of interest, as well as examine the genomic diversity and distribution of strains. PolyTB source code is freely available to researchers wishing to develop similar tools for their pathogen of interest. 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium microti) in wild field vole populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burthe, S; Bennett, M; Kipar, A; Lambin, X; Smith, A; Telfer, S; Begon, M

    2008-03-01

    Vole tuberculosis (TB; Mycobacterium microti) is an understudied endemic infection. Despite progressing slowly, it causes severe clinical pathology and overt symptoms in its rodent host. TB was monitored for 2 years in wild field voles in Kielder Forest, UK. The prevalence of characteristic cutaneous TB lesions was monitored longitudinally at 4 sites, with individuals live-trapped and repeatedly monitored. A prevalence of 5.2% of individuals with lesions was recorded (n=2791). In a cross-sectional study, 27 sites were monitored bi-annually, with TB assessed by post-mortem examination for macroscopic lesions, and by culture and histopathology. Seventy-nine voles (10.78%; n=733) were positive for mycobacteria, with the highest prevalence in spring (13.15%; n=327). TB prevalence varied, with between 0% and 50% of voles infected per site. Prevalence increased with age (mass), and apparent seasonality was due to a higher proportion of older animals in spring. Survival analysis supported this result, with cutaneous lesions only manifesting in the advanced stages of infection, and therefore only being found on older voles. The body condition of individuals with lesions declined at the time when the lesion was first recorded, when compared to individuals without lesions, suggesting there may be an acute phase of infection during its advanced stage. Although predicted survival following the appearance of a cutaneous lesion was lower than for uninfected individuals, this was not significant. PMID:18005472

  8. Outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a wild animal park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidbauer, S-M; Wohlsein, P; Kirpal, G; Beineke, A; Müller, G; Müller, H; Moser, I; Baumgartner, W

    2007-09-01

    An outbreak of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis occurred in a wild animal park. Three pot-bellied pigs (Sus scrofa vittatus), one red deer (Cervus elaphus), one buffalo (Bison bonasus) and two European lynxes (Lynx lynx) were affected and showed clinical signs including weight loss, enlarged lymph nodes and paralysis of the hindlimbs. Postmortem examinations revealed multifocal granulomatous lesions in various organs, including the lymph nodes, lungs, intestines, kidneys and the central nervous system. Acid-fast organisms were demonstrated in various organs histologically and bacteriologically. Spoligotyping of 17 isolates from various organs of the affected animals confirmed an infection by M bovis and revealed an identical pattern indicating a common origin. The spoligotype was different from the pattern of M bovis recorded in the cattle population in Germany between 2000 and 2006. Investigations of sentinel animals such as an aged silver fox (Vulpes vulpes), a badger (Meles meles), a ferret (Mustela putorius) and rodents, and tuberculin skin tests of the animal attendants and randomly collected faecal samples from the enclosures were all negative for M bovis. PMID:17766809

  9. Genetic markers, genotyping methods & next generation sequencing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinidhi Desikan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular epidemiology (ME is one of the main areas in tuberculosis research which is widely used to study the transmission epidemics and outbreaks of tubercle bacilli. It exploits the presence of various polymorphisms in the genome of the bacteria that can be widely used as genetic markers. Many DNA typing methods apply these genetic markers to differentiate various strains and to study the evolutionary relationships between them. The three widely used genotyping tools to differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP, spacer oligotyping (Spoligotyping, and mycobacterial interspersed repeat units - variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR. A new prospect towards ME was introduced with the development of whole genome sequencing (WGS and the next generation sequencing (NGS methods, where the entire genome is sequenced that not only helps in pointing out minute differences between the various sequences but also saves time and the cost. NGS is also found to be useful in identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, comparative genomics and also various aspects about transmission dynamics. These techniques enable the identification of mycobacterial strains and also facilitate the study of their phylogenetic and evolutionary traits.

  10. Biochemical characterization of uracil phosphoribosyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Drumond Villela

    Full Text Available Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT catalyzes the conversion of uracil and 5-phosphoribosyl-α-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP to uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP and pyrophosphate (PP(i. UPRT plays an important role in the pyrimidine salvage pathway since UMP is a common precursor of all pyrimidine nucleotides. Here we describe cloning, expression and purification to homogeneity of upp-encoded UPRT from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtUPRT. Mass spectrometry and N-terminal amino acid sequencing unambiguously identified the homogeneous protein as MtUPRT. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that native MtUPRT follows a monomer-tetramer association model. MtUPRT is specific for uracil. GTP is not a modulator of MtUPRT ativity. MtUPRT was not significantly activated or inhibited by ATP, UTP, and CTP. Initial velocity and isothermal titration calorimetry studies suggest that catalysis follows a sequential ordered mechanism, in which PRPP binding is followed by uracil, and PP(i product is released first followed by UMP. The pH-rate profiles indicated that groups with pK values of 5.7 and 8.1 are important for catalysis, and a group with a pK value of 9.5 is involved in PRPP binding. The results here described provide a solid foundation on which to base upp gene knockout aiming at the development of strategies to prevent tuberculosis.

  11. Mycobacterium haemophilum Masquerading as Leprosy in a Renal Transplant Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Nathanial K; Arora, Navin S; Ferguson, Tomas M

    2013-01-01

    Opportunistic infections following immunosuppression in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients are common complications with the skin being a common sight of infection. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are rare but potential causes of skin infection in SOT patients. We present a case of an adult male immunosuppressed following renal transplantation who presented with an asymptomatic rash for several months. The patient's skin eruption consisted of erythematous papules and plaques coalescing into an annular formation. After failure of the initial empiric therapy, a punch biopsy was performed that demonstrated nerve involvement suspicious for Mycobacterium leprae. However, culture of the biopsy specimen grew acid-fast bacilli that were subsequently identified as M. haemophilum. His rash improved after a prolonged course of clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Both organisms are potential causes of opportunistic skin infections and can be difficult to distinguish with similar predilection for skin and other biochemical and genetic similarities. Ultimately they can be distinguished with culture as M. haemophilum will grow in culture and M. leprae will not. This case was unique due to nerve involvement on biopsy which is classically seen on biopsies of leprosy. PMID:24369511

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of new 2-aminothiophenes against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanna, Sandeep; Knudson, Susan E; Grzegorzewicz, Anna; Kapil, Sunayana; Goins, Christopher M; Ronning, Donald R; Jackson, Mary; Slayden, Richard A; Sucheck, Steven J

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and its drug resistant forms kills more people than any other infectious disease. This fact emphasizes the need to identify new drugs to treat TB. 2-Aminothiophenes (2AT) have been reported to inhibit Pks13, a validated anti-TB drug target. We synthesized a library of 42 2AT compounds. Among these, compound 33 showed remarkable potency against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37RV (MIC = 0.23 μM) and showed an impressive potency (MIC = 0.20-0.44 μM) against Mtb strains resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin and fluoroquinolones. The site of action for the compound 33 is presumed to be Pks13 or an earlier enzyme in the mycolic acid biosynthetic pathway. This inference is based on structural similarity of the compound 33 with known Pks13 inhibitors, which is corroborated by mycolic acid biosynthesis studies showing that the compound strongly inhibits the biosynthesis of all forms of mycolic acid in Mtb. In summary, these studies suggest 33 represents a promising anti-TB lead that exhibits activity well below toxicity to human monocytic cells. PMID:27251120

  13. Molecular diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains indifferent provinces of Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadese Mozafari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular epidemiology tools are widely used in determining epidemiology of tuberculosis. Spoligotyping is a molecular epidemiology method that is used for characterization and typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains. The method is based on polymorphism of the chromosomal DR locus consisting of identical 36-bp DRs alternating with 35-41 unique spacers. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of M. tuberculosis spoligotypes in different provinces of Iran.M. tuberculosis strains were isolated from TB patients of Mycobacteriology Research center (MRC. DNA was extracted from patient's clinical samples. PCR was performed by using of specific primers for DR region. The amplified DNA was hybridized to the spoligotyping Membrane. Hybridized DNA was detected with ECL detection kit and by exposing ECL Hyperfilm to the membrane. The obtained result was entered to a binary format and was analyzed using SpolDB4 database.Spoligotyping resulted in 136 different patterns. Out of 1242 M. tuberculosis strains, 1165 strains (93.8% were classified into 59 clusters and the remaining strains (6.2 % were singleton.The results of present study showed that strains of CAS family were more prevalent than other strains in Iran. Other prevalent families were Haarlem, T and Beijing, respectively.

  14. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare brain abscess in HIV-positive patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karne, Sampada S.; Sangle, Shashikala A.; Kiyawat, Dilip S.; Dharmashale, Sujata N.; Kadam, Dilip B.; Bhardwaj, Renu S.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterial opportunistic infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients living with HIV (PLHIV) worldwide. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection is one of the leading causes of opportunistic infection in patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome i.e., with CD4 count less than 50/cu.mm. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is among the most common opportunistic bacterial infections in those patients with advanced immunodeficiency apart from cryptococcal meningitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, etc. Common presentations of mycobacterium avium complex are fever, lymphadenitis and respiratory disease. Immune reconstitution disease is also known to manifest with MAC infections in PLHIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Very few cases of central nervous system involvement due to NTM infection have been described. We are reporting a case of advanced acquired immunodeficiency who presented with brain abscess due to Mycobacterium avium intracellulare. PMID:22412276

  15. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare brain abscess in HIV-positive patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampada S Karne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterial opportunistic infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients living with HIV (PLHIV worldwide. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM infection is one of the leading causes of opportunistic infection in patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome i.e., with CD4 count less than 50/cu.mm. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC is among the most common opportunistic bacterial infections in those patients with advanced immunodeficiency apart from cryptococcal meningitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, etc. Common presentations of mycobacterium avium complex are fever, lymphadenitis and respiratory disease. Immune reconstitution disease is also known to manifest with MAC infections in PLHIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Very few cases of central nervous system involvement due to NTM infection have been described. We are reporting a case of advanced acquired immunodeficiency who presented with brain abscess due to Mycobacterium avium intracellulare.

  16. Osteomyelitis Infection of Mycobacterium marinum: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao H. Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium marinum (M. marinum is a ubiquitous waterborne organism that grows optimally at temperatures around 30°C. It is a nontuberculous Mycobacterium found in nonchlorinated water with worldwide prevalence. It is the most common atypical Mycobacterium that causes opportunistic infection in humans. M. marinum can cause superficial infections and localized invasive infections in humans, with the hands being the sites most frequently affected. It can cause skin lesions, which are either single, papulonodular lesions, confined to an extremity, or may resemble cutaneous sporotrichosis. This infection can also cause deeper infections including tenosynovitis, bursitis, arthritis, and osteomyelitis. Disseminated infections and visceral involvements have been reported in immunocompromised patients. We here report a case of severe deep soft tissue infection with necrotizing fasciitis and osteomyelitis of the left upper extremity (LUE caused by M. marinum in an immunocompromised patient.

  17. A pilot study to determine genetic polymorphism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Desikan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify predominant spoligotypes responsible for transmission and prevalence of tuberculosis in central India since there is no data available about the genetic biodiversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients with tuberculosis in this region. 35 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were subjected to spoligotyping according to the standard protocol. A total of 25 strains out of the 35 (71.42% could be grouped in to 6 clusters. The largest cluster comprised 8 isolates. Unique (Non-clustered spoligotypes were seen in 10 isolates, Nine strains did not match the data base (Spol DB-4 data base. The results indicate that there may be a number of orphan strains unique to this geographical area. Further studies on a larger sample size derived from this area would help us delineate the epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in this area.

  18. Use of MALDI-TOF MS for Identification of Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Species Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Concepción Mediavilla-Gradolph

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the results obtained for identification by MALDI-TOF of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM isolated in clinical samples with those obtained by GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS (common mycobacteria/additional species. A total of 66 Mycobacterium isolates from various clinical specimens (mainly respiratory were tested in this study. They were identified using MALDI-TOF Bruker from strains isolated in Lowenstein, following the recommended protocol of heat inactivation and extraction, and were simultaneously analyzed through hybridization by GenoType Mycobacterium from liquid culture MGIT. Our results showed that identification by MALDI-TOF was correct in 98.4% (65/66 of NTM isolated in our clinical practice (M. avium, M. intracellulare, M. abscessus, M. chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. mucogenicum, M. kansasii, and M. scrofulaceum. MALDI-TOF was found to be an accurate, rapid, and cost-effective system for identification of mycobacteria species.

  19. Specific T-cell epitopes for immunoassay-based diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, I; Weldingh, K; Leyten, EM; Arend, SM; Ravn, Pernille; Andersen, P

    2004-01-01

    Specific T-cell epitopes for immunoassay-based diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.Brock I, Weldingh K, Leyten EM, Arend SM, Ravn P, Andersen P. Department of Infectious Disease Immunology, Statens Serum Institute, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. The currently used...... method for immunological detection of tuberculosis infection, the tuberculin skin test, has low specificity. Antigens specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to replace purified protein derivative are therefore urgently needed. We have performed a rigorous assessment of the diagnostic potential of four...... recently identified antigens (Rv2653, Rv2654, Rv3873, and Rv3878) from genomic regions that are lacking from the Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine strains as well as from the most common nontuberculous mycobacteria. The fine specificity of potential epitopes in these molecules was...

  20. On Time chez Dummett

    OpenAIRE

    Butterfield, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    I discuss three connections between Dummett’s writings about time and philosophical aspects of physics. Th e first connection (Section 2) arises from remarks of Dummett’s about the different relations of observation to time and to space. The main point is uncontroversial and applies equally to classical and quantum physics. It concerns the fact that perceptual processing is so rapid, compared with the typical time-scale on which macroscopic objects change their observable properties, that it ...