Sample records for cheyletus eruditus schrank

  1. Cheyletus eruditus (taurrus): an effective candidate for the biological control of the snake mite (Ophionyssus natricis). (United States)

    Schilliger, Lionel H; Morel, Damien; Bonwitt, Jesse H; Marquis, Olivier


    The most commonly encountered ectoparasite in captive snakes is the hematophagous snake mite (Ophionyssus natricis). Infected snakes often exhibit lethargy, dysecdysis, pruritus, crusting dermatitis (sometimes progressing to abscesses), and behavioral changes (increased bathing time, rubbing against objects). Anemia and septicemia are occasional complications. Eliminating snake mites from a collection is frustrating. Insecticidal and acaricidal compounds used in mammals can be used against O. natricis infestation in reptiles, but they all are potentially neurotoxic to reptiles. The use of a biological agent to control the snake mite was first developed by using the predatory mites Hypoaspis miles and Hypoaspis aculeifer. However, no data are available regarding the potential of these mites to control O. natricis. Furthermore, the survival and predatory behavior of H. aculeifer and H. miles decreases above 28 degrees C, which is the lower value of the optimal temperature zone range required for rearing snakes. The aim of this study is to identify the ability of the predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus to control O. natricis. In the first experiment, 125 O. natricis mites where placed in separate plastic tubes together with the same number of C. eruditus mites. After 48 hr, the survival rate of snake mites was 6% compared with 92% in the control group (n = 125, P snake) ball pythons, with an average of 13 O. natricis per individual, were placed in separate cages with 1,000 C. eruditus mites + vermiculite After 15 days, only an average of two mites per snake remained, compared with 48 per snake in the control group (t-test, P < 0,01).

  2. Egg morphology of the predatory mite, Cheyletus malaccensis (Acarina: Cheyletidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučerová, Z.; Hromádková, Jiřina


    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2009), s. 35-40 ISSN 0171-8177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans 1903 * biocontrol * eggshell surface structure Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.618, year: 2009

  3. [Investigation on Cheyletoidea mites breeding in culture environment of Eupolyphaga sinensis and morphologic observation of Eucheyletia reticulate Cunliffe]. (United States)

    Ning, Tao; Wei, Guo; Shao-Sheng, Wang; Chao-Pin, Li


    To investigate the species of Cheyletoidea mites breeding in the culture environment of Eupolyphaga sinensis and to observe the morphology of Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe. The soil samples from an E. sinensis farm in northern Anhui were collected. The mites in the soil samples were separated directly under a microscope and the glass specimens were made to observe the morphological feature of the mites under a light microscope, then the mites species were identified and classified based on the morphological characteristics. In the culture soil of E. sinensis , totally 7 kinds of Cheyletoidea mites were isolated, namely Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe, Cheyletus eruditus Schrank, Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans, Cheyletus troussarti Oudemans, Cheyletus aveisor Rohdendorz, Acaropsis sollers Rohdendorz and Cheletomorpha lepidopterorum Shaw. They belonged to genera Eucheyletia , Cheletomorpha , Acaropsis and Cheyletus of Cheyletidae Leach family. The Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe was firstly found in the culture environment of E. sinensis , and its gnathosoma was large, the pedipalpal femurs were expanding and there were two strips of comb hair and two smooth bristles on the pedipalpal tarsus, and the back of the body was covered with two pieces of tergum, which were decorated with reticular pattern. The body and foot setae were fan-shape. There are various of Cheyletoidea mites found in the breeding environment of E. sinensis . These mites are important species for pest control in the culture environments of E. sinensis . Related measures should be taken to prevent the excessive growth of Cheyletoidea mites, so as to avoid the adverse effects on the quality and quantity of E. sinensis .

  4. Combined effect of an antifeedant alpha-amylase inhibitor and a predator Cheyletus malaccensis in controlling the stored-product mite Acarus siro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubert, J.; Hýblová, Jana; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Pekár, S.; Křížková, I.; Marešová, Lucie; Stejskal, V.; Mareš, Michael


    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2007), s. 41-49 ISSN 0307-6962 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04OC842.20; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04OC853.003; GA AV ČR IAA400550617; GA ČR GP203/02/P081 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : alpha-amylase * Acarus siro * Cheyletus malaccensis * digestion protease Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.410, year: 2007

  5. Ascaridiasis in peafowl Pavo cristatus (Phasianidae) due to Ascaridia galli Schrank, 1788. (United States)

    Teixeira, Marcel; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício; Catenacci, Lilian Silva; de Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes Azevedo; Sato, Marilia de Carvalho Brasil


    Twelve white peafowl (Pavo cristatus) affected by an outbreak of an intestinal disease were referred for more detailed examination at the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz-BA, Brazil. During the course of the disease, peachicks were severely affected, with enteric signs such as diarrhea plus dehydration, decreased feed intake and progressive weight loss. After examination, 8 of 12 samples (66.6%) presented single or mixed nematode infection and Ascarid eggs were the most frequent finding on fecal examination. Adult peafowl did not present clinical signs even when positive after fecal exam. Morphological analysis, clinical signs, fecal and gross examinations resulted in a diagnosis of ascaridiasis caused by Ascaridia galli Schrank (1788).

  6. Sampling methods to detect and estimate populations of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) infesting dry-cured hams (United States)

    Spatial and temporal dynamics of pest populations is an important aspect of effective pest management. However, absolute sampling of some pest populations such as the ham mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae), a serious pest of dry-cured ham, can be difficult. Sampling ...

  7. Histochemical investigation of Cochlospermum regium (Schrank) Pilg. leaves and chemical composition of its essential oil. (United States)

    Inácio, Marielle Cascaes; Paz, Tiago Antunes; Bertoni, Bianca Waléria; Vieira, Maria Aparecida Ribeiro; Marques, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares


    Essential oil from Cochlospermum regium (Schrank) Pilg. leaves (CR-EO) has been extracted by hydrodistillation; we analysed the CR-EO by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. We also conducted histochemical analysis on cross-sections of the central vein of young and adult leaves. A total of 32 compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed, which represented 94.87% of the total CR-EO oil content. The CR-EO basically consisted of sesquiterpenes (96.87%); its main component was β-copaen-4-α-ol (18.73%), followed by viridiflorol (12.67%). The histochemical analyses identified the main classes of compounds present in both young and adult leaves.

  8. Elaboration of a method for internal labelling of migrantes alatae of Phorodon humuli (Schrank)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taimr, L.


    The average value of the effective half-life of 32 P in migrates alatae of Phorodon humuli (Schrank) was 3.794 days during 11 days following termination of feeding NaH 2 32 PO 4 in 20% sucrose solution on 'Parafilm' membranes under the given experimental conditions (temperature 20 +- 4 0 C, imposed limitation of movement). During the first three days and partly also during 5 further days the aphids excreted non-assimilated 32 P, while assimilated 32 P was excreted during a further period of three days. Mainly birth-rate (34% losses of the incipient 32 P-activity of the females) determining the length of the effective and biological 32 P half-lives of the mothers is responsible for the reduction of radioactivity in the alate females. Excretion of radioactive phosphorus in the honeydew (5% losses of the incipient 32 P-activity of the females) proceeds more rapidly as follows from the effective half-life. The 32 P-activity level of the migrantes alatae used (453 to 7979 counts per min) did not adversely affect fertility which amounted to 19.7 nymphs on the average during 11 days. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Elaboration of a method for internal labelling of migrantes alatae of Phorodon humuli (Schrank)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taimr, L.


    The average value of the effective half-life of /sup 32/P in migrantes alatae of Phorodon humuli (Schrank) was 3.794 days during 11 days following termination of feeding NaH/sub 2//sup 32/PO/sub 4/ in 20% sucrose solution on 'Parafilm' membranes under the given experimental conditions (temperature 20 +- 4/sup 0/C, imposed limitation of movement). During the first three days and partly also during 5 further days the aphids excreted non-assimilated /sup 32/P, while assimilated /sup 32/P was excreted during a further period of three days. Mainly birth-rate (34% losses of the incipient /sup 32/P-activity of the females) determining the length of the effective and biological /sup 32/P half-lives of the mothers is responsible for the reduction of radioactivity in the alate females. Excretion of radioactive phosphorus in the honeydew (5% losses of the incipient /sup 32/P-activity of the females) proceeds more rapidly as follows from the effective half-life. The /sup 32/P-activity level of the migrantes alatae used (453 to 7979 counts per min) did not adversely affect fertility which amounted to 19.7 nymphs on the average during 11 days.

  10. Ultrastructure of Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae). (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang


    Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) is a common parasite of various galliform birds worldwide. Although A. galli has been extensively studied by many author, knowledge of the morphology of this species in detail is still insufficient. In the present paper, the detailed morphology of A. galli was further studied using light and scanning electron microscopy, based on specimens collected from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae) in China. The results revealed some erroneous and previously unreported morphological features, including the lips lacking real denticles, the lateral alae beginning at some distance posterior to the base of the ventrolateral lips and the caudal papillae with 4 different morphotypes. The present morphological and morphometric data complement previous descriptions and enable us to recognize this species more precisely.

  11. Mortality of tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) females exposed to a high ratio of gamma-irradiated males as an index of radiation impact on sexual vigor of males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.


    A 40 or 60 krad dose of gamma radiation reduce slightly sexual activity of the males but male activity is greatly reduced as the radiation dose increases from 60 to 120 krad. Females of the mold mite, Tyrophagus, putrescentiae (Schrank), molested by males present at a 3:1 or 5:1 ratio live shorter than females kept with one male. The SAG test can be applied to compare sexual activity of males treated with different dosage of gamma irradiation

  12. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Poza Guedes


    Full Text Available Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47 with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT, while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis.

  13. Population dynamics and integrated control of the damson-hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank on hops in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lorenzana


    Full Text Available The hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank (Hemiptera: Aphididae is a serious pest in most areas where hops are grown. A field trial was performed on a hop yard throughout 2002, 2003 and 2004 in León (Spain in order to analyse the population development of Phorodon humuli and its natural enemies, as well as to determine the most effective integrated program of insecticide treatments. The basic population development pattern of P. humuli was similar in the three years: the population peaked between mid to late June, and then decreased in late June/early July, rising again and reaching another peak in mid-July, after which it began to decline, rising once more in late August; this last rise is characteristic of Spain and has not been recorded in the rest of Europe. The hop aphid’s main natural enemy found on the leaves was Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. The multiple regression analysis showed that aphids are positively related with the presence of beetle eggs and mean daily temperatures and negatively related with maximum daily temperature integral above 27ºC in plots without insecticide treatment. The most effective program of insecticide (imidacloprid treatments consisted of an initial treatment in June and a second treatment in the second half of July or at the beginning of August. However, a single treatment in June would be sufficient when in this last period the maximum daily temperatures were higher than 27ºC for at least 15 days, avoiding in this way the harmful effects of imidacloprid on predators.

  14. O gênero Ceratium Schrank (Dinophyta na plataforma continental e águas oceânicas do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil The genus Ceratium Schrank (Dinophyta from coastal and oceanic waters of Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luise Koening


    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta as espécies e distribuição do gênero Ceratium no Estado de Pernambuco. As amostras foram coletadas pelo navio de pesquisas Victor Hensen durante a prospecção do JOPS II-5 no período de 25/fevereiro a 3/março/1995. Foram analisados sete perfis perpendiculares à costa, de 50 milhas de distância cada, totalizando 34 estações, distantes 10 milhas umas das outras, sendo 14 estações na região nerítica e 20 na oceânica. As amostras foram coletadas com rede tipo bongo, com abertura de malha de 64 mm e fixadas com formol neutro a 4%. Foram identificadas 27 espécies, 24 variedades, quatro subespécies e três formas, totalizando 58 táxons. As espécies consideradas muito freqüentes foram C. contortum var. karstenii (97%, C. macroceros var. macroceros (82%, C. teres e C. euarcuatum (79%, e Ceratium tripos subsp. tripos (73%, sendo esta última a única subespécie abundante na área. Cerca de 56% dos táxons ocorreu tanto na região nerítica como oceânica, mas a região oceânica apresentou maior riqueza de espécies por amostra analisada, sendo 42% dos táxons encontrados nesta região.This work presents the species and the distribution of the Ceratium Schrank (Pyrrophyta from coastal and oceanic waters of Pernambuco State. Sampling were performed aboard the Research Vessel Victor Hensen, during the JOPS II Project, Leg 5, from February 25 to March 3, 1995. Collections were carried out in 34 stations, distributed in 7 profiles perpendicular to the coast, with 14 stations located at the neritic region and 20 at the oceanic one. Samples were collected with a bongo net, 64 mm and fixed with 4% neutralized formaldehyde. Fifty eight specific and underspecific taxa were identified, outranking as the most frequentC. contortum var. karstenii (97%, C. macroceros var. macroceros (82%, C. teres, C. euarcuatum (79%, and Ceratium tripos subsp. tripos (73% the last one being the only abundant subspecies. 56% of the taxa

  15. Within-field distribution of the damson-hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and natural enemies on hops in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzana, A.; Hermoso de Mendoza, A.; Seco, V.; Campelo, P.; Casquero, P.A.


    A field trial was performed in a hop yard throughout 2002, 2003 and 2004 in order to determine the within-field distribution of Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its natural enemies. The distribution of P. humuli was directly affected by the position of the hop plants in the garden, with significantly higher concentrations of aphids (p=0.0122 in 2002 and p=0.0006 in 2003) observed along the edge. However, in 2004 the plants located on the marginal plots had similar populations to those on the more inner plots. This can be explained by a higher wind speed which made it more difficult to land on edge plants first. The hop aphid’s main natural enemy was Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), whose population was greatest where the aphids were most abundant with a significantly greater number of eggs (p=0.0230) and adults (p=0.0245) in 2003. Lacewing eggs were also frequently observed, with a significantly higher population (p=0.0221 in 2003 and p=0.0046 in 2004) where the aphid numbers were high. The number of winged aphids was greatest towards the margins of the garden in 2003. It is argued that the spatial distribution of the hop aphid and its natural enemies could be used to plan a sampling program and to estimate the population densities of these insects for use in integrated pest management programs.

  16. Within-field distribution of the damson-hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and natural enemies on hops in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzana, A.; Hermoso de Mendoza, A.; Seco, V.; Campelo, P.; Casquero, P.A.


    A field trial was performed in a hop yard throughout 2002, 2003 and 2004 in order to determine the within-field distribution of Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its natural enemies. The distribution of P. humuli was directly affected by the position of the hop plants in the garden, with significantly higher concentrations of aphids (p=0.0122 in 2002 and p=0.0006 in 2003) observed along the edge. However, in 2004 the plants located on the marginal plots had similar populations to those on the more inner plots. This can be explained by a higher wind speed which made it more difficult to land on edge plants first. The hop aphid’s main natural enemy was Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), whose population was greatest where the aphids were most abundant with a significantly greater number of eggs (p=0.0230) and adults (p=0.0245) in 2003. Lacewing eggs were also frequently observed, with a significantly higher population (p=0.0221 in 2003 and p=0.0046 in 2004) where the aphid numbers were high. The number of winged aphids was greatest towards the margins of the garden in 2003. It is argued that the spatial distribution of the hop aphid and its natural enemies could be used to plan a sampling program and to estimate the population densities of these insects for use in integrated pest management programs.

  17. Mites and fungi in heavily infested stores in the Czech Republic. (United States)

    Hubert, J; Stejskal, V; Munzbergová, Z; Kubátová, A; Vánová, M; Zd'árková, E


    Toxigenic and allergen-producing fungi represent a serious hazard to human food and animal feed safety. Ninety-four fungal species were isolated from mite-infested samples of seeds taken from Czech seed stores. Fungi were isolated from the surface of four kinds of seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, and mustard) and from the gut and external surface of five species of mites (i.e., Acarus siro L., 1758, Caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides (Zachvatkin, 1973), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank, 1781), Tyrophagus putrescentnae (Schrank, 1781) and Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans 1903) separately. Multivariate analysis of fungi complex composition showed that the frequency of fungal was species significantly influenced by the kind of seed. Fungal frequencies differed between mites gut and exoskeleton surface and between the surfaces of mites and seeds. Three groups of fungal species were recognized: 1) mite surface-associated fungi: Penicillium brevicompactum, Alternaria alternata, and Aspergillus versicolor; 2) mite surface- and seed-associated fungi: Aspergillus niger, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Aspergillus flavus; and 3) seed-associated fungi: Cladosporium herbarum, Mucor dimorphosporus f. dimorphosporus, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium griseofulvum, and Eurotium repens. Mite-carried species of microfungi are known to produce serious mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxin B1, cyclopiazonic acid, sterigmatocystin, ochratoxin A, and nephrotoxic glycopeptides) as well as allergen producers (e.g., A. alternata and P. brevicompactum). Storage mites may play an important role in the spread of some medically hazardous micromycetes. In addition, these mite-fungi associations may heighten the risk of occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed stuffs and cause mixed contamination by fungal and mite allergens.

  18. Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788 (Nematoda, Ascarididae in different wild feline species in Brazil: new host records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Gallas


    Full Text Available This is the first detailed description of Toxocara cati parasitizing felines in South America. Seventeen run over wild felines (Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus, and Puma yagouaroundi were collected from different towns in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The morphometry of males and females allowed the identification of specimens as being T. cati. The helminths were found in the stomach and intestine of hosts with prevalences of 66.6% in L. colocolo, L. geoffroyi, and L. tigrinus; and 60% in P. yagouaroundi. The ecological parameters were calculated for each host and L. colocolo had the highest infection intensity (22.5 helminths/host. This is the first report of T. cati parasitizing four wild felines species in southern Brazil, besides a new record of this parasite for two host species.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We studied life cycle of stone crayfish for 18 months in three streams on Medvednica Mountain, located above city of Zagreb. Sampling of animals was carried out with baited traps twice a month and various physiological functions were recorded. Sex ratio of trapped crayfish was 1:1, but it fluctuated during the year. Animals were active from early spring until the beginning of November when their activities significantly decreased. In this period we noticed three peaks of higher activity. The first one after winter starvation in March, the second one after egg hatching (June/July and the third one during mating period (end of September - beginning of November. The maximal recorded weight for female was 38 g while the heaviest male was 55 g. The longest female was 9.28 cm and male 10.30 cm. Development of glair glands started from the end of July, mating occurred at the end of October and the juveniles hatched until mid-June. Freshly moulted animals were found from mid-May until mid-October. Main injuries were claw and limb loss. We noticed the presence of burn spot disease and Branchiobdella parasita Henle within studied populations. Correlation with five different physico-chemical parameters of water showed that animals’ activity is positively correlated to water temperature, conductivity, pH and hardness and negatively to oxygen concentration.

  20. Functional food: role of gamma irradiation in the improvement of Triticum dicoccum (schrank)) schulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikas, V.K.; Sivasamy, M.; Kumar, Jagdish


    Importance of Triticum dicoccum as functional/therapeutic food is on rise because of the low glycemic value, slow digestability, high satiety value coupled with resistant starch, high protein and fibre. These quality attributes are considered vital for the dietary management of diabetes and cardiovascular risks. Most of the dicoccum cultivars in India are either tall local land races/traditional varieties with high quality but low yield or modern semi dwarf cultivars with low quality but high yield. Most of the semi dwarf dicoccum cultivars derived their dwarfing genes from Triticum durum and it has strong linkage drag in altering the quality traits. Further the scope of exploiting genetic diversity/variability in dicoccum wheat, largely created using T. durum is limited. This necessitates the need to search for new sources to create variability among the dicoccum gene pool wherein mutation provides a helping hand. One thousand fresh, dry and healthy matured seeds of tall traditional variety, NP201 were irradiated with 200, 250 and 300 Gy doses of gamma rays using Cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) gamma source (Dose rate : ∼ 50 Gy/min; GC5000 irradiator) at BARC, Mumbai. Semi-dwarf line with high yield and stable in performance (HW 1098) were selected at M5 generation in the treatment dose of 200 Gy. The stable line was evaluated in multi location trials in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka and Tamilnadu through All India Coordinated Wheat and Barley Improvement Project (AICW and BIP) for yield, quality and rust disease reaction for three years (2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12). Radiomutant genotype, HW1098 recorded an overall yield advantage of +14.9% and +8.3% over dicoccum checks, DDK1009 and MACS2971 respectively along with resistance to stem and leaf rusts. HW1098 produced bold grain (46.5 g) with par values for protein content (16.8%) and beta carotene (3.39 ppm) compared to parent variety NP201. HW1098 was released for cultivation for the farmers of dicoccum cultivating areas of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka and Tamilnadu. (author)

  1. Conservação in vitro de Cochlospermum regium (Schrank pilg.- cochlospermaceae sob regime de crescimento mínimo In vitro conservation of Cochlospermum regium (Schrank pilg.- cochlospermaceae under minimal growth storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Camillo


    Full Text Available Cochlospermum regium é uma planta de áreas de cerrado, caatinga e pantanal. Na medicina popular é conhecida por "algodão-do-campo" e suas raízes são utilizadas para o tratamento de infecções uterinas, intestinais, gastrite, úlceras e artrite. Atualmente, o extrativismo e a destruição dos habitats naturais colocaram o algodão-do-campo na lista de espécies medicinais nativas prioritárias para conservação ex situ. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver uma metodologia para a conservação in vitro do algodão-do-campo e fornecer subsídios para estudos de micropropagação da espécie. Sementes de algodão-do-campo foram testadas quanto à germinação in vitro pela escarificação ou não das sementes em ácido sulfúrico e inoculação em meio de cultura MS. Para a conservação in vitro, segmentos nodais retirados das plântulas germinadas in vitro foram avaliados por 90 dias sob três regimes de temperatura (10, 20, e 25ºC e em três concentrações de meio WPM (½, ¾ e pleno. Verificou-se que sementes escarificadas apresentaram percentual de germinação in vitro de 93,3% aos 30 dias, valor significativamente superior aos 13,3% observados nas sementes não escarificadas. A conservação da espécie in vitro mostrou-se viável, desde que as culturas sejam mantidas em câmara de crescimento a 20ºC em meio de cultivo ½WPM. Sob estas condições os explantes mantiveram um crescimento mínimo e percentual de sobrevivência de 100%, após três meses de avaliação.Cochlospermum regium is a plant from cerrado, caatinga and pantanal areas. In popular medicine, it is known as "algodão-do-campo" and its roots are used to treat uterine and intestinal infections, gastritis, ulcers and arthritis. Nowadays, extraction activities and the destruction of natural habitats has made "algodão-do-campo" one of the major native medicinal species for ex situ conservation. The aim of this work was to develop a methodology for the in vitro conservation of "algodão-do-campo", contributing to studies on the micropropagation of this species. In vitro germination was evaluated in "algodão-do-campo" seeds subjected to scarification or not with sulfuric acid and inoculation in MS medium. For in vitro conservation, nodal segments from in vitro-germinated seedlings were evaluated for 90 days at three temperatures (10, 20 and 25ºC and three WPM medium concentrations (½, ¾ and full-strength. Scarified seeds presented 93.3% in vitro germination at 30 days of cultivation, a significantly higher value than the 13.3% observed for non-scarified seeds. The in vitro conservation of "algodão-do-campo" showed to be viable once cultures are kept in a growth chamber at 20ºC in ½ WPM medium. Under such conditions, the explants presented a minimal growth and 100% survival after three evaluation months.

  2. In Vitro Control of Uropathogenic Microorganisms with the Ethanolic Extract from the Leaves of Cochlospermum regium (Schrank Pilger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Ellen Meireles Leme


    Full Text Available The roots of Cochlospermum regium, popularly known as “algodãozinho-do-cerrado,” are used for the treatment of genitourinary infections. However, the removal of their subterranean structures results in the death of the plant, and the use of the leaves becomes a viable alternative. Therefore, the antimicrobial activity of Cochlospermum regium leaf’s ethanolic extract and its action on the biofilm formation of microorganisms associated with urinary infection were evaluated. The total phenolic compounds, flavoids, and tannins were quantified using the reagents Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminum chloride, and vanillin, respectively. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method and the effect of the extract in the biofilm treatment was measured by the drop plate method. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the method based on the reduction of MTS and the mutagenicity by the Ames test. The ethanolic extract of C. regium leaves presented 87.4 mg/EQ of flavonoids, 167.2 mg/EAG of total phenolic compounds, and 21.7 mg/ECA of condensed tannins. It presented reduction of the biofilm formation for E. coli and C. tropicalis and antimicrobial action of 1 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The extract showed no cytotoxicity and mutagenicity at the concentrations tested. This study demonstrated that C. regium leaves are a viable option for the treatment of genitourinary infections and for the species preservation.

  3. Food-chain transfer of zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica and Acer pseudoplatanus L. to the aphids Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis Schrank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnett, Danielle, E-mail: [Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Hutchings, Tony R., E-mail: [Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E., E-mail: [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)


    This study examines the food-chain transfer of Zn from two plant species, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple), into their corresponding aphid species, Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system using solutions with increasing concentrations of Zn from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/l. Above-ground tissue concentrations in U. dioica and M. carnosum increased with increasing Zn exposure (p < 0.001). Zn concentrations in A. pseudoplatanus also increased with solution concentration from the control to the 9.8 mg Zn/l solution, above which concentrations remained constant. Zn concentrations in both D. platanoidis and the phloem tissue of A. pseudoplatanus were not affected by the Zn concentration in the watering solution. It appears that A. pseudoplatanus was able to limit Zn transport in the phloem, resulting in constant Zn exposure to the aphids. Zn concentrations in D. platanoidis were around three times those in M. carnosum. - Concentrations of Zn in two aphid species are dependant on species and exposure.

  4. Food-chain transfer of zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica and Acer pseudoplatanus L. to the aphids Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis Schrank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnett, Danielle; Hutchings, Tony R.; Hodson, Mark E.


    This study examines the food-chain transfer of Zn from two plant species, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple), into their corresponding aphid species, Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system using solutions with increasing concentrations of Zn from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/l. Above-ground tissue concentrations in U. dioica and M. carnosum increased with increasing Zn exposure (p < 0.001). Zn concentrations in A. pseudoplatanus also increased with solution concentration from the control to the 9.8 mg Zn/l solution, above which concentrations remained constant. Zn concentrations in both D. platanoidis and the phloem tissue of A. pseudoplatanus were not affected by the Zn concentration in the watering solution. It appears that A. pseudoplatanus was able to limit Zn transport in the phloem, resulting in constant Zn exposure to the aphids. Zn concentrations in D. platanoidis were around three times those in M. carnosum. - Concentrations of Zn in two aphid species are dependant on species and exposure.

  5. The Learned Eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doel, van den Marieke; Eck, van Natasja; Korevaar, Gerbrand; Tummers, Anna; Weststeijn, Thijs


    The 'learned eye' or oculus eruditus was a concept used by seventeenth-century writers on painting. It illustrated their view that the ideal artist was not only skilled in painting techniques, but also had knowledge of the history of art and an interest in poetry and literature.In this book,

  6. Integration of the WJ IV, WISC-V, WISC-V Integrated, and WIAT-III into a School Neuropsychological Assessment Model (United States)

    Miller, Daniel C.


    The Woodcock-Johnson-Fourth edition (WJ IV; Schrank, McGrew, & Mather, 2014a) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth edition (WISC-V; Wechsler, 2014) are two of the major tests of cognitive abilities used in school psychology. The complete WJ IV battery includes the Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities (Schrank,…

  7. The first record of Baccharis L. (Asteraceae) as a host-plant genus for Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera), with description of new Stigmella species from South America (United States)

    We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Despite the high species richness of Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe four new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis:...

  8. Spot-on Treatments of Diflubenzuron and Permethrin to Control a Guinea Pig Louse, Gliricola Porcelli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae) (United States)

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (L.)) (Rodentia: Caviidae) are pets and laboratory animals. They can be infested by a chewing louse, Gliricola porcelli (Schrank) (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), which is fairly common in some animal rearing facilities, pet stores, and on wild guinea pigs. Infestation with G....

  9. First Record of Dicheilonema Ciconiae (Nematoda, Diplotriaenoidea From Ciconia Nigra (Aves, Ciconiidae in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrota Ya. Yu.


    Full Text Available Five specimens of a parasitic nematode Dicheilonema ciconiae (Schrank, 1788 were collected from black stork, Ciconia nigra Linnaeus, in Kyiv Zoological Park. Identification of the nematodes was confirmed by morphological examination of the specimens collected. The ornamentation of the body cuticle in caudal region of males (area rugosa is first described in D. ciconiae.

  10. An annotated synopsis of the powder post beetles of Iran (Coleoptera: Bostrichoidea: Bostrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Yu Liu


    Full Text Available An annotated synopsis of Iranian Bostrichidae (Coleoptera: Bostrichoidea is provided as a basis for future studies, with notes on distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. In total, 31 species from 18 genera and 4 subfamilies (Bostrichinae, Dinoderinae, Lyctinae and Psoinae are listed from Iran. Sinoxylon anale Lesne, 1897, Sinoxylon perforans (Schrank, 1789, Stephanopachys linearis (Kugelann, 1792 and Xylopertha retusa (Olivier, 1790 are new records for Iran.

  11. Records of ectoparasites on humans and sheep from Viking-age deposits in the former western settlement of Greenland. (United States)

    Sadler, J P


    During recent archaeological excavations in Viking Greenland, specimens of the human flea, Pulex irritans L., and the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L., were recovered from several farmsteads. Bovicola ovis (Schrank) and the sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus (L.), also were found in associated deposits. The specimens were dated from about AD 990 to AD 1350. These finds raise questions about the levels of hygiene of the Viking farmers and open some interesting medical and biogeographical conundrums.

  12. Kommenteret checkliste over Danmarks bier – Del 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning Bang; Calabuig, Isabel


    This paper presents Part 3 of a checklist for the taxa of bees occurring in Denmark, dealing with the families Melittidae and Megachilidae, and covering 53 species. The remaining two families (Halictidae and Apidae) will be dealt with in future papers. The following two species are hereby recorded...... as belonging to the Danish bee fauna: Melitta tricincta Kirby, 1802 and Hoplosmia spinulosa (Kirby, 1802). Megachile pyrenaea Pérez, 1890 and Osmia bicolor (Schrank, 1781) are excluded from the Danish checklist. Species that have the potential to occur in Denmark are discussed briefly....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Mortari Machado


    Full Text Available Scolytids (Curculionidae, Scolytinae are small borer beetles belonging to the order Coleoptera that develop within or under the bark of trees. In northern countries, these insects cause significant damage especially when outbreaks occur. In Brazil, in general, the damage is minor when compared to the northern hemisphere. Given the importance of subfamily Scolytinae, this paper aims at providing a better understanding of the behavior of Scolytids, mainly regarding the flight height in a stand of Pinus taeda L. For the execution of this work 72, intercept flight traps were installed in area belonging to the State Foundation for Agricultural Research (FEPAGRO, located in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul state. The treatments correspond to heights of 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5; 3.0; 3.5; 4.0; 4.5; 5.0; 5.5 and 6.0 meters. It was possible to capture: Hypothenemus eruditus in greater abundance at the range of 1 to 1.5 meters; Xyleborus ferrugineus , Xyleborinus gracilis and Xyleborus affinis to 0.5 meters; Xyleborinus saxeseni and Xylosandrus retusus with no preference. It is concluded that the range between 0.5 and 1.5 meters is ideal to analyze quantitatively the scolytids present in the Pinus taeda.

  14. Identificación de ácaros del polvo casero en colchones y almohadas de niños alérgicos de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jainy Meza Navarro


    Full Text Available ResumenLa prevalencia elevada de alergias en Colombia hace necesario investigar los factores que influye sobre su etiología. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la fauna de ácaros presente en los hogares de niños alérgicos de Santa Marta. Un total de 70 muestras de polvo fueron colectadas desde 42 casas por medio de la aspiración de colchones y almohadas, durante los meses de Julio a Octubre de 2007. Los ácaros fueron identificados bajo la luz de un microscopio usando claves taxonómicas, contados y expresados como ácaros por gramo de polvo. Los ácaros de la familia Pyroglyphidae fueron los más predominantes (84,58%, teniendo a Dermatophagoides farinae (23,85% como la especie más abundante, seguido por Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (7,31%. Otros ácaros prevalentes fueron Cheyletus spp, Euroglyphus maynei y Blomia tropicales, con niveles superiores a los 500 ácaros/ gramo, considerado como de alto riesgo para sensibilización alérgica. Estos resultados contribuyen al conocimiento de la fauna de ácaros del polvo casero de Santa Marta, importante para el diagnóstico y terapia de las alergias. (Duazary 2008; 1: 24 - 31.AbstractThe increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in Colombia makes necessary to research about factors that influence their etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the mite fauna present in homes of allergic child from Santa Marta. A total of 70 samples were collected from 42 houses through vacuuming mattresses and pillows, during the months of July to October 2007. Mites were identified under light microscopy using taxonomic keys, count and expressed as mites per gram of dust. The prevalent mite family was Pyroglyphidae (84.58%, having Dermatophagoides farinae as the major specie (23.85%, followed by D. pteronyssinus. Other mites prevalent were Cheyletus spp, Euroglyphus maynei and Blomia tropicalis, with levels up to 500 mites/ gram, considered like of high risk for the allergic sensitization

  15. Mites as selective fungal carriers in stored grain habitats. (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Stejskal, Václav; Kubátová, Alena; Munzbergová, Zuzana; Vánová, Marie; Zd'árková, Eva


    Mites are well documented as vectors of micromycetes in stored products. Since their vectoring capacity is low due to their small size, they can be serious vectors only where there is selective transfer of a high load of specific fungal species. Therefore the aim of our work was to find out whether the transfer of fungi is selective. Four kinds of stored seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, mustard) infested by storage mites were subjected to mycological analysis. We compared the spectrum of micromycete species isolated from different species of mites (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides and Cheyletus malaccensis) and various kinds of stored seeds. Fungi were separately isolated from (a) the surface of mites, (b) the mites' digestive tract (= faeces), and (c) stored seeds and were then cultivated and determined. The fungal transport via mites is selective. This conclusion is supported by (i) lower numbers of isolated fungal species from mites than from seeds; (ii) lower Shannon-Weaver diversity index in the fungal communities isolated from mites than from seeds; (iii) significant effect of mites/seeds as environmental variables on fungal presence in a redundancy analysis (RDA); (iv) differences in composition of isolated fungi between mite species shown by RDA. The results of our work support the hypothesis that mite-fungal interactions are dependent on mite species. The fungi attractive to mites seem to be dispersed more than others. The selectivity of fungal transport via mites enhances their pest importance.

  16. Maternal exposure to Cochlospermum regium: a toxicological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Luiza Cunha-Laura


    Full Text Available Cochlospermum regium (Schrank Pilg., Bixaceae, is a Brazilian plant widely used as a folk medicine in the southwestern of the Brazil to treat inflammation and infection diseases. However, the effects of C. regium hydroethanolic extract on pregnant rats have not been assessed. To evaluate the effects of the C. regium on pregnant rats during the organogenic period, the hydroethanolic extract was administered via gavage at a dose of 11.5 mg/kg/day to rats from 6th to 15th day of pregnancy. No clinical signs of maternal toxicity were observed. The placenta's and fetuses' weight were similar in control and treated animals. The term fetuses dis not present malformations or anomalies although the number of live fetuses and birth rate were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the C. regium hydroethanolic extract is nontoxicant to the pregnant rat although it would be likely to interfere in the progress of the embryofetal development.

  17. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.


    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  18. North Spain (Burgos wild mammals ectoparasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez G.


    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of arthropods were collected from 105 wild mammals, six wolves Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758 included. A total of 87 animals (82,8 % harboured some ectoparasites. Ticks were found in 60 % of the samples, fleas in 51.4 %, chewing-lice in 3.8 %, and others (Mesostigmata and hippoboscids in 3.8 %. Moreover, 42.5 % were single infestation and 57.5 % mixed. Some of the species were new records for a host in spanish country such as Trichodectes canis (De Géer, 1778, Ixodes trianguliceps (Birula, 1895, Ceralophyllus (Monopsyllus S. sciurorum (Schrank, 1803 and Paraceras melis melis (Walker, 1856 on several mammals. Two species were new records for Spain: Chaetopsylla matina (Jordan, 1925 and Archaeopsylla erinacei erinacei (Bouché, 1835.

  19. Fleas (Siphonaptera) in the Nests of Dormice (Gliridae: Rodentia) in Lithuania. (United States)

    Lipatova, I; Stanko, M; Paulauskas, A; Spakovaite, S; Gedminas, V


    Negative effects of flea (Siphonaptera) parasitism on the host may be expressed in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess distribution of the flea fauna in nests of dormice in Lithuania. Nests of Glis glis (L.), Dryomys nitedula (Pallas), and Muscardinus avellanarius (L.) were collected from nest boxes in 2012 and 2013. Fleas were collected from nests in the laboratory and put into plastic tubes with 70% ethanol. Flea species were identified using morphological keys. From 400 nest boxes, 112 nests of dormice were collected from eight sites from mixed forests of central Lithuania. Twenty-three nests of G. glis were collected from nest boxes, with 16 of them containing 286 fleas belonging to four species: Ceratophyllus sciurorum (Schrank) (259), C. gallinae (Schrank) (23), Hystrichopsylla talpae (Curtis) (3), and Megabothris turbidus (Rothschild) (1). Fourteen nests of M. avellanarius were collected from nest boxes, 4 of which contained 224 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (221) and C. gallinae (3). Twenty-four nests of D. nitedula were collected from nest boxes, including 17 containing 207 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (205) and C. gallinae (2). Fifty-one nests of undetermined dormice species also were collected from nest boxes, 12 of them contained 395 fleas belonging to three species: C. sciurorum (374), Ctenophthalmus agyrtes (Heller) (19), and Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg) (2). C. sciurorum was a predominant species in the nests of dormice. The occurrence of C. gallinae was documented in Lithuania for the first time. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soleimani, J. Rafinejad


    Full Text Available House dust mites have been shown to be strongly associated with allergic respiratory diseases such as, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in the world. The climatic conditions of Bandar-Abbas, which is located in a coastal area and has a humid subtropical climate, provide a suitable place to proliferate mites. The aim of this study was to determine the contamination rate and analyze the house dust mite fauna in hotels and inns in Bandar-Abbas that had not been investigated previously. In this study 6 hotels and 6 inns were selected randomly in six areas of Bandar-Abbas. Two dust samples were collected from each place with a vacuum cleaner. One square meter of carpets and mattresses were vacuumed for a period of 1 min. Then the samples were cleared in lactic acid and then mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium for study and identification. A total of 2644 mites were collected and identified. The major mite family was Pyroglyphidae (98%. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was the most frequent and most numerous species recorded, occurring in 91% of samples examined and forming 88% of the Pyroglyphidae and 86% of the total mite populations. The family Cheyletidae was less commonly found with Cheyletus malaccensis (2%. Most of the mites were isolated from the carpets (57.5%, and a smaller number from mattresses (42.5%. Mites were present in 96% of the dust samples. Results revealed that all inns and 83% of hotels were contaminated by more than one species of mite and 34% of them had a population of more than 100 mites /g dust. This rate of contamination can be a major risk factor in asthma and other respiratory allergic diseases

  1. Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals (United States)

    Miller, B.J.; Harlow, H.J.; Harlow, T.S.; Biggins, D.; Ripple, W.J.


    When large carnivores are extirpated from ecosystems that evolved with apex predators, these systems can change at the herbivore and plant trophic levels. Such changes across trophic levels are called cascading effects and they are very important to conservation. Studies on the effects of reintroduced wolves in Yellowstone National Park have examined the interaction pathway of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) to ungulates to plants. This study examines the interaction effects of wolves to coyotes to rodents (reversing mesopredator release in the absence of wolves). Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) generally avoided areas near a wolf den. However, when in the proximity of a den, they used woody habitats (pine or sage) compared with herbaceous habitats (grass or forb or sedge)- when they were away from the wolf den. Our data suggested a significant increase in rodent numbers, particularly voles (genus Microtus Schrank, 1798), during the 3-year study on plots that were within 3 km of the wolf den, but we did not detect a significant change in rodent numbers over time for more distant plots. Predation by coyotes may have depressed numbers of small mammals in areas away from the wolf den. These factors indicate a top-down effect by wolves on coyotes and subsequently on the rodents of the area. Restoration of wolves could be a powerful tool for regulating predation at lower trophic levels.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Francisco Santos


    Full Text Available This study had the objective of surveying the apicultural potential in the municipality of Petrolina flora (9o9'S; 40o22'W, aiming at identifying the nectariferous or polliniferous species visited by Apis mellifera. The observations were carried out from January 2004 to May 2005, in areas of hyperxerophilous Caatinga native vegetation and of irrigated fruit crops of Embrapa Tropical Semi-Arid. Fifty one species were observed, belonging to 42 genera and 25 botanic families. The families Leguminosae, Anacardiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae and Sterculiaceae were the most visited species by Apis mellifera, including 47.08% of the total visited plants. Among the species visited by Apis mellifera, 41.17% are herbaceous, showing the importance of this stratum as an apicultural source. Regarding the flora resource used as food source by the bees, it was found that A. mellifera made several visits for exclusive nectar extraction to 72.55% of the plants considered nectariferous. Among the remaining plants, it was found that in 19.60% the bee collecte pollen, being these species considered polliniferous, and in 7.85% there was pollen and nectar withdrawal. Among the herbaceous species, Borreria verticillata (L. G.Mey., Diodia teres Walter (Rubiaceae, Waltheria rotundifolia Schrank (Sterculiaceae, Merremia aegyptia (L. Hallier, Jacquemontia confusa Meisn. (Convolvulaceae, Hypenia salzmanni (Benth. Hanley (Lamiaceae distinguished as nectariferous source during the raining season, while the arboreal species Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. and Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão. are considered apicultural source for the dry season.

  3. Home and Community Language Proficiency in Spanish-English Early Bilingual University Students. (United States)

    Schmidtke, Jens


    This study assessed home and community language proficiency in Spanish-English bilingual university students to investigate whether the vocabulary gap reported in studies of bilingual children persists into adulthood. Sixty-five early bilinguals (mean age = 21 years) were assessed in English and Spanish vocabulary and verbal reasoning ability using subtests of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised (Schrank & Woodcock, 2009). Their English scores were compared to 74 monolinguals matched in age and level of education. Participants also completed a background questionnaire. Bilinguals scored below the monolingual control group on both subtests, and the difference was larger for vocabulary compared to verbal reasoning. However, bilinguals were close to the population mean for verbal reasoning. Spanish scores were on average lower than English scores, but participants differed widely in their degree of balance. Participants with an earlier age of acquisition of English and more current exposure to English tended to be more dominant in English. Vocabulary tests in the home or community language may underestimate bilingual university students' true verbal ability and should be interpreted with caution in high-stakes situations. Verbal reasoning ability may be more indicative of a bilingual's verbal ability.

  4. Development and reproductive potential of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae) on plant-parasitic nematodes and artificial diets. (United States)

    Abou El-Atta, Doaa Abd El-Maksoud; Osman, Mohamed Ali


    This study investigated development, reproduction and life table parameters of the astigmatid mold mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acari: Acaridae) feeding on egg-masses or adult females of the nematode Meloidogyne incognita, egg-masses of the nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, ras cheese or yeast at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10 % RH in the dark. Immature developmental times were shorter when the mite was fed females of M. incognita followed by yeast. Different prey/diet types had no significant effect on longevity and lifespan of both males and females. Daily oviposition rate (eggs/female/day) was highest for mites fed yeast (20.8 ± 1.8 eggs) and lowest for mites fed females of M. incognita (6.6 ± 0.5). Intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m) was highest for mites fed yeast compared to other prey/diet; no significant differences in r m were observed among mites fed on non-yeast diets. This result may suggest a role of T. putrescentiae as biocontrol agent of plant-parasitic nematodes and the yeast may be used for mite mass-production purposes.

  5. Impact of acidification and eutrophication on macrophyte communities in soft waters in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, J G.M.


    During the last decades a strong decline has been noticed in the number of waters dominated by Littorellion species, mostly isoetids such as Lobelia dortmanna L., Isoetes lacustris L. and Littorella uniflora (L.) Aschers. Sixty-eight waters, which were known to be dominated by L. uniflora after 1950 were investigated. In 1980, L. uniflora appeared to be absent or to have strongly decreased in 53 (78%) of the waters. In 41 of them, Littorella had been replaced by submerged Juncus bulbosus L. and/or Sphagnum spp. These changes seem to have been caused by changed inorganic carbon budgets as a consequence of acidification. In the remaining 12 waters, eutrophication of the water and/or sediment seems to be responsible for the changes in the plant communities. Enrichment with phosphate of the mineral sediment alone, leads to luxurious growth of submerged, rooted macrophyte species such as Myriophyllum alterniflorum DC and Ranunculus peltatus Schrank, whereas phosphate-enrichment of both sediment and water leads to luxurious growth of pleustophytes such as Riccia fluitans L. and Lemna minor L. in small, shallow waters, and to plankton bloom and luxurious growth of epiphytes in larger, deeper waters. In these cases light limitation seems to be responsible for the disappearance or decline of the Littorellion species. 41 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  6. Stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata) infesting food in various types of packaging. (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Volek, Vlado


    From 2008 to 2014, stored product mites have been reported from prepackaged dried food on the market in the Czech Republic. The infestation was by Carpoglyphus lactis (L.) in dried fruits and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) in dog feed. The infestation is presumably caused by poor protection of the packages. We compared various packaging methods for their resistance to mites using dried apricots and dog feed in laboratory experiments. The trial packages included nine different plastic films, monofilm, duplex and triplex, and one type of plastic cup (ten replicates per packaging type). All packaging materials are available on the Czech market for dried food products. The samples of dried food were professionally packed in a factory and packaged dried apricots were exposed to C. lactis and dog food to T. putrescentiae. After 3 months of exposure, the infestation and mite density of the prepackaged food was assessed. Mites were found to infest six types of packages. Of the packaging types with mites, 1-5 samples were infested and the maximum abundance was 1,900 mites g(-1) of dried food. Mites entered the prepackaged food by faulty sealing. Inadequate sealing is suggested to be the major cause of the emerged infestation of dried food.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo-Cañas Diego


    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio taxonómico de las especies de Sporobolus para el noroeste de Sudamérica. Se reconocen once especies para el área de estudio. Se incluyen las claves para determinar las especies así como las descripciones morfológicas y sus ilustraciones. Se discuten para cada una de las especies sus relaciones morfológicas, su distribución geográfica y sus preferencias ecológicas; adicionalmente, se relacionan sus usos y sus nombres comunes. Asimismo, se propone la lectotipificación para Sporobolus lasiophyllus Pilg. Por otra parte, se registran tres especies por primera vez para Colombia [Sporobolus pilifer (Trin. Kunth, Sporobolus tenuissimus (Mart. ex Schrank Kuntze y Sporobolus virginicus (L. Kunth]. Se excluyen de este tratamiento a Sporobolus brasiliensis (Raddi Hack. (=Eragrostis airoides Nees y Sporobolus domingensis (Trin. Kunth. Adicionalmente, se propone la adopción y la unificación de algunos términos morfológicos en agrostología, tales como caña, panoja, espiguilla, lema, antecio y cariopsis, en lugar de culmo, panícula, espícula, lemma, flósculo y cariopse-cariópside, respectivamente.

  8. Stone crayfish in the Czech Republic: how does its population density depend on basic chemical and physical properties of water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlach P.


    Full Text Available The stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium Schrank is one of the two native crayfish species in the Czech Republic. The populations as well as physical and chemical parameters of water (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, undissolved particles, NH3, NH4+, NO2−, NO3−, phosphorus, Ca2+ and SO42 −  of 33 streams were examined to find the ecological plasticity of this crayfish and some relations between these parameters and population densities. The mentioned parameters often significantly varied at the sites. Two approaches were applied to find relations between these parameters and observed abundance. At first, the observed streams were compared using RDA (streams  ×  physical-chemical parameters. No significance was found while testing relationship between the streams grouped along the 1st axis of model and the observed abundances of stone crayfish. However, some correlations between abundance and conductivity, calcium, nitrates and sulphates were found using polynomial regression. These relationships are explicable in terms of mutual correlations, underlying geology and other factors which affect abundances. In conclusion, A. torrentium is able to inhabit waters with a large range of physical and chemical parameters of the water without any fundamental influence on population densities. Water properties play an indisputable role as limiting ecological factors at uncommon concentrations, but population densities are probably influenced much more by the types of habitats, habitat features, predation and other ecological factors.

  9. Lepidoptera family-group names proposed by Thaddeus William Harris in 1841

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Lafontaine


    Full Text Available In 1841, T. W. Harris published “A Report on the Insects of Massachusetts, Injurious to Vegetation,” a seminal work in North American Entomology and one of the first New World publications to describe Lepidoptera species. Although appearing in several subsequent editions, the eight family-group names proposed by Harris were largely overlooked. In summarizing Harris’ family-group names, we show that authorship for two Noctuidae names in current usage require changes: Acronictinae Harris, 1841 (originally as Acronyctadae has priority over Heinemann, 1859, and Agrotini Harris, 1841 (as Agrotitidae has priority over Rambur, 1848. Mamestradae Harris, 1841 is also a senior synonym of Mamestrinae Hampson, 1902 (Type genus: Mamestra Ochsenheimer, 1816, an available name that is currently a junior subjective synonym of Noctuidae: Noctuinae: Hadenini Guenée, 1837 (Type genus: Hadena Schrank, 1802. Geometridae: Ennominae: Hyberniini Harris, 1841 (as Hyberniadae, based on Erranis Hübner, [1825] (= Hybernia Berthold, 1827, has precedence over two family-group names with long-standing usage, Bistonini Stephens, 1850 and Boarmiini Duponchel, 1845, and a reversal of precedence for the latter two names over Hyberniini is proposed under ICZN guidelines.

  10. A survey of Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of southern Iran, with description of a new species. (United States)

    Ameri, Ali; Talebi, Ali Asghar; Rakhshani, Ehsan; Beyarslan, Ahmet; Kamali, Karim


    A faunistic survey of Euphorinae (Hym., Braconidae) in southern Iran, as well as an updated checklist of the genera and species in Iran, are presented. Sampling was performed using Malaise traps at different locations of Hormozgan province and Qeshm Island in Persian Gulf during 2011-2013. In total, 38 species belonging to 10 genera are listed from Iran. The recorded species belong to the following genera: Allurus Forster, 1862 (two species), Chrysopophthorus Goidanich 1948 (one species), Dinocampus Forster, 1862 (one species), Ecclitura Kokujev, 1902 (one species), Leiophron Nees von Esenbeck, 1819 (10 species), Meteorus Haliday, 1835 (12 species), Perilitus Nees von Esenbeck, 1819 (five species), Syntretus Forster 1862 (three species), Wesmaelia Foerster, 1862 (one species) and Zele Curtis, 1832 (two species). Allurus lituratus (Haliday 1835), Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802), Leiophron (Peristenus) grandiceps (Thomson 1892), Meteorus rubens (Nees, 1811) and Wesmaelia petiolata (Wollaston, 1858) are new records for Hormozgan province and Leiophron (Peristenus) grandiceps (Thomson 1892) is recorded for the first time from Iran. In addition, Meteorus breviterebratus Ameri, Talebi & Beyarslan sp. n. is newly described and illustrated. 

  11. Cultivo de las microalgas dulceacuícolas Kirchneriella obesa, Scenedesmus quadricauda y Chlorococcum infusorium empleando tres medios de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ortega-Salas


    Full Text Available Se cultivaron las microalgas dulceacuícolas Kirchneriella obesa (G. S. West Schmidle 1893, Scenedesmus quadricauda (Chodat, Turpin Bréb 1835 y Chlorococcum infusorium (Schrank Meneghini 1842, con el propósito comparar las tasas de crecimiento y su rendimiento en tres medios de cultivo, el F/2 de Guillard, Fert I y Fert II. El agua utilizada se pasó en filtros de cinco, uno y 0.45 mm, y se trató con luz ultravioleta. La temperatura varió de 24 a 25°C. Se cultivaron en un sistema de volumen creciente a partir de recipientes de 62.5 mL, duplicando el medio de cultivo cada 24 h, con el fin de completar 32 L en nueve días. Cada 24 h se obtuvieron tres muestras de 1 a 10 mL del cultivo, se preservaron en una solución de lugol y se calculó la concentración de las microalgas cada 24 h. El número total de células de las tres especies aumentó de manera exponencial hasta el final de los experimentos en los medios de cultivo F/2 y Fert I; esto no fue así con el medio Fert II, en el cual la tasa de duplicación y el número total de divisiones fueron más bajas. El medio F/2 y el Fert I ofrecieron mejores resultados que el Fert II. Los medios Fert I y Fert II tienen un valor económico más bajo que el medio F/2. El crecimiento y el rendimiento fueron mejores con el medio F/2, seguido por FI y FII.

  12. Revisions of the Afrotropical genera of Argidae and species of Pampsilota Konow, 1899 (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Liston


    Full Text Available The Afrotropical fauna contains five genera of Argidae. These are keyed. New subjective synonyms, followed by the valid name in brackets, are Calarge Enslin, 1911 [Arge Schrank, 1802], Calarge africana Enslin, 1911 [Arge congrua Konow, 1907], Clyparge Pasteels, 1963 [Scobina Lepeletier & Serville, 1828], Clyparge terminalis Pasteels, 1963 [Scobina poecila (Klug, 1834], and Sterictophora [sic] afra Pasteels, 1963 [Sphacophilus afer comb. n., species inquirenda near S. monjarasi Smith & Morales-Reyes, 2015]. The type material of both C. terminalis and S. afra was probably collected in the New World, but labelled with the wrong locality “Kamerun”. An introduction of both species to Africa, not followed by long-term establishment, seems less likely. The removal of these taxa from the faunal list of the region is recommended. The nine known Afrotropical species of Pampsilota are revised, and an illustrated dichotomous identification key presented, with distribution maps for all species. Four species are here described as new to science: P. dahomeyanus Goergen, Koch & Liston, sp. n., P. nigeriae Liston & Koch, sp. n., P. tsavoensis Liston & Koch, sp. n., and P. zebra Liston & Koch, sp. n. Lectotypes are designated for Pampsilota afer Konow, 1899, and Cipdele africana Mocsáry, 1909. The immature stages and host plant of only one species are known: P. dahomeyanus on Lannea nigritana (Anacardiaceae. Its larval morphology strongly resembles that of European and North American species of Arge. We provisionally retain Pampsilota as a valid genus, although it could justifiably be treated as comprising merely a species group, or groups, within Arge.

  13. Host-feeding patterns of Culex pipiens and other potential mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) of West Nile virus (Flaviviridae) collected in Portugal. (United States)

    Osório, Hugo Costa; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Alves, Maria João


    The host blood-feeding patterns of mosquito vectors affects the likelihood of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens, including West Nile Virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV). In Portugal, data are unavailable regarding the blood-feeding habits of common mosquito species, including Culex pipiens L., considered the primary vector of WNV to humans. The sources of bloodmeals in 203 blood-fed mosquitoes of nine species collected from June 2007 to November 2010 in 34 Portuguese counties were analyzed by sequencing cytochrome-b partial fragments. Cx. pipiens was the most common species collected and successfully analyzed (n = 135/78). In addition, blood-fed females of the following species were analyzed: Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas (n = 20), Culex theileri Theobald (n = 16), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (n = 10), Culiseta longiareolata Macquart (n = 7), Aedes aegypti L. (n = 6), Culex perexiguus Theobald (n = 3), Culiseta annulata Schrank (n = 3), and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday (n = 3). The Cx. pipiens mosquitoes fed predominantly on birds (n = 55/78, 70.5%), with a high diversity of avian species used as hosts, although human blood was identified in 18 specimens (18/78, 23.1%). No significant differences were found between the host-feeding patterns of blood-fed Cx. pipiens collected in residential and nonresidential habitats. The occurrence of human derived blood meals and the presence of a mix avian-human bloodmeal accordingly suggest this species as a potential vector of WNV. Therefore, in Portugal, Cx. pipiens may play a role both in the avian-to-avian enzootic WNV cycle and in the avian-to-mammal transmission. In this context, the identity of Cx. pipiens (considering the forms molestus and pipiens) and the potential consequence on feeding behavior and WNV transmission are discussed.

  14. Prevalence of Toxocara cati and other parasites in cats' faeces collected from the open spaces of public institutions: Buenos Aires, Argentina. (United States)

    Sommerfelt, I E; Cardillo, N; López, C; Ribicich, M; Gallo, C; Franco, A


    Toxocarosis is a worldwide parasitic infection that affects both cats and dogs. Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) syn. Toxocara mystax (Zeder, 1800) prevalence was studied in faeces from stray cats collected from the open spaces of public institutions of Buenos Aires city, both building and surrounding open spaces are fenced off. Of the 465 samples obtained from March to June of 2005, 58.3% were found to have parasite eggs. The following parasites were identified from the 271 positive samples: T. cati (61.2%), Cystoisospora spp. (20.3%), Trichuris spp. (17.0%), Toxascaris leonina (15.1%), Ancylostoma spp. (14%) and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (2.6%). T. cati prevalence was 35.7% (95% confidence interval: 31.2-40.1), with a 42.2% single isolations. The most frequent combination was T. cati and Cystoisospora spp. (9%). More than half the areas studied showed over 40% prevalence. Seventy-one percent of the collected samples were fresh with a variable moist consistency and 29% were older with a dry consistency. A statistically significant association was found between sample consistency and presence of parasites (chi2 = 10.81; p = 0.001) as also between sample consistency and presence of T. cati (chi2 = 11.27; p = 0.0007). Moist consistencies were significantly different from the rest: consistency (wet or dry) versus parasites (z = 1.95; p = 0.02) (95% confidence interval: 0.004-0.203); consistency (wet or dry) versus T. cati (z = 3.25; p = 0.0006) (95% confidence interval: 0.075-0.254). The cat population that inhabits these public green spaces contaminates the environment, thus transforming them into dangerous spaces with a variable rate for the human population that spends time in these places.

  15. A Short History Regarding the Taxonomy and Systematic Researches of Platygastroidea (Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Popovici


    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the most important and best-known works that were the subject of taxonomy or systematics Platygastroidea superfamily. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part of the research surprised the early period can be placed throughout the XIXth century between Latreille and Dalla Torre. Before this period, references about platygastrids and scelionids were made by Linnaeus and Schrank, they are the ones who described the first platygastrid and scelionid respectively. In this the first period work entomologists as: Haliday, Westwood, Walker, Forster, Ashmead, Thomson, Howard, etc., the result of their work being the description of 699 scelionids species which are found quoted in Dalla Torre's catalogue. The second part of the paper is devoted to early 20th century. This vibrant work is marked by the work of two great entomologists: Kieffer and Dodd. In this period one publish the first and only global monograph of platygastrids and scelionids until now. In this monograph are twice the number of species than in Dalla Torre's catalogue which shows the magnitude of the systematic research of those moments. The third part of the paper refers to the late 20th and early 21st century. This period, which continues today, is the period of modern systematics and taxonomy research about platygastrids and scelionids. During this period these two families become a distinct Superfamily which differs by Proctotrupoidea Superfamily. A great contribution in taxonomic and systematic Platygastroidea Superfamily brought Masner and Kozlov, the presentation of their work occupying the largest space of this 3rd party.

  16. Legal consequences emanating from EC directives and agreements of the WTO with respect to irradiation of food with ionizing radiation; Rechtliche Konsequenzen fuer die ionisierende Bestrahlung von Lebensmitteln aus EG-Richtlinien und WTO-Abkommen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dederer, H.G. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Oeffentliches Recht


    The author discusses aspects of international harmonization of laws and regulations in this field and describes such activities at the European level and within the EU, and under WTO agreements. (orig./CB) [German] Zur Verwirklichung des Binnenmarktes fuer Lebensmittel kommen nach dem EG-Vertrag Massnahmen der Rechtsangleichung in Betracht (Art. 100a Abs. 1 EGV). Insoweit beruht die Freiheit des Lebensmittelverkehrs im Binnenmarkt auf der gemeinschaftsweiten Harmonisierung der nationalen lebensmittelrechtlichen Regelungen. Ausserhalb dieses harmonisierten Bereichs gewaehrleistet die unmittelbar im EG-Vertrag in Art. 30 verankerte Warenverkehrsfreiheit den freien Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln im gesamten Gebiet der Gemeinschaft. Insoweit folgt aus der Cassis de Dijon-Rechtsprechung des Gerichtshofes der Europaeischen Gemeinschaften (EuGH) das Prinzip der gegenseitigen Anerkennung: Lebensmittel, die in einem anderen Mitgliedstaat rechtmaessig hergestellt oder dort rechtmaessig in Verkehr gebracht worden sind, duerfen grundsaetzlich in jedem anderen Mitgliedsstaat vermarktet werden. Dabei stellt der Schutz der Verbraucher eine vom EuGH bereits in die Gewaehrleistung des freien Warenverkehrs in Art. 30 EGV hineingelesene ('immanente') Schranke dar. Daneben darf der freie Warenverkehr gemaess Art. 36 EGV ausdruecklich auch zum Schutz der menschlichen Gesundheit eingeschraenkt werden. In dem auf der Grundlage des Art. 100a Abs. 1 EGV harmonisierten Bereich des Warenverkehrs soll ein hohes Niveau des Gesundheits- und Verbraucherschutzes verwirklicht werden (vgl. Art. 100a Abs. 3 EGV). Art. 100a EGV wird auch die Kompetenzgrundlage fuer zwei sich ergaenzende EG-Richtlinien ueber die ionisierende Bestrahlung von Lebensmitteln sein, deren Entwuerfe gegenwaertig auf der Ebene der Europaeischen Gemeinschaft beraten werden. (orig.)

  17. Perspectives for mass rearing of Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Fabio A. de


    Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma is an important predator of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) on citrus in Brazil. The suitability of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) as a food source of I. zuluagai in laboratory rearing was investigated at 25.5 ± 0.5 deg C, 88 ± 7% RU and photophase of 12h. Initially, levels of oviposition of the predator fed on eggs were evaluated, as well as the dead or live post-embryonic stages of T. putrescentiae, in a period of 10 days. The daily oviposition rate was 1.3 egg per female when they were fed on eggs on T. putrescentiae, 0.7 egg per female when they were fed on dead post embryonic stages and about 0.3 egg per female when they were fed on live post-embryonic stages. Later, the life table of I. zuluagai was constructed, when eggs of T. putrescentiae were offered to the predators as prey. The immature stages were observed every 8 h, to determine the corresponding durations. In the adult phase, the mites were observed every 24 h, to determine the reproductive parameters. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ) was 0.11 female/ female/day; resulting in a fi nite rate of increase of 1.11 (λ). The net reproductive rate (R 0 ) was 7.1 females/generation, with a mean generation time (T) 18.6 days. The results show that T. putrescentiae is a favorable food source for the development of I. zuluagai. (author)

  18. Evaluation of airborne methyl salicylate for improved conservation biological control of two-spotted spider mite and hop aphid in Oregon hop yards. (United States)

    Woods, J L; James, D G; Lee, J C; Gent, D H


    The use of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) to attract natural enemies has received interest as a tool to enhance conservation biological control (CBC). Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a HIPV that is attractive to several key predators of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera: Aphididae). A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the recommended commercial use of MeSA in hop yards in Oregon. Slow-release MeSA dispensers were stapled to supporting poles in 0.5 ha plots and these plots were compared to a paired non-treated plot on each of three farms in 2008 and 2009. Across both years, there was a trend for reduced (range 40-91%) mean seasonal numbers of T. urticae in five of the six MeSA-baited plots. Stethorus spp., key spider mite predators, tended to be more numerous in MeSA-baited plots compared to control plots on a given farm. Mean seasonal densities of hop aphid and other natural enemies (e.g., Orius spp. and Anystis spp.) were similar between MeSA-treated and control plots. Variability among farms in suppression of two-spotted spider mites and attraction of Stethorus spp. suggests that the use of MeSA to enhance CBC of spider mites in commercial hop yards may be influenced by site-specific factors related to the agroecology of individual farms or seasonal effects that require further investigation. The current study also suggests that CBC of hop aphid with MeSA in this environment may be unsatisfactory.

  19. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745-1808) in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea). (United States)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A


    ) (from Attelabus), Nerthopssticticus (Fabricius, 1777) (from Curculio), Piezotracheluscrotalariae (Fabricius, 1802) (from Attelabus), and Poropterusgranulatus (Fabricius, 1802) (from Curculio). The junior homonym Brachycerusuva Fabricius, 1792 (non Sparrman, 1785) is replaced by Brachycerusfabricii nom. n. The following new synonymies are established: Brachycerusobesus (Fabricius, 1775) = Curculioscalaris Fabricius, 1777, syn. n., Brachydereslusitanicus (Fabricius, 1781) = Curculiomoratus Fabricius, 1798, syn. n., Brachypera (Brachypera) crinita (Boheman, 1834) = Curculiostriatus Fabricius, 1787, syn. n., Brachysomuserinaceus (Fabricius, 1802) = Brachysomusvillosulus (Germar, 1824), syn. n., Bronchusabruptecostatus (Gyllenhal, 1833) = Curculiospectrum Fabricius, 1802, syn. n., Bronchusnivosus (Sparrman, 1785) = Curculiorecurvus Fabricius, 1802, syn. n., Camptorhinustibialis (Sparrman, 1785) = Rhynchaenusalienatus Fabricius, 1802, syn. n., Coelocephalapionatrirostre (Fabricius, 1802) = Coelocephalapionluteirostre (Gerstäcker, 1854), syn. n., Cyrtoderescristatus (DeGeer, 1778) (Tenebrionidae) = Brachyceruscristatus Fabricius, 1798, syn. n., Desmidophorushebes (Fabricius, 1781) = Curculiotuberculatus Fabricius, 1792, syn. n., Donussalviae (Schrank, 1789) = Curculiodenticornis Fabricius, 1798, syn. n., Exomiasholosericeus (Fabricius, 1802) = Exomiaschevrolati (Boheman, 1842), syn. n., Nerthopssticticus (Fabricius, 1777) = Nerthopsguttatus (Olivier, 1807), syn. n., Phyllobiusoblongus (Linnaeus, 1758) = Curculiomali Fabricius, 1782, syn. n., and Rhinocyllusconicus (Froelich, 1792) = Bruchuspunctatus Fabricius, 1798, syn. n. Bronchussynthesys sp. n. is described to represent the concept of Hipporhinusspectrum sensu Marshall, 1904, a misidentification.

  20. Archean and proterozoic continental crust in South America: Main building events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuck, R.A; Brito Neves, B.B; Pimentel, M.M


    Available geochronological data reveal that the first building blocks of the South American continental crust were set up in the early Paleoarchean, ca. 3.4-3.5 Ga ago, although the presence of components as old as 3.7 Ga is indicated by Nd TDM model ages. The oldest rocks so far recognized are exposed in northeast Brazil and Uruguay. In the Sao Jose do Campestre block, Rio Grande do Norte, 3.45 Ga old tonalite, migmatized and intruded by granitoids between 3.3 and 3.0 Ga, is part of the basement to the Borborema Province (Dantas et al. 1998). In Bahia 3.42 Ga old tonalitic grey gneisses of Sete Voltas, Boa Vista, and Mairi form the basement of the Gaviao block, within the core of the Sao Francisco Craton (Nutman and Cordani, 1993, Martin et al., 1997). The Paleoarchean TTG suites as well as greenstone remnants of unknown age were involved in crust accretion events between 3.1 and 3.3 Ga ago (Teixeira et al. 2000 and references therein), which are also recorded in Campo Belo and Uaua (Teixeira et al., 1998, Oliveira et al., 1999), as attested by TTG intrusions and the ca. 3.1 Ga Pium-hi greenstone belt of W Minas Gerais (Machado and Schrank 1989). Microcontinents then formed were involved in deformation, metamorphism, and migmatization around 2.8-3.0 Ga ago, probably during amalgamation events. Widespread granite-greenstone associations in the Quadrilatero Ferrifero and other areas represent new crust built during the very important Neoarchean Rio das Velhas cycle, ca. 2.7-2.8 Ga ago (Machado and Carneiro 1992, Machado et al. 1992). Layered mafic-ultramafic and granite intrusions ca. 2.5-2.7 Ga old are recorded all over the Sao Francisco Craton, including the high-grade terrain of southern Bahia, formed during the late Archean Jequie Cycle (Teixeira et al. 2000 and references therein). Similar intrusions are recorded in many basement areas within Neoproterozoic fold belts (au)

  1. Effects of powdery mildew fungicide programs on twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), hop aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and their natural enemies in hop yards. (United States)

    Gent, D H; James, D G; Wright, L C; Brooks, D J; Barbour, J D; Dreves, A J; Fisher, G C; Walton, V M


    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are the most important arthropod pests of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in the Northern Hemisphere. A potential barrier for greater adoption of conservation biological control strategies for spider mites and hop aphid is the extensive use of fungicides for management of hop powdery mildew, Podosphaera macularis (Wallr.:Fr.) U. Braun & S. Takamatsu. Field studies conducted in experimental plots in Oregon and Washington in 2005 and 2006 quantified the effects of powdery mildew fungicide programs (i.e., sulfur, paraffinic oil, and synthetic fungicides) on arthropod pests and natural enemies on hop. Fungicide treatment significantly affected spider mite populations in all four studies. Multiple applications of sulfur fungicides applied before burr development resulted in 1.4-3.3-fold greater spider mite populations during summer. Near the cessation of the sulfur applications, or after a lag of 20-30 d, spider mite populations increased significantly faster on sulfur treated plants compared with water-treated plants in three of four experiments. The effect of paraffinic oil on spider mites was varied, leading to exacerbation of spider mites in Oregon and Washington in 2005, suppression of mites in Oregon in 2006, and no significant effect compared with water in Washington in 2006. Significant relative treatment effects for cone damage due to spider mite feeding were detected in Oregon in 2005 in plots treated with sulfur and paraffinic oil compared with water and synthetic fungicides. Mean populations of hop aphids were similar among treatments in Oregon, although sulfur treatment suppressed hop aphid populations in Washington in 2005 and 2006. Populations of individual predacious insect species and cumulative abundance of macropredators were not consistently suppressed or stimulated by treatments in all trials. However, predatory mite

  2. Introduction of Astigmatina and Oribatida Mites (Acari: Sarcoptiformes associated with Stored Food Products in Mashhad county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Khaleghabadian


    infested materials by using Berlese-Tullgreen funnel. The specimens were cleared using either pure Lactic acid or Nesbitt’s mixture and then mounted in Hoyer's medium as microscopic slides. Using relevant references, mites were identified and then sent to the third and fourth authors for confirmation. Type specimens are held in the Acarological laboratory, Department of Plant Protection, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Results and Discussion: Among the identified species, Histiostoma sapromyzarum (Dufour has reported from Iran for the first time. New records for the study area are indicated by an asterisk. The list of identifying species is as below: I- Astigmatina- 1- Family Acaridae: Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Troupeau*, Caloglyphus berlesie Michael, Acarus siro Linnaeus, Rhizoglyphus echinopus (Fumouze & Robin*, R. robini Clapared, Tyrophagus longior Gervais*, T.putrescentiae (Schrank, 2- Family Chortoglyphidae: Chortoglyphus arcuatus (Troupeau*, 3- Family Glycyphagidae: Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank*, 4- Histiostomatidae: Histiostoma feroniarum (Dufour*, H. sapromyzarum (Dufour, 5- Suidasiidae: Suidasia nesbitti Hughes*. II- Oribatida- 1- Family Aphelacaridae: Aphelacarus acarinus (Berlese*, 2- Family Cosmochthoniidae: Cosmochthonius sp.*, 3- Family Ctenacaridae: Ctenacarus araneola (Grandjean*, 4- Family Galumnidae: Galumnadis cifera Balogh*, Galumnakarajica Mahunka & Akrami*, 5- Family Haplozetidae: Haplozetes sp.*, 6- Family Mesoplophoridae: Mesoplophora sp.*, 7- Family Oppiidae: Lasiobelba sp.*, 8- Family Oribatulidae: Oribatula (Oribatula sp.*, O. (Zygoribatula sp.*, O.(Zygoribatula connexa Berlese*, O. (Zygoribatula exarata Berlese*, 9- Family Scheloribatidae: Scheloribates fimbriatus Thor*. Conclusion: In this study, 12 species of Astigmatina belonging to 9 genera of 5 families and 13 species of oribatid mites were collected and identified. Among them, one species, namely Histiosomas apromyzarum (Dufour is a new record for the fauna of Iran. Twenty

  3. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in neuroradiology; Funktionelle Magnetresonanztomographie in der Neuroradiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, M.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Schlemmer, H.P.; Metzner, R.; Kaick, G. van [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Forschungsschwerpunkt Radiologische Diagnostik und Therapie


    Bildgebungssequenzen, optimierter Kontrastmittelapplikationen und spezieller Nachverarbeitungsmethoden wurde es moeglich, physiologische und pathophysiologische Prozesse mittels der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) zu beobachten. Mit T1- und T2*-gewichteten kontrastmittelunterstuetzten Bildgebungssequenzen koennen Informationen ueber die Gewebeperfusion, Mikrozirkulation und die Permeabilitaet der Blut-Hirn-Schranke unter Anwendung spezieller, z.T. aus der Nuklearmedizin stammender Modelle erfasst werden. Die Eigendiffusion von Wassermolekuelen im Gewebe ist mit diffusiongewichteter MRT, die Markrovaskulatur, zeitlich aufgeloest, mit MR-angiographischen Techniken darstellbar. Auch eine neuronale Aktivitaet einfacher oder komplexer Natur kann mit funktionellen MR-Techniken visualisiert werden. Mit MR-spektroskopischen Untersuchungen koennen metabolische Verteilungen in normalem und pathologischem Gewebe mehrdimensional erfasst und Stoffwechselvorgaenge im Verlauf beobachtet werden. Vorteile der MRT ist die geringe Invasivitaet, die Moeglichkeit einer dreidimensionalen Darstellung der Daten und eine beliebige Wiederholbarkeit der Untersuchung bei fehlender Strahlenbelastung. Die bereits klinisch einsetzbaren funktionellen Methoden werden beschrieben und ihr Einsatz in der Neuroradiologie auch in Bezug auf die Wertigkeit im Vergleich zu nuklearmedizinischen Methoden diskutiert. Perfusions- und Diffusions-MRT liefern wichtige Zusatzinformationen im akuten und chronischen Stadium der zerebralen Ischaemie und werden bereits routinemaessig bei akutem Schlaganfall eingesetzt. Dynamische MR-Angiographien erlauben eine haemodynamische Einstufung von Gefaessmissbildungen. In der Tumordiagnostik liefern die funktionellen MR-Techniken wichtige Zusatzinformationen fuer die Therapiefindung, Therapieplanung und das Therapiemonitoring. Die Untersuchung psychiatrischen Erkrankungen wurden durch die funktionelle MRT revolutioniert, obwohl der klinische Einsatz noch limitiert ist. Erste Untersuchungen

  4. Diversidade de angiospermas e espécies medicinais de uma área de Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. SILVA


    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a diversidade vegetal de uma área de Cerrado em Prudente de Morais, MG, bem como suas indicações medicinais. Foram feitas nove excursões à reserva da Fazenda Experimental Santa Rita da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais (FESR/EPAMIG (19°26’20”’ S e 44°09’15”’ W. O material vegetal coletado foi herborizado, identificado e incorporado ao acervo do Herbário PAMG/EPAMIG. O sistema de classificação utilizado foi o APG III. Após a identificação, realizou-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica buscando dados sobre a utilização medicinal das espécies. Coletaram-se 108 espécies pertencentes a 47 famílias. As famílias mais representativas foram: Fabaceae, com 16 espécies, Myrtaceae com sete espécies, Asteraceae e Rubiaceae com seis espécies cada, Malpighiaceae e Solanaceae com cinco espécies cada, Erythroxylaceae, Euphorbiaceae e Vochysiaceae, com quatro espécies cada, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae e Sapindaceae com três espécies cada, Annonaceae, Arecaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae e Primulaceae com duas espécies cada. Vinte e nove famílias foram monoespecíficas. Das 108 espécies, 39 são árvores (36%, 43 arbustos (40%, seis subarbustos (5,5%, 14 lianas (13% e seis são ervas (5,5%. Sessenta e seis (61% espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias (83% são utilizadas popularmente, para o tratamento de alguma doença. As famílias com maior número de espécies medicinais foram: Fabaceae com oito espécies; Rubiaceae com cinco espécies e Solanaceae com quatro espécies. As espécies que apresentaram mais finalidades terapêuticas foram: Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae, Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (Caryocaraceae, Cochlospermum regium (Mart. ex Schrank Pilg. (Bixaceae, Croton urucurana Bail. (Euphorbiaceae, Gomphrena officinalis Mart. (Amaranthaceae, Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae, Lithrea molleoides (Vell. Engl. (Anacardiaceae

  5. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.


    >Curculio communis Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio thoracespinosus Goeze, 1777, Curculio armatus Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio denticulatus Gmelin, 1790 (non Schrank, 1781, nec Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio muricatus Goeze, 1777 (non Drury, 1773, Curculio murinus Geoffroy, 1785 (non Müller, 1764, Curculio fuscipes Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio tesselatus Geoffroy, 1785 (non Fabricius, 1781, Curculio sericeus Goeze, 1777, Curculio villosus Geoffroy, 1785 (non Fabricius, 1781, Curculio sericeus Gmelin, 1790 (non Goeze, 1777, nec Schaller, 1783, nec Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783, Curculio virgo Goeze, 1777, Curculio virgo Geoffroy, 1785 (non Goeze, 1777, Curculio virgo Gmelin, 1790 (non Goeze, 1777, nec Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio punctulatus Geoffroy, 1785.

    El estudio de 131 ejemplares de Curculiónidos, más o menos completos, de la colección Étienne Louis Geoffroy conservados en el Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de París (Entomología ha permitido identificar varias especies nominales que eran consideradas nomina dubia y establecer varias nuevas sinonimias y combinaciones, e incluso, en algunos casos, recuperar la prioridad de acuerdo con el Art. 23.9 del Código, declarando nomina protecta y nomina oblita. Las nuevas sinonimias son (se indica en primer lugar el nombre válido: Lixus filiformis (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio longus Gmelin, 1790; Lasiorhynchites cavifrons (Gyllenhal, 1833 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer viridis Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Byctiscus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Rhinomacer auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus (Germar, 1824 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer caeruleus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Deporaus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Rhinomacer niger Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio fuliginosus Gmelin, 1790; Coniocleonus hollbergii

  6. Lossless quantum data compression and secure direct communication (United States)

    Boström, Kim


    message. Diese Dissertation behandelt die Kodierung und Verschickung von Information durch einen Quantenkanal. Ein Quantenkanal besteht aus einem quantenmechanischen System, welches vom Sender manipuliert und vom Empfänger ausgelesen werden kann. Dabei repräsentiert der individuelle Zustand des Kanals die Nachricht. Die zwei Themen der Dissertation umfassen 1) die Möglichkeit, eine Nachricht in einem Quantenkanal verlustfrei zu komprimieren und 2) die Möglichkeit eine Nachricht von einer Partei zu einer einer anderen direkt und auf sichere Weise zu übermitteln, d.h. ohne dass es einer dritte Partei möglich ist, die Nachricht abzuhören und dabei unerkannt zu bleiben. Die wesentlichen Ergebnisse der Dissertation sind die folgenden. Ein allgemeiner Formalismus für Quantencodes mit variabler Länge wird ausgearbeitet. Diese Codes sind notwendig um verlustfreie Kompression zu ermöglichen. Wegen der Quantennatur des Kanals sind die codierten Nachrichten allgemein in einer Superposition von verschiedenen Längen. Es zeigt sich, daß es unmöglich ist eine Quantennachricht verlustfrei zu komprimieren, wenn diese dem Sender nicht apriori bekannt ist. Im anderen Falle wird die Möglichkeit verlustfreier Quantenkompression gezeigt und eine untere Schranke für die Kompressionsrate abgeleitet. Des weiteren wird ein expliziter Kompressionsalgorithmus konstruiert, der für beliebig vorgegebene Ensembles aus Quantennachrichten funktioniert. Ein quantenkryptografisches Prokoll - das “Ping-Pong Protokoll” - wird vorgestellt, welches die sichere direkte übertragung von klassischen Nachrichten durch einen Quantenkanal ermöglicht. Die Sicherheit des Protokolls gegen beliebige Abhörangriffe wird bewiesen für den Fall eines idealen Quantenkanals. Im Gegensatz zu anderen quantenkryptografischen Verfahren ist das Ping-Pong Protokoll deterministisch und kann somit sowohl für die Übermittlung eines zufälligen Schlüssels als auch einer komponierten Nachricht verwendet werden

  7. Palynology and paleoecology of Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh formations at Baghak section (east of Kopeh-Dagh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahjooneh Keshmiri


    calculated in five purview and then the percent of each palynological elements were acquired. 3- Discussion, Results and Conclusion All of the 50 rock samples prepared have yielded dinofalgellate cysts. The assemblages recorded include such taxa as: Acomosphaera sp., Achomosphaera neptunii, Batioladinium sp., Bourkidinium granulatum, Cauca parva, Circulodinium sp., Circulodinium brevispinosum, Circulodinium distinctum, Cometodinium sp., Coronifera oceanica, Cribroperidinium sp., Cribroperidinium orthoceras, Florentinia sp., Florentinia cooksoniae, Florentinia mantelii, Glaphyrocysta sp., Gonyaulacysta sp., Gonyaulacysta polythyris, Hystrichosphaeridium sp., Kiokansium sp., Kiokansium polypes, Klithrosphaeridium sp., Muderongia sp., Muderongia tabulate, Odontochitina operculata, Oligosphaeridium complex, Oligosphaeridium poculum, Oligosphaeridium porosum, Oligosphaeridium totum, Paleoperidinium cretaceum, Prolixosphaeridium sp., Prolixosphaeridium parvispinium, Pseudoceratium sp., Pseudoceratium retusum, Pterodinium sp., Spiniferites sp., Spiniferites ramosus, Subtilisphaera sp., Systematophora sp., Tanyosphaeridium sp. (Plate 1-2. Based on the presence of the index dinoflagellate cyst, Odontochitina operculata throughout the entire section, it can be concluded that the first appearance of this species is before the first sample of the Sarcheshmeh Formation (sample 398 and therefore the identified dinoflagellate cysts are a part of the Odontochitina operculata Zone. This palynozone originally erected by Wilson (1984 for Aptian strata in New Zealand and Morgan (1980 suggest the age of Aptian for Odontochitina operculata Zone. The presence of species Gonyaulacysta polythyris, Circulodinium brevispinosum and Florentinia mantelii which are recorded from early Aptian strata in different part of the world such as Australia (Backhouse, 1988, France (Stover, 1996, south of Alpine Italia (Torricelli,2000 and south of Tanzania (Schrank & Mahmoud, 2002 in lower formation reveal the age