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Sample records for chewing gums compared

  1. In vitro tooth whitening effect of two medicated chewing gums compared to a whitening gum and saliva

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    Saroea Geoffrey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extrinsic staining of teeth may result from the deposition of a variety of pigments into or onto the tooth surface, which originate mainly from diet or from tobacco use. More recently, clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some chewing gums in removing extrinsic tooth staining. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two nicotine medicated chewing gums (A and B on stain removal in an in vitro experiment, when compared with a confectionary whitening chewing gum (C and human saliva (D. Methods Bovine incisors were stained by alternating air exposure and immersion in a broth containing natural pigments such as coffee, tea and oral microorganisms for 10 days. Stained enamel samples were exposed to saliva alone or to the test chewing gums under conditions simulating human mastication. The coloration change of the enamel samples was measured using a spectrophotometer. Measurements were obtained for each specimen (average of three absorbances using the L*a*b scale: lightness (L*, red-green (a and yellow-blue (b. Results Medicated chewing gums (A and B removed a greater amount of visible extrinsic stain, while the confectionary chewing gum with a whitening claim (C had a milder whitening effect as evaluated by quantitative and qualitative assessment. Conclusion The tested Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT chewing gums were more effective in the removal of the extrinsic tooth stain. This visible improvement in tooth whitening appearance could strengthen the smokers' motivation to quit smoking.

  2. Chlorhexidine-containing chewing gum. Clinical documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Imfeld, T

    2006-01-01

    A clinical documentation on chlorhexidine containing chewing gum is presented on the occasion of the launch of CHewX, a chewing gum containing 5 mg of chlorhexidine diacetate in Switzerland. Following an overview on functional chewing gum, the mechanism of action of chlorhexidine (CHX), its toxicity and safety are summarized and a review of clinical studies performed with CHX-containing chewing gum given. Indication, dosage, precautions and benefits of CHX chewing gum are described.

  3. Chewing gums for optimal health

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    Nidhi Madan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates on the general aspects and health benefits of chewing gum. Chewing gums have been used since the time of prehistoric man as a source of entertainment and relaxation. It has also become a trendsetter with the teenagers. Currently, the health benefits of chewing gums are being studied and used in the treatment of various diseases. Certain medications have also been included in gums to act as an alternative drug delivery system. These gums have been found to be successful for the treatment of diseases, such as peptic ulcers, upper digestive tract cancer, oral candidiasis, and so on. It helps to relieve symptoms of xerostomia, Parkinsonism, tooth sensitivity after bleaching, and oral malodor. It helps in maintaining oral health, relieves stress, helps in weight loss, and improves alertness. Chewing gum may be distracting and irritating in numerous social environments, including schools, colleges, and the workplace. Research into the social effects of chewing gums is also necessary to further our knowledge into the psychosocial aspects of these gums.

  4. Oral health benefits of chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades sugar-free chewing gum has developed in an oral healthcare product, next to the conventional products such as the toothbrush and mouthrinses. In this thesis we investigate the oral health benefits of chewing gum and the effects of additives to chewing gum, such as antimicrobials.

  5. The effect of chewing gum on dental plaque accumulation

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    Karami Nogourani M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Studies show that sucrose containing chewing gums are cariogenic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two commercial chewing gums with and without sucrose on dental plaque accumulation compared with the control group. "nMaterials and Methods: In this clinical study, plaque accumulation during three 7-day periods (with two weeks interval was recorded (Sillness & Loe Index in a group of 23 volunteer male dental students who chewed in the first two periods sugar-free or sugar-containing chewing gums (Olips and Orbit, respectively and in the last period did not chew any gum. Participants were asked to chew daily five gum sticks after meals for about twenty minutes. The data were statistically analyzed using Repeated Measure ANOVA and paired-T test. "nResults: The results showed that chewing any gum even sucrose-containing gum decreased the level of dental plaque accumulation (P<0.001. However, the decreasing effect of sugar-free gums was significantly higher (P<0.001. "nConclusion: Although sugar free gum was more effective than sugar containing gum on reducing dental plaque accumulation, chewing even sugar containing gums could decrease the level of dental plaque.

  6. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

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    Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-12-15

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  7. Oral health: Role of chewing gum.

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    Ponnuswamy MANIKANDAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of dental caries in Brunei Darussalam is highly alarming and dental anxiety in general leads to avoidance of dental care. Since this is an era of preventive dentistry utilising a holistic approach, excellent results could be achieved if preventative methods are regularly used by people in day-to-day life. Gum chewing is increasing dramatically despite racial, cultural and religious taboos against them. Many previously considered chewing sugared gum might increase the cariogenic load. However with better understanding of cariology, it is now perceived by many that chewing sugared gum after meals is safe. Sugarless gum has an important role in preventive dentistry. Chewing gum with incorporation of anti-plaque agents and various drug delivery systems is distinctive as a special confectionary item. This article reviews the historical background of gum chewing, the role of various chewing gums in preventing oral diseases like dental caries and periodontal diseases, its role in the management of xerostomia, hypersensitive teeth and as an alternate to cigarette smoking habit.

  8. Acute and chronic effects of gum chewing on food reinforcement and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Christine; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-04-01

    Although chewing gum has been considered a potential method for reducing energy intake, little empirical data exist to support this idea. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that chewing gum before eating reduces motivation to eat, hunger, and energy intake. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments in which participants chewed gum prior to completing a food reinforcement task or before all eating occasions for two of three weeks. In Experiment 1, we found that chewing gum had no influence on the reinforcing value of food, but chewing mint gum reduced liking of and energy intake from fruit. In addition, chewing gum reduced self-reported hunger immediately after gum chewing and after eating compared with the no gum condition. In Experiment 2, gum chewing had no significant effect on total energy intake, but participants consumed fewer meals, consumed more energy per meal, and had a lower nutrient adequacy ratio during the gum chewing weeks. These studies provide no evidence that acute or chronic gum chewing reduces hunger or energy intake. In fact, chewing mint-flavored gum may deter consumption of fruit and reduce diet quality.

  9. Comparative evaluation of the effects of xylitol and sugar-free chewing gums on salivary and dental plaque pH in children

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    Shikhar Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper primarily focuses on the importance of use of xylitol among school children. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the salivary and dental plaque pH changes after consumption of sugared and sugar-free (xylitol chewing gums in children. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 school children were selected for this study and were divided into two equal groups and given both chewing gums for the experiment. Results: Children consuming the sugar-free (xylitol chewing gum showed a marked increase in the pH of saliva and plaque when compared to their counterpart. All these values had a significant difference of P ≤ 0.0001. Conclusion: Xylitol is a safe all-natural sweetener which helps to reduce tooth decay. It plays a unique role in preventive strategies for better health.

  10. Evaluation of CDs and chewing gum in teaching dental anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenneth L; Galvis, Diana; Katz, Ralph V

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this pilot study were: 1. to compare two methods of teaching dental anatomy-CD + lab vs. standard lecture + lab; and 2. to determine whether actively chewing gum during lecture, lab and studying would have an effect on learning. Only the written examination average scores for the gum vs. no gum chewing groups showed differences that appear to be educationally meaningful, though not statistically significant because of the limited number of subjects in this pilot study. This pilot study suggests that: 1. the cost-effective method of using a self-study CD is as educationally effective as a standard lecture; 2. gum chewing resulted in higher scores in the written examination; and 3. future, full-sized studies should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  11. Flavor-Enhanced Modulation of Cerebral Blood Flow during Gum Chewing.

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    Yoko Hasegawa

    Full Text Available Flavor perception, the integration of taste and odor, is a critical factor in eating behavior. It remains unclear how such sensory signals influence the human brain systems that execute the eating behavior.WE TESTED CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW (CBF IN THE FRONTAL LOBES BILATERALLY WHILE SUBJECTS CHEWED THREE TYPES OF GUM WITH DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS OF TASTE AND ODOR: no taste/no odor gum (C-gum, sweet taste/no odor gum (T-gum, and sweet taste/lemon odor gum (TO-gum. Simultaneous recordings of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD and near infrared spectrometer (NIRS were used to measure CBF during gum chewing in 25 healthy volunteers. Bilateral masseter muscle activity was also monitored.We found that subjects could discriminate the type of gum without prior information. Subjects rated the TO-gum as the most flavorful gum and the C-gum as the least flavorful. Analysis of masseter muscle activity indicated that masticatory motor output during gum chewing was not affected by taste and odor. The TCD/NIRS measurements revealed significantly higher hemodynamic signals when subjects chewed the TO-gum compared to when they chewed the C-gum and T-gum.These data suggest that taste and odor can influence brain activation during chewing in sensory, cognitive, and motivational processes rather than in motor control.

  12. Quantification and Qualification of Bacteria Trapped in Chewed Gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and r

  13. Relationships Between Gum-Chewing and Stress.

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    Konno, Michiyo; Takeda, Tomotaka; Kawakami, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Kazunori; Ozawa, Takamitsu; Ishigami, Keiichi; Takemura, Naohiro; Sakatani, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that chewing is thought to affect stress modification in humans. Also, studies in animals have demonstrated that active chewing of a wooden stick during immobilization stress ameliorates the stress-impaired synaptic plasticity and prevents stress-induced noradrenaline release in the amygdala. On the other hand, studies have suggested that the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) dominates the regulation of the stress response system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The International Affective Digitized Sounds-2 (IADS) is widely used in the study of emotions and neuropsychological research. Therefore, in this study, the effects of gum-chewing on physiological and psychological (including PFC activity measured by NIRS) responses to a negative stimulus selected from the IADS were measured and analyzed. The study design was approved by the Ethics Committee of Tokyo Dental College (No. 436). We studied 11 normal adults using: cerebral blood oxygenation in the right medial PFC by multi-channel NIRS; alpha wave intensity by EEG; autonomic nervous function by heart rate; and emotional conditions by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) test and the 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Auditory stimuli selected were fewer than 3.00 in Pleasure value. Sounds were recorded in 3 s and reproduced at random using software. Every task session was designed in a block manner; seven rests: Brown Noise (30 s) and six task blocks: auditory stimuli or auditory stimuli with gum-chewing (30 s). During the test, the participants' eyes were closed. Paired Student's t-test was used for the comparison (P<0.05). Gum-chewing showed a significantly greater activation in the PFC, alpha wave appearance rate and HR. Gum-chewing also showed a significantly higher VAS score and a smaller STAI level indicating 'pleasant'. Gum-chewing affected physiological and psychological responses including PFC activity. This PFC activation change might influence the HPA axis

  14. Chewing-gum preservative induced toxidermic vasculitis.

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    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Faure, G; Bene, M C

    1986-09-01

    This paper reports the case of a young female patient who presented with a cutaneous urticarial disseminated eruption. Drug-induced side effects were eliminated, and the only recent dietary change was the regular use of chewing-gums containing chlorophylla (E140), menthol and BHT (butylhydroxytoluene). Immunohistological analysis of a cutaneous lesion revealed signs of vasculitis. Within 1 week after stopping chewing gum, the eruption subsided. Oral provocation tests at 4-day intervals confirmed the responsibility of BHT by the reinduction of the cutaneous signs after a few hours.

  15. The effect of sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) as a chewing gum additive on caries increments in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, S B; Frew, R A; Leibowitz, R; Morse, W; Manson-Hing, L; Brunelle, J

    1978-04-01

    A three-year study on school-age children using trimetaphosphate as a chewing gum additive produced significant reductions in proximal surface dental caries increments as compared to an non-chewing gum group. The reductions were 23.3% for the TMP sucrose gum group and 47.6% for the TMP nonsugar group as compared to the no-gum group. PMID:273637

  16. The oral health benefits of chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Michael W J

    2012-01-01

    The use of sugar-free gum provides a proven anti-caries benefit, but other oral health effects are less clearly elucidated. Chewing sugar-free chewing gum promotes a strong flow of stimulated saliva, which helps to provide a number of dental benefits: first, the higher flow rate promotes more rapid oral clearance of sugars; second, the high pH and buffering capacity of the stimulated saliva help to neutralise plaque pH after a sugar challenge; and, lastly, studies have shown enhanced remineralisation of early caries-like lesions and ultimately prospective clinical trials have shown reduced caries incidence in children chewing sugar-free gum. This paper reviews the scientific evidence for these functional claims and discusses other benefits, including plaque and extrinsic stain reduction, along with the possibility of adding specific active agents, including fluoride, antimicrobials, urea and calcium phosphates, to enhance these inherent effects. The evidence for a specific effect of xylitol as a caries-therapeutic agent is also discussed. In conclusion, it is asserted that chewing gum has a place as an additional mode of dental disease prevention to be used in conjunction with the more traditional preventive methods. PMID:23573702

  17. The Efficacy of Green Tea Chewing Gum on Gingival Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behfarnia, Parichehr; Aslani, Ahmad; Jamshidian, Foroogh; Noohi, Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem According to previous studies, the components of green tea extracts can inhibit the growth of a wide range of gram-pos-itive and -negative bacterial species and might be useful in controlling oral infections. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the effect of green tea chewing gum on the rate of plaque and gingival inflammation in subjects with gingivitis. Materials and Method In this double-blind randomize controlled clinical trial, 45 patients with generalized marginal gingivitis were selected and divided into two groups of green tea (23) and placebo (22) chewing gum. The patients chewed two gums for 15 minutes daily for three weeks. Sulcus bleeding index (SBI) and approximal plaque index (API) were studied at the baseline, 7 and 21 days later. Saliva sampling was conducted before and after 21 days for evaluation of IL-1β. The results were analyzed and compared by using repeated measures ANOVA, paired t test, and independent two-sample t test (α=0.05). Result The results showed that chewing gum significantly affected the SBI and API (p< 0.001). Paired t test showed that the two groups were significantly different regarding the mean changes of SBI and API at different periods of 1-7, 1-21, and 7-21 (p< 0.001). Concerning IL-1β, the repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the effect of chewing gum was significant (p<0.001). Moreover, paired t-test represented no significant difference between the mean changes of IL-1β within 1-21 day (p= 0.086). Conclusion The green tea chewing gum improved the SBI and API and effectively reduced the level of IL-1β. PMID:27284561

  18. The Antibacterial Effect of CMCTS-Containing Chewing Gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dagang Miao; Dan Blom; Hongmei Zhao; Xuefei Luan; Tongzhi Chen; Xiaohui Wu; Ning Song

    2009-01-01

    Objective:This paper was designed to confirm the efficacy of chewing carboxymethyl chitosan(CMCTS)-containing gum in suppressing the growth of oral bacteria when compared to a CMCTS-containing mouth rinse.Methods:Fourteen healthy subjects were recruited from among the staff and students of Qingdao University Dentistry Department.Before the experiments saliva was collected from all subjects and bacteria counts determined.For the gum study,the subjects chewed CMCTS-containing gum for 5 rain and then rested for 5 min.When testing the CMCTS mouth rinse,the subjects gargled with 10 mL of solution for 30 s,followed by resting for 9min 30 s.These protocols were repeated five times over a 50 rain period on the same day.Post-experiment saliva samples were then collected at the following times:0,30 and 60 min.Results:Chewing gum containing CMCTS or rinsing with a CMCTS-containing rinse significantly decreased oral bacteria counts.The total bacteria counts,total Streptococci counts,and mutans streptococci counts of saliva from subjects who chewed CMCTS-containing gum were significantly lower than saliva from subjects in the rinse group in all three sampling periods,except in the case of the total bacteria count in the 60 min samples.Conclusion:CMCTS-containing gum chewing has a greater antibac-terial effect than using a CMCTS-containing mouth rinse.The present findings strongly indicate that the application of natural materials such as chitosan and its derivatives is useful for better oral health.

  19. Quantification and qualification of bacteria trapped in chewed gum.

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    Stefan W Wessel

    Full Text Available Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and remove them from the oral cavity. To test this hypothesis, we developed two methods to quantify numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum. In the first method, known numbers of bacteria were finger-chewed into gum and chewed gums were molded to standard dimensions, sonicated and plated to determine numbers of colony-forming-units incorporated, yielding calibration curves of colony-forming-units retrieved versus finger-chewed in. In a second method, calibration curves were created by finger-chewing known numbers of bacteria into gum and subsequently dissolving the gum in a mixture of chloroform and tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid (TE-buffer. The TE-buffer was analyzed using quantitative Polymerase-Chain-Reaction (qPCR, yielding calibration curves of total numbers of bacteria versus finger-chewed in. Next, five volunteers were requested to chew gum up to 10 min after which numbers of colony-forming-units and total numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum were determined using the above methods. The qPCR method, involving both dead and live bacteria yielded higher numbers of retrieved bacteria than plating, involving only viable bacteria. Numbers of trapped bacteria were maximal during initial chewing after which a slow decrease over time up to 10 min was observed. Around 10(8 bacteria were detected per gum piece depending on the method and gum considered. The number of species trapped in chewed gum increased with chewing time. Trapped bacteria were clearly visualized in chewed gum using scanning-electron-microscopy. Summarizing, using novel methods to quantify and qualify oral bacteria trapped in chewed gum, the hypothesis is confirmed that chewing

  20. Effect of Chewing Xylitol Containing and Herbal Chewing Gums on Salivary Mutans Streptococcus Count among School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Sangeeta; Lakashminarayan, Nagesh; Kemparaj, Umesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study aims to assess and compare the reduction in salivary Mutans Streptococci counts after chewing Xylitol, herbal and placebo gums among high school children. Methods: The study was conducted among 72 school children (12–15 years) from 3 randomly selected schools (blocks). Xylitol, herbal and placebo gums were randomly allocated to 3 blocks. Subjects were instructed to chew one pellet four times a day for 21 days. The mean reduction in salivary Streptococcus mutans count was assessed. Results: The 100% Xylitol sweetened chewing gum “Xylitol”has shown statistically significant reduction in salivary Mutans Streptococci colony forming units at the end of 21 days (P Mutans Streptococci count when compared to herbal and placebo chewing gums. PMID:26097673

  1. Effect of Chewing Xylitol Containing and Herbal Chewing Gums on Salivary Mutans Streptococcus Count among School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Chavan; Nagesh Lakashminarayan; Umesh kemparaj

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study aims to assess and compare the reduction in salivary Mutans Streptococci counts after chewing Xylitol, herbal and placebo gums among high school children. Methods: The study was conducted among 72 school children (12-15 years) from 3 randomly selected schools (blocks). Xylitol, herbal and placebo gums were randomly allocated to 3 blocks. Subjects were instructed to chew one pellet four times a day for 21 days. The mean reduction in salivary Streptococcus muta...

  2. Compliance with Xylitol and Sorbitol Chewing Gum Regimens in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRETZ, WALTER A.; ROSA, ODILA P. S.; SILVA, SALETE M. B.; CORBY, PATRICIA M. A.; MILANDA, MARCELO; LOESCHE, WALTER J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate compliance of long-term xylitol and sorbitol chewing gum regimens in adult women participating in a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Design The participants included 122 mothers (age range: 16–35 years) residing in the city of Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil. Compliance with the xylitol and sorbitol chewing gum regimens was assessed by weighing, with a precision balance, all used gums returned in zip-lock bags during the study period of 33 months. The total number of returned bags in both chewing gum groups was computed and the differences between groups were determined by one-way ANOVA. Compliance was further categorized into excellent, good, fair or poor based on the distribution of the combined data for both groups by quartiles. These distributions for the xylitol and sorbitol groups were subjected to chi-square analysis. Results Compliance was always superior for the xylitol group in all categories. These distributions were, however, not significantly different in statistical terms. Average compliance in the xylitol chewing gum group was significantly higher when compared to the sorbitol chewing gum group (p=0.0481). Conclusions The results suggest that compliance, and possibly acceptance in this population, was superior for xylitol chewing gum than for sorbitol chewing gum. PMID:22241940

  3. Design, formulation, and evaluation of ginger medicated chewing gum

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    Abolfazl Aslani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Ginger chewing gum comprises admissible properties to be used as a modern drug delivery system due to its advantageous results in motion sickness. It passed all the specified tests for an acceptable chewing gum. Thus, it may be successfully produced to help GI problems.

  4. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Angelo, H.R.; Bonde, J.;

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum...... and tablets (p>0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts....

  5. An association between temporomandibular disorder and gum chewing.

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    Correia, Diana; Real Dias, Maria Carlos; Castanho Moacho, Antonio; Crispim, Pedro; Luis, Henrique; Oliveira, Miguel; Carames, Joao

    2014-01-01

    This single center, randomized, small study sought to investigate the prevalence and frequency of chewing gum consumption, and whether there is a relationship between these factors and the presence of symptoms associated with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Subjects were divided into 7 groups based on their parafunctional oral habits. Of these, subjects who chewed gum were divided into 5 subgroups (A-E) based on their gum chewing habits. Group A chewed gum 3 hours at a time (n = 8); the frequency of gum chewing in Groups A-D was once a week. Group E subjects chewed gum 1-3 times/week for at least 1 hour each occurrence (n = 2). Sixty-three percent of the subjects in Group D reported TMD symptoms of arthralgia and myofascial pain. Thirty-three percent of the subjects in Group C showed symptoms of arthralgia. Eighty-three percent of the subjects in Group A and 27% in Group B reported myofascial pain. All subjects in Group E reported masseter hypertrophy. The remaining 2 groups were Group F, subjects that didn't chew gum but had other parafunctional oral habits (n = 2), and Group G, subjects who didn't have parafunctional oral habits (n = 12).

  6. Effect of chewing gums containing the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri on oral malodour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Mette K; Bardow, Allan; Jensdottir, Thorbjörg;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of chewing gums containing probiotic bacteria on oral malodour. The null hypothesis was that no difference would be displayed compared with placebo gums. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five healthy young adults with self-reported malodorous morning breath complete...

  7. Cetirizine release from cyclodextrin formulated compressed chewing gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojanov, Mladen; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    2012-01-01

    release patterns, but with variations in the total amount released. Chewing gum formulated with cetirizine alone, demonstrated a release of 75% after 8 min of chewing. The presence of CDs resulted in increased cetirizine release. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that parameters with the most...... the statistical analysis (ANOVA) demonstrated significance in the release (P

  8. The optimum time to initiate habitual xylitol gum-chewing for obtaining long-term caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujoel, P P; Mäkinen, K K; Bennett, C A; Isotupa, K P; Isokangas, P J; Allen, P; Mäkinen, P L

    1999-03-01

    Habitual xylitol gum-chewing may have a long-term preventive effect by reducing the caries risk for several years after the habitual chewing has ended. The goal of this report was (1) to determine if sorbitol and sorbitol/xylitol mixtures provide a long-term benefit, and (2) to determine which teeth benefit most from two-year habitual gum-chewing - those erupting before, during, or after habitual gum-chewing. Children, on average 6 years old, chewed gums sweetened with xylitol, sorbitol, or xylitol/sorbitol mixtures. There was a "no-gum" control group. Five years after the two-year program of habitual gum-chewing ended, 288 children were re-examined. Compared with the no-gum group, sorbitol gums had no significant long-term effect (relative risk [RR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [c.i.], 0.39 to 1.07; p Xylitol gum and, to a lesser extent, xylitol/sorbitol gum had a long-term preventive effect. During the 5 years after habitual gum-chewing ended, xylitol gums reduced the caries risk 59% (RR, 0.41; 95% c.i., 0.23 to 0.75; p Xylitol-sorbitol gums reduced the caries risk 44% (RR, 0.56; 95% c.i., 0.36 to 0.89; p xylitol strongly depended on when teeth erupted (p xylitol gum-chewing should be started at least one year before permanent teeth erupt. PMID:10096456

  9. Immediate effect of xylitol chewing gum and mouth rinse on salivary levels of mutans streptococci in adults with systemic sclerosis: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Dipankar Bandyopadhyay; Justin DeGarmo; Caroline Westwater; Hon Keung Yuen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the immediate effect of xylitol chewing gum and xylitol mouth rinse on mutans streptococci (MS) levels in the saliva of adults with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods: Thirteen female adults with SSc were assigned randomly to either the xylitol chewing gum or xylitol mouth rinse groups. Participants in the chewing gum group were given 2 pellets (2.12g) of commercial xylitol chewing gum to chew for 10 min; whereas participants in the mouth rinse group were given 10 ml (10%...

  10. Formulation development and evaluation of metformin chewing gum with bitter taste masking

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    Sayed Abolfazl Mostafavi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Metfornin chewing gum had suitable appearance and appropriate invitro characteristics that fallow the pharmacopeia suggestions. This chewable gum showed bitterness suppression with a suitable release rate.

  11. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William

    2011-01-01

    Recent research examined the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported a significant interaction of gum chewing with time. Using a crossover within-subject design, the present study examined the effect of gum chewing on sustained attention in healthy adults over a period of 30 min. The result

  12. Chewing gum and lozenges as delivery systems for noscapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard Jensen, L.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Menger, N.;

    1991-01-01

    Chewing gum and lozenges were evaluated as delivery systems for noscapine with the aim of developing improved antitussive preparations. The formulations studied were prepared with both the water-soluble hydrochloride salt of noscapine and with the poorly soluble embonate salt and noscapine free...... base. The release characteristics of the preparations were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo, and their taste properties examined. Only the formulations containing noscapine base were without any appreciable taste. Chewing gum containing this compound showed, however, a low level of drug release both...

  13. The effect of Propolis and Xylitol chewing gums on salivary Streptococcus mutans count: A clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sneha Girdhari Tulsani; Nagarathna Chikkanarasaiah; Shakuntala Bethur Siddaiah; Navin H Krishnamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus mutans is one of the most common cariogenic microorganisms. Use of natural anticariogenic agents, such as Xylitol has been well-established in the literature. On the other hand, there is a scarcity of studies that have reported the antimicrobial potential of Propolis as an anticariogenic chewing agent; hence, the present study was designed. Aims: To evaluate and compare the anticariogenic action of two commercial chewing gums Propolis and Xylitol on the salivary ...

  14. Use of xylitol chewing gum among Finnish schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, S; Honkala, E; Tynjälä, J; Kannas, L

    1999-12-01

    The preventive, and partly the remineralizing, effect of xylitol was shown in Finland in the Turku Sugar Studies in 1971-73. Since then, several clinical trials in many countries have confirmed these results. In Finland, oral health personnel have recommended daily use of xylitol chewing gum in their dental health education. Moreover, commercial companies have advertised xylitol, emphasizing in particular its caries preventive effects. All Nordic dental associations have given their recommendations for xylitol use. The aim of this study was to describe how this health habit has been adopted by Finnish schoolchildren. The study was part of the comprehensive cross-national survey on Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC Study)--a WHO Collaborative Study. The data were collected using standardized questionnaires to which pupils in grades 5 (11 years), 7 (13 years) and 9 (15 years) responded anonymously in school classrooms during the spring term 1998. The response rate varied between 87% (15-year-old boys) and 94% (11- and 13-year-old girls). Among boys, the percentages of daily users of xylitol chewing gum were 47% (11 years), 46% (13 years), and 44% (15 years), and among girls, 57% (11 years), 65% (13 years), and 69% (15 years), respectively. Use of sugar-sweetened chewing gum was very rare (1%), as also was use of chewing gum with other artificial sweeteners (1%). It may be concluded that since 1991 the use of xylitol chewing gum has further increased in Finland and currently more than a half of all schoolchildren benefit from it. PMID:10777132

  15. The efficacy of two prototype chewing gums for the removal of extrinsic tooth stain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, M; Kulak, Y; Kazazoglu, E

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To compare the potential efficacy of two prototype chewing gums in extrinsic stain removal on natural teeth. Setting: Dental school clinics. Design: Double-blind, two groups, parallel design. Participants: 76 adult volunteers (32m, 44f, mean age: 20.6 years old). Methods: Oral hard and soft tis

  16. Fluoride and urea chewing gums in an intra-oral experimental caries model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjogren, K; Ruben, J; Lingstrom, P; Lundberg, AB; Birkhed, D

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of sugar-free chewing gums containing fluoride (F) and urea in an intra-oral experimental caries model. Placebo chewing gums (without any active ingredient) and no gum served as controls. Fifteen subjects participated in a cross-over, s

  17. CHEWING GUM: A MODERN ERA OF DRUG DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaliya Pratik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Chewing gum as a drug delivery system has many advantages over other oral dosage forms and oral route is the most preferred route amongst the patient and clinicians because the first pass metabolism can be avoided by the absorption of drug through buccal mucosa in the systemic circulation. It can be applied to cure and prevent the dental caries, pain, smoking cessation, obesity, xerostomia, motion sickness, acidity and specially diabetes. It has many advantages like fast onset of action, no first pass metabolism, patient compliance, taste masking, reduced risk of erosion of gastric mucosa, overdose and some marketing advantages. This review indicates that further study on medicated chewing gum can be used to improve it as a modern drug delivery.

  18. The Efficacy of Green Tea Chewing Gum on Gingival Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Parichehr Behfarnia; Ahmad Aslani; Foroogh Jamshidian; Soheil Noohi

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: According to previous studies, the components of green tea extracts can inhibit the growth of a wide range of gram-pos-itive and -negative bacterial species and might be useful in controlling oral infections. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of green tea chewing gum on the rate of plaque and gingival inflammation in subjects with gingivitis. Materials and Method: In this double-blind randomize controlled clinical trial, 45 patients wit...

  19. CHEWING GUM: A MODERN ERA OF DRUG DELIVERY

    OpenAIRE

    Savaliya Pratik; Karigar Asif; Ramana MV; Patel Mitul; Kalathiya Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Chewing gum as a drug delivery system has many advantages over other oral dosage forms and oral route is the most preferred route amongst the patient and clinicians because the first pass metabolism can be avoided by the absorption of drug through buccal mucosa in the systemic circulation. It can be applied to cure and prevent the dental caries, pain, smoking cessation, obesity, xerostomia, motion sickness, acidity and specially diabetes. It has many advantages like fast onset of action, no f...

  20. Cryoextraction: A novel approach to remove aspirated chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Rubio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of aspirated foreign bodies can prove challenging at times, requiring even rigid bronchoscopy. Cryotherapy probes have been reported to help with extraction of foreign bodies. We present a case where successful "cryoextraction" was performed on an aspirated chewing gum. The case highlights the fact that this technique is useful to extract all materials that have water content. This technique can be performed through flexible bronchoscopy and can save patients from more aggressive approaches.

  1. Effect of chewing gum on the bowel motility after cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadije Yazdi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative ileus is common after cholecystectomy, causes gas retension, distention, nausea, vomiting, and even pain. Chewing gum is a type of sham feeding that may reduce the duration of postoperative ileus. This study determines the effect of chewing gum in the immediate postoperative period to facilitate ileus recovery following cholecystectomy. Material & Methods: This is a randomized controlled trial in 2009. Twenty-four patients undergoing cholecystectomy and they divided in to two equal groups (n=12. Patients in group A chewed sugarless gum there time after surgery, each time 20 miniutes in 4, 10 and 18 hours after finishing sugery. Demographics, intraoperative, and postoperative care data did not reveal any significant difference between two groups. The data resending the first passage of flatus, defecation and bowel sound in every 2 hours for each patient completed in questioning. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version-13.5 and student t-test. Results: The first bowel sound heard 3 ±1.3 and 2.8 ±1.3 hours post-operatively in cases and controls, respectively. The above findings were not significant between two groups. Furthermore gas passing reported at 18.3±10.5 and 36.28±12.6 hours post-operation in case and control groups respectively. The first defecation was occured at 36.8 ±21.7 and 69.5 ±19.2 hours after operation in case and control groups, respectively

  2. THE COMPARISON OF REDUCING PLAQUE INDEX BEFORE AND AFTER USING CHEWING GUM AND TOOTH BRUSHING IN PERTIWI JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Natamiharja

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Up to present, plaque control is the most effective method to maintain oral hygiene. Using chewing gum after eating food and snacks can stimulate saliva, promote remineralization and reduce potential dental plaque. To know whether using chewing gum can reduce plaque index as good as toothbrushing, thus an experimental study was performed. Sample was the first grade of junior high school students. After selection according to the requirements, the sample size was 35 students. Each sample got two different treatments, In the first day, they used chewing gum and the next day they were instructed to brush their teeth. Before and after using chewing gum and toothbrushing their dental plaque was scored. The mean of plaque score before using chewing gum was 2.24 and after using chewing gum was 1.28, statistically there was a significant difference (t = 33: df – 34; p<0,001. The mean of plaque score before toothbrushing was 2.26 and after toothbrushing 1.10, statistically there was a significant difference. Using chewing gum and toothbrushing can reduce plaque score, though the reduction of plaque score by toothbrushing was greater compared with using chewing gum.

  3. Comparative studies on management of chewing gum base and its ingredients at home and abroad%国内外胶基糖果中基础剂物质及其配料管理的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺蕾; 王华丽; 张俭波

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较国内外胶基糖果中基础剂物质(以下简称“胶基”)及其配料的管理异同,提出我国加强和完善该类物质管理的建议.方法 搜集国际食品法典委员会、欧盟、美国、日本、法国、西班牙、意大利和澳大利亚现行有效的胶基及其配料的管理法规,并与我国该类物质管理规定进行比较研究.结果 对比显示,我国与调查的多数国家和国际组织一样制定了允许在胶基中使用的物质清单,我国对部分胶基物质仍然没有纯度和与安全相关的质量规格要求,需要按照《食品安全法》要求完善相关规定.结论 建议参考国外管理模式,结合我国国情,建立健全胶基及其配料的法规标准.%Objective To compare the similarities and differences on the management of chewing gum base and its ingredients in order to give advice on how to strengthen the management. Methods The regulations on chewing gum base of Codex Alimentarius Commission, European Union, USA, Japan, France, Spain, Italy, Australia and China were collected and compared. Results Most of these regulations regulate chewing gum base by setting up a permitted list of ingredients. The deficiency of some specifications of purity and safety in China was found. Conclusion We suggested that the regulation and food safety standards on chewing gum base and its ingredients should be perfected considering both the foreign paradigm and situation of China.

  4. Effect of urea in sugar-free chewing gums on pH recovery in human dental plaque evaluated with three different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imfeld, T; Birkhed, D; Lingström, P

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of sugar-free chewing gums containing various amounts of urea on the pH recovery in dental plaque. Three plaque-measuring methods were used, i.e., the telemetric, the microtouch, and the sampling methods. The subjects who had refrained from toothbrushing for 3-7 days rinsed with either 10 or 50% (w/v) sucrose solutions and then chewed for 10 min: (1) one piece of chewing gum in a series of six tests in which the urea content increased from 10 to 80 mg per piece of gum: (2) one or two pieces of gum containing 20 mg urea, and (3) one, two, or three pieces of gum, one after the other, containing 20 mg urea. In some of the test series, a conventional sugarless gum was used as a control. A quick rise in plaque pH was found with all urea-containing chewing gums within the first minutes of chewing, and neutralization continued during the whole 10-min chewing periods. Higher concentrations of urea resulted in more pronounced pH recovery. Slightly higher plaque pH values were found when chewing on two pieces at a time of a 20-mg urea gum was compared with only one piece. Significantly higher pH values were recorded when using three pieces of chewing gum, one after the other (10 + 10 + 10 min), as compared with two pieces (10 + 10 min) or just one piece (10 min). In conclusion, all sugar-free chewing gums tested, particularly the urea-containing ones, initiated a pronounced pH recovery in dental plaque when chewed after a sucrose rinse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Effects of sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol or maltitol on the development of gingivitis and plaque: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Keukenmeester; D.E. Slot; N.A.M. Rosema; C. van Loveren; G.A. van der Weijden

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to test the effect of sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol or maltitol compared to the use of a gum base or no gum on gingivitis and plaque scores under both brushing and non-brushing circumstances. Methods The design of the study was a four-group,

  6. Two-colour chewing gum mixing ability: digitalisation and spatial heterogeneity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijenberg, R A F; Scherder, E J A; Visscher, C M; Gorissen, T; Yoshida, E; Lobbezoo, F

    2013-10-01

    Many techniques are available to assess masticatory performance, but not all are appropriate for every population. A proxy suitable for elderly persons suffering from dementia was lacking, and a two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test was investigated for this purpose. A fully automated digital analysis algorithm was applied to a mixing ability test using two-coloured gum samples in a stepwise increased number of chewing cycles protocol (Experiment 1: n = 14; seven men, 19-63 years), a test-retest assessment (Experiment 2: n = 10; four men, 20-49 years) and compared to an established wax cubes mixing ability test (Experiment 3: n = 13; 0 men, 21-31 years). Data were analysed with repeated measures anova (Experiment 1), the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; Experiment 2) and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient (Experiment 3). The method was sensitive to increasing numbers of chewing cycles (F5,65 = 57·270, P = 0·000) and reliable in the test-retest (ICC value of 0·714, P = 0·004). There was no significant correlation between the two-coloured gum test and the wax cubes test. The two-coloured gum mixing ability test was able to adequately assess masticatory function and is recommended for use in a population of elderly persons with dementia. PMID:23927753

  7. Mutans Streptococci Dose Response to Xylitol Chewing Gum

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom, P.; Ly, K.A.; Roberts, M C; Rothen, M; Mueller, G.; Yamaguchi, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Xylitol is promoted in caries-preventive strategies, yet its effective dose range is unclear. This study determined the dose-response of mutans streptococci in plaque and unstimulated saliva to xylitol gum. Participants (n = 132) were randomized: controls (G1) (sorbitol/maltitol), or combinations giving xylitol 3.44 g/day (G2), 6.88 g/day (G3), or 10.32 g/day (G4). Groups chewed 3 pellets/4 times/d. Samples were taken at baseline, 5 wks, and 6 mos, and were cultured on modified Mitis Salivari...

  8. Immediate effect of xylitol chewing gum and mouth rinse on salivary levels of mutans streptococci in adults with systemic sclerosis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Bandyopadhyay

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the immediate effect of xylitol chewing gum and xylitol mouth rinse on mutans streptococci (MS levels in the saliva of adults with systemic sclerosis (SSc. Methods: Thirteen female adults with SSc were assigned randomly to either the xylitol chewing gum or xylitol mouth rinse groups. Participants in the chewing gum group were given 2 pellets (2.12g of commercial xylitol chewing gum to chew for 10 min; whereas participants in the mouth rinse group were given 10 ml (10% [w/v] of xylitol solution to rinse orally for 2 min. MS samples were collected using Dentocult® SM Strip mutans before and after xylitol exposure. Results: No significant difference in the change scores of MS levels between the two groups was observed at post xylitol exposure. Conclusion: Mouth rinse may provide an alternative mode of xylitol delivery for this population. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 89-92

  9. Immediate Effect of Xylitol Chewing Gum and Mouth Rinse on Salivary Levels of Mutans Streptococci in Adults with Systemic Sclerosis: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Hon K.; Westwater, Caroline; DeGarmo, Justin; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the immediate effect of xylitol chewing gum and xylitol mouth rinse on mutans streptococci (MS) levels in the saliva of adults with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods Thirteen female adults with SSc were assigned randomly to either the xylitol chewing gum or xylitol mouth rinse groups. Participants in the chewing gum group were given 2 pellets (2.12g) of commercial xylitol chewing gum to chew for 10 min; whereas participants in the mouth rinse group were given 10 ml (10% [w/v]) of xylitol solution to rinse orally for 2 min. MS samples were collected using Dentocult® SM Strip mutans before and after xylitol exposure. Results No significant difference in the change scores of MS levels between the two groups was observed at post xylitol exposure. Conclusions Mouth rinse may provide an alternative mode of xylitol delivery for this population. PMID:24532975

  10. Release of peppermint flavour compounds from chewing gum: effect of oral functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bardow, A.; Thomsen, C.E.;

    2004-01-01

    During chewing, the oral cavity functions like a bellow, forcing volatile flavour compounds into the exhaling air to the nasal compartment. Accordingly, we hypothesised that flavour release from chewing gum is predominantly governed by chewing frequency (CF), although other oral functions, like...... masseter muscle activity (MMA), chewing force (CFO), and saliva flow rate (SFR), may also play a role. In 10 healthy young males, the retronasal expired air of menthol and menthone from peppermint-flavoured (2%) chewing gum was determined as functions of CF, SFR, MMA, and CFO. The experimental setup...

  11. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance.

  12. The effect of two types chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and xylitol on salivary Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Emamieh

    2015-01-01

    Materials and Methods: A total of 60 dental students of 20-25 years old, who volunteered after checking their health condition and signing an informed consent, were randomly allocated to receive one of the following interventions: (A Chewing gum containing CPP-ACP; (B containing xylitol. Subjects within the experimental groups were taken the gums 3 times daily, after each meal for a period of 3 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention unstimulated saliva samples were quantified for S. mutans counts. Results: A statistically significant reduction of salivary S. mutans was displayed in both groups A and B after the intervention when compared with baseline (P < 0.001, and group A shows more statistically significant reduction of salivary S. mutans than group B (P = 0.011. Conclusion: Daily consumption of chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and xylitol significantly reduces the level of salivary S. mutans, but chewing gum containing CPP-ACP can reduce the level of salivary S. mutans in more than xylitol chewing gum.

  13. Efficacy and safety of gum chewing in adjunct to high-dose senna for bowel cleansing before colonoscopy: A single-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Ergül

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Inadequate bowel cleaning leads to a suboptimal colonoscopic examination. Gum chewing has been reported to have a favorable effect on postoperative bowel functions. We conducted this study to establish if gum chewing added to high-dose senna before colonoscopy promotes bowel cleaning. Patients and Methods: In this randomized controlled study, consecutive outpatients scheduled for elective colonoscopy were randomized into two groups. Group 1 patients (n = 65 used senna solution 150 mL (300 mg senna the night before colonoscopy. The patients also used sennoside tablet 80 mg daily for 3 days before the colonoscopy. Patients in group 2 (n = 64 were additionally advised to chew sugarless gum half an hour three-times daily after meals for these 3 days. The overall quality of colonoscopy cleaning was evaluated using the Aronchick scale by a single endoscopist who was blinded to the intervention. Difficulty of procedure, patients′ tolerance, and adverse events were also evaluated. Results: A total 129 patients were enrolled in the study. Superior cleaning was found in gum chewing group when compared with other group particularly in the cecum and ascending colon. Cecal intubation time was significantly shorter in the gum-chewing group (8.6 ± 5.1 and 7.1 ± 2.8 min, P = 0.03. Adverse events were more common in group 1 compared to the gum-chewing group. Conclusions: Gum chewing enhances colonoscopy bowel preparation quality. Moreover, it is a physiologically sound, safe, and an inexpensive part of the colonoscopy bowel preparation. Gum chewing could be advised in addition to high-dose senna containing bowel preparation.

  14. The Quantitative Determination of Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Chewing Gum Using GC--MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, A. E.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment to measure concentration of Photophysical Characterization(BHT) and determine percent recovery in chewing gum is described. The results demonstrated that over time, the concentration of BHT in the extract decreased owing to aerial oxidation.

  15. Effect of Chewing Gum on the Acid-Base and Mineral Balance in the Oral Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriy Vaido; Elena Raspolina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite chewing gum (CG) is widespread, discussion about its harm and benefits is still in progress. It is unknown whether the CG effect on the teeth depends on the type of sugar substitute. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of chewing gums containing aspartame and sucralose on the acidbase balance and content of mineral components in mixed saliva after carbohydrate-containing food. METHODS The oral fluid, or “mixed” saliva had been ...

  16. Chewing Gum Can Help in Weight Loss, Study Says

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小兰

    2000-01-01

    杭州的陈小兰把这篇稿子寄给我们,意欲刊登在“难句会诊”专栏。因为她对文章的第一句(非主题句也)感到莫名其妙。我们觉得本文的信息不乏新意,现将此文刊登在注释读物栏。 语言与文化岂可随便割裂?两者的关系是:你中有我,我中有你,水乳交融一般。陈小兰对文章的首句(Maybe this s why the Doublemint Twins are soskinny.)感到头疼。问题不在文字,而在文化。语言打着文化烙印,其丰润的文化内涵往往不是查阅词典、阅读书籍所能够解决的,需要长期地生活在该语言文化环境之中。陈小兰的问题,我们编辑部也感到头疼,只得求助美国教授。E-mail上午发往美国,下午回音即到! Dorine/Rosemary两教授分别居住在美国的东/西海岸。她们的解答几乎如出一辙。本刊将她们的E-mail附在文后。有兴趣的读者不妨一读,从中也许还可以感受到电视商业广告是何等深入人心! 本文还有一句话的理解值得注意: The effect of chewing gum on weight control,they said,“should not bediscounted.” Discount一词的含义是“打折扣”,翻译时似不宜照译,恐怕只能改译“低估”。 我们向读者推荐此文,并不是为Chewing Gum作广告,也不可能为ChewingGum作广告。因为,文章的末尾写道: But they warned that a person would have to chew e

  17. Gum Sensor: A Stretchable, Wearable, and Foldable Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotube/Chewing Gum Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Mohammad Ali; Khosrozadeh, Ali; Wang, Quan; Xing, Malcolm

    2015-12-01

    Presented in this work is a novel and facile approach to fabricate an elastic, attachable, and cost-efficient carbon nanotube (CNT)-based strain gauge which can be efficiently used as bodily motion sensors. An innovative and unique method is introduced to align CNTs without external excitations or any complicated procedure. In this design, CNTs are aligned and distributed uniformly on the entire chewing gum by multiple stretching and folding technique. The current sensor is demonstrated to be a linear strain sensor for at least strains up to 200% and can detect strains as high as 530% with a high sensitivity ranging from 12 to 25 and high durability. The gum sensor has been used as bodily motion sensors, and outstanding results are achieved; the sensitivity is quite high, capable of tracing slow breathing. Since the gum sensor can be patterned into various forms, it has wide applications in miniaturized sensors and biochips. Interestingly, we revealed that our gum sensor has the ability to monitor humidity changes with high sensitivity and fast resistance response capable of monitoring human breathing. PMID:26524110

  18. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karami Nogourani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1–3, and 3–6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (<0.001. The flow rate of all products reached peak in the 1st minute of stimulation, except spearmint-flavored gums which reached peak in the 6th minute. In the 1st minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest SFR. During 1–3 minutes, strawberry- and apple-flavored gums showed higher SFR, respectively. Only the spearmint- and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  19. ANALYSIS OF CLINICAL OUTCOME OF EFFECT OF CHEWING GUM ON BOWEL MOTILITY IN POST - OPERATIVE PATIENTS FOLLOWING ABDOMINAL SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : One very important complication of abdominal surgeries is postoperative ileus which results in severe patient discomfort, prolonged hospitalization, and enhanced treatment cost. This study was conducted with an aim to analyze the clinical outcome of effe ct of chewing gum mainly to avoid post - operative paralytic ileus in post - operative patients of abdominal surgeries . MATERIAL AND METHODS : In this study total 200 patients were included, 100 were cases and remaining were controls. The cases were given chewing gum to chew after the surgery while the controls were allowed to heal without chewing gums in conventional style and both were observed hourly for clinical outcome. RESULTS : Among cases the mean duration of first sound heard was 26.3 hours while am ong controls this was 38.8 hours [p<0.001], the mean duration of first flatus passed among cases was 50.7 hours while that among controls was 68.5 hours, the mean duration of first Bowel passed among cases was 92.4 hours while that among controls was 128.3 hours [p<0.001]. On comparing cases of routine with emergency surgeries, gastric with small bowel surgeries, and traumatic with pathological bowel surgeries it was observed that the first bowel sound, first flatus and first bowel passed appears significan tly earlier in routine surgeries, gastric surgeries and traumatic surgeries respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that chewing gum has significant effect over bowel motility as bowel sounds appeared significantly earlier in cases than control and tim e for first flatus passed and first bowel passed were also noted significantly earlier in cases than controls. Hospital stay of cases were found significantly lesser than control hence simple intervention like chewing can decrease the burden of disease of paralytic ileus from community.

  20. Mutans Streptococci Dose Response to Xylitol Chewing Gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, P.; Ly, K.A.; Roberts, M.C.; Rothen, M.; Mueller, G.; Yamaguchi, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    Xylitol is promoted in caries-preventive strategies, yet its effective dose range is unclear. This study determined the dose-response of mutans streptococci in plaque and unstimulated saliva to xylitol gum. Participants (n = 132) were randomized: controls (G1) (sorbitol/maltitol), or combinations giving xylitol 3.44 g/day (G2), 6.88 g/day (G3), or 10.32 g/day (G4). Groups chewed 3 pellets/4 times/d. Samples were taken at baseline, 5 wks, and 6 mos, and were cultured on modified Mitis Salivarius agar for mutans streptococci and on blood agar for total culturable flora. At 5 wks, mutans streptococci levels in plaque were 10x lower than baseline in G3 and G4 (P = 0.007/0.003). There were no differences in saliva. At 6 mos, mutans streptococci in plaque for G3 and G4 remained 10x lower than baseline (P = 0.007/0.04). Saliva for G3 and G4 was lower than baseline by 8 to 9x (P = 0.011/0.038). Xylitol at 6.44 g/day and 10.32 g/day reduces mutans streptococci in plaque at 5 wks, and in plaque and unstimulated saliva at 6 mos. A plateau effect is suggested between 6.44 g and 10.32 g xylitol/day. PMID:16434738

  1. Dose response of xylitol and sorbitol for EPR retrospective dosimetry with applications to chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, A; Gustafsson, H; Lund, E

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signal in sweeteners xylitol and sorbitol for use in retrospective dosimetry. For both sweeteners and chewing gum, the signal changed at an interval of 1-84 d after irradiation with minimal changes after 4-8 d. A dependence on storage conditions was noticed and the exposure of the samples to light and humidity was therefore minimised. Both the xylitol and sorbitol signals showed linearity with dose in the measured dose interval, 0-20 Gy. The dose-response measurements for the chewing gum resulted in a decision threshold of 0.38 Gy and a detection limit of 0.78 Gy. A blind test illustrated the possibility of using chewing gums as a retrospective dosemeter with an uncertainty in the dose determination of 0.17 Gy (1 SD).

  2. Mutanase-containing chewing gum: A new potential approach for prevention of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Study on the effect of topically applied mutanase on plaque formation and caries in rats showed strong inhibition of dental caries. Furthermore, it has been shown that the presence of mutanase in dental plaque may affect the synthesis and structure of sticky, extracellular glucans. The Hypothesis: Mutanase can be easily added to gum base. After chewing of mutanase-containing chewing gum, the enzyme will be released into the oral cavity. Mutanase will hydrolyze sticky, extracellular glucans, e.g., mutan inhibiting cariogenic bacteria to cohere/adhere and form plaque. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The main challenge with this hypothesis is the source of mutanase. It can be obtained from Paenibacillus sp. MP-1 or Trichoderma harzianum F-340. Directly compressible medicated chewing gum bases can be used to avoid inactivation of mutanase during the manufacturing process.

  3. Dose response of xylitol and sorbitol for epr retrospective dosimetry with applications to chewing gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signal in sweeteners xylitol and sorbitol for use in retrospective dosimetry. For both sweeteners and chewing gum, the signal changed at an interval of 1-84 d after irradiation with minimal changes after 4-8 d. A dependence on storage conditions was noticed and the exposure of the samples to light and humidity was therefore minimised. Both the xylitol and sorbitol signals showed linearity with dose in the measured dose interval, 0-20 Gy. The dose-response measurements for the chewing gum resulted in a decision threshold of 0.38 Gy and a detection limit of 0.78 Gy. A blind test illustrated the possibility of using chewing gums as a retrospective dosemeter with an uncertainty in the dose determination of 0.17 Gy (1 SD). (authors)

  4. Xylitol Gum Chewing to Achieve Early Postoperative Restoration of Bowel Motility After Laparoscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yunhui; Zhang, Qianwen; Qiao, Lin; Lv, Donghao; Ruan, Jiaying; Chen, Hongqin; Gong, Junming; Shi, Gang

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of postoperative xylitol gum chewing on gastrointestinal functional recovery after laparoscopy. Altogether, 120 patients undergoing elective gynecologic laparoscopy were randomly divided into 2 groups of 60 each (final numbers: 53 controls, 56 patients). Controls underwent a routine postoperative regimen. Starting 6 hour after surgery, study patients chewed mint-flavored, sugarless xylitol gum until flatus occurred thrice a day. Other postoperative management was routine. First bowel sounds, first flatus, first bowel movement, and discharge times were recorded. Symptoms included abdominal distension, nausea, and vomiting. First flatus and first bowel sounds occurred significantly (P0.05). Thus, xylitol gum chewing after laparoscopy can effectively shorten the time to first flatus and helps with postoperative gastrointestinal functional recovery. It is simple, convenient, and well tolerated. PMID:26121546

  5. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  6. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test.

  7. Short-term effect of chewing gums containing probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri on the levels of inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Derawi, Bilal; Keller, Mette;

    2009-01-01

    a double-blind placebo-controlled study design. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of three parallel arms: Group A/P was given one active and one placebo gum daily, Group A/A received two active chewing gums, and Group P/P two placebo gums. The chewing gums contained two strains of Lactobacillus...

  8. The Effects of Chewing Cinnamon Flavored Gum on Mood, Feeling and Spelling Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew; Kim, Wonsun; Raudenbush, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate if the effects of chewing cinnamon flavored gum can increase mood, feeling and spelling acquisition. 5th grade students (n = 22) at Ilshin elementary school in South Korea served as participants. The same students were required to take 4 spelling tests with 1 given every day over the course of 4 days. For…

  9. The management of xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis : comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, CP; Brand, HS; Veerman, ECI; Valentijn-Benz, M; Van Amerongen, BM; Amerongen, AVN; Valentijn, RM; Vos, PI; Bijlsma, JA; ter Wee, PM

    2005-01-01

    Many patients on haemodialysis (HD) therapy suffer from a dry mouth and xerostomia. This can be relieved by mechanical and gustatory stimulation or palliative care. The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the effect and preferences of a sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent White(TM)) and a xa

  10. Two-colour chewing gum mixing ability: digitalisation and spatial heterogeneity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.F. Weijenberg; E.J.A. Scherder; C.M. Visscher; T. Gorissen; E. Yoshida; F. Lobbezoo

    2013-01-01

    Many techniques are available to assess masticatory performance, but not all are appropriate for every population. A proxy suitable for elderly persons suffering from dementia was lacking, and a two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test was investigated for this purpose. A fully automated digital a

  11. Sugar-free chewing gum and dental caries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Mickenautsch

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To appraise existing evidence for a therapeutic / anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum for patients. METHOD: 9 English and 2 Portuguese databases were searched using English and Portuguese keywords. Relevant articles in English, German, Portuguese and Spanish were included for review. Trials were excluded on lack of randomisation, control group, blinding and baseline data, drop out rate >33%, no statistical adjustment of baseline differences and no assessment of clinically important outcomes. Reviews were excluded on lack of information, article selection criteria, search strategy followed, search keywords, searched databases or lack of study-by-study critique tables. In cases of multiple reports from the same study, the report covering the longest period was included. Two reviewers independently reviewed and assessed the quality of accepted articles. RESULTS: Thirty-nine articles were included for review. Thirty were excluded and 9 accepted. Of the 9 accepted, 2 trials of reasonable and good evidence value did not demonstrate any anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum. However, 7 articles, with 1 of strong, and 6 of good evidence value, demonstrated anti-cariogenic effects of chewing Sorbitol, Xylitol or Sorbitol/Xylitol gum. This effect can be ascribed to saliva stimulation through the chewing process, particularly when gum is used immediately after meals; the lack of sucrose and the inability of bacteria to metabolize polyols into acids. Conclusion: The evidence suggests that sugar-free chewing gum has a caries-reducing effect. Further well-designed randomised trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  12. SUGAR-FREE CHEWING GUM AND DENTAL CARIES – A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Leal, Soraya Coelho; Yengopal, Veerasamy; Bezerra, Ana Cristina; Cruvinel, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To appraise existing evidence for a therapeutic / anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum for patients. Method: 9 English and 2 Portuguese databases were searched using English and Portuguese keywords. Relevant articles in English, German, Portuguese and Spanish were included for review. Trials were excluded on lack of randomisation, control group, blinding and baseline data, drop out rate >33%, no statistical adjustment of baseline differences and no assessment of clinically important outcomes. Reviews were excluded on lack of information, article selection criteria, search strategy followed, search keywords, searched databases or lack of study-by-study critique tables. In cases of multiple reports from the same study, the report covering the longest period was included. Two reviewers independently reviewed and assessed the quality of accepted articles. Results: Thirty-nine articles were included for review. Thirty were excluded and 9 accepted. Of the 9 accepted, 2 trials of reasonable and good evidence value did not demonstrate any anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum. However, 7 articles, with 1 of strong, and 6 of good evidence value, demonstrated anti-cariogenic effects of chewing Sorbitol, Xylitol or Sorbitol/Xylitol gum. This effect can be ascribed to saliva stimulation through the chewing process, particularly when gum is used immediately after meals; the lack of sucrose and the inability of bacteria to metabolize polyols into acids. Conclusion: The evidence suggests that sugar-free chewing gum has a caries-reducing effect. Further well-designed randomised trials are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:19089107

  13. Supplementation of xylitol-containing chewing gum with probiotics: a double blind, randomised pilot study focusing on saliva flow and saliva properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueimonde, Laura; Vesterlund, Satu; García-Pola, María J; Gueimonde, Miguel; Söderling, Eva; Salminen, Seppo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of daily chewing, for 12 weeks, of 2 different probiotic gums compared with placebo on saliva flow rate, saliva IgA levels and saliva pH. The intervention study included 54 adult volunteers with hyposalivation in a double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled design with three parallel groups. Volunteers were randomly assigned to 3 different groups: subjects in group A (n = 19) were given placebo chewing gum, group B (n = 17) received Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb12 (ATCC 27536) and group C (n = 18) received Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG (ATCC 53103), Bifidobacterium longum 46 (DSM 14583) and Bifidobacterium longum 2C (DSM 14579) gums, during 3 months. Two volunteers from group B left the study for personal reasons leaving 19, 15 and 18 volunteers, respectively, for analyses. Clinical examinations, personal interviews, sialometries and saliva sampling were conducted at baseline and after 1, 2, 3 and 4 months. No statistically significant differences were found between probiotic and placebo groups for any of the parameters analysed. No side effects of probiotic or placebo chewing gums were observed. Chewing gum, with and without probiotics, had a positive impact on salivary flow rate and saliva pH and IgA levels. PMID:26913493

  14. Gum chewing inhibits the sensory processing and the propagation of stress-related information in a brain network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Yu

    Full Text Available Stress is prevalent in human life and threatens both physical and mental health; stress coping is thus of adaptive value for individual's survival and well-being. Although there has been extensive research on how the neural and physiological systems respond to stressful stimulation, relatively little is known about how the brain dynamically copes with stress evoked by this stimulation. Here we investigated how stress is relieved by a popular coping behavior, namely, gum chewing. In an fMRI study, we used loud noise as an acute stressor and asked participants to rate their feeling of stress in gum-chewing and no-chewing conditions. The participants generally felt more stressful when hearing noise, but less so when they were simultaneously chewing gum. The bilateral superior temporal sulcus (STS and the left anterior insula (AI were activated by noise, and their activations showed a positive correlation with the self-reported feeling of stress. Critically, gum chewing significantly reduced the noise-induced activation in these areas. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis showed that the functional connectivity between the left AI and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC was increased by noise to a lesser extent when the participants were chewing gum than when not chewing gum. Dynamic causality modeling (DCM demonstrated that gum chewing inhibited the connectivity from the STS to the left AI. These findings demonstrate that gum chewing relieves stress by attenuating the sensory processing of external stressor and by inhibiting the propagation of stress-related information in the brain stress network.

  15. EFFECT OF GUM CHEWING ON AIR SWALLOWING, SALIVA SWALLOWING AND BELCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Viana da SILVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEructation is a physiologic event which allows gastric venting of swallowed air and most of the time is not perceived as a symptom. This is called gastric belching. Supragastric belching occurs when swallowed air does not reach the stomach and returns by mouth a short time after swallowing. This situation may cause discomfort, life limitations and problems in daily life.ObjectiveOur objective in this investigation was to evaluate if gum chewing increases the frequency of gastric and/or supragastric belches.MethodsEsophageal transit of liquid and gas was evaluated by impedance measurement in 16 patients with complaint of troublesome belching and in 15 controls. The Rome III criteria were used in the diagnosis of troublesome belching. The esophageal transit of liquid and gas was measured at 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. The subjects were evaluated for 1 hour which was divided into three 20-minute periods: (1 while sitting for a 20-minute base period; (2 after the ingestion of yogurt (200 mL, 190 kcal, in which the subjects were evaluated while chewing or not chewing gum; (3 final 20-minute period in which the subjects then inverted the task of chewing or not chewing gum. In gastric belch, the air flowed from the stomach through the esophagus in oral direction and in supragastric belch the air entered the esophagus rapidly from proximal and was expulsed almost immediately in oral direction. Air swallows were characterized by an increase of at least 50% of basal impedance and saliva swallow by a decrease of at least 50% of basal impedance, that progress from proximal to distal esophagus.ResultsIn base period, air swallowing was more frequent in patients than in controls and saliva swallowing was more frequent in controls than in patients. There was no difference between the medians of controls and patients in the number of gastric belches and supragastric belches. In six patients, supragastric belches

  16. Effects of chewing gum on responses to routine painful procedures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowski, M D; Barr, R G; Sherrard, A; Lessard, J; Harris, A R; Young, S N

    2003-07-01

    In infants, sweet taste and sucking on a pacifier both have analgesic effects. Animal studies suggest that sweet taste may involve opioids, while rhythmic oral movements, as with a pacifier, increase the release of serotonin, which is involved in the gating of nociceptive afferents. The present study was designed to see if these effects produce an analgesic effect in children. Two studies were performed, during blood draws in a pediatric test center in 7- to 12-year-old children, and during vaccination at school in 9- to 11-year-old children. Using unsweetened or sweetened chewing gum, there were four groups: control, sweet, chew, and sweet plus chew. Overall, there was no effect of either sweet taste or chewing on pain responses. However, in boys sweet taste tended to increase pain ratings, but only in conjunction with chewing, while in girls sweet taste tended to decrease pain ratings in conjunction with chewing and increased them in the absence of chewing. Ratings of pain intensity and affective state were correlated. Affective state before the painful stimulus was related to pain response in the girls and in the boys in the test center, but not in the schools. In the schools, the presence of peers may have influenced the ratings. PMID:12834797

  17. A new concept in orthodontics: faster and healthier tooth movement by regularly consuming xyilitol chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol was first discovered in the 19th century, it wasn’t until the 1960’s that commercial production was first implemented. Recent studies showed that xylitol chewing gum is beneficial for preventing caries and periodontal disease. Therefore, it is also advantageous for orthodontic treatment, especially the fixed orthodontics patients who have difficulties in acquiring optimal oral health, particularly periodontal health which important in remodeling. However, how consuming xylitol chewing gum may stimulate tooth movement and preventing root resorption is still unclear. It is suggested that chewing activities may stimulate tooth movement, since jaw hypofunction leads to lower mineral apposition and bone function; and narrow periodontal ligament (PDL. These conditions may lead to impaired remodeling process, and increases the susceptibility of root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Moreover, since stimulation of the PDL could be mechanoreceptive (i.e. chewing action or nociceptive (i.e. painful stimulation, periodontal nerve fibers are supposed to play an important role in bone remodeling. It is supported by a study which revealed that during tooth movement, the galanin-containing immunoreactive nerve fibers, a part of primary sensory neurons in the PDL is increasing. Galanin is able to induce osteoclast differentiation that needed for bone resorption in orthodontic treatment. The objective of this study is to elucidate a new concept in using xylitol chewing gum as an excellent media to have a faster and healthier orthodontic movement. Since continuous chewing stimulates the PDL which enhances tooth movement, improves oral health, and prevents root resorption; it is concluded that this concept is possible.

  18. Use of chewing gum containing 15% of xylitol and reduction in mutans streptococci salivary levels

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Perez Trindade Fraga; Márcia Pinto Alves Mayer; Célia Regina Martins Delgado Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Frequent use of Xylitol may decrease the S. mutans levels. However, very little is known about whether this effect on the levels of cariogenic bacteria is maintained after the interruption of short-term usage of xylitol. This study aimed at evaluating changes in mutans streptococci (MS) salivary levels after using a chewing gum containing xylitol. Twelve volunteers harboring > 10(5) CFU MS/ml saliva levels were asked to chew Happydent-xylit® for 5 minutes, 5 X/day, for 30 days. Saliva samples...

  19. Process development for spray drying of sticky pharmaceuticals; case study of bioadhesive nicotine microparticles for compressed medicated chewing gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Henrik Stillhof; Søgaard, Susanne Roslev;

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying of pharmaceutical compounds with sticky properties is a challenging task and may require substantial time and resources. By including small-scale studies of single droplet drying kinetics a relatively high number of experiments with less material is allowed. This means one can constr...... chewing gum. By illustration of initial studies on single droplet drying kinetics, subsequent characterization of microparticles, and final characterization of compressed chewing gum this paper summarizes the entire development process....

  20. The effect of two types chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and xylitol on salivary Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Shila Emamieh; Yosra Khaterizadeh; Hossein Goudarzi; Amir Ghasemi; Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban; Hasan Torabzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of sugar-free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and xylitol on salivary Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 dental students of 20-25 years old, who volunteered after checking their health condition and signing an informed consent, were randomly allocated to receive one of the following interventions: (A) Chewing gum containing CPP-ACP; (B) containing xylitol. Subjects within the ...

  1. Effects of Nicotine Chewing Gum on UPDRS Score and P300 in Early-onset Parkinsonism

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuoka, Takako; Kaseda, Yumiko; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Kawakami, Hideshi; Nakamura, Shigenobu; Yamamura, Yasuhiro

    2002-01-01

    It has been reported that nicotine shows some beneficial effects on Parkinson's disease. The purpose of the present study is to assess the therapeutic effects of nicotine chewing gum in patients with early-onset parkinsonism (EOP). The subjects were 8 patients with early-onset parkinsonism (male/ female = 4/ 4, mean age; 51.3 years). Four out of 8 patients had a history of smoking (smokers). To estimate the effects of nicotine gum, the scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (U...

  2. Role of gum chewing on the duration of postoperative ileus following ileostomy closure done for typhoid ileal perforation: A prospective randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Marwah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim : There is ample evidence in the recent literature that gum chewing after elective colonic anastomosis decreases postoperative ileus (POI. But there are very few studies on small bowel anastomosis done in relaparotomy cases. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gum chewing on the duration of POI following small bowel anastomosis performed for the closure of intestinal stoma, made as temporary diversion in the selected cases of typhoid perforation peritonitis. Patients and Methods : Hundred patients undergoing elective small bowel anastomosis for the closure of stoma were randomly assigned to the study group (n=50 and the control group (n=50. The study group patients chewed gum thrice a day for 1 h each time starting 6 h after the surgery until the passage of first flatus. The control group patients had standard postoperative treatment. Results : Study and control group patients were comparable at inclusion. The mean time for the appearance of bowel sounds as well as the passage of first flatus was significantly shorter in the study group (P=0.040, P=0.006. The feeling of hunger was also experienced earlier in study group cases (P=0.004. The postoperative hospital stay was shorter in the study group, but the difference was not significant (P=0.059. Conclusions: The cases of relaparotomy requiring additional adhesiolysis and small bowel anastomosis for stoma closure are benefited by postoperative gum chewing.

  3. The effect of chewing gum on oral mucositis in children receiving chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ocakcı, Ayşe Ferda; Ayverdi, Didem; Ekim, Ayfer

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Oral mucositis is an important clinical problem, resulting in significant patient morbidity, a change in health-related quality of life, and supportive care. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of chewing gum on children, who are receiving chemotherapy regimens, for prevention and treatment of oral mucositis. Method and Material: The study sample consisted of 60 children (30 study group-30 control group) between the ages 6-...

  4. Sugar-free chewing gum and dental caries: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Mickenautsch; Soraya Coelho Leal; Veerasamy Yengopal; Ana Cristina Bezerra; Vanessa Cruvinel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To appraise existing evidence for a therapeutic / anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum for patients. Method: 9 English and 2 Portuguese databases were searched using English and Portuguese keywords. Relevant articles in English, German, Portuguese and Spanish were included for review. Trials were excluded on lack of randomisation, control group, blinding and baseline data, drop out rate >33%, no statistical adjustment of baseline differences and no assessment of clinica...

  5. Erosive effects of acidic center-filled chewing gum on primary and permanent enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolan M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The higher incidence of dental erosion in children and teenagers possibly reflects a high intake of acidic food and beverages as well as a more frequent diagnosis on this condition. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the erosive potential of acidic filling of chewing gum in primary and permanent enamel. Methods and Materials: Eighty enamel blocks (40 primary and 40 permanent teeth were used and randomly distributed into eight groups. Groups were divided according to types of dental substrates (permanent or primary, frequency of exposure to the acidic substance (2X or 4X/day, and concentration (pure or diluted. Exposure time to the acidic content of the chewing gum was five minutes under agitation, during five days. Results: All groups showed a significant decrease in surface microhardness (P < 0.001. There was neither any significant difference in the frequency of exposure to the acidic content nor to the types of dental substrates. There was a statistically significant difference between D1 (pure, 2X/day and D2 (diluted, 2X/day (P = 0.002, D3 (pure, 4X/day and D4 (diluted, 4X/day (P = 0.009 regarding the concentration, then the diluted acid content was associated with a greater decrease in microhardness. Conclusion: It is concluded that the acidic filling of a chewing gum reduced the microhardness of primary and permanent enamel.

  6. Effect of casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate containing chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorus: An in-vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B P Santhosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Caries clinical trials of sugar-free chewing gum have shown that the gum is noncariogenic and in fact has anticariogenic effect through the stimulation of saliva. Sugar-free gums, therefore, may be an excellent delivery vehicle for safe and effective additive, capable of promoting enamel remineralization. Casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP nanocomplexes incorporated into sugar-free chewing gum have shown to remineralize enamel subsurface lesions in situ. So this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP containing sugar-free chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorous. Materials and Methods : Unstimulated saliva from each 24 selected subjects was collected. Then each subject was given two pellets of chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and asked to chew for a period of 20 min, after which saliva samples were collected from each individual. Once all the samples were collected they were assessed for calcium and phosphorous concentration using affiliated reagent kits and photometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained were analyzed using student′s paired t test. Results: Significant difference was found in the calcium and phosphorus concentration of saliva before and after chewing CPP-ACP containing chewing gum. Conclusions: Chewing of CPP-ACP containing chewing gum showed a significant increase in the salivary concentration of calcium for a prolonged period of time hence it may help in the remineralization of tooth surfaces.

  7. 新型口香糖清除器的设计%Design of New Chewing Gum Removal Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁杰; 艾书义

    2012-01-01

    口香糖残留物粘着力强,易吸附灰尘和细菌,被丢弃后经日晒、踩踏,残留物与路面粘结,难以清除,严重影响城市的美观与卫生.因此口香糖残渣清理已成为环卫工作面临的重大难题.本文分析了国内口香糖残留清除方法及清除机械的现状,本着高效节能的理念,设计出一种新型半自动口香糖清除器.%Strong adhesion of chewing gum residues, easy to absorb the on the city's appearance and health, in particular, after the sun and trampl dust and bacteria, serious impact e, chewing gum residues are even more difficult to remove. Therefore, chewing gum residue removal has become a major problem facing public places. This paper analyses the domestic chewing gum residue removal methods and the current situation of removal machines, and designs a new type of chewing gum residue removal equipment.

  8. Study of the compressibility of chewing gum and its applicability as an oral drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jójárt, I; Kása, P; Kelemen, A; Pintye-Hódi, K

    2016-01-01

    Medicated chewing gum tablets were prepared and evaluated as an oral drug delivery system. The morphology and surface free energy of the components were characterized, and the tablets were prepared by direct compression with an instrumented eccentric tableting machine. The compressibility, the porosity and the texture of the tablets were investigated and the dissolution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (caffeine) from them was tested with a specially-developed method. Cafosa gum base is a co-processed product which is compressible. Because of the sticking of the tablets to the punches and the high friction that arises during ejection from the die, the use of lubricants and suitable (e.g. Teflon-coated) punches is necessary on a production scale. For this purpose, magnesium stearate with high specific surface area was applied. The release of caffeine in response to the mechanical effect applied proved to be rapid and quantitative and the profile closely obeyed the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation, which is valid in the case of matrix systems. Medicated chewing gum tablets can be used as matrix tablets for oral pharmaceutical administration. PMID:25673279

  9. 口香糖及其发其趋势和思考%Development trend and thinking of chewing gums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁靖一; 卢咏来; 王润国; 刘全勇

    2011-01-01

    从口香糖的发展历史出发,介绍了口香糖的功能、类别、组成、制备原理、工艺以及质量评价方法.传统口香糖功能简单,常采用难于生物降解的弹性体和树脂作为胶基,残基被丢弃后,既难除去,也污染环境.在保证口香糖具有特定功能的基础上,采用可生物降解弹性体和树脂作为胶基制备口香糖,是其重要的发展趋势.最后,结合口香糖的研究现状,提出了一些看法.%Starting from the history of chewing gums,their function,category,composition,preparation principle and technique,and method of quality assessment were introduced.Traditional chewing gums present simple functions, and hardly biodegradable elastomers and resins are often used as their gums,so the residues are difficult to be cleared up and pollute the environment after they are thrown away.Adopting biodegradable elastomers and resins as gums to prepare chewing gums with special functions is an important development trend.Finally, some ideas were put forward based on the current study on chewing gums.

  10. Xylitol chewing gum in prevention of acute otitis media: double blind randomised trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Uhari, M.; Kontiokari, T; Koskela, M.; Niemelä, M. (Mika)

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether xylitol, which reduces the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae, might have clinical importance in the prevention of acute otitis media. DESIGN: A double blind randomised trial with xylitol administered in chewing gum. SETTING: Eleven day care nurseries in the city of Oulu. Most of the children had had problems with recurrent acute otitis media. SUBJECTS: 306 day care children: 149 children in the sucrose group (76 boys; mean (SD) age 4.9 (1.5) years) and 157 in th...

  11. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the safety of ―Methyl Vinyl Ether-Maleic Anhydride Copolymer‖ (chewing gum base ingredient) as a Novel Food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    safety concerns. An estimated daily intake (EDI) for Gantrez SF associated with its use in chewing gum may be calculated based on the maximum concentration (2 %) of Gantrez SF in finished chewing gum, and on the level at which chewing gum is consumed. Based on data from the United Kingdom, a high intake...

  12. A study on the design, formulation and effectiveness of chewing gums containing Chlorhexidine Gluconate in the prevention of dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolahi Kazerani G

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The role of the microbial plaque in caries etiology and periodontal diseases has been"nproved and the mechanical methods for plaque control have special limitations, consequently, chemical"nmethods have been suggested. One of the most effective materials is Chlorhexidine Gluconate that is"ncommonly used as mouth rinses. However, the medicated formulations of chewing gums, due to several"nproperties, have been paid attention. It should be noted that a new formulation to satisfy the consumers' taste"nseems necessary."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to present a new formulation for chewing gums containing chlorhexidine"nto achieve a pleasant taste coupled with their effectiveness and anti-plaque properties maintenance."nMaterials and Methods: In this double blind, crossover, prospective clinical trial, 18 volunteers were"ninvestigated. Chlorhexidine Gluconate was used and added to the gum-base by Manitole. In order to cover the"nbitter taste of the drug Aspartam, mint essence and Mentole were used. After gums production, the profile of"ndrug dissolution was evaluated by jaw movement simulating system. It took 5 days to study each type of"nchewing gums without any mechanical plaque control method. Medicated and placebo chewing gums were"nidentical in shape, size, color and formulation. The washout period was 2 days. Chewing gums were used"nevery 12 hours for 20 minutes. To determine plaque score, Turesky- Gilmore- Glickman modification index"nwas used. Other variables including: subjective evaluation of taste, cleansing effect and taste disturbance were"nassessed through filling a checklist. The data were analyzed by Paired t test and Wilcoxon test."nResults: During 20 mins, 80% of the drug was released from the gum-base. The mean difference of plaque"nscore between the initial and final stages at the first trial was -0.1589 and at the second trial was 2.994 which"nwas statistically significant (P<0.001. Subjective

  13. Effect of chewing gums with xylitol, sorbitol and xylitol-sorbitol on the remineralization and hardness of initial enamel lesions in situ

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu Tuncer; Alev Önen; A Rüya Yazici

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three chewing gums and paraffin on the remineralization and the hardness of demineralized enamel. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 subjects wore intraoral palatal appliances with two demineralized bovine enamel slabs. The study consisted of four experimental periods each lasting 21-days, during which subjects were assigned to one of three gum-chewing regimens: gum containing sorbitol, xylitol and a mixture of sorbito...

  14. Effects of Gum Chewing on Appetite and Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    The Null Hypothesis is That Food Rheology Will Have no Effect on These Indices.; The Alternate Hypothesis is That Increased Mechanical Stimulation Will Result in Stronger Satiation/Satiety and Reduced Energy Intake.; Further, it is Hypothesized That the Effects of Mastication Will be Less Evident in Obese Compared to Lean Individuals.

  15. EFFECT OF XYLITOL AND SORBITOL IN CHEWING-GUMS ON MUTANS STREPTOCOCCI, PLAQUE PH AND MINERAL LOSS OF ENAMEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WENNERHOLM, K; ARENDS, J; BIRKHED, D; RUBEN, J; EMILSON, CG; DIJKMAN, AG

    1994-01-01

    Seventeen subjects with more than 3 x 10(5) mutans streptococci per millilitre of saliva completed this randomised, cross-over study. Four different chewing-gums, containing: (1) 70% xylitol, (2) 35% xylitol + 35% sorbitol, (3) 17.5% xylitol + 52.5% sorbitol, and (4) 70% sorbitol, were tested. The p

  16. The effect of sugar-free chewing gum on plaque and clinical parameters of gingival inflammation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Keukenmeester; D.E. Slot; M.S. Putt; G.A. van der Weijden

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to systematically review the current literature on the clinical effects of sugar-free chewing gum on plaque indices and parameters of gingival inflammation. Material and methods The MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched up to 20 April

  17. Fighting Against Disuse of the Masticatory System in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Pilot Study Using Chewing Gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, H.W. van; Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Steenks, M.H.; Bilt, A. van der; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Groot, I.J.M. de; Kalaykova, S.I.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients report masticatory problems. The aim was to determine the efficacy of mastication training in Duchenne muscular dystrophy using chewing gum for 4 weeks. In all, 17 patients and 17 healthy age-matched males participated. The masticatory performance was assessed us

  18. The effect of medicated, sugar-free chewing gum on plaque and clinical parameters of gingival inflammation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Keukenmeester; D.E. Slot; M.S. Putt; G.A. van der Weijden

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to systematically review the present literature to establish the clinical effect of medicated, sugar-free chewing gum on plaque indices and parameters of gingival inflammation. Materials and methods MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched up to

  19. Can school-based oral health education and a sugar-free chewing gum program improve oral health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Bin; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bian, Zhuan;

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the outcome of school-based oral health education (OHE) and a sugar-free chewing gum program on the oral health status of children in terms of reduced caries increment and gingival bleeding over a period of 2 years. Nine primary schools randomly chosen from......-up. The overall drop-out rate was about 15%. Data on dental caries and gingival bleeding were collected by clinical examination. The results showed that the mean increment of DMFS in Group G was 42% lower than in groups E and C (P ... (P gingival bleeding scores were statistically significant among the three groups. Compared to Group C, the mean increment in bleeding scores of Group G was 71% lower (P

  20. Chewing xylitol gum improves self-rated and objective indicators of oral health status under conditions interrupting regular oral hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Takeshita, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Chewing xylitol gum provides oral health benefits including inhibiting Streptococcus mutans plaque. It is thought to be especially effective in conditions where it is difficult to perform daily oral cleaning. Our study aim was to determine the effects of chewing xylitol gum on self-rated and objective oral health status under a condition interfering with oral hygiene maintenance. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted on 55 healthy ≥ 20-year-old men recruited from the Japan Ground Self Defense Force who were undergoing field training. Participants were randomly assigned to a test group (chewing gum; n = 27) or a control group (no gum; n = 28) and the researchers were blinded to the group assignments. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores of oral conditions subjectively evaluated oral health, and the stimulated salivary bacteria quantity objectively evaluated oral health 1 day before field training (baseline) and 4 days after the beginning of field training (follow-up). VAS scores of all three oral conditions significantly increased in the control group (malodor: p bacteria significantly increased in the control group (p xylitol gum positively affects self-rated and objective oral health status by controlling oral hygiene under conditions that interfere with oral hygiene maintenance. PMID:25744362

  1. Consistent evidence to support the use of xylitol- and sorbitol-containing chewing gum to prevent dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2009-01-01

    DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified using searches with Medline, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were screened independently and were included if they evaluated the effect of one or more chewing gums containing at least one polyol (xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol...... randomised controlled trials (RCT) of which four were cluster RCT, nine controlled clinical trials (CCT) and four cohort studies]. Two RCT had a Jadad score of three or higher. The mean preventive fraction for the four main gum types are shown in the table 1, results of all except the sorbitol -mannitol...... blend were statistically significant. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the findings. CONCLUSIONS: Although research gaps exist, particularly on optimal dosing and relative polyol efficacy, there is consistent evidence to support the use of xylitol- and sorbitol-containing chewing gum...

  2. 口香糖的养生保健价值%Chewing Gum on Health-care Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵聪; 赵兵; 崔超; 姚默; 巩江; 倪士峰

    2011-01-01

    Since the chewing gum came out,it has became the favourite food in the worldwide,the value of gum health care,harm and announcement were generalized,which aimed to make people have a more detailed knowledge of chewing gum.%口香糖自问世以来,受到全世界的广泛喜爱。文章对口香糖的养生保健价值、危害及食用注意事项做了概括,旨在使人们对口香糖有详细了解,也为全民养生提供科学资料。

  3. Effect of chewing gums with xylitol, sorbitol and xylitol-sorbitol on the remineralization and hardness of initial enamel lesions in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Tuncer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three chewing gums and paraffin on the remineralization and the hardness of demineralized enamel. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 subjects wore intraoral palatal appliances with two demineralized bovine enamel slabs. The study consisted of four experimental periods each lasting 21-days, during which subjects were assigned to one of three gum-chewing regimens: gum containing sorbitol, xylitol and a mixture of sorbitol and xylitol and with paraffin as control. The appliances were worn during gum-chewing for 20 min and then retained for 20 min 4 times/day. The slabs were subjected to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis and surface microhardness measurements before in setting into the appliance and after the experimental period. The data were subjected to analysis of variance for repeated measures. A P 0.05. No significant difference was found among the groups either for the baseline measurements or after chewing periods (P > 0.05. All groups showed higher microhardness values after the chewing periods than the baseline except for the Vivident Xylit group (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The chewing of gum had no effect on the Ca/P ratio of demineralized enamel surfaces. The hardening of the demineralized enamel surfaces may vary according to the type of chewing gum.

  4. Effect of chewing gums with xylitol, sorbitol and xylitol-sorbitol on the remineralization and hardness of initial enamel lesions in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Duygu; Önen, Alev; Yazici, A. Rüya

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three chewing gums and paraffin on the remineralization and the hardness of demineralized enamel. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 subjects wore intraoral palatal appliances with two demineralized bovine enamel slabs. The study consisted of four experimental periods each lasting 21-days, during which subjects were assigned to one of three gum-chewing regimens: gum containing sorbitol, xylitol and a mixture of sorbitol and xylitol and with paraffin as control. The appliances were worn during gum-chewing for 20 min and then retained for 20 min 4 times/day. The slabs were subjected to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis and surface microhardness measurements before in setting into the appliance and after the experimental period. The data were subjected to analysis of variance for repeated measures. A P 0.05). No significant difference was found among the groups either for the baseline measurements or after chewing periods (P > 0.05). All groups showed higher microhardness values after the chewing periods than the baseline except for the Vivident Xylit group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The chewing of gum had no effect on the Ca/P ratio of demineralized enamel surfaces. The hardening of the demineralized enamel surfaces may vary according to the type of chewing gum. PMID:25426142

  5. Long-term effect of xylitol chewing gum in the prevention of dental caries: a follow-up 5 years after termination of a prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogangas, P; Mäkinen, K K; Tiekso, J; Alanen, P

    1993-01-01

    About 65% of the original 258 children who participated in 1982-1984 in a caries prevention program involving the use of xylitol chewing gum were retrieved in 1989 for a follow-up study. Ninety-five subjects from the original xylitol (X) group and 70 subjects from the original control (no-gum, C) group were available. In 1984, when the children completed the program at the age of 13-14 years, the caries scores were significantly lower in children who had used xylitol gums daily, compared with the C group. In 1989, 5 years after the discontinuation of the gum program, the difference between the X and C groups had continued to increase in favor of the X group. These effects were explained by assuming that the X gum program had facilitated the establishment of a low-virulent bacterial flora on the surfaces of the teeth, and especially on those teeth that erupted during the trial proper. This type of results are possibly helpful when evaluating cost-benefit ratios of caries prevention. PMID:8281565

  6. Linear response of mutans streptococci to increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN43479664

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi David K

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol is a naturally occurring sugar substitute that has been shown to reduce the level of mutans streptococci in plaque and saliva and to reduce tooth decay. It has been suggested that the degree of reduction is dependent on both the amount and the frequency of xylitol consumption. For xylitol to be successfully and cost-effectively used in public health prevention strategies dosing and frequency guidelines should be established. This study determined the reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva to increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a fixed total daily dose of 10.32 g over five weeks. Methods Participants (n = 132 were randomized to either active groups (10.32 g xylitol/day or a placebo control (9.828 g sorbitol and 0.7 g maltitol/day. All groups chewed 12 pieces of gum per day. The control group chewed 4 times/day and active groups chewed xylitol gum at a frequency of 2 times/day, 3 times/day, or 4 times/day. The 12 gum pieces were evenly divided into the frequency assigned to each group. Plaque and unstimulated saliva samples were taken at baseline and five-weeks and were cultured on modified Mitis Salivarius agar for mutans streptococci enumeration. Results There were no significant differences in mutans streptococci level among the groups at baseline. At five-weeks, mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva showed a linear reduction with increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use at the constant daily dose. Although the difference observed for the group that chewed xylitol 2 times/day was consistent with the linear model, the difference was not significant. Conclusion There was a linear reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and saliva with increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a constant daily dose. Reduction at a consumption frequency of 2 times per day was small and consistent with the linear-response line but was not statistically

  7. Use of chewing gum containing 15% of xylitol and reduction in mutans streptococci salivary levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Perez Trindade Fraga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequent use of Xylitol may decrease the S. mutans levels. However, very little is known about whether this effect on the levels of cariogenic bacteria is maintained after the interruption of short-term usage of xylitol. This study aimed at evaluating changes in mutans streptococci (MS salivary levels after using a chewing gum containing xylitol. Twelve volunteers harboring > 10(5 CFU MS/ml saliva levels were asked to chew Happydent-xylit® for 5 minutes, 5 X/day, for 30 days. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, at 30 days after xylitol usage began, and at 30 days beyond its interruption. MS salivary levels were estimated. The average salivary levels of MS in the ten subjects who completed the study were 13.17 (NL-CFU at baseline (A. After the 30 days experimental period (B, this average decreased to 9.45 (NL-CFU. Nine of ten subjects studied showed a reduction in MS salivary levels in relation to baseline, whereas salivary levels were maintained in the remaining subject. At thirty days beyond the interruption of xylitol usage (C, the average levels of MS were still reduced to 10.31 (NL-CFU. Multiple sample comparison using the Bonferroni test revealed that the decrease in MS levels observed from baseline (A to the time immediately after 30 days of xylitol usage (B was statistically significant (p < 0.05, and those levels were still decreased between baseline and 30 days beyond the interruption of xylitol usage (C. So, the use of xylitol induced a reduction in MS salivary levels after a short period of usage which persisted beyond its interruption.

  8. Use of chewing gum containing 15% of xylitol and reduction in mutans streptococci salivary levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Cláudia Perez Trindade; Mayer, Márcia Pinto Alves; Rodrigues, Célia Regina Martins Delgado

    2010-01-01

    Frequent use of Xylitol may decrease the S. mutans levels. However, very little is known about whether this effect on the levels of cariogenic bacteria is maintained after the interruption of short-term usage of xylitol. This study aimed at evaluating changes in mutans streptococci (MS) salivary levels after using a chewing gum containing xylitol. Twelve volunteers harboring > or = 10(5) CFU MS/ml saliva levels were asked to chew Happydent-xylit for 5 minutes, 5 X/day, for 30 days. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, at 30 days after xylitol usage began, and at 30 days beyond its interruption. MS salivary levels were estimated. The average salivary levels of MS in the ten subjects who completed the study were 13.17 (NL-CFU) at baseline (A). After the 30 days experimental period (B), this average decreased to 9.45 (NL-CFU). Nine of ten subjects studied showed a reduction in MS salivary levels in relation to baseline, whereas salivary levels were maintained in the remaining subject. At thirty days beyond the interruption of xylitol usage (C), the average levels of MS were still reduced to 10.31 (NL-CFU). Multiple sample comparison using the Bonferroni test revealed that the decrease in MS levels observed from baseline (A) to the time immediately after 30 days of xylitol usage (B) was statistically significant (p beyond the interruption of xylitol usage (C). So, the use of xylitol induced a reduction in MS salivary levels after a short period of usage which persisted beyond its interruption.

  9. Characterization and preliminary toxicity assay of nano-titanium dioxide additive in sugar-coated chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Xin; Cheng, Bin; Yang, Yi-Xin; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Jia-Hui; Du, Li-Jing; Liu, Yuanfang; Zhao, Yuliang; Wang, Haifang

    2013-05-27

    Nanotechnology shows great potential for producing food with higher quality and better taste through including new additives, improving nutrient delivery, and using better packaging. However, lack of investigations on safety issues of nanofood has resulted in public fears. How to characterize engineered nanomaterials in food and assess the toxicity and health impact of nanofood remains a big challenge. Herein, a facile and highly reliable separation method of TiO2 particles from food products (focusing on sugar-coated chewing gum) is reported, and the first comprehensive characterization study on food nanoparticles by multiple qualitative and quantitative methods is provided. The detailed information on nanoparticles in gum includes chemical composition, morphology, size distribution, crystalline phase, particle and mass concentration, surface charge, and aggregation state. Surprisingly, the results show that the number of food products containing nano-TiO2 (easy to come out and be swallowed by a person who chews gum. Preliminary cytotoxicity assays show that the gum nano-TiO2 particles are relatively safe for gastrointestinal cells within 24 h even at a concentration of 200 μg mL(-1) . This comprehensive study demonstrates accurate physicochemical property, exposure, and cytotoxicity information on engineered nanoparticles in food, which is a prerequisite for the successful safety assessment of nanofood products. PMID:23065899

  10. A Study on the Effect of Gum Chewing on Attention%咀嚼口香糖对个体注意功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张厚粲; 李红义

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of gum chewing on the cognitive function of attention. Methods: Based on gum chewing habit, trait-anxiety variable, and different treatments (with or without gum chewing) during experiment,181 college students with good health were assigned to four groups GH (with chewing gum treatment and habit), GL (with chewing gum treatment, no habit), CH (no treatment,has habit) and CL (no treatment,no habit). Two attention tasks: Continuous Performance Test (CPT-AX) and Conjunctive Search Task (CST) were performed by all subjects in the laboratory.Results: Chewing gum during experiment had positive effect on attention performance, and the habit of gum chewing played an important role. Conclusion: Gum chewing had positive effect on attention performance, suggesting the effects mainly came from the familiarity of gum-chewing.%目的:考察咀嚼口香糖对注意的影响. 方法:基于性别、特质性焦虑水平、嚼口香糖习惯大小(H/L)、以及实验时是否嚼糖(G/C).采用平衡组间设计将181名健康的大学生被试分为:实验时嚼糖且有习惯(GH)、实验时嚼糖但无习惯(GL).控制不嚼糖但有习惯(CH)、和控制不嚼糖且无习惯(CL)四个组,在实验室中进行连续操作测验(CPT-AX)和匹配搜索任务(CST)测验,用以评估持续性注意和选择性注意. 结果:除实验中咀嚼口香糖对被试成绩有积极影响外.咀嚼口香糖的经验对成绩显示了更重要影响. 结论:咀嚼口香糖对注意功能有积极影响,并且对口香糖的熟悉程度在此积极影响中起重要作用.

  11. Deposition of a model substance, Tc E-HIDA, in the oral cavity after administration of lozenges, chewing gum and sublingual tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Davis, S.S.; Melia, C.D.;

    1990-01-01

    The deposition and clearance of a model substance, Tc E-HIDA, in the oral cavity/upper oesophagus and in the stomach after administration of lozenges, chewing gum and sublingual tablets has been followed by gamma scintigraphy in a group of healthy male volunteers. Following administration...... of sublingual tablets, the residence time of the model substance in the oral cavity was significantly longer than following administration of chewing gum. The residence time following administration of lozenges was found to be the shortest. © 1990....

  12. Assessment of Aspartame Exposure Due to Consumption of Some Imported Chewing Gums by Microwave Digestion and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Rasouli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is a widely used artificial sweetener, the long-term safety of which has been controversial ever since it was accepted for human consumption. The main aim of this research is assessment of aspartame exposure due to consumption of some imported chewing gums during summer 2015 to Iran by microwave digestion and HPLC analysis. Thirty chewing gums from highly consumed imported ones were collected from retail market in Tehran. Closed vessel microwave digestion was employed for sample preparation using a three phase temperature program. An aliquot of 20 μL of prepared samples was injected into the HPLC column and the aspartame was detected at 254 nm with an on-line detector. Concentration of aspartame in chewing gum samples was between 1.9 and 30.5 μg/g with an average of 11.1 μg/g. In conclusion, despite of existing aspartame in 76.6 percent of samples, however the effective amount of this artificial sweetener is not as high as the levels that international legislations recommended for exposing due to chewing gum consumption.

  13. Pharmacokinetic study of a new chewing gum dextromethorphan delivery system%新型右美沙芬咀嚼胶给药系统的药代动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 谭群友; 刘碧林; 徐美玲; 赵春景; 张景勍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish an high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based method for analysis of the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of dextromethorphan chewing gum tablets in rabbits. Methods The pharmacokinetic parameters and the relative bioavailability of dextromethorphan chewing gum preparation in rabbits were compared with those of the commercially available chewing dextromethorphan tablets using 3P97 software. Results Pharmacokinetic analysis of the new dextromethorphan chewing gum tablets showed a AUC of 488.76±175.00 ng Ml-1 H, Cmax of 95.45±17.53 ng/ml, and to. Of 1.83±0.57 h as compared with the corresponding parameters of 370.13± 90.56 ng Ml'.h, 174.00±47.88 ng - ml, and 1.04±0.14 h for the commercially available chewing tablets. The relative bioavailability of the new chewing gum medicine system was (140.73 ± 65.91)% . Conclusion The new dextromethorphan chewing gum preparation shows an increased AUC(0-), decreased Gmax, and prolonged tmax in comparison with the commercially available chewing tablets, with also a greatly enhanced relative bioavailability.%目的 建立高效液相色谱法测定血浆中右美沙芬的浓度,研究右美沙芬咀嚼胶片的药动学和生物利用度.方法 以市售右美沙芬咀嚼片为对照品,运用3P37药动学软件处理数据,进行药动学和生物利用度研究.结果 右美沙芬咀嚼胶片AUC(0→∞)、Cmax和tmax分别为(488.76±175.00)ng·ml-1.h、(95.45±17.53)ng·ml-1、(1.83±0.57)h;市售咀嚼片AUC(0→∞)、Cmax)和tmax分别为(370.13±90.56)ng·ml-1.h、(174.00±47.88)ng·ml-1、(1.04±0.14)h.咀嚼胶片的相对生物利用度为(140.73±65.91)%.结论 相对于常规咀嚼片,咀嚼胶片AUC(0→∞)有所提高,相对生物利用度较高,Tmax显著延长,但Cmax降低.

  14. Chewing-gum stimulation did not reduce the absorbed dose to salivary glands during radioiodine treatment of thyroid cancer as inferred from pre-therapy 124I PET/CT imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jentzen, Walter; Richter, Marion; Nagarajah, James; Poeppel, Thorsten Dirk; Brandau, Wolfgang; Dawes, Colin; Bockisch, Andreas; Binse, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Background The goal of this prospective study was to estimate the absorbed (radiation) doses to salivary glands in radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer under chewing-gum stimulation using 124I positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging. Methods Duplex ultrasonography was conducted in three test persons for visual comparison of the glandular blood flow with three different stimulation types (no stimulation, chewing tasteless gum base, sucking on lemon slices). Ten pat...

  15. Effect of a sugar-free chewing gum containing Magnolia bark extract on the development of caries lesions in healthy adult volunteers: a randomized controlled intervention trial

    OpenAIRE

    Carta, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The effect of magnolia bark extract (MBE) on the development of caries lesions administered daily through sugar-free chewing gum was evaluated. A randomized double-blind intervention trial was performed. Methods: 480 subjects (mean age±40.72) were examined using ICDAS index. A self-compiled questionnaire was submitted. A caries risk profile was generated for each subject using Cariogram software. 271 subjects, presenting inclusion criteria, were enrolled and divided into three groups ...

  16. 全天麻咀嚼胶体外释放度的测定%In vitro dissolution of gastrodine in Gastrodia elata chewing gums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周霞; 谌介秀; 万军

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价全天麻咀嚼胶的体外释放情况。方法以人工唾液为介质,采用高效液相色谱法测定全天麻咀嚼胶中天麻素的质量分数,采用咀嚼释放度测定仪(自制)检测咀嚼胶体外释放度,检测波长为220 nm,介质体积为40 mL。结果天麻素在0.042~0.378μg范围内线性良好,平均回收率为99.18%, RSD为2.40%;全天麻咀嚼胶在8 min左右,天麻素释放达90.0%以上。结论全天麻咀嚼胶中天麻素释放迅速,可作为一种新型的降血压及治疗头痛的中药制剂进一步开发。%Objective To evaluate the in vitro dissolution of gastrodine chewing gum. Method The content of gastrodine in Gastrodia elata chewing gum was determined by HPLC and the dissolution of gastrodine was studied with a specialized release-measuring apparatus made-self in 40 mL artificial saliva at the detection wavelength of 420 nm. Result The linear range of gastrodine was from 0. 042 to 0. 378 μg and the average recovery was 99.18% with a RSD of 2.40%.Approximately 90.0% of the gastrodine contained in Gastrodia elata chewing gums was released in about 8 min. Conclusion Gastrodia elata chewing gum is a fast-released preparations and suitable for lowering blood pressure and treating headaches.

  17. Research of New-typed Anti-halitosis Chewing Gum%新型除口臭口香糖的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金威; 李胡俊; 周鸿媛; 侯大军

    2011-01-01

    本文对新型除口臭口香糖的配方和加工工艺进行了研究;在传统口香糖配方和加工工艺的基础上,对新型除口臭口香糖的工艺进行了研究.通过试验确定出新型除口臭口香糖的最佳配方为:金银花用量为3.00mL/10g,锌含量2.00mg/10g,茶多酚用量为0.06g/10g;辅料吸收的最适温度为60℃.%In this paper, the formulation and processing technology of anti-halitosis functional chewing gum were studied.Based on the traditional chewing gum formulation and processing technology, the removing bad breath technics of antihalitosis functional chewing gum was researched as well. According the tests, the best compound is: 3.00mL/10g honeysuckle, 2.00mg/10g zinc, 0.06g/10g tea polyphenols and 60 ℃ for materials absorbing.

  18. Analysis of Wrigley's Chewing Gum Patent Application in China%箭牌公司在华口香糖专利申请分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林倩; 胡婉珊

    2015-01-01

    Wrigley is the world,s largest chewing gum enterprise. This paper analysis the amount of patent application, technical subjects and document writing of the patent application of Wrigley,s Chewing Gum Patent Application in China. According to the relevant data of the analysis, show the current situation of patent application, provide the reference for scheduling research direction and developing patent layout of chewing gum enterprises, scientific research institution, in the future.%口香糖在中国发展速度迅猛,由于中国人口基数大、口香糖人均消费片数低,因此存在巨大的消费增长空间。箭牌公司在竞争日益激烈的口香糖市场中何以能够一直处于霸主地位是值得中国企业深思的问题,本文从箭牌公司口香糖产品在华专利申请的整体情况、技术主题、文本撰写的角度进行分析,以期为业内人士提供启示和借鉴。

  19. 咀嚼口香糖对腹腔镜腹部手术后胃肠功能的影响%Effect of chewing gum on gastrointestinal function after laparoscopic abdominal surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任彦; 秦晓云; 戴晓云

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察咀嚼口香糖对腹腔镜手术后患者胃电图、血液胃动素及肛门排气时间的影响.方法 选取择期腹腔镜胆囊切除术后患者200例,随机分为咀嚼口香糖组(G组)和对照组(C组)各100例.G组术后第2天早餐时间开始咀嚼口香糖,午餐、晚餐时间各1次,30 min/次,直到第1次肛门排气为止;对照组不咀嚼口香糖.记录2组从手术结束到第1次肛门排气时间;测量术后第1、2、3天早晨咀嚼口香糖后30 min血液胃动素,同时测量胃电图.结果 2组间第1次肛门排气时间比较无显著差异;G组术后第1、2天胃动素水平显著高于C组,第3天2组间无显著差异;2组间胃电图术后第1、2、3天都无显著差异.结论 术后咀嚼口香糖对腹腔手术后胃肠功能无显著影响.%Objective To observe the effect of chewing gum on EGG,blood motilin and anus exhausting after laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Methods 200 patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly arranged into chewing gum group (Group G): to start chewing gum for 30 min at breakfast time on first day after operation, and also at lunch and dinner time, and stopped until the first anus exhausting, and the control group(Group C): no chewing gum. The time between endpoint of operation to first anus exhausting was recorded; blood motilin and electrogastrography (EGG)on the morning of 1,2,3 days postoperation after chewing gum was detected. Results The time between endpoint of operation to first anus exhausting was not significantly different between two groups, compared with the control group, blood motilin significantly improved on the first day and the second day,but there was no difference between two groups on 3rd day; EGG was no different in all three days between two groups. Conclusions Chewing gum doesn't improve bowel function after laparoscopic abdominal surgery.

  20. Effects of feeding a return chewing gum/packaging material mixture on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, B W; Berger, L L; Fahey, G C

    1996-11-01

    Seventy-two Simmental-cross growing steers (219 +/- 2.4 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of feeding a return chewing gum/packaging material mixture (G/P) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, sensory attributes of meat, and mineral content of beef liver and muscle. Animals were allotted by weight to 12 pens (six/pen). Each pen was assigned one of three dietary treatments: 1) 0% G/P (control), 2) 20% G/P, or 3) 30% G/P (% G/P on a DM basis). Steers were fed their respective diets for an 84-d growing phase and a 112-d finishing phase. The G/P replaced corn silage and corn in the growing and finishing phases, respectively. Eighteen steers (six/treatment) were randomly selected for slaughter at the end of the finishing phase, and carcass measurements, sensory attributes of meat, and mineral content of liver and longissimus muscle were measured. During the growing phase, steers fed G/P-containing diets had improved (P .05) on carcass characteristics. Steaks from steers fed 20% G/P had improved (P carcass merit. PMID:8923170

  1. 剖宫产后咀嚼口香糖促进胃肠功能恢复恢复效果的系统评价%Chewing gum in restoring gastrointestinal function after cesarean section:A Systematic Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周保锋; 邓建平

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efifcacy and safety of chewing gum in restoring gastrointestinal function after cesarean section. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CNKI and Wanfang datebase from their establishment to December 2014 to include the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that comparing chewing gum with other procedure in restoring gastrointestinal function after cesarean section. The meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5.3 software.Results:Nine RCTs with 1654 patients met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed that chewing gum could signiifcantly shorten time to ifrst lfatus, time to ifrst bowel motion, time to ifrst passage of feces, duration stay(P<0.05) and reduced the risks of postoperative ileus (P<0.05).Conclusion: Chewing gum can promote restoration of gastrointestinal function and thus beneifts rehabilitation of patients after cesarean section.%目的:系统评价剖宫产后咀嚼口香糖促进胃肠功能恢复的有效性和安全性。方法计算机检索PubMed、EMBASE、Cochrane Library、CNKI和万方数据库,检索时间从建库至2014年12月,纳入比较剖宫产术后咀嚼口香糖与其他治疗方式促进胃肠功能恢复的随机对照试验,采用RevMan 5.3软件进行Meta分析。结果最终纳入9个随机对照试验,共1654例患者。Meta分析结果显示,剖宫产术后咀嚼口香糖能缩短患者术后首次排气时间、肠鸣音恢复时间、排便时间、患者住院时间(P<0.05),减少术后肠梗阻的发生(P<0.05)。结论剖宫产术后咀嚼口香糖可以促进患者胃肠功能的恢复,对于剖宫产产妇术后恢复有一定益处。

  2. 咖啡因口香糖的制备及含量测定研究%Studies on preparation and content determination of caffeine chewing gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊永正; 张琛; 陈振兴; 刘俊杰; 鲁莹; 钟延强; 邹豪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a new type of chewing gum contained caffeine, and a method for determination of caffeine in the chewing gum. Methods the caffeine powder and sugar powder were mixed evenly, the mixtures were reconciled with the chewing gum which were then cutted, extruded ,cooled and packaged. The caffeine in the gum was extracted hy boiling water bath for 1h and caffeine content was determind by HPLC. Results This type of gum tastd good and the caffeine contained in the gum was uni form; The calibration curve showed good linearity in the range, and the mean of the extraction recovery rate was 98. 41 ± 2. 02%. Methodology of this study met the requirements of determination. Conclusion The technology of caffeine gum was simple and available; the developed HPLC method was easy, rapid , accurate and the quality was under control.%目的 研制一种新型含咖啡因的口香糖,并建立其含量测定的方法.方法 建立咖啡因口香糖制备工艺,首先将咖啡因粉末与糖料均匀混合,与口香糖胶基调和,切割挤压,冷却老化,包装.建立咖啡因口香糖的含量测定方法,采用沸水浴加热1 h提取口香糖中的咖啡因,通过高效液相色谱法测定其中咖啡因的含量.结果 制得的咖啡因口香糖含量均匀,口感较好;其含量测定方法线性良好,提取回收率为(98.41±2.02)%,方法学研究符合测定要求.结论 咖啡因口香糖制备工艺简单,含量测定的质量可控,操作简便、快速、准确.

  3. 响应面法优化酶改性谷朊粉替代口香糖胶基的研究%Study on response surface optimization of enzyme modified wheat gluten substitute gum-base of chewing gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春红; 许娇; 孙婧

    2011-01-01

    Transglutaminase (MTG) on wheat gluten ( WG ) was modified by using modified response surface method optimization of process conditions,and using all the alternative gum modified WG making chewing gum.The results showed that the wheat gluten in the six WG Prudential was most suitable production of chewing gum products.Using response surface methodology WG MTG optimum conditions modified as follows: 2.21% enzyme concentration, reaction temperature 49.88℃, reaction time 1.54h, pH of 6.63 ,the viscosity of modified WG 5.42kcP, increased 67.73% of the former.WG made use of modified gum than the modification of sensory score was increased by 16.8%, chewing time prolonged 93.5%.%利用谷氨酰胺转氨酶(MTG)对谷朊粉(WG)进行改性,采用响应面法优化改性工艺条件,并利用改性WG全部替代胶基制作口香糖.结果表明,六种谷朊粉中恒丰产WG最适合生产口香糖.利用响应面法优化MTG改性WG的最佳工艺条件为:酶浓度2.21%,反应温度49.88℃,反应时间1.54h,pH6.63,此时改性WG的粘度为5.42kcP,比改性前提高了67.73%.利用改性WG制成口香糖的感官评分比改性前提高了16.8%,咀嚼时间延长了93.5%.

  4. Chewing Gum in Promoting Bowel Recovery after Cesarean Section: A Systematic Review%剖宫产术后咀嚼口香糖促进肠道功能恢复的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁远霞; 赵红利; 何佳; 龚钿

    2011-01-01

    目的 系统评价剖宫产术后咀嚼口香糖促进肠道功能恢复的有效效和安全性.方法 计算机检索Cochrane Library、MEDLINE、Embase和中国生物医学文献数据库,检索时间从建库至2010年,纳入比较剖宫产术后咀嚼口香糖与其他治疗方式促进肠道功能恢复的随机对照试验,在对纳入研究的偏倚风险进行评估后,采用RevMan 5.0.22软件进行Meta分析.结果 共纳入3个随机对照试验,共745例患者.Meta分析结果显示:剖宫产术后咀嚼口香糖可以缩短患者术后首次肛门排气时间[MD=-6.54,95%CI(-7.82,-5.27),P<0.000 01],减少术后肠梗阻的发生[RR=0.54,95%CI(0.34,0.87),P=0.01],可能缩短住院时间[MD=-0.21,95%CI(-0.39,-0.03),P=0.02].目前尚缺乏足够的数据支持剖宫产术后咀嚼口香糖的安全性.结论 剖宫产术后咀嚼口香糖可以促进患者术后胃肠功能恢复,减少术后肠梗阻的发生.但由于纳入研究数较少,方法学质量不高,因此尚需更多高质量研究以增加论证强度.%Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of chewing gum in promoting bowel recovery after cesarean section. Methods Such databases as The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMbase and CBM were searched from their establishment to 2010 to include the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of comparing chewing gum with other procedures for promoting postoperative bowel function after cesarean section. The risks of bias in the included studies were evaluated at randomization, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcomes, and selective reporting. Metaanalyses were performed by RevMan 5.0.22 software. Results Three RCTs involving 745 participants were included. The results of meta-analyses showed chewing gum after cesarean section significantly shortened the time before getting the first postoperative flatus (MD= -6.54, 95%CI -7.82 to -5.27, P<0.000 01), reduced the risks of postoperative ileus (RR=0.54,95%CI 0.34 to 0.87, P=0

  5. Gum

    OpenAIRE

    T. Jones

    2004-01-01

    Gum is a short experimental film drawing attention to the thousands of pieces of used gum littering our pavements. In so doing, the film explores at the micro level Man’s disregard for his environment. The film was produced using a combination of macro photography, time-lapse and animation.

  6. Influence of chewing gum on recovery of gastrointestinal function in elder patients after gastrointestinal operation%咀嚼口香糖对老年胃肠手术患者胃肠功能恢复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳青; 凌玉芳; 黄秋环; 黄梅雪

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨咀嚼口香糖对老年胃肠手术患者术后胃肠功能恢复的影响.方法 将60例年龄>60岁且行胃肠手术的患者随机分为A组(常规组)、B组(早期康复组)、C组(口香糖咀嚼组),每组20例.A组患者接受胃肠手术术后常规护理;B组患者在此基础上给予术后早期胃肠功能恢复锻炼,如床上活动、腹部按摩、缩肛运动等;C组患者于常规护理基础上,在术后8~12 h开始咀嚼口香糖,每天3次,每次15~20 min.记录并比较3组患者术后恢复肛门排气时间,术后口干、口臭、恶心、腹胀等不适症状发生情况,术后住院时间.结果 术后恢复肛门排气时间,B、C组较A组均明显缩短,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);术后不适发生情况C组少于A、B组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);术后住院时间比较,3组间没有明显差异(P>0.05).结论 咀嚼口香糖可以促进老年胃肠手术患者术后肠蠕动的恢复,预防腹胀,消除术后口干、口臭等不适症状且方法简便安全,可以作为术后辅助治疗在临床上推广使用.%Objective To investigate the effect of chewing gum in the recovery of gastrointestinal function in elder patients after gastrointestinal surgery. Methods A total of 60 patients who were older over 60 years and had taken gastrointestinal operation were randomly divided into group A (control group), group B( early rehabilitation group) , group C(chewing gum group) ,20 cases in each group. Patients in group A underwent gastrointestinal operation conventional postoperative care; patients in group B were given early functional training based on the usual care,such as bed activity,abdominal massage, anal contraction movement; patients in group C received routine nursing care and were asked to chew gum one 8~12 h after surgery,3 times per day and 15~20 minutes each time. Then to compare the differences between the those groups in complaints such as postoperative xerostomia

  7. Carboxymethyl Chitosan-containing gum chewing accelerates antibacterial effect with an increase in salivary secretion%唾液的增加加速了含羧甲基壳聚糖口香糖的抗菌效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红梅; 孙桂兰; 苗大刚; 丹布朗

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:This study was designed to verify the mechanical efficacy of chewing carboxymethyl chitosan-containing gum to suppress the growth of oral bacteria compared to a mouth rinse,and to demonstrate the increased salivary secretion due to chewing carboxymethyl chitosan-containing gum.Methods:Twelve healthy subjects were recruited from the staff and students of Qingdao University School of Dentistry.For the slab of gum study,the subjects chewed carboxymethyl chitosan-containing gum for 5 min and then rested for 5 min.For the testing of the carboxymethyl chitosan mouth rinse solution,the subjects gargled 10 mlof solution for 30s followed by a rest of 9min and 30s.These protocols were continuously repeated five times within 50 min on the same day.For the salivary secretion experiment,the gum chewing was repeated three times per day for 2days.Results:The amount of oral bacteria in the subjects who chewed carboxymethyl chitosan-containing gum significantly decreased during all three sampling times except at 60 min for total bacteria in comparison with those in the rinse group.Carboxymethyl chitosan-containing gum chewing also significantly mcreased the secretion of saliva.Conclusions:Carboxymethyl chitosan-containing gum chewing has a greater antibacterial effect and it also increases salivary secretion.The present findings strongly indicate that the application of natural materials such as carboxymethyl chitosan is useful for both oral health and the quality of life.%目的:本论文采用了含羧甲基壳聚糖的口香糖,咀嚼这种口香糖的机械效果加速了其对口腔细菌的抑制作用,还比较口腔嗽洗液和咀嚼口香糖的抗菌效果,证明了通过咀嚼这种口香糖加速了唾液的分泌.方法:从青岛大学口腔科的老师和学生中选取了12名健康的受试者.在测试前取受试者的唾液测试细菌含量.在测试口香糖的试验中,受试者咀嚼5分钟口香糖然后休息5分钟.在测试口腔嗽洗液时,

  8. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H-Y; Yamaguchi, K

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers. A CO(2) sensor was placed over the mouth to detect expiratory airflow. When no airflow was detected from the mouth throughout the recording period, the subject was considered a nasal breather and enrolled in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during 3 min of gum chewing. The protocol was repeated with the nostrils occluded. The strength of the vertical effect was obtained as integrated masseter muscle EMG activity, and the duration of vertical effect was also obtained as chewing stroke count, chewing cycle variation and EMG activity duration above baseline. Baseline activity was obtained from the isotonic EMG activity during jaw movement at 1.6 Hz without making tooth contact. The duration represented the percentage of the active period above baseline relative to the 3-min chewing period. Paired t-test and repeated analysis of variance were used to compare variables between nasal and mouth breathing. The integrated EMG activity and the duration of EMG activity above baseline, chewing stroke count and chewing cycle significantly decreased during mouth breathing compared with nasal breathing (Pmouth breathing was significantly greater than nasal breathing (PMouth breathing reduces the vertical effect on the posterior teeth, which can affect the vertical position of posterior teeth negatively, leading to malocclusion.

  9. Salivary concentrations of urea released from a chewing gum containing urea and how these affect the urea content of gel-stabilized plaques and their pH after exposure to sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, C; Dibdin, G H

    2001-01-01

    The objectives were to: (1) determine the salivary concentrations of urea during 20 min chewing of a sugar-free gum containing 30 mg of urea; (2) measure the degree to which this urea would diffuse into a gel-stabilized plaque; (3) study the effect of the urea on the fall and subsequent rise in pH (Stephan curve) on exposure to 10% sucrose for 1 min; (4) model the measurements 2 and 3 mathematically. In point 1, the salivary urea concentration of the 12 subjects peaked at 47 mmol/l in the first 2 min of gum chewing, falling within 15 min to the unstimulated salivary concentration of 3.4 mmol/l. Recovery of urea from the saliva averaged 81.5%. 'Plaques' of 1% agarose or 67% dead bacteria in agarose accumulated urea from the saliva roughly as expected, whereas those plaques containing 8% live and 59% dead Streptococcus vestibularis showed negligible accumulation. Computer modelling showed this difference to be due to urease of live bacteria breaking down the urea as rapidly as it entered the plaque. Simulation of the effect of gum chewing subsequent to initiation of a Stephan curve in the latter type of plaque showed a rapid rise in pH but then a fall again on return to unstimulated conditions. This fall had not been seen in previous studies, with Streptococcus oralis, nor was it predicted by the computer modelling. Neither experimental simulation nor computer modelling suggested that chewing urea-containing gum before exposure to sucrose would have any effect on a subsequent Stephan curve. Thus chewing gum is only likely to inhibit caries when it is chewed after consumption of fermentable carbohydrate, rather than before.

  10. 剖宫产术后咀嚼口香糖对促进胃肠功能恢复的效果%Effect of chewing gum afar cesarean section on restoration of gastrointestinal function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗仕琴; 伍春兰; 杨小梅; 雷厉秀; 邓皓茹; 李豪

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨咀嚼无糖口香糖与剖宫产术后患者胃肠功能恢复的作用.方法 将在我院行子宫下段剖宫产的产妇300例,随机分为咀嚼口香糖组(观察组)和对照组,每组150例.咀嚼口香糖组于术后2 h开始咀嚼尤糖13香糖2~4片,每日4次,连续3 d;对照组予常规护理,不咀嚼口香糖;比较两组术后恢复情况.结果 咀嚼口香糖组术后的腹胀缓解时间、肠鸣音恢复、肛门排气及排便时间均少于对照组(P<0.05).结论 咀嚼无糖口香糖可促进剖宫产术后患者胃肠功能的恢复,对于剖口产产妇的产后恢复有一定的益处.%Objective To investigate the effect of chewing gum after cesarean section on restoration of gastrointestinal function.Methods 300 patients who had undergone low cesarean section in our hosplta|were randomlv divided into observation group(150 cases)and control group(150 eases).The former received sugarfree chewing gum 4 times per day(2~4 pieces each time)from 2h to 3d after cesarean section and the latter received routine nursing care. Gastrointestinal function of the two groups Was observed.Results Earlier alleviation of abdominal distension.as well as resume of bowelsound,anal exhaust and defecation was found in the observation group compared to the control group(P<0.05).Conclusions Chewing gum can promote restoration of gastrointestinal function and thus benefits rehabilitation of patients after cesarean section.

  11. 运动员咀嚼口香糖行为与竞赛焦虑的关系%The Relationship Between Athletes' Chewing Gum and Sport Competition Anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金婷; 陈曦; 施惟希; 沈锡远; 周晓林

    2012-01-01

    Sport competition anxiety is one of the primary detrimental effects on athletes’ performances. There is ample empirical evidence showing that chewing gum alleviates physiological and psychological anxious response to acute or chronic stressors. However, it is unknown whether chewing gum reduces athletes’ anxiety during competition. To clarify the relationship between chewing gum and the sport competition anxiety in athletes, four hundred and fifty-seven athletes were recruited to complete the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) and Chewing Gum and Sport Competition Anxiety Questionnaire (CGSCA). Competition anxiety was measured with 15 items from SCAT developed by Martens and Schwenkmezger (1979). The response scale for the items was 1 (rarely) to 3 (often). Six items measuring CGSCA were developed for this study. Item 1 measured the frequency of chewing gum; Item 2 measured the subjective experience of chewing gum; Item 3 measured the reason for chewing gum; Item 4 measured the frequency of competition anxiety during 11 sports scenes, ranging from 1 (never) to 4 (always); Item 5 measured whether athletes chewed gum during 11 sports scenes described in Item 4; and Item 6 measured the frequency of adopting the 16 ways to relieve anxiety, ranging from 1 (never) to 4 (always). The mean of SCAT was 18.3±3.3, which was beyond the lowest anxiety (10). Moreover, the scores of SCAT were correlated with the Item 4 of CGSCA, r = .507, p〈 .001. The results confirmed that all of athletes were anxious and stressful in sporting events. The result of Item 1 of CGSCA showed that almost half (44.4%) of the athletes chewed gum more than once a month in daily life. Further correlation analysis among the last 3 items of CGSCA demonstrated two significant correlations: one was between sporting competition anxiety (Item 4) and habits of chewing gum in sporting events (Item 5), r = .142, p .01, and the other was between

  12. Comparison of the Effect of Xylitol Gum- and Masticchewing on the Remineralization Rate of Caries-like Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Biria

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The use of sugar-free chewing gums has been reported to be highly effective in the prevention of dental caries. This study carried out to compare the effect of mastic gum and a xylitol chewing gum on remineralization of caries-like lesions.Materials and Methods: In this cross-over, single blinded, in situ study, first, artificial caries-like lesions were created in six extracted human premolars. Then axial sections were cut from each tooth to the thickness of approximately 100 microns. Fifteen adult subjects participated in the study. Lower removable appliances with rectangular boxes in the lingual surfaces were fabricated for them. One tooth section was placed in each of these boxes. The appliances were worn for two separate periods of three weeks each. The subjectschewed five sticks of gum (mastic gum and or xylitol chewing gum per day, each for 20 minutes. In the second period, the sections were replaced with new ones and the participants were instructed to change their gums. The sections were examined by polarized light microscope and the difference between the size of demineralized areas before and after intervention were recorded. Paired t-test and LSD test served for statistical analyses.Results: The decrease in demineralized surfaces in both groups was statistically significant(mastic gum: P=0.018, xylitol gum: P0.05.Conclusion: Chewing both mastic gum and xylitol chewing gum improved the remineralization of caries-like lesions but their effects were similar.

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol and plaque acid neutralisation (ID 485), maintenance of tooth mineralisation (ID 486, 562, 1181), reduction of dental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol and plaque acid neutralisation, maintenance of tooth mineralisation, reduction of dental plaque, and defence against pathogens in the middle ear. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States...... in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food that is the subject of the health claims is sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol. The Panel considers that sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol...

  14. 不同添加剂用量对面筋蛋白基口香糖品质的影响%Effects of Additives on Properties of Gluten-based Chewing Gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘舒; 刘琦; 刘佩; 侯汉学

    2011-01-01

    A low-viscosity,degradable and environmentally protective chewing gum using gluten as a carrier in the presence of additives such as xylitol,xanthan gum,food flavor,compound phosphate,modified starch,syrup and antioxidant was developed through dehydration,rolling,etc.The effects of the additives on the overall sensory score of chewing gum were investigated by one-factor-at-a-time method.A 7-level uniform design involving white sugar amount and xylitol-to-syrup mass ratio was used to optimize on the overall sensory score of chewing gum.Meanwhile,the effect of white sugar amount on texture properties of chewing gum was evaluated,and a correlation analysis was performed between the two parameters and texture properties of chewing gum.The results showed that the optimal chewing gum formula(based on flour mass) was 8% butter,24% white sugar,1.2% yeast,and auxiliary ingredients(based on gluten mass) including 0.1% xanthan gum,10% xylitol and 80% modified starch.A proofing time of 2 h was found optimal.The optimizations provided better sensory quality of chewing gum.In addition,it was found that no significant correlation existed between texture parameters such as tensile strength,harness,cohesiveness and shear force of chewing gum and white sugar amount and xylitol-to-syrup mass ratio.%以面筋蛋白为载体,通过添加木糖醇、黄原胶、食用香精、复合磷酸盐、变性淀粉、糖浆、抗氧化剂等添加剂,应用脱水、碾压等工艺制成黏度小、易分解的环保型口香糖,探讨添加各类添加剂对口香糖品质的影响,并运用单因素试验方法确定各基础添加剂的最适用量,尤其针对在干粉中添加白砂糖及在面筋蛋白洗出后添加不同比率的糖浆与木糖醇,进行均匀试验,通过感官及质构评定对口香糖进行探讨,对结果进行回归分析,确定添加剂的最佳工艺参数。结果表明:口香糖配方(以面粉质量为基础)为黄油8%、白砂糖24%、酵母1

  15. 右美沙芬咀嚼胶给药系统的制备和质量评价%Preparation and quality evaluation of Dextromethorphan chewing gum drug delivery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 谭群友; 李艺; 刘碧林; 赵春景; 张景勍

    2012-01-01

    Objective : To select the best prescription for Dextromethorphan (DM) chewing gum preparation and to evaluate its quality. Methods: The DM chewing gum preparation was prepared by tablet press method; the formulation was optimized by orthogonal experiments. Results: The best prescription based on the results of orthogonal experiments was that the proportion of gum base, aspartame, menthol and essence was 90% ,3% ,0.5% and 0.2% ,respectively. Conclusion: DM chewing gum preparation can be successfully formulated and its quality can be guaranteed.%目的:筛选出最佳的右美沙芬( Dextromethorphan,DM)咀嚼胶制剂处方,制备制剂并进行质量评价.方法:采用正交设计优化咀嚼胶制剂,压片法制备DM咀嚼胶制剂.结果:正交设计优化后的DM咀嚼胶制剂最佳处方为:胶基、阿斯巴甜、薄荷脑和香精的用量分别为90%、3%、0.5%和0.2%.结论:DM咀嚼胶制剂制备工艺合理,质量符合要求.

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sugar-free chewing gum with calcium phosphoryl oligosaccharides and maintenance of tooth mineralisation (ID 337) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to sugar-free chewing gum with calcium phosphoryl oligosaccharides and maintenance of tooth mineralisation. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received...... from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is calcium phosphoryl oligosaccharides. In the context of the references provided, the Panel assumes that the food, which is the subject of the health claim is sugar-free chewing gum...... with calcium phosphoryl oligosaccharides. From the references provided, the Panel assumes that the claim refers to an effect of sugar-free chewing gum with calcium phosphoryl oligosaccharides on maintenance of tooth mineralisation beyond the well established effect that other sugar-free chewing gums (i...

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sugar-free chewing gum with pyro- and triphosphates and reduction of calculus formation (ID 1309) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of a claim on the use of sugar-free chewing gum with pyro- and triphosphates and the reduction of calculus formation at sites which are most important for dental health (e.g. gingival margin or between teeth). On the basis of the data presented...... or directly from stakeholders. The food that is the subject of the health claim is sugar-free chewing gum with pyro- and triphosphates. The Panel considers that sugar-free chewing gum with pyro- and triphosphates is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect is “contrasts......, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the use of sugar-free chewing gum with pyro- and triphosphates and reduction of calculus formation at sites which are most important for dental health....

  18. 人参皂甙香口胶的制备及提高智力和运动功能的观察%Preparation of ginseng saponin chewing gum and observation of improving intelligence and movement function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁玉玲; 霍玉书; 顾清水; 程永根; 陈玉珍; 陈寿农

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To prepare ginseng saponin chewing gum for increasing the stability and bioavailability of ginseng saponin and observe the health-promoting effect of this chewing gum.METHODS: With ginseng saponin as the additive, the chewing gum was manufactured according to the processing techniques for commercially available product with pharmacological quality control. The effects of ginseng saponin on athletic performance and learning capacity were evaluated in 63primary school students and 63 middle school students taking the chewing gum, and its immune-enhancing effect assessed in elderly subjects.RESULTS: In test of mathematics, the cases of students in had improved marks in saponin group were more than that in control significantly( P <0.01 ) . In the elderly subjects, the immunological function, exercise capacity and equilibrium function increased obviously after taking ginseng saponin chewing gum( P < 0.01 ).CONCLUSION: Ginseng saponin in the chewing gum is stable and possesses health-promoting effect.%目的:为增加人参皂甙的稳定性和提高生物利用度,研制了人参皂甙香口胶,并观察其保健作用.方法:将人参皂甙作为添加剂,按香口胶制备工艺制备,利用相关的药学方法进行了质量检测.观察人参皂甙对63名小学生及中学生(皂甙组)的学习成绩,同时观察其对老年人免疫功能的作用.结果:皂甙组学生数学考试成绩提高的人数明显比对照组多(P<0.01);老年人免疫功能、动作及平衡力也明显提高(P<0.01)结论:人参皂甙香口胶质量稳定,具有保健作用.

  19. HPLC法同时测定口香糖中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜%Determination of aspartame and alitame in Chewing gums by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋定国; 方从容; 杨大进

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To establish the determination method of aspartame and alitame in the chewing gums. Methods: To dissolve gum with n - hexane and to extract aspartame and alitame with water, the chromatographic column was Zorbax SB - Clg and the mobile phase was methanol/water (45 +55, volume ratio), the detection wavelength was at 208 nm from the diode array detector. Results: Limit of quantification of aspartame and alitame were 12 mg/kg and 13 mg/kg, respectively, the calibration curves in the tested concentration range were linear, the correlation coefficients were better than 0. 9997, the average rate of recovery were between 98. 9% and 100. 3% , the relative standard deviations were less than 3.8%. Conclusion; The method is simple, practical and successful in the determination of aspartame and alitame in chewing gum from various brands on the market.%目的:建立口香糖中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜的检测方法.方法:采用正己烷溶解胶基和水提取阿斯巴甜和阿力甜,以Zorbax SB-C18为色谱柱和以甲醇/水(45 +55,体积比)为流动相,采用二极管阵列检测器在200 nm处进行检测.结果:阿斯巴甜和阿力甜的定量限分别为12 mg/kg和13 mg/kg,标准曲线线性良好,相关系数大于0.9997,平均回收率为在98.9%~100.3%之间,相对标准偏差小于3.8%.结论:该方法简单实用,而且适用于市场上各品牌的口香糖中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜的测定.

  20. Effects of chewing xylitol-containing gum on oral microflora%木糖醇口香糖咀嚼时间对口腔微生物群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帝泽; 陆君卓; 向臻婷; 胡巍; 郑黎薇

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究咀嚼木糖醇口香糖时间长短对口腔常见细菌的影响。方法:纳入60名年龄在18~22岁口腔健康志愿者,随机分为3组(n=20)。 A组于午餐后咀嚼木糖醇口香糖45 min;B组于午餐后咀嚼等剂量同品牌木糖醇口香糖15 min;C组(对照组)午餐后不咀嚼口香糖。于咀嚼口香糖3周后收集唾液,接种于BHI、MSB、Rogosa培养基平板,计数总菌落与主要条件致龋菌的数量,评估咀嚼口香糖时间长短对口腔微生物群落的影响。结果:咀嚼木糖醇口香糖组口腔微生物水平低于对照组(P<0.05)),但咀嚼口香糖时间长短对口腔微生物水平的影响无统计学差异。结论:咀嚼口香糖15 min即可达到良好口腔清洁效果,延长咀嚼时间并不能显著增强其对龋病相关微生物的清除作用。%AIM:To investigate the effects of chewing xylitol-containing gum on the microbial composition in oral cavity.METHODS:60 volunteers aged 18-22 years were included and randomly divided into 3 groups ( n=20):45 min chewing after lunch (group A), 15 min chewing after lunch (group B) and non-chewing control (group C) .Saliva was collected on day 21 and cultured on BHI, MSB and Rogosa agar plates for colony enumeration.RE-SULTS:Chewing xylitol-containing gum significantly decreased the level of total bacteria in saliva.However, no sig-nificant difference was observed between different duration of gum chewing.CONCLUSION:Chewing xylitol-contai-ning gum for 15 min is sufficient to suppress oral bacteria, further prolonging the duration of chewing may not necessari-ly enhance the inhibitory effect on oral microflora.

  1. Microencapsulation of saffron petal anthocyanins with cress seed gum compared with Arabic gum through freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seid-Mahdi; Mahdavi-Khazaei, Katayoun; Hemmati-Kakhki, Abbas

    2016-04-20

    In this research, encapsulation efficiency of cress seed gum (CSG) as a native hydrocolloid was compared with Arabic gum (AG) and maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent of 20 (M20), and 7 (M7)) for saffron (Crocus sativus) petal's extract by freeze drying method. Combinations of CSG-M20, AG-M20, and M7-M20 with ratios of 50:50 and M20 alone (100%) were used as wall materials. A mixture of 1:5 (based on dry matter) between core (concentrated anthocyanin extract of saffron petal) and wall materials were freeze dried and stability of encapsulated anthocyanins along with color parameters (a*, b*, L*, C, H° and TCD) of final powders were measured during 10 weeks of storage (at 35°C as an accelerated method). Total anthocyanins were determined through pH differential method every week. Four prepared formulations of encapsulated powders didn't show any significant differences (P>0.01) in terms of total anthocyanin content measured immediately after production and after 10 weeks storage. AG-M20 mixture and M20 alone showed the highest and lowest TCD, respectively. The mixture of CSG-M20 in comparison with AG-M20 and M20 had the same protecting effect (P<0.01) but showed a relatively high TCD (9.33). PMID:26876823

  2. Effect of chewing gums on gastrointestinal function of rectal cancer patients undergoing surgical operations%咀嚼口香糖对直肠癌患者手术后胃肠功能恢复的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of chewing gums on gastrointestinal function of rectal cancer patients undergoing surgical operations.Methods One hundred rectal cancer patients were randomized equally into the control group and test group:the former received routine nursing care and the latter began to chew the chewing 2-3 gums for 4-5 times a day 2-4 hours after operation until anal passage of gas or defecation.The two groups were compared in terms of first time for anal passage of gas,first time for defecation and postoperative abdominal distension.Results The time for anal passage of gas in the test group was(62.52±19.99)h, significantly shorter than that of(70.68±19.34)h in the control group(t=2.184,P<0.05).The defecation time in the test group was (84.20±14.25 ) h,also significantly shorter than that of the control group(t=-2.204,P<0.05).The incidence of abdominal distension in the test group was significantly lower than that in the control group(8.00%vs.26.00%;χ2=5.741,P<0.05).Conclusion Chewing the gums,as an adjunctive therapy,is effective for the recovery of gastrointestinal function after operations on rectal cancer.%  目的探讨咀咀嚼口香糖对直肠癌患者手术后胃肠功能恢复的作用效果。方法将100例直肠癌手术后患者分为试验组和对照组,每组各50例。对照组采用常规护理方法,试验组在采用常规护理方法基础上,在患者手术完毕回到病房后2~4 h开始咀嚼口香糖,每天4~5次,每次2~3片,直到有肛门排气或排便。观察两组患者术后首次排气时间、首次排便时间以及术后腹胀的发生情况。结果试验组患者术后至肛门排气时间为(62.52±19.99)h低于对照组的(70.68±19.34)h (t=-2.184,P<0.05);试验组患者排便时间为(84.20±14.25)h低于对照组的(91.70±19.39)h(t=-2.204,P<0.05);试验组患者腹胀发生率为8.00%低于对照组的26.00%(χ2=5.741,P<0.05

  3. 咀嚼口香糖促进消化道疾病手术后胃肠功能恢复的临床观察%Clinical observation of chewing gum in promoting the recovery of gastrointestinal function after gastrointestinal disease surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔娇娇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe clinical effects of chewing gum in promoting the recovery of gastrointestinal function after gastrointestinal disease surgery. Methods Patients of postoperative gastric cancer, postoperative live cancer and spleen resection were randomly divided into the chewing gum group and the control group, 20 cases each. Patients of chewing gum group had Xylitol three times a day from the first day after operation, and each time lasted 10 minutes until food - taking resumed. Patients in the control group took conventional method together with early functional exercise. The occurrences of dry mouth and bad breath during fast period, anus exhaust, defecate time of the two groups were compared. Results The anus bowel exhaust and defecate time of the chew gum group were obviously earlier than those of the control group. The occurrence of dry mouth and bad breath in the chewing gum group was significantly less than that of the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion Chewing gum can promote the recovery of gastrointestinal function after surgery, and can eliminate the occurrence of dry mouth and bad breath during the fast period. The method is simple and safe, and worth clinical promotion. But it should be cautious before it is applied to patients with mechanical obstruction.%目的 观察消化道疾病手术后咀嚼口香糖促进胃肠功能恢复的效果.方法将胃癌术后、肝癌术后、脾脏切除术后的患者随机分为口香糖组和对照组,每组20例,口香糖组的患者术后第1天起咀嚼木糖醇口香糖3次/d,10 min/次,直至恢复进食为止.对照组采用常规禁食加早期功能锻炼方法[1],比较两组患者肛门排气、排便的时间及禁食期间口干、口臭的发生情况.结果 口香糖组术后肛门排气、排便时间明显早于对照组,口干、口臭的发生也明显少于对照组.两组比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 咀嚼口香糖能

  4. Observation Clinical of Early Chewing Gum to Promote Gastrointestinal Functional Recovery After Esophagectomy%食管癌术后早期咀嚼口香糖促进胃肠功能恢复的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙超民

    2015-01-01

    目的:健观察食管癌患者术后早期咀嚼口香糖促进胃肠功能恢复的效果。方法选取2012年2月~2015年2月于我院治疗的食管癌手术患者46例,随机分为观察组和对照组,各23例。对照组术后给予常规护理、治疗,禁饮食、胃肠减压、空肠造瘘管或鼻肠管行肠内营养,肠功能恢复且术后1周再给予流质饮食。观察组在对照组的基础上于术后第1天起给予咀嚼口香糖4次/d,15~20 min/次,直至恢复进食为止。观察比较两组患者首次肛门排气、排便的时间、术后住院时间以及进食时间口腔、胃肠道并发症的发生情况。结果观察组术后首次肛门排气、排便的时间、术后住院时间早于对照组,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论食管癌术后早期咀嚼口香糖能促进胃肠功能恢复,简单廉价、安全且易于被患者接受。%Objective Observation the effect of early chewing gum to promote gastrointestinal function after surgery for esophageal cancer patients’ recovery. Methods Selected 46 cases with esophageal cancer surgery from February 2012 to February 2015 in our hospital, were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group, each group had 23 cases. The control group given conventional nursing care, postoperative treatment, the forbidden food, gastrointestinal decompression, failure of fistula or nasal bowel line enteral nutrition, bowel function recovery and postoperative week to give liquid diet. the observation group on the based treatment on postoperative day one to chew gum 4 times/d, 15 to 20 min/times, until eat was recovery. Compared the ifrst time the anus exhaust, defecation time, postoperative hospital stay, eating mouth, gastrointestinal complications of two groups. Results The observation group patients postoperative anal exhaust, defecation time for the ifrst time, postoperative hospitalization time earlier than the control group obviously

  5. 浸提法提取胶母糖中铅的测定方法%Atomic Absorption Method of Lead Determination in Chewing Gum by Lixiviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令艳

    2012-01-01

    通过采用硝酸过氧化氢过夜浸提改进胶母糖样品中测定铅的前处理方法,基体干扰少,三水平加标回收率在95.2%~110.3%,8次重复测定的变异系数为1.8%,与国家标准方法比较,采用t检验法分析,结果无显著性差异.%The lead determination in chewing gum was improved by ameliorating sample prepation by using HNO3-H2O2 lixiviation solution with less matrix interference.The standard recovery of determination is 95.2%~110.3% fortified at three levels.The coefficient of variation is 1.8%(n=8).Aanlyzed by using t-test method,the result obtained by the improved method has no significant difference with that of national standard method.

  6. Comparative effectiveness of chewing stick and toothbrush: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeeza S Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the increasing rate of oral diseases, the global necessity of effective and economical products for its prevention and treatment has intensified. Aim: This study was to compare the effectiveness of two oral hygiene aids: Chewing stick and manual toothbrush, for plaque removal and gingival health after one month of a randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Dental students (age 18-22 years of a public sector dental hospital were recruited. Sample size was determined using the American Dental Association guidelines. Participants were randomized into two interventional groups and provided with either chewing sticks or toothbrushes. Pre- and post-intervention examinations were executed by two blind and calibrated examiners using plaque and gingival dental indices. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, paired t-test, and two sample independent t-tests. Results: Fifty subjects were recruited with mean age 20 ± 0.66 years (80% were females and 20% were males. Except for the mean plaque scores of toothbrush users (which increased at post-intervention examination, all other scores showed reduction. In contrast to the final mean gingival scores, a significant difference (P = < 0.0001 in the final mean plaque score was observed for the two respective interventional groups. Conclusion: Chewing stick has revealed parallel and at times greater mechanical and chemical cleansing of oral tissues as compared to a toothbrush.

  7. 木糖醇无糖口香糖(糖衣型)的开发%The Development for Xylitol Chewing Gum of Sugar-free(Coating Type)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关龙

    2012-01-01

    为了使无糖口香糖大众化,对无糖口香糖原料性能进行了研究。通过2.5 L小捏合机反复调试配方,经过多次流水线试验,目前产品已进入实质性生产阶段。其口味佳,价格适中,市场前景好。该款产品符合SB/T100023-2008标准。%In order to democratize chewing gum of sugar-free,the material properties of chewing gum of sugar-free was studied.Repeat debugging by using 2.5-liter small mixer recipes and the assembly lines had been experimented.Now the product had entered a substantive stage of production.The product tasted good,affordable,and good market prospects.And it conform to SB/T100023-2008 standard.

  8. Preliminary study of chewing gum on relieving the initial orthodontic pain%咀嚼口香糖缓解正畸初始疼痛的初步研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正; 蒋亚华; 黄丽; 肖遥; 袁小平; 徐晓梅

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨咀嚼口香糖对正畸初始疼痛的缓解作用。方法:根据随机对照原则将初戴固定矫治器的患者140名分为对照组和口香糖组。应用视觉模拟评分法(visual analogue scales, VAS)、艾森克人格问卷(EPQ)评估受试者人格和疼痛强度。结果:①口香糖组正畸疼痛水平低于对照组(P<0.05)。②对照组中内向型人格患者较外向型疼痛明显,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);口香糖组中内向型人格患者较外向型疼痛明显,情绪不稳定的患者较情绪稳定的疼痛明显,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:咀嚼口香糖可以应用于正畸临床中有效地缓解正畸初始疼痛,尤其是对外向型人格和情绪稳定型人格患者效果最佳。%Objective: To study the effect of chewing gum on the relief of initial pain in patients during or-thodontic treatment. Methods: 140 patients worn arches for the first time were randomly divided into blank group and chewing gum group. Visual analogue scales (VAS) were adopted to record patients’ perception of pain at dif-ferent time points,and Eysenck personality questionnaire(EPQ) were used to evaluate personality traits of all sam-ples . Results: ①The chewing gum group reported significantly less pain than the blank group (P<0.05). ②In blank group, the pain was stronger in the introverted patients than in the extroverted patients, statistical analysis of the data showed significant differences (P<0.05); in chewing gum group, the introverted patients had a signifi-cantly higher scores of pain than the extrovered patients,and the irritable ones felt more obviously in pain than the steady-minded ones. These differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Chewing gum can be used to control pain during orthodontics treatment,especially for patients with extroverted personality and a steadymind.

  9. Chewing gum with the effect of acupoint massage on gastrointestinal function after abdominal minimally invasive operation%口腔咀嚼(口香糖)配合穴位按摩对腹部微创术后患者胃肠功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭波; 刘丽兰

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨腹部微创手术后口腔咀嚼(口香糖)配合穴位按摩对促进患者胃肠功能恢复的临床价值。方法:将我科2012年10月~2014年8月腹部微创手术患者128例随机等分为试验组和对照组,对照组采用常规术后护理并结合早期功能锻炼,试验组在对照组基础上术后予口香糖咀嚼配合穴位按摩,观察比较两组患者胃肠功能恢复情况。结果:试验组患者术后首次肛门排气时间和首次排便时间均少于对照组(P<0.05);试验组患者出现腹胀及口腔溃疡等不适的例数明显少于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:腹部微创手术患者口腔咀嚼配合穴位按摩可促进胃肠功能恢复。%Objective:To explore the minimally invasive abdominal operation after chewing the gum combined with point massage to promote the recovery of gastrointestinal function in patients with clinical value. Methods:From October 2012 to August 2014,surgical abdominal minimally invasive surgery of 128 patients were randomly divided into experimental group and control group,the control group with routine postoperative nursing combined with early functional exercise,the experimental group on the basis of the control group were treated by chewing gum with acupoint massage. Observed and compared two groups of intestinal function recovery. Results:In the experimental group first exhaust time first defecation time were all shorter than the control group(P<0. 05). Ex-perimental group patients appear abdominal distension and oral ulcer. The number of cases of significant discomfort less than the control group,the difference was statistically significant (P<0. 05);Conclusion:The patients with abdominal minimally invasive surgery chewing gum with acupoint massage can pro-mote the recovery of gastrointestinal function.

  10. Randomized controlled study on the role of chewing gum in bowel function recovery for patients with leiomyoma after surgery%子宫肌瘤患者术后咀嚼口香糖促进胃肠功能恢复的随机对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩智; 赵红利; 刘春容; 金琼

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effectiveness of chewing gum in enhancing bowel recovery for patients with leiomyoma after surgery. Methods: 300 patients underwent elective surgery were prospectively enrolled from August to December 2010, and they were randomly assigned into two groups. The patients in experimental group (n=150) were given gum for chewing postoperatively, while nothing was offered to control group (n=150). The outcomes were blindly assessed and compared between the two groups, including postoperative bowel function recovery and complications. Results: 291 patients were assessed in experimental group (n=145) and control group (n=146). All the patients tolerated chewing gum well. The postoperative intestinal sounds first heard was significantly shorter in experimental group as compared to control group (P<0.01), as well as passage of first flatus, first bowel movement and length of postoperative hospital stay. Moreover, the incidence of postoperative ileus, as well as nausea and abdominal distension, was significantly lower in experimental group as compared to control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Chewing gum following surgery for patients with leiomyoma can enhance the postoperative bowel function recovery, relieve gastrointestinal discomfort, shorten the hospital stay, and finally improve the postoperative quality of life.%目的:探讨子宫肌瘤患者术后咀嚼口香糖促进胃肠功能恢复的有效性.方法:前瞻性纳入2010年8~12月行择期手术的子宫肌瘤患者300例,并随机分为实验组(n=150)和对照组(n=150).实验组术后咀嚼口香糖,对照组术后不咀嚼口香糖.盲法采集术后胃肠功能恢复情况和胃肠道并发症指标,并比较两组间的差异.结果:本研究实际纳入病例291例,实验组145例,对照组146例.所有纳入患者均能良好耐受术后咀嚼口香糖.实验组术后首次闻及肠鸣音时间、首次排气时间、首次排便时间和术后住院时间明显短于对照组(P<0

  11. Observation of Curative Effect of Chewing Gum on the Recovery of Gastrointestinal Function af-ter Laparotomy for Benign Gynecologic Surgery%咀嚼口香糖对妇科良性疾病经腹手术术后胃肠功能恢复的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威; 刘念; 张士泰; 李博; 白莹; 欧阳玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective]To investigate the effect of chewing gum on the recovery of gastrointestinal function after laparotomy for benign gynecologic surgery .[Methods]A study was conducted from March 1 ,2014 ,to October 31 ,2014 .144 patients scheduled to undergo laparotomy were randomly assigned to receive either rou‐tine care after surgery or routine care after surgery along with chewing gum .Patients of the chewing gum group ,the observation group ,chewed gum once every 6 hours after the operation ;each chewing session lasted 20 minutes .Meanwhile ,other treatment and care are the same as the treatment of patients in the control group .Time to first bowel motion and flatus ,the length of hospital stay and bowel‐related complications were analyzed between two groups .[Results] The mean time until bowel movement (18 .4 ± 5 .9 vs .29 .5 ± 6 .8) , mean time until flatus (38 5. ± 9 2. vs .47 1. ± 9 7.) ,mean time until defecation (60 1. ± 10 4. vs 8.0 5. ± 19 7. ) ,and mean length of hospital stay (4 6. ± 0 8. vs 5. 7. ± 1 4.)were all significantly reduced in patients that chewed gum compared with control patients (P0 0.5) .[Conclusion]Chewing gum decreased the time it took for patients to recover gastrointestinal function ,shortened the duration of hospitalization .The method is also simple and safe .It can be used as a synthetic therapy for a gastrointestinal function recovery program after laparotomy for benign gynecologic surgery .%【目的】探讨咀嚼口香糖对妇科良性疾病经腹手术术后胃肠功能恢复的疗效。【方法】选取妇科良性疾病经腹手术的患者144例,随机将其分为咀嚼口香糖组(观察组)和对照组(术后仅常规护理,不咀嚼口香糖)。观察组患者咀嚼口香糖间隔6 h一次,每次20 m in ,至肛门排气为止,其他术后治疗及护理与对照组相同。比较两组患者术后肠鸣音恢复时间、首次排气、排便时间、恶心、呕吐,肠梗阻等胃肠功能

  12. Minimally Invasive Operation Skills for Chewing Gum-Like Urinary Matrix Calculi%泌尿系口香糖样软结石微创手术技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春利; 张晶; 杨文增; 古德强; 张彦桥; 李昱

    2011-01-01

    Objective To summarize the minimally invasive operation skills of chewing gum - like urinary matrix calculi. Methods Data of 11 patients ( 5 males and 6 females ) with chewing gum - like urinary matrix calculi admitted to our hospital from Jan 2005 to May 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Of these patients , 10 were with urinary infections ( all identified by urine culture as Escherichia Coli ) , 6 were with diabetes. All the patients underwent minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy ( MPCNL ) . Results ALL the operations were successfully performed without open operation transfer. Operation time ranged from 45 to 120 minutes, with an average of ( 64.3 ± 6.9 ) minutes. Severe complications were not noted during and after the operation. No relapse cases were observed during the 6 months of follow - up. Conclusion MPCNL is safe and effective in treatment of chewing gum - like matrix calculi.%目的 总结微创手术治疗泌尿系口香糖样软结石的手术技巧.方法 回顾性分析2005年1月-2011年4月我院收治的泌尿系口香糖样软结石患者11例,其中男5例,女6例,10例患有泌尿系感染,尿培养均为大肠埃希菌,6例患有糖尿病.11例患者均采用经皮肾镜取石术(PCNL)微创治疗.结果 11例患者均一期完成手术,无改开放手术,手术时间为45~120 min,平均(64.3±6.9)min,术中术后均无明显并发症发生,随访6个月无结石复发者.结论 微创手术治疗泌尿系口香糖样软结石安全有效.

  13. 直肠癌术后咀嚼口香糖促进胃肠康复的随机对照研究%A randomized controlled trial of chewing gum to promote postoperative bowel recovery for patients with rectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少渊; 侯英奎; 董世平; 刘别影; 张凯

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of chewing gum in promoting postoperative bowel recovery for patients with rectal cancer. Methods Prospectively enrolled 160 patients underwent elective rectal cancer from January 2010 to July 2010, were randomly assigned into two groups. The patients in experimental group (ra =80) were given gum for chewing postoper-atively, while nothing was offered to control group (n - 80). The outcomes were blindly assessed and compared between two groups, including postoperative bowel function recovery situation and complications. Results 155 patients underwent rectal cancer were enrolled in experimental group ( n - 78) and control group ( n = 77 ). The baselines characteristics of two groups were statistically similar. All the patients tolerated chewing gum well. The postoperative intestinal sounds first heard was significantly shorter in experimental group as compared to control group (P = 0. 036) , as well as passage of first flatus, first bowel movement and length of postoperative hospital stay(P 0. 05 ). Conclusion Chewing gum for patients with rectal cancer could enhance the postoperative bowel function recovery, relieve gastrointestinal discomfort, shorten the hospital stay, and finally improve the postoperative quality of life.%目的 探讨直肠癌术后咀嚼口香糖促进胃肠功能恢复的有效性.方法 前瞻性纳入2010年1~7月行择期直肠癌手术的患者160例,并随机分为实验组(n=80)和对照组(n=80).实验组术后咀嚼口香糖,对照组术后不咀嚼口香糖.盲法采集术后胃肠功能恢复情况和胃肠道并发症指标,并比较两组间的差异.结果 本研究实际纳入患者155例,实验组78例,对照组77例,两组患者基线情况一致.所有纳入患者均能良好耐受术后咀嚼口香糖.实验组术后首次闻及肠鸣音时间(P =0.036),首次排气时间、首次排便时间和术后住院时间明显短于对照组(P<0.001).实验组术后腹胀和术后肠梗

  14. Development of high xylitol and biodegradable chewing gum with cocoa flavor%可可味高木糖醇生物降解口香糖的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童琦; 刘晔; 余筱洁; 张益群; 张有做; 周存山

    2012-01-01

    以小麦面筋替代胶基,高木糖醇和可可风味为其特征,采用正交设计优化和品质特性分析,研制可生物降解的绿色环保可可味高木糖醇口香糖。结果表明,影响口香糖风味及品质的主次因素顺序:β-环糊精〉香精〉木糖醇〉可可粉〉小麦面筋;在条件参数:小麦面筋18g、可可粉3g、香精120μL、β-环糊精1.6g、木糖醇10g时,口香糖适口性较好,品质特性佳。%High xylitol and biodegradable chewing gum with cocoa flavor,which was no-pollution to the environment, was systematically prepared with orthogonal design and quality analysis by the wheat gluten in stead of gum base,with xylitol and cocoa flavor at the same time. The results of the experiment showed that beta- cyclodextrin was the main factor that influenced the taste and quality of the gum,followed by essence,xylitol, cocoa,and wheat gluten and when their process parameters were wheat gluten 18g,xylitol 10g,cocoa 3g, beta-cyclodextrin 1.6g, and essence 120μL correspondingly,the flavor and the quality of the gum was preferably.

  15. Comparative Study on Rheology of Welan Gum and Xanthan Gum%韦兰胶与黄原胶流变性比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉武科; 赵双枝; 严希海; 徐桂英

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,rheology (including viscoelasticity,temperature stability,and salt tolerance) of we-lan gum and xanthan gum was compared. The results showed that,compared with xanthan gum, welan gum had better viscoelasticity at same concentration,more stability at low temperature,and better salt tolerance.%对韦兰胶和黄原胶的流变性(包括粘弹性、温度稳定性和耐盐性)进行了比较研究.结果表明,与黄原胶相比,韦兰胶在相同浓度下具有更好的粘弹性、在低温下更稳定、具有较好的耐盐性.

  16. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiyuki Hirano; Minoru Onozuka

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We ...

  17. Difficulty Chewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or pain medications may cause this. Gum disease, tooth decay, or tooth loss. These are possible long-term ... For example, radiation therapy may increase risk of tooth decay or gum disease. A fluoride gel or mouth ...

  18. Areca nut chewing and dependency syndrome: Is the dependence comparable to smoking? a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Kashif

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Areca nut is the seed of fruit oriental palm known as Areca catechu. Many adverse effects of nut chewing have been well documented in the medical literature. As these nuts are mixed with some other substances like tobacco and flavouring agents, it has been hypothesized that it might also cause some dependency symptoms among its users. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate dependency syndrome among areca nut users with and without tobacco additives and compare it with dependency associated with cigarette smoking among the male Pakistani population. Methods This was an observational cross sectional study carried out on healthy individuals, who were users of any one of the three products (areca nut only, areca nut with tobacco additives, cigarette smokers. Participants were selected by convenience sampling of people coming to hospital to seek a free oral check up. Information was collected about the socio-demographic profile, pattern of use and symptoms of dependency using the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate association between socio-demographic profile, pattern of substance use and dependency syndrome. Results We carried out final analysis on 851 individuals, of which 36.8% (n = 314 were areca nut users, 28.4% (n = 242 were the chewers of areca with tobacco additives and 34.7% (n = 295 were regular cigarette smokers. Multivariate analyses showed that individuals using areca nut with tobacco additives were significantly more likely to have dependency syndrome (OR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.39-3.40 while cigarette smokers were eight times more likely to have dependency syndrome as compared to areca nut only users. Conclusions Areca nut use with and without tobacco additives was significantly associated with dependency syndrome. In comparison to exclusive areca nut users, the smokers were eight times more likely to develop dependence while areca nut

  19. 咀嚼口香糖对胃切除术后影响胃肠功能恢复的探讨%Influence of chewing gum on recovery of gastrointestinal function after gastric resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈香; 孙丹莉

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨咀嚼口香糖对于胃切除术后患者胃肠功能恢复的影响.方法 选取我院2011年10月~2012年2月行胃切除术患者80例,随机分为对照组与实验组各40例;对照组患者术后采用禁食、早期活动及功能锻炼等常规护理措施;实验组患者在对照组护理基础上,术后第一天起每天咀嚼口香糖3次,每次15min;比较两组患者术后排气、排便、肠鸣音恢复、住院时间以及口干口臭、口腔溃疡、腹胀以及肠梗阻等并发症发生率.结果 实验组患者术后排气、排便、肠鸣音恢复及住院时间较对照组均明显缩短,组间比较差异显著(P<0.05);同时实验组患者术后口干口臭、口腔溃疡、腹胀以及肠梗阻等并发症发生率较对照组均明显降低,组间比较差异显著(P<0.05).结论 咀嚼口香糖能够有效促进胃切除术后患者胃肠功能恢复,减少术后并发症发生,使用方便、安全、经济,具有临床推广使用价值.%Objective To investigate the effect of chewing gum on reconvery of gastrointestinal function after gastric resection. Methods 80 cases were randomly divided into control group and experimental group (n = 40 cases). The control group was treated with routine care measures including fasting, early mobilization and functional training. The experimental group was treated daily chewing gum three times, each time 15min on the basis of routine care measures. The postoperative exhaust, defecation, restoration of bowel sounds, length of stay and dry mouth, bad breath, mouth ulcers, abdominal distension and intestinal obstruction complication rate were observed. Results The time of exhaust, bowel movements, bowel sounds, recovery and hospital stay of the experimental group patients were significantly short than that of the control (P<0. 05). There were dry mouth, bad breath and mouth ulcers in the experiment group. The incidence of complications such as abdominal distension and

  20. 咀嚼口香糖对妇科恶性肿瘤术后肠功能恢复的影响研究%Study on the effect of chewing gum on the intestinal function recovery of postoperative gynecological ma-lignant tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄光葵; 佘远萍; 路启芳; 谢学英

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察妇科恶性肿瘤术后患者咀嚼口香糖对胃肠道恢复的作用,为今后临床相关手术后的护理提供参考对策。方法:选取86例妇科恶性肿瘤分期术后患者作为研究组,在术后给予常规护理+咀嚼口香糖;另选取收治的92例妇科恶性肿瘤分期术后患者为对照组,该组患者均接受常规护理。结果:研究组患者在出现饥饿感、肛门排气、肠蠕动恢复、排便时间以及住院时间上相比较,差异有统计学意义(P <0.001);研究组并发症(恶心、肠梗阻、呕吐以及腹胀)总发生率为5.81%,与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P <0.001)。两组患者在术后2 d 的恶心呕吐程度相比,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论:妇科恶性肿瘤术后指导患者咀嚼口香糖有利于促进术后早期肠道功能的恢复,有效降低手术并发症,值得在今后临床相关手术后应用。%Objective To observe the effect of chewing gum on the recovery of gastrointestinal tract in patients with gynecologic malignant tumor,and to provide a reference for the clinical nursing.Method 86 patients with gynecological malignant tumor staging were selected as the research group,after the surgery to give conventional care +chewing gum;92 cases of gynecological malignant tumor staging patients were selected as the control group,the control group received conventional care.Results The differences in the event of hunger,flatus,bowel movement,defecation time and hospitalization time of patients in two groups were compared,the difference was statistically significant (P 0.05).Conclusion Chewing gum is beneficial to promote the recovery of intestinal func-tion after surgery,and it is worthy of clinical application.

  1. Fluoride kinetics in saliva after the use of a fluoride-containing chewing gum Cinética de flúor na saliva após o uso de uma goma de mascar fluoretada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francisca Thereza Borro Bijella

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a relationship between the use of fluoride, the reduction of dental caries and the increase of dental fluorosis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the fluoride kinetics in saliva after using the HappydentTM chewing gum, which contains 3.38 mg of fluoride as monofluorophosphate. Fifteen 7-9-year-old volunteers were instructed to chew the gum TridentTM (control and HappydentTM on different days. Total saliva was collected for 3 minutes, at 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 and 45 minutes after starting chewing. Salivary fluoride was analyzed with a fluoride-specific electrode (Orion 96-09 after acid hydrolysis. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and by Tukey’s post hoc test (p Há uma relação entre o uso de fluoretos, a redução na cárie e o aumento da fluorose dentária. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a cinética do flúor na saliva após o uso da goma de mascar Happydent®, que contém 3,38 mg de flúor como monofluorfosfato. A saliva foi coletada de 15 voluntários entre 7 e 9 anos de idade, durante 3 minutos nos intervalos de 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 e 45 minutos. Inicialmente, a coleta foi realizada com o Trident® (controle e, após 24 h, a coleta foi repetida com a goma de mascar Happydent®. O flúor foi analisado com um eletrodo íon-específico (Orion 96-09 após a realização da hidrólise ácida. Os dados foram analisados através da análise de variância a dois critérios e pelo teste de Tukey (p < 0,05. A quantidade média ± dp (mg de flúor liberado na saliva foi 0,276 ± 0,126 e 0,024 ± 0,014 para o Happydent® e o Trident®, respectivamente. A quantidade de flúor nas amostras de saliva após o uso do Happydent® foi significativamente maior do que após o uso do Trident® em todos os tempos experimentais, com exceção dos períodos de 30 e 45 minutos. A alta quantidade de flúor na saliva após o uso do Happydent® poderia ser eficiente na prevenção da cárie dentária, o que deveria ser avaliado

  2. Comparative evaluation of gum arabic coating and vacuum packaging on chilled storage characteristics of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsi, P K; Nayak, Natasha; Sarkar, P C; Sahu, Upali; Ninan, George; Ravishankar, C N

    2016-04-01

    The effect of edible coating using gum arabic on biochemical, microbiological, textural and sensory characteristics of fresh gutted mackerel stored at 4 °C was investigated. The results were further compared against the samples packed under vacuum (VP) and conventional polyethylene pouches (CP). Coating with gum arabic (GC) markedly retarded lipid oxidation process in gutted mackerel compared to VP and CP samples. Moreover, VP and CP samples showed higher degree of textural deterioration compared to GC samples. Microbiologically, the shelf life of chilled gutted Indian mackerel was estimated to be 7-8, 17 and 19-20 days for CP, GC and VP samples, respectively. The sensory analysis scores confirmed the efficacy of gum coating in retarding the spoilage process during chilled storage. The current study identifies the potential of edible coating with gum arabic to improve the overall quality of Indian mackerel and extend its storage life during chilled storage. PMID:27413215

  3. Comparative evaluation of honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2%) and combination of xylitol and chlorhexidine mouthwash (0.2%) on the clinical level of dental plaque: A 30 days randomized control trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Jain; Dara John Bhaskar; Devanand Gupta; Chandan Agali; Vipul Gupta; Rajendra Kumar Gupta; Priyanka Yadav; Akash B Lavate; Mudita Chaturvedi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of honey, chlorhexidine mouthwash and combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: Ninety healthy dental students, both male and female, aged between 21 to 25 years participated in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash group. The d...

  4. Effect of the Maltitol-Gums on plaque pH%咀嚼麦芽糖醇口香糖对牙菌斑原位pH值的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀娟; 钟滨; 徐华兴; 易敏; 王小平

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of Maltitol-Gums on Plaque pH.Methods Thirty 13~15 years old children with DMFS > 4 were divided into three groups randomly: maltitol chewing gums group (group A), xylitol chewing gum group (group B) and blank gum base group (group C). The dental plaque pH was measured in situ by Beetrode microelectrode methods.Results The pH responses in the plaque after chewing three different gums showed a rising response, 20 min at highest. After chewing gum for 4w, the pH was a significant different compared with before chewing gum (P<0.05). After chewing gum for 4w, the differences of △pH among different chewing gum were significant differences.Conclusion Maltitol-Gums can lead to the same significant effect on plaque pH as Xylitol-Gums.%目的 探讨咀嚼麦芽糖醇口香糖后牙菌斑原位pH 值的变化趋势.方法 将30名13~15岁龋易感儿童随机分为3组,即麦芽糖醇口香糖组(A组)、木糖醇口香糖组(B组)、胶母口香糖组(C组).通过微电极原位接触法对牙菌斑pH值进行检测,观察咀嚼口香糖4W前后菌斑pH值的变化趋势.结果 三组受试者分别在咀嚼口香糖后,菌斑pH值于各个时间点均呈上升趋势,约20min达到最高值,随后仍保持高于基线值水平.咀嚼口香糖4周后,三组各时间点牙菌斑pH值均上升,与咀嚼前比较具有显著性差异(P<0.05);三组间在各个时间点pH值上升幅度(△pH)比较具有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 麦芽糖醇口香糖对牙菌斑pH值的作用同木糖醇口香糖一样较为明显.

  5. Chewing-stick practices using plants with anti-streptococcal activity in a Ugandan rural community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Okot Odongo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high dental disease burden in developing countries has created a need to explore and develop cheap and accessible methods of dental disease prevention. Traditional toothbrushes (chewing-sticks prepared from specific plants have been used for dental hygiene for generations. When properly used, chewing sticks may be as effective as synthetic toothbrushes. This study set out to describe traditional chewing-stick practices in a Ugandan rural community, and evaluate the antibacterial activity of two most commonly used plants. Methods: Interviews were done to identify chewing-stick plants and obtain socio-cultural information relating to the practice in two villages in rural Uganda. Field walks were done to pick and voucher the plants, for taxonomical identification and storage. For the two most reported plants, aqueous extracts were prepared and tested for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans using the agar-well diffusion method. Results: Of the 21 key informants interviewed, all were using or had used chewing sticks in the past. A total of eight plants were identified as sources of chewing sticks, with Rhus vulgaris and Lantana trifolia most commonly mentioned. Chewing sticks were preferred over synthetic tooth brushes because they were less likely to traumatize the gums. Their use has been limited of recent due to scarcity of some plants. Rhus vulgaris and Lantana trifolia aqueous extracts showed antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans with mean diameters of inhibition of 24.33 ± 0.58 mm and 14.17 ± 0.29 mm on Blood agar respectively, compared to benzyl penicillin control 30.67 ± 0.29 mm. Conclusions: Rhus vulgaris and Lantana trifolia are the most common sources of chewing sticks for cleaning teeth in this community. The plants contain compounds that are active against Streptococcus mutans. These plants merit further studies as they are possible sources of cheap dental health care for the rural poor.

  6. Chewing Gum 口香糖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡欣

    2005-01-01

    我们都知道口香糖,它是一种甜甜的东西,人们买来只是咀嚼而并不是要吞下去。历史告诉我们,曾经和口香糖关系最为密切的人要数垦西哥独裁者安东尼奥·洛比兹·德·桑塔·安纳将军。

  7. Effect of early gum chewing on gastrointestinal recovery after gastrointestinal surgery:a systematic review%胃肠术后早期咀嚼口香糖促进胃肠道功能恢复效果的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周飞燕; 许勤; 陈丽; 朱姝芹; 刘林

    2012-01-01

    目的 系统评价胃肠术后早期咀嚼口香糖对促进胃肠道功能恢复的有效性.方法 计算机检索Cochrane图书馆、PubMed、EMbase、EBSCO、Ovid、中国科技期刊数据库(VIP)、中国学术期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、万方科技期刊全文数据库,纳入比较胃肠术后早期咀嚼口香糖与其他治疗方式对胃肠道功能恢复的随机对照试验,在对纳入研究的偏倚风险进行评价后,采用RevMan 4.3.2软件进行meta分析.结果 共纳入12个随机对照试验,共749例患者.meta分析结果显示:胃肠术后早期咀嚼口香糖可以缩短术后首次肛门排气时间[ WMD=-16.22,95%CI(-21.90,-10.55),P<0.00001],缩短术后首次闻及肠鸣音的时间[ WMD=-22.82,95%CI(-38.29,-7.35),P=0.004],促进缩短术后首次肛门排便时间[WMD=-20.52,95%CI(-32.00,-9.04),P=0.0005],缩短住院时间[WMD=-36.84,95%CI(-59.26,-14.41),P=0.001].结论 胃肠术后早期咀嚼口香糖可以促进胃肠道术后胃肠功能恢复,缩短患者住院时间.但今后需高质量的大样本随机双盲实验增加论证强度.%Objective To systematically review the effect of early gum chewing on the recovery of gastrointestinal functioning after gastrointestinal surgery. Methods The randomised controlled trials (RCT)on early gum chewing after gastrointestinal surgery were collected using the databases of Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase, EBSGO, Ovid, Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Databases (VIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and WanFang Data. After selection and critical appraisal of the retrieved studied,a quantitative systemic review(Meta-analysis)was conducted by RevMan 4.3.2 software. Results Twelve RCTs with 749 patients were included. Meta-analysis revealed that early gum chewing after gastrointestinal surgery could significantly shorten the time to first flatus [WND=-16.22,95%CI(-21.90,-10.55),P<0.00001],time to first bowel motion [WMD=-22.82,95%CI(-38.29, -7.35),P=0

  8. A Comparative Study Between Modified Starch and Xanthan Gum Thickeners in Post-Stroke Oropharyngeal Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardell, N; Rofes, L; Arreola, V; Speyer, R; Clavé, P

    2016-04-01

    Thickeners are used in post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) as a compensatory therapeutic strategy against aspirations. To compare the therapeutic effects of modified starch (MS) and xanthan gum (XG) thickeners on swallow safety and efficacy in chronic post-stroke OD patients using clinical and videofluoroscopic (VFS) assessment. Patients were studied by clinical assessment (volume-viscosity swallow test, V-VST) and VFS using 3 volumes (5, 10, 20 mL) and 3 viscosities (liquid, nectar and spoon thick), comparing MS and XG. We studied 122 patients (46MS, 76XG). (A) V-VST showed that both thickeners similarly improved safety of swallow. Prevalence of safe swallowing significantly increased with enhanced viscosity (P < 0.001 vs liquid), MS: 47.83 % at liquid, 84.93 % at nectar and 92.96 % at spoon thick; XG: 55.31 % at liquid, 77.78 % at nectar and 97.84 % at spoon thick. Patients on MS reported higher prevalence of pharyngeal residue at spoon-thick viscosities. (B) VFS: increasing bolus viscosity with either thickener increased prevalence of safe swallows (P < 0.001 vs liquid), MS: 30.25 % liquid, 61.07 % nectar and 92.64 % spoon thick; XG: 29.12 % liquid, 71.30 % nectar and 89.91 % spoon thick. Penetration-aspiration scale score was significantly reduced with increased viscosity with both thickeners. MS increased oral and pharyngeal residues at nectar and spoon-thick viscosities but XG did not. Timing of airway protection mechanisms and bolus velocity were not affected by either thickener. Increasing bolus viscosity with MS and XG thickeners strongly and similarly improved safety of swallow in chronic post-stroke OD by a compensatory mechanism; in contrast only MS thickeners increased oropharyngeal residue. PMID:26607158

  9. 新型右美沙芬咀嚼胶给药系统体外释放的评价方法%Study on the evaluation in vitro release of dextromethorphan of the new chewing gum medicine drug delivery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 谭群友; 张梨; 李艺; 赵春景; 张景勍

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究右美沙芬咀嚼胶新型给药系统体外释放行为.方法:建立了新型右美沙芬咀嚼胶给药系统中药物释放的测定法;运用溶出仪法、冲压法和夹剪法进行体外释放实验,采用拟合因子法比较各评价方法.结果:3种方法测得的释放行为差异无显著性,优选溶出仪法进行测定.结论:溶出仪法、冲压法和夹剪法均可用于测定咀嚼胶新型给药系统的体外释放,优选溶出仪法.%OBJECTIVE To study in vitro drug release behavior of dextromethorphan chewing gum medicine drug delivery system. METHODS To establish the assay method of dextromethorphan in the chewing gum medicine drug delivery system.The in vitro release of DH-CGP was determined. Fitting factors method was adopted for evaluating the effects of three different release methods. RESULTS The release characters of DH-CGP were not influenced by three different release methods significantly, but the way of the release equipment is more operability than the other way. CONCLUSION The release way of the release equipment could preferably simulate the in vitro situation in three preparations, and with a good reproducibility.

  10. 咀嚼口香糖促进结直肠疾病术后肠道功能恢复的Meta分析%Effect of chewing gum on the promotion of intestinal function recovery after colorectal surgery: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王枭杰; 池畔

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the safety and efficacy of chewing gum in promoting intestinal function recovery after colorectal surgery.Methods A thorough search of PubMed,Cochrane Library,CNKI,CBM and Wanfang data was performed.Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about efficacy and safety of chewing gum in promoting intestinal function recovery after colorectal surgery were collected and meta-analysis was carried out with RevMan 5.0 software.Results Thirteen RCTs including 993 patients were enrolled in this study with 499 patients in the chewing gum group and 494 patients in control group.Meta-analysis revealed that chewing gum could significantly reduce the time to first passage of flatus (MD=-11.66 h,95%CI:-17.26-6.07,P<0.05),the time to the first defecation (MD=-32.31 h,95%CI:-56.89-7.73,P<0.05),and postoperative hospital stay(MD=-1.10 d,95%CI:-1.93--0.27,P<0.05) after colorectal surgery.Patients in chewing gum group also experienced less discomfort from bowel distension (OR=0.52,95%CI:0.35-0.80,P<0.05) due to postoperative paralytic ileus.No significant difference in the incidence of nausea and vomiting was found.Conclusions The addition of chewing gum,a well tolerated intervention,to standard treatment may facilitate intestinal recovery and contribute to a shorter hospital stay following colorectal surgery.%目的 系统评价咀嚼口香糖对促进结直肠疾病术后肠道功能恢复的有效性及安全性.方法 检索PubMed、Cochrane Library、CNKI、CBM、万方等电子数据库上发表的评价咀嚼口香糖对结直肠疾病术后肠道功能恢复作用的随机对照研究(RCT),采用RevMan 5.0软件进行统计分析.结果 13篇RCT文献共993例病例纳入研究,其中试验组(术后咀嚼口香糖5~45 min/次,3~6次/d)499例,对照组(术后禁食或饮少量清流质)494例.Meta分析结果显示,与对照组比较,咀嚼口香糖能使结直肠术后首次肠道排气时间(MD=-1 1.66 h,95%CI:-17.26~-6.07,P<0.05)

  11. Gum biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - gingiva (gums) ... used to close the opening created for the biopsy. ... to eat for a few hours before the biopsy. ... Risks for this procedure include: Bleeding from the biopsy site Infection of the gums Soreness

  12. Xylitol gum and maternal transmission of mutans streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Y; Shinga-Ishihara, C; Kaji, M; Moriya, K; Murakami-Yamanaka, K; Takimura, M

    2010-01-01

    An important caries prevention strategy for children includes measures to interfere with transmission of mutans streptococci (MS). This study confirmed the effectiveness of maternal early exposure to xylitol chewing gum on mother-child transmission of MS. After screening, 107 pregnant women with high salivary MS were randomized into two groups: xylitol gum (Xylitol; n = 56) and no gum (Control; n = 51) groups. Maternal chewing started at the sixth month of pregnancy and terminated 13 months later in the Xylitol group. Outcome measures were the presence of MS in saliva or plaque of the children until age 24 months. The Xylitol-group children were significantly less likely to show MS colonization than Control-group children aged 9-24 months. The Control-group children acquired MS 8.8 months earlier than those in the Xylitol group, suggesting that maternal xylitol gum chewing in Japan shows beneficial effects similar to those demonstrated in Nordic countries. PMID:19948944

  13. Addiction to the nicotine gum in never smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etter Jean-François

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addiction to nicotine gum has never been described in never smokers or in never users of tobacco. Methods Internet questionnaire in 2004–2006 in a self-selected sample of 434 daily users of nicotine gum. To assess dependence on nicotine gum, we used modified versions of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and the Cigarette Dependence Scale. Results Five never smokers used the nicotine gum daily. They had been using the nicotine gum for longer than the 429 ever smokers (median = 6 years vs 0.8 years, p = 0.004, and they had higher NDSS-gum Tolerance scores (median = 0.73 vs = -1.0, p = 0.03, a difference of 1.5 standard deviation units. Two never smokers had never used smokeless tobacco, both answered "extremely true" to: "I use nicotine gums because I am addicted to them", both "fully agreed" with: "after a few hours without chewing a nicotine gum, I feel an irresistible urge to chew one" and: "I am a prisoner of nicotine gum". Conclusion This is to our knowledge the first report of addiction to nicotine gum in never users of tobacco. However, this phenomenon is rare, and although the long-term effect of nicotine gum is unknown, this product is significantly less harmful than tobacco.

  14. Comparative study of gum arabic and PVP as stabilizing agents for synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Andressa A.; Leal, Jessica; Geraldes, Adriana N.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: andressa_alvess@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Use Colloidal metallic nanoparticles such as gold nanoparticles have received a great attention, due in part to their specific properties and potential applications. Control of size and uniformity of nanoparticles is important to prevent aggregation. High-molecular-weight polymers were used as stabilizer agents. Natural polymers, such as gum Arabic, are used as stabilizer because of capping nanoparticles behavior and present advantages such as solubility, non- toxicity and its compatibility for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Previous studies showed that the hydrophilic group of Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) caused repulsion on gold nanoparticles surface because steric interactions with polymer, for this reason this kind of polymers could be used as stabilizer agent. The aim of this work is to study the synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticles with PVP and gum Arabic using gamma radiation. The results obtained by samples analysis using UV-Visible showed that the gamma irradiation doses influenced the nanoparticles formation by PVP but that is not the case with the GA, because for smaller quantity of Arabic gum in different doses produced and stabilized nanoparticles. The samples were observed for 20 days and showed stability. We have obtained preliminary results showed that the use of radiation is applicable to the formation of gold nanoparticles. (author)

  15. Comparative study of gum arabic and PVP as stabilizing agents for synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use Colloidal metallic nanoparticles such as gold nanoparticles have received a great attention, due in part to their specific properties and potential applications. Control of size and uniformity of nanoparticles is important to prevent aggregation. High-molecular-weight polymers were used as stabilizer agents. Natural polymers, such as gum Arabic, are used as stabilizer because of capping nanoparticles behavior and present advantages such as solubility, non- toxicity and its compatibility for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Previous studies showed that the hydrophilic group of Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) caused repulsion on gold nanoparticles surface because steric interactions with polymer, for this reason this kind of polymers could be used as stabilizer agent. The aim of this work is to study the synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticles with PVP and gum Arabic using gamma radiation. The results obtained by samples analysis using UV-Visible showed that the gamma irradiation doses influenced the nanoparticles formation by PVP but that is not the case with the GA, because for smaller quantity of Arabic gum in different doses produced and stabilized nanoparticles. The samples were observed for 20 days and showed stability. We have obtained preliminary results showed that the use of radiation is applicable to the formation of gold nanoparticles. (author)

  16. Tragacanth gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Gavlighi, Hassan Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Tragacanth gum is a plant derived hydrocolloid that has a long history of use in food, pharma, and cosmetics. The gum is mainly produced in the Middle East and permitted for food use in the US and Europe. Tragacanth gum consists of complex, heterogeneous polysaccharides, which contain different...... highly substituted pectin-like structural elements. Enzymatically produced low molecular- weight fractions of tragacanth gum exhibit potential prebiotic activity by promoting growth in vitro of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis strains. These findings may lead to new uses of this gum for production...

  17. Want to block earworms from conscious awareness?B(u)y gum!

    OpenAIRE

    Beaman, C. Philip; Powell, Kitty; Rapley, Ellie

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examine the role of articulatory motor planning in experiencing an involuntary musical recollection (an “earworm”). Experiment 1 shows that interfering with articulatory motor programming by chewing gum reduces both the number of voluntary and the number of involuntary—unwanted—musical thoughts. This is consistent with other findings that chewing gum interferes with voluntary processes such as recollections from verbal memory, the interpretation of ambiguous auditory images,...

  18. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  19. Common challenges in gum arabic production and commercialization in West Africa: a comparative study of Cameroon, Niger and Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawamariya, G.; Madi, O.P.; Zoubeirou, A.M.; Sene, A.; Maisharou, A.; Haese, D' M.F.C.

    2013-01-01

    As gum arabic is widely used in food and non-food industries, demand is high all over the world. Still, smaller production countries in West Africa such as Cameroon, Niger and Senegal seem to have so many difficulties producing and commercializing gum arabic that their market shares have declined si

  20. Comparative Performance of Three Magnesium Compounds on Thermal Degradation Behavior of Red Gum Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqiang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of basic magnesium carbonate (BMC, magnesium hydroxide (MH, and magnesium chloride hydrate (MCH on thermal degradation of red gum wood was studied using cone calorimetry, Thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD characterization. The results showed common fire retardation actions of the three compounds by releasing incombustible gas and/or water vapor to dilute combustible gas in the flaming zone, and by converting to MgO, which had a satisfactory protective wall effect on the wood. Individually, BMC absorbed heat from the wood at the pre-decomposition stage and, thus, slowed down wood pyrolysis process. It slightly increased the char yield by charring in both the charring stage and the char calcination stage. MH lost water at about 270 °C, close to the temperature at which wood thermally degraded. MH rendered wood char quickly, and the compact char layer impeded further carbonization and burning of inner wood. MCH promoted charring with Mg2+ as a Lewis acid, and increased wood char yield. MCH also released Cl· free radical and HCl at 167 °C, which easily coordinated with combustion reaction radical, and slowed down, even inhibited, the combustion chain reaction.

  1. Influence of chewing gum on gastrointestinal function of postoperative patients in obstetrics and gynecology department after undergoing minimally invasive surgery%咀嚼口香糖对妇产科微创手术后病人胃肠功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨广清; 杨小梅; 伍春兰; 马翠兰; 何芳; 周飞龙

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To probe into the clinical value of cbewing gum on promoting gastrointestinal function recovery of postoperative patients in obstetrics and gynecology department after undergoing minimally invasive surgery. Methods: A total of 160 postoperative patients in obstetrics and gynecology department in our hospital after undergoing minimally invasive surgery were collected and randomly divided into two groups. Patients in control group received usual care and early functional training. Patients in test group were given chewing gum based on the usual care and early functional training. Then the time of postoperative exhaust, time of the first bowel movement,incidences of abdominal distension and oral ulcers of all patients were observed. And blood motilin levels of all cases were determined on the second day after their operation. Results: The anal exhaust time of patients in test group was significantly shorter than that of control group cases. There was statistical significant difference between them (P<O. 05). The postoperative bowel movement time of test group cases was shortened. However,there was no statistical significant difference between the two groups. The numbers of cases with abdominal distension or discomfort and mouth ulcers in test group were significantly less than that of control group (P<O. 01). And blood motilin levels in test group patients were higher than that of control group. But there was no statistical significant difference. Conclusion:Chewing gum for postoperative patients in obstetrics and gynecology department after undergoing minimally invasive surgery can promote their gastrointestinal function recovery.%[目的]探讨妇产科微创手术后咀嚼口香糖对促进病人胃肠功能恢复的临床价值.[方法]收集我院收治的行妇产科微创手术病人160例,随机分为两组,对照组采用常规护理并结合早期功能锻炼,实验组在对照组基础上术后予口香糖咀嚼,观察两组病人术后排气

  2. Chew the Pain Away: Oral Habits to Cope with Pain and Stress and to Stimulate Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijenberg, Roxane Anthea Francesca; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The acute effects of chewing gum on cognitive performance, stress, and pain have been intensively studied in the last decade. The results have been contradicting, and replication studies proved challenging. Here, we review some of the recent findings of this topic and explore possible explanations for these discrepancies by incorporating knowledge derived from studies into oral habits and bruxism. Both stress and cerebral functional specialization (i.e., the involvement of specific brain structures in distinctive cognitive processes) are hypothesized to play a major role in the underlying physiological mechanisms of the diverse effects of chewing gum on cognition, stress, and pain.

  3. Chew the Pain Away: Oral Habits to Cope with Pain and Stress and to Stimulate Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxane Anthea Francesca Weijenberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute effects of chewing gum on cognitive performance, stress, and pain have been intensively studied in the last decade. The results have been contradicting, and replication studies proved challenging. Here, we review some of the recent findings of this topic and explore possible explanations for these discrepancies by incorporating knowledge derived from studies into oral habits and bruxism. Both stress and cerebral functional specialization (i.e., the involvement of specific brain structures in distinctive cognitive processes are hypothesized to play a major role in the underlying physiological mechanisms of the diverse effects of chewing gum on cognition, stress, and pain.

  4. Gum Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... embarrassing (like bad breath) to the serious — like pain and tooth loss (which is both embarrassing and serious!). What ... also feed the acids that eat into your tooth enamel. If you have braces, ... certain medicines increase the risk of gum disease. Running yourself ...

  5. Chew the pain away: oral habits to cope with pain and stress and to stimulate cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.F. Weijenberg; F. Lobbezoo

    2015-01-01

    The acute effects of chewing gum on cognitive performance, stress, and pain have been intensively studied in the last decade. The results have been contradicting, and replication studies proved challenging. Here, we review some of the recent findings of this topic and explore possible explanations f

  6. A pilot study comparing three salivary collection methods in an adult population with salivary gland hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, R; Navazesh, M; Wood, G J

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the reliability of three collection methods (draining, chewing of gum base, and the Saxon test) for whole saliva using a sample of middle-aged and older ambulatory adults (n = 18) with proven salivary gland hypofunction. The results demonstrated high reliability (r values ranging from 0.91 to 0.80, p < 0.001) for all three methods. MANOVA analysis revealed significant (p < 0.001) differences in flow rates among the draining, chewing-stimulated, and Saxon methods.

  7. Effect of experimental chewing on masticatory muscle pain onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Rodrigues Conti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a chewing exercise on pain intensity and pressure-pain threshold in patients with myofascial pain. METHODS: Twenty-nine consecutive women diagnosed with myofascial pain (MFP according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria comprised the experimental group and 15 healthy age-matched female were used as controls. Subjects were asked to chew a gum stick for 9 min and to stay at rest for another 9 min afterwards. Pain intensity was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS every 3 min. At 0, 9 and 18 min, the pressure-pain threshold (PPT was measured bilaterally on the masseter and the anterior, medium, and posterior temporalis muscles. RESULTS: Patients with myofascial pain reported increase (76% and no change (24% on the pain intensity measured with the VAS. A reduction of the PPT at all muscular sites after the exercise and a non-significant recovery after rest were also observed. CONCLUSION: The following conclusions can be drawn: 1. there are at least two subtypes of patients with myofascial pain that respond differently to experimental chewing; 2. the chewing protocol had an adequate discriminative ability in distinguishing patients with myofascial pain from healthy controls.

  8. 21 CFR 172.615 - Chewing gum base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... concentrated latices) of vegetable origin Family Genus and species Sapotaceae: Chicle Manilkara zapotilla Gilly... utilis (Mart.) Muell. Arg. Moraceae: Leche de vaca Brosimum utile (H.B.K.) Pittier and Poulsenia...

  9. Gum (Periodontal) Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forms of gum disease are gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis and Periodontitis In gingivitis, the gums become red, swollen and can bleed easily. Gingivitis can usually be reversed with daily brushing and ...

  10. Gum Disease in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Periodontist Gum Disease In Children Chronic gingivitis. aggressive periodontitis and generalized aggressive periodontitis are types ... children. Types of periodontal diseases in children Chronic gingivitis is common in children. It usually causes gum ...

  11. Want to block earworms from conscious awareness? B(u)y gum!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, C Philip; Powell, Kitty; Rapley, Ellie

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examine the role of articulatory motor planning in experiencing an involuntary musical recollection (an "earworm"). Experiment 1 shows that interfering with articulatory motor programming by chewing gum reduces both the number of voluntary and the number of involuntary-unwanted-musical thoughts. This is consistent with other findings that chewing gum interferes with voluntary processes such as recollections from verbal memory, the interpretation of ambiguous auditory images, and the scanning of familiar melodies, but is not predicted by theories of thought suppression, which assume that suppression is made more difficult by concurrent tasks or cognitive loads. Experiment 2 shows that chewing the gum affects the experience of "hearing" the music and cannot be ascribed to a general effect on thinking about a tune only in abstract terms. Experiment 3 confirms that the reduction of musical recollections by chewing gum is not the consequence of a general attentional or dual-task demand. The data support a link between articulatory motor programming and the appearance in consciousness of both voluntary and unwanted musical recollections. PMID:25896521

  12. Effect of sugar-free gum in addition to tooth brushing on dental plaque and interdental debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya Kakodkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chewing-gum may serve as an effective oral hygiene device when brushing may not be possible. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of chewing sugar-free gum twice a day after meals in addition to tooth brushing on dental plaque and interdental debris. Methods : Twenty four (12 males and 12 females aged 20-21 years healthy third-year dental students participated in the study. It was a prospective single blind and non-randomized before and after study. The control group followed tooth brushing habit twice a day plus water rinsing after meals at noon and night for 10 days. The study group followed tooth brushing habit twice a day plus chewing one pellet of sugar-free gum after meals at noon and night for 30 minutes for 3 weeks. Personal hygiene performance index (PHP-M was used to assess the dental plaque and self-designed interdental debris index for interdental debris. ANOVA, Tukey and ′t′ tests were used for data analysis. The level of significance was fixed at α = 0.05. Results: The baseline percentages of cumulative plaque and interdental debris were 63.12% and 76.44%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the plaque scores following either water rinsing (61.73% or gum chewing (59.44% after meals, but a statistically significant reduction of 14.18% in interdental debris was observed among those who chewed the gum (P < 0.05. Conclusion: After meal, gum chewing in addition to daily tooth brushing reduced interdental debris, but had no effect on established buccal and lingual dental plaques.

  13. The influence of pectin from apple and gum arabic from acacia tree on the quality of pizza

    OpenAIRE

    Pečivová, Pavlína; Dula, Tomáš; Hrabě, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of apple pectin and arabic gum on the organoleptic characteristics of pizza flans. Significant differences in the sensory characteristics, such as flavour and change during chewing as well as the quality between the pizza flan with the addition of hydrocolloids and the pizza flan without them were found out. The additions of hydrocolloids improve the quality and flavour of pizza flans. On the other hand, higher amounts of gum arabic from the ac...

  14. Psychiatric correlates of snuff and chewing tobacco use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    Full Text Available Compared to the association between cigarette smoking and psychiatric disorders, relatively little is known about the relationship between smokeless tobacco use and psychiatric disorders. To identify the psychiatric correlates of smokeless tobacco use, the analysis used a national representative sample from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC wave 1. Smokeless tobacco use was classified as exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both snuff and chewing tobacco at some time in the smokeless tobacco user's life. Lifetime psychiatric disorders were obtained via structured diagnostic interviews. The results show that the prevalence of lifetime exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both snuff and chewing tobacco was 2.16%, 2.52%, and 2.79%, respectively. After controlling for sociodemographic variables and cigarette smoking, the odds of exclusive chewing tobacco in persons with panic disorder and specific phobia were 1.53 and 1.41 times the odds in persons without those disorders, respectively. The odds of exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both products for individuals with alcohol use disorder were 1.97, 2.01, and 2.99 times the odds for those without alcohol use disorder, respectively. Respondents with cannabis use disorder were 1.44 times more likely to use snuff exclusively than those without cannabis use disorder. Respondents with inhalant/solvent use disorder were associated with 3.33 times the odds of exclusive chewing tobacco. In conclusion, this study highlights the specific links of anxiety disorder, alcohol, cannabis, and inhalant/solvent use disorders with different types of smokeless tobacco use.

  15. Psychiatric correlates of snuff and chewing tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Vaughn, Michael G; Wu, Li-Tzy; Heath, Andrew C

    2014-01-01

    Compared to the association between cigarette smoking and psychiatric disorders, relatively little is known about the relationship between smokeless tobacco use and psychiatric disorders. To identify the psychiatric correlates of smokeless tobacco use, the analysis used a national representative sample from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) wave 1. Smokeless tobacco use was classified as exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both snuff and chewing tobacco at some time in the smokeless tobacco user's life. Lifetime psychiatric disorders were obtained via structured diagnostic interviews. The results show that the prevalence of lifetime exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both snuff and chewing tobacco was 2.16%, 2.52%, and 2.79%, respectively. After controlling for sociodemographic variables and cigarette smoking, the odds of exclusive chewing tobacco in persons with panic disorder and specific phobia were 1.53 and 1.41 times the odds in persons without those disorders, respectively. The odds of exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both products for individuals with alcohol use disorder were 1.97, 2.01, and 2.99 times the odds for those without alcohol use disorder, respectively. Respondents with cannabis use disorder were 1.44 times more likely to use snuff exclusively than those without cannabis use disorder. Respondents with inhalant/solvent use disorder were associated with 3.33 times the odds of exclusive chewing tobacco. In conclusion, this study highlights the specific links of anxiety disorder, alcohol, cannabis, and inhalant/solvent use disorders with different types of smokeless tobacco use.

  16. Gum Base Candy%胶基糖(1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵发基

    2007-01-01

    胶基糖(Gum Base Candy)又称胶姆糖,是一种含水不溶性树胶、添加甜味和香味料的耐咀嚼性糖果,几个世纪以来深受人们的喜爱。胶基糖有口香糖(Chewing Gum)和泡泡糖(Bubble Gum)两大类,约占全球糖果巧克力销售量的5%,约为60~70万吨。

  17. New records and a new species of chewing lice (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera found on Columbidae (Columbiformes in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Naz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The chewing lice (Phthiraptera of Columbidae (Columbiformes from Pakistan are studied. Six species of chewing lice with new host records are recorded and one new species of the genus Colpocephalum is described from Columba livia in the Karachi region. All the columbid chewing lice from Pakistan are keyed out and the new species is illustrated and compared with the closest allied species.

  18. Chewing Beedis: A Case of Cross-Tobacco use in a Patient with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindappa Lakshmana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While tobacco use occurs in many forms all over the world, there is little information on cross-tobacco use. Authors report an unusual case of tobacco use in the form of chewing beedies which are normally smoked (cross-tobacco use. A 22-year-old single female, diagnosed with schizophrenia for the last 6 years, started chewing beedies from the age of 15 years and was using it in a dependent pattern since 7 years. After 3 years of treatment for her schizophrenia, patient′s family pressured her to seek tobacco cessation treatment. Initial treatment with nicotine gum replacement and behavioral counseling did not prove useful. Subsequently she was treated with bupropion 300 mg/day and able to successfully abstain. Cross-tobacco use is relatively rare, and merits further study, especially in the mentally ill population.

  19. Private Versus Communal Tenure Systems in Gum Arabic Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawamariya, G.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Communal management systems for acacia stands are still prominent in semi-arid gum producing areas. Competition over plots leads to lower quantities per household and, compared with private access systems, the gum collected is of lower quality. These communal systems also decrease the collectors’ in

  20. Comparative Study on Self-made Denture Adhesive Paste and Fixodent in Improving Chewing Efficiency of Dentures%强力义齿稳固剂与Fixodent对改善义齿 咀嚼效能的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊; 于明安; 柳青; 凌虹

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to test whether the self-made denture adhesive paste can improve the chewing efficiency of complete denture.Methods: The abilities to improve chewing efficiency of two different materials, including self-made and Fixodent denture adhesive paste, will be investigated in this experiment. 24 patients were randomly selected, who wore complete dentures or mucous membrane supporting removable partial dentures because of the loss of most teeth. Identical test method was adopted by chewing peanuts. By employing a spectrophotometer, the absorbency values of chewed peanuts suspension before and after the use of self-made denture adhesive pasties were measured, and the differences could be obtained by calculation. The differences indicated the relationship between denture adhesive paste and chewing efficiency. Then the results of two materials would be compared and analyzed.Results: The statistical analysis revealed that both self-made denture adhesive paste and Fixodent resulted in remarkable difference in the absorbency values before and after use (P0.05).Conclusion: The self-made denture adhesive paste is the same as Fixodent in improving the chewing efficiency of denture.%目的:评价强力义齿稳固剂改善总义齿咀嚼效能的能力。方法: 随机选择戴有总义齿的无牙颌患者和采用粘膜支持式可摘局部义齿修复的多数牙缺失患者共24例,采用同体比较法,花生米作试料,分光光度计测定咀嚼后花生米悬浊液的吸光度,测定强力义齿稳固剂使用前后吸光度值的变化。观察义齿稳固剂与咀嚼效能的关系,并与国外产品Fixodent比较。结果: 数据统计分析表明,强力义齿稳固剂和Fixodent使用前后吸光度值的变化均具有显著性差异(P0.05)。结论: 强力义齿稳固剂同国外产品Fixodent一样能明显提高义齿的咀嚼效能。

  1. Chewing Prevents Stress-Induced Hippocampal LTD Formation and Anxiety-Related Behaviors: A Possible Role of the Dopaminergic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, So; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of chewing on stress-induced long-term depression (LTD) and anxiogenic behavior. Experiments were performed in adult male rats under three conditions: restraint stress condition, voluntary chewing condition during stress, and control condition without any treatments except handling. Chewing ameliorated LTD development in the hippocampal CA1 region. It also counteracted the stress-suppressed number of entries to the center region of the open field when they were tested immediately, 30 min, or 60 min after restraint. At the latter two poststress time periods, chewing during restraint significantly increased the number of times of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze, when compared with those without chewing. The in vivo microdialysis further revealed that extracellular dopamine concentration in the ventral hippocampus, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior, was significantly greater in chewing rats than in those without chewing from 30 to 105 min after stress exposure. Development of LTD and anxiolytic effects ameliorated by chewing were counteracted by administering the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390, which suggested that chewing may activate the dopaminergic system in the ventral hippocampus to suppress stress-induced anxiogenic behavior. PMID:26075223

  2. Chewing Prevents Stress-Induced Hippocampal LTD Formation and Anxiety-Related Behaviors: A Possible Role of the Dopaminergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Ono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of chewing on stress-induced long-term depression (LTD and anxiogenic behavior. Experiments were performed in adult male rats under three conditions: restraint stress condition, voluntary chewing condition during stress, and control condition without any treatments except handling. Chewing ameliorated LTD development in the hippocampal CA1 region. It also counteracted the stress-suppressed number of entries to the center region of the open field when they were tested immediately, 30 min, or 60 min after restraint. At the latter two poststress time periods, chewing during restraint significantly increased the number of times of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze, when compared with those without chewing. The in vivo microdialysis further revealed that extracellular dopamine concentration in the ventral hippocampus, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior, was significantly greater in chewing rats than in those without chewing from 30 to 105 min after stress exposure. Development of LTD and anxiolytic effects ameliorated by chewing were counteracted by administering the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390, which suggested that chewing may activate the dopaminergic system in the ventral hippocampus to suppress stress-induced anxiogenic behavior.

  3. Smoking cessation or reduction with nicotine replacement therapy: a placebo-controlled double blind trial with nicotine gum and inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavsson Gunnar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even with effective smoking cessation medications, many smokers are unable to abruptly stop using tobacco. This finding has increased interest in smoking reduction as an interim step towards complete cessation. Methods This multi-center, double-blind placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of nicotine 4 mg gum or nicotine 10 mg inhaler in helping smokers (N = 314 to reduce or quit smoking. It included smokers willing to control their smoking, and participants could set individual goals, to reduce or quit. The study was placebo-controlled, randomized in a ratio of 2:1 (Active:Placebo, and subjects could choose inhaler or gum after randomization. Outcome was short-term (from Week 6 to Month 4 and long-term (from Month 6 to Month 12 abstinence or reduction. Abstinence was defined as not a single cigarette smoked and expired CO readings of Results Significantly more smokers managed to quit in the Active group than in the Placebo group. Sustained abstinence rates at 4 months were 42/209 (20.1% subjects in the Active group and 9/105 (8.6% subjects in the Placebo group (p = 0.009. Sustained abstinence rates at 12 months were 39/209 (18.7% and 9/105 (8.6%, respectively (p = 0.019. Smoking reduction did not differ between the groups, either at short-term or long-term. Twelve-month reduction results were 17.2% vs. 18.1%, respectively. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion In conclusion, treatment with 10 mg nicotine inhaler or 4 mg nicotine chewing gum resulted in a significantly higher abstinence rate than placebo. In addition a large number of smokers managed to reduce their cigarette consumption by more than 50% compared to baseline.

  4. Flavor release measurement from gum model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovejero-López, I.; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans W.J.;

    2004-01-01

    composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory...

  5. The effects of chewing versus caffeine on alertness, cognitive performance and cardiac autonomic activity during sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Mark; Pavy, Alan; van den Heuvel, Cameron

    2006-12-01

    Chewing has been shown to alleviate feelings of sleepiness and improve cognitive performance during the day. This study investigated the effect of chewing on alertness and cognitive performance across one night without sleep as well as the possible mediating role of cardiac autonomic activity. Fourteen adults participated in a randomized, counterbalanced protocol employing a chewing, placebo and caffeine condition. Participants completed tasks assessing psychomotor vigilance, tracking, grammatical reasoning, alertness and sleepiness each hour across the night. All participants received either placebo or caffeine (200 mg), while the chewing condition also chewed on a tasteless and odorless substance for 15 min each hour. Heart rate (HR), root mean square of the successive differences in R-R intervals on the ECG (RMSSD), and preejection period (PEP) were simultaneously recorded. Alertness and cognitive performance amongst the chewing condition did not differ or were in fact worse when compared with placebo. Similarly, measures of HR and RMSSD remained the same between these two conditions; however, PEP was reduced in the later part of the night in the chewing condition compared with a relative increase for placebo. Caffeine led to improved speed and accuracy on cognitive tasks and increased alertness when compared with chewing. Relative increases in RMSSD and reductions in HR were demonstrated following caffeine; however, no change in PEP was seen. Strong associations between cardiac parasympathetic activity and complex cognitive tasks, as well as between subjective alertness and simpler cognitive tasks, suggest a differential process mediating complex versus simple cognitive performance during sleep deprivation.

  6. Evaluation of Sterculia foetida gum as controlled release excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivate, Amit Ashok; Poddar, Sushilkumar Sharatchandra; Abdul, Shajahan; Savant, Gaurav

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to evaluate Sterculia foetida gum as a hydrophilic matrix polymer for controlled release preparation. For evaluation as a matrix polymer; characterization of Sterculia foetida gum was done. Viscosity, pH, scanning electronmicrographs were determined. Different formulation aspects considered were: gum concentration (10-40%), particle size (75-420 microm) and type of fillers and those for dissolution studies; pH, and stirring speed were considered. Tablets prepared with Sterculia foetida gum were compared with tablets prepared with Hydroxymethylcellulose K15M. The release rate profiles were evaluated through different kinetic equations: zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, Hixon-Crowell and Korsemeyer and Peppas models. The scanning electronmicrographs showed that the gum particles were somewhat triangular. The viscosity of 1% solution was found to be 950 centipoise and pH was in range of 4-5. Suitable matrix release profile could be obtained at 40% gum concentration. Higher sustained release profiles were obtained for Sterculia foetida gum particles in size range of 76-125 microm. Notable influences were obtained for type of fillers. Significant differences were also observed with rotational speed and dissolution media pH. The in vitro release profiles indicated that tablets prepared from Sterculia foetida gum had higher retarding capacity than tablets prepared with Hydroxymethylcellulose K15M prepared tablets. The differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that there are no interactions of Sterculia foetida gum with diltiazem hydrochloride. It was observed that release of the drug followed through surface erosion and anomalous diffusion. Thus, it could be concluded that Sterculia foetida gum could be used a controlled release matrix polymer.

  7. THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE GUM AND OF THE DESMODONTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. NICULESCU

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The gum and the desmodontium are constituent parts of the morpho-functional complex of the parodontium. Depending on its topographic situation, we can describe three portions of the gum: alveolar, marginal and interdental, each one having its features. Within the gum, the collagen fibres from the subepihtelial net are grouped in alveologingival, dentogingival, circular and interdental, the last ones being seen by us as a single group, called peridental fibres. The desmodontium or the alveolodental ligament or the parodontal ligament makes the relation between the alveolar bone and the radicular cement within the dentoalveolar articulation, articulation known under the name of gomphosis, a syndesmose that does not allow any movement to the tooth. Depending on their topographic situation, the collagen fibres in the constitution of the alveolodental ligament, also called cemento-alveolar fibres, can be divided in marginal, intermediary and apical. The alveolodental ligament has the important role in the transmission of the chewing forces to the resistance structures within the functional architectonics of the cranium.

  8. Effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, N; Yamaguchi, K; Daimon, S

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food. Masseter muscle activity during chewing of a rice ball was recorded in 45 adult volunteers (three women), identified as nose breathers. Surface electrodes were placed on the skin according to the orientation of the masseter muscle to record the activity of this muscle while the subjects chewed the food until swallowing. Each activity was recorded twice, once with nose breathing and once with mouth breathing induced by nasal obstruction. The integrated and mean electromyography values for mouth breathing were significantly lower than the values for nose breathing (P mouth breathing compared with nose breathing (P mouth breathing decreases chewing activity and reduces the vertical effect upon the posterior teeth.

  9. Functionality of maize, wheat, teff and cassava starches with stearic acid and xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphalla, Thabelang Gladys; Emmambux, Mohammad Naushad

    2016-01-20

    Consumer concerns to synthetic chemicals have led to strong preference for 'clean' label starches. Lipid and hydrocolloids are food friendly chemicals. This study determines the effects of stearic acid and xanthan gum alone and in combination on the functionality of maize, wheat, teff and cassava starches. An increase in viscosity was observed for all starches with stearic acid and xanthan gum compared to the controls with cassava having the least increase. A further increase in viscosity was observed for the cereal starches with combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum. Stearic acid reduced retrogradation, resulting in soft textured pastes. Combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum reduced the formation of type IIb amylose-lipid complexes, syneresis, and hysteresis in cereal starches compared to stearic acid alone. A combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum produce higher viscosity non-gelling starches and xanthan gum addition increases physical stability to freezing and better structural recovery after shear. PMID:26572436

  10. Implications of Partial Conjugation of Whey Protein Isolate to Durian Seed Gum through Maillard Reactions: Foaming Properties, Water Holding Capacity and Interfacial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Tabatabaee Amid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the conjugation of durian seed gum (DSG with whey protein isolate (WPI through Maillard reactions. Subsequently, the functional properties of durian seed gum in the non-conjugated (control sample and conjugated forms were compared with several commercial gums (i.e., Arabic gum, sodium alginate, kappa carrageenan, guar gum, and pectin. The current study revealed that the conjugation of durian seed gum with whey protein isolate significantly (p < 0.05 improved its foaming properties. In this study, the conjugated durian seed gum produced the most stable foam among all samples. On the other hand, the emulsion stabilized with the conjugated durian seed gum also showed more uniform particles with a larger specific surface area than the emulsion containing the non-conjugated durian seed gum. The conjugated durian seed gum showed significant different foaming properties, specific surface area, particle uniformity and water holding capacity (WHC as compared to the target polysaccharide gums. The conjugated durian seed gum showed more similar functional properties to Arabic gum rather than other studied gums.

  11. Comparing masticatory performance and mixing ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilt, van der A.; Mojet, J.; Tekamp, F.A.; Abbink, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Masticatory performance has often been measured by determining an individual's capacity to comminute a test food. Another method to determine masticatory performance, which is now widely used, evaluates the ability to mix and knead a food bolus. Two-coloured chewing gum and paraffin wax have been us

  12. Gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants: effects on lipid oxidation of peanuts

    OpenAIRE

    Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Azam, Mahmood; Hasnain, Abid

    2013-01-01

    Performance of antioxidants is improved by incorporating them into polymer matrix such as polysaccharides based edible coatings. Gum cordia, an anionic polysaccharide extracted from the fruits of Cordia.myxa could be used as carrier of antioxidants by virtue of its strong adhering and emulsifying properties. This study aimed to explore the potential of gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants when applied as edible coating on peanuts. Gum Cordia was compared with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in...

  13. Structure of xanthan gum and cell ultrastructure at different times of alkali stress

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia de Mello Luvielmo; Caroline Dellinghausen Borges; Daniela de Oliveira Toyama; Claire Tondo Vendruscolo; Adilma Regina Pippa Scamparini

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The effect of alkali stress on the yield, viscosity, gum structure, and cell ultrastructure of xanthan gum was evaluated at the end of fermentation process of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis 280-95. Although greater xanthan production was observed after a 24 h-alkali stress process, a lower viscosity was observed when compared to the alkali stress-free gum, regardless of the alkali stress time. However, this outcome is not conclusive as further studies on g...

  14. Production of Gum from Cashew Tree Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. AZEEZ

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at producing gum from cashew tree latex, which can act as substitute for gum Arabic. The method used include drying and size reduction of the exudates gum, sieving of the gum to remove impurities, dissolution of the gum in distilled water, filtration to remove polysaccharide waste and finally concentration and stability of the gum. Glycerine, starch and Zinc oxide are some of the additives used in stabilizing the gum. The pH and Viscosity on addition of various percentage concentration of stabilizing agent were determined. Gum of the best quality was obtained with viscosity and pH of 4.52 Ns/m2 and 4.2 respectively; this is because the natural pH of gum from Acacia Senegal ranges between 3.9 - 4.9. The gum can be used as an alternative for synthetic adhesive used presently for stamps and envelopes.

  15. Temporomandibular disorders: the habitual chewing side syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Santana-Mora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular disorders are the most common cause of chronic orofacial pain, but, except where they occur subsequent to trauma, their cause remains unknown. This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder. This is the preliminary report of a randomized trial that aimed to test the effect of a new occlusal adjustment therapy. METHODS: The masticatory function of 21 randomly selected completely dentate participants with chronic temporomandibular disorders (all but one with unilateral symptoms was assessed by observing them eat almonds, inspecting the lateral horizontal movement of the jaw, with kinesiography, and by means of interview. The condylar path in the sagittal plane and the lateral anterior guidance angles with respect to the Frankfort horizontal plane in the frontal plane were measured on both sides in each individual. RESULTS: Sixteen of 20 participants with unilateral symptoms chewed on the affected side; the concordance (Fisher's exact test, P = .003 and the concordance-symmetry level (Kappa coefficient κ = 0.689; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.99; P = .002 were significant. The mean condylar path angle was steeper (53.47(10.88 degrees versus 46.16(7.25 degrees; P = .001, and the mean lateral anterior guidance angle was flatter (41.63(13.35 degrees versus 48.32(9.53 degrees P = .036 on the symptomatic side. DISCUSSION: The results of this study support the use of a new term based on etiology, "habitual chewing side syndrome", instead of the nonspecific symptom-based "temporomandibular joint disorders"; this denomination is characterized in adults by a steeper condylar path, flatter lateral anterior guidance, and habitual chewing on the symptomatic side.

  16. Physico-chemical study on guar gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guar plant is an annual summer plant and it can resist diseases, pests and drought. Guar gum is used in a lot of industries. The present study deals with some physical properties of two commercial grade samples of guar gum cyamopsis tetragonoloba which where produced in 1996 and 1997 seasons (S1 and S2 respectively). Our analytical data are compared with those of previous workers in this area and international quality. Guar gum (S2) is separated into water-insoluble components. Three fractions were obtained from the water-soluble components by fractional participation using acetone. Guar gum powder is yellowish white; the water-insoluble component is brownish white. Comparison study between gum samples (S1 and S2) and water-insoluble fraction (1) and water-soluble fractions are close to each other in their physico-properties. chemical All samples and fractions contain galactomannan polysaccharide as explained by infra-red spectra.Moisture contents for the gum samples were 5.2% and 7.8% and that for the water-insoluble fraction 4.7% while that for fraction samples were 5.2%-7.5% ash contents for the gum samples was 0.81% and 1.14% and for the water-insoluble component 0.88% while the contents in the fractions between 0.5%-0.66%. Nitrogen content determination showed that the gum samples had value of 0.678% and 0.732% and water -insoluble fraction had a value of 0.118%. The values decreased in the water-soluble fractions giving 0.049%, 0.053 and 0.056%. Water-soluble component and its fractions record the following results: pH measurements showed that the water-soluble component had pH 6.70 and 6.84 while its fractions had pH 5.90 and 7.00. Viscosity measurements showed that water-soluble fractions had intrinsic viscosity of 6.4 and 6.8 dL. g-1. The fractions derived from water-soluble fraction had intrinsic viscosity of 6.6, 7 and 7.5 dl. g-1. Using Mark-Howink equation, calculated average molecular weights for the water-soluble components were 7.01x105, and 7.62x

  17. Influence of tragacanth gum in egg white based bioplastics: Thermomechanical and water uptake properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Castejón, María Luisa; Bengoechea, Carlos; García-Morales, Moisés; Martínez, Inmaculada

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to extend the range of applications of tragacanth gum by studying its incorporation into bioplastics formulation, exploring the influence that different gum contents (0-20wt.%) exert over the thermomechanical and water uptake properties of bioplastics based on egg white albumen protein (EW). The effect of plasticizer nature was also evaluated through the modification of the water/glycerol ratio within the plasticizer fraction (fixed at 40wt.%). The addition of tragacanth gum generally yielded an enhancement of the water uptake capacity, being doubled at the highest content. Conversely, presence of tragacanth gum resulted in a considerable decrease in the bioplastic mechanical properties: both tensile strength and maximum elongation were reduced up to 75% approximately when compared to the gum-free system. Ageing of selected samples was also studied, revealing an important effect of storage time when tragacanth gum is present, possibly due to its hydrophilic character. PMID:27516250

  18. Composition of betel specific chemicals in saliva during betel chewing for the identification of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J

    2015-06-01

    Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans, including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut ('BN'), nut + Piper betle leaf ('BL'), and betel quid ('BQ') consisting of nut + lime + tobacco + Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile, dilution with formic acid followed by LCMS analysis. Baseline and chewing saliva levels were compared using t-tests and differences between groups were compared by ANOVA; p areca-specific alkaloids, total tobacco-specific alkaloids and chavibetol. From this pilot study, we propose the following chemical patterns as biomarkers: areca alkaloids for BN use, areca alkaloids and chavibetol for BL use, and areca alkaloids plus chavibetol and tobacco-specific alkaloids for BQ use. PMID:25797484

  19. Prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astatkie A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ayalew Astatkie,1 Meaza Demissie,2 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Khat (Catha edulis is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Students use it to help them study for long hours especially during the period of examination. However, how regularly khat is chewed among university students and its associated factors are not well documented. In this article we report on the prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia. Methods: We did a cross-sectional study from May 20, 2014 to June 23, 2014 on a sample of 1,255 regular students recruited from all campuses of Hawassa University, southern Ethiopia. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. We analyzed the data to identify factors associated with current regular khat chewing using complex sample adjusted logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of current regular khat chewing was 10.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1%–14.9%. After controlling for sex, religion, year of study, having a father who chews khat, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in the adjusted logistic regression model, living off-campus in rented houses as compared to living in the university dormitory (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =8.09 [1.56–42.01], and having friends who chew khat (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =4.62 [1.98–10.74] were found to significantly increase the odds of current regular khat use. Conclusion: Students living outside the university campus in rented houses compared to those living in dormitory and those with khat chewing peers are more likely to use

  20. Dispelling Myths about Gum Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Leadership History Employment Opportunities Find a Periodontist Dispelling Myths about Gum Disease: The Truth Behind Healthy Teeth ... Dr. Low. “Unfortunately, there are a variety of myths surrounding periodontal disease and its repercussions.” In order ...

  1. Chewing ability and dental functional status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Gerritsen, A.E.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this research was to explore the relationship between chewing ability and dental functional status, perceived oral health-related quality of life, and a number of background variables in a Vietnamese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cluster stratified sample consisted of 2,

  2. Help Teens Become "Through with Chew."

    Science.gov (United States)

    PTA Today, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Snuff consumption is the only tobacco consumption on the rise in the United States. Doctors are most concerned about adolescent use. They recommend educational efforts begin with boys 8-10 years old. The article discusses a nationwide campaign, "Through with Chew Week," which urges young people to avoid all smokeless tobacco. (SM)

  3. Prolonged chewing at lunch decreases later snack intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Jones, Alison

    2013-03-01

    Prolonged chewing of food can reduce meal intake. However, whether prolonged chewing influences intake at a subsequent eating occasion is unknown. We hypothesised that chewing each mouthful for 30s would reduce afternoon snack intake more than (a) an habitual chewing control condition, and (b) an habitual chewing condition with a pauses in between each mouthful to equate the meal durations. We further hypothesised that this effect may be related to effects of prolonged chewing on lunch memory. Forty three participants ate a fixed lunch of sandwiches in the laboratory. They were randomly allocated to one of the three experimental groups according to a between-subjects design. Appetite, mood and lunch enjoyment ratings were taken before and after lunch and before snacking. Snack intake of candies at a taste test 2h after lunch was measured as well as rated vividness of lunch memory. Participants in the prolonged chewing group ate significantly fewer candies than participants in the habitual chewing group. Snack intake by the pauses group did not differ from either the prolonged or habitual chewing groups. Participants in the prolonged chewing group were less happy and enjoyed their lunch significantly less than participants in other conditions. Appetite ratings were not different across groups. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with intake but there was no correlation with rated lunch enjoyment. Prolonged chewing of a meal can reduce later snack intake and further investigation of this technique for appetite control is warranted.

  4. Chewing efficiency and state of dentition. A methodologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helkimo, E; Carlsson, G E; Helkimo, M

    1978-01-01

    Chewing efficiency, defined as the ability to grind a certain portion of a test food during a given time, was tested in 139 Skolt Lapps, ages 14-65. 94 persons had natural teeth and the remaining 45 wore dentures (partial and/or complete). The test food was almonds. Number of chewing strokes, swallowings and chewing time was denoted. The chewing efficiency was classified after a scale from 1 to 5 where 1 meant very good and 5 very poor ability to reduce the particle size of the test food. Clear associations were found between chewing efficiency and dental state. Number of occluding pairs of teeth was closely correlated with chewing efficiency and individuals with less than 20 teeth had a higher index score than those with more than 20 teeth. The values noted for number of chewing strokes, swallowings and chewing time were smaller for those with a good chewing efficiency, but the variation was not linear and not always significant. Denture wearers had statistically significantly higher chewing efficiency score than those with natural teeth, without dentures, and needed more chewing time before swallowing.

  5. Effect of grass silage chop length on chewing activity and digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garmo, T.H.; Randby, Å.T.; Eknæs, M.;

    2008-01-01

    Round bale grass silage harvested early (D-value 757 g kg-1 DM) or at a normal (D-value 696 g kg-1 DM) time was used to study the effect of harvesting time, chop length and their interaction on chewing activity and digestibility by dairy cows. Six early lactating Norwegian Red cows were used in a 6...... x 6 Latin square with 3-week periods. Chewing activity was measured using IGER Behaviour recorders, and digestibility was measured by total collection of faeces. The two silages were fed long (170 mm), coarsely chopped (55 mm), or finely chopped (24 mm median particle length). Cows were fed silage...... ad libitum and supplemented with 6 kg concentrate. Early harvested silage significantly decreased total ration eating (ET), rumination (RT) and chewing time (CT) per kg silage DM compared with normal harvested silage (CT = 38 vs. 46 min kg-1 DM). Chopping of silage reduced CT significantly, mainly...

  6. Economic incentives for abandoning or expanding gum arabic production in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.; Ierland, van E.C.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we use a real options approach to analyze farmers' economic incentives to abandon gum production or expand by creating new plantations. Our results indicate that agricultural crops currently provide higher economic benefits as compared to gum agroforestry. However, we show that the inc

  7. Salivary Phosphate-Binding Chewing Gum Reduces Hyperphosphatemia in Dialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A.; Monardo, Paolo; Davis, Paul A.; Granata, Antonio; Santoro, Domenico; Savica, Rodolfo; Musolino, Rosa; Comelli, Maria Cristina; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2009-01-01

    In uremic patients, hyperphosphatemia is associated with cardiovascular calcification and increased cardiovascular mortality. Despite the use of phosphate binders, only half of hemodialysis (HD) patients achieve recommended serum phosphate levels. A hyperphosphoric salivary content, which correlates linearly with serum phosphate, has been reported in HD patients. We hypothesized that binding salivary phosphate during periods of fasting in addition to using phosphate binders with meals could i...

  8. Chewing Gum as a Treatment for Rumination in a Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhine, Denise; Tarbox, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Rumination involves regurgitation of previously ingested food, rechewing the food, and reswallowing it. In the current study, a child with autism displayed chronic rumination, resulting in the decay and subsequent removal of several teeth. After several treatments failed, including thickened liquids and starch satiation, the participant was taught…

  9. Blue Jeans, Chewing Gum and Climate Change Litigation: American Exports to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Hare

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses how American-style climate change litigation might be adopted by the European Union ('EU' and projects potential methods by which the EU might employ the US model, if it indeed chooses to take the climate change battle to the courts. By synthesising existing US case law in the environment and climate change fields, the paper roughly defines the 'American model' of climate change litigation as parens patriae actions, oftentimes based in the tort of public nuisance, brought by states and other sovereign entities against polluter-defendants. The structural differences between the common law United States and the predominantly civil law European Union are substantial, and the EU has traditionally been averse to enter too far into the American mass torts arena. Accordingly, Europeans have not yet undertaken these types of lawsuits. This paper identifies and examines several realistic options for Europe's possible espousal of the American climate change litigation model through EU law and national law of individual Member States. Although the comparison is admittedly imperfect, I conclude that by drawing on the blueprint of its American counterparts, the EU could viably use Directive 2004/35/EC (environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage and the 'polluter pays' principle and Directive 2003/87/EC (establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading in a parens patriae-like manner to hold defendants liable for damages caused by climate change. Additionally with case studies focusing on France, Germany and the United Kingdom, national law alternatives exist for individual Member States, as well as regional and local governments, to take action on behalf of their citizens for injuries resulting from climate change, just like sovereign bodies in the United States have done.

  10. Blue Jeans, Chewing Gum and Climate Change Litigation: American Exports to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Hare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses how American-style climate change litigation might be adopted by the European Union ('EU' and projects potential methods by which the EU might employ the US model, if it indeed chooses to take the climate change battle to the courts. By synthesising existing US case law in the environment and climate change fields, the paper roughly defines the 'American model' of climate change litigation as parens patriae actions, oftentimes based in the tort of public nuisance, brought by states and other sovereign entities against polluter-defendants. The structural differences between the common law United States and the predominantly civil law European Union are substantial, and the EU has traditionally been averse to enter too far into the American mass torts arena. Accordingly, Europeans have not yet undertaken these types of lawsuits. This paper identifies and examines several realistic options for Europe's possible espousal of the American climate change litigation model through EU law and national law of individual Member States. Although the comparison is admittedly imperfect, I conclude that by drawing on the blueprint of its American counterparts, the EU could viably use Directive 2004/35/EC (environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage and the 'polluter pays' principle and Directive 2003/87/EC (establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading in a parens patriae-like manner to hold defendants liable for damages caused by climate change. Additionally with case studies focusing on France, Germany and the United Kingdom, national law alternatives exist for individual Member States, as well as regional and local governments, to take action on behalf of their citizens for injuries resulting from climate change, just like sovereign bodies in the United States have done.

  11. Detrimental effects of gum chewing on vigilance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William; Evans, Lynsay; Birrel, Laura; Sontag, Thomas A.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Impairments of attention are cardinal features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and can seriously affect the daily life of children with ADHD. Despite effective treatment strategies, there is a need of further treatment options that can be added to available and well established tr

  12. 清凉爽口片的研制%Preparation of refreshing chewing gum chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广栋; 罗仓学; 张郁松

    2004-01-01

    本文介绍了清凉爽口片的研制过程.以壳聚糖和魔芋精粉作为胶凝剂和成形剂,甘草苷作为甜味剂,薄荷素油等作为风味剂,通过正交试验确定了清凉爽口片的最佳工艺和配方.

  13. 清咽口香糖的研制%Study on qingyan chewing gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠; 杨明

    2006-01-01

    目的:确定清咽口香糖的最佳配方,并建立清咽口香糖的质量控制方法.方法:采用正交实验的方法,结果进行方差分析,筛选口香糖配方,并用薄层色谱对配方中冰片进行鉴别.结果:在药粉7%,香精0.9%,胶基25%,所制得的清咽口香糖适口性最好.薄层色谱鉴别冰片的方法简便准确,重复性好,可用于清咽口香糖的质量控制.

  14. Drug-releasing system of chew gum%咀嚼胶释药系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄胜炎

    2006-01-01

    人们自古以来就享用咀嚼胶。1000年前,玛雅印第安人咀嚼人心果树上的树脂(糖胶树胶),用以清洁牙齿和清新口气。1848年首次出现咀嚼胶商品。1928年,第一个含乙酰水杨酸治疗用咀嚼胶Aspergum上市,然而一直未被人们广泛认同。直到1978年上市了烟碱咀嚼胶后,咀嚼胶才成为释药系统。

  15. Does chewing gum improve recovery after an abdominal surgery? –First update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este resumen Epistemonikos (Living FRISBEE: Living FRIendly Summary of the Body of Evidence using Epistemonikos es una actualización del resumen publicado en Noviembre de 2014, basado en 4 nuevas revisiones sistemáticas aparecidas con posterioridad. El íleo postoperatorio es una condición común que retrasa la recuperación luego de una cirugía abdominal. El uso precoz de goma de mascar, como método de alimentación fingida, estimularía la peristalsis permitiendo una alimentación más precoz. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos 18 revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen 81 estudios aleatorizados. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que la goma de mascar probablemente disminuye el tiempo de hospitalización luego de una cirugía abdominal.

  16. Periodontal (Gum) Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dental hygienist can remove tartar. Back to top Gingivitis The longer plaque and tartar are on teeth, ... cause inflammation of the gums that is called “gingivitis.” In gingivitis, the gums become red, swollen and ...

  17. Mind Your Mouth: Preventing Gum Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Mind Your Mouth Preventing Gum Disease If you have ... day. search Features Can We Prevent Alzheimer's Disease? Mind Your Mouth Wise Choices Links To Prevent Gum ...

  18. 桃胶多糖、抗性淀粉和低聚果糖对正常大鼠肠道益生菌生长的比较研究%Effects of Peach Gum Polysaccharide, Resistant Starch, and Fructooligosaccharide on Growth of Intestinal Probiotics in Normal Rats: A Comparative Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷豪; 夏毅伟; 韦莉萍; 王飞; 郑浩江

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较桃胶多糖、抗性淀粉和低聚果糖对正常大鼠肠道益生菌生长的影响.方法 将正常大鼠随机分为正常对照组、桃胶多糖组、抗性淀粉组和低聚果糖组,除正常对照组外,其余大鼠分别予桃胶多糖、抗性淀粉、低聚果糖每日5 g/kg连续灌胃,20 d后检测大鼠体质量和肠道益生菌的生长变化.结果 与正常对照组比较,桃胶多糖组、抗性淀粉组和低聚果糖组大鼠体质量无明显变化(P>0.05);桃胶多糖、抗性淀粉和低聚果糖均能显著促进双歧杆菌、乳杆菌的增长(P<0.01),以低聚果糖组效果显著为优(P<0.01).结论 桃胶多糖、抗性淀粉、低聚果糖均能明显促进双歧杆菌、乳杆菌的增长.%Objective To compare the effects of peach gum polysaccharide, resistant starch, and fructooli-gosaccharide on the growth of intestinal probiotics in normal rats. Methods Normal rats were randomly divided into normal control group, peach gum polysaccharide group, resistant starch group, and fructooli-gosaccharide group. Each rat in the peach gum polysaccharide group, resistant starch group, and fructooli-gosaccharide group received intragastric administration of peach gum polysaccharide, resistant starch, or fructooligosaccharide (5 g/kg daily) for 20 days. Their body weights and numbers of intestinal probiotics were measured before and after treatment. Results Compared with the normal control group, the peach gum polysaccharide group, resistant starch group, and fructooligosaccharide group showed no significant changes in the body weights, but the three groups, particularly fructooligosaccharide group, had significantly increased Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the intestinal tract (P<0. 01). Conclusion Peach gum polysaccharide, resistant starch, and fructooligosaccharide can markedly promote the growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the intestinal tract.

  19. Incorporation of Cellulose into a Chew Treat for Dogs Increases Elasticity and Chewing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Beynen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: We have reported earlier that administration of a treat containing a special cellulose preparation (Arbocel BWW40®, instead of a control treat without cellulose, diminishes the clinical signs of periodontal disease in dogs. Based on the physical characteristics of the cellulose preparation, we hypothesized that treats with cellulose have greater elasticity and induce longer chewing time, leading to more mechanical dental cleansing. Approach: Treats without or with cellulose were subjected to bending and pulling tests in which the threshold before fragmentation, expressed as required force, was determined. The treats were also used in an experiment with dogs to determine chewing times. Results: The addition of cellulose to the treats raised the forced needed for bending and pulling until fragmentation by 12 and 99%. The inclusion of cellulose into the treats raised chewing by dogs of medium-sized and large breeds by 16 and 11%. However, in small-breed dogs chewing time was not affected by cellulose. Conclusion: The inclusion of the cellulose preparation into the treats induces a resistant and elastic texture which promotes chewing. It is suggested that the cellulose-containing treats maintain contact with the tooth surface which provides effective mechanical cleansing, explaining the observed improvement of periodontal disease in dogs.

  20. Dental status and self-assessed chewing ability in 70- and 80-year-old subjects in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unell, L; Johansson, A; Ekbäck, G; Ordell, S; Carlsson, G E

    2015-09-01

    The objective was to compare two cohorts of elderly people, 70 and 80 years old, with respect to dental status and self-assessed chewing ability. The hypotheses were as follows: (i) dental status is associated with self-assessed chewing ability; (ii) chewing ability is poorer among the 80- than the 70-year-old subjects. Identical questionnaires were in 2012 sent to all subjects born in 1942 and 1932, living in two Swedish counties. The response rate was 70.1% resulting in samples of 5697 70- and 2922 80-year-old subjects. Answers to questions on self-assessed chewing ability, dental status and some other factors have been analysed. Dental status varied but was in general good; 72% of the 70- and 60% of the 80-year-old subjects reported that they had all or only few missing teeth. Rate of edentulism was 3% and 7%, respectively. Removable partial dentures were reported by 6% and 10%, respectively, implant treatment by 13% in both cohorts. Self-assessed chewing ability was mostly good and correlated with the number of teeth (Spearman rho = 0.46). A majority of the edentulous subjects assessed their chewing ability as very or fairly good. Logistic regression showed that self-assessed chewing ability was significantly associated with a number of dental variables but also with general health. In conclusion, dental status was relatively good at both ages but somewhat poorer in the older cohort. Dental status, some other dental variables and being healthy were in both age groups significantly associated with self-assessed chewing ability. PMID:25882481

  1. Studies on gum of Moringa oleifera for its emulsifying properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibya Sundar Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emulsion has been a form of presenting water insoluble substances for a long period of time. Now a day, it has been a way of presenting various intravenous additives and diagnostic agents in X-ray examinations. Various substances can be used as emulsifying agent, which can be operationally defined as a stabilizer of the droplets formed of the internal phase. Materials and Methods: Gum from Moringa oleifera was evaluated for its emulsifying properties. Castor oil emulsions 30 percent (o/w, containing 2 to 4% Moringa oleifera gum was prepared. Emulsions containing equivalent concentration of acacia were also prepared for comparison. All the emulsions prepared were stored at room temperature and studied for stability at various time intervals for 8 weeks. The prepared emulsions were evaluated for creaming rate, globule size and rate of coalescence. 23 factorial design was chosen to investigate the effects of centrifugation, pH, temperature changes and electrolytes on the creaming rate and globule size. Results: The results of the investigations show that the gum of Moringa oleifera possesses better emulsifying properties as compared to gum acacia. Conclusion: Gum of Moringa oleifera could be used in pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical preparation.

  2. Studies on gum of Moringa oleifera for its emulsifying properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Dibya Sundar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emulsion has been a form of presenting water insoluble substances for a long period of time. Now a day, it has been a way of presenting various intravenous additives and diagnostic agents in X-ray examinations. Various substances can be used as emulsifying agent, which can be operationally defined as a stabilizer of the droplets formed of the internal phase. Materials and Methods: Gum from Moringa oleifera was evaluated for its emulsifying properties. Castor oil emulsions 30 percent (o/w), containing 2 to 4% Moringa oleifera gum was prepared. Emulsions containing equivalent concentration of acacia were also prepared for comparison. All the emulsions prepared were stored at room temperature and studied for stability at various time intervals for 8 weeks. The prepared emulsions were evaluated for creaming rate, globule size and rate of coalescence. 23 factorial design was chosen to investigate the effects of centrifugation, pH, temperature changes and electrolytes on the creaming rate and globule size. Results: The results of the investigations show that the gum of Moringa oleifera possesses better emulsifying properties as compared to gum acacia. Conclusion: Gum of Moringa oleifera could be used in pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical preparation. PMID:24741276

  3. 21 CFR 573.1010 - Xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Xanthan gum. 573.1010 Section 573.1010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Listing § 573.1010 Xanthan gum. The food additive xanthan gum may be safely used in animal feed as...

  4. Take Care of Your Teeth and Gums

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teeth and Gums Print This Topic En español Take Care of Your Teeth and Gums Browse Sections The ... The Basics The Basics: Overview It’s important to take care of your teeth and gums. You can prevent ...

  5. Gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants: effects on lipid oxidation of peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Azam, Mahmood; Hasnain, Abid

    2015-04-01

    Performance of antioxidants is improved by incorporating them into polymer matrix such as polysaccharides based edible coatings. Gum cordia, an anionic polysaccharide extracted from the fruits of Cordia.myxa could be used as carrier of antioxidants by virtue of its strong adhering and emulsifying properties. This study aimed to explore the potential of gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants when applied as edible coating on peanuts. Gum Cordia was compared with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in delivering of antioxidants: butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid (AA). Coated and uncoated peanuts were stored at 35 °C for 126 days and coating carrier effectiveness was measured by following lipid oxidation using chemical parameters (peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive species) and sensory evaluation (oxidized flavor). Significant differences (p < 0.05) between coated and uncoated samples were observed. Gum cordia was found better than CMC to deliver the antioxidants. Gum cordia based coating in combination with BHA/BHT exhibited highest protection (290 % higher shelf life than control) based on peroxide value (40 meq.O2 kg(-1)) followed by gum codia plus BHT (244 %), gum cordia plus BHA (232 %), CMC plus BHA/BHT (184 %), CMC plus BHA (139 %), CMC plus BHT (119 %), gum cordia plus AA (96 %) and CMC plus AA (46 %). PMID:25829621

  6. Determination of optimum tapping date for gum arabic production South Kordofan State, Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idris Musa Adam; Kamal E.M. Fadl

    2011-01-01

    Acacia senegal,the gum arabic producing tree,is the most important tree species for the livelihood of the people in South Kordofan State,Sudan.The objective of this study was to determine the optimum tapping date for gum arabic production in the study area.A randomized complete block design experiment with three replications was conducted at (Meari) area for two continuous growing seasons 2008/2009 -2009/2010.The treatments comprised six tapping dates (1 Oct,15 Oct,1Nov,15 Nov,1 Dec,and 15 Dec).Results showed highly significant differences (p < 0.001) in gum arabic yield (g\\tree) in all pickings and in the total gum yield between the tapping dates.The results also showed that tapping of trees on 15 October and 1 November gave a higher yield compared to the other dates.The highest gum yield of 1086.6 and 661.2g/tree was recorded on 15 October and 15 November,while the lowest gum yield of 297.9 g/tree was recorded when the trees were tapped on 1 October.The two highest-yield dates of tapping (15 Oct and 1 Nov) are recommended as the best time for tapping for gum arabic production in South Kordofan State.These results can be used to increase gum arabic production and farmer income in South Kordofan State.

  7. Comparative evaluation of honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% and combination of xylitol and chlorhexidine mouthwash (0.2% on the clinical level of dental plaque: A 30 days randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of honey, chlorhexidine mouthwash and combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: Ninety healthy dental students, both male and female, aged between 21 to 25 years participated in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine (CHX mouthwash group. The data was collected at the baseline, 15 th day and 30 th day; the plaque was disclosed using disclosing solution and their scores were recorded at six sites per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the three groups. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that all the three groups were effective in reducing the plaque but post-hoc LSD (Least Significant Difference showed that honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group were more effective than chlorhexidine group alone. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of plaque indices in honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to chlorhexidine.

  8. Evolutionary biology. Chewed leaves reveal ancient relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, E

    2000-07-14

    On page 291, researchers describe a new beetle fossil based not on traces of the insect skeleton but on the distinctive gouges the beetles left when they munched on 11 ginger leaves many millions of years ago. The chew marks of the newly described Cephaloleichnites strongi prove that leaf beetles underwent rapid evolution and diversification more than 65 million years ago, possibly taking advantage of (and perhaps influencing) the rapid diversification among flowering plants occurring at the same time. What's more, C. strongi represents the earliest known rolled-leaf beetle species, hundreds of which today still prefer just one of the ginger- and heliconia-like plants in the Zingiberales order.

  9. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Wadhwa, Sham Kumar, E-mail: wadhwashamkumar@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Naveed, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jamil Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida Fatima [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Basic Sciences, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  10. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  11. FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ARAUCARIA BIDWILLI GUM-BASED SUSTAIN RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF DICLOFENAE SODIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ASHOK KUMAR, M.RAJESH, S.MYTHIESH KUMAR,T. GIRIRAJ KULKARNI, V.GOPAL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A gel forming Polysaccharide gum obtained form the bark of Araucaria bidwilli was employed as a matrix sustained release tablet formulation of Diclofenac sodium (a non steroidal anti inflammatory agent. The effect of Araucaria bidwilli gum (Natural and Synthetic polymer Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4 M on the release of Diclofenac sodium was studied. The FT-IR spectroscopic studies of drug, gum and mixture indicated no chemical interaction. Six formulations were prepared by wet granulation method containing Araucaria bidwilli gum powder concentration 10% 20% & 30% w\\w and 10% 20% &30% w\\w of HPMC K4 M with sufficient volume of granulating agent Polyvinyl pyrrolene (PVP K 30, Avicel pH101 as diluents, Magnesium stearate and Aerosil is used lubricant and glidant respectively.This study was carried out to find out the difference between synthetic and natural gum and whether synthetic gum can be replaced by natural gums. Physical and technological studies of granules and tablets were compliance with Pharmacopoial standards.The drug release increased with Araucaria bidwilli gum when compared to synthetics polymer concentration .The value of release exponent were found to be almost straight line and regression coefficient value between 0.938 and 0.998.This implies that the release mechanism is diffusion. Formulation F3 ( contained 30% w\\w Araucaria bidwilli gum met the desired requirements for a sustained release dosage form.

  12. Kinetic models for xanthan gum production using Xanthomonas campestris from molasses

    OpenAIRE

    S.L. GILANI; Najafpour, G.D.; H.D. HEYDARZADEH; H Zare

    2011-01-01

    The effects of media temperature, agitation rate and molasses concentration on the yield of fermentation in xanthan gum production process were investigated. Xanthan gum was produced in batch fermentation by Xanthomonas campestris PTCC 1473 from molasses. At 32 C, 500 rpm and media with 30 g/l of total sugar, maximum production of xanthan gum (17.1 g/l) was achieved. For the purity of the xanthan FTIR spectrum was obtained. The identified spectrum was compared with the commercial product. In...

  13. Viscosity of gums in vitro and their ability to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenelli S.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in vitro with three viscous polysaccharides (guar gum, pectin, and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC of similar initial viscosity submitted to conditions that mimic events occurring in the stomach and duodenum, and their viscosity in these situations was compared to their actions on postprandial hyperglycemia in normal human subjects. Guar gum showed greater viscosity than the other gums during acidification and/or alkalinization and also showed larger effects on plasma glucose levels (35% reduction in maximum rise in plasma glucose and on the total area under the curve of plasma glucose (control: 20,314 ± 1007 mg dl-1 180 min-1 vs guar gum: 18,277 ± 699 mg dl-1 180 min-1, P<0.01. Pectin, which showed a marked reduction in viscosity at 37oC and after events mimicking those that occur in the stomach and duodenum, did not have a significant effect on postprandial hyperglycemia. The performance of viscosity and the glycemia response to CMC were at an intermediate level between guar gum and pectin. In conclusion, these data suggest that temperature, the process of acidification, alkalinization and exposure to intestinal ions induce different viscosity changes in gums having similar initial viscosity, establishing a direct relationship between a minor decrease of gum viscosity in vitro and a reduction of postprandial hyperglycemia

  14. Lip Forces and Chewing Efficiency in Children with Peripheral Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilea, Aranka; Cristea, Alexandru; Dudescu, Cristian M; Hurubeanu, Lucia; Vâjâean, Cosmin; Albu, Silviu; Câmpian, Radu S

    2015-08-01

    Peripheral facial paralysis is accompanied by facial motor disorders and also, by oral dysfunctions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lip forces and chewing efficiency in a group of children with peripheral facial paralysis. The degree of peripheral facial paralysis in the study group (n 11) was assessed using the House-Brackmann scale. The control group consisted of 21 children without facial nerve impairment. To assess lip forces, acrylic vestibular plates of three sizes were used: large (LVP), medium (MVP) and small (SVP). The lip force was recorded with a force transducer coupled with the data acquisition system. Masticatory efficiency was evaluated by the ability to mix two differently colored chewing gums. The images were processed with Adobe Photoshop CS3 (Delaware Corporation, San Jose, California, United States) and the number of pixels was quantified with the Image J software (DHHS/NIH/NIMH/RSB, Maryland, United States). For statistical analysis, the following statistical analysis were used: Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficient, multiple linear regression analysis, multiple logistic regression analysis, and optimal cutoff values for muscular dysfunction. There were statistically significant differences between lip forces in the following three groups: p=0.01 (LVP), p=0.01 (MVP), and p=0.008 (SVP). The cutoff values of lip forces in the study group were as follows: 7.08 N (LVP), 4.89 N (MVP), and 4.24 N (SVP). There were no statistically significant differences between the masticatory efficiency in the two groups (p=0.25). Lip forces were dependent on the degree of peripheral facial paralysis and age, but not on gender. In peripheral facial paralysis in children, a significant decrease of lip forces, but not masticatory efficiency, occurs.

  15. Evolutionary biology. Chewed leaves reveal ancient relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, E

    2000-07-14

    On page 291, researchers describe a new beetle fossil based not on traces of the insect skeleton but on the distinctive gouges the beetles left when they munched on 11 ginger leaves many millions of years ago. The chew marks of the newly described Cephaloleichnites strongi prove that leaf beetles underwent rapid evolution and diversification more than 65 million years ago, possibly taking advantage of (and perhaps influencing) the rapid diversification among flowering plants occurring at the same time. What's more, C. strongi represents the earliest known rolled-leaf beetle species, hundreds of which today still prefer just one of the ginger- and heliconia-like plants in the Zingiberales order. PMID:10917840

  16. Improved Prefrontal Activity and Chewing Performance as Function of Wearing Denture in Partially Edentulous Elderly Individuals: Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kazunobu; Narita, Noriyuki; Iwaki, Sunao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of wearing a denture on prefrontal activity during chewing performance. We specifically examined that activity in 12 elderly edentulous subjects [63.1±6.1 years old (mean ± SD)] and 12 young healthy controls (22.1±2.3 years old) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in order to evaluate the quality of prefrontal functionality during chewing performance under the conditions of wearing a denture and tooth loss, and then compared the findings with those of young healthy controls. fNIRS and electromyography were used simultaneously to detect prefrontal and masticatory muscle activities during chewing, while occlusal force and masticatory score were also examined by use of a food intake questionnaire. A significant increase in prefrontal activity was observed during chewing while wearing a denture, which was accompanied by increased masticatory muscle activity, occlusal force, and masticatory score, as compared with the tooth loss condition. Prefrontal activation during chewing while wearing a denture in the elderly subjects was not much different from that in the young controls. In contrast, tooth loss in the elderly group resulted in marked prefrontal deactivation, accompanied by decreased masticatory muscle activity, occlusal force, and masticatory score, as compared with the young controls. We concluded that intrinsic prefrontal activation during chewing with a denture may prevent prefrontal depression induced by tooth loss in elderly edentulous patients. PMID:27362255

  17. ROLE OF XANTHAN GUM (XANTHOMONAS COMPESTRIS) IN GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Uday Prakash; Lalit Singh; Vijay Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Floating drug delivery system is the form of gastro-retentive drug delivery system. That controls kinetic release rate of drug to a specific site for its pharmacological action. These are achieved by use of various polymeric substances including natural polymer such as xanthan gum. This delivery system prolongs the retention time of the drug in the stomach as compared to conventional dosage form. The present article highlights the use of xanthan gum for the formulation of the gastro-retentive...

  18. Mechanical Reinforcement of Wool Fiber through Polyelectrolyte Complexation with Chitosan and Gellan Gum

    OpenAIRE

    Khairul Anuar Mat Amin; Marc in het Panhuis

    2013-01-01

    The formation of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) wool fibers formed by dipping chitosan or gellan gum-treated wool fibers into biopolymer solutions of opposite charge is reported. Treating wool fibers with chitosan (CH) and gellan gum (GG) solutions containing food dyes resulted in improved mechanical characteristics compared to wool fibers. In contrast, pH modification of the solutions resulted in the opposite effect. The mechanical characteristics of PEC-treated fibers were affected by the or...

  19. Evaluation of Prosopis africana Seed Gum as an Extended Release Polymer for Tablet Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nadaf, Sameer; Nnamani, Petra; Jadhav, Namdeo

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to screen Prosopis africana seed gum (PG), anionic polymer for extended release tablet formulation. Different categories of drugs (charge basis) like diclofenac sodium (DS), chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM), and ibuprofen (IB) were compacted with PG and compared with different polymers (charge basis) like xanthan gum (XG), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC-K100M), and chitosan (CP). For each drug, 12 batches of tablets were prepared by wet granul...

  20. Clustering of Mutations Blocking Synthesis of Xanthan Gum by Xanthomonas campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, L.; Tansey, L.; Pollock, T J

    1987-01-01

    Mutations that block the synthesis of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas campestris B1459S-4L-II were isolated as nonmucoid colonies after treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate. Complete libraries of DNA fragments from wild-type X. campestris were cloned into Escherichia coli by using a broad-host-range cosmid vector and then transferred into each mutant strain by conjugal mating. Cloned fragments that restored xanthan gum synthesis (Xgs+; mucoidy) were compared according to restriction pattern, DNA ...

  1. Effect of virulence and serial transfers of Xanthomonas campestris on xanthan gum production

    OpenAIRE

    Nitschke Marcia; Rodrigues Vanessa

    2000-01-01

    The virulence of six Xanthomonas campestris isolates was evaluated using the percentage of lesion area of leaves in Brassica oleraceae host plant, compared to diameter of colonies, xanthan production and gum viscosity. In terms of virulence, the isolates belonged to two statistically different groups: isolates B, UPF and C7 showed values between 52 and 69%, while isolates CF, C and strain B-1459 gave 0-30% of lesion area. Final xanthan concentration, gum viscosity and colony diameter did not ...

  2. Frequency of oral habits, dysfunctions, and personality traits in bruxing and nonbruxing children: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Silvina Gabriela; Fridman, Diana Elizabeth; Farah, Catalina Liliana; Bielsa, Fernando; Grinberg, Jezabel; Biondi, Ana María

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare personality traits, presence of oral myofunctional dysfunctions, and other parafunctional habits in bruxing and nonbruxing children. Fifty-four patients aged 10 to 15 years were seen at the Comprehensive Pediatric Dental Clinic and examined by dentists using the RDC/TMD; speech therapists and psychologists were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: bruxing (A) and nonbruxing (B). Mean age was 13.1 years, S.D. 1.6. No significant differences in age or gender were found between groups. Group A comprised 44.44% of the population and showed a high frequency of middle conscientiousness scores and low frequency of low neuroticism scores. Presence of TMD, unilateral chewing, and high tongue tip position at rest were all significantly higher. Frequency of oral habits was higher in bruxers, who showed significantly increased gum chewing, and lip, cheek, and object biting compared to nonbruxing controls. Bruxism is considered a risk factor for temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD).

  3. 野油菜黄单胞菌中gumD基因的过表达对产黄原胶的影响%Effect of by overexpressing gumD in Xanthomonas campestris on the xanthan gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂兰; 张晓元; 陈晓燕; 朱希强; 凌沛学

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To improve the yield and quality of xanthan gum by overexpressing gumD in Xanthomonas campestris 58 ( Xc58 ). Methods By PCR amplification, plasmid construction, triparental conjugation and other methods,pBBR-gumD was transformed into the original strain Xc58. Results Compared with Xc58,the recombinant strain Xc58-D has increased by 11. 19% in the yield of xanthan gum, by 6.31% increased in viscosity,by 20. 21 % increased in molecular weight,and by 77. 07% increased in acetyl content, but 6. 34% decreased in pyruvate content. Conclusion The recombinant strain has a higher yield and improves the quality of xanthan gum.%目的 在野油菜黄单胞茵58(Xc58)中过量表达产胶基因gumD,提高黄原胶发酵产量和质量.方法 通过PCR扩增、重组质粒构建、三亲本接合等方法,将重组质粒pBBR-gumD转入原始茵Xc58.结果 工程茵与原始茵相比,黄原胶产量提高11.19%,黏度提高6.31%,重均分子质量提高20.21%,乙酰基含量提高77.07%,丙酮酸含量下降6.34%.结论 改造后的菌株的黄原胶发酵产量和质量都较原始茵株有所提高.

  4. Examining disadoption of gum arabic production in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.; Ruben, R.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2008-01-01

    Gum arabic production in Sudan has developed over the years in a well-established traditional bush-fallow system in which the gum tree (Acacia senegal) is rotated with annual crops. Following the Sahel drought, the gum area has suffered from deforestation and gum production has declined. Several pro

  5. Examining disadoption of gum arabic production in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.H.; Ruben, R.; Ierland, E.C. van

    2008-01-01

    Gum arabic production in Sudan has developed over the years in a well-established traditional bush-fallow system in which the gum tree (Acacia senegal) is rotated with annual crops. Following the Sahel drought, the gum area has suffered from deforestation and gum production has de

  6. Investigations on interpolymer complexes of cationic guar gum and xanthan gum for formulation of bioadhesive films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Tiwary, A K; Kaur, G

    2010-07-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the possible use of inter polymer complexed (IPC) films of xanthan gum (XG) and cationic guar gum (CGG) for formulating domperidone bioadhesive films. Formation of bonds between -COO¯ groups of XG and -N(+)(CH(3))(3) groups of CGG was evident in the FTIR spectra of IPC films. Bioadhesive strength of the films was evaluated employing texture analyser. Water uptake studies indicated swelling to be a function of XG concentration in the interpolymer complexes. The bioadhesive films were found to possess neutral pH. In vitro drug release studies and residence time studies indicated that the film comprising CGG:XG (80:20) released 98% of domperidone in 8 h and exhibited a residence time of approximately 8 h. Enhanced bioavailability of domperidone was observed from bioadhesive films as compared to orally administered conventional tablets. Overall, the findings suggest that IPC films of XG and CGG, exhibiting desired bioadhesive strength and enhanced bioavailability of domperidone, can be prepared. PMID:21589796

  7. The feasibility of Cassia fistula gum with polyaluminium chloride for the decolorization of reactive dyeing wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perng Yuan Shing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find a new environmental-friendly coagulant that can partially replace conventional polyaluminium chloride (PAC which was shown to be toxic to aquatic environment, gum extracted from seeds of Cassia fistula Linn. (CF was investigated in decolorization of reactive dyes Blue 19 (RB19 and Black 5 (RB5 using jar-test experiments. The optimal results showed that crude CF gum (at pH 10, initial dye concentrations (IDC of 100 and 50 mg L-1, gum dosages 200 and 300 mg L-1, reaction time 30 and 45 min, and agitation speed 60 rpm did not achieve high degrees of decolorization in RB5 and RB19 (55.7 and 62.0 %, respectively as compared with PAC coagulant (97.2 and 94.4 %, respectively at the same IDC and reaction time. Whereas when CF gum was used in combination with PAC, decolorization efficiencies of both dyes reached over 92 % at 40 % volume fraction of gum. These results indicated the potential of using CF gum as a “green” coagulant or as a contributing factor to color removal of textile wastewater.

  8. Preparation and evaluation of gels from gum of Moringa oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken with an objective to find out the gelling potentials of a natural gum obtained from plant Moringa oleifera . The gum was extracted by using water as solvent and precipitated using acetone as non-solvent. Physical characteristics such as, solubility, swelling index, loss on drying, and pH were studied. Diclofenac sodium was used as model drug for the formulation of gels. Seven batches of drug loaded gels with concentration of mucilage ranging from 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, and 8.5 were formulated by using glycerin as plasticizer and methyl paraben as preservative. The pH, viscosity, and in vitro diffusion profiles were studied. The gels prepared with 8.0% of mucilage were found to be ideal and comparable with a commercial preparation.

  9. Take Care of Your Teeth and Gums

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This Topic En español Take Care of Your Teeth and Gums Browse Sections The Basics Overview Why ... Brushing Tips 4 of 6 sections Take Action: Dental Checkups Get regular checkups at the dentist. Visit ...

  10. 21 CFR 172.695 - Xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... polysaccharide gum derived from Xanthomonas campestris by a pure-culture fermentation process and purified by... that renders it free of viable cells of Xanthomonas campestris. (d) The additive meets the...

  11. Impact of removable partial denture prosthesis on chewing efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Bessadet

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Removable partial denture prostheses are still being used for anatomic, medical and economic reasons. However, the impact on chewing parameters is poorly described. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of removable partial denture prosthesis on masticatory parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen removable partial denture prosthesis (RPDP wearers participated in the study. Among them, 10 subjects were Kennedy Class III partially edentulous and 9 with posterior edentulism (Class I. All presented a complete and full dentate opposing arch. The subjects chewed samples of carrots and peanuts with and without their prosthesis. The granulometry of the expectorated boluses from carrot and peanuts was characterized by median particle size (D50, determined at the natural point of swallowing. Number of chewing cycles (CC, chewing time (CT and chewing frequency (CF=CC/CT were video recorded. RESULTS: With RPDP, the mean D50 values for carrot and peanuts were lower [Repeated Model Procedures (RMP, F=15, p<0.001] regardless of the type of Kennedy Class. For each food, mean CC, CT and CF values recorded decreased (RMP, F=18, F=9, and F=20 respectively, p<0.01. With or without RPD, the boluses' granulometry values were above the masticatory normative index (MNI determined as 4,000 µm. CONCLUSION: RPDP rehabilitation improves the ability to reduce the bolus particle size, but does not reestablish fully the masticatory function. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study encourages the clinical improvement of oral rehabilitation procedure.

  12. Enhancement of electrical conductivity in the Gum Arabica complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gum Arabica is a natural biopolymer obtained from plant Acacia Arabica. In this present study the electro-active nature of its complex has been investigated. The complexes were developed using pure Gum Arabica and pure Citric acid by the sol-gel process. The scope of complex formation has been investigated and their natures were examined experimentally. The experiments which were carried out in this work are namely d.c V-I characteristics, d.c Arrhenius, ion transference number measurement, UV-VIS and IR photo-absorption. Solid specimen of the complex at various concentration of Citric acid has been developed for d.c experiments and adequate specimens were also developed for UV-VIS experiment. The result of d.c V-I characteristics on specimens at different Citric acid concentrations shows that d.c conductivity increases with concentration of the acid. The said enhancement is observed to be about 100 times that of pure hosts. The ion transference number measurement shows that the total conductivity increases with external acid concentration of which d.c conductivity enhance many times compared to that of ionic part. The result from d.c Arrhenius study shows that electro-thermal activation energy decreases with increasing acid concentration leading to enhancement of electronic conductivity of the complex. The result of UV-VIS study confirms the formation of the acid complex of Gum Arabica. The nature of photo-absorption indicates very clearly that main absorption region shows gradual shifts towards longer wavelength with increase of acid concentration. The result of FTIR absorption shows the structural concepts of electro-activity and complex formation indication of pure Gum Arabica. The overall analysis shows that the electro-activity of the mentioned biopolymer may be tailored.

  13. Evaluation of the flow properties of xanthan gum solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duda, J.L.; Klaus, E.E.; Leung, W.C.

    1981-02-01

    In this study, the solution properties of two forms of xanthan gum, a powder and a broth, which are commercially available were evaluated. As previous studies have shown, the solutions prepared from the broth do exhibit better injectivity properties. However, this investigation also shows that other properties of these solutions are not equivalent. In its natural state, xanthane gum exists as a multistranded helix. This ordered confirmation can be destroyed and in a denatured state, the xanthan gum exhibits a more random configuration and consequently higher viscosity. One of the major conclusions of this study is that the xanthan powder is partially denatured when compared to the xanthan molecules which exist in the broth. This denaturing may occur during the drying process in which the xanthan solids are removed from the broth. Solutions prepared from the broth in the absence of the added salt show a transition in the viscosity-temperature relationship at approximately 40 to 50/sup 0/C. This is consistent with the behavior of native xanthan gum solutions. At approximately 50/sup 0/C, the molecules in solution go into a more random state and consequently, an abrupt rise in the viscosity is observed. However, solutions prepared from the polymer powder do not show any evidence of such a transition. The solutions prepared from the broth can be thermally denatured, and this denaturing results in viscosities which are equivalent to the viscosities realized with the powdered polymer. Before denaturing, the broth solution showed a lower viscosity. Further, intrinsic viscosity measurements indicate that the hydrodynamic volume of the polymer solutions prepared from the borth are smaller than the hydrodynamic volumes of solutions prepared from the powder.

  14. Khat Chewing among Students of Higher Education in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence, Pattern, and Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad Mohammed Alsanosy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To estimate the prevalence and behavioral patterns of Khat chewing and (2 to investigate factors that influenced the pattern of Khat use among undergraduate students in different higher education institutions in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study using a pretested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used to collect data. SPSS version 17 software program was used for data analysis. Results. The overall current Khat chewing prevalence among higher education students was found to be 23.1%, significantly higher among males at 38.5% than among females at 2.1% . Lifetime Khat chewer students were 24.8% for males at 40.5%, significantly higher compared with females at 3.7% . Univariate analysis revealed that the gender of student, smoking status of student, a friend’s smoking, and Khat chewing were associated with a significant high risk of Khat chewing (   for all. Conclusions. The use of Khat trend is increasing among higher education students in Jazan region. A multilevel, value based, comprehensive, and strategic long-term intervention plan is needed. The comprehensive plan may include social interventions geared by creating recreations alternatives and opportunities for youth and a critical review for current authorities’ interventions and services.

  15. Effect of xanthan/enzyme-modified guar gum mixtures on the stability of whey protein isolate stabilized fish oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chityala, Pavan Kumar; Khouryieh, Hanna; Williams, Kevin; Conte, Eric

    2016-12-01

    The effect of xanthan gum (XG) and enzyme-modified guar (EMG) gum mixtures on the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of 2wt% whey protein isolate (WPI) stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing 20%v/v fish oil was investigated. EMG was obtained by hydrolyzing native guar gum using α-galactosidase enzyme. At higher gum concentrations (0.2 and 0.3wt%), the viscosity of the emulsions containing XG/EMG gum mixtures was significantly higher (P<0.05) of all emulsions. Increasing concentrations (0-0.3wt%) of XG/EMG gum mixtures did not affect the droplet size of emulsions. Microstructure images revealed decreased flocculation at higher concentrations. Primary and secondary lipid oxidation measurements indicated a slower rate of oxidation in emulsions containing XG/EMG gum mixtures, compared to XG, guar (GG), and XG/GG gum mixtures. These results indicate that XG/EMG gum mixtures can be used in O/W emulsions to increase physical and oxidative stabilities of polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods. PMID:27374540

  16. Solar drying of uruguayan red gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ono

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he use of solar energy as an alternative to non-renewable energy sources has been widely researched in the last decades. Compared to air drying, solar drying kilns can better control the drying process, resulting in a higher quality of the dry wood and lower final wood moisture content values. Investment and running costs for a solar drying kiln are lower than those of a conventional kiln. Moreover, the solar drying process can be advantageous for drying hardwoods which are traditionally considered difficult to dry such as eucalyptus wood of medium and high density (Red gums, known in Spanish as “Eucaliptos colorados”. The solar drying kiln naturally incorporates a daily high relative humidity period that can be similar to a conditioning or steaming step, although at a lower temperature.This results in fewer defects due to the drying process.A pilot scale 2.5 m3 semi-greenhouse type solar wood drying kiln was constructed at LATU (Uruguay Technological Laboratory in Montevideo, Uruguay. The operating conditions and the results from two drying runs are presented. Two species of red gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm., ADD 870 kg/m3, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., ADD 800 kg/m3 were dried from initial average moisture contents (WMC of around 60% down to 10.0% and 12.7% in 108 days and 76 days, respectively. Boards were provided by the Grupo Forestal San Gregorio from trees harvested at Tacuarembo and Paysandu Departments from cattle shelter forests 60 and 70 years old.Mean volume shrinkage was 18% for E. tereticornis, and 16% for E. camaldulensis, and the level of defects was moderate. Residual stresses and moisture content gradients were observed for both species. Final moisture content values were similar compared to those obtained in conventional drying kilns but with longer drying periods and lower operating costs. This would make the solar drying process attractive to small and medium sized forest products industries in a small country

  17. The Relation of Brain Behavioral Systems, D Personality Type, Anger and Hostility in People with Gum Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Akbari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gum disease is a chronic bacterial infection that affects the gum structures. Given the importance of psychological factors and their impact on physical condition such as gum disease, the aim of this study was to investigate D personality type, brain behavioral systems and anger and hostility in people with gum disease. Materials and Methods: In this causal-comparative study, 50 women with and 50 women without gum disease (age range from 14 to 37 were selected using purposive sampling method and completed the questionnaires of multidimensional anger (Sigel, 1986, D personality type scale, Behavioral inhibition/activation system. MANOVA was used for data analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that groups had significant differences in behavioral inhibition system, behavioral activation system and its components (response to drives, fun seeking, reward responsiveness, D personality type and its components (negative affectivity, social inhibition, anger-arousal, hostile attitude and anger-in (p<0.05, but there were no differences in anger arousing situations and anger-out between them. Conclusion: People with gum disease score higher in BIS, and lower in BAS than normal people, and score higher in D personality type and its components, anger-arousal, hostile outlook, and anger-in. This suggests that psychological factors play a significant role in developing and continuing gum disease and possibly other psychosomatic disorders. So this study focuses on the decisive role of psychological treatments in prevention and promotion of physical and psychological health of people.

  18. Design and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets containing diclofenac sodium using fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Uday Kumar; M. Kishore Babu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To formulate diclofenac sodium as fast dissolving tablets (FDTs) using fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant which also possess anti-inflammatory activity.Methods:physicochemical characterizations. The swelling index and viscosity of fenugreek gum was 221% and 293.4 mpa.s respectively. FDTs of diclofenac sodium was formulated by direct compression technique using different concentrations (1%-6%, w/w) of fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant and compared with renowned synthetic superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium. The anti-inflammatory activity of a formulation was evaluated with carrageenan induced experimental rats.Results:An attempt was made to extract the fenugreek gum and evaluated it for various friability, hardness and results complied with the limits. The drug release from all the formulations ascertained first order kinetics. Among all the formulations F3 containing fenugreek gum with the concentration of 6% produced least disintegrating time 21 seconds resulting in higher drug release rate 93.74% at the end of 25 min. Hence, it was considered as optimized formulation. The present study revealed that the fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant showed better disintegrating property than the most widely used synthetic superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium in the formulations of FDTs. The formulated tablets were evaluated for various physical tests like weight variation, Conclusions: The results suggested that the fenugreek gum act as a good super disintegrating agent and it showed promising additive anti-inflammatory activity with diclofenac sodium.

  19. Areca nut chewing and systemic inflammation : evidence of a common pathway for systemic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafique, Kashif; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Vart, Priya; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Arain, Moin Islam; Tareen, Muhammad Farooq; Haq, Zia Ul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Areca nut, the seed of fruit of an oriental palm, known as Areca catechu, is commonly chewed in many countries. Diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, oropharyngeal and oesophageal cancers have been associated with areca nut chewing and the mechanism by which areca nut chewing

  20. Reduction of serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic rats by Guar gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Samarghandian

    2011-07-01

    Conclusion: These results suggested that guar gum may be effective as hypocholesterolemic agent and may prevent hypercholesteromia in hypercholesteromic rats. The results also suggested that guar gum may be important for reducing body weight in hyperlipidemic rats.

  1. Agave Chewing and Dental Wear: Evidence from Quids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Emily E; Baier, Melissa A; Reinhard, Karl J

    2015-01-01

    Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the site were found to be largely derived from chewing Agave. In this study, the quids were found to be especially rich in phytoliths, and analysis of dental casts made from impressions left in the quids revealed flat wear and dental attrition similar to that of Agave-reliant hunter-gatherers. Based on evidence obtained from the analysis of quids, taken in combination with results from previous studies, it is determined that Agave quid chewing was a likely contributing factor to dental wear in this population. As such, our method provides an additional avenue of dental research in areas where quids are present. PMID:26230855

  2. Agave Chewing and Dental Wear: Evidence from Quids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E Hammerl

    Full Text Available Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the site were found to be largely derived from chewing Agave. In this study, the quids were found to be especially rich in phytoliths, and analysis of dental casts made from impressions left in the quids revealed flat wear and dental attrition similar to that of Agave-reliant hunter-gatherers. Based on evidence obtained from the analysis of quids, taken in combination with results from previous studies, it is determined that Agave quid chewing was a likely contributing factor to dental wear in this population. As such, our method provides an additional avenue of dental research in areas where quids are present.

  3. Effect of probiotic chewing tablets on early childhood caries--a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedayati-Hajikand, Trifa; Lundberg, Ulrika; Eldh, Catarina;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of probiotic chewing tablets on early childhood caries development in preschool children living in a low socioeconomic multicultural area. METHODS: The investigation employed a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design. The study group consisted of 138...... daily with fluoride toothpaste. RESULTS: The groups were balanced at baseline and the attrition rate was 20%. Around 2/3 of the children in both groups reported an acceptable compliance. The caries increment (Δds) was significantly lower in the test group when compared with the placebo group, 0.2 vs. 0.......8 (p effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that early...

  4. UTILIZATION OF GUM ARABIC FOR INDUSTRIES AND HUMAN HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Eqbal Dauqan; Aminah Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Gum Arabic, a natural polysaccharide derived from exudates of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal trees, is a commonly used food hydrocolloid. The highlight of this study was to review the utilization of gum Arabic for industries and human health. Gum Arabic has a unique combination of excellent emulsifying properties and low solution viscosity. These properties make gum Arabic very useful in several industries but especially in the food industry where it is used as a flavor and stabilizer of cit...

  5. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to agar, alginic acid, calcium polycarbophil... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as..., and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to agar, alginic acid, calcium...

  6. Effect of Bark Extract and Gum Exudate of Commiphora Caudata on Aspirin Induced Ulcer in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nanthakumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Commiphora caudata is used in Indian folk medicine as an antiulcerogenic agent. Despite of its promising use, there has been no scientific report present regarding its antiulcer activity. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of bark extract and gum exudate of commiphora caudata on aspirin induced ulcer in rats. Acute toxicity study was performed and 200 mg/kg was selected as an effective dose. Four groups of Albino Swiss rats were included in this study. Aspirin suspended in 0.5 % carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC was given orally to group 1 rats as a negative control group. Group 2 and group 3 animals received methanolic extract and gum exudate of commiphora caudata respectively. Sucralfate was given orally to group 4 animals as a positive control. The methanolic extract of commiphora caudata has been found to reduce total acidity as much as by sucralfate. However, it has not changed the fluid secretion. The gum preparation not only reduced the total acidity but also considerably reduce the gastric fluid secretion. In case of ulcer score sucralfate, methanolic extract and the gum have produced the low ulcer score compared to aspirin. Increased gastric mucosal protective mechanism by bark extract and gum exudate is probably due to the presence of some active principles present in the plant. However, further investigations are required to elucidate their exact mechanism of anti-ulcer activity.

  7. Structure of xanthan gum and cell ultrastructure at different times of alkali stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello Luvielmo, Márcia; Borges, Caroline Dellinghausen; de Oliveira Toyama, Daniela; Vendruscolo, Claire Tondo; Scamparini, Adilma Regina Pippa

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alkali stress on the yield, viscosity, gum structure, and cell ultrastructure of xanthan gum was evaluated at the end of fermentation process of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis 280-95. Although greater xanthan production was observed after a 24 h-alkali stress process, a lower viscosity was observed when compared to the alkali stress-free gum, regardless of the alkali stress time. However, this outcome is not conclusive as further studies on gum purification are required to remove excess sodium, verify the efficiency loss and the consequent increase in the polymer viscosity. Alkali stress altered the structure of xanthan gum from a polygon-like shape to a star-like form. At the end of the fermentation, early structural changes in the bacterium were observed. After alkali stress, marked structural differences were observed in the cells. A more vacuolated cytoplasm and discontinuities in the membrane cells evidenced the cell lysis. Xanthan was observed in the form of concentric circles instead of agglomerates as observed prior to the alkali stress. PMID:26887232

  8. Preliminary study on xanthan gum used for tank decontamination by static foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xanthan gum is widely used as a biological thickening and foaming agent for its properties of anti-shearing, resistant to acid, alkaline and oxidization condition, which just meet the requirements of decontamination with static foam for thickening agent. This paper introduces the principle of determining the stability of foam with TURBISCAN LAB, analyses the influence of some factors system, such as stirring speed, xanthan gum concentration, Na2CO3 concentration and temperature on viscosity of solution in Na2CO3 system; analyses the influence of xanthan gum concentration and the retaining time of foaming solution in acidic system (HNO3 + H3PO4) on the stability of foam; and compares the weight loss of aluminum plate in acidic foam and foaming solution. The results indicate that xanthan gum can be used as thickening agent in solution containing Na2CO3, and HNO3 respectively, and the foam produced with the acidic solution can be stable and corrode the aluminum during the first hours after foaming. The property that the solution deteriorates with time facilitates the treatment of the liquid waste arising from the foam decontamination process. Therefore, xanthan gum is a promising thickening agent for the decontamination of radioactively contaminated tank with static foam. (authors)

  9. Structure of xanthan gum and cell ultrastructure at different times of alkali stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvielmo, Márcia de Mello; Borges, Caroline Dellinghausen; Toyama, Daniela de Oliveira; Vendruscolo, Claire Tondo; Scamparini, Adilma Regina Pippa

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alkali stress on the yield, viscosity, gum structure, and cell ultrastructure of xanthan gum was evaluated at the end of fermentation process of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis 280-95. Although greater xanthan production was observed after a 24h-alkali stress process, a lower viscosity was observed when compared to the alkali stress-free gum, regardless of the alkali stress time. However, this outcome is not conclusive as further studies on gum purification are required to remove excess sodium, verify the efficiency loss and the consequent increase in the polymer viscosity. Alkali stress altered the structure of xanthan gum from a polygon-like shape to a star-like form. At the end of the fermentation, early structural changes in the bacterium were observed. After alkali stress, marked structural differences were observed in the cells. A more vacuolated cytoplasm and discontinuities in the membrane cells evidenced the cell lysis. Xanthan was observed in the form of concentric circles instead of agglomerates as observed prior to the alkali stress. PMID:26887232

  10. Rheological Modeling and Characterization of Ficus platyphylla Gum Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk O. Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus platyphylla gum exudates (FP gum have been analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and found to be ionic, mildly acidic, odourless, and yellowish brown in colour. The gum is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in acetone and chloroform. The nitrogen (0.39% and protein (2.44% contents of the gum are relatively low. The concentrations of the cations were found to increase according to the following trend, Mn>Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu>Mg>Cd>Ca. Analysis of the FTIR spectrum of the gum revealed vibrations similar to those found in polysaccharides while the scanning electron micrograph indicated that the gum has irregular molecular shapes, arranged randomly. The intrinsic viscosity of FP gum estimated by extrapolating to zero concentrations in Huggins, Kraemer, Schulz-Blaschke, and Martin plots has an average value of 7 dL/g. From the plots of viscosity versus shear rate/speed of rotation and also that of shear stress versus shear rate, FP gum can be classified as a non-Newtonian gum with characteristics-plastic properties. Development of the Master_s curve for FP gum also indicated that the gum prefers to remain in a dilute domain (Cgum (calculated from Arrhenius-Frenkel-Eyring plot was relatively low and indicated the presence of fewer inter- and intramolecular interactions.

  11. DAMPING PERFORMANCE OF EUCOMMIA ULMOIDES GUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-chuan Zhang; Zhao-hong Xue; Rui-fang Yan

    2011-01-01

    Eucommia ulmoides gum (EU gum), known as gutta percha in Southeast Asia, is a natural polymer with double characteristics of rubber and plastic. In present paper, tanδ-T curve and hysteresis loss (HL) were chosen to characterize its damping property. The results indicated that its tanδvalue would increase with rising of temperature when T> 0°C and form another damping peak at 40-80°C besides Tg peak. This phenomenon resulted fiom meltage of crystals of EU gum could increase its damping property at ambient-high temperature. Its tanδ value even exceeded those of conventional damping rubbers, such as nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) and chlorinated isobutene-isoprene rubber (CIIR).

  12. Linear response of mutans streptococci to increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN43479664

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi David K; Roberts Marilyn C; Milgrom Peter; Ly Kiet A; Rothen Marilynn; Mueller Greg

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Xylitol is a naturally occurring sugar substitute that has been shown to reduce the level of mutans streptococci in plaque and saliva and to reduce tooth decay. It has been suggested that the degree of reduction is dependent on both the amount and the frequency of xylitol consumption. For xylitol to be successfully and cost-effectively used in public health prevention strategies dosing and frequency guidelines should be established. This study determined the reduction in m...

  13. Remineralization of Enamel and Dentin by A Chewing Gum Containing Phosphoryl-Oligosaccharide Calcium (POs-Ca) in situ

    OpenAIRE

    稲葉, 大輔; 南, 健太郎; 釜阪, 寛; 米満, 正美; イナバ,ダイスケ,ミナミ,ケンタロウ,カマサカ,ヒロシ,ヨネミツ,マサミ; Daisuke, INABA; Kentaro, MINAMI; Hiroshi, KAMASAKA; Masami, YONEMITSU

    2002-01-01

    著者らはリン酸化オリゴ糖カルシウム塩(POs-Ca)が馬鈴薯澱粉の加水分解物より抽出でき,カルシウムの溶解性を高めることを先に報告した。本研究の目的は,POs-Ca配合シュガーレスガムのエナメル質および象牙質の再石灰化におよぼす効果を口腔内実験により確認することである。12名のボランティア(男性6名,女性6名;平均22歳)をランダムに2群に分け,二重盲検,クロスオーバーデザインの口腔内実験を行った。各被験者は脱灰した牛歯エナメル質および象牙質ディスクを取り付けた上顎口蓋プレートを装着し,キシリトールガムまたは2.6%POs-Ca配合キシリトールガムのいずれかを,1日4回噛んだ(期間:2週間/ガム)。実験期間中,フッ化物は使用せず,エナメル質ディスクが乾燥しないよう注意した。エナメル質ディスクのマイクロラジオグラフから脱灰深度ldを評価した。POs-Caガム群のエナメル質および象牙質のld値は,それぞれ70±11μmならびに71±13μm(Mean±SD)で,キシリトールガムの値(エナメル質:101±21μm,象牙質:95±13μm)よりも25-31%減少していた(p...

  14. Study on assessing method of chewing gum scent%口香糖香味评定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田广文; 孔令会

    2002-01-01

    通过以一种口香糖专用香精设计制备两组差异度的口香糖样品,试用"2点识别试验"、"双因素无重复方差分析"和"模糊数学统计"等三种方法对其香味进行评定.结果分析说明只有三种方法结合使用,才能完整科学地反映口香糖样品间香味的真实差异性,同时也可检验鉴评员间判别水平的差异程度.

  15. Study on the chewing gum of edible areca%槟榔口香糖的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁腊梅; 梁帅; 张海德

    2011-01-01

    为了研发咀嚼槟榔片的替代品,应用正交实验的方法,以槟榔提取液为原料,添加淀粉糖浆、食用香精等物质制成槟榔口香糖.实验结果表明,胶基量占35%,槟榔提取液量占5%,淀粉糖浆量占40%,香精量占0.3%,所制得的槟榔口香糖适口性最好.

  16. Determination Method of VC from Chewing Gum%一种测定口香糖中VC的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓鸿铃

    2012-01-01

    针对目前国标没有口香糖中VC含量的检测方法,结合已有国标VC测定方法的基础上进行改良试验.对口香糖样品进行快速溶解,使样品中的VC溶解进入含有乙酸的溶液中,与固蓝盐B反应生成黄色的草酰肼-2-羟基丁酰内酯衍生物.在其最大吸收波长420 nm处,用紫外可见分光光度计测定其含量.本方法的线性范围1 μg/mL~20 μg/mL,检出限为1 μg/mL,样品加标回收率在90.9%~98.6%,相对标准偏差为1.57%.

  17. Preparation of chewing gum chips with chitosan%壳聚糖口香片的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    律佳雪; 周丰; 宗怡; 龙峥; 黄泽元

    2003-01-01

    对无蔗糖壳聚糖口香片的研制过程进行了介绍.以壳聚糖、魔芋精粉作为胶凝剂和成形剂,以甜蜜素和蛋白糖为甜味剂,以薄荷素油等为风味剂研制而成.确定了壳聚糖口香片的生产工艺和配方.

  18. 降压保健口香糖的研制%Studies on blood pressure decreased healthy chewing gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钟; 蒋庆丽

    2003-01-01

    本文以玉米渣生产的降血压肽为主要功能因子,以胶基、山梨糖醇、甘露糖醇、甘油、柠檬酸、香精等为原辅料,探讨了降压保健口香糖的生产工艺.应用正交实验的方法,对其配方进行筛选和优化,得出降压保健口香糖的最佳配方.

  19. Preparation of the chewing gum chips with chitosan%壳聚糖口香片的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄泽元; 律佳雪; 周丰; 宗怡; 龙峥

    2003-01-01

    主要介绍无蔗糖壳聚糖口香片的研制过程.该产品以壳聚糖、魔芋精粉作为胶凝剂和成形剂,以甜蜜素和蛋白糖为甜味剂,以薄荷素油等为风味剂研制而成.确定了壳聚糖口香片的生产工艺和配方.

  20. 胶姆糖卫生标准研究%Development of hygienic standard of chewing gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫东; 邓峰; 范保荣; 戴马清; 黄妙英

    1999-01-01

    为制定国家卫生标准,对胶姆糖生产配方、工艺、环境等情况进行卫生学调查,并对广东、黑龙江、上海等地采集的373份试样进行14个项目的检测分析,根据我国实际情况及有关卫生要求,参考国内外相应的法规标准,提出我国胶姆糖卫生标准.

  1. Determination of Ti in Chewing Gum by ICP-AES%ICP-AES测定口香糖中的Ti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵林同; 沈珂; 殷新

    2007-01-01

    以碱熔法处理样品,电感耦合等离子体-原子发射光谱法(ICP-AES)快速测定口香糖中的Ti,相对标准偏差为0.22%,回收率在97.0%-100.0%之间,可应用于各种口香糖中Ti的测定.

  2. 山梨醇口香糖工艺的探讨%Study on the Process of Sorbitol Chewing Gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋; 董彩军; 边丽

    2008-01-01

    采用3因素3水平正交实验,对山梨醇口香糖工艺进行了探讨,并对结果进行了方差分析.实验表明,在胶基含量40%,山梨醇含量20%,六氢β酸含量为100μg/mL时,所制得口香精的适口性最好,并具有良好的抗菌作用;在用不同比表而积的山梨醇作填充剂时,随着山梨醇比表面积的增加,口香糖口感也变得更好.

  3. 罗汉果口香糖工艺研究%Process Research of Mangosteen Chewing Gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周治德; 张连香; 杨裴庆; 李桂银

    2016-01-01

    目的:开发一种具有保健效果的罗汉果口香糖.方法:以罗汉果甜苷作为主要的甜味剂及药效成分,添加山梨酵、苹果酸等物质,通过正交试验来确定罗汉果口香糖的最佳配方.采用大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌两种代表菌株,通过抑菌圈实验法考察口香糖的抑菌效果.结果:口香糖的最佳配方为:口香糖胶基35.0%、罗汉果甜苷2.0%、山梨醇35.0%、苹果酸0.3%、水4.0%、香味料3.0%、麦芽糊精20.7%.结论:罗汉果口香糖外观良好,口感风味尚佳,且具有明显的抑菌功效.

  4. Compositional analysis and rheological properties of gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium): a tree gum from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, V T P; Sashidhar, R B; Sarma, V U M; Vijaya Saradhi, U V R

    2008-03-26

    Gum kondagogu ( Cochlospermum gossypium) is a tree exudate gum that belongs to the family Bixaceae. Compositional analysis of the gum by HPLC and LC-MS revealed uronic acids to be the major component of the polymer ( approximately 26 mol %). Furthermore, analysis of the gum by GC-MS indicated the presence of sugars such as arabinose (2.52 mol %), mannose (8.30 mol %), alpha- d-glucose (2.48 mol %), beta- d-glucose (2.52 mol %), rhamnose (12.85 mol %), galactose (18.95 mol %), d-glucuronic acid (19.26 mol %), beta- d-galactouronic acid (13.22 mol %), and alpha- d-galacturonic acid (11.22 mol %). Gum kondagogu, being rich in rhamnose, galactose, and uronic acids, can be categorized on the basis of its sugar composition as a rhamnogalacturonan type of gum. The rheological measurements performed on the gum suggest that above 0.6% (w/v) it shows a Newtonian behavior and shear rate thinning behavior as a function of gum concentration. The viscoelastic behavior of gum kondagogu solutions (1 and 2%) in aqueous as well as in 100 mM NaCl solution exhibits a typical gel-like system. The G' (viscous modulus)/ G'' (elastic modulus) ratios of native gum kondagogu (1 and 2%) in aqueous solution were found to be 1.89 and 1.85 and those in 100 mM NaCl to be 1.54 and 2.2, respectively, suggesting a weak gel-like property of the polymer. Crossover values of G' and G'' were observed to be at frequencies of 0.432 Hz for 1% and 1.2 Hz for 2% for native gum in aqueous condition, indicating a predominantly liquid- to solid-like behavior, whereas crossover values of 2.1 Hz for 1% and 1.68 Hz for 2% gum in 100 mM NaCl solution suggest a larger elastic contribution.

  5. RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF PSYLLIUM GUM FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hojjatoleslamyi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Psyllium (Plantago psyllium is a native plant that grows widely in India, Iran and Pinjab. Studies showed psyllium gum has good rheological properties for using in wide range of food products. In this study, different fractions of psyllium gum extracted by water and alkali treatment. Rheological properties of these fractions determined by Brookfield rheometer (RV DVIII. Obtained data fitted in three temperatures 30, 60 and 80°C by Herschel-bulkly rheological model. Results showed that fractions have different behaviour during heating treatment. The most difference observed in AEG0.5 fraction.

  6. Enzymatic production of polysaccharides from gum tragacanth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Plant polysaccharides, relating to the field of natural probiotic components, can comprise structures similar to human milk oligosaccharides. A method for enzymatic hydrolysis of gum tragacanth from the bush-like legumes of the genus Astragalus, using a combination of pectin hydrolases and a xylo......Plant polysaccharides, relating to the field of natural probiotic components, can comprise structures similar to human milk oligosaccharides. A method for enzymatic hydrolysis of gum tragacanth from the bush-like legumes of the genus Astragalus, using a combination of pectin hydrolases...... and a xylogalacturonan hydrolase, is described. Fractions with different oligo- and/or polysaccharide compositions and structure are separated according to molecular weight....

  7. Ipomoea dasysperma seed gum: an effective natural coagulant for the decolorization of textile dye solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghi, Rashmi; Bhattacharya, Bani; Dixit, Awantika; Singh, Vandana

    2006-10-01

    An investigation of dye decolorization from synthetic dye solutions using the non-ionic, water-soluble, high molecular weight seed gums Ipomoea dasysperma and guar gum as coagulants was undertaken. The use of galactomannans derived from plants in this system presents a sustainable method of textile effluent treatment. These natural coagulants extracted from plants proved to be workable alternatives to conventional coagulants like polyaluminum chloride, as they are biodegradable, safe to human health, are cost effective when compared to imported chemicals and have a wider effective dosage range for flocculation of various colloidal suspensions. Coagulant dose and coagulation pH are important factors influencing the mechanism of coagulation. Also the type and chemical structure of the dye plays an important role in the coagulation process. The seed gums alone were found to be effective for decolorization of direct dye and in combination with PAC their coagulation efficiency was well extended even for reactive and acid dyes.

  8. Mechanical Reinforcement of Wool Fiber through Polyelectrolyte Complexation with Chitosan and Gellan Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Anuar Mat Amin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The formation of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC wool fibers formed by dipping chitosan or gellan gum-treated wool fibers into biopolymer solutions of opposite charge is reported. Treating wool fibers with chitosan (CH and gellan gum (GG solutions containing food dyes resulted in improved mechanical characteristics compared to wool fibers. In contrast, pH modification of the solutions resulted in the opposite effect. The mechanical characteristics of PEC-treated fibers were affected by the order of addition, i.e., dipping GG-treated fibers into chitosan resulted in mechanical reinforcement, whereas the reverse-order process did not.

  9. Effect of irradiation on molecular weight and antioxidant activity of xanthan gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xanthan gum in dry state was treated at different dosages(0-500 kGy) of 60Co γ-rays irradiation to investigate the changes of molecular weight and antioxidant activity of Xanthan gum. The molecular weight of Xanthan gum increased from 1.71 x 106 to 2.23 x 106 at 10 kGy dose of irradiation, then decreased to 1.59 x 104 at 500 kGy. Reducing activity and scavenging assays of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·), superoxide anion radical(O2-·) and hydroxyl radical(·OH) were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of irradiated Xanthan gum. Below 10 kGy, reducing activity and scavenging effect on DPPH· and O2-· were negative correlated with irradiation dose, and compared with control,reducing activity decreased by 3.16%, and the scavenging effects on DPPH· and O2-· decreased from 17.37% and 18.18% to 16.87% and 8.51% at 10 kGy, respectively. When irradiation dose was higher than 10 kGy, reducing activity and the scavenging effect on DPPH· and O2-· of irradiated samples were positive correlated with irradiation dose, and compared with control, reducing activity increased by 164.22%, and scavenging effect on DPPH· and O2-· increased to 60.79% and 30.06% at 500 kGy, respectively. The ·OH scavenging capacity of irradiated samples was negative correlated with irradiation dose, and it decreased from 9.29% at 0 kGy to 3.63% at 500 kGy. Irradiation can cause polymerization or degradation of Xanthan gum molecule, and lead to significant changes of molecular weight and antioxidant activity of Xanthan gum. (authors)

  10. Guar Gum, Xanthan Gum, and HPMC Can Define Release Mechanisms and Sustain Release of Propranolol Hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Mughal, Muhammad Akhlaq; Iqbal, Zafar; Neau, Steven Henry

    2010-01-01

    The objectives were to characterize propranolol hydrochloride-loaded matrix tablets using guar gum, xanthan gum, and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) as rate-retarding polymers. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation using these polymers alone and in combination, and physical properties of the granules and tablets were studied. Drug release was evaluated in simulated gastric and intestinal media. Rugged tablets with appropriate physical properties were obtained. Empirical and semi-empiri...

  11. Effectiveness of a Nutrition Education Program to Improve Children's Chewing Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nanae; Hayashi, Fumi; Yoshiike, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study determined whether the nutrition education program we developed to promote chewing food properly influenced children's chewing habits successfully. Four kindergarten classes in Japan (150 children, aged 5-6 years) were studied; one class received the educational program in the classroom and at home (Group A) and three classes received the program in the classroom only (Group B). The educational program was integrated into the classes' daily curriculum for five weeks. It included storytelling with large picture books, chewing consciously while eating lunch, singing a song with gestures, and greetings before and after meals (both groups). Group A also used a paper textbook and was provided information by the leaflet to encourage guardians to implement the program at home. Chewing habits before and after intervention were evaluated: (1) guardians completed seven questionnaire items related to chewing habits and chewing movement and (2) the number of chews and time spent eating the test meal were measured by a portable chewing sensor. Both approaches improved the children's chewing habits; however, no difference was found between the two groups. We concluded that this intervention could be used to improve chewing habits in young children even without active involvement of their guardians. PMID:27382638

  12. Effects of Betel chewing on the central and autonomic nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, N S

    2001-01-01

    Betel chewing has been claimed to produce a sense of well-being, euphoria, heightened alertness, sweating, salivation, a hot sensation in the body and increased capacity to work. Betel chewing also leads to habituation, addiction and withdrawal. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. Arecoline, the major alkaloid of Areca nut, has been extensively studied, and several effects of betel chewing are thought to be related to the actions of this parasympathomimetic constituent. However, betel chewing may produce complex reactions and interactions. In the presence of lime, arecoline and guvacoline in Areca nut are hydrolyzed into arecaidine and guvacine, respectively, which are strong inhibitors of GABA uptake. Piper betle flower or leaf contains aromatic phenolic compounds which have been found to stimulate the release of catecholamines in vitro. Thus, betel chewing may affect parasympathetic, GABAnergic and sympathetic functions. Betel chewing produces an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, sweating and body temperature. In addition, EEG shows widespread cortical desynchronization indicating a state of arousal. In autonomic function tests, both the sympathetic skin response and RR interval variation are affected. Betel chewing also increases plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine. These results suggest that betel chewing mainly affects the central and autonomic nervous systems. Future studies should investigate both the acute and chronic effects of betel chewing. Such studies may further elucidate the psychoactive mechanisms responsible for the undiminished popularity of betel chewing since antiquity. PMID:11385294

  13. 21 CFR 172.665 - Gellan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... molecular weight polysaccharide gum produced from Pseudomonas elodea by a pure culture fermentation process... viable cells of P. elodea. (d) The additive meets the following specifications: (1) Positive for gellan... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3336 - Gum guaiac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum guaiac. 582.3336 Section 582.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  15. Additional foraging elements reduce abnormal behaviour – fur-chewing and stereotypic behaviour – in farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert; Svendsen, Pernille Maj;

    2013-01-01

    the chunky diet reduced time spent in pre-feeding stereotypies (P = 0.001). In the restrictively fed females, fur-chewing was reduced both by access to biting ropes (P = 0.005) and chunky feed (P = 0.007). Consequently, 54% of group FARM mink displayed fur-chewing compared to 21% in group BOTH. In conclusion...... period with plenty of feed, and subsequently the females as adults during the 2-month feed restriction period before mating. The mink were distributed in four equally sized groups: (i) FARM, conventional finely ground feed (... the season of feed restriction, the wear/tear of biting ropes increased. Females on the chunky diet had a higher concentration of faecal cortisol metabolites (P = 0.033), probably due to a more severe slimming resulting in a 6.2% lower body weight (P = 0.006) than the mink on the finely ground diet; still...

  16. Assessment of chewing stick (miswak use in a Muslim community in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Agbor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and reasons for chewing stick use among adult Muslim′s inhabitants of Banyo in the Adamawa region of Cameroon. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study aimed at determining the prevalence and reasons for chewing stick use among Muslims was conducted between November 2010 and April 2011. Results: Of the 220 participants in this study, 187 (85.0% of them reported chewing stick use for teeth cleaning, and this was higher among males than females. Chewing stick use increased with ageing and varied among participants of different professions. Chewing stick users accented that the chewing stick use has a relationship with religion, and believed that chewing stick has a positive effect in the mouth than the non-users. Chewing stick users were less likely to have visited the dentist and experienced mouth odor but more likely to report oral health problems than non-users. The majority of the participants used chewing stick alone while a few used chewing stick with salt, charcoal and toothpaste The reasons for chewing stick use were religious advice, treatment of oral diseases, imitation of others and pleasure. Conclusion: Chewing stick use was common among participants with religious advice being the most dominant reason for the usage. Chewing stick users were less likely to visit the dentist, experience mouth odor but are more likely to report oral health problem than the non-users. This study information will serve as a useful guide in community oral health interventional development programme among Muslims.

  17. Natural gums as sustained release carriers: development of gastroretentive drug delivery system of ziprasidone HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Rajamma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective of this study is to show the potential use of natural gums in the development of drug delivery systems. Therefore in this work gastro retentive tablet formulations of ziprasidone HCl were developed using simplex lattice design considering concentration of okra gum, locust bean gum and HPMC K4M as independent variables. A response surface plot and multiple regression equations were used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on hardness, flag time, floating time and drug release for 1 h, 2 h, and 8 h and for 24 h. A checkpoint batch was also prepared by considering the constraints and desirability of optimized formulation to improve its in vitro performance. Significance of result was analyzed using ANOVA and p was considered statistically significant. Results Formulation chiefly contains locust bean gum found to be favorable for hardness and floatability but combined effect of three variables was responsible for the sustained release of drug. The in vitro drug release data of check point batch (F8 was found to be sustained well compared to the most satisfactory formulation (F7 of 7 runs. The ‘n’ value was found to be between 0.5 and 1 suggesting that release of drug follows anomalous (non-fickian diffusion mechanism indicating both diffusion and erosion mechanism from these natural gums. Predicted results were almost similar to the observed experimental values indicating the accuracy of the design. In vivo floatability test indicated non adherence to the gastric mucosa and tablets remain buoyant for more than 24 h. Conclusions Study showed these eco-friendly natural gums can be considered as promising SR polymers.

  18. Natural Gums as Sustained Release Carriers: Development of Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System of Ziprasidone HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamma AJ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:Objective of this study is to show the potential use of natural gums in the development of drug delivery systems. Therefore in this work gastro retentive tablet formulations of ziprasidone HCl were developed using simplex lattice design considering concentration of okra gum, locust bean gum and HPMC K4M as independent variables. A response surface plot and multiple regression equations were used to evaluate the effect of independentvariables on hardness, flag time, floating time and drug release for 1h, 2h, and 8h and for 24h.A checkpoint batch was also prepared by considering the constraints and desirability of optimized formulation to improve its in vitro performance. Significance of result was analyzed using ANOVA and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results:Formulation chiefly contains locust bean gum found to be favorable for hardness and floatability but combined effect of three variables was responsible for the sustained release of drug. The in vitro drug release data of check point batch (F8 was found to be sustained well compared to the most satisfactory formulation (F7 of 7 runs. The „n‟ value was found to be between 0.5 and 1 suggesting that release of drug follows anomalous (non-fickian diffusionmechanism indicating both diffusion and erosion mechanism from these natural gums.Predicted results were almost similar to the observed experimental values indicating the accuracy of the design. In vivo floatability test indicated non adherence to the gastric mucosaand tablets remain buoyant for more than 24h.Conclusions:Study showed these eco-friendly natural gums can be considered as promising SR polymers.

  19. 快速分散颗粒型黄原胶的应用研究%Research on Application of Instant Dispersed Granular Xanthan Gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苗苗; 陈健; 杜金锁; 毕晓玲; 司书锋

    2014-01-01

    Granular Xanthan Gum is prepared with Xanthan Gum powder by granulation technology. This kind of product has instant dispensability because of its porous granular structure.It improved the dispensability and dissolution speed of Xanthan Gum,consequently solved the cluster problem of Xanthan Gum in application.Compare the dissolution characteristic of Granular Xanthan Gum with Xanthan Gum powder and instant Xanthan Gum,the results show that the viscosity release rate of Granular Xanthan Gum in water,10% sugar solution and 2.5% salt solution is dramatically faster than Xanthan Gum powder,equal to instant product.Granular Xanthan Gum could be widely used in food,especially applicable to instant food.%对粉末黄原胶通过造粒技术制备颗粒型黄原胶,该产品具有疏松多孔的颗粒结构,提高了黄原胶的分散性和溶解速度,解决了其在食品中应用时的结团问题。对比了快速分散颗粒型黄原胶与普通粉末黄原胶和速溶型黄原胶的溶解特性。结果表明:颗粒型黄原胶在水、10%蔗糖和2.5%盐溶液中的粘度释放速度显著快于粉末黄原胶,与速溶型产品相当,可以广泛应用于食品中,尤其适用于速溶食品。

  20. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  1. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19F(p,p'γ)19F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  2. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Makanju, O.V. [Drug Research and Production Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University (O.A.U.), Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Haque, A.M.I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Buoso, M.C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Cherubini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the {sup 19}F(p,p`{gamma}){sup 19}F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed. (orig.).

  3. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Makanju, O. V.; Haque, A. M. I.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Cherubini, R.; Moschini, G.

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19F(p, p'γ) 19F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed.

  4. Competition in the gum arabic market: a game theoretic modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.; Ierland, van E.C.; Weikard, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Gum arabic is mainly produced from two Acacias that are found in the gum belt of Sub-Saharan Africa. These are Acacia senegal that produces high quality gum and Acacia seyal that produces low quality gum. In recent years the gum market structure has changed and Sudan lost its near monopoly position

  5. Ex vivo determination of chewing patterns using FBG and artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, L. Z.; Pegorini, V.; Pitta, C. S. R.; Assmann, T. S.; Cardoso, R.; Kalinowski, H. J.; Silva, J. C. C.

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports the experimental procedures performed in a bovine head for the determination of chewing patterns during the mastication process. Mandible movements during the chewing have been simulated either by using two plasticine materials with different textures or without material. Fibre Bragg grating sensors were fixed in the jaw to monitor the biomechanical forces involved in the chewing process. The acquired signals from the sensors fed the input of an artificial neural network aiming at the classification of the measured chewing patterns for each material used in the experiment. The results obtained from the simulation of the chewing process presented different patterns for the different textures of plasticine, resulting on the determination of three chewing patterns with a classification error of 5%.

  6. A study of guar seed and guar gum properties (Cyamopsis tetragonolabous)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guar seed components of three genotypes (HFG53, HFG182, HFG363), are hull (13.4-14%), germ (43.3-44.2%) and endosperm (36.0-40%). The proximate composition of guar seed in mean values is moisture (11.3±0.01%), crude protein (29.10±0.01%), crude fat (1.58±0.01%), crude fibre (9.01±0.01%) and carbohydrates by difference. The endosperm analysis showed mean values for moisture (6.18±0.03%), ash (1.35±0.03%), crude protein (4.41±0.0%), crude fat (0.30±0.0%), crude fibre (1.55±0.01%) and carbohydrates (0.41±0.04%). The micro and macro-elements quantities of the endosperm of the three genotypes are as follows: Zn (29-44 mg/kg), fe (52-112 mg/kg), Cu (2.6-3.8 mg/kg), Pb (0.34-0.38 mg/kg) and As (0.24 mg/kg), Na (0.1-0.5%), K (0.70-0.95%), Ca (0.30-0.37%) and Mg (0.11%), respectively. The micro and macro elements of germ and hull are also reported in this study. The Ost wald relative viscosity of guar gum behave Newtonian up to 0.5% mg/ml. The relative viscosity linear curves have high coefficient of correlation (r=0.87, 0.82-1.05, and 0.99) for gum of endosperm, respectively. Redwood measures kinematic viscosity of guar gum for the three genotypes at varying temperatures 40-80 degree. Heat stability of HFG53 is the best among the three genotypes guar gum. the high contamination in gum lowered the heat stability of the three genotypes. Brookfield method shows a high rate of dispersability for HFG363 followed by HFG182 and HFG53. The comparative study of the effect of purification on guar gum viscosities measured by Ostwald within the three genotypes show high coefficient of correlation. The influence of salt concentration 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% on heat stability of commercial guar gum show high viscosities. Sugar influence in heated guar gum solution 0.5% (200 mesh) gives a high viscosity increase than 80 mesh with 5, 10 and 15% added sugar. The effect of combined salt-sugar on commercial guar gives increased viscosity than the control

  7. Development of natural gum based fast disintegrating tablets of glipizide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antesh Kumar Jha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysphagia and risk of choking are leading causes of patient non-compliance in the self-administration of conventional tablets. To overcome these limitations of conventional tablets fast-disintegrating tablets were developed, using natural gums. Natural gums were evaluated for bulk swelling capacity. Powder mix containing natural gums and glipizide was evaluated for water sorption, swelling index and capillary action. For faster onset and immediate hypoglycemic action, the fast disintegrating tablets were prepared with various types of natural gums using the direct compression technique. Formulations containing guar gum disintegrated within a minute and fulfilled the official requirements for dispersible tablets. As the amount of guar gum increased, the friability increased and hardness decreased, resulting in a shorter wetting and disintegration time. Gum acacia and gum tragacanth did the opposite. The glipizide-loaded fast disintegrating tablet prepared with 18 mg of guar gum gave a friability of 0.46 ± 0.02%, content uniformity of 99.34 ± 0.82%, drug content of 99.15 ± 1.16%, wetting time of 39.0 ± 1.04 sec, hardness of 5.70 ± 1.41 Kg and disintegration time less than 30 sec, suggesting that it was a practical product with a good tablet property. In conclusion, natural gum based patient-friendly fast disintegrating tablets of glipizide can be successfully formulated.

  8. The Effect of a Brief Salivary α-Amylase Exposure During Chewing on Subsequent in Vitro Starch Digestion Curve Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Brennan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There is inconsistency between current in vitro digestion methods with regard to accommodation of a (salivary α-amylase exposure during the oral phase. The effect of a salivary α-amylase pre-exposure on subsequent in vitro starch digestion curve profiles for various foods was investigated. Foods were chewed, expectorated and the boluses left to rest for 0–15 min. During pancreatic digestion, aliquots were taken and hydrolysis curves constructed for comparison against those of the same foods comminuted with a manually-operated chopper, hence spared exposure to saliva. Hydrolysate aliquots taken at T0 (time zero of the digestion of chewed samples contained higher levels of glucose and dextrins compared with chopped samples. Pancreatin activity immediately overwhelmed differences in sugar released due to salivary amylase activity. Within 10 min no differences were detectable between hydrolysis curves for chewed and chopped foods. Salivary amylase pretreatment does not contribute to the robustness or relative accuracy of in vitro methods.

  9. Highly Concentrated Alginate-Gellan Gum Composites for 3D Plotting of Complex Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Rahul Akkineni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering, additive manufacturing (AM technologies have brought considerable progress as they allow the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D structures with defined architecture. 3D plotting is a versatile, extrusion-based AM technology suitable for processing a wide range of biomaterials including hydrogels. In this study, composites of highly concentrated alginate and gellan gum were prepared in order to combine the excellent printing properties of alginate with the favorable gelling characteristics of gellan gum. Mixtures of 16.7 wt % alginate and 2 or 3 wt % gellan gum were found applicable for 3D plotting. Characterization of the resulting composite scaffolds revealed an increased stiffness in the wet state (15%–20% higher Young’s modulus and significantly lower volume swelling in cell culture medium compared to pure alginate scaffolds (~10% vs. ~23%. Cytocompatibility experiments with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC revealed that cell attachment was improved—the seeding efficiency was ~2.5–3.5 times higher on the composites than on pure alginate. Additionally, the composites were shown to support hMSC proliferation and early osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, print fidelity of highly concentrated alginate-gellan gum composites was comparable to those of pure alginate; after plotting and crosslinking, the scaffolds possessed improved qualities regarding shape fidelity, mechanical strength, and initial cell attachment making them attractive for tissue engineering applications.

  10. Composition of betel specific chemicals in saliva during betel chewing for the identification of biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Adrian A.; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F.; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J.

    2015-01-01

    Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut (‘BN’), nut + Piper betle leaf (‘BL’), and betel quid (‘BQ’) consisting of nut+lime+tobacco+Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis invo...

  11. A clinical protocol to increase chewing and assess mastication in children with feeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Valerie M; Peterson, Kathryn M; Zeleny, Jason R; Piazza, Cathleen C

    2014-09-01

    Children with feeding disorders often cannot or do not chew when presented with table food. Children with chewing deficits also often swallow the bite before masticating it appropriately, which we will refer to as early swallowing. In the current study, we evaluated a clinical protocol to increase chews per bite, assess mastication, and eliminate early swallowing with three children with feeding disorders. The current study adds to a small body of literature on chewing and mastication of children with feeding disorders. Suggestions for future research are also discussed. PMID:24902589

  12. Electrospun fibers based on Arabic, karaya and kondagogu gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padil, Vinod Vellora Thekkae; Senan, Chandra; Wacławek, Stanisław; Černík, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    Nanofibers of natural tree polysaccharides based on three gums namely Arabic (GA), karaya (GK) and kondagogu (KG) have been prepared for the first time using electrospinning. Electrospinning solutions were prepared by mixing gum solutions of GA, GK & KG with eco-friendly polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polyethylene oxide (PEO). The present study focuses on the effect of electrospinning blended solutions of GA, GK or KG with PVA or PEO, additives which influence system parameters and process parameters. This has important effects on the electrospinning process and the resulting fibers whose morphology and physicochemical properties were evaluated. The mass ratios of 70:30 to 90:10 for PVA: GA, PVA: GK and PVA: KG were observed to establish an optimum blend solution ratio in order to fabricate uniform beadless nanofibers with an average diameter of 240±50, 220±40 and 210±30nm, respectively. Various structural and physicochemical properties of the electrospun fibers were investigated. Furthermore, the comparisons of various functionalities of the untreated and plasma treated electrospun fibers were assessed. The methane plasma treated nanofibers were shown to be of extremely specific surface area, improved water contact angle, high surface porosity and roughness and superior hydrophobic properties compared to untreated fibers. PMID:27212218

  13. Hypolipidemic activity of gum ghatti of Anogeissus latifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M.M Parvathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are becoming an increasing problem worldwide and hypercholesterolemia has been correlated for coronary heart diseases. Currently available hypolipidemic drugs have been associated with number of side effects. Herbal treatment for hyperlipidemia poses no side effects and is relatively cheap and locally available. In view of this, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of gum ghatti of Anogeissus lalifolia on serum lipid levels of albino rats. Rats were made hyperlipidemic by the oral administration of cholesterol (400mg/kg body weight/day along with cholic acid (50mg/kg in coconut oil. The hypolipidemic effect was compared with control. The rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving treatment with gum ghatti at 250 mg/kg dosage showed significant reduction in serum triglyceride (82.75±0.63 only and there was no significant changes either in serum total cholesterol or elevation in HDL. Whereas, at 500 and 750 mg/kg dosage showed significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (72.85±0.60, 68.17±0.95 and serum triglyceride (78.92±0.34, 75.93±1.05. Further, the 750 mg/kg dose has also exhibited significant elevation in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (41.13±0.37.

  14. Research on Effects of Malva Nut Gum on Quality of Minced Meat%胖大海胶对猪肉糜品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮鹤珍; 芮汉明; 张立彦

    2012-01-01

    以胖大海的中层皮层吸水胀润后形成的胶状物为研究对象,研究了胖大海胶对猪肉内糜蒸煮损失、色泽、质构及感官品质的影响.结果表明:胖大海胶的加入可明显减小肉糜的蒸煮损失,提高肉制品产率,且与胖大海胶的加入量和加入方式有关,0.2%的胖大海胶溶解后加入效果最好;胖大海胶的加入对内糜色泽有一定的影响:亮度减弱,红度和黄度有所增加;质构方面,胖大海胶可减小肉糜的硬度和咀嚼性,增大其弹性,感官评价结果基本与质构测定一致.%Malve nut gum formed by cortex of Sterculia lychnophora expansion in the water was investigated. The effect of malva nut gum on cooking loss, color, texture and sensory quality of minced meat were studied. The results showed that malva nut gum had a great influence on reducing the cooking loss of minced meat and improving meat products yield, which effected by the added amount and way of malva nut gum. The best texture and sensory quality of the minced meat were obtained by adding 0.2% dissolved malva nut gum. The addition of malva nut gum had some impact on the color of the meat by reduced brightness and increasing red and yellow degree. Texture analysis showed that malva nut gum reduced the hardness and chewing of the minced meat, while increased the flexibility the meat, in accordance with the results of sensory evaluation.

  15. Bleeding gums: Duloxetine may be the cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balhara YPS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Duloxetine is a newly introduced drug. It is being prescribed for the management of diabetic neuropathic pain and major depressive disorder. The most frequently observed adverse events with duloxetine are nausea, dry mouth and somnolence, constipation, diarrhea, decreased appetite, weight loss, feeling of fatigue, dizziness, somnolence, hypohidrosis, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction. One of the patients being prescribed the drug developed bleeding gums on being started with the drug which resolved on stopping it. We hereby report this case.

  16. Validating the applicability of the GUM procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Maurice G.; Harris, Peter M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper is directed at practitioners seeking a degree of assurance in the quality of the results of an uncertainty evaluation when using the procedure in the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) (JCGM 100 : 2008). Such assurance is required in adhering to general standards such as International Standard ISO/IEC 17025 or other sector-specific standards. We investigate the extent to which such assurance can be given. For many practical cases, a measurement result incorporating an evaluated uncertainty that is correct to one significant decimal digit would be acceptable. Any quantification of the numerical precision of an uncertainty statement is naturally relative to the adequacy of the measurement model and the knowledge used of the quantities in that model. For general univariate and multivariate measurement models, we emphasize the use of a Monte Carlo method, as recommended in GUM Supplements 1 and 2. One use of this method is as a benchmark in terms of which measurement results provided by the GUM can be assessed in any particular instance. We mainly consider measurement models that are linear in the input quantities, or have been linearized and the linearization process is deemed to be adequate. When the probability distributions for those quantities are independent, we indicate the use of other approaches such as convolution methods based on the fast Fourier transform and, particularly, Chebyshev polynomials as benchmarks.

  17. EFFECT OF ANIONIC SURFACTANT UPON THE VISCOSITY OF POLYMER GUAR GUM SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ming Chen; Hai-yang Yang; Xian You; Ping-ping Zhu; Ping-sheng Hea

    2006-01-01

    The reduced viscosity of polymer guar gum solutions containing a certain concentration of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was measured. It has been found that the Huggins coefficient kH of polymer solutions is verysensitive to the concentration of the surfactant, cSDBS, in solutions. If cSDBS is lower than CMC, the critical micelle concentration of SDBS, kH increases rapidly with cSDBS. On the other hand, if cSDBS is larger than CMC, kH decreases rapidly with cSDBS. Comparatively, the intrinsic viscosity of polymer solution does not show a notable change with cSDBS. The experimental results indicate that the interchain association of polymer guar gum in solution is greatly associated with SDBS interacted with polymer chains through hydrogen bonds. However, the effect of SDBS upon the intrachain association of polymer guar gum solution is negligible, presumably due to the fact that guar gum is a slightly stiffened random-coil chain polymer.

  18. Antiectoparasitic activity of the gum resin, gum haggar, from the East African plant, Commiphora holtziana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Michael A; Abassi, Sate Al; Kröber, Thomas; Chamberlain, Keith; Hooper, Antony M; Guerin, Patrick M; Pettersson, Jan; Pickett, John A; Slade, Robin; Wadhams, Lester J

    2008-05-01

    The mechanism of ixodid tick (Acari: Ixodidae) repellency by gum haggar, a resin produced by Commiphora holtziana (Burseraceae), was investigated by evaluating activity against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. In an arena bioassay, a hexane extract of the resin of C. holtziana exhibited a repellent effect lasting up to 5h. The hydrocarbon fraction of the resin extract was shown to account for the repellent activity, and was analysed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were tentatively identified as germacrene-D, delta-elemene and beta-bourbonene. The identity and stereochemistry of the former compound was confirmed as the (+)-isomer by peak enhancement using enantioselective GC, whereas the latter 2 compounds, which are most likely degradation products of germacrene-type precursors, were identified through isolation by preparative gas chromatography followed by microprobe-NMR spectroscopy. GC comparison of gum haggar with another resin, C. myrrha, which was inactive in the tick bioassay, showed that the latter contained much lower levels of these hydrocarbons. To assess the suitability of the gum haggar resin as a general acarine repellent, further tests were made on a major acarine pest of European and US animal husbandry systems, the red poultry mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae). Gum haggar extract, and the isolated hydrocarbon fraction, showed strong repellent effects in an olfactometer assay, and again gum myrrh showed no effect. These findings provide a scientific basis for the observed anti-tick properties of gum haggar, and demonstrate the potential for its development as a general acarine repellent for use in animal husbandry systems.

  19. Study of chemical and physical properties of irradiated Guar Gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different gamma radiation doses to decontamination of micro-organisms present in Guar Gum powder. As well as to study the effect of radiation on the chemical and physical properties of the carbohydrate components of the Gum's material. Two types of samples were used in this study (powder and liquid). All samples were collected from commercially available Guar Gum (G G), which were obtained from the company (Sudanese Guar Gum ltd). Samples putted in polyethylene tightly closed container, then irradiated by applying different doses (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 20,30,40,and 50 kGy) from Co-60 source at room temperature in air. And take zero kGy as control. Irradiated powder samples of (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 kGy) were investigated for contamination by using growth media agar and the result showed that 2.5 kGy is appropriate dose to remove the contamination of the samples. And then analyzed using fourier transform infrared (FTTR) x-ray fluorescence (X RF) and spectroscopy. The FTIR spectroscopy results suggested that there were no major chemical functional group transformation during irradiation. No change occurs by using low dose as 2.5 kGy. Also evaluation impact of radiation on liquid Samples (Aqueous solutions prepared in tow concentration of 1% and 5% wv that is by exposing the samples to the same dose of gamma rays) the effect of irradiation on it were investigated by using ultra violet spectroscopy ( UV.Vis), results showed that low dose has steeply effect in solutions specially in low concentration, it was more pronoun than that in high concentration, high dose has made change similar to that it made in powder. Also for both concentrations of liquid samples and for solutions made of irradiated powder pH measured and viscosity which used in investigations of molecular weight of liquid and powder, comparing the results of impact in the form of powder with the results of effects in the solutions found that the effects of

  20. Antacid activity of Laportea aestuans (L.) Chew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Charlotte Bremer; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K

    2015-01-01

    : Aerial parts of L. aestuans were collected in the Accra region of Ghana. The antacid activity was measured according to Fordtran׳s titration model. 90mL tap water and test material in a 500mL beaker were warmed to 37°C on a magnetic stirrer and was continuously stirred at approximately 30rpm in order...... of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). RESULTS: Both CaCO3 and L. aestuans had a significant better ability than water to neutralise an artificial stomach acid. 666mg plant material together with CaCO3 compared to CaCO3 alone showed approximately the same neutralisation time. When mixing 1332mg plant material with Ca...

  1. Ethnomedicinal Value of Laportea interrupta L. Chew: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataraja Thamizh Selvam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are part of the human life for millions of years and they are primary source of medicine for the common man on most of the occasions. The indigenous medicine system of every country is associated with plant and plant products for the treatment of illnesses. The present study has been taken up to review one of the ethno medicinal plants of India i.e. Laportea interrupta L. Chew known as Stinging nettle, for its taxonomical, pharmacological, biochemical characteristics.

  2. Effect of gums on the rheological characteristics and microstructure of acid-induced SPI-gum mixed gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Dong; Wang, Li-Jun; Bi, Chong-Hao; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-08-01

    The effect of addition of xanthan gum (XG) and guar gum (GG) on the rheological properties and microstructure of glucono-δ-lactone induced soy protein isolate (SPI)-XG gels and SPI-GG gels was investigated using steady and dynamic rheological tests, creep-recovery and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results showed that the apparent viscosity of SPI-gum (XG, GG) mixed solutions increased with the increase in the gum (XG, GG) concentration. The storage (G') and loss (G″) moduli of SPI-gum (XG, GG) mixed gels increased in the presence and increase in the gum (XG, GG) concentration. The Burger's model fitted the creep recovery data well (R(2)>0.919) and showed that both the instantaneous and equilibrium (retarded) elastic components of this model increased with the increase in SPI and gum concentrations. The proportion occupied by gum in mixed gels was found to increase with the increase in the concentration of gums which increased the density of protein aggregates in the mixed gels.

  3. Stabilization of emulsions by gum tragacanth (Astragalus spp.) correlates to the galacturonic acid content and methoxylation degree of the gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Meyer, Anne S.; Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz;

    2013-01-01

    –270 mg/g), and galactose (∼40–140 mg/g), and also contained fucose, rhamnose, and glucose. The ability of the gums to act as stabilizers in whey protein isolate based emulsions varied. The best emulsion stabilization effect, measured as lowest creaming index ratio after 20 days, was obtained with the A....... fluccosus gum. The emulsion stabilization effect correlated linearly and positively to the methoxylation degree, and galacturonic acid content of the gums, but not to acetyl or fucose content. A particularly high correlation was found between methoxyl level in the soluble gum part and emulsion stabilization...

  4. Beneficial Effect of a Cellulose-Containing Chew Treat on Canine Periodontal Disease in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Beynen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are indications that appropriate chew treats can contribute to the control of canine periodontal disease. It was reasoned that the incorporation of a cellulose fiber network into the treat may improve the efficacy, but for proof experimental data were required. Approach: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with privately owned dogs was carried out to assess the efficacy of a cellulose preparation (Arbocel BWW40® in the treatment of periodontal disease. With the use of a questionnaire, the clinical signs were evaluated by the owners. There were 10 clinical signs: extent and severity of dental plaque and calculus, extent of gingivitis, redness, swelling, bleeding and firmness of gingivae and halitosis. For a period of 8 weeks, the test dogs daily received a chew treat to which 4% of the cellulose preparation was added. The control dogs were given a chew treat with identical formula, but without added cellulose. During the trial, all dogs were fed the same, complete dry food. There were 16 test dogs and 15 control dogs. Results: When compared with the baseline values, the administration of the test chew significantly improved 8 out of the 10 clinical signs. In the placebo group there was a significant improvement for 6 clinical signs. When the improvements over time for the two groups were compared, there were no statistically significant differences. When the score changes for all 10 clinical signs were added up as an overall index of improvement of periodontal disease, the test group showed a 17% greater amelioration than did the control group. Conclusion: The addition of the cellulose preparation had further enhanced the efficacy of the treat, possibly through an increase in mechanical cleansing and chewing time. This study indicates that a cellulose-containing treat is beneficial for dogs with periodontal disease and it is suggested that it may also impair its development.

  5. The Effects of Preventive Intervention for Betel Nut Chewing in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Chen; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te; Hong, Yu-Jue

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was to explore the effect of preventive health education intervention in the knowledge, attitude, practice of betel nut chewing, and self-efficacy of anti-betel nut chewing for adolescent students. Methods: One hundred eighty-six indigenous samples were recruited, and divided into experimental and control groups. The…

  6. Betel Nut Chewing Behavior among Adolescents in Eastern Taiwan: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Ying; Waigandt, Alex C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of betel nut chewing among junior high school students is highest in the eastern region of Taiwan (Lin, 1990). Although there is some research on the prevalence rate, little effort has been paid to developing a classification of betel nut chewing behavior applicable to adolescents. Eight-hundred and forty-three students, including…

  7. Predictors of betel quid chewing behavior and cessation patterns in Taiwan aborigines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shun-Jen

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betel quid, chewed by about 600 million people worldwide, is one of the most widely used addictive substances. Cessation factors in betel quid chewers are unknown. The present study explores prevalence and the quit rate of betel quid chewing in Taiwan aborigines. Our goal was to delineate potential predictors of chewing cessation. Methods A stratified random community-based survey was designed for the entire aborigines communities in Taiwan. A total of 7144 participants were included between June 2003 and May 2004 in this study. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, such as gender, age, obesity, education years, marital status, ethnicity, and habits of betel quid chewing, smoking and drinking was collected by trained interviewers. Results The prevalence of betel quid chewers was 46.1%. Betel quid chewing was closely associated with obesity (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.40–1.85. Betel quid chewers were most likely to use alcohol and cigarettes together. Quit rate of betel quid chewers was 7.6%. Betel quid chewers who did not drink alcohol were more likely to quit (OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.43–2.50. Alcohol use is a significant factor related to cessation of betel quid chewing, but smoking is not. Conclusion Taiwan aborigines have a high prevalence of betel quid chewers and a low quit rate. Alcohol use is strongly association with betel quid chewing. Efforts to reduce habitual alcohol consumption might be of benefit in cessation of betel quid chewing.

  8. A Pilot Study to Increase Chewing in Children with Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Vaz, Petula C. M.; Frese, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often display chewing deficits. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research examining procedures to increase or teach chewing to children with feeding disorders. The few studies on this topic have utilized multicomponent treatments typically involving a shaping procedure. In addition, to our knowledge, studies on…

  9. Aroma volatile release kinetics of tomato genotypes measured by PTR-MS following artificial chewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farneti, B.; Alarcón, A.; Cristescu, S.M.; Costa, G.; Harren, F.J.M.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Woltering, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an analytical system to study the tomato aroma profile. An artificial chewing device coupled to a PTR-MS was developed to mimic, as close as possible, the release of volatiles during chewing in the human mouth and the retronasal olfaction perception. VOC profiles

  10. Betel quid chewing in rural Bangladesh: prevalence, predictors and relationship to blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Heck, Julia E.; Marcotte, Erin L; Argos, Maria; Parvez, Faruque; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Sarwar, Golam; HASAN, Rabiul; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Background Betel quid is chewed by 600 million people worldwide and it has been linked to obesity and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of our study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of betel quid chewing in a rural area of Bangladesh, and determine its effects on body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of the antioxidant potential of vanadium encapsulated guar gum nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, R S; Reshmi, R; Jomon, S; Antu, K A; Riya, M P; Raghu, K G

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the antioxidant potential of guar gum macroparticles (GGMs), vanadium oxide sulphate (VS) encapsulated guar gum macroparticles (GVMs), guar gum nanoparticles (GGNs), VS encapsulated guar gum nanoparticles (GVNs) and VS. GGNs and GVNs prepared by nanoprecipitation were characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and particle size analysis to confirm the nanostructure of the particles. Particle size analysis revealed that GVNs possess a size of 239 nm, about 148 nm larger than that of GGNs. TEM imaging and EDAX data also confirmed the formation of fine spherical nanoparticles with vanadium incorporation. In addition the larger size of GVNs also confirmed the vanadium incorporation. MTT assay showed that concentrations up to 100 nM of GVNs for 24 h exposure did not induce significant toxicity when VS was toxic (16%) at 100 nM. Various in vitro antioxidant assays (total reducing power, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays) revealed significantly high antioxidant potential of GVNs compared to GGNs, VS, GGMs and GVMs. The IC50 of GVNs was 23.21 ± 2.1 μg mL(-1), 33.0 ± 2.93 μg mL(-1), 21 ± 1.98 μg mL(-1) and 22.79 ± 2.12 μg mL(-1) for DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide anion scavenging activity assays respectively. The cell line based assay also proved that the GVN was more effective in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging than VS against tertiary butyl hydrogen peroxide (TBHP) induced oxidative stress in H9c2 cell lines. The overall results indicated that vanadium in combination with nano guar gum exhibits significantly high antioxidant potential.

  12. Dairy cows increase ingestive mastication and reduce ruminative chewing when grazing chicory and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Minnee, E M K; Griffiths, W; Lee, J M

    2013-01-01

    Although the nutritive value of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) has been thoroughly studied, little is known about the grazing behavior of cattle feeding on chicory and plantain swards. The objective of the present study was to assess and describe the grazing behavior of dairy cows as affected by dietary proportions of chicory and plantain fed as monocultures for part of the day. Ninety Holstein-Friesian cows (489±42 kg of body weight; 4.1±0.3 body condition score, and 216±15 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 15 groups (6 cows per group) and grazed according to 7 treatments: control (CTL, 3 groups), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) dominant sward (24-h pasture strip); 3 chicory treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of chicory to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment); and 3 plantain treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of plantain to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment). Four focal animals per group were equipped with 3-dimensional motion sensors, which provided the number of steps taken at each minute of the day. These cows were also fitted with automatic jaw-movement recorders that identified bites, mastication during ingestion, chewing during rumination, and determined grazing, rumination and idling times and bouts. Daily grazing time and bouts were not affected by treatments but rumination time differed and was reduced by up to 90 min when cows were allocated to chicory and plantain as 60% of their diet. Ruminative chewing was reduced in cows grazing chicory and plantain by up to 20% in cows allocated to the 60% treatments. Compared with perennial ryegrass, as the dietary proportion of chicory and plantain increased, cows spent more time idling and less time ruminating

  13. Preparation and characterization of a chemically sulfated cashew gum polysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura Neto, Erico de; Maciel, Jeanny da S.; Cunha, Pablyana L. R.; Paula, Regina Celia M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Cashew gum (CG) was sulfated in pyridine:formamide using chlorosulfonic acid as the reagent. Confirmation of sulfation was obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy through the presence of an asymmetrical S=O stretching vibration at 1259 cm{sup -1}. The degrees of substitution were 0.02, 0.24 and 0.88 determined from the sulfur percentage. 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data showed that the sulfation occurred at primary carbons. An increase of at least 4% of the solution viscosity was observed due to sulfation. The thermal gravimetric curves (TGA) indicate that the derivatives are stable up to ca. 200 deg C. The sulfated CG is compared to carboxymethylated CG in order to verify the possibility of the use of the former in the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes; the latter is already being used for this application. (author)

  14. Everted Intestinal Sacs As In vitro Model For Assessing Absorptivity Of L Histidine Under The Effect Of Aspirine And Gum Acacia In Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Rabeh Mahmoud

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize intestinal permeability changes over a range of physiologically relevant intestinal injury. The experiments were performed in 80 rats subdivided into four groups as aspirin (400 mg/kg b.w., gum Acacia ( 1g./day and aspirin with gum Acacia groups for 21 days compared with control group. Relative reabsorption of L-Histidine was greater(p<0.001 in the aspirin in 10 min of incubation compared with that of the control rats. In aspirin in combination with gum Acacia, the relative reabsorption were significantly (p<0.001 decrease in 10, 20 and 30 min. of incubation compared with that of the control rats. Moreover, the relative reabsorption of L-histidine was significantly (p<0.01 reduced by the aspirin at 45 min of time of the incubation buffer compared with that of the control. However, gum acacia treatment was increased at 10 min (p<0.01 ,30 min (p<0.01 and 45 min (p<0.001 respectively compared with that of the control rats. Relative reabsorption of L-histidine record a nonsignificant increase of aspirin at 20 min and 30 min of incubation compared with that of the control. Gum and aspirin with gum at 20min and 45min of incubation resulted an increase and decrease in relative reabsorption of L-histidine respectively compared with that of the control. Aspirin and aspirin in combination with gum acacia treatment increased body, intestinal weights and mucosal total protein significantly with percent changes ranged from 8% to 40% compared with that of the control. On the other hand, gum treatment decreased body, intestinal weights and mucosal total protein significantly with percent changes ranged from 8% to 35% compared with that of the control. These results demonstrated that L-histidine is actively taken up by a gum Acacia system in intestinal everted sac mechanism of rat with energy supplied by glucose and Na+in incubation buffer. Moreover, aspirin system had an inhibitory effect on L-histidine uptake in

  15. 77 FR 43857 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 12, 2012 (77 FR 34997). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Xanthan Gum From Austria and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... Austria and China of xanthan gum, provided for in subheading 3913.90.20 of the Harmonized Tariff...

  16. 78 FR 43226 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Register of February 27, 2013 (78 FR 13379). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on May 23, 2013, and... COMMISSION Xanthan Gum From Austria and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... with material injury by reason of imports from China of xanthan gum provided for in subheading...

  17. [Constituents of essential oil of imported myrrh and gum opoponax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J; Shi, S

    1996-04-01

    The constitutents of essential oil in two kinds of Myrrha were analyzed by GC-MS. Fifteen compounds in Myrrh and thirty-three compounds in Gum opoponax were identified with their percent contents given. The main constituent of Myrrh is furanoeudesma-1,3-diene, and the main constituent of Gum opoponax is beta-trans-ocimene.

  18. INTERMOLECULAR AND INTRAMOLECULAR INTERACTIONS OF POLYMER GUAR GUM IN SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-fei Yan; Hai-yang Yang; Wen-yong Liu; Ping-ping Zhu; Ping-sheng He

    2005-01-01

    The tetrahedral borate ion can crosslink with polymer guar gum in aqueous solutions. If the concentration of guar gum is less than 0.045 g/dL, the intramolecular interaction between guar gum and borate ion increases due to the formation of crosslinks. As a result, the polymer chains of guar gum in solution shrink in size and the reduced viscosity of polymer solution decreases accordingly. On the other hand, if the concentration of guar gum is greater than 0.045 g/dL, the intermolecular interaction becomes apparent due to the same reason. The polymer chains, therefore, associate together and the reduced viscosity of polymer solution increases considerably. According to this technique, the critical concentration c*,presented by de-Gennes[1], is determined successfully.

  19. Gum Arabic as a Cause of Occupational Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arja Viinanen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gum arabic is a potential sensitizer in food industry. Methods. We examined 11 candy factory workers referred to examinations due to respiratory and skin symptoms paying attention to exposure and sensitization to gum arabic. Skin tests, pulmonary function tests, and respiratory provocation tests were carried out as indicated by the symptoms and findings. Results. Occupational asthma, caused by gum arabic was diagnosed in 4/11 candy factory workers and two of them had also occupational contact urticaria and one had occupational rhinitis. One of them had oral symptoms associated with ingestion of products containing gum arabic. Conclusions. Airborne exposure to gum arabic may cause sensitization leading to allergic rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria.

  20. Molecular Weight and Aggregation of Erwinia Gum in Aqueous Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Erwinia(E) gum is composed of glucose, fucose, galactose and glucuronic acid. The weight-average molecular weights Mw, number-average molecular weights Mn and intrinsic viscosities[η] of the four fractions and the unfractionated E gum in aqueous solutions at desired temperatures were studied by light scattering, membrane osmometry, size exclusion chromatography(SEC) and viscometry. The experimental results prove that E gum formed aggregates in the aqueous solution at 25 ℃ and the aggregates were broken gradually with increasing temperature. The dissociation of the aggregates of E gum in the aqueous solution started at 36 ℃, and was completed at around 90 ℃. The [η] values of E gum and its fractions are much higher than those of the conventional polymers with the similar molecular weights, and decrease with increasing NaCl concentration.

  1. Influence of the xanthan gum addition on the technological and sensory quality of baking products during the freezing storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the 0.16% xanthan gum addition in the recipe of the bread production and its influence on the baking and sensory quality of products was monitored during the process of our research. Prepared dough was inserted in the freezing box directly (-18°C and it was stored for one, two, three, four, five and six months. When the baking process was finished, the products with xanthan gum and the products without it were compared and evaluated by both objective and subjective methods. It was found that freezing, cooling and storage of the products without xanthan gum addition influenced the volume, vaulting and general appearance of the products in a negative way and loaves of bread were evaluated as unacceptable after four months of freezing. The quality of experimental loaves of bread with xanthan gum was, even after six months of freezing storage, comparable with freshly baked products. Despite the freezing, the volume of the products had an increased value. After first month of freezing the volume increased by 28.6% and after two months of freezing it increased by 23.8% both compared to the control. The vaulting in products processed by freezing was in the required optimal level during the whole period of freezing. Sensory evaluation results of loaves of bread with xanthan gum were the best after three, four and five months of storage in a freezer, when 98 points were achieved. During the monitored period of freezing, the addition of 0.16% of xanthan gum markedly contributed to the preservation of sensory and baking quality of the frozen wheat dough.

  2. Basil seed gum as a novel stabilizer for structure formation and reduction of ice recrystallization in ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    BahramParvar, Maryam; Goff, H

    2013-01-01

    International audience Basil seed gum (BSG), as a novel source of hydrocolloid, was used at two concentrations (0.1% or 0.2%) to stabilize ice cream, and its impact on selected physical and structural properties, especially ice crystal size, was compared to a commercial blend of carboxymethyl cellulose and guar gums (0.1% or 0.2%) and to an unstabilized control. Samples were temperature cycled at subzero temperatures and ice crystal size was measured before and after cycling. There was no ...

  3. Research About Validating GUM Uncertainty Evaluation Using MCM%采用MCM对GUM法测量不确定度评定的验证方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹芸; 陈怀艳; 韩洁

    2012-01-01

    The basic method of uncertainty evaluation is GUM uncertainty framework ( GUM) at present. On some conditions, GUM can be applied correctly. But when the model is complicated, all the applying condition can't be ensured to meet. Compared to GUM, the validity range of MCM is larger, we can use MCM to validate GUM uncertainty evaluation with appropriate software. It' s suggested that the results can be compared which are obtained by GUM and MCM. If the results are satisfied, the GUM is applied correctly. Otherwise, MCM or other replacement must be considered. Concerning the example of mass calibration, the two methods are introduced to validate GUM uncertainty evaluation using MCM.%目前不确定度评定的基本方法是GUM法,GUM法在一定的条件下是可以有效应用的,但在模型复杂的情况下,却不容易直接确定其是否满足所有的应用条件.由于蒙特卡罗法(MCM)的有效性范围大于GUM法的有效性范围,因此可利用合适的软件,应用MCM对GUM法测量不确定度的评定结果进行验证.建议此时分别应用GUM法和MCM法,并对结果进行比较.如果结果较满意,则表明GUM法可应用于此类场合;否则,应考虑使用MCM或其它适当的替代方法.通过质量计量的实例,介绍了采用MCM对GUM法进行验证的两种方法.

  4. Some physicochemical properties of acetaminophen pediatric suspensions formulated with okra gums obtained from different extraction processes as suspending agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikoni Ogaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extraction process and the potential of okra gum as a suspending agent in pharmaceutical oral formulations containing acetaminophen as a model drug. Clarified mucilage of dried okra was either extracted directly with ethanol 96% (F1 or was first treated with base (F2, acid (F3 or heating in the presence of salt (F4 before extraction with ethanol 96%. The samples were used at 0.5% w/v as suspending agents in acetaminophen acetaminophen suspension to deliver 125 mg/5 mL acetaminophen. A binary mixture of F2 and F4 (1:1 was also used. Similar suspensions of acetaminophen containing either hydroxymethylpropylcellulose (HPMC or tragacanth gum (TRAGA were produced. Some physicochemical properties of the formulations were evaluated. The rheological properties of acetaminophen-containing treated okra gums (F2-F5 were generally similar. Changes in viscosity with storage were slower in the F2-F5 formulations as compared with F1. Particle size and particle size distribution were different for all formulations, and hysteresis was a function of time and the suspending agent used. The re-dispersion time of the formulations with treated okra gums was generally shorter than that observed with the untreated okra gum. The use of a binary mixture of F2 and F4 resulted in different physicochemical properties from those of either F2 or F4. The physicochemical properties of the formulations were comparable to those with HPMC and TRAGA. It can thus be concluded that treating okra gum with acid, base or salt impacted better physicochemical properties on an acetaminophen pediatric suspension when they were used as suspending agents.

  5. Effect of tapping tools and date of tapping on Acacia polyacantha gum vield in South Kordofan State, Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idris Musa Adam; Kamal E.M.Fadl

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted in South Kordofan, Sudan to determine the effect of tapping, tapping tools and date of tapping on the gum yield of Acacia polyacantha. A two-factor experiment was conducted for two seasons in 2008-2009. One location was used for two seasons and two locations for one season. The first factor (4 levels) was the tools of tapping: Makmak, Farrar, and Sonki, and the control which was not tapped. The second factor (2 levels) was the date of tapping that comprises mid October and mid November. These treatments were arranged in Randomaized Complete Block Design and replicated three times. Gum yield (g/tree and g/picking) was recorded for five pickings. Economic analysis was done using the partial budget technique. The results showed highly significant (p < 0.01) differences on gum yield (g/picking and g/tree). The results indicated that the process of tapping increases gum production by 88.4% and 79.8% compared with un-tapped trees, respectively. The date of tapping has no significant effect on gum yield (g/tree and g/picking) of A. polyacantha. Tapping of the tree with Makmak in mid- November was found to be economically beneficial compared to using the other tools and the control. These results could identify a new source of income for the poor farmers in South Kordofan mainly because of the wild occurrence of Kakamut as a potential gum producing tree species grown naturally in the area.

  6. Constituents of areca chewing related to esophageal cancer risk in Taiwanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M-T; Wu, D-C; Hsu, H-K; Kao, E-L; Lee, J-M

    2004-01-01

    Two most common types of areca chewing are noted in Taiwan: raw betel fruit with Piper betle inflorescence or folded in betel leaf. Piper betle inflorescence contains carcinogens, whereas betel leaf includes anticarcinogenic agents. One hundred and twenty-six esophageal squamous-cell-carcinoma patients and 279 healthy controls, all men, were analyzed. Areca chewers were 4.4 times (95% CI, 2.2-8.8) more likely to develop esophageal cancer than non-chewers. Sixty-five of the patients were areca chewers, of which, 61 (93.9%) chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence, none chewed it with betel leaf and four (6.1%) chewed both. Of the 24 controls who were chewers, 10 (41.7%), three (12.5%) and 11 (45.8%) chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence, betel leaf, and both, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that subjects who chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence were 24.4 times (95% CI 3.9-154.4) more likely to develop esophageal cancer than those who chewed areca with betel leaf or with both leaf and inflorescence. Our epidemiologic findings suggest parts of the same Piper plant contains carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic substances. PMID:15361101

  7. Prevalence of areca nut chewing in the middle school-going children of Indore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Khandelwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess areca nut chewing habit among middle school-aged children in Indore, India. Areca nut is chewed by itself, and in various scented preparations. It is associated with carcinogenesis, foreign body aspiration in children, and oral submucous fibrosis and may aggravate asthma. Materials and Methods: A retrospective collection of data to evaluate the prevalence of areca nut chewing among 3896 children was done. A simple random sampling was done. Children of both sexes were included in this study. Results: 27.06% of the school-going children (1054/3896 had areca nut chewing habit. More boys chewed areca nut than girls (2:1. 45.42% of school going children of rural area pander to areca nut chewing habit, whereas in urban area 20.09% children are indulged. Government school children are more involved in areca nut chewing habit. 81.02% of the children used sweetened and flavoured form of areca nut. The majority of the users were not aware of harmful effects that the use of areca nut might be harmful for health Conclusion: To diminish the use of areca nut, the Indian Government should consider limiting trade, advertising, and actively communicating its health risks to the public and should deem heavy taxes on it.

  8. Morphology, Tensile Strength and Oil Resistance of Gum Rubber Sheets Prepared from Lignin Modified Natural Rubber

    OpenAIRE

    Asrul M.; Othman M.; Zakaria M; Ahmad-Nazir K.

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation of lignin filled natural rubber latex composite and its subsequent use to obtain lignin modified rubber. Two types of lignin i.e.: rubber wood and commercial alkali lignin were used as rubber filler. Gum rubber sheets were prepared from the lignin modified rubber and their properties were compared to Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR 20) and a type of rubber obtained from the coagulation of high ammonia latex. Rubber morphology was investigated using Scanning ...

  9. Rheological properties in supernatant of peach gum from almond(Prunus dulcis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王森; 谢碧霞; 钟秋平; 杜红岩

    2008-01-01

    The rheological properties in the supernatant of peach gum from Prunnus dulcis were discussed in order to provide more scientific technical parameters and references for developing peach gum as a kind of medicinal gum.The rheological properties in the supernatant of peach gum were comparatively studied in different material ratios,temperatures,shaking times,pH values and salinities.The results show that,1) the mathematical model of shear rate with material ratio and shear stress is Y=0.069X12+0.035X2 -1.174,R2=0.942;2) the mathematical model of shear rate with temperature and shear stress is Y=4.936X12+0.023 2X2-1.688,R2=0.937;3) the mathematical model of shear rate with shaking time and shear stress is Y=0.005 192 X13-0.140 73X12+1.249 045X1+ 0.036 546 X2-3.644 29,R2=0.954 3;4) the effects of pH value on the rheological properties in the supernatant of peach gum are comparatively complicated with a varying range of 3-11 and the shear rate shows a change trend of saddle model;5) the mathematical model of shear rate with the concentration of NaCl and shear stress is Y=-0.037 44X1+0.012 93 X2,R2=0.998;6) the mathematical model of shear rate with the concentration of CaCl2 and shear stress is Y=0.025 789X1+0.016 19X2,R2 =0.999;and 7) the mathematical model of shear rate with the concentration of sorbic acid potassium and shear stress is Y=0.079 5X1+0.017 3X2,R2=0.998.The results show that the material ratio,temperature,shaking time,pH value significantly affect the rheological properties in the supernatant of peach gum,and the concentrations of NaCl and CaCl2 also significantly affect the rheological properties expect the concentration of sorbic acid potassium.

  10. Suitability of feeding and chewing time for estimation of feed intake in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, C; Hartung, E; Grothmann, A; Mahlkow-Nerge, K; Haeussermann, A

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of feeding and rumination behaviour can provide useful information for dairy herd management. The feeding behaviour of dairy cows can be recorded by different techniques, such as video cameras, weighing troughs or chewing sensors. Among feeding characteristics, individual feed intake of cows is of utmost interest, but as weighing troughs have high space and cost requirements they are used primarily in research studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether records on feeding time or chewing activity or a combination of both contain enough information to estimate feed intake with sufficient accuracy. Feed intake and feeding time per cow were recorded by means of weighing troughs. Concurrently, chewing activity of seven cows was recorded by MSR-ART pressure sensors during five to eight measuring days per cow. Feeding and chewing behaviour were evaluated in time slots (1 min) and additionally assigned to feeding bouts for further analysis. The 1 min time slots were classified into feeding/no feeding or chewing/no chewing by the two systems, and agreement was found in 92.2% of the records. On average, cows spent 270±39 min/day at the feeding troughs and chewed 262±48 min/day. The average fresh matter intake (FMI) was 49.6±5.1 kg/day. Feed intake was divided into 9.7 bouts/day during which cows fed in average 27.8±21.7 min/bout and chewed 27.0±23.1 min/bout. The correlation between FMI and feeding time was r=0.891 and between FMI and chewing time r=0.780 overall cows. Hence, both systems delivered suitable information for estimating feed intake. PMID:26201971

  11. Suitability of feeding and chewing time for estimation of feed intake in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, C; Hartung, E; Grothmann, A; Mahlkow-Nerge, K; Haeussermann, A

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of feeding and rumination behaviour can provide useful information for dairy herd management. The feeding behaviour of dairy cows can be recorded by different techniques, such as video cameras, weighing troughs or chewing sensors. Among feeding characteristics, individual feed intake of cows is of utmost interest, but as weighing troughs have high space and cost requirements they are used primarily in research studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether records on feeding time or chewing activity or a combination of both contain enough information to estimate feed intake with sufficient accuracy. Feed intake and feeding time per cow were recorded by means of weighing troughs. Concurrently, chewing activity of seven cows was recorded by MSR-ART pressure sensors during five to eight measuring days per cow. Feeding and chewing behaviour were evaluated in time slots (1 min) and additionally assigned to feeding bouts for further analysis. The 1 min time slots were classified into feeding/no feeding or chewing/no chewing by the two systems, and agreement was found in 92.2% of the records. On average, cows spent 270±39 min/day at the feeding troughs and chewed 262±48 min/day. The average fresh matter intake (FMI) was 49.6±5.1 kg/day. Feed intake was divided into 9.7 bouts/day during which cows fed in average 27.8±21.7 min/bout and chewed 27.0±23.1 min/bout. The correlation between FMI and feeding time was r=0.891 and between FMI and chewing time r=0.780 overall cows. Hence, both systems delivered suitable information for estimating feed intake.

  12. Promoter analysis of the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris gum operon directing biosynthesis of the xanthan polysaccharide.

    OpenAIRE

    Katzen, F; Becker, A.; Zorreguieta, A; Pühler, A; Ielpi, L

    1996-01-01

    The Xanthomonas campestris gum gene cluster is composed of 12 genes designated gumB, -C, -D, -E, -F, -G, -H, -I, -J, -K, -L, and -M. The transcriptional organization of this gene cluster was analyzed by the construction of gum-lacZ transcriptional fusions in association with plasmid integration mutagenesis. This analysis, coupled with primer extension assays, indicated that the gum region was mainly expressed as an operon from a promoter located upstream of the first gene, gumB.

  13. Los chicles de nicotina no son una golosina Nicotine gum is not a sweet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. García Blázquez

    2009-01-01

    .
    Results: In the four cases, symptoms appeared after the intake of the gum, this occurring 20-30 minutes after they were chewed. The predominant symptoms in 75% of the cases were nausea, vomiting and dizziness. At 30 minutes of the intake, two cases were administered activated carbon in the Emergency Department, and the remaining two were not administered it because 4 hours had passed since the intake. After remaining in observation for 12 hours and being asymptomatic, they were discharged.
    Discussion: Accidental intake of nicotine gum may cause important adverse effects, these appearing faster in children than in adults. Administration of activated carbon should be considered as the first measure, and even more so during the first hours after its intake.
    Since children can easily confuse it and accidentally consume it, the pharmaceutical industry should consider changing its presentation form. Furthermore, parents should be more careful so as to prevent their children from having access to it and consuming it.

  14. NATURAL POLYMER MATERIAL——RECENT STUDIES ON EUCOMMIA ULMOIDES GUM%天然高分子材料——杜仲胶的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继川; 薛兆弘; 严瑞芳; 方世璧

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies on eucommia ulmoids ( EU) gum are summarized. The present paper firstly introduced the extraction methods, macromolecular structure and biological synthesis mechanism of EU gum; and introduced the crystalline characterisitics of EU gum, such as the determination of crystal form of EU gum, the preparation and the conversion of various crystal forms of EU gum, the melting points and fusion enthalpy of EU gum,the crystallization rate and its dependent factors of EU gum and so on. Then,this paper highlighted the studies of application of EU gum which was made breakthrough progress by our group in recent years. Such as, the three stages during the vulcanization progress of EU gum, the critical elastic turning law of EU gum, the two active dynamic mechanical zones of EU gum controlled by temperature, the five dynamic mechanical behaviours of EU gum controlled by crosslinking degree, and the comparative studies of EU gum and synthetic trans-1 ,4-polyisoprene and so on. In the end,the future direction of study of EU gum is envisaged.%概述了国内外有关杜仲胶的研究概况.首先介绍了杜仲胶的提取方法、分子结构及生物合成机理.接着介绍了杜仲胶结晶特性,如晶型的确定、制备方法及晶型之间的相互转化,结晶熔点及结晶焓,结晶速度及影响结晶速度的条件.然后重点介绍了本小组近年来有关杜仲胶应用方面的研究,如杜仲胶硫化三阶段,弹性临界转变规律,杜仲胶受温度控制的两个活跃的动态力学区域,受交联控制的5种动态力学行为,以及杜仲胶与合成反式-1,4-聚异戊二烯的比较.最后展望了杜仲胶领域今后研究的发展方向.

  15. Carbon nanotube modification using gum arabic and its effect on the dispersion and tensile properties of carbon nanotubes/epoxy nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man Tae; Park, Ho Seok; Hui, David; Rhee, Kyong Yop

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the effects of a MWCNT treatment on the dispersion of MWCNTs in aqueous solution and the tensile properties of MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites were investigated. MWCNTs were treated using acid and gum arabic, and MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites were fabricated with 0.3 wt.% unmodified, oxidized and gum-treated MWCNTs. The dispersion states of the unmodified, oxidized, and Gum-treated MWCNTs were characterized in distilled water. The tensile strengths and elastic modulus of the three nanocomposites were determined and compared. The results indicated that the gum treatment produced better dispersion of the MWCNTs in distilled water and that gum-treated MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites had a better tensile strength and elastic modulus than did the unmodified and acid-treated MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites. Scanning electron microscope examination of the fracture surface showed that the improved tensile properties of the gum-treated MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites were attributed to the improved dispersion of MWCNTs in the epoxy and to interfacial bonding between nanotubes and the epoxy matrix. PMID:22103198

  16. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate tooth stain reduction with nicotine replacement gum during a smoking cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whelton Helen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to its general and periodontal health effects smoking causes tooth staining. Smoking cessation support interventions with an added stain removal or tooth whitening effect may increase motivation to quit smoking. Oral health professionals are well placed to provide smoking cessation advice and support to patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Nicorette® Freshmint Gum used in a smoking cessation programme administered in a dental setting, on extrinsic stain and tooth shade among smokers. Methods An evaluator-blinded, randomized, 12-week parallel-group controlled trial was conducted among 200 daily smokers motivated to quit smoking. Participants were randomised to use either the Nicorette® Freshmint Gum or Nicorette® Microtab (tablet. Tooth staining and shade were rated using the modified Lobene Stain Index and the Vita® Shade Guide at baseline, weeks 2, 6 and 12. To maintain consistency with other whitening studies, the primary end-point was the mean change in stain index between baseline and week 6. Secondary variables included changes in stain measurements and tooth shade at the other time points the number of gums or tablets used per day and throughout the trial period; and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Treatments were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, using treatment and nicotine dependence as factors and the corresponding baseline measurement as a covariate. Each comparison (modified intention-to-treat was tested at the 0.05 level, two-sided. Within-treatment changes from baseline were compared using a paired t-test. Results At week 6, the gum-group experienced a reduction in mean stain scores whilst the tablet-group experienced an increase with mean changes of -0.14 and +0.12 respectively, (p = 0.005, ANCOVA. The change in mean tooth shade scores was statistically significantly greater in the gum-group than in the tablet group at 2 (p = 0

  17. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate tooth stain reduction with nicotine replacement gum during a smoking cessation program

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whelton, Helen

    2012-06-13

    AbstractBackgroundIn addition to its general and periodontal health effects smoking causes tooth staining. Smoking cessation support interventions with an added stain removal or tooth whitening effect may increase motivation to quit smoking. Oral health professionals are well placed to provide smoking cessation advice and support to patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Nicorette® Freshmint Gum used in a smoking cessation programme administered in a dental setting, on extrinsic stain and tooth shade among smokers.MethodsAn evaluator-blinded, randomized, 12-week parallel-group controlled trial was conducted among 200 daily smokers motivated to quit smoking. Participants were randomised to use either the Nicorette® Freshmint Gum or Nicorette® Microtab (tablet). Tooth staining and shade were rated using the modified Lobene Stain Index and the Vita® Shade Guide at baseline, weeks 2, 6 and 12. To maintain consistency with other whitening studies, the primary end-point was the mean change in stain index between baseline and week 6. Secondary variables included changes in stain measurements and tooth shade at the other time points the number of gums or tablets used per day and throughout the trial period; and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Treatments were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), using treatment and nicotine dependence as factors and the corresponding baseline measurement as a covariate. Each comparison (modified intention-to-treat) was tested at the 0.05 level, two-sided. Within-treatment changes from baseline were compared using a paired t-test.ResultsAt week 6, the gum-group experienced a reduction in mean stain scores whilst the tablet-group experienced an increase with mean changes of -0.14 and +0.12 respectively, (p = 0.005, ANCOVA). The change in mean tooth shade scores was statistically significantly greater in the gum-group than in the tablet group at 2 (p = 0.015), 6 (p = 0

  18. Masseter muscle thickness, chewing efficiency and bite force in edentulous patients with fixed and removable implant-supported prostheses: a cross-sectional multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Frauke; Hernandez, Marta; Gruetter Faineteau, Linda; Aracil-Kessler, Luis; Weingart, Dieter; Schimmel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Edentulous patients may be restored with conventional dentures (C/C), implant-supported overdentures (IOD) or implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (IFDP). Null-hypotheses: chewing efficiency, maximum voluntary bite force (MBF) and masseter muscle thickness (MMT) are lower in patients with C/IOD compared with the patients with bimaxillary IFDPs. Both groups perform better than C/C and are inferior to fully dentate controls.

  19. Electron beam irradiation effects on xanthan gum, rheological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food ingredients to be used for food processing should be decontaminated in order to prevent food spoilage and food-borne diseases. Xanthan gum is a well-known microbial polysaccharide produced by Xanthomonas campestris used in the hydrocolloid market. This paper describes the application of electron beam (EB) irradiation to xanthan gum as used as ingredient by the food or cosmetics industry in order to establish their radiosensitivity. Viscosity of 1% xanthan gum solutions prepared with the irradiated powder decreased with the increase of the EB irradiation dose. The radiation-induced viscosity detriment of this additive must be considered for practical applications. (author)

  20. Effect of virulence and serial transfers of Xanthomonas campestris on xanthan gum production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitschke Marcia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The virulence of six Xanthomonas campestris isolates was evaluated using the percentage of lesion area of leaves in Brassica oleraceae host plant, compared to diameter of colonies, xanthan production and gum viscosity. In terms of virulence, the isolates belonged to two statistically different groups: isolates B, UPF and C7 showed values between 52 and 69%, while isolates CF, C and strain B-1459 gave 0-30% of lesion area. Final xanthan concentration, gum viscosity and colony diameter did not correlate with virulence calculated by percentage of lesion area, showing that this parameter is not a good criterium for selection of potential xanthan producer isolates. Serial transfers of X. campestris isolates in host plant did not show a significant effect on "in vitro" production of xanthan or on viscosity levels, suggesting that the increasing interaction between plant and bacteria did not stimulate the increase in xanthan production and viscosity.

  1. Guar gum/borax hydrogel: Rheological, low field NMR and release characterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grassi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Guar gum (GG and Guar gum/borax (GGb hydrogels are studied by means of rheology, Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (LF NMR and model drug release tests. These three approaches are used to estimate the mesh size (ζ of the polymeric network. A comparison with similar Scleroglucan systems is carried out. In the case of GGb, the rheological and Low Field NMR estimations of ζ lead to comparable results, while the drug release approach seems to underestimate ζ. Such discrepancy is attributed to the viscous effect of some polymeric chains that, although bound to the network to one end, can freely fluctuate among meshes. The viscous drag exerted by these chains slows down drug diffusion through the polymeric network. A proof for this hypothesis is given by the case of Scleroglucan gel, where the viscous contribution is not so significant and a good agreement between the rheological and release test approaches was found.

  2. Effectiveness of a GUM-compliant course for teaching measurement in the introductory physics laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of a course aimed at developing university students' understanding of the nature of scientific measurement and uncertainty is described. The course materials follow the framework for metrology as recommended in the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). The evaluation of the course is based on responses to written questionnaires administered to a cohort of 76 first year physics students both pre- and post-instruction, which were interpreted in terms of 'point' or 'set' reasoning. These findings are compared with responses from a control group of 70 students who completed a similar laboratory course apart from the use of traditional approaches to measurement and data analysis. The results suggest that the GUM framework, together with the specific teaching strategies described, provides opportunities for more effective learning of measurement and uncertainty in the introductory laboratory

  3. Molecular and functional characteristics of purified gum from Australian chia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Kasapis, Stefan; Adhikari, Benu

    2016-01-20

    Chia seed gum (CSG) was extracted from the seed coat of Salvia hispanica, purified in the laboratory and its chemical composition and functional properties were investigated. CSG was found to comprise 93.8% carbohydrate consisting of xylose, glucose, arabinose, galactose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid as monosaccharide units. The presence of uronic acids was reflected in the anionic behavior of the CSG solution over a wide range of pH (≥ 1.8). The solubility of CSG increased slightly with temperature and pH of the aqueous medium. CSG was able to resist pyrolytic decomposition at temperatures well in excess of 250 °C, and exhibited a high water holding capacity (23 times of its own weight). The surface activity and emulsifying properties of CSG were found to be either superior or comparable to other common gums and industrial polysaccharides indicating the potential of CSG as an effective thickener and stabilizer of processed foods.

  4. Social Networking Media: A Newer Approach to Increase Awareness Against Tobacco Chewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Gajera, Shivangi Malaviya, Umang Patel, Neha Bavarva, Manan Patel, Shreyash Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Facebook has been found highly effective in transmitting messages to health consumers, especially among the youngsters. So information regarding tobacco addiction and outcomes of tobacco chewing can be communicated effectively through Facebook through intense messages.

  5. The effect of dry corn gluten feed on chewing activities and rumen parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF on dry matter intake (DMI, chewing activity, and rumen fermentation when used to replace a portion of corn silage in diets for lactating Holstein cows. Eight lactating Holstein primiparous cows averaging 98±20 d in milk and weighing 515±20 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design with 4 week periods. Dietary treatments were 1 a control diets (C of 50% forage (corn silage and wheat straw, 35%, 15% DM basis, respectively, 2 a low DCGF diet (L-DCGF in which 10% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, 3 a medium DCGF diet (M-DCGF in which 18% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, and 4 a high DCGF diet (H-DCGF in which 25% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF. The proportion of particles retained on the 19.0 mm screen and physical effectiveness factor of the HDCGF was lower (P<0.05 than in the other groups. Increasing the level of DCGF did not change DMI. Cows fed the C diet spent significantly more time ruminating and chewing per day compared with the MDCGF and H-DCGF diets (483.88, 435.63, 431.25 min/d, P<0.05; and 818.38, 753.00, 745.75 min/d respectively, P<0.05. Cows fed the C diet had ruminal pH values higher than the cows fed the M-DCGF and H-DCGF diets (6.02, 5.95, and 5.91, P<0.05. The total volatile fatty acid and propionate levels of H-DCGF fed cows were higher than the control (P<0.05. The changes in acetate (A and propionate (P concentrations resulted in a decrease in A/P ratio, when corn silage was replaced by DCGF, which led to a reduction in the particle size of the diets (P<0.05. It was concluded that when ratio 18 and 25% DCGF were substituted for corn silage, rumination time, chewing activities and ruminal pH are negatively affected. The optimum level for the addition of DCGF was found to be below 18% of the diet for a healthy rumen and a chewing behaviour in dairy cows.

  6. Chewing side, bite force symmetry, and occlusal contact area of subjects with different facial vertical patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Guimarães Farias Gomes; William Custodio; Fernanda Faot; Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury; Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Craniofacial dimensions influence oral functions; however, it is not known whether they are associated with function asymmetry. The objective of this study was to evaluate chewing side preference and lateral asymmetry of occlusal contact area and bite force of individuals with different craniofacial patterns. Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the VERT index as follows: (1) mesofacial, (2) brachyfacial and (3) dolichofacial. Chewing side preference was eval...

  7. Effectiveness of a Nutrition Education Program to Improve Children's Chewing Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Nanae; Hayashi, Fumi; Yoshiike, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study determined whether the nutrition education program we developed to promote chewing food properly influenced children’s chewing habits successfully. Four kindergarten classes in Japan (150 children, aged 5-6 years) were studied; one class received the educational program in the classroom and at home (Group A) and three classes received the program in the classroom only (Group B). The educational program was integrated into the classes’ daily curriculum for five we...

  8. Development of a new instrument for determining the level of chewing function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serel Arslan, S; Demir, N; Barak Dolgun, A; Karaduman, A A

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to develop a chewing performance scale that classifies chewing from normal to severely impaired and to investigate its validity and reliability. The study included the developmental phase and reported the content, structural, criterion validity, interobserver and intra-observer reliability of the chewing performance scale, which was called the Karaduman Chewing Performance Scale (KCPS). A dysphagia literature review, other questionnaires and clinical experiences were used in the developmental phase. Seven experts assessed the steps for content validity over two Delphi rounds. To test structural, criterion validity, interobserver and intra-observer reliability, two swallowing therapists evaluated chewing videos of 144 children (Group I: 61 healthy children without chewing disorders, mean age of 42·38 ± 9·36 months; Group II: 83 children with cerebral palsy who have chewing disorders, mean age of 39·09 ± 22·95 months) using KCPS. The Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) was used for criterion validity. The KCPS steps arranged between 0-4 were found to be necessary. The content validity index was 0·885. The KCPS levels were found to be different between groups I and II (χ(2) = 123·286, P < 0·001). A moderately strong positive correlation was found between the KCPS and the subscales of the BPFAS (r = 0·444-0·773, P < 0·001). An excellent positive correlation was detected between two swallowing therapists and between two examinations of one swallowing therapist (r = 0·962, P < 0·001; r = 0·990, P < 0·001, respectively). The KCPS is a valid, reliable, quick and clinically easy-to-use functional instrument for determining the level of chewing function in children. PMID:27043312

  9. Keep Gum Disease Away! | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good dental hygiene. "People need to brush and floss every day, and see the dentist regularly. No lapses," he urges. To Find Out More MedlinePlus: medlineplus.gov ; type "gum disease" in Search box National Institute of ...

  10. Preparation and evaluation of soft gellan gum gel containing paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gohel M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop soft paracetamol gel using gellan gum as a gelling agent and sodium citrate as a source of cation. Different batches were prepared using three different concentrations of gellan gum (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5%, each with two different sodium citrate concentrations (0.3 and 0.5%. The consistency of the paracetamol gel was dependent on the concentration of gellan gum, sodium citrate and co-solute. The results of dissolution study of soft gel containing 0.3% gellan gum and 0.3% sodium citrate revealed that paracetamol was completely released in 30 min. Polyethylene glycol 400 worked as a solubilizer for paracetamol. All the gels possessed acceptable sensory characteristics when evaluated by human volunteers. Short term stability study carried out for four weeks at different temperatures revealed no considerable changes in performance characteristics of developed optimized formulation.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia siliqua (Linne), a leguminous evergreen tree, with lesser quantities of seed coat and germ. (b)...

  12. Qat Chewing as an Independent Risk Factor for Periodontitis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kaid Al-Sharabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of qat chewing on periodontal health, independent of other risk factors. Four hundred qat chewers and 100 nonchewers (20–50 years were included. Demographic data and detailed information about chewing and smoking were obtained. Periodontal status was assessed using Community Periodontal Index (CPI and clinical attachment loss (CAL. The qat chewers were older, included more males and smokers, and had worse oral hygiene but higher education levels; the majority were heavy chewers (mean duration of 14.45 years and frequency of 6.10 days/week. Regression analysis identified age, oral hygiene, education level, and cigarette smoking as independent predictors of periodontal destruction. Adjusted for these, qat chewing showed marginally significant association only with CAL (OR = 4.7; P=0.049. The chewing sides showed significantly higher scores than the nonchewing sides; however, equal scores on both sides or lower scores on the chewing sides (possibly no or beneficial effect were still observed in 50% of the chewers. Heavy qat chewing is shown here as an independent risk factor for attachment loss. However, the possibility that the habit may have beneficial effects in a subset of the chewers cannot be excluded. A holistic model that resolves the existing contradiction is presented.

  13. Sociocultural Factors that Affect Chewing Behaviors among Betel Nut Chewers and Ex-Chewers on Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle L; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-12-01

    Areca nut (betel nut) is chewed by an estimated 10% of the world's population which is equivalent to about 600 million people. It is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and has been linked to various types of oral cancer. Chewing areca predominates in South and South East Asia, East Africa, and the Western Pacific and has important social and cultural implications. The purpose of the pilot study was twofold: (1) to examine sociocultural factors that affect why people on Guam chew betel nut, their chewing behaviors, perceptions of risks, probability of changing behaviors, and methods that could be used to reduce use or quit; and (2) to pilot two surveys (one for chewers and one for ex-chewers) to be used in a larger study in the future. A mixed methods design was employed that included surveys pertaining to their status (chewer or ex-chewer) and in-depth interviews. A total of 30 adults participated in this pilot study: adult betel nut chewers (n = 15) and ex-chewers (n = 15). Chewing betel nut is a learned behavior, embedded within the culture, and is viewed as an important cultural identifier. Socially, chewing is viewed as positive. Chewers stated that they were not as aware of health issues; however, ex-chewers stated health reasons for quitting.

  14. Safety Assessment of Microbial Polysaccharide Gums as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of 34 microbial polysaccharide gums for use in cosmetics, finding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. The microbial polysaccharide gums named in this report have a variety of reported functions in cosmetics, including emulsion stabilizer, film former, binder, viscosity-increasing agent, and skin-conditioning agent. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety. PMID:27383198

  15. ROLE OF XANTHAN GUM (XANTHOMONAS COMPESTRIS IN GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Prakash

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Floating drug delivery system is the form of gastro-retentive drug delivery system. That controls kinetic release rate of drug to a specific site for its pharmacological action. These are achieved by use of various polymeric substances including natural polymer such as xanthan gum. This delivery system prolongs the retention time of the drug in the stomach as compared to conventional dosage form. The present article highlights the use of xanthan gum for the formulation of the gastro-retentive drug delivery system especially with natural polymer (xanthan gum. The main goal of any drug delivery system is to achieve desired concentration of the drug in blood or tissue, which is therapeutically effective and non toxic for a prolonged period. Oral delivery of drugs is by far the most preferable route of drug delivery due to the ease of administration, patient compliance and flexibility in formulation etc. From immediate release to cite specific delivery, oral dosage forms have really progressed.

  16. Comparison of ISO-GUM and Monte Carlo Method for Evaluation of Measurement Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To supplement the ISO-GUM method for the evaluation of measurement uncertainty, a simulation program using the Monte Carlo method (MCM) was developed, and the MCM and GUM methods were compared. The results are as follows: (1) Even under a non-normal probability distribution of the measurement, MCM provides an accurate coverage interval; (2) Even if a probability distribution that emerged from combining a few non-normal distributions looks as normal, there are cases in which the actual distribution is not normal and the non-normality can be determined by the probability distribution of the combined variance; and (3) If type-A standard uncertainties are involved in the evaluation of measurement uncertainty, GUM generally offers an under-valued coverage interval. However, this problem can be solved by the Bayesian evaluation of type-A standard uncertainty. In this case, the effective degree of freedom for the combined variance is not required in the evaluation of expanded uncertainty, and the appropriate coverage factor for 95% level of confidence was determined to be 1.96

  17. Stepwise extraction of Lepidium sativum seed gum: Physicochemical characterization and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Koocheki, Arash; Ale, Marcel Tutor

    2016-07-01

    Cress seed gum (CSG) was fractionated using stepwise extraction with water, yielding three fractions (F1, F2, F3) whose average molecular weights ranged from 863 to 1080kDa. The chemical composition (monosaccharide, ash, moisture, CHN and uronic acid contents) and molecular weight of the fractions varied significantly. Generally, the major identical peaks of FT-IR spectra for three fractions and whole cress seed gum were similar. The results of DSC and TGA indicated that F3 had the highest thermal stability and considering the initial decomposition temperature, the decreasing order of thermal stability was F3>F2>F1. Cress seed gum and its fractions exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior which the Herschel-Bulkley model was successfully described the steady shear flow behavior of samples, and apparent viscosity followed the order of F3>F2>F1. F3 exhibited the best surface tension reducing ability compared to other fractions and CSG. All the samples had good emulsifying capability (>97%) and stability (>96%). The emulsion capacity increased slightly along the series of F1, F2 and F3, whereas, emulsion stability decreased along the same series. CSG and F3 showed the highest and the lowest foaming capacity and stability, respectively.

  18. Biosynthesis of Xanthan Gum from Fermenting Shrimp Shell: Yield and Apparent Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Alves de Sousa Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of producing xanthan gum, the effects of an aqueous shrimp shell extract (SSAE as the source of carbon and nitrogen on the yield and apparent viscosity of the gums produced by fermentation using three native strains of Xanthomonas campestris were studied. It was found that the SSAE contained 89.75% moisture, 0.054% ash, 8.069% protein, 0.787 lipids, and 1.337% carbohydrates. Media containing different concentrations of SSAE and supplemented with urea (0.01% and phosphate (0.1% were fermented in a shaker, and the results obtained were compared with those obtained from sucrose (control with the same supplementation and fermentation conditions. Strain 1182 showed the highest yield (4.64 g·L−1 and viscosity (48.53 mPa·s, from the medium containing 10% (w/v of SSAE. These values were higher than those obtained from the control medium containing sucrose. Shrimp shell is a low cost residue that can be bioconverted into products of high added value such as xanthan gum.

  19. Diameter prediction mathematical models for xanthan gum-alginate capsules produced by extrusion-dripping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hui-Yen; Lee, Boon-Beng; Zakaria, Zarina; Chan, Eng-Seng

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the applicability of particle diameter prediction mathematical models (i.e. Tate's Law equation, the modified Tate's Law equation, the modified Yildirim's model) to determine diameter of liquid core capsules. The capsules were produced by extruding xanthan gum-calcium chloride solution through a hypodermic needle into sodium alginate solution. The effects of two types of xanthan gum with different concentrations and needle diameters on capsule diameter were investigated in this work. The results showed that there was no significant difference in capsule diameter despite different types and concentrations of xanthan gum were used. However, the diameter of the capsules increased when the diameter of needles increased. As a whole, the produced capsules were in the range of 3.47 mm to 4.86 mm. Among the three studied prediction models, the modified Tate's Law mathematical equation was the most suitable model for the diameter prediction of the liquid core capsules with AAD of 2.74% and MAD of 6.55%.

  20. Gum mastic increases maspin expression in prostate cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-lan HE; Wei-wen CHEN; Peng-ju ZHANG; An-li JIANG; Wei FAN; Hui-qing YUAN; Wen-wen LIU; Jian-ye ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study whether gum mastic, a natural resin, can regulate maspin expres-sion in prostate cancer cells, and further investigate the mechanisms involved in this regulatory system. Methods: RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect maspin expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. Reporter gene assay was used to investigate the effect of gum mastic on the maspin promoter.The binding activity of negative androgen-responsive element (ARE) and posi-tive Sp1 element in the maspin promoter were studied by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Results: Gum mastic induced maspin mRNA and protein expression,and the maspin promoter activity was enhanced with gum mastic treatment. Finally,gum mastic inhibited the ARE binding activity and increased the Sp1 binding activity in the maspin promoter. Conclusion: Gum mastic enhances maspin pro-moter activity by suppressing ARE binding activity and enhancing Sp1 binding activity, and the increased activity in the maspin promoter finally leads to the up-regulation of both its mRNA and protein levels.

  1. Oxidized Xanthan Gum and Chitosan as Natural Adhesives for Cork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paiva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural cork stopper manufacturing produces a significant amount of cork waste, which is granulated and combined with synthetic glues for use in a wide range of applications. There is a high demand for using biosourced polymers in these composite materials. In this study, xanthan gum (XG and chitosan (CS were investigated as possible natural binders for cork. Xanthan gum was oxidized at two different aldehyde contents as a strategy to improve its water resistance. This modification was studied in detail by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and the degree of oxidation was determined by the hydroxylamine hydrochloride titration method. The performance of the adhesives was studied by tensile tests and total soluble matter (TSM determinations. Xanthan gum showed no water resistance, contrary to oxidized xanthan gum and chitosan. It is hypothesized that the good performance of oxidized xanthan gum is due to the reaction of aldehyde groups—formed in the oxidation process—with hydroxyl groups on the cork surface during the high temperature drying. Combining oxidized xanthan gum with chitosan did not yield significant improvements.

  2. Re-examination of chewing and spitting behavior: characteristics within and across eating disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Nora E; Swanson, Sonja A; Crow, Scott J; Mitchell, James; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Chewing and spitting (CS) out food is a relatively understudied eating disorder behavior. The aim of this study was to examine lifetime and current frequencies of CS across eating disorder diagnostic groups and to compare the severity of eating disorder symptomatology between participants who did and did not endorse CS. A total of 972 individuals presenting for outpatient eating disorder treatment between 1985 and 1996 completed a questionnaire that included items regarding current and lifetime eating disorder behaviors, including CS. Results indicated that both lifetime and current prevalence estimates of CS varied cross-diagnostically, with CS being more common among those with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa compared to those with eating disorder not otherwise specified. CS was significantly associated with several eating disorder symptoms, including compensatory behaviors, meal restriction, and lower BMI. Those who reported CS were also younger in age compared to those who did not report CS. These findings indicate that CS is associated with more severe eating and weight pathology and is not equally prevalent across eating disorder diagnoses. These results also support the relatively high occurrence of CS and the importance of targeting this behavior in eating disorder treatment. Future research should clarify the correlates, mechanisms, and function of CS in eating disorders.

  3. Pathogenicity of EPS-deficient mutants (gumB-, gumD and gumE - ) of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Three extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) -deficient mutants of the pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, gumB - , gumD - and gumE- were constructed by Tn5 gusA5 mutagenesis in this study. The results of pathogenicity bioassay showed that three mutants had the obviously decreased pathogenicity on radish ( Raphanus sativus L. ) leaves. Because dead body of the bacteria still caused symptoms, it seemed that some unknown factors on the bac terial cell surface might play certain roles in the pathogenicity of the pathogen. The extracted raw EPS could lead to the chlorotic symptom on radish leaves, and its virulence was increased with the increase of EPS dosage, which suggested that EPS was a main component that caused the danage on radish leaves.

  4. 大豆膳食纤维咀嚼片的研制%Study on Soybean Dietary Fiber Chewing Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志勤

    2014-01-01

    以大豆膳食纤维为主要原料,添加麦芽糖醇、山梨糖醇和低聚异麦芽糖等原料,通过比较咀嚼片的外观、口感、碎脆度、稳定性,得到大豆膳食纤维咀嚼片最佳配方为:大豆膳食纤维38%,甜味剂(1乳糖:1甘露醇:1木糖醇)30%,麦芽糊精30%、柠檬酸2%,食用香精适量,并设置不同的光照、温度、湿度实验检验了咀嚼片的稳定性。%Soybean dietary fiber was the main raw materiales, meanwhile maltitol, sorbitol and isomaltooligosaccharide were added to it. By comparing the chewable tablet appearance, taste, brittleness, stability, the best formula of the soybean dietary fiber chewing tablets was soybean dietary fiber 38%, sweeteners (1:1:1 lactose mannitol xylitol) 30%, maltodextrin 30%, citric acid 2%, edible essence appropriate amount. The stability of chewing tablets was tested in different conditions (light, temperature, humidity).

  5. Effect of conservation and maturity of primary growth grass/clover on chewing activity and fecal particle size in heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Nørgaard, Peder; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated structural effectiveness of NDF from of spring harvest grass/clover forages of primary growth by assessing chewing activity and feces particles >1.0 mm in heifers. Two batches of mixed ryegrass, red and white clover harvested in 2009 on May 9 and 25 were conserved as either...... level was 90% of individual ad libitum intake, divided in two daily meals at 0800 and 1530 h. Jaw movements oscillations (JMO) were recorded for 96 h continuously using Hall sensor fitted chewing halters. Jaw movements (JM) were identified from JMO, clustered into cycles and periods of rumination...... in SAS 9.2 with period, conservation, harvest time, and conservation×harvest time as fixed effects and heifer as random. Daily intake of ES, EH, LS, and LH was 8.7, 9.4, 7.2, and 7.2 kg DM and 2.7, 4.1, 3.0, and 3.6 kg NDF respectively. Early compared to late harvest caused similar NDF intake and time...

  6. Formulation development and evaluation of novel oral jellies of carbamazepine using pectin, guar gum, and gellan gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katakam Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicated jelly formulations are more suitable for pediatric, geriatric and dysphagic patients, which offer rapid dissolution and absorption of drugs thereby early onset of action. The aim was to develop and evaluate oral jelly formulations of carbamazepine (CBZ. Carbamazepine oral jellies were prepared to employ pectin, guar gum and gellan gum alone and pectin-guar gum combination. Preformulation studies, organoleptic, physical characteristics, drug content, pH, spreadability, rheological properties, syneresis, taste masking, in vitro dissolution testing, drug release kinetics and stability studies were conducted. The Fourier transform infrared and differential scanning calorimeter studies showed that there was no interaction between drug and excipients. The pH of all the formulations was found between pH 6.37 ± 0.03 and 6.83 ± 0.04. The concentration of gelling agents influenced the spreadability. Syneresis was observed in jellies made from guar gum alone, whereas those made from pectin and guar gum it was absent. The optimized formulations (F3, F11 and F15 masked the bitter taste of CBZ and demonstrated acceptable flavor and mouth feel. All formulations showed more than 50% drug release in 15 min except those made of gellan gum alone. The formulations F3, F11 and F15, were found stable for 90 days as per International Conference on Harmonization stability protocol. Carbamazepine jellies made from pectin (F3, 1.2%, gellan gum (F11, 1.5% and pectin-guar gum (F15, 1:0.4% were found more successful and could be employed to improve the palatability and acceptability by pediatric, geriatric and dysphagic patients. The jellies could be useful to overcome the problems of poorly soluble CBZ.

  7. Evaluation of Release Behavior of Nicotine from Gum-based Tobacco Products%胶基型无烟气烟草制品中烟碱的释放行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文娟; 何保江; 屈展; 李鹏; 张建勋

    2013-01-01

    A simulated chewing machine was developed for evaluating in vitro the release behavior of nicotine from gum-based smokeless tobacco products,and the in vitro nicotine release rates from four kinds of gum-based tobacco products on the market were tested by combining that machine with HPLC.The chewing machine was mainly composed of a container for solvent,two peristaltic pumps,a thermostat,two circulating water tanks,a sample stage,an air compressor,a cylinder,a motor,a pneumatic clamp and a liquid collector.The test chamber formed by the circulation tanks and sample stage simulated a buccal cavity,which ensured nicotine release at a constant temperature of 37 ℃ into artificial saliva,the pneumatic clamp pushed by the air compressor compressed the test sample repeatedly simulating the chewing action.The in vivo and in vitro nicotine release tests showed that evaluating the release behavior of nicotine from gum-based tobacco products with the simulated chewing machine was simple and reliable,the test results were close to the nicotine release from gum-based tobacco products taken by a human being.The technique was of practical uses for the quality control of gum-based tobacco products,the evaluation of nicotine bioavailability as well as the control of nicotine.%研制了一种用于体外评价胶基型无烟气烟草制品烟碱释放行为的模拟咀嚼机,并利用该设备结合高效液相色谱仪测试了4种市售胶基型无烟气烟草制品的体外烟碱释放率.该设备主要包括溶媒存储瓶、蠕动泵、恒温槽、循环水箱、载物台、空气压缩机、气缸、电机、气动夹子和释放液收集装置.其中循环水箱和载物台形成的测试腔用来模拟人体口腔,以人工唾液为溶媒,空气压缩机带动气动夹子反复挤压被测样品以模拟人体咀嚼状态.体内、体外烟碱释放测试结果表明:利用该模拟咀嚼机评价胶基型无烟气烟草制品烟碱释放行为的方法简便可靠,测

  8. A comparative study of biopolymers and alum in the separation and recovery of pulp fibres from paper mill effluent by flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sumona; Mukhopadhyay, Soumyadeep; Pariatamby, Agamuthu; Ali Hashim, Mohd; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Sen Gupta, Bhaskar

    2014-09-01

    Recovery of cellulose fibres from paper mill effluent has been studied using common polysaccharides or biopolymers such as Guar gum, Xanthan gum and Locust bean gum as flocculent. Guar gum is commonly used in sizing paper and routinely used in paper making. The results have been compared with the performance of alum, which is a common coagulant and a key ingredient of the paper industry. Guar gum recovered about 3.86mg/L of fibre and was most effective among the biopolymers. Settling velocity distribution curves demonstrated that Guar gum was able to settle the fibres faster than the other biopolymers; however, alum displayed the highest particle removal rate than all the biopolymers at any of the settling velocities. Alum, Guar gum, Xanthan gum and Locust bean gum removed 97.46%, 94.68%, 92.39% and 92.46% turbidity of raw effluent at a settling velocity of 0.5cm/min, respectively. The conditions for obtaining the lowest sludge volume index such as pH, dose and mixing speed were optimised for guar gum which was the most effective among the biopolymers. Response surface methodology was used to design all experiments, and an optimum operational setting was proposed. The test results indicate similar performance of alum and Guar gum in terms of floc settling velocities and sludge volume index. Since Guar gum is a plant derived natural substance, it is environmentally benign and offers a green treatment option to the paper mills for pulp recycling.

  9. TREATMENT OF SWEET GUM LIGNIN BY LACCASE AND LMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HualiWei; ShulanShi; JichengPei

    2004-01-01

    Cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) from sweet gum is treated by laccase and laccase/mediator system (LMS). Phenoli hydroxyl content of lignin is measured, and IR, GPC, 13C-NMR spectrograms are analyzed. Compar. I with control sample, phenolic hydroxyl content of lignin is a little higher after laccase treatment, whereas they are lower after LMStreatment. In LMS, lignin modification by laccase/ABTS is greater than by laccase/VA. It is found from IR that in lignin treated by laccase and LMS, relative content of siringyl hydroxyl group is higher, and α- conjugated carbonyl group content is a little higher. From GPC analysis, compared with control sample, molecular weight decrease after the treatment by laccase and LMS. And the decrement is greater bv laccase alone than by LMS. According to 13C-NMR, relative content of carbonyl group and methoxvl group increase during the treatment by laccase alone, but theamount of them are lower after LMS treatment. And the amount of Cα and Cβ in β-Ο-4 has a little decrement after LMS treatment. It indicates that the oxidation of lignin by laccase and LMS proceed through different reaction pathways.

  10. TREATMENT OF SWEET GUM LIGNIN BY LACCASE AND LMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huali Wei; Shulan Shi; Jicheng Pei

    2004-01-01

    Cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) from sweet gum is treated by laccase and laccase/mediator system (LMS). Phenolic hydroxyl content of lignin is measured, and IR, GPC, 13C-NMR spectrograms are analyzed. Compared with control sample, phenolic hydroxyl content of lignin is a little higher after laccase treatment, whereas they are lower after LMS treatment. In LMS, lignin modification by laccase/ABTS is greater than by laccase/VA. It is found from IR that in lignin treated by laccase and LMS, relative content of siringyl hydroxyl group is higher, and α- conjugated carbonyl group content is a little higher. From GPC analysis, compared with control sample, molecular weight decrease after the treatment by laccase and LMS. And the decrement is greater by laccase alone than by LMS. According to 13C-NMR, relative content of carbonyl group and methoxyl group increase during the treatment by laccase alone, but the amount of them are lower after LMS treatment.And the amount of Cαand C β in β-O-4 has a little decrement after LMS treatment. It indicates that the oxidation of lignin by laccase and LMS proceed through different reaction pathways.

  11. Analytical studies on the gum exudate from Anogeissus leiocarpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anogeissus leiocarpus gum samples were collected as natural exudate nodules, from three different location. Physicochemical properties of gum samples were studied. results showed significant differences within each location in most parameters studied except refractive index value which was found to be constant in all samples. The effect of location on the properties of gum samples was also studied and the analysis of variance showed insignificant differences (P≤0.05) in all properties studied except in ash content. Inter nodule variations of gum from two different location were studied individually. Results showed significant differences for each parameter studied except for the refractive index value. The properties studied of all gum samples were as follows: 9.2% moisture, 3.4% ash, 0.72% nitrogen, 4.74% protein, -35.5 specific rotation, 1.68 relative viscosity, 4.2 pH, 1.334 refractive index, 14.3 uronic acid, 0.44% reducing sugar, 1336.0 equivalent weight and 0.68% tannin content. UV absorption spectra of gum samples and gum nodules were determined. Cationic composition of gum samples was also determined and the results showed that (Mg) has highest value in all samples studied followed by Fe, Na, K, Ca, Zn and trace amount of Mn, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb. The water holding capacity was found to be 65.5% and emulsifying stability was found to be 1.008. The component sugars of gum were examined by different methods followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis. Analysis of hydrolysate crude gum sample by HPLC show L-rhamnose (6.82), L-arabinose (48.08), D-galactose (11.26) and two unknown oligosaccharides having values (0.22 and 32.61). Some physicochemical properties were studied. Results showed significant differences in nitrogen and protein contents, specific rotation, relative viscosity, equivalent weight and pH of fractions, where as insignificant differences were observed in uronic acid content and refractive index values

  12. ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF DENDROCNIDE SINUATA (BLUME CHEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binita Angom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous root extracts of Dendrocnide sinuata (Blume Chew (AEDS in Swiss albino mice and wistar rats. The animals were orally administered AEDS at doses 30 and 100 mgkg-1 (p.o. For analgesic study, acetic acid-induced Writhing test, Eddy’s hot plate and Tail Flick model was performed in mice. For antiinflammatory study, carrageen-induced paw edema study was performed in rats. In acetic acid induced model, effect of AEDS was comparable with the standard meloxicam 10 mgkg-1 (i.p. In the hot plate model, the maximum effect was observed at 30 min at a dose of 100 mgkg-1 (p.o which was comparable with the standard Pentazocine 10 mgkg-1 (p.o, whereas in the tail flick model no significant changes were observed. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, administration of AEDS showed significant (P < 0.05 dose dependent inhibition of edema formation. AEDS was effective in both narcotic and non-narcotic models of analgesia. It also showed a significant dose-dependent increase in antiedematogenic activity which revealed good peripheral anti-inflammatory properties of the extract.

  13. Estimates of fallout in the continental U.S. from Nevada weapons testing based on gummed-film monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During periods of weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between 1951 and 1958, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) monitored daily fallout at about 100 sites in the U.S. using gummed-film collectors. These gummed-film data represent the only comprehensive set of actual measurements of fallout during this period for areas outside the immediate vicinity of the NTS. The measured beta activities originally reported by EML have been reviewed and reevaluated. This reevaluation corrected a number of errors in the original data set and allowed fairly accurate estimates to be made of specific radionuclide depositions from individual NTS shots. Estimates of the geographical and temporal variations in cumulative 137Cs and 131I depositions from all NTS shots through 1957 are presented, as well as estimates of the relative impact of particular shots and test series. The revised gummed-film estimates of total NTS fallout depositions are compared with estimates based on contemporary and historical soil sample analyses. These reevaluated gummed-film fallout deposition estimates are being extensively utilized in a number of ongoing programs to reconstruct the radiation exposure of the U.S. population from Nevada weapons testing

  14. Areca nut and tobacco chewing habits in Durban, KwaZulu Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissessur, S; Naidoo, S

    2009-11-01

    Areca nut/quid chewing is a habit that is commonly practiced in the Indian subcontinent and this age-old social habit is still being practiced by the Indians in South Africa. The areca nut/quid is prepared in a variety of ways. The quid may be prepared with or without tobacco. This habit is said to be associated with the development of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a premalignant lesion, oral leukoplakia and oral cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of areca nut/quid chewing (with or without tobacco), associated habits (smoking and alcohol consumption) as well as the awareness of the risks. The study was cross-sectional in design and used administered questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to collect the data. A convenience sample of 101 respondents was interviewed. More than three quarter were born in South Africa and the rest were migrant communities from Pakistan, India and Dubai. All respondents from the migrant community were males. Slightly more females than maleschewed areca nut/quid. Popular ingredients that were chewed included areca nut, betel leaf, lime and paan masala. Enjoyment and special functions were the most important reasons for chewing areca nut. Family influence was a reason for chewing. Nearly 60% did not know whether areca nut chewing is harmful to their health. The majority have not attempted to give up the habit. It is recommended that aggressive awareness programmes on the hazardous effects of areca nut/quid chewing be developed similar to those for smoking cessation. Government health warnings need to be written on paan packaging. Taxes need to be imposed on the areca nut and condiments. Age restrictions need to be imposed on purchasing of the areca nut/quid thus making access difficult for the children. PMID:20306864

  15. Areca nut and tobacco chewing habits in Durban, KwaZulu Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissessur, S; Naidoo, S

    2009-11-01

    Areca nut/quid chewing is a habit that is commonly practiced in the Indian subcontinent and this age-old social habit is still being practiced by the Indians in South Africa. The areca nut/quid is prepared in a variety of ways. The quid may be prepared with or without tobacco. This habit is said to be associated with the development of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a premalignant lesion, oral leukoplakia and oral cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of areca nut/quid chewing (with or without tobacco), associated habits (smoking and alcohol consumption) as well as the awareness of the risks. The study was cross-sectional in design and used administered questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to collect the data. A convenience sample of 101 respondents was interviewed. More than three quarter were born in South Africa and the rest were migrant communities from Pakistan, India and Dubai. All respondents from the migrant community were males. Slightly more females than maleschewed areca nut/quid. Popular ingredients that were chewed included areca nut, betel leaf, lime and paan masala. Enjoyment and special functions were the most important reasons for chewing areca nut. Family influence was a reason for chewing. Nearly 60% did not know whether areca nut chewing is harmful to their health. The majority have not attempted to give up the habit. It is recommended that aggressive awareness programmes on the hazardous effects of areca nut/quid chewing be developed similar to those for smoking cessation. Government health warnings need to be written on paan packaging. Taxes need to be imposed on the areca nut and condiments. Age restrictions need to be imposed on purchasing of the areca nut/quid thus making access difficult for the children.

  16. Khat chewing habit among school students of Jazan region, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad Mohammed Alsanosy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of Khat leaves (Catha edulis in Jazan, southwest of KSA, is prevalent among all segments of the population. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of Khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students of Jazan region. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in late 2011 in Jazan region. A random sample of 3923 students was selected from 72 intermediate and upper secondary schools representing the different educational sectors of the region. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics, a chi-squared test and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence, associations and predictors of Khat chewing. RESULT: The overall Khat chewing prevalence among students was 20.5% (95% C.I.: 19.27-21.79. The prevalence was significantly higher among males, at 33.1% (95% CI: 31.16-35.08, than among females 4.3% (95% C.I.: 3.39-5.31 ( P <0.001. Univariate analysis revealed that gender, age, academic performance, friends' smoking and Khat chewing, and students' smoking status were associated with a significantly high risk of Khat chewing ( P <0.001 for all. The multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the most important independent predictors of Khat chewing among the students in our sample were students' smoking status (OR = 13.02, P <0.001, friends' use of Khat (OR = 5.65, P <0.001, gender (OR = 4.62, P <0.001, and friend's use of tobacco (OR = 1.43, P <0.001. CONCLUSION: A significant percentage of students chew Khat. The abuse of Khat is significantly associated with gender, peer influence, and cigarette smoking. Intervention programs are needed to create awareness among school students and to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its unfavorable consequences.

  17. Inhalable Antitubercular Therapy Mediated by Locust Bean Gum Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ana D; Cavaco, Joana S; Guerreiro, Filipa; Lourenço, João P; Rosa da Costa, Ana M; Grenha, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a major global health problem and alternative therapeutic approaches are needed. Considering the high prevalence of lung tuberculosis (80% of cases), the pulmonary delivery of antitubercular drugs in a carrier system capable of reaching the alveoli, being recognised and phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages (mycobacterium hosts), would be a significant improvement to current oral drug regimens. Locust bean gum (LBG) is a polysaccharide composed of galactose and mannose residues, which may favour specific recognition by macrophages and potentiate phagocytosis. LBG microparticles produced by spray-drying are reported herein for the first time, incorporating either isoniazid or rifabutin, first-line antitubercular drugs (association efficiencies >82%). Microparticles have adequate theoretical properties for deep lung delivery (aerodynamic diameters between 1.15 and 1.67 μm). The cytotoxic evaluation in lung epithelial cells (A549 cells) and macrophages (THP-1 cells) revealed a toxic effect from rifabutin-loaded microparticles at the highest concentrations, but we may consider that these were very high comparing with in vivo conditions. LBG microparticles further evidenced strong ability to be captured by macrophages (percentage of phagocytosis >94%). Overall, the obtained data indicated the potential of the proposed system for tuberculosis therapy. PMID:27240337

  18. Evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of a new polysaccharide gum from Prosopis africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikwu, M U; Ezeabasili, S I; Esimone, C O

    2001-01-01

    The gum obtained from the ripe seeds of Prosopis africana was processed to compendial standard for plant gums and characterised. Toxicological studies of the polysaccharide on mice showed the material to be safe. The material hydrates slowly in aqueous media to form a colloidal dispersion. Swelling studies on the gum shows that the gum has a higher swelling capacity than methylcellulose. Rheological studies showed that the material is more viscous than tragacanth gum at equivalent concentrations. Acid hydrolysis and thin layer chromatography of the resulting hydrolysates showed that the gum contains glucose, fructose, galactose and xylose as the monosaccharide components. Microbial tests showed the gum to contain 8.26 x 10(4) viable cells per gram when freshly prepared. Other properties of the gum evaluated includes; melting or charring temperature, optical properties, true density, ash values, element content as well as its reactions with lead subacetate solution and 0.02 M iodine.

  19. Effect of partial replacement of gum arabic with carbohydrates on its microencapsulation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, B F; White, L E; O'Riordan, E D; O'Sullivan, M

    2001-07-01

    Gum arabic solutions (10% w/v) were emulsified with soy oil at oil/gum ratios of 0.25-5.0. At oil/gum ratios spray-dried emulsions of soy oil and mixed solutions (10% w/v) of gum arabic and a range of carbohydrate wall materials (oil/gum = 0.5) were prepared and analyzed. Maize starch and glucose were ineffective as partial replacers of gum arabic, but maltodextrins of various dextrose equivalence values (5.5-38) successfully replaced 50% of the gum arabic. The microencapsulation efficiency of the gum arabic/maltodextrin stabilized powders was further increased by increasing total solids of the feed to the dryer and by increasing the atomizer nozzle diameter. PMID:11453779

  20. Molecular Properties of Guar Gum and Pectin Modify Cecal Bile Acids, Microbiota, and Plasma Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannaz Ghaffarzadegan

    Full Text Available Bile acids (BAs act as signaling molecules in various physiological processes, and are related to colonic microbiota composition as well as to different types of dietary fat and fiber. This study investigated whether guar gum and pectin-two fibers with distinct functional characteristics-affect BA profiles, microbiota composition, and gut metabolites in rats. Low- (LM or high-methoxylated (HM pectin, and low-, medium-, or high-molecular-weight (MW guar gum were administered to rats that were fed either low- or high-fat diets. Cecal BAs, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA and microbiota composition, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP levels were analyzed, by using novel methodologies based on gas chromatography (BAs and SCFAs and 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Strong correlations were observed between cecal BA and SCFA levels, microbiota composition, and portal plasma LBP levels in rats on a high-fat diet. Notably, guar gum consumption with medium-MW increased the cecal amounts of cholic-, chenodeoxycholic-, and ursodeoxycholic acids as well as α-, β-, and ω-muricholic acids to a greater extent than other types of guar gum or the fiber-free control diet. In contrast, the amounts of cecal deoxycholic- and hyodeoxycholic acid were reduced with all types of guar gum independent of chain length. Differences in BA composition between pectin groups were less obvious, but cecal levels of α- and ω-muricholic acids were higher in rats fed LM as compared to HM pectin or the control diet. The inflammatory marker LBP was downregulated in rats fed medium-MW guar gum and HM pectin; these two fibers decreased the cecal abundance of Oscillospira and an unclassified genus in Ruminococcaceae, and increased that of an unclassified family in RF32. These results indicate that the molecular properties of guar gum and pectin are important for their ability to modulate cecal BA formation, gut microbiota composition, and high

  1. Molecular Properties of Guar Gum and Pectin Modify Cecal Bile Acids, Microbiota, and Plasma Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarzadegan, Tannaz; Marungruang, Nittaya; Fåk, Frida; Nyman, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) act as signaling molecules in various physiological processes, and are related to colonic microbiota composition as well as to different types of dietary fat and fiber. This study investigated whether guar gum and pectin-two fibers with distinct functional characteristics-affect BA profiles, microbiota composition, and gut metabolites in rats. Low- (LM) or high-methoxylated (HM) pectin, and low-, medium-, or high-molecular-weight (MW) guar gum were administered to rats that were fed either low- or high-fat diets. Cecal BAs, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and microbiota composition, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) levels were analyzed, by using novel methodologies based on gas chromatography (BAs and SCFAs) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Strong correlations were observed between cecal BA and SCFA levels, microbiota composition, and portal plasma LBP levels in rats on a high-fat diet. Notably, guar gum consumption with medium-MW increased the cecal amounts of cholic-, chenodeoxycholic-, and ursodeoxycholic acids as well as α-, β-, and ω-muricholic acids to a greater extent than other types of guar gum or the fiber-free control diet. In contrast, the amounts of cecal deoxycholic- and hyodeoxycholic acid were reduced with all types of guar gum independent of chain length. Differences in BA composition between pectin groups were less obvious, but cecal levels of α- and ω-muricholic acids were higher in rats fed LM as compared to HM pectin or the control diet. The inflammatory marker LBP was downregulated in rats fed medium-MW guar gum and HM pectin; these two fibers decreased the cecal abundance of Oscillospira and an unclassified genus in Ruminococcaceae, and increased that of an unclassified family in RF32. These results indicate that the molecular properties of guar gum and pectin are important for their ability to modulate cecal BA formation, gut microbiota composition, and high-fat diet induced

  2. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg-1) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg-1) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg-1), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg-1 (SD 0.02 mg kg-1). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg-1) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg-1), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  3. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W.; Jenkins, Richard O. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Haris, Parvez I., E-mail: pharis@dmu.ac.uk [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg{sup -1}) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg{sup -1}) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg{sup -1}), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg{sup -1} (SD 0.02 mg kg{sup -1}). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg{sup -1}) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg{sup -1}), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  4. STUDIES ON SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA BARK GUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  5. Studies on some physicochemical properties of Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/ v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  6. RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF ERWINIA GUM IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-na Zhang; Mei Zhang; Jing-hua Chen; Hideki Iijima; Hiromichi Tsuchiya

    1999-01-01

    Erwinia (E) gum, an extracellular polysaccharide, is composed of fucose, galatose, glucose and glucuronic acid. Its viscosity behavior was investigated by a low-shear-rate multiball viscometer and a rotational viscometer. Its weight-average molecular weight Mw and intrinsic viscosity [η] in 0.2 mol/L NaCl aqueous solution were measured by light scattering method at 35℃ and viscometry at 25℃ and found to be 1.06 × 106 g/mol and 1050 mL/g, respectively, and its aggregates in aqueous solution were proved by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). These results indicated that E gum in water has exceedingly high viscosity and exhibits Binham fluid behavior, owing to its aggregation. The viscosity of E gum decreased with increasing temperature, and the turning point appeared at 38℃ for dilute solution and 80℃ for concentrated solution suggesting that the aggregates of E gum in water started to disaggregate under these temperatures. In addition, the aggregates can be disrupted by adding either acid or base. The experimental results indicated that the E gum is a good thickening agent, and its fluid behavior is similar to xanthan.

  7. Comparison of the Effect of Recaldent and Xylitol on the Amounts of Salivary Streptococcus Mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Emamieh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  Background:Dental caries is associated with oral pathogenes and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutansis one of the primary cariogenic organisms. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the effect of sugar free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate(CPP-ACP and Xylitol on salivary Streptococcus mutan. Materials and Methods: 60 dental students, who volunteered after signing an informed consent, were randomly allocated to receive one of the following interventions: (A Chewing gum containing CPP-ACP, (B Chewing gum containing Xylitol. Subjects within the experimental groups chewed gum for 20 minutes, three times a day after meals for 3 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention unstimulated saliva samples were quantified for Streptococcus mutans count. Results: A statistically significant reduction (p<0.05 of salivary S. mutans was displayed in both groups A and B after the intervention. When results compared with baseline, and group A shows more statistically significant reduction of salivary S. mutans than group B.Conclusion: In conclusion, daily chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and xylitol reduce the level of salivary S. mutans in a significant way, but chewing gum containing CPP-ACP can reduce the level of salivary S. mutans in a significant way than Xylitol chewing gum.

  8. Effects of compound coating antistaling agent of Sophora gum and Crotalaria mucronata gum with xanthan gum treatment on storage quality of Chinese bayberry%槐豆胶和猪屎豆胶与黄原胶复合涂膜保鲜剂对杨梅贮藏品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永利; 叶文斌; 郭守军; 潘显辉; 何敏如; 黄小妹

    2011-01-01

    The effects of compound coating antistaling agent of polysaccharide treatment on storage quality of Chinese bayberry at 28~32℃ and 68%~86% relative humidity of room were investigated. The antistaling agent was composed of Sophora gum and Crotalaria mucronata gum with xanthan gum for the coating matrix, glycerin and sorbic acid as film- forming additives. The results showed that compared with the control group at room temperature,the rotten fruit rate and cracking fruit rate and weightloss rates of the Chinese bayberry preserved by the compound coating antistaling agent of edible polysaccharide were lowed obviously,inhibited the respiration rate and the content of total Vc and organic acids and other nutrients were maintained,and the MDA,anthocyanin content and the increase of relative conductivity effectively reduced. So that PPO, POD, PAL enzyme activity at a relatively low level,and the senescence process is restrained during storage and the shelf life was extended. In this study the compound coating antistaling agent of Sophora gum with xanthan gum treatment for Chinese bayberry storage effect was superiored Crotalaria mucronata gum with xanthan gum.%以槐豆胶和猪屎豆胶与黄原胶为涂膜基质,以山梨酸、甘油为成膜助剂,配制成复合涂膜保鲜剂,研究了常温(28~32℃,相对湿度68%~86%)下该复合涂膜保鲜剂对杨梅贮藏品质变化的影响.结果表明:常温下经槐豆胶和猪屎豆胶与黄原胶复合涂膜保鲜剂涂膜贮藏的杨梅与对照组相比,果实裂果率、霉烂率、失重率明显降低,抑制了果实的呼吸率;有机酸、Vc等营养成分转化、流失的速度减慢,有效地降低MDA、花青素含量和相对电导率的升高,使PPO、POD、PAL酶活性处于较低的水平,延缓了果实的衰老,从而延长了其货架期.综合考虑,槐豆胶与黄原胶涂膜保鲜剂的效果优于猪屎豆胶与黄原胶复合涂膜保鲜剂.

  9. Purification of cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and functional properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali;

    2016-01-01

    the purification methods reduced ash and protein content and molecular weight of cress seed gum. The main decomposition of the purified samples started above 200º C and initial decomposition temperature of the crude gum was 190.21º C. DSC thermograms of the purified gums showed two exothermic events at 257...

  10. Hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction in batch bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabot, Giovani L; Mecca, Jaqueline; Mesomo, Michele; Silva, Marceli F; Prá, Valéria Dal; de Oliveira, Débora; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Castilhos, Fernanda; Treichel, Helen; Mazutti, Marcio A

    2011-10-01

    This work is focused on hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction process by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of stirred speed and superficial gas velocity on the kinetics of cell growth, lactose consumption and xanthan gum production in a batch bioreactor using cheese whey as substrate. A hybrid model was employed to simulate the bio-process making use of an artificial neural network (ANN) as a kinetic parameter estimator for the phenomenological model. The hybrid modeling of the process provided a satisfactory fitting quality of the experimental data, since this approach makes possible the incorporation of the effects of operational variables on model parameters. The applicability of the validated model was investigated, using the model as a process simulator to evaluate the effects of initial cell and lactose concentration in the xanthan gum production.

  11. In-vivo determination of chewing patterns using FBG and artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegorini, Vinicius; Zen Karam, Leandro; Rocha Pitta, Christiano S.; Ribeiro, Richardson; Simioni Assmann, Tangriani; Cardozo da Silva, Jean Carlos; Bertotti, Fábio L.; Kalinowski, Hypolito J.; Cardoso, Rafael

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the process of pattern classification of the chewing process of ruminants. We propose a simplified signal processing scheme for optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors based on machine learning techniques. The FBG sensors measure the biomechanical forces during jaw movements and an artificial neural network is responsible for the classification of the associated chewing pattern. In this study, three patterns associated to dietary supplement, hay and ryegrass were considered. Additionally, two other important events for ingestive behavior studies were monitored, rumination and idle period. Experimental results show that the proposed approach for pattern classification has been capable of differentiating the materials involved in the chewing process with a small classification error.

  12. A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of Xylitol-containing products

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Lingmei; Tolentino Ernie; Hagstrom Mary K; Mueller Gregory; Rothen Marilynn; Ly Kiet A; Milgrom Peter; Riedy Christine A; Roberts Marilyn C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Xylitol chewing gum has been shown to reduce Streptococcus mutans levels and decay. Two studies examined the presence and time course of salivary xylitol concentrations delivered via xylitol-containing pellet gum and compared them to other xylitol-containing products. Methods A within-subjects design was used for both studies. Study 1, adults (N = 15) received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum (2.6 g), gummy bears (2.6 g), and commercially available stick gum (...

  13. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb El-Sayed MI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed-I Kotb El-Sayed, Hatem-K Amin Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt Background: The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.Patients and methods: In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10 or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10. Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment into r (risperidone and h (haloperidol. Healthy male subjects (37 were subdivided into healthy khat-chewer as positive controls (HKc, n=17 and healthy non-khat-chewer as negative controls (HNKc, n=20. Plasma dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were estimated.Results: ANOVA and post hoc analysis showed that dopamine was illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups. DOPAC was illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome showing significant increase in DOPAC in SNKcr group due to risperidone effect. Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups. Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups. Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium.Conclusion: Khat chewing in schizophrenic patients is contraindicated because it aggravates the disease symptoms, attenuates all used treatment medications, and deteriorates all biochemical markers of the patients. Keywords

  14. Non-invasive monitoring of chewing and swallowing for objective quantification of ingestive behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology of studying of ingestive behavior by non-invasive monitoring of swallowing (deglutition) and chewing (mastication) has been developed. The target application for the developed methodology is to study the behavioral patterns of food consumption and producing volumetric and weight estimates of energy intake. Monitoring is non-invasive based on detecting swallowing by a sound sensor located over laryngopharynx or by a bone-conduction microphone and detecting chewing through a below-the-ear strain sensor. Proposed sensors may be implemented in a wearable monitoring device, thus enabling monitoring of ingestive behavior in free-living individuals. In this paper, the goals in the development of this methodology are two-fold. First, a system comprising sensors, related hardware and software for multi-modal data capture is designed for data collection in a controlled environment. Second, a protocol is developed for manual scoring of chewing and swallowing for use as a gold standard. The multi-modal data capture was tested by measuring chewing and swallowing in 21 volunteers during periods of food intake and quiet sitting (no food intake). Video footage and sensor signals were manually scored by trained raters. Inter-rater reliability study for three raters conducted on the sample set of five subjects resulted in high average intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.996 for bites, 0.988 for chews and 0.98 for swallows. The collected sensor signals and the resulting manual scores will be used in future research as a gold standard for further assessment of sensor design, development of automatic pattern recognition routines and study of the relationship between swallowing/chewing and ingestive behavior

  15. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionísio, Marita; Grenha, Ana

    2012-07-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua). This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed.

  16. Multielement analysis of Nigerian chewing sticks by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nigeria, various parts of various species of native plants have long been used for dental hygiene, with reportedly considerable effectiveness. These materials are known as 'chewing sticks'. This study was an effort to ascertain whether any unusual trace element concentrations might be present in Nigerian chewing sticks. Results are presented for 17 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Br, Cs, La, Sm, Au) detected and measured in 12 species of such plants, via instrumental thermal-neutron activation analysis. (author)

  17. Influence of Khat Chewing on Periodontal Tissues and Oral Hygiene Status among Yemenis

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kholani, Abdulwahab I.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Khat chewing is popular among Yemenis. This study was performed to investigate the effects of khat chewing on periodontal tissue and oral hygiene status. Methods: A total of 730 subjects (336 chewers and 394 non-chewers with a mean age of 31.5 ± 0.8 and 29.4 ± 0.9 years, respectively) were involved. Clinical data on periodontal tissues, oral hygiene sta-tus, gingival bleeding, burning sensation in the soft tissues, halitosis, ulcers in the oral cavity, difficulty in opening the...

  18. Effect of locust bean/xanthan gum addition and replacement of pork fat with olive oil on the quality characteristics of low-fat frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurueña-Martínez, M A; Vivar-Quintana, A M; Revilla, I

    2004-11-01

    The effects of reducing fat level from 20% to 12% and 9%, substituting pork fat with olive oil and adding locust bean/xanthan gum (0.5% and 0.6%) on emulsion stability, jelly and fat separation, processing yield, cook loss, texture and sensory characteristics of frankfurters were investigated and compared with control samples. Addition of locust bean/xanthan gum produced a significant increase in hydration/binding properties, characterised by lower cook losses, increasing yield, better emulsion stability and lower jelly and fat separation. The substitution of pork fat by olive oil did not affect these parameters. Indeed, results showed that reducing fat levels together with increasing moisture and locust bean/xanthan gum addition do not affect the sensory or textural properties, but olive oil addition produces a decrease in hardness and an increase in adhesiveness, however the overall acceptability was not affected.

  19. Glycaemic and insulin responses of diabetic patients to traditional Malaysian meals and the effect of guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, B A; Lee, L F; Samad, A H; Ng, M L

    1996-12-01

    The aims of the project were to determine the glycaemic and insulin responses of non-insulin dependent diabetic patients (NIDDM) to 3 traditional Malaysian meals compared to oral glucose, and to determine whether guar gum would affect these responses. Patients with NIDDM were tested with 75 g oral glucose and three common breakfast meals of the three main ethnic groups of Malaysia. When compared with the oral glucose group, significantly by lower blood glucose responses were seen at 90 and 120 minutes post prandial for nasi lemak (pnasi lemak and between 15 and 30 minutes (p<0.03) for mee sup but not with roti telur. With addition of guar gum, there was no significant change of insulin responses with the three meals but a significant increase was seen at 30 minutes (p<0.02) after ingestion of glucose. PMID:24394617

  20. Glycaemic and insulin responses of diabetic patients to traditional Malaysian meals and the effect of guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, B A; Lee, L F; Samad, A H; Ng, M L

    1996-12-01

    The aims of the project were to determine the glycaemic and insulin responses of non-insulin dependent diabetic patients (NIDDM) to 3 traditional Malaysian meals compared to oral glucose, and to determine whether guar gum would affect these responses. Patients with NIDDM were tested with 75 g oral glucose and three common breakfast meals of the three main ethnic groups of Malaysia. When compared with the oral glucose group, significantly by lower blood glucose responses were seen at 90 and 120 minutes post prandial for nasi lemak (pnasi lemak and between 15 and 30 minutes (p<0.03) for mee sup but not with roti telur. With addition of guar gum, there was no significant change of insulin responses with the three meals but a significant increase was seen at 30 minutes (p<0.02) after ingestion of glucose.

  1. Fluorescence spectral studies of Gum Arabic: Multi-emission of Gum Arabic in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhenadhayalan, Namasivayam, E-mail: ndhena@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Mythily, Rajan, E-mail: rajanmythily@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106 (India); Kumaran, Rajendran, E-mail: kumaranwau@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106 (India)

    2014-11-15

    Gum Arabic (GA), a food hydrocolloid is a natural composite obtained from the stems and branches of Acacia Senegal and Acacia Seyal trees. GA structure is made up of highly branched arabinogalactan polysaccharides. Steady-state absorption, fluorescence, and time-resolved fluorescence spectral studies of acid hydrolyzed GA solutions were carried out at various pH conditions. The fluorescence in GA is predominantly attributed to the presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine amino acids. The presence of multi-emissive peaks at different pH condition is attributed to the exposure of the fluorescing amino acids to the aqueous phase, which contains several sugar units, hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. Time-resolved fluorescence studies of GA exhibits a multi-exponential decay with different fluorescence lifetime of varying amplitude which confirms that tyrosine is confined to a heterogeneous microenvironment. The existence of multi-emissive peaks with large variation in the fluorescence intensities were established by 3D emission contour spectral studies. The probable location of the fluorophore in a heterogeneous environment was further ascertained by constructing a time-resolved emission spectrum (TRES) and time-resolved area normalized emission spectrum (TRANES) plots. Fluorescence spectral technique is used as an analytical tool in understanding the photophysical properties of a water soluble complex food hydrocolloid containing an intrinsic fluorophore located in a multiple environment is illustrated. - Highlights: • The Manuscript deals with the steady state absorption, emission, fluorescence lifetime and time-resolved emission spectrum studies of Gum Arabic in aqueous medium at various pH conditions. • The fluorescence emanates from the tyrosine amino acid present in GA. • Change in pH results in marked variation in the fluorescence spectral properties of tyrosine. • Fluorescence spectral techniques are employed as a tool in establishing the

  2. Extrudates of starch-xanthan gum mixtures as affected by chemical agents and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixtures of starch, xanthan gum and either polyvinyl alcohol, epichlorohydrin, valeric acid or adipoyl chloride were extruded. Properties of extrudates including apparent viscosity, water solubility, water absorption indices and extrudate expansion were measured for different proportions of xanthan gum, 70% amylose starch (with or without irradiation) and chemical agents. Extrusion with chemical agents and irradiation changed physical properties of both starch and xanthan gum. Expansions of extrudates were higher than that of starch. Viscosity of extrudates increased with xanthan gum concentration. The addition of 1% (w/w) polyvinyl alcohol had the greatest effect of the chemical agents. Irradiation increased the apparent viscosity of starch-xanthan gum mixtures

  3. A comparison of the sensory and rheological properties of molecular and particulate forms of xanthan gum

    OpenAIRE

    Abson, Rachael; Gaddipati, Sanyasi R.; Hort, Joanne; Mitchell, John R.; Wolf, Bettina; Hill, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    A particulate form of xanthan gum was prepared by extrusion cooking. The temperature dependence of the viscosity of this form shows similarities to starch with an increase in viscosity to a maximum with increasing temperature as a result of the swelling of the particles. The rheology and mixing behaviour with water of the particulate and conventional molecular forms of xanthan were compared with a modified starch. The particulate xanthan products mixed rapidly with water in a similar way to u...

  4. Shear rheology and filament stretching behaviour of xanthan gum and carboxymethyl cellulose solution in presence of saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hyejung; Mitchell, John R.; Gaddipati, Sanyasi R.; Hill, Sandra E.; Wolf, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the work reported in this paper is to determine if saliva addition has an effect on the rheology of xanthan gum solutions. The reasons for the interest was that it has been previously reported that flavour release from high viscosity xanthan thickened foods is not reduced in the same way as foods thickened by other hydrocolloids at comparable viscosities. It was previously postulated that this could be due to an interaction between saliva and xanthan that could change the mic...

  5. The Rat Chronic Toxicity Test of Kang Chi Bao Chewing Gum%康齿宝口胶片的长期毒性实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟正贤; 周桂芬; 韦宝伟; 施骞

    2004-01-01

    目的:观察康齿宝口胶片对大鼠长期毒性实验的影响.方法:康齿宝口胶片以11.1 g/kg和5.75 g/kg(为临床日用量的100倍和50倍)剂量给大鼠连续灌服12周,停药2周,分别测量大鼠体重,计算脏器系数,测定血液学和血液生化学指标,并作组织病理学检查.结果:康齿宝口胶片大小剂量组动物的外观行为,体重,脏器系数,血液学和生化学指标,与空白对照组比较,均无明显差异;病理检查未见与药物毒性相关的明显病变,停药后也未见药物延迟性毒性反应.结论:康齿宝口胶片长期用药对大鼠无明显毒性,推论临床拟用剂量应是安全的.

  6. 无糖口香糖对口气相关值的影响%Anti-halitosis effect of sugar-free chewing gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘施瑶; 许亚梅; 胡德渝

    2015-01-01

    Objective  To study the anti-halitosis effect of sugar-free chewing gum through their influence on odor induced by cysteine. Methods  Ten volunteers were randomly divided into the treatment group and the untreated group; each group consisted of five volunteers. All volunteers consented to participate in a test in which breath odor was induced by cysteine. After the test, the treatment group chewed sugar-free chewing gum for 1 min, whereas the untreated group did not undergo any treatment. The effectiveness was determined by the percent reduction of H2S, CH3SH, and (CH3)2S response after the volunteers chewed gum for 1, 10, and 20 min. Results  At 1, 10, and 20 min, H2S of the treatment group was reduced by 82.68%, 92.27%, 97.47%, respectively, CH3SH was reduced by 65.49%, 73.79%, and 82.89%, respectively, and (CH3)2S was reduced by 60.45%, 73.82%, and 59.72%, respectively. The differences between the two groups at different times were significant (P<0.05). Conclusion  Chewing gum can effectively inhibit cysteine-induced odor.%目的:  研究咀嚼无糖口香糖对半胱氨酸激发性口臭的抑制作用。方法  将10名志愿者随机分为处理组和未处理组,每组5名,均接受半胱氨酸口气激发实验,激发实验后未处理组不进行任何处理,处理组咀嚼无糖口香糖1 min后吐出。在咀嚼口香糖后1、10、20 min测量两组的硫化氢(H2S)、甲基硫醇(CH3SH)、乙基硫化物[(CH3)2S]浓度。结果  处理组咀嚼口香糖后1、10、20 min,H2S浓度下降百分比分别为82.68%、92.27%、97.47%,CH3SH浓度下降百分比分别为65.49%、73.79%、82.89%,(CH3)2S浓度下降百分比分别为60.45%、73.82%、59.72%。处理组与未处理组在不同时间的H2S、CH3SH、(CH3)2S浓度下降百分比均有统计学差异(P<0.05)。结论  无糖口香糖对半胱氨酸激发性口臭具有一定的抑制作用。

  7. Effect of Chewing Gum on Relieving Gastroesophageal Reflux%咀嚼口香糖减轻胃食管反流症状的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查晓娟

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨咀嚼口香糖对胃食道反流症状的疗效.方法 16例患者分为有无咀嚼口香糖两组各8例,分别记寻咀嚼前24小时、咀嚼后14天两组PH值和症状记分.结果实验组PH值55.7±3.5,症状15.7±5.2分,治疗后分别为26.7±2.8及7.0±5.2分;对照组分别为56.1±3.3、55.9±3.2分及14.8±5.0、14.2±5.0分,治疗后两组差异性显著(P<0.01).结论咀嚼口香糖可作为GERD病人的辅助治疗措施.

  8. Studies on processing of zein containing nutritions and healthy chewing gum%玉米营养保健口香糖的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钟; 徐丽红; 桑红庆

    2004-01-01

    本文介绍了以玉米醇溶蛋白、大豆分离蛋白、芦荟凝胶浓缩液、功能性甜味料(山梨醇和甘露醇)等为原料生产片式玉米营养保健口香糖的生产工艺、操作要点和配方.并对玉米营养保健口香糖的营养成分进行了分析.

  9. Polyvinyl Acetate Chewing Gum with the Experimental Study%口香糖胶基用聚醋酸乙烯酯的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛

    2011-01-01

    口香糖胶基用聚醋酸乙烯醋酯(PVAc)树脂的生产方法多采用溶液聚合法,而悬浮聚合法有更好的经济效益和社会效益.本文采用悬浮聚合法,通过研究搅拌速度、分散剂和分子量调节剂等因素对PVAc聚合过程的影响,制得高、中、低三种粘度的样品.

  10. 除口臭功能性口香糖的研究现状%The Status of Anti-halitosis Functional Chewing Gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鸿媛; 李胡俊; 张金威; 侯大军

    2010-01-01

    由功能性食品引出功能性口香糖,再针对口臭这一社会性尴尬问题分析口臭的产生原因及治疗方法;并对除口臭口香糖的类型和研究进展,以及除口臭口香糖的研究方向和应着重注意的问题进行了综述.

  11. 糖果和口香糖的新型保健成分%New functional ingredients for confectionery and chewing gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛秀兰

    2001-01-01

    @@ 最近,美国德克萨斯州儿童营养研究中心两名教授带领他们的研究小组正在探索菊糖和低聚果糖在促进钙的吸收方面的作用.这个小组选取了29名年龄在10-20岁之间的女孩,因为在这个年龄段,人体对钙的吸收程度对人一生的健康影响至关重要.

  12. Hygienic standard for chewing gum%中华人民共和国国家标准胶姆糖卫生标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    @@ 前言 本标准是全国糖果卫生标准协作组依据国家"八五"食品卫生制标规划起草的,参照了国外法规及原中华人民共和国轻工总会、原国内贸易部等行业标准,以及有关企业标准,结合实际情况,规定了胶姆糖的卫生要求、检验方法,为食品卫生监督提供了全国统一的要求.

  13. 普洱茶风味口香糖的研制%Study on chewing gum with taste of Puer tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维杰; 陈春生

    2009-01-01

    以普洱茶为原料,通过浸提、浓缩、干燥等工艺制成普洱茶粉,与产品胶基混合制成普洱茶风味口香糖.本文主要探讨普洱茶汁浓缩、干燥的最佳工艺,以及茶粉用量对口香糖品质的影响.实验结果表明,普洱茶汁最佳浓缩条件为:β-环糊精3.0%、蒸发温度55℃,真空度-0.08MPa,最佳干燥条件为:3倍原茶叶重量的蔗糖、蒸发温度55℃、真空度-0.09MPa、7h.口香糖生产工艺中荼粉最佳添加量为50g/300g胶基.

  14. 芦荟营养保健口香糖的研制%Development of an aloe nutrition and health chewing gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钟; 杨梅

    2003-01-01

    以芦荟全汁及少量玉米醇溶蛋白为原料制成营养保健芦荟口香糖.应用正交实验的方法,对结果进行极差和方差分析.实验结果表明,用芦荟全汁20%;玉米醇溶蛋白5%:糖酸比100:1;保湿剂3.0%;胶基25%,所制得的芦荟口香糖适口性最好.

  15. 咀嚼口香糖对认知及情绪的影响%The Effect of Chewing Gum on Cognition and Emotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯聪; 雷启佳; 高定国

    2009-01-01

    本文系统地综述了近期关于咀嚼口香糖对负性情绪调节和认知功能的影响,以及咀嚼口香糖的脑机制的实验研究.这些研究发现,咀嚼口香糖对人们的负性情绪调节,注意、记忆、学习等认知功能起到了积极的促进作用,咀嚼口香糖所激活的脑区与负责运动、记忆、注意和情绪等高级功能的脑区有一定的重叠.

  16. Optimization of formulation and process parameters of dog dental chew%宠物狗咬胶配方及工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小楠; 钟芳; 李玥; 张明秀; 李超; 程雯丽

    2013-01-01

    Study on optimization of the formulation of dog chew which corn starch was as the main raw material through testing the texture of the extrusions,using parameters such as bending stress,Young's modulus of elasticity and bending strain. On the basis of the single - factor experiment,the result of the recipe,accounted for dry matter(dry matter was 100%) was corn starch 89%,corn flour 10%,compound colloid (xanthan gum:Tara gum=1:1) 1%,glycerol 15%.water 30% and oolong tea 2%. Furthermore it optimized extrusion parameters with optimized formulation to make an appropriate bending stress,lower Young's modulus of elasticity,and increase the bending strain in order to get product which was of higher hardness,good toughness and uneasy to break. Ultimately determining parameters of the extrusion was 60-70-85-95℃ ,extrusion speed 140r/min, feed speed 50r/min.%通过对挤压产品进行质构测试,考察弯曲应力、杨氏弹性模量及弯曲应变参数,在单因素实验的基础上,优化了以玉米淀粉为主要原料的狗咬胶的配方,以干物质为100%计算,各配料占干物质的比例为玉米淀粉89%、玉米粉10%、复配胶体(黄原胶∶塔拉胶=1∶1)1%、甘油15%、加水量30%、乌龙茶2%.在优化后的配方下对挤压参数进一步优化,使产品在适当的弯曲应力下,降低杨氏弹性模量,增加弯曲应变,以得到具有较高硬度且韧性上佳、不易断裂的产品. 最终确定挤压参数为60-70-85-95℃,挤压转速为140r/min,喂料速度为50r/min.

  17. 75 FR 44251 - Wood Oils and Gums, and Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    .... In the United States, cedarwood oil is mainly extracted from Juniperus virginiana (Eastern red cedar or Virginia cedar), Juniperus ashei or mexicana (Texas cedar), and Thuja plicata (Western red cedar... AGENCY EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0441; FRL-8829-8 Wood Oils and Gums, and Streptomyces Strain K61;...

  18. Formulation of controlled release gellan gum macro beads of amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, R Jayachandra; Sathigari, Sateesh; Kumar, M Thilek; Pandit, J K

    2010-01-01

    Gellan gum has been reported to have wide pharmaceutical applications such as tablet binder, disintegrant, gelling agent and as a controlled release polymer. Multiparticulate delivery systems spread out more uniformly in the gastrointestinal tract and reduce the local irritation. The purpose of this study is to explore possible applicability of gellan macro beads as an oral controlled release system of a sparingly soluble drug, amoxicillin. Gellan gum beads were prepared by ionotropic gelation with calcium ions. The effect of drug loading, stirring time, polymer concentration, electrolyte (CaCl2) concentration, curing time etc. influencing the preparation of the gellan gum macro beads and the drug release from gellan gum beads were investigated in this study. Optimal preparation conditions allowed very high incorporation efficiency for amoxicillin (91%) The release kinetics of amoxicillin from gellan beads followed the diffusion model for an inert porous matrix in the order: 0.1 N HCl > phosphate buffer > distilled water. Change in curing time did not significantly affect the release rate constant, but drug concentration, polymer concentration and electrolyte concentration significantly affect the release rate of amoxicillin from the beads. The gellan macro beads may be suitable for gastro retentive controlled delivery of amoxicillin. PMID:19863487

  19. Gum Collection and Collectors’ Choice of Selling Outlet in Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawamariya, G.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Gum arabic, the main product of Acacia senegal, is used in various industries (food, pharmaceutical, painting, etc). It is traded in local markets for processing and consumption within producing countries but mainly for the purpose of exportation as a non-timber forest product. Senegal is among the

  20. Investigation of Transport Properties of a New Biomaterials - GUM Mangosteen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Sourav S.; Sarkar, A.

    2006-06-01

    Biomaterial has occupied leading position in material science for various scientific and technological applications. This present work is carried out over a natural gum extracted from raw fruit of Mangosteen, an east Indian tree (Gercinia Mangostana) following extraction and purification process. Solid specimen of the said gum is developed following sol-gel like process. AC and DC electrical analysis on the dried solid specimen of the gum were carried out and showed high electrical conduction with σ ~ 1 E-03 S/cm, of which ionic and electronic contributions are 70% and 30% respectively. Analysis shows that origin of high electrical conductivity is due to presence of substantial amount of organic acid unit in its polysaccharide background. In fact the observed σ is about 1000 times of that observed in gum Arabica. Optical absorption of this new bio- materials are also studied using UV-VIS analysis. The results show its high absorption co-efficient in UV and blue part of analysed range. A complete electrical characterization of the material have been made. It has also been observed that the electronic conduction can be enhanced to 70% of the total electrical conductivity by forming complex with Iodine and organic (Citric) acid from Lemon fruit. This high potential material is being studied for development of electronic device application.

  1. 5-Fluorouracil loaded guar gum microspheres for colon delivery:preparation, characterization and in vitro release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAUSHIK Dinesh; SARDANA Satish; MISHRA DN

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation is aimed to develop a new formulation containing chemically cross-linked guar gum microspheres loaded with 5-fluorouracil for targeting colorectal cancer. The emulsification polymerization method involving the dispersion of aqueous phase of guar gum in castor oil was used to prepare spherical microspheres. Various processing parameters were studied in order to optimize the formulation. Particle size and surface morphology of the microspheres were determined using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The in vitro drug release studies performed in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) for 2 h followed by intestinal fluid for 3 h, revealed the retention of the drug inside the microspheres from which only (15.27±0.56)% of the drug was released in 5 h. In vitro release rate studies were also carried out in simulated colonic fluid (SCF) in the presence of rat caecal contents, which showed improved drug release. The drug release from the formulation was found to be (41.6±3.5) % with 2% (w/v) caecal matter in 24 h as compared to control study where (25.2±3.5) % of drug was released. The drug release from the formulation with 2% and 4% rat caecal contents medium after 2 days of enzyme induction was found to be (56.3±4.1) % and (78.9±2.8) % in 24 h respectively. Similarly, (61.3±5.4) % and (90.2±2.9) % drug was released respectively with 2% and 4% rat caecal matter after 4 days of enzyme induction and (72.1±2.9) % and (90.2±3.2) % after 6 days of enzyme induction. In this way, 5-fluorouracil loaded guar gum microspheres have shown promising results in the management of colorectal cancer, warranting thorough in vivo study for scale up technology.

  2. Bridging the gap between chewing and sucking in the hemipteroid insects: new insights from Cretaceous amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Lienhard, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of feeding apparatuses in insects far exceeds that observed in any other animal group. Consequently, tracking mouthpart innovation in insects is one of the keys toward understanding their diversification. In hemipteroid insects (clade Paraneoptera or Acercaria: lice, thrips, aphids, cicadas, bugs, etc.), the transition from chewing to piercing-and-sucking mouthparts is widely regarded as the turning point that enabled hyperdiversification of the Hemiptera, the fifth largest insect order. However, the transitional process from chewing to piercing-and-sucking in the Paraneoptera was hitherto completely unknown. In this paper, we report a well preserved mid Cretaceous amber fossil of the paraneopteran insect family Archipsyllidae and describe it as Mydiognathus eviohlhoffae gen. et sp. n. This species has elongate mandibles and styliform laciniae similar to Hemiptera but retains functional chewing mouthparts. A number of morphological characters place the Archipsyllidae as the sister group of the thrips plus hemipterans, which strongly suggests that the mouthparts of M. eviohlhoffae represent a transitional condition from primitive chewing to derived piercing-and-sucking mouthparts. The clade composed of Archipsyllidae, thrips, and hemipterans is here named Pancondylognatha, a new supra-ordinal taxon. Based on newly obtained information, we also assess the monophyly of the Paraneoptera, which was called into question by recent phylogenomic analyses. A phylogenetic analysis that includes Mydiognathus strongly supports the monophyly of the Paraneoptera. PMID:27396002

  3. The effect of grain type and processing on chewing activity in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Nørgaard, Peder; Eriksen, Lis;

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the present experiment were to study the effect of grain type and processing on chewing activity in horses. Three adult trotters (Exp.I) and 3 adult Icelandic horses (Exp.II) were fed 3 daily meals during 3 consecutive days in two 3 x 3 completely randomized block design experiments. ...

  4. Anti-inflammatory effect of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica volatile oil and gum on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Minaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Baneh tree or Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica is an endemic plant of Iran which belongs to Anacardiaceae family. It has various traditional uses including astringent and anti-diarrheal as well as improving some of the symptoms of gastrointestinal upsets. In this study we decided to investigate the effects of various fractions of baneh gum with different doses in an animal model of ulcerative colitis as one of the important chronic inflammatory bowel diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Methods: The volatile oil and aqueous baneh gum suspensions were prepared and the constituents of the volatile oil were analyzed by GC/MS. They were used to treat colitis induced by acetic acid 4% in rats. Three doses of gum (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were administered both orally (p.o. and intra-rectally (i.r. while volatile oil was administered p.o. with doses 100, 200 and 400 µl/kg for four constitutive days. Anti-inflammatory effects of the test compounds were compared with oral prednisolone and hydrocortisone enema. Wet colon weight/ length ratio and tissue damage scores and area as well as indices of colitis and tissue myeloperoxidase activity were evaluated for each specimen. Results: Alpha-pinene was the main constituent of baneh volatile oil (41.23%. We observed therapeutic effects in applied doses of oral gum as well as volatile oil to reduce all indices of colitis and myeloperoxidase activity. Unlike the oral form of gum, its rectal administration was not significantly effective to improve colitis. Conclusion: This research has proved the anti-inflammatory potential of oral gum of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica and its volatile oil in an experimentally induced colitis.

  5. Nasal inserts containing ondansetron hydrochloride based on Chitosan-gellan gum polyelectrolyte complex: In vitro-in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonje, Ashish G; Mahajan, Hitendra S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was the production of ondansetron hydrochloride loaded lyophilized insert for nasal delivery. The nasal insert was prepared by the lyophilisation technique using Chitosan-gellan gum polyelectrolyte complex as the polymer matrix. The ondansetron loaded inserts were evaluated with respect to water uptake, bioadhesion, drug release kinetic study, ex vivo permeation study, and in vivo study. Lyophilised nasal inserts were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction study. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the porous sponge like structure of inserts whereas release kinetic model revealed that drug release followed non-fickian case II diffusion. The nasal delivery showed improved bioavailability as compared to oral delivery. In conclusion, the ondansetron containing nasal inserts based on Chitosan-gellan gum complex with potential muco-adhesive potential is suitable for nasal delivery. PMID:27127060

  6. Evaluation of substdyoyiyomh gum basai with zein in chewing gum%玉米醇溶蛋白替代口香糖中胶基的应用效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钟; 董胜春

    2002-01-01

    通过对比实验以及对实验结果进行统计分析和产品的感官评定,确定玉米醇溶蛋白替代胶基的最佳比例.在对比实验中确定四个水平,即100%、75%、50%、25%替代,并通过对其理化性质分析和感官评定,确定其最佳比例是25%.

  7. Yauk gyar mann yin (Be a man!): masculinity and betel quid chewing among men in Mandalay, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Thida; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Lin, Chu Fu; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Betel quid chewing is associated with various oral cancers and other health concerns, including reproductive health issues. Nevertheless, the practice is widespread in Myanmar, especially among men. This qualitative study elucidates the gendered aspects of betel quid chewing by examining how it links with masculine ideology among male betel quid chewers in Mandalay, Myanmar. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, focus-group discussions, key-informant interviews and participant observation. The thematic content analysis was guided by Connell's concept of hegemonic masculinity and Butler's notion of gender performativity. The findings indicated that young Mandalay men were drawn to betel quid chewing by the value they gave to satisfying their curiosity, power competition, risk-taking and a display of manliness. Thus, the practice of betel quid chewing, as defined by our participants, was perceived as manly, trendy, stylish and sexually attractive. For adult men, betel quid chewing was a social lubricant that assisted them in talking with clients and co-workers, thus enhancing their economic opportunities with other men. It also helped working-class men to work harder. Betel quid chewing harm-reduction programmes therefore need to be mindful of masculinity issues as well as the economic aspects of betel quid chewing.

  8. Development of an Ultra-Miniaturized Inertial Measurement Unit for Jaw Movement Analysis during Free Chewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuohua Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Jaw movement analysis, as a clinical aid, can provide an objective basis for understanding and diagnosing jaw musculoskeletal disorders. Therefore, the use and development of devices for quantitatively measuring and analyzing jaw movement have become more common and popular in the clinic. Many types of jaw tracking devices have been developed, but most of them are still not handy and easy to be used. Approach: To improve the handiness and utility of the jaw movement analysis devices, we developed a simple to be used jaw tracking prototype by using a new ultra-miniaturized Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU named WB-3. The WB-3 IMU was composed by 3-axis gyroscope, 3-axis accelerometer and 3-aixs magnetometer, which can not only measure the acceleration and angular speed of jaw movement, but also can measure mouth opening angle. The IMU’s extremely reduced weight and size allowed it to be easily adhered to mandible during normal tests without physical restriction to the subjects. A preliminary experiment for jaw movement analysis during free chewing of three types of food with different shapes and hardness was evaluated. A group of 15 healthy subjects aged from 21-36 years old kindly participated in the experiment. Results: The parameters of chewing time, chewing frequency, power spectrum density of jaw’s angular speed and acceleration, cumulative distribution function of jaw’s acceleration and mouth opening angle were presented. The experimental results clearly showed that the subjects used less chewing time, less chewing frequency, less acceleration cumulative distribution and energy to eat soft food; higher values were found in the case of hard food and there was no significant difference in mouth opening angle while eating these three foods. Conclusion: Our jaw movement analysis prototype using IMU WB-3 was proved to be a valid and handy method for jaw movement and pattern analysis which may be used clinically as an

  9. Impact of meat and Lower Palaeolithic food processing techniques on chewing in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Katherine D; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2016-03-24

    The origins of the genus Homo are murky, but by H. erectus, bigger brains and bodies had evolved that, along with larger foraging ranges, would have increased the daily energetic requirements of hominins. Yet H. erectus differs from earlier hominins in having relatively smaller teeth, reduced chewing muscles, weaker maximum bite force capabilities, and a relatively smaller gut. This paradoxical combination of increased energy demands along with decreased masticatory and digestive capacities is hypothesized to have been made possible by adding meat to the diet, by mechanically processing food using stone tools, or by cooking. Cooking, however, was apparently uncommon until 500,000 years ago, and the effects of carnivory and Palaeolithic processing techniques on mastication are unknown. Here we report experiments that tested how Lower Palaeolithic processing technologies affect chewing force production and efficacy in humans consuming meat and underground storage organs (USOs). We find that if meat comprised one-third of the diet, the number of chewing cycles per year would have declined by nearly 2 million (a 13% reduction) and total masticatory force required would have declined by 15%. Furthermore, by simply slicing meat and pounding USOs, hominins would have improved their ability to chew meat into smaller particles by 41%, reduced the number of chews per year by another 5%, and decreased masticatory force requirements by an additional 12%. Although cooking has important benefits, it appears that selection for smaller masticatory features in Homo would have been initially made possible by the combination of using stone tools and eating meat. PMID:26958832

  10. In search for incentives to gum arabic collection and marketing in Senegal: Interlocking gum trade with pre-finances from traders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawamariya, G.; Haese, D' M.F.C.

    2012-01-01

    In interlocked contractual relationships traders' supplies of inputs and cash to producers during the growing season is reimbursed with harvests. This study analyses interlocking contracts in gum arabic production in Senegal. Gum arabic is a natural exudation of Acacia senegal trees that grow in the

  11. 46 000 years of alternating wet and dry phases on decadal to orbital timescales in the cradle of modern humans: the Chew Bahir project, southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, V.; Junginger, A.; Asrat, A.; Lamb, H. F.; Weber, M.; Rethemeyer, J.; Frank, U.; Brown, M. C.; Trauth, M. H.; Schaebitz, F.

    2014-03-01

    Rapid changes in environmental conditions are considered to be an important driver for human evolution, cultural and technological innovation, and expansion out of Africa. However, the nature of these environmental changes, their amplitude and correlation with steps in human evolution is the subject of current debates. Here we present a high-resolution (~3-12 yr) and well-dated (32 AMS 14C ages) lake-sediment record of the last 46 000 yr from the Chew Bahir basin in the southern Ethiopian Rift. The record was obtained from six cores along a NW-SE transect across the basin, which has been selected as the drilling location within the ICDP Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP). Multi-proxy data and the comparison between the transect coring sites provide initial insight into intra-basin dynamics and major mechanisms controlling the sedimentation of the proxies that was used to develop a basic proxy concept for Chew Bahir for the last two wet-dry cycles. The environmental response to orbitally induced sinusoidal insolation changes is usually nonlinear, as climate changes abruptly compared to changes in the forcing, or gradual but punctuated by multi-decadal intervals of drier conditions. The second major control on the environment is millennial-scale climate variability lasting ~1500 yr, similar in duration to the high-latitude Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles and Heinrich events including the Younger Dryas cold reversal at the end of the last glacial, mostly causing abrupt shifts from extreme arid to wet conditions. The duration and character of orbitally induced, high-latitude controlled, and multi-decadal climate shifts provides important constraints for the adaptation of humans to the changing environment. Therefore, Chew Bahir is a perfect site to study and understand climatic variability on different timescales.

  12. POLYSACCHARIDE GUM (KONDAGOGU GUM MATRIX TABLETS FOR ORAL SUSTAINED DELIVERY OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aswani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been undertaken to develop a sustained-release tablet dosage form for metoprolol succinate using kondagugu gum as the rate-controlling polymer. The prepared tablets were coated will shellac as an enteric coat polymer and evaluated for tablet properties. In vitro release studies of prepared tablets were carried out for 2 hrs in pH 1.2 HCl buffer and 22 hrs in pH 6.8phosphate buffer. In addition, swelling, kinetics of drug release from the matrices and stability of the tablet formulations were also investigated. Mathematical analysis of the release kinetics showed that the nature of drug release from the matrix tablets has followed super case II transport. FTIR and DSC studies have shown that no chemical interaction occurred between the drug and polymers used. The optimized formulation (F4 showed negligible difference in release mechanism as well as release kinetics when stability study was done for three months at 40±20 C and 75±5% RH.

  13. Use of Cassia javahikai seed gum and gum-g-polyacrylamide as coagulant aid for the decolorization of textile dye solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghi, Rashmi; Bhattacharya, Bani; Singh, Vandana

    2006-07-01

    Investigations were carried out for possible exploitation of Cassia javahikai seeds as potential source of commercial gum for the textile wastewater treatment. Graft copolymerization with acrylamide was done to modify the seed gum for the favorable properties. C. javahikai seed gum, and its copolymer grafted with acrylamide were synthesized in the presence of oxygen using potassium persulphate/ascorbic acid redox system. Both C. javahikai seed gum (CJ) and its grafted-polyacrylamide (CJG), were found to be good working substitutes as coagulant aids in conjunction with PAC, for the decolorization of all the dyes in varying ratios. CJ and CJG alone could effectively decolorize direct dyes (DBR and DO) and in conjunction with a very low dose of PAC could decolorize all the dyes (DBR, DO, ASR, and PBB) to more than 70%. Grafting also increased the decolorizing ability of CJ gum.

  14. Effect of guar gum and xanthan gum on pasting and noodle-making properties of potato, corn and mung bean starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amritpal; Shevkani, Khetan; Singh, Narpinder; Sharma, Parul; Kaur, Seeratpreet

    2015-12-01

    The effect of xanthan and guar-gum on pasting and noodle-making properties of potato, corn and mung bean starches was studied. Mung bean starch showed the highest amylose content (43.4 %) followed by potato (23.2 %) and corn starch (15.5 %). Potato starch showed the highest swelling power (19.0 g/g) and solubility index (17.5 %) and exhibited the highest paste viscosities. Addition of both gums improved peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity and final viscosity for mung and corn starches; while for potato starch, guar gum increased peak and final viscosities and decreased hot paste viscosity while xanthan gum increased hot paste and final viscosities and decreased peak viscosity. The noodles made from mung bean starch showed the most desirable characteristics in terms of the lowest-cooking loss and adhesiveness. The gums increased noodle cooking time and decreased cooking loss, firmness and cohesiveness.

  15. Effect of guar gum and xanthan gum on pasting and noodle-making properties of potato, corn and mung bean starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amritpal; Shevkani, Khetan; Singh, Narpinder; Sharma, Parul; Kaur, Seeratpreet

    2015-12-01

    The effect of xanthan and guar-gum on pasting and noodle-making properties of potato, corn and mung bean starches was studied. Mung bean starch showed the highest amylose content (43.4 %) followed by potato (23.2 %) and corn starch (15.5 %). Potato starch showed the highest swelling power (19.0 g/g) and solubility index (17.5 %) and exhibited the highest paste viscosities. Addition of both gums improved peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity and final viscosity for mung and corn starches; while for potato starch, guar gum increased peak and final viscosities and decreased hot paste viscosity while xanthan gum increased hot paste and final viscosities and decreased peak viscosity. The noodles made from mung bean starch showed the most desirable characteristics in terms of the lowest-cooking loss and adhesiveness. The gums increased noodle cooking time and decreased cooking loss, firmness and cohesiveness. PMID:26604384

  16. Antimicrobial eugenol nanoemulsion prepared by gum arabic and lecithin and evaluation of drying technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiaobin; Gerhard, Hannah; Upadhyaya, Indu; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar; Luo, Yangchao

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of present work was to develop eugenol oil nanoemulsions using gum arabic and lecithin as food grade natural emulsifiers, and study their antimicrobial activity. In addition, our study also evaluated different drying techniques (spray drying and freeze drying) on the morphology and redispersibility of nanoemulsion powders. The optimal fabrication method, physicochemical and structural characterization, stability, and antimicrobial activity were investigated. Results showed that nanoemusions with a particle size of 103.6±7.5nm were obtained by mixing aqueous phase (0.5% gum arabic, 0.5% lecithin, w/v) and eugenol oil (1.25%, w/v), which was premixed with ethanol (as a co-surfactant), followed by high speed homogenization process. The molecular interactions among emulsifiers and eugenol were evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Buchi B-90 Nano Spray Dryer was evaluated as a powerful tool to obtain ultrafine spherical powders with a size of less than 500nm, compared to flake-like aggregation obtained by freeze-drying. The dried powders exhibited excellent re-dispersibility in water and maintained their physicochemical properties after re-hydration. The nanoemulsions did not adversely affect the antimicrobial activity of eugenol against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis. Therefore, the nanoemulsions have the potential to be applied in the food industry as a food preservative or sanitizer. PMID:26902894

  17. Structural and physicochemical characteristics of a novel water-soluble gum from Lallemantia royleana seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Cui, Steve W; Ding, Huihuang

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the structural information (monosaccharide compositions, molecular weight parameters & FTIR analysis), chemical composition (moisture, protein, ash, carbohydrate & uronic acids), rheological properties, and surface activity of Lallemantia royleana seeds mucilage (BSG) were determined. The results showed BSG contains 8.51% (w.b.) moisture, 8.24% (d.b.) ash, 2.71% (d.b.) protein, 75.87% (d.b.) carbohydrate and 20.33% (d.b.) uronic acids. Monosaccharide analysis revealed the presence of arabinose (37.88%), galactose (33.54%), rhamnose (18.44%), xylose (6.02%) and glucose (4.11%) in the BSG polysaccharide. Although BSG had similar molecular weight (1.294×10(6) Da) compared to most seed gums, the intrinsic viscosity (23.06 dL/g) and gyration radius (104.84 nm) were higher. The BSG exhibited a strong shear-thinning behavior (n<0.29) over the shear rate range of 0.01 to 1000 s(-1). Flow behavior data was correlated with different time-independent models, which provided a good description of BSG rheological properties. Dynamic mechanical spectra demonstrated BSG is a typical of weak gel, which its rheological parameters were superior to those of many commercial gums. The FTIR spectra of the BSG polymer showed the presence of carboxyl groups, which may serve as binding sites for ions. BSG exhibited the ability to reduce the surface tension of water at concentrations lower than 0.75%.

  18. Mood management and nicotine gum in smoking treatment: a therapeutic contact and placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S M; Muñoz, R F; Reus, V I; Sees, K L; Duncan, C; Humfleet, G L; Hartz, D T

    1996-10-01

    Earlier research indicated that a 10-session mood management (MM) intervention was more effective than a 5-session standard intervention for smokers with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD). In a 2 x 2 factorial design, the present study compared MM intervention to a contact-equivalent health education intervention (HE) and 2 mg to 0 mg of nicotine gum for smokers with a history of MDD. Participants were 201 smokers, 22% with a history of MDD. Contrary to the earlier findings, the MM and HE interventions produced similar abstinence rates: 2 mg gum was no more effective than placebo. History-positive participants had a greater increase in mood disturbance after the quit attempt. Independent of depression diagnosis, increases in negative mood immediately after quitting predicted smoking. No treatment differences were found in trends over time for measures of mood, withdrawal symptoms, pleasant activities and events, self-efficacy, and optimism and pessimism. History-positive smokers may be best treated by interventions providing additional support and contact, independent of therapeutic content. PMID:8916629

  19. Sensory response and physical characteristics of gluten-free and gum-free bread with chia flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katira da Mota HUERTA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical quality and sensory acceptance of gluten-free breads with different percentages of chia flour (Salvia Hispanica L .. The chia flour was used to substitute rice flour and soy flour in order to replace the gum required in this type of bread. Four formulations were developed; a standard made with gum, and three formulations with 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% of chia flour. Analyses of specific volume, cooking losses and the rise in dough of the breads were performed. Sensory analysis included tests for affective acceptability and purchase intent. The results showed that the bread with 2.5% chia flour had specific volume and cooking losses similar to the standard. In terms of the rise in dough, the standard showed the highest values, followed by the bread made with 5.0% chia flour. The substitution of soy and rice flour with 2.5% of chia flour produced bread with sensory characteristics similar to the standard in all of the analyzed attributes; it also received higher purchase intent. Using chia flour at a concentration of 2.5%, compared to rice flour and soy flour, proved that it was possible to replace gum in the bread formulation.

  20. Preparation and characterization of tragacanth-locust bean gum edible blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Fatemeh Sadat; Kadkhodaee, Rassoul; Emadzadeh, Bahareh; Koocheki, Arash

    2016-03-30

    The present work introduces the structure and physicomechanical properties of a novel blend film made from binary solutions of gum tragacanth (GT) and locust bean gum (LBG) at different mixing ratios. Apparent viscosities and surface tensions of individual and blend gum solutions were also investigated. The viscosity data indicated that there was a distinct synergism between the two gums at all mixing ratios. FTIR spectra showed the existence of noncovalent intermolecular interactions between gums. The surface tensions of binary solutions were significantly lower than those of individual gums which is advantageous for coating applications. All films had homogenous and smooth surface morphology and their transparency, water vapour barrier and mechanical properties were improved by incorporating LBG in blend. The results of this study suggest that GT-LBG blend film, owing to its desirable properties, has the potential to be used as a new degradable food packaging material. PMID:26794942

  1. Signalling-dependent interactions between the kinase-coupling protein CheW and chemoreceptors in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedetta, Andrea; Parkinson, John S; Studdert, Claudia A

    2014-09-01

    Chemical signals sensed on the periplasmic side of bacterial cells by transmembrane chemoreceptors are transmitted to the flagellar motors via the histidine kinase CheA, which controls the phosphorylation level of the effector protein CheY. Chemoreceptor arrays comprise remarkably stable supramolecular structures in which thousands of chemoreceptors are networked through interactions between their cytoplasmic tips, CheA, and the small coupling protein CheW. To explore the conformational changes that occur within this protein assembly during signalling, we used in vivo cross-linking methods to detect close interactions between the coupling protein CheW and the serine receptor Tsr in intact Escherichia coli cells. We identified two signal-sensitive contacts between CheW and the cytoplasmic tip of Tsr. Our results suggest that ligand binding triggers changes in the receptor that alter its signalling contacts with CheW (and/or CheA).

  2. Evaluation of trace elements in chewing tobacco and snuff using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Rahman, S. [Chemistry Div., Directorate of Science, Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Tech., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2009-07-01

    Nine samples of chewing tobacco, snuff, tobacco leaf and ash were analyzed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Almost all samples of chewing tobacco and snuff studied in this work contain substantial amounts of Mg, Mn, Na, K. V. Sc, Rb and Fe. Furthermore, varying amounts of Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co and Zn were also detected in all tobacco samples. Of the toxic elements which were determined using INAA. As, Sb and Hg were quantified in only few tobacco samples. However, other toxic elements, which were determined using AAS, such as Cu, Pb and Cd were detected in almost all samples of chewing tobacco and snuff. The concentration of majority of the detected elements is high in ash samples which imply that most elements in chewing tobacco and snuff may originate from the addition of ash. (orig.)

  3. Synthesis and Aqueous Solution Viscosity of Hydrophobically Modified Xanthan Gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Xiao-lin; WU Wen-hui; YU Pei-zhi; WANG Jian-quan

    2007-01-01

    Two xanthan gum derivatives hydrophobically modified by 4 or 8 tetradecyl chains per 100 xanthan gum structure units were synthesized. The derivatives were studied by scanning electron microscope and pyrene fluorescence spectrometry. And the aqueous solution apparent viscosity of the derivatives was investigated. The results indicate that the network of the derivatives with more hydrophobic groups is closer and tighter. With increasing of alkyl chain substitution degree, the hydrophobically associating interactions enhance in aqueous solution. Aqueous solution apparent viscosity of the derivatives increases with increasing of polymer concentration and alkyl substitution degree, and decreases with the increase of temperature. In the brine solution, the strong viscosity enhancement phenomenon appears. The interaction between the derivatives and surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate is strong.

  4. Sulfomethylated graft copolymers of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, I.W.; Empey, R.A.; Racciato, J.S.

    1978-08-08

    A water-soluble anionic graft copolymer of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide is described in which at least part of the amide function of the acrylamide portion of the copolymer is sulfomethylated and the xanthan gum portion of the copolymer is unreacted with formaldehyde. The copolymer is sulfomethylated by reaction with formaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite. The formaldehyde does not cause any appreciable cross-linking between hydroxyl groups of the xanthan moieties. The sulfomethylation of the acrylamido group takes place at temperatures from 35 to 70 C. The pH is 10 or higher, typically from 12 to 13. The degree of anionic character may be varied by adjusting the molar ratio of formaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite with respect to the copolymer. 10 claims.

  5. Synthesis of Hydroxypropyl Guar Gum by Phase Transfer Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Chun XIONG; Ming Zhu CHANG; Jian Ming CHEN; Nan ZHOU; Gang WEI

    2005-01-01

    HGG (Hydroxypropyl guar gum) was synthesized by phase transfer catalysis for the first time. The effects of alkalinity, phase transfer catalyst, etherification, pH value, temperature,reaction time and stirring speed were investigated. An optimal synthetic reaction technology was established, namely, dose of guar gum is 100 g, propylene oxide 40-50 g, HTAC (hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride ) 1.3-1.7 g, pH value 10-10.5, temperature 45-50℃, and reaction time 3-4 hours. The result shows that the improved HGG has high viscosity. Its dissolution speed, content of insoluble residue, colloid light transparency and stability are apparently superior to guar flour.

  6. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita Dionísio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua. This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed.

  7. Site-specific and synergistic stimulation of methylation on the bacterial chemotaxis receptor Tsr by serine and CheW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weis Robert M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific glutamates in the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs of Escherichia coli are modified during sensory adaptation. Attractants that bind to MCPs are known to increase the rate of receptor modification, as with serine and the serine receptor (Tsr, which contributes to an increase in the steady-state (adapted methylation level. However, MCPs form ternary complexes with two cytoplasmic signaling proteins, the kinase (CheA and an adaptor protein (CheW, but their influences on receptor methylation are unknown. Here, the influence of CheW on the rate of Tsr methylation has been studied to identify contributions to the process of adaptation. Results Methyl group incorporation was measured in a series of membrane samples in which the Tsr molecules were engineered to have one available methyl-accepting glutamate residue (297, 304, 311 or 493. The relative rates at these sites (0.14, 0.05, 0.05 and 1, respectively differed from those found previously for the aspartate receptor (Tar, which was in part due to sequence differences between Tar and Tsr near site four. The addition of CheW generated unexpectedly large and site-specific rate increases, equal to or larger than the increases produced by serine. The increases produced by serine and CheW (added separately were the largest at site one, ~3 and 6-fold, respectively, and the least at site four, no change and ~2-fold, respectively. The rate increases were even larger when serine and CheW were added together, larger than the sums of the increases produced by serine and CheW added separately (except site four. This resulted in substantially larger serine-stimulated increases when CheW was present. Also, CheW enhanced methylation rates when either two or all four sites were available. Conclusion The increase in the rate of receptor methylation upon CheW binding contributes significantly to the ligand specificity and kinetics of sensory adaptation. The synergistic effect of

  8. Natural Gums as Sustained Release Carriers: Development of Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System of Ziprasidone HCl

    OpenAIRE

    AJ Rajamma; HN, Yogesha; SB Sateesha

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Objective of this study is to show the potential use of natural gums in the development of drug delivery systems. Therefore in this work gastro retentive tablet formulations of ziprasidone HCl were developed using simplex lattice design considering concentration of okra gum, locust bean gum and HPMC K4M as independent variables. A response surface plot and multiple regression equations were used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on hardness, flag time, floati...

  9. Unveiling the Sources of Chromium in Pictorialist Photographs: Gum-Dichromate Process or Paper Sizing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Anna; Centeno, Silvia A; Kennedy, Nora W;

    2015-01-01

    For this issue of Hand Papermaking devoted to paper sizing, we offer a review and extension of pertinent results obtained in our investigations of the gum-dichromate photographic process, commonly known as the gum-bichromate process.1 We have published three articles to date on our findings......; this article is derived mainly from “Understanding the Gum Dichromate Processes in Pictorialist Photographs: A Literature Review and Technical Study,” which appeared in Studies in Conservation in 2013....

  10. Obtaining process of interpolymeric complexes from lactalbumin, xanthan gum and pectin

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Coimbra Zuvanov; Edwin Elard Garcia-rojas; Clitor Júnior Fernandes de Souza; Eliana da Silva Gulão; Luciano José Barreto Pereira

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the optimization process of interpolymeric complexes formation between lactalbumin and the polysaccharides xanthan gum and pectin was studied in order to define the optimum conditions for the complexes formation. For the experimental design, response surface methodology (RSM) for three independent variables was used. The optimum conditions for the complexes formation between lactalbumin and xanthan gum were: pH 6.6, NaCl concentration of 0.6 mol/L and xanthan gum concentration 0...

  11. Antioxidant Activity of Pistacia vera Fruits, Leaves and Gum Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Sajadi Tabassi, Sayyed Abolghasem; Milani Moghadam, Negar; Rashedinia, Marzieh; Mehri, Soghra

    2012-01-01

    The side effects of synthetic antioxidants have been considered in different studies. Accordingly, there is an increasing interest toward the use of natural substances instead of the synthetic ones. In this study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pistacia vera leaves and fruits as well as hydroalcoholic extract of gum were tested for a possible antioxidant activity using in vitro methods. Deoxyribose assay, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and liver misrosomal non- enzymatic lipid...

  12. Irrigation and planting density affect river red gum growth

    OpenAIRE

    Cockerham, Stephen T.

    2004-01-01

    In a 6-year study, production of river red gum, an excellent fuel-wood source, was evaluated for responses to three levels of irrigation, fertilization and planting density. Irrigation and planting density had the greatest influence on tree growth. Irrigation in the fifth and sixth years produced greater wood volume and weight per tree. Tree size was greatest in the wide spacing of the lower planting density. Fertilizer had no effect on any of the treatments. Per acre volume and weight yields...

  13. Gellan gum : hydroxyapatite composite hydrogels for bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Manda-Guiba, G. M.; Oliveira, Mariana B.; Mano, J.F; Marques, A.P; Joaquim M. Oliveira; Correlo, V. M.; Reis, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    The modification of polymeric matrices by adding calcium-phosphate derivatives has been proven an effective strategy for tailoring the properties of scaffolds employed in bone tissue engineering. In this regard and, considering the biomechanics of bone as well as the durotactic response of osteoblasts, this study builds on the hypothesis that the preparation of novel Gellan Gum (GG)-Hydroxyapatite (HA) hydrogel composites could benefit the mechanical profile of matrices as well as the cell-su...

  14. Bleeding from gums: Can it be a dengue

    OpenAIRE

    Rajat Bansal; Purnita Goyel; Dinesh. C. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Bleeding from gums is a common feature in periodontitis patient. But abnormal bleeding from the gingiva or other areas of the oral mucosa that is difficult to control is an important clinical sign suggesting a hematological disorder. Case Report: A-40-year old male patient reported to our clinic with the chief complaint of acute gingival bleeding. There was continuous bleeding, fever since 3-4 days with weakness, retro orbital pain, and severe backache. Patient gave a history of...

  15. Hepatoprotective triterpenes from the gum resin of Boswellia carterii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Gai; Ma, Qin-Ge; Tian, Jin; Ren, Jin; Wang, Ai-Guo; Ji, Teng-Fei; Yang, Jian-Bo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2016-03-01

    Ten tirucallane-type triterpenes named boscartene A-J and a nor-tetracyclic triterpene boscartene K, together with ten known compounds were isolated from the gum resin of Boswellia carterii Birdw. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. In vitro assay, some of these compounds (10 μM) showed moderate hepatoprotective activities against d-galactosamine-induced HL-7702 cell damage.

  16. Radiation induced degradation of xanthan gum in the solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Murat; Hayrabolulu, Hande; Taşkın, Pınar; Torun, Murat; Demeter, Maria; Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Güven, Olgun

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the effect of ionizing radiation on xanthan gum was investigated. Xanthan samples were irradiated with gamma rays in air at ambient temperature in the solid state at different dose rates and doses. Change in their molecular weights was followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Chain scission yield (G(S)), and degradation rate constants (k) were calculated. The calculated G(S) values are 0.0151±0.0015, 0.0144±0.0020, 0.0098±0.0010 μmol/J and k values are 1.4×10-8±1.4×10-9, 1.3×10-8±2.0×10-9, 8.7×10-9±1.0×10-9 Gy-1 for 0.1, 3.3 and 7.0 kGy/h dose rates, respectively. It was observed that the dose rate was an important factor controlling the G(S) and degradation rate of xanthan gum. Considering its use in food industry, the effect of irradiation on rheological properties of xanthan gum solutions was also investigated and flow model parameters were determined for all dose rates and doses. Rheological analysis showed that xanthan solution showed non-Newtonian shear thinning behaviour and ionizing radiation does not change the non-Newtonian and shear thinning flow behaviour of xanthan gum solutions in concentration ranges of this work. It was determined that, Power Law model well described the flow behaviour of unirradiated and irradiated xanthan solutions.

  17. Pyramids of QTLs enhance host–plant resistance and Bt-mediated resistance to leaf-chewing insects in soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, María A.; All, John N.; Boerma, H. Roger; Parrott, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    Key message QTL-M and QTL-E enhance soybean resistance to insects. Pyramiding these QTLs with cry1Ac increases protection against Bt-tolerant pests, presenting an opportunity to effectively deploy Bt with host–plant resistance genes. Abstract Plant resistance to leaf-chewing insects minimizes the need for insecticide applications, reducing crop production costs and pesticide concerns. In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], resistance to a broad range of leaf-chewing insects is found in PI 22935...

  18. The effects of extracts of chewing sticks (Salvadora persica) on healthy and periodontally involved human dentine : a SEM study.

    OpenAIRE

    Almas K

    2001-01-01

    The popularity and availability of chewing sticks (Salvadora persica) in the Asia, Middle East and Africa make them a commonly used oral hygiene tool in those societies. Salvador persica chewing stick called miswak is frequently used in Saudi Arabia. The antimicrobial effects of miswak has been well documented. The aim of this study is to find our the effect of aqueous extracts of miswak on healthy and periodontally involved human dentine with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in vitro. 25&#...

  19. Association between Hardness (Difficulty of Chewing) of the Habitual Diet and Premenstrual Symptoms in Young Japanese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kentaro Murakami; Satoshi Sasaki; Yoshiko Takahashi; Kazuhiro Uenishi; Tomoko Watanabe; Toshiyuki Kohri; Mitsuyo Yamasaki; Reiko Watanabe; Keiko Baba; Katsumi Shibata; Toru Takahashi; Hitomi Hayabuchi; Kazuko Ohki; Junko Suzuki

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that voluntary rhythmic movements such as chewing may increase blood serotonin and subsequently brain serotonin, which in turn acts to alleviate premenstrual symptoms. In this observational cross-sectional study, we tested the hypothesis that hardness (difficulty of chewing) of the habitual diet (i.e. dietary hardness) is associated with decreased premenstrual symptoms. Subjects were 640 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18–22 years. Dietary hardness was assessed...

  20. Electron beam irradiation effects on xanthan gum. Rheological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the application of electron beam irradiation to xanthum gum as used as ingredient by the food or cosmetics industry in order to establish their radiosensitivity. The edible powder of xanthum gum samples were irradiated in 1mm thick layers of Petri dishes covered by a transparent PVC of films using an EB accelerator Dynamitron (Radiation Dynamics Inc.) model JOB 188, dose rate 11.17 kGy/s, 0.637 MeV, 1.78 mA, 5 kGy per passage, 3.36 m min-1 with doses of 5, 10, 20 and 50kGy. One % aqueous solutions from irradiated and non-irradiated xanthum gum were prepared and the radiation effects were measured following viscosity changes at 25 deg. C using a Brookfield viscometer; model DVIII, spindel L, with Rheocalc software. Viscosity measurements were performed according to our previous experience and the results are the mean of at least 3 experiments