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Sample records for chewers potentially malignant

  1. Screening for oral potentially malignant disorders among areca (betel) nut chewers in Guam and Saipan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C; Hurwitz, Eric L; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Gatewood, Robert R; Pierson, Kenneth D; Tenorio, Lynnette F; Novotny, Rachel; Palafox, Neal A; Wilkens, Lynne R; Badowski, Grazyna

    2014-12-11

    The Mariana Islands, including Guam and Saipan, are home to many ethnic subpopulations of Micronesia. Oral cancer incidence rates vary among subpopulations, and areca (betel) nut chewing, a habit with carcinogenic risks, is common. Our objectives were to conduct a screening program to detect oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) in betel nut chewers, measure their betel nut chewing practices, and assess the prevalence of the oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a subset of betel nut chewers in these islands. A cross-section of 300 betel nut chewers ≥18 years old [in Guam (n = 137) and in Saipan (n = 163)] were recruited between January 2011-June 2012. We collected demographic, socioeconomic, and oral behavioural characteristics. Latent class analysis was used to identify chewing patterns from selected chewing behaviours. Following calibration of OPMD against an expert, a registered oral hygienist conducted oral examinations by house to house visits and referred positive cases to the study dentist for a second oral examination. Buccal smears were collected from a subset (n = 123) for HPV testing. Two classes of betel nut chewers were identified on 7 betel nut behaviours, smoking, and alcohol use; a key difference between the two Classes was the addition of ingredients to the betel quid among those in Class 2. When compared on other characteristics, Class 1 chewers were older, had been chewing for more years, and chewed fewer nuts per day although chewing episodes lasted longer than Class 2 chewers. More Class 1 chewers visited the dentist regularly than Class 2 chewers. Of the 300 participants, 46 (15.3%; 3.8% for Class 1 and 19.4% for Class 2) had OPMD and one (0.3%) was confirmed to have squamous cell carcinoma. The prevalence of oral HPV was 5.7% (7/123), although none were high-risk types. We found two patterns of betel nut chewing behaviour; Class 2 had a higher frequency of OPMD. Additional epidemiologic research is needed to

  2. Exfoliative cytological assessment of apparently normal buccal mucosa among quid chewers using argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region counts and Papanicolaou staining.

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    Mohan, Bhavna C; Angadi, Punnya V

    2013-01-01

    Quid chewing is associated with an increased risk of oral cancer. This study aims to analyze argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) counts along with Papanicolaou (PAP) staining in exfoliative smears of quid chewers and non-chewers to correlate quid chewing habits with possible early cytological changes in apparently normal buccal mucosa. Exfoliative smears were obtained from normal buccal mucosa of 30 male quid chewers and non-chewers. The smears were stained using the AgNOR silver staining technique to evaluate the proliferative activity and PAP for cytological appearance. Statistically higher AgNOR counts were observed in chewers as compared to non-chewers. The difference in the mean percentage of nuclei having ≥5 AgNORs in both groups was statistically significant (p = 0.001). In chewers, PAP showed 77% with class I and the remaining 23% were class II, while the non-chewers showed only class I cytology. AgNOR counts between chewers and non-chewers having class I cytological appearance demonstrated a greater mean AgNOR count in chewers (p = 0.0001). Quid chewing seems to have a definite role in promoting proliferative activity of apparently normal buccal mucosal cells. Exfoliative cytological assessment of a combination of AgNOR counts and PAP has the potential for prediction of early quid-associated cellular changes before the appearance of clinical premalignant and malignant lesions. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Cytomorphometric analysis of oral buccal mucosal smears in tobacco and arecanut chewers who abused with and without betel leaf.

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    Noufal, Ahammed; George, Antony; Jose, Maji; Khader, Mohasin Abdul; Jayapalan, Cheriyanthal Sisupalan

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco in any form (smoking or chewing), arecanut chewing, and alcohol are considered to be the major extrinsic etiological factors for potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity and for squamous cell carcinoma, the most common oral malignancy in India. An increase in nuclear diameter (ND) and nucleus-cell ratio (NCR) with a reduction in cell diameter (CD) are early cytological indicators of dysplastic change. The authors sought to identify cytomorphometric changes in ND, CD, and NCR of oral buccal cells in tobacco and arecanut chewers who chewed with or without betel leaf. Participants represented 3 groups. Group I consisted of 30 individuals who chewed tobacco and arecanut with betel leaf (BQT chewers). Group II consisted of 30 individuals who chewed tobacco and arecanut without betel leaf (Gutka chewers). Group III comprised 30 apparently healthy nonabusers. Cytological smears were prepared and stained with modified-Papanicolaou stain. Comparisons between Groups I and II and Groups II and III showed that ND was increased, with P values of .054 and .008, respectively, whereas a comparison of Groups I and III showed no statistical significance. Comparisons between Groups I and II and Groups II and III showed that CD was statistically reduced, with P values of .037 and <.000, respectively, whereas comparison of Groups I and III showed no statistical significance. Comparisons between Groups I and II and groups II and III showed that NCR was statistically increased, with P values of <.000, whereas a comparison of Groups I and III showed no statistical significance. CD, ND, and NCR showed statistically significant changes in Group II in comparison with Group I, which could indicate larger and earlier risk of carcinoma for Gutka chewers than in BQT chewers.

  4. Oral potentially malignant disorders: is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that

  5. Oral potentially malignant disorders: is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Waal, Isaäc

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented. Furthermore, follow-up programs are of questionable value in this respect. Cessation of smoking habits may result in ...

  6. Oral potentially malignant disorders: Is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Isaäc

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented. Furthermore, follow-up programs are of questionable value in this respect. Cessation of smoking habits may result in regression or even disappearance of the leukoplakia and will diminish the risk of cancer development either at the site of the leukoplakia or elsewhere in the mouth or the upper aerodigestive tract. The debate on the allegedly potentially malignant character of oral lichen planus is going on already for several decades. At present, there is a tendency to accept its potentially malignant behaviour, the annual malignant transformation rate amounting less than 0.5%. As in leukoplakia, there are no reliable predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented either. Follow-up visits, e.g twice a year, may be of some value. It is probably beyond the scope of most dentists to manage patients with these lesions in their own office. Timely referral to a specialist seems most appropriate, indeed. Key words:Oral potentially malignant disorders, oral leukoplakia, oral lichen planus. PMID:24905952

  7. Leukoplakia: A short review on malignant potential

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    K. M. K. Masthan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral leukoplakia is one of the most common potentially malignant disorders. Right diagnosis of potentially malignant disorders may help to prevent these lesions from malignant transformation. Proper understanding, recognizing, identification and differentiating these lesions from normal mucosa are necessary for proper treatment.

  8. Oral potentially malignant disorders: is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Isaäc

    2014-07-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented. Furthermore, follow-up programs are of questionable value in this respect. Cessation of smoking habits may result in regression or even disappearance of the leukoplakia and will diminish the risk of cancer development either at the site of the leukoplakia or elsewhere in the mouth or the upper aerodigestive tract. The debate on the allegedly potentially malignant character of oral lichen planus is going on already for several decades. At present, there is a tendency to accept its potentially malignant behaviour, the annual malignant transformation rate amounting less than 0.5%. As in leukoplakia, there are no reliable predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented either. Follow-up visits, e.g twice a year, may be of some value. It is probably beyond the scope of most dentists to manage patients with these lesions in their own office. Timely referral to a specialist seems most appropriate, indeed.

  9. Leuloplakia - Review of A Potentially Malignant Disorder

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    Abidullah, Mohammed; Gaddikeri, Kavitha; Raghoji, Swetha; Ravishankar T, Shilpa

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakias are oral white lesions that have not been diagnosed as any other specific disease. They are grouped under premalignant lesions, now redesignated as potentially malignant disorders. Their significance lies in the fact that they have propensity for malignant transformation at a higher rate when compared to other oral lesions. This article reviews aetiology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, histopathologic features, malignant potential and treatment of oral leukoplakia. PMID:25302287

  10. Presence of Helicobacter pylori in betel chewers and non betel chewers with and without oral cancers

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    Amarasingha Indranee

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betel chewing has been shown to predispose to periodontal disease and oral cancer. Studies show that people with gum disease are more likely to test positive for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. It is not known if the lesions produced by betel quid and the resulting, chemical changes predispose to colonization by H. pylori. Further the role of this organism in oral cancer is not known. Our objective was to determine the presence of H. pylori in oral lesions of thirty oral cancer patients and to determine the presence of IgG antibodies to H. pylori in oral cancer patients who are betel chewers and non betel chewers, healthy betel chewers and healthy non-betel chewers and to compare the presence of H. pylori in these four groups. This case control study was conducted at the Cancer Institute Maharagama and the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Methods One hundred and seventy three subjects, of whom fifty three were patients presenting with oral cancer to the Cancer Institute Maharagama, sixty healthy betel chewers and sixty healthy non-betel chewers from the Religious and Welfare Service Centre Maharagama were tested for H. pylori by serology. Thirty oral biopsies from oral cancer patients were cultured under microaerophilic condition to isolate H. pylori. The statistic used was Chi-square test. Results Of the fifty-three oral cancer patients, forty-four were betel chewers. Among the 53 oral cancer patients examined, ten of forty-four (10/44 = 22.7% patients who are betel chewers and four of nine (4/9 = 44.4% patients who are non-betel chewers were detected positive for IgG antibody against H. pylori. In the healthy group (betel chewers and non betel chewers ten (16.7% of the healthy betel chewers tested positive for H. pylori by serology. None of the healthy non-betel chewers tested positive for H. pylori Fourteen [26.4%] of oral cancer patients tested positive for H

  11. Sociocultural Factors that Affect Chewing Behaviors among Betel Nut Chewers and Ex-Chewers on Guam.

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    Murphy, Kelle L; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-12-01

    Areca nut (betel nut) is chewed by an estimated 10% of the world's population which is equivalent to about 600 million people. It is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and has been linked to various types of oral cancer. Chewing areca predominates in South and South East Asia, East Africa, and the Western Pacific and has important social and cultural implications. The purpose of the pilot study was twofold: (1) to examine sociocultural factors that affect why people on Guam chew betel nut, their chewing behaviors, perceptions of risks, probability of changing behaviors, and methods that could be used to reduce use or quit; and (2) to pilot two surveys (one for chewers and one for ex-chewers) to be used in a larger study in the future. A mixed methods design was employed that included surveys pertaining to their status (chewer or ex-chewer) and in-depth interviews. A total of 30 adults participated in this pilot study: adult betel nut chewers (n = 15) and ex-chewers (n = 15). Chewing betel nut is a learned behavior, embedded within the culture, and is viewed as an important cultural identifier. Socially, chewing is viewed as positive. Chewers stated that they were not as aware of health issues; however, ex-chewers stated health reasons for quitting.

  12. Comparison of oral Candida species prevalence and carriage among gutka-chewers and betel-quid chewers.

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    Abduljabbar, Tariq; Hussain, Mudassir; Adnan, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Javed, Fawad

    2017-03-01

    To compare prevalence and carriage of Candida species among gutka-chewers and betel-quid-chewers. The cross-sectional case-control study was conducted between January and December, 2015 at the Oral Surgery department of Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and the Dental department of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and comprised oral yeast samples of gutka-chewers, betel-quid-chewers, and non-chewers. A standardised questionnaire was used to gather demographic data and oral hygiene maintenance information. Oral Candida strains were collected, cultured and identified using standard techniques and yeast identification system. In all groups, unstimulated whole salivary flow rate was determined. Lesions on the tongue and oral mucosa were clinically investigated and numbers of missing teeth were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the total 185 samples, 50(27%) were from gutka-chewers, 50(27%)betel-quid-chewers, and 85(46%) non-chewers. Oral Candida carriage was comparable among betel-quid-chewers (18 [36%])and gutka-chewers (20 [40%]), but it was significantly higher than the non-chewers (11 [12.9%]) (p0.05). Prevalence and carriage of Candida species were comparable between betel-quid-chewers and gutka-chewers compared to non-chewers.

  13. Tobacco use, Body Mass Index, and Potentially Malignant Disorders Among petrol fillers in Pimpri-Pune (India: A descriptive study

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    Mamatha G. S. Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since petrol is combustible and smoking is banned at the petrol pumps, it may be predicted that use of smokeless tobacco is more prevalent among the petrol fillers. Also, smokeless tobacco is a major risk factor for developing oral potentially malignant disorders. The present study was conducted to determine the tobacco use, body mass index (BMI, and potentially malignant disorders among a cohort of petrol fillers and also to evaluate the interaction of tobacco use and BMI with the presence of potentially malignant disorders. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at 45 petrol stations located at Pimpri-Pune, India. A descriptive study design was used. Materials and Method: Four hundred and ten petrol fillers aged 17-64 years participated in the study. General information and tobacco history was obtained by interview. Height and weight were recorded to obtain BMI. Oral examination was conducted to identify the potentially malignant disorders. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test, Z test, and logistic regression were used. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Results and Conclusions: It was found that 242 (59.02% used tobacco in different forms. 77.68% were tobacco chewers, and 8.26% were smokers. Leukoplakia was prevalent among 68.47%, oral submucous fibrosis among 27.45%, and 5.08% had erythroplakia. Age (χ2 = 11.46, P < 0.05, duration (χ2 = 17.46, P < 0.05, and frequency of tobacco chewing (χ2 = 14.16, P < 0.05 were significantly associated with potentially malignant disorders. Tobacco chewing was more prevalent as compared to smoking. It can be concluded that the petrol fillers are at a high risk for developing oral potentially malignant disorders.

  14. Candida in potentially malignant oral disorders

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    S Leena Sankari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oro-pharyngeal cancer is a significant component in the global burden of cancer. A considerable proportion of oral squamous carcinomas develop from preexsiting potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity. The term potentially malignant oral disorders (PMD were proposed for the precancerous lesions and conditions by World Health Organization in 2007. PMD are considered an in-between clinical state, which showed increased risk for cancer development. Etiology of PMD is multifactorial. Tobacco and alcohol are the major risk factors. In recent years, role of candidal infection is recognized as a significant factor in the development of PMD. There is an enduring discussion whether Candida infection can be a cause of PMD or a superimposed infection in a preexisting lesion. This article highlights the association between Candida and PMD.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of less common pancreatic malignancies and pancreatic tumors with malignant potential

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    D. Franz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic tumors are an increasingly common finding in abdominal imaging. Various kinds of pathologies of the pancreas are well known, but it often remains difficult to classify the lesions radiologically in respect of type and grade of malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the method of choice for the evaluation of pancreatic pathologies due to its superior soft tissue contrast. In this article we present a selection of less common malignant and potentially malignant pancreatic neoplasms with their characteristic appearance on established MRI sequences with and without contrast enhancement.

  16. Advances in Optical Adjunctive Aids for Visualisation and Detection of Oral Malignant and Potentially Malignant Lesions

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    Nirav Bhatia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of screening for oral potentially malignant disorders and oral malignancies involve a conventional oral examination with digital palpation. Evidence indicates that conventional examination is a poor discriminator of oral mucosal lesions. A number of optical aids have been developed to assist the clinician to detect oral mucosal abnormalities and to differentiate benign lesions from sinister pathology. This paper discusses advances in optical technologies designed for the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities. The literature regarding such devices, VELscope and Identafi, is critically analysed, and the novel use of Narrow Band Imaging within the oral cavity is also discussed. Optical aids are effective in assisting with the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities; however, further research is required to evaluate the usefulness of these devices in differentiating benign lesions from potentially malignant and malignant lesions.

  17. Treatment Options for Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors

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    ... Cancer Screening Research Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ovarian Low ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  18. Micronucleus Assay for Evaluation of Genotoxicity in Potentially Malignant and Malignant Disorders

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    Parvathi Devi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a common malignancy, ranking first among all cancers in Western and Asian countries. It is preceded by some benign lesions or conditions, which are termed precancerous. Only one-third of people at the precancerous stage of disease succumb to cancer, it would be of practical importance to identify individuals at risk among them. Biomarkers, instruments of individual tumor prevention, help to detect high-risk patents. The induction of micronucleus is considered to bean effective biomarker of diseases- In the recent past, a great deal of enthusiasm was raised by application of the micronucleus test to assess DNA damage in human population. The present study is aimed at the evaluation of frequency of micronuclei in smears of oral exfoliated cells. A total of 33 patients with potentially malignant (leukoplakia, OSMF, lichen planus and malignant oral epithelial diseases from the department of oral medicine and radiology were considered as study group and compared with 33 age and sex matched healthy controls. Micronucleus frequencies were found higher in diseased patients than in control subjects- Hence, concluded that the micronucleus assay can be used as a prognostic indicator in potentially malignant and malignant disorders.

  19. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus among oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinomas in the South Indian tobacco-chewing population.

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    Reddy, Sujatha S; Sharma, Shivani; Mysorekar, Vijaya

    2017-07-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the world. Viruses are the causative agents of approximately 10-15% of all cancers worldwide (Cancers, 6, 2014 and 2155). The tumorigenic roles of Epstein-Barr virus in oral cancer are unclear. Literature search results are conflicting and dependent on various factors such as geographical/regional variations, sociocultural lifestyles, dietary habits, chewing/smoking tobacco habit. This study is the first original observation about frequency of Epstein-Barr virus among South Indian tobacco-chewing patients to elucidate its involvement in oral carcinogenesis and to know whether this can be a valuable diagnostic and prognostic indicator. A total number of 75 tobacco chewer subjects aged between 23 and 76 years with histopathologically confirmed oral potentially malignant disorders (25), oral squamous cell carcinoma (25), and age-matched healthy controls (25) formed the study group. Immunohistochemical expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 was assessed among cases and healthy controls. Out of the total 75 subjects, six subjects (8%) were positive for Epstein-Barr virus antigen and 69 subjects (92%) negative. The antigen positivity was observed among two cases of moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma, two cases of leukoplakia, and two healthy controls. No significant association between Epstein-Barr virus positivity was observed among oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma among South Indian tobacco-chewing patients. This can be partially explained by the methodology employed, by the patient population analyzed and different habits in various geographical regions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Methylene Blue as a Diagnostic Aid in the Early Detection of Potentially Malignant and Malignant Lesions of Oral Mucosa.

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    Lejoy, Abraham; Arpita, Rai; Krishna, Burde; Venkatesh, Naikmasur

    2016-05-01

    In vivo stains are the prompt resources, which have emerged in recent years to aid as clinical diagnostic tools in detecting early potentially malignant and malignant lesions. Toluidine blue, by its property of retaining in the increased DNA and RNA cellular activity areas, aids in delineating the suspicious areas. However, it is hazardous if swallowed, and has been shown to have toxicity to fibroblasts. Methylene blue has a similar chemical structure and exhibits similar physicochemical properties as toluidine blue. It is less toxic to the human body and has recently been proposed for screening some gastrointestinal or prostate tumors. The application of this material in detecting oral lesions has so far not been addressed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of in vivo staining with methylene blue as a diagnostic adjunct in screening for oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions. The present study involved the examination of 75 patients suspected of having oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions by methylene blue staining. The results of methylene blue uptake were compared with a simultaneous biopsy of these lesions. The overall sensitivity was 95% (100% for malignancy and 92% for potentially malignant lesions) and specificity was 70%. The positive predictive value was 91% and negative predictive value of 80% was observed in the study. We consider that methylene blue staining is a useful diagnostic adjunct in a large, community-based oral cancer screening program for high-risk individuals.

  1. Markers of potential malignancy in chronic hyperplastic candidiasis.

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    Darling, Mark R; McCord, Christina; Jackson-Boeters, Linda; Copete, Maria

    2012-08-01

    To examine the presence of markers associated with malignancy, including p53, p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, murine double minutes-2, and others, in chronic hyperplastic candidiasis. Immunohistochemical methods were used to examine the expression of p53, murine double minutes-2, p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, metallothionein, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in 42 chronic hyperplastic candidiasis lesions and 11 non-infected control tissues. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling was used to examine apoptosis, which was correlated with p53 expression. These markers were measured in lesions of chronic hyperplastic candidiasis that did not show any epithelial dysplasia or histological signs of malignancy. p53 scores were higher in chronic hyperplastic candidiasis than in controls (P = 0.0046). Murine double-minutes 2 levels were not elevated. p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A was increased in parabasal (P hyperplastic candidiasis lesions showed a similar basal/parabasal metallothionein staining pattern to that seen in normal squamous epithelium. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was increased (P = 0.0007), as was apoptosis (P = 0.0033). Increased p53 in oral chronic hyperplastic candidiasis suggests an increased potential for malignant change in the epithelium, above that of normal tissues. Further functional investigation is required, as well as clinical follow-up studies. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Potentially malignant disorders of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa; terminology, classification and present concepts of management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.

    2009-01-01

    In a recently held WHO workshop it has been recommended to abandon the distinction between potentially malignant lesions and potentially malignant conditions and to use the term potentially malignant disorders instead. Of these disorders, leukoplakia and erythroplakia are the most common ones. These

  3. E-Cigarette as a Harm Reduction Approach among Tobacco Smoking Khat Chewers: A Promising Bullet of Multiple Gains

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    Saba Kassim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Khat chewing/use, a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects is socially integrated in the Middle East and Africa. Khat chewing is often associated with tobacco smoking and occurs in closed places, such as a family home setting where the smoke-free laws cannot be implemented. Tobacco cigarette smoking among khat chewers is a significant concern, but there is also second-hand exposure to smoke at home or in places where khat users gather. Evidence suggests that e-cigarettes represent a significantly less harmful form of nicotine intake. Evaluating the effects of e-cigarettes among khat chewers could be important in understanding the impact of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction approach, with the potential to reduce the health risk associated with smoking.

  4. E-Cigarette as a Harm Reduction Approach among Tobacco Smoking Khat Chewers: A Promising Bullet of Multiple Gains.

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    Kassim, Saba; Farsalinos, Konstantinos E

    2016-02-19

    Khat chewing/use, a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects is socially integrated in the Middle East and Africa. Khat chewing is often associated with tobacco smoking and occurs in closed places, such as a family home setting where the smoke-free laws cannot be implemented. Tobacco cigarette smoking among khat chewers is a significant concern, but there is also second-hand exposure to smoke at home or in places where khat users gather. Evidence suggests that e-cigarettes represent a significantly less harmful form of nicotine intake. Evaluating the effects of e-cigarettes among khat chewers could be important in understanding the impact of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction approach, with the potential to reduce the health risk associated with smoking.

  5. Fluorescence spectroscopy for noninvasive early diagnosis of oral mucosal malignant and potentially malignant lesions

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    Chaturvedi Pankaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We report the results of a clinical in vivo study to evaluate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for differential diagnosis of oral mucosal malignant and potentially malignant lesions. Materials and Methods: The study involved 26 healthy volunteers and 144 patients enrolled for routine medical examination of the oral cavity at the outpatient department of the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai. In vivo autofluorescence spectra were recorded using a N 2 laser based portable fluorimeter developed in-house. The different tissue sites investigated belonged to either of the four histopathologic categories: 1 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, 2 oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSMF, 3 leukoplakia (LP and 4 normal squamous tissue. A multivariate statistical algorithm capable of direct multi-class classification was used to predict pathological designations. Results: With respect to histopathology as the "gold standard", the diagnostic algorithm was found to provide an accuracy of 82, 76, 81 and 85% based on leave-one-patient-out cross-validation in classifying the oral tissue spectra into four different pathology classes - SCC, OSMF, LP, and normal squamous tissue - respectively. When the algorithm was employed for delineating the normal oral tissues from all the abnormal oral tissues including SCC, OSMF and LP put together, a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 100% were obtained. Conclusion: The results suggest that it is possible to objectively classify the oral tissue into different pathology classes based on their in vivo autofluorescence spectra. Thus, the technique can potentially improve oral screening efforts in low resource settings where clinical expertise and resources are limited.

  6. A Potential Therapeutic Strategy for Malignant Mesothelioma with Gene Medicine

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    Tada, Yuji; Shimada, Hideaki; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Tagawa, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma, closely linked with occupational asbestos exposure, is relatively rare in the frequency, but the patient numbers are going to increase in the next few decades all over the world. The current treatment modalities are not effective in terms of the overall survival and the quality of life. Mesothelioma mainly develops in the thoracic cavity and infrequently metastasizes to extrapleural organs. A local treatment can thereby be beneficial to the patients, and gene therapy with an intrapleural administration of vectors is one of the potential therapeutics. Preclinical studies demonstrated the efficacy of gene medicine for mesothelioma, and clinical trials with adenovirus vectors showed the safety of an intrapleural injection and a possible involvement of antitumor immune responses. Nevertheless, low transduction efficiency remains the main hurdle that hinders further clinical applications. Moreover, rapid generation of antivector antibody also inhibits transgene expressions. In this paper, we review the current status of preclinical and clinical gene therapy for malignant mesothelioma and discuss potential clinical directions of gene medicine in terms of a combinatory use with anticancer agents and with immunotherapy. PMID:23484132

  7. Comparison of loss of heterozygosity patterns between ovarian tumors of low malignant potential and malignant ovarian tumors

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    Crawford, E.C.; Miller, D.M.; Finley, W.H. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP) represent a pathologic subtype of ovarian tumor that possess many features common to malignant tumors including epithelial stratification, increased mitotic activity and atypical cellularity. These tumors, however, do not invade the ovarian stroma and have a much improved patient prognosis. Utilizing dinucleotide repeats, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies were performed on a total of 12 ovarian tumors of LMP in 5 regions found to have significant levels of LOH in malignant ovarian tumors. The regions chosen for study were 3p, 6q, 11p, 17p and 17q. LOH could be demonstrated in malignant ovarian tumors in loci from 3p, 11p and both chromosomal arms of 17 when compared to normal tissue from the same patient. Loss in malignant tumors was more common in loci mapped to 3p21 and to 11p15. OH was not noted in any samples for a repeat in the TP53 gene even though flanking markers on 17p were lost in 1 patient with a malignant tumor. Loss was not demonstrated in any of the loci examined from 6q in malignant ovarian tumors. LOH was not demonstrated in any of the 39 loci examined from any of the five chromosomal regions in the ovarian tumors of LMP. Cytogenetic analyses of these LMP tumors were consistent with lack of involvement in these chromosomal regions. These data suggest the mechanism of tumorigenesis is different in tumors of LMP from that in malignant ovarian tumors.

  8. Efficacy of oral brush biopsy in potentially malignant disorder management.

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    Goodson, M L; Smith, D R; Thomson, P J

    2017-11-01

    Oral potentially malignant disorders (PMD) harbour unpredictable risk for squamous cell carcinoma development. Current management requires tissue biopsy for histopathology characterisation, dysplasia grading and targeted intervention to "high-risk" lesions, although evidence-based guidelines are limited and diagnoses subjective. This study investigated the use of adjunctive oral brush biopsy techniques during the management of PMD in a UK hospital population. Retrospective review of a 310 PMD patient cohort presenting to Maxillofacial Surgery in Newcastle upon Tyne with new, single-site lesions between December 2009 and May 2014. Patients underwent Orcellex® brush biopsy and liquid-based cytology examination in addition to conventional biopsy techniques, with management proceeding along established care pathways. Patient demographics, cytology data, most significant histopathology diagnoses and clinical outcome were all documented at the study census date (31.12.15). A total of 170 male & 140 female patients (age range 18-91 years), exhibiting primarily leukoplakia (86.5%) at floor of mouth and ventrolateral tongue sites (44.9%), were identified. Management comprised: observation (49.7%), laser surgery (44.9%), antifungal treatment (3.5%) and Head & Neck clinic referral following cancer diagnosis (1.9%). Clinical outcomes were as follows: disease free (51.3%), persistent PMD (42.3%) and malignant transformation (6.4%). Histology and cytology diagnoses strongly correlated (r = .305). Treatment modality, lesion site, histology and cytology diagnoses were the best predictors of clinical outcome. Orcellex® brush cytology provides reliable diagnoses consistent with conventional histopathology and offers less invasive, adjunctive assessment appropriate for long-term monitoring of patients in specialist clinics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Genetic polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in potentially malignant and malignant lesions of the head and neck

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    Asotra Kamlesh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family of zinc-dependent proteinases that are capable of cleaving all extra cellular matrix (ECM substrates. Degradation of matrix is a key event in progression, invasion and metastasis of potentially malignant and malignant lesions of the head and neck. It might have an important polymorphic association at the promoter regions of several MMPs such as MMP-1 (-1607 1G/2G, MMP-2 (-1306 C/T, MMP-3 (-1171 5A/6A, MMP-9 (-1562 C/T and TIMP-2 (-418 G/C or C/C. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs are naturally occurring inhibitors of MMPs, which inhibit the activity of MMPs and control the breakdown of ECM. Currently, many MMP inhibitors (MMPIs are under development for treating different malignancies. Useful markers associated with molecular aggressiveness might have a role in prognostication of malignancies and to better recognize patient groups that need more antagonistic treatment options. Furthermore, the introduction of novel prognostic markers may also promote exclusively new treatment possibilities, and there is an obvious need to identify markers that could be used as selection criteria for novel therapies. The objective of this review is to discuss the molecular functions and polymorphic association of MMPs and TIMPs and the possible therapeutic aspects of these proteinases in potentially malignant and malignant head and neck lesions. So far, no promising drug target therapy has been developed for MMPs in the lesions of this region. In conclusion, further research is required for the development of their potential diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities.

  10. Retroperitoneal smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential after hysterectomy: a case report

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    Chun Hoo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential represent a histologically heterogeneous group of uterine smooth muscle tumors that cannot be diagnosed as either benign or malignant. Smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential are usually clinically benign, but should be considered tumors of low malignant potential because they can occasionally recur or metastasize to distant sites. Case presentation We report the case of a 62-year-old Mongol woman diagnosed with a retroperitoneal smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential and lung metastasis, with a history of prior hysterectomy. The case was initially misdiagnosed as retroperitoneal sarcoma, and our patient received chemotherapy. However, no interval change in the size of the retroperitoneal mass and metastatic lung nodules was seen over a period of at least five years. She underwent partial resection of the retroperitoneal mass for the purposes of debulking and establishing a histopathological diagnosis. The diagnosis of the retroperitoneal mass was then confirmed as a smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential. Conclusion Smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential have an unpredictable clinical course, and relapses generally appear to occur after a long disease-free interval of up to several years. Therefore, patients diagnosed with smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential should receive long-term follow-up.

  11. Altered Brain Functional Connectivity in Betel Quid-Dependent Chewers

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    Xiaojun Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBetel quid (BQ is a common psychoactive substance worldwide with particularly high usage in many Asian countries. This study aimed to explore the effect of BQ use on functional connectivity by comparing global functional brain networks and their subset between BQ chewers and healthy controls (HCs.MethodsResting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was obtained from 24 betel quid-dependent (BQD male chewers and 27 healthy male individuals on a 3.0T scanner. We used independent component analysis (ICA to determine components that represent the brain’s functional networks and their spatial aspects of functional connectivity. Two sample t-tests were used to identify the functional connectivity differences in each network between these two groups.ResultsSeventeen networks were identified by ICA. Nine of them showed connectivity differences between BQD and HCs (two sample t-tests, p < 0.001 uncorrected. We found increased functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal, bilateral frontoparietal, frontotemporal, occipital/parietal, frontotemporal/cerebellum, and temporal/limbic networks, and decreased connectivity in the parietal and medial frontal/anterior cingulate networks in the BQD compared to the HCs. The betel quid dependence scale scores were positively related to the increased functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal (r = 0.39, p = 0.03 while negatively related to the decreased functional connectivity in medial frontal/anterior cingulate networks (r = −0.35, p = 0.02.DiscussionOur findings provide further evidence that BQ chewing may lead to brain functional connectivity changes, which may play a key role in the psychological and physiological effects of BQ.

  12. Is the Blood Donated by Habitual Nut Quid Chewers Suitable for Use in Transfusion?

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    Kuang-Ping Peng

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: We suggest that to assure the quality of transfusion, the blood donated by a habitual BQ chewer should be used with caution because of its possible contamination with areca nut ingredients that may be cytotoxic to RBCs.

  13. Potentially malignant disorders of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa; present concepts of management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.

    2010-01-01

    In spite of tremendous progress in the field of molecular biology there is yet no single marker that reliably predicts malignant transformation of a potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. Therefore, it is recommended to excise or laser any oral of oropharyngeal leukoplakia/erythroplakia,

  14. Comparison of symptoms and presentation of women with benign, low malignant potential and invasive ovarian tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, C. M.; Cnossen, J.; Green, A. C.; Webb, P. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe symptoms, delay in presentation and reasons for non-presentation among women diagnosed with benign, low malignant potential and malignant ovarian tumors. Methods: Study participants included 457 women who underwent surgery for an ovarian tumor in Queensland, Australia,

  15. Khat Dependency and Psychophysical Symptoms among Chewers in Jazan Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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    Maged El-Setouhy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Khat chewing is highly prevalent in Africa, Yemen and Jazan region, southwest of Saudi Arabia. Most of Jazani Khat chewers consider khat session as a social activity and do not consider khat dependency. The aim of this study was to explore khat dependency and its relationship with the psychophysical symptoms among chewers. Methods. Cross-sectional study on seventy Saudi male khat chewers living in Jazan area. Psychological dependence to khat chewing was evaluated using the Severity of Dependency Scale (SDS. The participants filled in a self-administrated assisted structured questionnaire designed to collect data about their medical history, neurological symptoms, and their chewing behavior. Results. Half (52.2% of khat chewers showed psychological dependency. Those having longer khat sessions (≥6 hours were more liable for dependency. Physical and psychological symptoms were more prevalent among khat dependent chewers. Conclusions. khat has a psychological dependence effect that can be measured by the SDS, even in low doses and with irregular use. SDS scale is a useful tool to expect the burden of either physical or psychological symptoms on khat chewers.

  16. A potential individual cell malignancy indicator: focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weina; Lear, Kevin L.

    2011-03-01

    The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) utilizes the optical transmission spectrum of a cell in a microfluidic Fabry-Pérot (F-P) cavity to distinguish cells from cancerous cell lines and baseline normal blood cells. The classification between canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cancer cells and monocytes in canine normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) had been demonstrated with 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity. Now with a new optical model that treats the cell settled at the bottom of the cavity as a thin lens, the focal length of cells was extracted and used as an individual cell malignancy indicator.

  17. CD30 is a potential therapeutic target in malignant mesothelioma

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    Dabir, Snehal; Kresak, Adam; Yang, Michael; Fu, Pingfu; Wildey, Gary; Dowlati, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    CD30 is a cytokine receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFRSF8) that acts as a regulator of apoptosis. The presence of CD30 antigen is important in the diagnosis of Hodgkin’s disease and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. There have been sporadic reports of CD30 expression in non-lymphoid tumors, including malignant mesothelioma. Given the remarkable success of brentuximab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate directed against CD30 antigen, in lymphoid malignancies, we undertook a study to examine the incidence of CD30 in mesothelioma and to investigate the ability to target CD30 antigen in mesothelioma. Mesothelioma tumor specimens (N = 83) were examined for CD30 expression by immunohistochemistry. Positive CD30 expression was noted in 13 mesothelioma specimens, primarily those of epithelial histology. There was no significant correlation of CD30 positivity with either tumor grade, stage or survival. Examination of four mesothelioma cell lines (H28, H2052, H2452, and 211H) for CD30 expression by both FACS analysis and confocal microscopy showed that CD30 antigen localized to the cell membrane. Brentuximab vedotin treatment of cultured mesothelioma cells produced a dose-dependent decrease in cell growth and viability at clinically relevant concentrations. Our studies validate the presence of CD30 antigen in a subgroup of epithelial-type mesothelioma tumors and indicate that selected mesothelioma patients may derive benefit from brentuximab vedotin treatment. PMID:25589494

  18. Analysis of silver binding nucleolar organizer regions in exfoliative cytology smears of potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions.

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    Sowmya, G V; Nahar, P; Astekar, M; Agarwal, H; Singh, M P

    2017-01-01

    Nucleolar organizer regions are nucleolar components that contain proteins that are stained selectively by silver methods; they can be identified as black dots throughout the nucleolus and are known as silver binding nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR). The number of AgNOR is related to the cell cycle and the proliferative activity of the cells. We investigated AgNOR using exfoliative cytology smears of potentially malignant oral lesions. Eighty individuals were divided into four equal groups: healthy controls, oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. The mean number of AgNOR in each study group gradually increased from control to oral leukoplakia to oral submucous fibrosis to oral squamous cell carcinoma. The proliferative index was increased in the oral premalignant and malignant patients compared to normal subjects. The mean AgNOR size gradually increased from control to oral leukoplakia to oral submucous fibrosis to oral squamous cell carcinoma. Spherical shaped AgNOR were most common in controls, whereas large, clustered and kidney shapes were most common in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Multiparameter analysis of AgNOR in oral exfoliative smears is a simple, sensitive and cost-effective method for differentiating premalignant from malignant lesions and can be used in conjunction with routine cytomorphological evaluation.

  19. Estimation of Serum Protein in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders and Oral Malignancy - A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    More, Chandramani B; Shah, Palak H; Venkatesh, Rashmi

    2017-02-01

    In carcinogenesis, increased oxidative stress and weakened antioxidant defense produces damage to the macromolecules like proteins. Thus, protein can act as potential biomarker in oral premalignant and malignant lesions. To determine and compare the levels of serum proteins in Oral Submucuous Fibrosis (OSMF), Oral Leukoplakia (OL), Nicotina Stomatitis (NS), Oral Malignancy (OM) and Healthy Controls (HC). A total of 250 participants, were equally divided in five groups i.e., OSMF, OL, NS, OM and HC. Five ml of blood was collected from antecubital vein from each participant. The serum was analyzed for total protein, albumin and globulin levels using EBRA EM 200 semi-quantitive analyzer with the help of diagnostic kits. There were total 193 males and 57 females, who were between 18 to 82 years of age, with a mean of 46.32±13.89 years. The serum protein and globulin levels were significantly decreased in OSMF, OL and NS and increased in OM as compared to HC (p0.05). Serum proteins can be used as diagnostic and prognostic marker for oral premalignant and malignant lesions.

  20. Estimation of Serum Protein in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders and Oral Malignancy – A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Palak H.; Venkatesh, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In carcinogenesis, increased oxidative stress and weakened antioxidant defense produces damage to the macromolecules like proteins. Thus, protein can act as potential biomarker in oral premalignant and malignant lesions. Aim To determine and compare the levels of serum proteins in Oral Submucuous Fibrosis (OSMF), Oral Leukoplakia (OL), Nicotina Stomatitis (NS), Oral Malignancy (OM) and Healthy Controls (HC). Materials and Methods A total of 250 participants, were equally divided in five groups i.e., OSMF, OL, NS, OM and HC. Five ml of blood was collected from antecubital vein from each participant. The serum was analyzed for total protein, albumin and globulin levels using EBRA EM 200 semi-quantitive analyzer with the help of diagnostic kits. Results There were total 193 males and 57 females, who were between 18 to 82 years of age, with a mean of 46.32±13.89 years. The serum protein and globulin levels were significantly decreased in OSMF, OL and NS and increased in OM as compared to HC (p0.05). Conclusion Serum proteins can be used as diagnostic and prognostic marker for oral premalignant and malignant lesions. PMID:28384973

  1. Assessment of periodontal status in smokeless tobacco chewers and nonchewers among industrial workers in North Bengaluru

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    Dinta Kathiriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: More than one-third of the tobacco consumed in India is of smokeless form. While the smokeless tobacco (ST products have been strongly associated with oral cancer, the association between ST and periodontal disease is less clear. The present study was conducted on industrial workers because in premises, there is a ban on smoking tobacco and hence workers tend to consume more of ST products. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess periodontal status in ST chewers and nonchewers among industrial workers in North Bengaluru. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 800 industrial workers (400 ST chewers and 400 nonchewers of North Bengaluru. Information regarding ST habits was obtained using the Global Adult Tobacco Survey questionnaire, followed by clinical examination to assess periodontal status using the community periodontal index and attachment loss. The comparison between chewers and nonchewers was done using Pearson's Chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the difference of periodontal status and loss of attachment (LOA between chewers and nonchewers. Results: ST chewing habit was observed the maximum (46.5% among age group 25–44 years. Most of male chewers had habit of chewing gutkha followed by khaini, and majority of the female chewers were using khaini followed by betel nut quid. A significantly higher prevalence of bleeding on probing and calculus was found among nonchewers. ST chewers had 2.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.55–2.75 times more risk of developing periodontal pockets and 2.23 (95% CI: 1.68–2.98 times more risk of having LOA when compared with nonchewers. Conclusions: ST has deleterious effects on the periodontium. Hence, it is one of the important risk factors for periodontal disease.

  2. Potentially malignant disorders of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa; terminology, classification and present concepts of management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Isaäc

    2009-01-01

    In a recently held WHO workshop it has been recommended to abandon the distinction between potentially malignant lesions and potentially malignant conditions and to use the term potentially malignant disorders instead. Of these disorders, leukoplakia and erythroplakia are the most common ones. These diagnoses are still defined by exclusion of other known white or red lesions. In spite of tremendous progress in the field of molecular biology there is yet no single marker that reliably enables to predict malignant transformation in an individual patient. The general advice is to excise or laser any oral of oropharyngeal leukoplakia/erythroplakia, if feasible, irrespective of the presence or absence of dysplasia. Nevertheless, it is actually unknown whether such removal truly prevents the possible development of a squamous cell carcinoma. At present, oral lichen planus seems to be accepted in the literature as being a potentially malignant disorder, although the risk of malignant transformation is lower than in leukoplakia. There are no means to prevent such event. The efficacy of follow-up of oral lichen planus is questionable. Finally, brief attention has been paid to oral submucous fibrosis, actinic cheilitis, some inherited cancer syndromes and immunodeficiency in relation to cancer predisposition.

  3. Oral microbiota, dental caries and periodontal status in smokeless tobacco chewers in Karnataka, India: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Sandesh; Prasad, Kakarla V V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare dental caries and periodontal disease status associated with oral microflora among smokeless tobacco chewers and non-chewers. Forty-two smokeless tobacco chewers and 42 non-chewers (age 20 to 60 years) were assessed for dental caries and periodontal disease status using the Decayed Missing Filled Surface (DMFS) Index, Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Loss of Attachment (LA) Index. Stimulated saliva and subgingival plaque samples were collected from each subject for performing a culture-based analysis of 20 types of oral microorganisms. Qualitative and semi-quantitative culture-based analysis using MacConkey agar, and aerobic and anaerobic blood agar was carried out to determine the total cultivable microflora. Mutans-Sanguis agar, Pfizer selective Enterococcus agar and Rogosa SL agar were used for the culture of microorganisms associated with dental caries. Mann–Whitney U test and Student t test were employed to compare colony-forming units (CFUs) and caries experience between smokeless tobacco chewers and nonchewers. Z proportionality test was used to compare the periodontal disease status. Caries experience among chewers (26 of 42), that is those subjects who were affected by caries, was significantly less at 61.9% (mean DMFS = 3.5) compared to non-chewers (38 of 42, 90.5%) (mean DMFS = 5.5) (P 5.5 mm on a CPI probe were found among 26.2% of chewers and 19.1% of nonchewers, with no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05). Counts of Lactobacillus species were significantly lower among chewers (median CFU = 0.788 x 10⁵) than among non-chewers (median CFU = 1.52 x 10⁵) (P periodontal disease than non-chewers, but the difference was not significant. These clinical observations suggest a lower ability of Gram-negative bacteria to mediate more periodontal disease in this population.

  4. ROLE OF NARROW BAND IMAGING SYSTEM IN EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF POTENTIALLY MALIGNANT LESIONS OF ORAL CAVITY

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    Laveena P. Mehta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC are frequently preceded by or associated with leucoplakia, erythroplakia, oral submucous fibrosis or lichen planus. The standard method of revealing PML potentially malignant lesions of oral mucosa or submucosa is usually done via conventional oral examination (COE, direct visualisation and biopsy with the aid of imageenhanced endoscopy along with high-resolution imaging system. In view of the promising results of using Narrow Band Imaging as a screening aid in cancer screening, a prospective randomised study was performed to evaluate statistically the efficacy of NBIS in diagnosis of potentially malignant lesions in oral cavity using histopathology as gold standard. METHODOLOGY 236 potentially malignant lesions in oral cavity from 195 patients underwent Broadband white light & NBI-endoscopic evaluation according to the Inoue’s classification. The histopathology results were compared with Broadband white light & Narrow Band light evaluation. RESULTS The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and clinical accuracy for the detection of oral potentially malignant disorders or worse by Narrow Band Imaging were 96 %, 83%, 96%, 83% and 93.22 % respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and clinical accuracy with conventional broadband white light oral examination were 72%, 63%, 88%, 36% and 70.33% respectively for the detection of oral potentially malignant disorders. CONCLUSION NBI endoscopy has diagnostic utility as ‘Optical Biopsy’ for superficial squamous neoplasms in the oral cavity and hence can be considered as a screening tool in high risk patients.

  5. Potentially malignant disorders of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa; present concepts of management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Isaäc

    2010-06-01

    In spite of tremendous progress in the field of molecular biology there is yet no single marker that reliably predicts malignant transformation of a potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. Therefore, it is recommended to excise or laser any oral of oropharyngeal leukoplakia/erythroplakia, if feasible, irrespective of the presence or absence of dysplasia. However, it is actually unknown whether such removal truly prevents the possible development of a squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, lifelong follow-up is recommended at intervals of no more than 6 months. At present, oral lichen planus is more or less accepted as being a potentially malignant disorder. There are no means to prevent such event. The efficacy of follow-up of oral lichen planus is questionable. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Primary retroperitoneal mucinous tumor of low malignant potential in a Persian woman.

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    Hayedeh Haeri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary retroperitoneal mucinous tumor (PRMT of low malignant potential (border line is an uncommon neoplasm with fewer than 50 reported cases. Uncertain diagnostic imaging results make diagnosis of its origin difficult, preoperatively. Later treatment planning and prognosis would be affected by exact diagnosis of the tumor origin. This study presents a case of Persian woman with diagnostic, histological and immunohistochemical specifications.

  7. Attentional biases for betel nut cues in heavy and light chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Chou; Chang, Catherine Fountain; Li, Ren-Hau; Tang, Tze-Chun

    2013-12-01

    The betel nut (Areca catecu) is regarded by the World Health Organization as the fourth most prevalent human carcinogen. Our study aims to investigate whether habitual chewers show bias in their attention toward betel nut usage. In the current study, heavy and light betel nut chewers were instructed to respond to a probe presented immediately after either one of a pair of areca-related picture and non-areca-matched picture. The presentation durations of these pictures were manipulated to investigate attentional biases under awareness threshold (17 ms), in initial orienting (200 ms), and maintenance of attention (2,000 ms). Faster response to the probe replacing the areca-related picture, in comparison with a matched picture, indicated attentional bias. The results showed that neither group showed subliminal attentional biases. Further, heavy chewers, but not light chewers, exhibited supraliminal biases toward betel nut cues in initial orienting of attention and maintained attention. Moreover, attentional bias scores at 2,000 ms were also shown to be positively associated with betel nut craving and dependence. Implications of the current findings are thoroughly discussed in the article. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Multiplatform molecular profiling identifies potentially targetable biomarkers in malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatalica, Zoran; Vranic, Semir; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Xiu, Joanne; Ocal, Idris Tolgay; McGill, John; Bender, Ryan P; Discianno, Erin; Schlum, Aaron; Sanati, Souzan; Palazzo, Juan; Reddy, Sandeep; Pockaj, Barbara

    2016-01-12

    Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare breast malignancy with sarcomatous overgrowth and with limited effective treatment options for recurrent and metastatic cases. Recent clinical trials indicated a potential for anti-angiogenic, anti-EGFR and immunotherapeutic approaches for patients with sarcomas, which led us to investigate these and other targetable pathways in malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast. Thirty-six malignant phyllodes tumors (including 8 metastatic tumors with two cases having matched primary and metastatic tumors) were profiled using gene sequencing, gene copy number analysis, whole genome expression, and protein expression. Whole genome expression analysis demonstrated consistent over-expression of genes involved in angiogenesis including VEGFA, Angiopoietin-2, VCAM1, PDGFRA, and PTTG1. EGFR protein overexpression was observed in 26/27 (96%) of cases with amplification of the EGFR gene in 8/24 (33%) cases. Two EGFR mutations were identified including EGFRvIII and a presumed pathogenic V774M mutation, respectively. The most common pathogenic mutations included TP53 (50%) and PIK3CA (15%). Cases with matched primary and metastatic tumors harbored identical mutations in both sites (PIK3CA/KRAS and RB1 gene mutations, respectively). Tumor expression of PD-L1 immunoregulatory protein was observed in 3/22 (14%) of cases. Overexpression of molecular biomarkers of increased angiogenesis, EGFR and immune checkpoints provides novel targeted therapy options in malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast.

  9. Comparative study on the efficacy of tissue autofluorescence (visually enhanced lesion scope and toluidine blue as a screening method in oral potentially malignant and malignant lesions

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    Hasan Ali Adil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Study Design: Early identification of high-risk disease could greatly reduce both mortality and morbidity due to oral cancer. Hence, screening of such lesions and their early detection could improve prognosis. Metachromatic dye toluidine blue, which stains nuclear material in dysplastic epithelium, is widely used for screening of potentially malignant lesions. Visually enhanced lesion scope (VELscope that identifies reduction in tissue fluorescence in dysplasia can also prove to be effective in screening for potentially malignant lesions. Hence, this study was done to compare the reliability of VELscope and toluidine blue as a screening tool in the diagnosis of malignant and potentially malignant lesions as compared to histopathological diagnosis which is gold standard. Materials and Methods: 90 patients with tobacco associated hyperkeratotic red and white lesion, ulcerative lesion, and frank malignancy included in study. Patients were subject to Tissue Autofluorescence (Visually Enhanced Lesion Scope and Toluidine Blue stain tests. Nature of Autofluorescence and Toluidine Blue staining of tissue was recorded. Based on findings tissue was biopsied and examined under microscope from confirmatory diagnosis. Results: In this study, ninety patients with malignant and potentially malignant lesions were studied, VELscope showed 85.36% sensitivity and 75% specificity as compared to toluidine blue which showed 83.13% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity. The results were statistically significant (P < 0.001 with a mean deviation of ± 3. Conclusion: From the study, we concluded that VELscope was more effective as a screening tool for the detection of oral malignant lesions as compared to toluidine blue.

  10. Screening for pre-malignant conditions in the oral cavity of chronic tobacco chewers

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Mahawar, Shweta Anand, Umesh Sinha, Madhav Bansal, Sanjay Dixit

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is a major health problem in tobacco users all over the world. It is one of the ten most common cancers in the world. Oral cancer is almost always preceded by some type of precancerous lesion. The precancerous lesions can be detected upto 15years, prior to their change to an invasive carcinoma. It usually affects between the ages of 15 and 40 years. It may be triggered by factors like frequency and duration of tobacco consumption, alcohol, poor oral hygiene etc. This study was con...

  11. Estimation of serum, salivary immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A levels and total protein, hemoglobin in smokeless tobacco chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients

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    Chandrakanth Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a debilitating, potentially cancerous oral condition. Although areca nut is the most important causative agent, it is also considered that the disease is immunologically mediated. Aim of the Study: To establish that autoimmunity and nutritional deficiency play a role in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Objectives of the Study: To show that serum immunoglobulin markers (immunoglobulin-G [IgG], immunoglobulin-A [IgA] and nutritional parameters such as total serum protein (TSP, Hemoglobin (Hb play a role in causing OSMF and also to correlate serum, salivary IgG, IgA levels in OSMF patients. Settings and Design: A case-control study was done with 50 patients (25 patients who were provisionally diagnosed as OSMF - Group I, and 25 patients who were chronic smokeless tobacco chewers and who did not have any intraoral lesion - Group II. Materials and Methods: Five milliliters of blood and saliva were collected from both the groups. Quantitative analysis of serum, and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hemoglobin (Hb were estimated by spectrophotometry. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed by independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: All patients of OSMF showed significant (P < 0.01 increase in serum IgG, IgA, and salivary IgG levels as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. The salivary IgA levels showed a significant decrease in OSMF patients (P < 0.05. TSP and Hb levels showed significant (P < 0.01 decrease in OSMF patients as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. Conclusion: The elevation of immunoglobulin levels supports the concept of autoimmunity. The decrease in TSP and Hb suggests that nutritional deficiency plays a defined role in the occurrence as well as a further progression of OSMF.

  12. Increased nuclear ?-catenin expression in oral potentially malignant lesions: A marker of epithelial dysplasia

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    Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana, Andrea; Aitken, Juan-Pablo; Rojas, Carolina; Ortega, Ana-Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Background Deregulation of ?-catenin is associated with malignant transformation; however, its relationship with potentially malignant and malignant oral processes is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the nuclear ?-catenin expression in oral dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Material and Methods Cross sectional study. Immunodetection of ?-catenin was performed on 72 samples, with the following distribution: 21 mild dysplasia, 12 moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia 3, 36 OSCC including 19 well differentiated, 15 moderately differentiated and 2 poorly differentiated. Through microscopic observation the number of positive cells per 1000 epithelial cells was counted. For the statistical analysis, the Kruskal Wallis test was used. Results Nuclear expression of ?-catenin was observed in all samples with severe and moderate dysplasia, with a median of 267.5, in comparison to mild dysplasia whose median was 103.75. Only 10 samples (27.7%) with OSCC showed nuclear expression, with statistically significant differences between groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions Our results are consistent with most of the reports which show increased presence of ?-catenin in severe and moderate dysplasia compared to mild dysplasia; however the expression of nuclear ?-catenin decreased after starting the invasive neoplastic process. This suggests a role for this protein in the progression of dysplasia and early malignant transformation to OSCC. Immunodetection of ?-catenin could be a possible immune marker in the detection of oral dysplasia. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), ?-catenin, oral dysplasia. PMID:26241451

  13. Increased nuclear β-catenin expression in oral potentially malignant lesions: A marker of epithelial dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Montserrat; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana, Andrea; Aitken, Juan-Pablo; Rojas, Carolina; Ortega, Ana-Verónica

    2015-09-01

    Deregulation of β-catenin is associated with malignant transformation; however, its relationship with potentially malignant and malignant oral processes is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the nuclear β-catenin expression in oral dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Cross sectional study. Immunodetection of β-catenin was performed on 72 samples, with the following distribution: 21 mild dysplasia, 12 moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia 3, 36 OSCC including 19 well differentiated, 15 moderately differentiated and 2 poorly differentiated. Through microscopic observation the number of positive cells per 1000 epithelial cells was counted. For the statistical analysis, the Kruskal Wallis test was used. Nuclear expression of β-catenin was observed in all samples with severe and moderate dysplasia, with a median of 267.5, in comparison to mild dysplasia whose median was 103.75. Only 10 samples (27.7%) with OSCC showed nuclear expression, with statistically significant differences between groups (p < 0.05). Our results are consistent with most of the reports which show increased presence of β-catenin in severe and moderate dysplasia compared to mild dysplasia; however the expression of nuclear β-catenin decreased after starting the invasive neoplastic process. This suggests a role for this protein in the progression of dysplasia and early malignant transformation to OSCC. Immunodetection of β-catenin could be a possible immune marker in the detection of oral dysplasia.

  14. Galectin-3 as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Tumors Arising from Malignant Endothelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim D. Johnson

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcoma (ASA in humans, hemangiosarcoma (HSA in dogs are deadly neoplastic diseases characterized by an aggressive growth of malignant cells with endothelial phenotype, widespread metastasis, poor response to chemotherapy. Galectin-3 (Gal-3, a p-galactoside-binding lectin implicated in tumor progression, metastasis, endothelial cell biology, angiogenesis, regulation of apoptosis, neoplastic cell response to cytotoxic drugs, has not been studied before in tumors arising from malignant endothelia. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Gal-3 could be widely expressed in human ASA, canine HSA, could play an important role in malignant endothelial cell biology. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that 100% of the human ASA (10 of 10, canine HSA (17 of 17 samples analyzed expressed Gal-3. Two carbohydrate-based Gal-3 inhibitors, modified citrus pectin (MCP, lactulosyl-l-leucine (LL, caused a dose-dependent reduction of SVR murine ASA cell clonogenic survival through the inhibition of Gal-3 antiapoptotic function. Furthermore, both MCP, LL sensitized SVR cells to the cytotoxic drug doxorubicin to a degree sufficient to reduce the in vitro IC50 of doxorubicin by 10.7-fold, 3.64old, respectively. These results highlight the important role of Gal-3 in the biology of ASA, identify Gal-3 as a potential therapeutic target in tumors arising from malignant endothelial cells.

  15. Expression of cytokeratin 18 and 19 in oral potentially malignant disorders: A systematic review

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    Sam Prasad Prabakaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to evaluate the expression of cytokeratin 18 and 19 in oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD. Systematic review was performed using Medline and PubMed. Hand searches were taken from the back references. Articles published till 15 July 2014 were included in the search. The search yielded a total of 20 articles, out of which 16 articles were eliminated, as they did not fulfill the inclusion criteria and 4 articles were included for the final analysis. The available literature showed that cytokeratin 18 and 19 were expressed in all OPMDs. The level of expression varied among different oral, potentially malignant disorders and among different studies.

  16. Primary intraosseous smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential: original report and molecular characterization

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    Lauren Kropp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of primary intraosseous smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP which is analogous to borderline malignant uterine smooth muscle tumors so designated. The tumor presented in the femur of an otherwise healthy 30-year-old woman. Over a 3-year period, the patient underwent 11 biopsies or resections and 2 cytologic procedures. Multiple pathologists reviewed the histologic material including musculoskeletal pathologists but could not reach a definitive diagnosis. However, metastases eventually developed and were rapidly progressive and responsive to gemcitabine and docetaxel. Molecular characterization and ultrastructural analysis was consistent with smooth muscle origin, and amplification of unmutated chromosome 12p and 12q segments appears to be the major genomic driver of this tumor. Primary intraosseous STUMP is thought to be genetically related to leiomyosarcoma of bone, but likely representing an earlier stage of carcinogenesis. Wide excision and aggressive followup is warranted for this potentially life-threatening neoplasm.

  17. Role of dermatoglyphics in malignant and potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity: A cross-sectional study

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    Deepa Jatti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inroduction: Palmar dermatoglyphics has been studied in many diseases and alterations in normal patterns have been noted which is genetically determined. Millions of people consume tobacco, but all of them do not suffer from potentially malignant disorders (PMDs of the oral cavity like oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF and oral leukoplakia (OL, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. It seems likely that a genetic predisposition could be an underlying mechanism. Aims and Objectives: The present study aims to compare the dermatoglyphic patterns of such patients, in patients without habits and in patients with habits but with no lesions. Materials and Methods: Fingerprints and palm prints were studied in 90 patients of Karnataka origin, who were randomly divided into three groups: (A 30 subjects with OSMF, OL and OSCC, (B 30 patients with habits and no lesions, and (C 30 healthy controls, for the purpose of finding patterns that could identify patients with PMDs and OSCC. Finger and palm prints were taken by the ink method. Prints were analysed by two examiners and were repeated 1 month later. Results: The results were tested for statistical significance. Weighted kappa statistics were used to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer agreement. It was observed that the arch pattern (60.7% was pre-dominant with a decrease in whorl pattern (29.3% in group A when compared with the controls (group B and C and the difference was highly significant (P < 0.01. The study group demonstrated an increase in the mean total finger ridge count as compared to the controls and the result was found to be highly significant (P < 0.02. The kappa-value for interobserver agreement was 0.675 and for intraobserver agreement it was 0.747. Conclusion: Dermatoglyphics can be implemented as a screening tool in patients with PMDs and OSCC. Thereby, we can identify patients at increased risk for oral cancer so that risk reduction measures or earlier therapy may be instituted.

  18. ROLE OF NARROW BAND IMAGING SYSTEM IN EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF POTENTIALLY MALIGNANT LESIONS OF ORAL CAVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Laveena P. Mehta; Yessukrishna Prabhakar Shetty; Sharad B. Bhalekar; Dabholkar, Yogesh G.; Velankar, Haritosh K.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are frequently preceded by or associated with leucoplakia, erythroplakia, oral submucous fibrosis or lichen planus. The standard method of revealing PML potentially malignant lesions of oral mucosa or submucosa is usually done via conventional oral examination (COE), direct visualisation and biopsy with the aid of imageenhanced endoscopy along with high-resolution imaging system. In view of the promising results of using Narrow Ban...

  19. Ultrastructural analysis of oral exfoliated epithelial cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers: A scanning electron microscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    Sameera Shamim Khan; Balasundari Shreedhar; Mala Kamboj

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study was undertaken to correlate epithelial surface pattern changes of oral exfoliated cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers and also to compare them with patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of fifty persons were included in the study, out of which thirty formed the study group (15 each tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers) and twenty formed the control group (ten each...

  20. Proliferative potential of canine oral epulides and malignant neoplasms assessed by bromodeoxyuridine labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Yanai, T; Iwasaki, T; Sakai, H; Ohta, J; Kati, S; Ishikawa, K; Lackner, A A; Masegi, T

    1999-01-01

    The proliferative potential of canine oral lesions, including epulides, squamous cell carcinomas, a malignant melanoma, and a fibrosarcoma, was examined using a monoclonal antibody to bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Twenty-three dogs with oral masses were administered BrdU intravenously at a dose of 8 mg/kg 1 hour before surgery, and the BrdU labeling index (LI) of each lesion was determined immunohistochemically. The average BrdU LIs for the main proliferating elements in the fibromatous epulis (4 cases), ossifying epulis (2 cases), and acanthomatous epulis (10 cases) were 4.9, 3.0, and 8.8%, respectively. The squamous cell carcinomas (5 cases) had an average LI of 15.9%, and the LIs of the malignant melanoma and fibrosarcoma were 7.5 and 10.3%, respectively. All cases of acanthomatous epulides and squamous cell carcinoma treated with simple marginal surgical resection recurred within a short time. The higher LIs in the acanthomatous epulides, squamous cell carcinomas, and fibrosarcoma correlate well with their poor prognoses, reflected by rapid growth and frequent recurrence. Acanthomatous epulis is clearly distinguished from other epulides by its aggressive clinical behavior and high proliferative potential, which is equivalent to that of malignant tumors, despite a lack of cell atypia. The BrdU LI is a useful marker for evaluating the proliferative potential and prognosis of canine oral tumors.

  1. Current understanding of circulating tumor cells – potential value in malignancies of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz A. Adamczyk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs in the blood via so-called 'liquid biopsies' carries enormous clinical potential in malignancies of the central nervous system (CNS because of the potential to follow disease evolution with a blood test, without the need for repeat neurosurgical procedures with their inherent risk of patient morbidity. To date studies in non-CNS malignancies, particularly in breast cancer, show increasing reproducibility of detection methods for these rare tumor cells in the circulation. However, no method has yet received full recommendation to use in clinical practice, in part because of lack of a sufficient evidence base regarding clinical utility. In CNS malignancies one of the main challenges is finding a suitable biomarker for identification of these cells, because automated systems such as the widely used Cell Search system are reliant on markers such as the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM which are not present in CNS tumors. This review examines methods for CTC enrichment and detection, and reviews the progress in non-CNS tumors and the potential for using this technique in human brain tumors.

  2. Serpin peptidase inhibitor clade A member 1 as a potential marker for malignancy in insulinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Sandra Valéria; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Machado, Márcio Carlos; Krogh, Karin; de Almeida, Madson Queiroz; Albergaria Pereira, Maria Adelaide; Coelho Siqueira, Sheila Aparecida; Patzina, Rosely Antunes; Ibuki, Felícia Satie; Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Machado, Marcel Cerqueira César; Giannella-Neto, Daniel

    2007-09-15

    The biological behavior of insulinomas cannot be predicted based on histopathologic criteria in which the diagnosis of malignancy is confirmed by the presence of metastases. In this study, microarray and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR were applied to identify differentially expressed genes between malignant and nonmalignant insulinomas to search for useful biomarkers to recognize the metastatic potential of insulinomas. Code Link human bioarrays were used to analyze differences in approximately 20,000 genes between six well-differentiated endocrine tumors of benign behavior compared with one well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma (WDEC) and three metastases of endocrine carcinomas (MEC). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR was used to validate differential expressions of five genes in a series of 35 sporadic insulinomas. Serpin peptidase inhibitor clade A member 1 (SERPINA1; alpha-1-antitrypsin) expression, identified as up-regulated in malignant insulinomas, was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Analysis of microarray data resulted in 230 differentially expressed genes. Gene Ontology analysis identified serine-type endopeptidase activity and serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity as pathways presenting significant differential expression. Protease serine 2 and complement factor B (from serine-type endopeptidase activity pathway) were respectively confirmed as up-regulated in well-differentiated endocrine tumors of benign behavior (WDET) and in WDEC/MEC. Angiotensinogen and SERPINA1 (from serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity pathway) were confirmed as up-regulated in WDEC/MEC. SERPINA1 was shown to be expressed in 85.7% of malignant versus 14.3% of nonmalignant insulinomas by immunohistochemistry. Our data are consistent to the possibility that SERPINA1 is a marker of malignancy in insulinomas. Given the widespread availability of antibody anti-alpha-1-antitrypsin in pathology services, SERPINA1 expression

  3. Brushing of oral mucosa for diagnosis of HPV infection in patients with potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Lucia; Campisi, Giuseppina; Colella, Giuseppe; Capra, Giuseppina; Di Liberto, Chiara; Caleca, Maria Pia; Matranga, Domenica; D'Angelo, Matteo; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Ammatuna, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    Adequate brushing of oral mucosa is important for accurate human papillomavirus (HPV) detection in potentially malignant (oral leukoplakia [OL], oral lichen planus [OLP]) and malignant (oral squamous cell carcinoma [OSCC]) lesions. Since various factors may limit the adequacy of oral brushing and, consequently, the accuracy of HPV detection, modified sampling procedures should be evaluated for their effect on HPV frequency and/or types detected. To compare the HPV frequency in samples obtained by brushing the lesion site with the frequency in samples obtained by brushing an apparently normal adjacent site. The correlation between HPV frequency and keratinization of the site affected by the lesion, as well as sociodemographic variables (age, sex, smoking and drinking habits), was also examined. HPV DNA was detected in brushing samples from 50 patients with OL, 49 with OLP, and 17 with OSCC. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed by MY09/MY11 and GP05+/GP06+ primers; the HPV type was identified by DNA sequencing and a reverse hybridization (line probe) assay. Data were analyzed by the Z test, the Fisher's exact test, the chi-square test, odds ratio (OR), and a logistic regression model. HPV DNA was detected in 22% of samples from lesion sites and in 16% of samples from adjacent sites (p = 0.22) in patients with OL, in 24.5% and 22.4% of samples from lesion and adjacent sites, respectively, in patients with OLP (p = 0.40), and in 35.3% and 41.2% of samples from lesion and adjacent sites, respectively, in patients with OSCC (p = 0.36). Lesions adjacent to HPV-positive normal sites had an increased rate of HPV detection (OR = 30; 95% CI 9.57, 94.1). HPV-18 was the most frequent genotype, followed by HPV-6, -16, -33, and -53. HPV prevalence was reduced in lesions at keratinized sites (14.5%) compared with non-keratinized sites (34.4%; p = 0.007; OR = 0.32; 95% CI 0.13, 0.81). In patients with OL, OLP, or OSCC, a high prevalence of HPV infection was

  4. Clinico-epidemiological profile of oral potentially malignant and malignant conditions among areca nut, tobacco and alcohol users in Eastern India: A hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jay Gopal; Ganguly, Madhurima; Rao, Bh Sripathi; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Mahato, Basudev; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2013-01-01

    With an increase in the abuse of various oral habitual products in India over the past few decades; the incidence of oral potentially malignant conditions as leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) rates have also increased. No recent study has been conducted reporting the scenario of oral cancer and potentially malignant conditions in Eastern India (specifically Kolkata). The present study was conducted at Dr. R. Ahmed Dental College, Kolkata during 2010-2011 to find a possible correlation between the effects of the different oral habits, age, sex and the different types of oral mucosal lesions among patients reported to the hospital. This study also enabled us to see the predilection of the various histopathological stages of the lesions for different sites of the oral cavity. The study group consisted of 698 patients having either oral potentially malignant or malignant lesion. The control group consisted of 948 patients who had reported to the hospital for different oral/dental problems and had the habit of tobacco, areca nut and/or alcohol usage for at least 1 year. The unadjusted odds ratio, the 95% confidence interval, and the P value were calculated to correlate patients with/without different kinds of habit and having/not having various kinds of oral lesions. Our study shows that for males having the habit of taking smokeless tobacco or mixed habit poses the highest risk for developing SCC. For females, significant risk of developing SCC was found in patients habituated to processed areca nut chewing. This study presents probably for the first time in recent years the occurrence of oral potentially malignant and malignant conditions amongst patients having deleterious habits in a hospital based population of Kolkata.

  5. The effect of quitting smoking on the risk of unfavorable events after surgical treatment of oral potentially malignant lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vladimirov, B S; Schiødt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if cessation of smoking after surgical excision of oral potentially malignant lesions in smokers reduced the risk of recurrences, development of new lesions or malignancies. 51 patients with oral leukoplakia or erythroplakia were included. They were daily smok...

  6. Acute effects of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Thakran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term adverse cardiovascular effects of smokeless tobacco are well established, however, the effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamic have not been studied. We intended to analyze the acute effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Materials and Methods: We prospectively enrolled seven habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease with single vessel disease or double vessel disease satisfying the criteria for elective PCI. Patients were instructed to keep 1 g of crushed dried tobacco leaves in the mouth after a successful PCI. Lesion in last stented vessels was evaluated for fractional flow reserve (FFR, coronary flow reserve (CFR, and index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR post-PCI, after 15 min and 30 min of tobacco chewing along with the measurement of serum cotinine levels. Results: Oral tobacco led to high levels of cotinine in the majority of patients. There was an insignificant rise in heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure following tobacco consumption. Baseline CFR (median 1.6, range 1.1–5.5 was low in tobacco chewers after PCI even after optimum FFR (0.9 ± 0.05 in the majority of patients suggesting abnormal microvascular hemodynamics (high IMR in 3 patients, overall median 14.2, range 7–36.2. However, there was no significant change in the estimated CFR or IMR values following tobacco chewing. One patient had bradycardia and hypotension which may be related to vagal reaction or acute nicotine poisoning. Conclusion: Tobacco chewers have abnormal coronary microcirculation hemodynamics even following a successful PCI. However, the coronary micocirculation and hemodynamics do not change acutely following tobacco chewing despite high serum cotinine concentrations.

  7. Prevalence of potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions among tobacco users in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attas, Safia Ali; Ibrahim, Suzan Seif; Amer, Hala Abbas; Darwish, Zeinab El-Said; Hassan, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is recognized as a health problem worldwide and there is an established tobacco epidemic in Saudi Arabia as in many other countries, with tobacco users at increased risk of developing many diseases. This cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal, potentially malignant or malignant, lesions associated with tobacco use among a stratified cluster sample of adults in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A sample size of 599 was collected and each participant underwent clinical conventional oral examination and filled a questionnaire providing information on demographics, tobacco use and other relevant habits. The most common form of tobacco used was cigarette smoking (65.6 %) followed by Shisha or Moasel (38.1%), while chewing tobacco, betel nuts and gat accounted for 21-2%, 7.7%, and 5% respectively. A high prevalence (88.8%) of soft tissue lesions was found among the tobacco users examined, and a wide range of lesions were detected, about 50% having hairy tongue, 36% smoker's melanosis, 28.9% stomatitis nicotina, 27% frictional keratosis, 26.7% fissured tongue, 26% gingival or periodontal inflammation and finally 20% leukodema. Suspicious potentially malignant lesions affected 10.5% of the subjects, most prevalent being keratosis (6.3%), leukoplakia (2.3%), erythroplakia (0.7%), oral submucous fibrosis (0.5%) and lichenoid lesions (0.4%), these being associated with male gender, lower level of education, presence of diabetes and a chewing tobacco habit. It is concluded that smoking was associated with a wide range of oral mucosal lesions , those suspicious for malignancy being linked with chewable forms, indicating serious effects.

  8. MR cholangiopancreatography: technique, potential indications, and diagnostic features of benign, postoperative, and malignant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D. [Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Grossholz, M. [Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Mentha, G. [Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Peyer, R. de [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Terrier, F. [Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this article is to review technical aspects, discuss potential clinical indications for MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and demonstrate the spectrum of diagnostic findings in benign, postoperative, and malignant conditions. We describe our current imaging protocol in comparison with other available techniques. Using a non-breath-hold, heavily T2-weighted fast-spin-echo (FSE) sequence with or without respiratory gating we obtained coronal and axial source images and maximum intensity projections (MIPs) in 102 patients with suspected abnormalities of the biliary or pancreatic ducts. Based on this series we demonstrate the diagnostic appearance of a variety of benign, postoperative, and malignant conditions of the biliary and pancreatic ducts and discuss potential clinical indications for MRCP. The non-breath-hold FSE technique enables a consistent image quality even in patients who cannot cooperate well. Respiratory gating increased the rate of diagnostic examinations from 79 to 95 %. Acquisition of coronal and axial source images enables detection of bile duct stones as small as 2 mm, although calculi that are impacted and not surrounded by hyperintense bile may sometimes be difficult to detect. The MIP reconstructions help to determine the level of obstruction in malignant jaundice, delineate anatomical variants and malformations, and to diagnose inflammatory conditions, e. g., sclerosing cholangitis, the Mirizzi syndrome and inflammatory changes in the main pancreatic duct. The MRCP technique also correctly demonstrates the morphology of bilio-enteric or bilio-biliary anastomoses. Because MRCP provides sufficient diagnostic information in a wide range of benign and malignant biliary and pancreatic disorders, it could obviate diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in many clinical settings. The ERCP technique may be increasingly reserved for patients in whom nonsurgical interventional procedures are anticipated. (orig

  9. Plasma fibrinogen degradation products in betel nut chewers - with and without oral submucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, G; Muni Sekhar, Ms; Hunasgi, Santosh; Ahmed, Syed Afroz; Suri, Charu; Krishna, A

    2013-09-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) has a multifactorial etiology. Recent studies have shown that there is an increased level of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) in plasma of OSMF patients suggesting its possible role in etiopathogenesis of OSMF. To detect the presence of FDP in the plasma of betel nut chewers with and without OSMF and in normal subjects without any habits, to correlate these levels with respect to the clinical and histological grading of OSMF and whether it can be used as a nonsurgical diagnostic aid in detection of suspected OSMF cases. Study comprised of 35 cases of betel nut chewers with OSMF, 10 patients with betel nut chewing habit but having apparently normal oral mucosa, and 10 normal patients without any habits. The patients were evaluated for plasma FDP levels. All the betel nut chewers with OSMF showed the presence of plasma FDP. However, controls and subjects with habit, but without OSMF did not show FDP in the plasma. Spearman's rank correlation was used to find the association between the clinical and histological grades and it was not statistically significant (P = 0.910) and the correlation being 0.020. Since only those patients with OSMF have showed the presence of FDP in plasma, we suggest that our test can be utilized as a nonsurgical diagnostic aid in suspected OSMF patients.

  10. Quantitative analysis of C-reactive protein in potentially malignant disorders: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srilalitha Kaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent advances in understanding complex tumor interactions have led to the discovery of an association between inflammation and cancer. An abundance of pro - inflammatory cytokines in a tumor micro-environment can lead to angiogenesis, thus favoring neoplastic growth. Serum C reactive protein is a sensitive marker of inflammation and may have significant prognostic value as early biomarker for cancer diagnostics. Aims and Objectives: This was a pilot study done to assess the serum C reactive protein levels in potentially malignant disorders (PMDS and to evaluate their role as prognostic marker. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 20 cases of oral potentially malignant disorders (10 each of Leukoplakia, Oral Sub mucous fibrosis confirmed by histopathological examination and 10 controls. All the samples were subjected to C - reactive protein analysis by immunoturbidometery. Results were subjected to Statistical analysis. Statistical analysis: Data was entered in data base management of the software SPSS version 20.0. Comparison of three groups with respect to C reactive protein levels was done by one way ANOVA. Pair wise comparison of three groups was done by Turkeys multiple post hoc procedure. Results: Mean C reactive protein levels in leukoplakia was 0.33±0.17, in oral submucous fibrosis was 0.58±0.83 where as in controls it was 0.26±0.05. In potentially malignant disorders, C reactive protein was slightly elevated when compared with the controls. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that serum C reactive protein concentration is associated with subsequent development of oral cancer and could serve as a potential prognostic biomarker.

  11. MR diffusion kurtosis imaging predicts malignant potential and the histological type of meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fen; Tu, Ning; Koh, Tong San; Wu, Guangyao

    2017-10-01

    To explore the value of Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) metrics in the differential diagnosis of meningioma. For this study, we retrospectively enrolled 35 patients of cerebral meningioma with DKI which included axial diffusion coefficient (AD), radial diffusion coefficient (RD), mean diffusion coefficient (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), axial kurtosis (AK), radial kurtosis (RK) and mean kurtosis (MK). All of these metrics were normalized according to contralateral normal-appearing white matter (NAWMc). Patients were divided into two groups (benign and malignant meningioma) and were further analyzed using the independent sample t-test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A one-way ANOVA analysis was used to analyze four groups divided according to pathological subtypes. The metrics of AD, normalized AD, normalized MD, MK and normalized MK showed a significant difference between benign and malignant group, and MK showed relatively higher diagnostic ability with its cut-off value, area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity of 0.875, 0.780, 70% and 89%, respectively. The metrics of normalized MD, RD and normalized RD, FA and normalized FA, AK and normalized AK, and RK showed significant difference among four subtypes. MK and RK in meningioma were found to correlate positively with the Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI). DKI metrics may be used to differentiate benign from malignant meningioma, and also to distinguish some histological subtypes of meningioma. Moreover, DKI metrics may potentially reflect cellular proliferation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Minimal invasive biopsy results of 'uncertain malignant potential' in digital mammography screening. High prevalence but also high predictive value for malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, S.; Heindel, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Decker, T. [Dietrich Bonhoeffer Klinikum, Neubrandenburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Korsching, E. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Bioinformatik; Biesheuvel, C.; Woestmann, A.; Boecker, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Hungermann, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Gerhard-Domagk-Inst. fuer Pathologie; Roterberg, K.; Tio, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Bereich Senologie

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the rate, the histological spectrum and the positive predictive value (PPV) for malignancy of minimally invasive biopsies with 'uncertain malignant potential (B3)' in digital mammography screening. Methods and Materials: Consecutive data of 37 178 participants of one digital unit of the German screening program were included. Results: The B 3 rate was 15.1 % (148/979). The frequencies of lesion subtypes were as follows: atypical epithelial proliferation of ductal type (AEPDT) 35.1 % (52/148), radial scar (RS) 28.4 % (42/148), papillary lesions (PAP) 20.3 % (30/148), lobular carcinoma in situ 8.8 % (13/148), flat epithelial atypia 5.4 % (8/148), and mucocele-like lesions 2.0 % (3/148). The PPV for malignancy in surgical excisions was overall 0.28 (25/91); in detail 0.40 (19/47) for AEPDT, 0.20 (5/25) for RS, 0.08 (1/12) for PAP. Conclusion: Despite a higher B 3 rate of minimally invasive biopsies with 'uncertain malignant potential' in digital screening, the benign surgical biopsy rate is not disproportionally increased compared with analog screening programs. Together with defined management protocols, this results in an increased cancer detection rate per screening participant with surgical excision. (orig.)

  13. Mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis of "uncertain malignant potential" - an evolving concept: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Asli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis is a rare neoplasm, typically demonstrating frankly malignant morphology and aggressive behavior. Rare cases of well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas have also been reported, which, in contrast, demonstrate indolent behavior. There are, however, cases which do not fit into the well-differentiated or diffuse malignant mesothelioma categories and can be considered mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis of "uncertain malignant potential", which is an emerging diagnostic category. A 57-year-old man presented with a neoplasm in a hydrocele sac. The neoplasm was non-invasive, but showed focal complex and solid growth and it was difficult to categorize either as well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas or malignant mesothelioma. After the initial limited resection, the patient underwent radical orchiectomy with hemiscrotectomy and is alive and without disease progression after 6 years. Documentation of these rare tumors will allow their distinction from true malignant mesotheliomas and will facilitate the development of specific treatment recommendations.

  14. Determination of role of ceruloplasmin in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral malignancy-A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, P H; Venkatesh, R; More, C B

    2017-11-01

    In the process of carcinogenesis, lipid peroxidation and increased oxidative stress lead to changes in certain antioxidants. This study was aimed to assess and co-relate serum levels of ceruloplasmin in oral premalignancies and oral cancer so as to gauge its possible association with the process of carcinogenesis and to determine its role as tumor marker. The study population comprised of 300 participants, equally divided into six study groups, that is, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), oral leukoplakia (OL), nicotina stomatitis (NS), oral malignancy (OM), controls (C), and healthy controls (HC); 5 ml of blood was collected from ante cubital vein from each participant. The serum was analyzed for ceruloplasmin levels using ERBA CHEM 5 PLUS semiautomated chemistry analyzer and diagnostic kit by turbidimetric immunoassay. There were total 242 males and 58 females, who were between 18 and 82 years of age, with a mean of 45.31 ± 13.97 years. The serum ceruloplasmin levels were significantly increased in OM, OSMF, OL, and NS groups as compared to C and HC groups (p  .05). Serum ceruloplasmin can be used as diagnostic marker for oral premalignant and malignant lesions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Role of Physical Activity in Harm Reduction among Betel Quid Chewers from a Prospective Cohort of 419,378 Individuals.

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    Feng En Lo

    Full Text Available To assess the benefits of regular exercise in reducing harms associated with betel quid (BQ chewing.The study cohort, 419,378 individuals, participated in a medical screening program between 1994 and 2008, with 38,324 male and 1,495 female chewers, who consumed 5-15 quids of BQ a day. Physical activity of each individual, based on "MET-hour/week", was classified as "inactive" or "active", where activity started from a daily 15 minutes/day or more of brisk walking (≥3.75 MET-hour/week. Hazard ratios for mortality and remaining years in life expectancy were calculated.Nearly one fifth (18.7% of men, but only 0.7% of women were chewers. Chewers had a 10-fold increase in oral cancer risk; and a 2-3-fold increase in mortality from lung, esophagus and liver cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, with doubling of all-cause mortality. More than half of chewers were physically inactive (59%. Physical activity was beneficial for chewers, with a reduction of all-cause mortality by 19%. Inactive chewers had their lifespan shortened by 6.3 years, compared to non-chewers, but being active, chewers improved their health by gaining 2.5 years. The improvement, however, fell short of offsetting the harms from chewing.Chewers had serious health consequences, but being physically active, chewers could mitigate some of these adverse effects, and extend life expectancy by 2.5 years and reduce mortality by one fifth. Encouraging exercise, in addition to quitting chewing, remains the best advice for 1.5 million chewers in Taiwan.

  16. Profil saliva pada penyirih di Kecamatan Rembon Kabupaten Tana Toraja Salivary profile of betel quid tobacco chewers in District of Rembon, Tana Toraja

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    Marcelina Marcelina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid tobacco (BQT chewing is a process of chewing betel leaves, areca nut, lime, gambier, and tobacco. Chewing and chemical stimulation of BQT can affect the salivary profile. The purpose of this study is to observe the differences of salivary profile such as volume, pH, and salivary inorganic component (Na + and phosphate between BQT chewers and non-chewers. This study is an observation analytic with cross sectional design on 30-60 years old women that live in Rembon district of Tana Toraja (n=96 using cluster random sampling technique. Salivary volume was measured by measured glass, salivary pH was measured by indicator pH (Macherey-Nagel. The content of the salivary inorganic component was seen using atomic absorption spectrophotometer in BPTP Laboratory, Maros. Data were analyzed by t-test and chi square test using SPSS v 15.0. The result were mean of salivary volume (chewers=3.88 ml/10 s; p=0.051. Mean of salivary pH (chewers=6.92; p=0.001. Mean of salivary Na+  (chewers=0.38 ppm; p=0.112, Mg2+ (chewers=11.9 ppm; p=0.002, phosphate (chewers=156.8 ppm; p=0.001, Ca 2+ (chewers=174.8 ppm; p=0.000, K concluded that there was no significant difference on salivary volume, pH, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg(chewers=445.9 ppm; p=0.429. It was +and K+ content between chewers and non chewers, but the content of salivary Mg 2+, Ca2+and phosphate had significant difference.

  17. Hyalomma impeltatum (Acari: Ixodidae) as a potential vector of malignant theileriosis in sheep in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Azazy, O M; El-Metenawy, T M; Wassef, H Y

    2001-08-31

    Little is known about tick-borne diseases in Saudi Arabia, particularly regarding the prevalence of theileriosis in small ruminants. This survey studied the potential vectors of malignant theileriosis in Saudi Arabian sheep. Blood, lymph node and tick samples were collected from animals being treated or necropsied at the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in Jeddah, Makkah (western region), and Bureida, Al-Qasim (central region). Blood and lymph node smears were prepared and examined for Theileria species. Theileria hirci (=T. lestoquardi) was found in lymph node smears of one out of 36 sheep (2.8%) in Jeddah and six of 25 sheep (24%) in Bureida. The erythrocytic forms were detected in 5-8% of RBCs. Ticks were found in relatively less number of sheep in Bureida and Jeddah, 17/180 and 26/125, respectively. All Theileria-infected sheep were infested with Hyalomma impeltatum except the one that carried Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. This suggests that H. impeltatum is a potential vector of malignant theileriosis in Saudi Arabia.

  18. PDZ Domains and Viral Infection: Versatile Potentials of HPV-PDZ Interactions in relation to Malignancy

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    Kazunori Nagasaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is caused by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs, and a unique characteristic of these is a PDZ (P̲SD-95/D̲lg/Z̲O-1-binding motif in their E6 proteins. Through this motif HPV E6 interacts with a variety of PDZ domain-containing proteins and targets them mainly for degradation. These E6-PDZ interactions exhibit extraordinarily different functions in relation to HPV-induced malignancy, depending upon various cellular contexts; for example, Dlg and Scrib show different distribution patterns from what is seen in normal epithelium, both in localization and in amount, and their loss may be a late-stage marker in malignant progression. Recent studies show that interactions with specific forms of the proteins may have oncogenic potential. In addition, it is interesting that PDZ proteins make a contribution to the stabilization of E6 and viral episomal maintenance during the course of HPV life cycle. Various posttranslational modifications also greatly affect their functions. Phosphorylation of hDlg and hScrib by certain kinases regulates several important signaling cascades, and E6-PDZ interactions themselves are regulated through PKA-dependent phosphorylation. Thus these interactions naturally have great potential for both predictive and therapeutic applications, and, with development of screening tools for identifying novel targets of their interactions, comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis is currently underway.

  19. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in oral potentially malignant disorders: A systematic review.

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    Venugopal, Archana; Uma Maheswari, T N

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an inducible enzyme. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) are considered as the early tissue changes that happen due to various habits such as smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco or stress. This alteration in the tissues alters the expression of MMP-9. The rationale of the review is to know the expression of MMP-9 in OPMDs. Hand searching and electronic databases such as PubMed and ScienceDirect were done for mesh terms such as OPMDs and MMP-9. Eight articles were obtained, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. These articles were assessed with QUADAS and data were extracted and evaluated. The included eight studies were done in 182 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases, 430 OPMDs (146 oral lichen planus, 264 leukoplakia and 20 oral submucous fibrosis) and 352 healthy controls evaluated for MMP-9. MMP-9 expression was found to be elevated in tissue, serum and saliva samples of OPMDs than in healthy controls. There is only one study in each serum and saliva samples to evaluate MMP-9. Saliva being noninvasive and serum being minimally invasive, more studies need to be done in both serum and saliva to establish MMP-9 as an early diagnostic marker in OPMDs to know its potential in malignant transformation.

  20. Precancerous stem cells have the potential for both benign and malignant differentiation.

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    Li Chen

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs have been identified in hematopoietic and solid tumors. However, their precursors-namely, precancerous stem cells (pCSCs -have not been characterized. Here we experimentally define the pCSCs that have the potential for both benign and malignant differentiation, depending on environmental cues. While clonal pCSCs can develop into various types of tissue cells in immunocompetent mice without developing into cancer, they often develop, however, into leukemic or solid cancers composed of various types of cancer cells in immunodeficient mice. The progress of the pCSCs to cancers is associated with the up-regulation of c-kit and Sca-1, as well as with lineage markers. Mechanistically, the pCSCs are regulated by the PIWI/AGO family gene called piwil2. Our results provide clear evidence that a single clone of pCSCs has the potential for both benign and malignant differentiation, depending on the environmental cues. We anticipate pCSCs to be a novel target for the early detection, prevention, and therapy of cancers.

  1. Potential malignant transformation in the gastric mucosa of immunodeficient mice with persistent Mycoplasma penetrans infection.

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    Shuyan Cao

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma infection has been reported in immunocompromised cancer patients; nevertheless, it is not clear if persistent Mycoplasma infection could facilitate the proliferation of cancer cells in immunocompromised organisms. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between persistent Mycoplasma infection and malignant transformation in an immunodeficient host model. Immunodeficient mouse model was established using cyclophosphamide and mice gastric mucosal cells were infected with Mycoplasma penetrans (Mpe. After 18 weeks, mice were sacrificed and gastric mucosal Mpe infected cells were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Moreover, pathological and ultrastructural changes in mice gastric mucosa were evaluated and the expression of multiple proto-oncogenes was examined by Western blot. Our data show that Mpe infection was detected in the blood of immunodeficient mice and Mpe persistent infection in mice gastric mucosa was confirmed by FISH. There were pathological and ultrastructural malignant transformation occurred in the gastric mucosa of infected mice compared to control mice. Mpe infected mice showed lower expression of p53 and p21 and higher H-ras expression compared to the control group. Moreover, expression of NF-κB p65 subunit increased in Mpe infected mice, similar to the TNF-α expression. Bax expression in gastric mucosa of Mpe infected mice was lower while Bcl-2 expression was higher than in the uninfected control group. Collectively these data demonstrate that persistent Mpe infection is associated with aberrant expression of multiple proto-oncogenes in gastric mucosa of immunodeficient mice which potentially facilitate the malignant transformation.

  2. Fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity: analysis of 30 cases

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    Francisco, ALN; Correr, WR; Azevedo, LH; Galletta, VK; Pinto, CAL; Kowalski, LP; Kurachi,C.

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is a major health problem worldwide and although early diagnosis of potentially malignant and malignant diseases is associated with better treatment results, a large number of cancers are initially misdiagnosed, with unfortunate consequences for long-term survival. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a noninvasive modality of diagnostic approach using induced fluorescence emission in tumors that can improve diagnostic accuracy. The objective of this study was to determine the ability to ...

  3. ZNF423 and ZNF521: EBF1 Antagonists of Potential Relevance in B-Lymphoid Malignancies

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    Maria Mesuraca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the B-lymphoid cell lineage is tightly controlled by the concerted action of a network of transcriptional and epigenetic regulators. EBF1, a central component of this network, is essential for B-lymphoid specification and commitment as well as for the maintenance of the B-cell identity. Genetic alterations causing loss of function of these B-lymphopoiesis regulators have been implicated in the pathogenesis of B-lymphoid malignancies, with particular regard to B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (B-ALLs, where their presence is frequently detected. The activity of the B-cell regulatory network may also be disrupted by the aberrant expression of inhibitory molecules. In particular, two multi-zinc finger transcription cofactors named ZNF423 and ZNF521 have been characterised as potent inhibitors of EBF1 and are emerging as potentially relevant contributors to the development of B-cell leukaemias. Here we will briefly review the current knowledge of these factors and discuss the importance of their functional cross talk with EBF1 in the development of B-cell malignancies.

  4. Clinical Outcome Following Oral Potentially Malignant Disorder Treatment: A 100 Patient Cohort Study

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    A. Diajil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral potentially malignant disorders (PMDs are at risk of transforming to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, but controversy exists over their management and the precise role of interventional treatment. In this study, a cohort of 100 patients presenting with new, single oral dysplastic PMD lesions were followed for up to 10 years following laser excision. PMDs presented primarily as homogeneous leukoplakias on floor of mouth and ventrolateral tongue sites and showed mainly high-grade dysplasia following analysis of excision specimens. Sixty-two patients were disease-free at the time of the most recent followup, whilst 17 experienced same site PMD recurrence, 14 developed further PMDs at new sites, 5 underwent same site malignant transformation, and 2 developed SCC at new oral sites. Whilst laser excision is an effective therapeutic tool in PMD management, prolonged patient followup and active mucosal surveillance together with clear definitions of clinical outcomes are all essential prerequisites for successful interventional management. Multicentre, prospective, and randomised trials of PMD treatment intervention are urgently required to determine optimal management strategies.

  5. Immunohistochemical profiling of benign, low malignant potential and low grade serous epithelial ovarian tumors

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    Rancourt Claudine

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serous epithelial ovarian tumors can be subdivided into benign (BOV, low malignant potential (LMP or borderline and invasive (TOV tumors. Although the molecular characteristics of serous BOV, LMP and low grade (LG TOV tumors has been initiated, definitive immunohistochemical markers to distinguish between these tumor types have not been defined. Methods In the present study, we used a tissue array composed of 27 BOVs, 78 LMPs and 23 LG TOVs to evaluate the protein expression of a subset of selected candidates identified in our previous studies (Ape1, Set, Ran, Ccne1 and Trail or known to be implicated in epithelial ovarian cancer disease (p21, Ccnb1, Ckd1. Results Statistically significant difference in protein expression was observed for Ccnb1 when BOV tumors were compared to LMP tumors (p = 0.003. When BOV were compared to LG TOV tumors, Trail was significantly expressed at a higher level in malignant tumors (p = 0.01. Expression of p21 was significantly lower in LG tumors when compared with either BOVs (p = 0.03 or LMPs (p = 0.001. We also observed that expression of p21 was higher in LMP tumors with no (p = 0.02 or non-invasive (p = 0.01 implants compared to the LMP associated with invasive implants. Conclusion This study represents an extensive analyse of the benign and highly differentiated ovarian disease from an immunohistochemical perspective.

  6. The probability of malignancy in small pulmonary nodules coexisting with potentially operable lung cancer detected by CT

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    Yuan, Yue; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Hiyama, Atsuto; Miura, Goji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Emoto, Takuya; Kawamura, Takeo; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, 755-8505, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the probability of malignancy in one or two small nodules 1 cm or less coexisting with potentially operable lung cancer (coexisting small nodules). The preoperative helical CT scans of 223 patients with lung cancer were retrospectively reviewed. The probability of malignancy of coexisting small nodules was evaluated based on nodule size, location, and clinical stage of the primary lung cancers. Seventy-one coexisting small nodules were found on conventional CT in 58 (26%) of 223 patients, and 14 (6%) patients had malignant nodules. Eighteen (25%) of such nodules were malignant. The probability of malignancy was not significantly different between two groups of nodules larger and smaller than 0.5 cm (p=0.1). The probability of malignancy of such nodules within primary tumor lobe was significantly higher than that in the other lobes (p<0.01). Metastatic nodules were significantly fewer in clinical stage-IA patients than in the patients with the other stage (p<0.01); however, four (57%) of seven synchronous lung cancers were located in the non-primary tumor lobes in the clinical stage-I patients. Malignant coexisting small nodules are not infrequent, and such nodules in the non-primary tumor lobes should be carefully diagnosed. (orig.)

  7. Detection of human papilloma virus in potentially malignant and malignant lesions of the oral cavity and a study of associated risk factors

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    B R Bijina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is the 6 th most frequently occurring cancer worldwide, with over 400,000 cases projected annually. Multiple factors such as tobacco, alcohol, irradiation, virus, and chronic irritants are involved in the development of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs. The most important risk factors are chronic exposure to tobacco and alcohol. Although the evidence that implicates virus is increasing, particularly (human papillomavirus [HPV], in the carcinogenesis process, the role of virus is not well established. Aim and Objective: This study is designed to assess the presence of HPV in potentially malignant and malignant lesions of the oral cavity as well as to correlate the presence of HPV with addictive habits and histopathological grading of the disease. Materials and Methods: Biopsy samples of OSCC and potentially malignant lesions were obtained and 3, 5 μm thickness sections were cut using a microtome. The sections were collected using a sterile brush and transferred to an Eppendorf tube. DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction for the detection of HPV were done. Results and Conclusion: The association between histopathological grading and presence of HPV was assessed using Chi-square test and the values thus obtained were found to be statistically significant. HPV was more predominantly seen in well-differentiated carcinomas and moderately differentiated carcinomas as compared to poorly differentiated carcinomas.

  8. Light scattering spectroscopy identifies the malignant potential of pancreatic cysts during endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Pleskow, Douglas K; Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Yee, Eric U; Berzin, Tyler M; Sawhney, Mandeep; Shinagare, Shweta; Vitkin, Edward; Zakharov, Yuri; Khan, Umar; Wang, Fen; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Goldberg, Saveli; Chuttani, Ram; Itzkan, Irving; Qiu, Le; Perelman, Lev T

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancers are usually detected at an advanced stage and have poor prognosis. About one fifth of these arise from pancreatic cystic lesions. Yet not all lesions are precancerous, and imaging tools lack adequate accuracy for distinguishing precancerous from benign cysts. Therefore, decisions on surgical resection usually rely on endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). Unfortunately, cyst fluid often contains few cells, and fluid chemical analysis lacks accuracy, resulting in dire consequences, including unnecessary pancreatic surgery for benign cysts and the development of cancer. Here, we report an optical spectroscopic technique, based on a spatial gating fibre-optic probe, that predicts the malignant potential of pancreatic cystic lesions during routine diagnostic EUS-FNA procedures. In a double-blind prospective study in 25 patients, with 14 cysts measured in vivo and 13 postoperatively, the technique achieved an overall accuracy of 95%, with a 95%confidence interval of 78-99%, in cysts with definitive diagnosis.

  9. Voluminous Incidental Oncocytic Neoplasm of the Adrenal Gland With Uncertain Malignant Potential

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    Marouene Chakroun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 74-year-old man presented with right flank pain and a palpable mass in the left flank. Blood pressure was normal. Contrastenhanced computed tomography (CT showed a 17 × 16 × 12 cm retroperitoneal mass over the left kidney, solid and heterogeneous. There were also 3 retro aortic lymph nodes and bilateral renal lithiasis. Twenty four-hour urinary metanephrines and normetanephrines were normal. The patient underwent a resection of the mass with left adrenalectomy by a lumbar incision. Histological findings revealed an adrenal oncocytic neoplasm (AON with uncertain malignant potential. Six months after surgery, CT control showed neither local nor distant recurrence.

  10. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of epithelial potentially malignant disorders of the mouth: advantages and disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaimari, G.; Russo, C.; Palaia, G.; Tenore, G.; Del Vecchio, A.; Romeo, U.

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: Leukoplakia is a potentially malignant epithelial lesion with carcinomatous percentages transformation comprehended between 1% and 7% for the homogeneous forms and from 4% to 15% for the non-homogeneous ones. Their removal can be performed by scalpel or laser surgery (excision or vaporization). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a bloodless treatment option, based on the involvement of three elements: light, photosensitizer and oxygen. When the molecules of the photosensitizer are activated by a low power laser, energy is transferred to molecular oxygen creating highly reactive radicals of oxygen, that have a cytotoxic effect on target cells. Aim of the study: According to several studies in Literature, it has been decided to evaluate through an initial clinical trial, the efficacy of PDT using topical aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) activated by a laser diode (λ = 635 nm) to treat potentially oral malignant lesions and to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages derived from the use of this technique. Materials and Methods: Five patients, affected by oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral verrucous leukoplakia (OVL) on the mucosal cheeks, labial commissure, fornix and retromolar areas, have been treated using the PDT. Irradiation time with Diode laser: 1000s. Irradiation mode: Scanning. 5 cycles of 3 minute + final cycle of 100 seconds. Each cycle has been interrupted by pauses of 3 minutes. Results and conclusion: PDT results to be effective in the treatment of OL, especially on OVL. In fact, OVL, due to its irregularity, has got an area of increased retention for the gel that is more difficult to be removed by salivary flow. This could explain the better results obtained in this case rather than in those ones of OL. Furthermore, the advantages have been represented by: less invasivity, high sensitivity for altered tissues, minimal scar tissue, less side effects and no pain during and after operation. In contrast to this, the disadvantages were: longer treatment

  11. Propofol attenuates pancreatic cancer malignant potential via inhibition of NMDA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyuan; Wu, Qichao; You, Li; Chen, Sisi; Zhu, Minmin; Miao, Changhong

    2017-01-15

    Propofol is a commonly used intravenous anesthetic, and could attenuate cancer cells malignant potential via inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression. However, the mechanism is still inclusive. In the present study, we mainly focus on the mechanism by which propofol down-regulated HIF-1α expression and malignant potential in pancreatic cancer cells. Human pancreatic cancer cells (Miapaca-2 and Panc-1) in vitro and murine pancreatic cancer cell (Panc02) in vivo were used to assess the effect of propofol on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. Propofol inhibited cells migration, expression of VEGF and HIF-1α, phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK), AKT, Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinases II (CaMK II), and Ca2+ concentration in a concentration-dependent manner (5, 25, 50, 100μM). Furthermore, MK801, an inhibitor of NMDA receptor, and KN93, an inhibitor of CaMK II, could inhibit the expression of VEGF, HIF-1a, p-AKT, p-ERK, p-CaMK II in vitro, growth of tumor and VEGF expression in vivo, which were similar to the effect of propofol. In addition, the anti-tumor effect of propofol could be counteracted by rapastinel, an activator of NMDA receptor. Our study indicated that propofol suppressed VEGF expression and migration ability of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, probably via inhibiting NMDA receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. CD8 T Cell-Independent Antitumor Response and Its Potential for Treatment of Malignant Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Katherine A; Griffith, Thomas S

    2016-07-27

    Malignant brain tumors continue to represent a devastating diagnosis with no real chance for cure. Despite an increasing list of potential salvage therapies, standard-of-care for these patients has not changed in over a decade. Immunotherapy has been seen as an exciting option, with the potential to offer specific and long lasting tumor clearance. The "gold standard" in immunotherapy has been the development of a tumor-specific CD8 T cell response to potentiate tumor clearance and immunological memory. While many advances have been made in the field of immunotherapy, few therapies have seen true success. Many of the same principles used to develop immunotherapy in tumors of the peripheral organs have been applied to brain tumor immunotherapy. The immune-specialized nature of the brain should call into question whether this approach is appropriate. Recent results from our own experiments require a rethinking of current dogma. Perhaps a CD8 T cell response is not sufficient for an organ as immunologically unique as the brain. Examination of previously elucidated principles of the brain's immune-specialized status and known immunological preferences should generate discussion and experimentation to address the failure of current therapies.

  13. Evaluation of Potential Risk Factors that contribute to Malignant Transformation of Oral Lichen Planus: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Sheykhbahaei, Nafiseh; SadrZadeh-Afshar, Maryam-Sadat

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have suggested that a lesion originally diagnosed as oral lichen planus (OLP) has different possibilities of undergoing malignant transformation in time, although these findings remain a controversial issue; for example, some studies reported different values of potential malignancy of OLP. World Health Organization (WHO) classifies OLP as a "potentially malignant disorder" with unspecified malignant transformation risk, and suggests that OLP patients should be closely monitored. Numerous studies have attempted to confirm the malignant transformation potential of OLP. The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline and EMBASE databases, PubMed, Google Scholar, Ovid, Up To Date, BMJ Clinical Evidence, MD Consult, and Science Direct were searched for papers published between 1997 and 2015. The medical subject heading search terms were "lichen planus," "oral lichen planus," "erosive oral lichen planus," "dysplasia," "oral precancerous condition," "oral premalignant condition," oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and atrophic lichen planus. A total of 120 English language abstracts were reviewed, and 50 relevant articles identified. Because of the extensive literature on the association between OLP and SCC, we have divided the data into genetic and non-genetic factors for more accurate assessment. In this evidence base, malignant transformation ranges from 0 to 37% with a mean of 4.59%. The highest rate of malignancy was noted in erythematosus and erosive lesions. In this way, follow-up of OLP patients could be carried out more efficiently and appropriately. Oral lichen planus is a premalignant lesion. All types of OLP in any site of oral mucosa must be monitored regularly.

  14. Frequent detection of high human papillomavirus DNA loads in oral potentially malignant disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangeli, A; Cannella, F; Scagnolari, C; Gentile, M; Sciandra, I; Antonelli, G; Ciolfi, C; Russo, C; Palaia, G; Romeo, U; Polimeni, A

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is estimated to be the cause of 40--80% of the squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx but only of a small fraction of the oral cavity cancers. The prevalence of oral HPV infection has significantly increased in the last decade, raising concerns about the role of HPV in progression of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) toward squamous cell carcinomas. We sought to study HPV infection in patients with oral lesions, and in control individuals, using non-invasive and site-specific oral brushing and sensitive molecular methods. HPV DNA positivity and viral loads were evaluated in relation to patient data and clinical diagnosis. We enrolled 116 individuals attending Dental Clinics: 62 patients with benign oral lesions (e.g. fibromas, papillomatosis, ulcers) or OPMD (e.g. lichen, leukoplakia) and 54 controls. Oral cells were collected with Cytobrush and HPV-DNA was detected with quantitative real-time PCR for the more common high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) genotypes. HPV detection rate, percentage of HR HPVs and HPV-DNA loads (namely HPV16 and in particular, HPV18) were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Lichen planus cases had the highest HPV-positive rate (75.0%), hairy leukoplakia the lowest (33.3%). This study detected unexpectedly high rates of HPV infection in cells of the oral mucosa. The elevated HR HPV loads found in OPMD suggest the effectiveness of quantitative PCR in testing oral lesions. Prospective studies are needed to establish whether elevated viral loads represent a clinically useful marker of the risk of malignant progression. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. SFRP Tumour Suppressor Genes Are Potential Plasma-Based Epigenetic Biomarkers for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

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    Yuen Yee Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is associated with asbestos exposure. Asbestos can induce chronic inflammation which in turn can lead to silencing of tumour suppressor genes. Wnt signaling pathway can be affected by chronic inflammation and is aberrantly activated in many cancers including colon and MPM. SFRP genes are antagonists of Wnt pathway, and SFRPs are potential tumour suppressors in colon, gastric, breast, ovarian, and lung cancers and mesothelioma. This study investigated the expression and DNA methylation of SFRP genes in MPM cells lines with and without demethylation treatment. Sixty-six patient FFPE samples were analysed and have showed methylation of SFRP2 (56% and SFRP5 (70% in MPM. SFRP2 and SFRP5 tumour-suppressive activity in eleven MPM lines was confirmed, and long-term asbestos exposure led to reduced expression of the SFRP1 and SFRP2 genes in the mesothelium (MeT-5A via epigenetic alterations. Finally, DNA methylation of SFRPs is detectable in MPM patient plasma samples, with methylated SFRP2 and SFRP5 showing a tendency towards greater abundance in patients. These data suggested that SFRP genes have tumour-suppresive activity in MPM and that methylated DNA from SFRP gene promoters has the potential to serve as a biomarker for MPM patient plasma.

  16. Betel-quid dependence domains and syndrome associated with betel-quid ingredients among chewers: an Asian multi-country evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Hua, Chun-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Sunarjo; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ling, Tian-You; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2014-07-01

    Betel-quid (BQ) contains biologically psychoactive ingredients; however, data are limited concerning the symptoms and syndrome of BQ dependence among chewers. The aims of this study were to evaluate the ingredients-associated BQ dependence syndrome and country-specific chewing features and behaviour for BQ dependence among chewers from six Asian communities. An intercountry Asian Betel-quid Consortium study. Six Asian general communities in Taiwan, Mainland China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Six multi-stage random samples of BQ chewers in the Asian Betel-quid Consortium study (n = 2078). All chewers were evaluated for BQ dependence using the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. The 12-month BQ dependence rate was 12.5-92.6% and 47.9-99.3% (P = 0.023) among tobacco-free and tobacco-added BQ chewers across the six Asian communities, with a higher dependence rate in chewers who used tobacco-free BQ with lime added than without (23.3-95.6% versus 4.0%, P ≤ 0.001). Taiwanese and Hunanese BQ chewers both notably endorsed the dependency domain of 'time spent chewing'. 'Tolerance' and 'withdrawal' were the major dependence domains associated with the Nepalese and Indonesian chewers, with high BQ dependence rates. Malaysian and Sri Lankan chewers formed a BQ dependence cluster linked closely to 'craving'. In Sri Lanka, the quantity consumed explained 90.5% (P betel quid users in Asian communities, more so if they use it with tobacco or lime. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity: analysis of 30 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, A. L. N.; Correr, W. R.; Azevedo, L. H.; Galletta, V. K.; Pinto, C. A. L.; Kowalski, L. P.; Kurachi, C.

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is a major health problem worldwide and although early diagnosis of potentially malignant and malignant diseases is associated with better treatment results, a large number of cancers are initially misdiagnosed, with unfortunate consequences for long-term survival. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a noninvasive modality of diagnostic approach using induced fluorescence emission in tumors that can improve diagnostic accuracy. The objective of this study was to determine the ability to discriminate between normal oral mucosa and potentially malignant disorders by fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence investigation under 408 and 532 nm excitation wavelengths was performed on 60 subjects, 30 with potentially malignant disorders and 30 volunteers with normal mucosa. Data was analyzed to correlate fluorescence patterns with clinical and histopathological diagnostics. Fluorescence spectroscopy used as a point measurement technique resulted in a great variety of spectral information. In a qualitative analysis of the fluorescence spectral characteristics of each type of injury evaluated, it was possible to discriminate between normal and abnormal oral mucosa. The results show the potential use of fluorescence spectroscopy for an improved discrimination of oral disorders.

  18. HDAC8, A Potential Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNST.

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    Gonzalo Lopez

    Full Text Available HDAC isoform-specific inhibitors may improve the therapeutic window while limiting toxicities. Developing inhibitors against class I isoforms poses difficulties as they share high homology among their catalytic sites; however, HDAC8 is structurally unique compared to other class I isoforms. HDAC8 inhibitors are novel compounds and have affinity for class I HDAC isoforms demonstrating anti-cancer effects; little is known about their activity in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST. Recently, we demonstrated anti-MPNST efficacy of HDAC8i in human and murine-derived MPNST pre-clinical models; we now seek to consider the potential therapeutic inhibition of HDAC8 in MPNST.Four Human MPNST cell lines, a murine-derived MPNST cell line, and two HDAC8 inhibitors (PCI-34051, PCI-48012; Pharmacyclics, Inc. Sunnyvale, CA were studied. Proliferation was determined using MTS and clonogenic assays. Effects on cell cycle were determined via PI FACS analysis; effects on apoptosis were determined using Annexin V-PI FACS analysis and cleaved caspase 3 expression. In vivo growth effects of HDAC8i were evaluated using MPNST xenograft models. 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to identify potential HDAC8 deacetylation substrates.HDAC8i induced cell growth inhibition and marked S-phase cell cycle arrest in human and murine-derived MPNST cells. Relative to control, HDAC8i induced apoptosis in both human and murine-derived MPNST cells. HDAC8i exhibited significant effects on MPNST xenograft growth (p=0.001 and tumor weight (p=0.02. Four potential HDAC8 substrate targets were identified using a proteomic approach: PARK7, HMGB1, PGAM1, PRDX6.MPNST is an aggressive sarcoma that is notoriously therapy-resistant, hence the urgent need for improved anti-MPNST therapies. HDAC8 inhibition may be useful for MPNST by improving efficacy while limiting toxicities as compared to pan-HDACis.

  19. Efficacy of Diode Laser for the Management of Potentially Malignant Disorders.

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    Reddy Kundoor, Vinay Kumar; Patimeedi, Ashwini; Roohi, Shameena; Maloth, Kotya Naik; Kesidi, Sunitha; Masabattula, Geetha Kumari

    2015-01-01

    Laser dentistry is a one of the upcoming advanced treatment modality for oral mucosal lesions. Diode laser is a soft tissue laser that has found much acceptance in all branches of dentistry. Available compact size and feasibility has render diode laser an enhanced tool for today's clinical practice. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of diode laser for the management of white lesions such as oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral lichen planus (OLP). The study was conducted by using diode laser 980 nm on 10 patients with white lesions (5 OL and 5 OLP) aged between 35 to 65 years. Of the 10 patients (5 OL and 5 OLP), 3 patients (30%) complained of moderate pain and 7 patients (70%) complained of mild pain, for first 3 days after laser irradiation, and pain disappeared at end of first week. There was no recurrence of the lesion during the 6-month follow up. Diode lasers provide acceptable clinical improvement of potentially malignant lesions with minimal side effects. It can be considered one of the best alternative treatment modality for oral mucosal lesions.

  20. Programmable bio-nanochip-based cytologic testing of oral potentially malignant disorders in Fanconi anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floriano, P N; Abram, T; Taylor, L; Le, C; Talavera, H; Nguyen, M; Raja, R; Gillenwater, A; McDevitt, J; Vigneswaran, N

    2015-07-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is caused by mutations of DNA repair genes. The risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) among FA patients is 800-folds higher than in the general population. Early detection of OSCC, preferably at it precursor stage, is critical in FA patients to improve their survival. In an ongoing clinical trial, we are evaluating the effectiveness of the programmable bio-nanochip (p-BNC)-based oral cytology test in diagnosing oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) in non-FA patients. We used this test to compare cytomorphometric and molecular biomarkers in OSCC cell lines derived from FA and non-FA patients to brush biopsy samples of a FA patient with OPMD and normal mucosa of healthy volunteers. Our data showed that expression patterns of molecular biomarkers were not notably different between sporadic and FA-OSCC cell lines. The p-BNC assay revealed significant differences in cytometric parameters and biomarker MCM2 expression between cytobrush samples of the FA patient and cytobrush samples of normal oral mucosa obtained from healthy volunteers. Microscopic examination of the FA patient's OPMD confirmed the presence of dysplasia. Our pilot data suggests that the p-BNC brush biopsy test recognized dysplastic oral epithelial cells in a brush biopsy sample of a FA patient. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Qualitative analysis of the impact of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders on daily life activities.

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    Jyothi Tadakamadla

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMD on daily life activities.Patients diagnosed with Oral Leukoplakia, Oral submucous fibrosis and Oral Lichen Planus attending the Oral Medicine clinic of Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences & Research Centre, Hyderabad, India were invited to participate. Eighteen interviews and three focus groups were conducted in a non-clinical setting. Voice recordings were transcribed and translated from Telugu to English. Data coding was performed using the NVivo software.Sample size for this qualitative study comprised 32 patients. Four main themes emerged: (1 difficulties with diagnosis and knowledge about the condition, (2 physical impairment and functional limitations, (3 psychological and social wellbeing and (4 effects of treatment on daily life. In a majority of the patients, most of the interview time was spent discussing physical impairment and functional limitations. Patients also reported their mouth condition having a debilitating effect on their psychological well-being and social interactions.'Physical impairment and functional limitations' was the most important theme for many of the patients. However, the impacts of OPMD also extended beyond physical impairment and functional limitations to aspects of daily living, notably psychological and social wellbeing.

  2. Screening of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders Using Exfoliative Cytology: A Diagnostic Modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiraj, Arpita; Khaitan, Tanya; Bhowmick, Debarati; Ginjupally, Uday; Bir, Aritri; Chatterjee, Kushal

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Oral exfoliative cytology (OEC) has been implemented in the diagnosis of pathologic lesions for ages. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the cytomorphological features of some of the commonest potentially malignant disorders (leukoplakia, lichen planus, and oral submucous fibrosis) through a simple procedure and illustrate its importance in mass screening. Materials and Method. A total of 160 subjects with 25-50 years of age were included in the study. Among them, 40 were clinically diagnosed with oral leukoplakia, 40 were diagnosed with oral lichen planus, 40 were diagnosed with oral submucous fibrosis, and 40 were in the control group. The prepared smears were subjected to Papanicolaou stain and analyzed microscopically for the evaluation of the cytomorphological features. Results and Discussion. When analyzed microscopically, 36 (90%) out of the 40 oral leukoplakic lesions showed Class II cytological features whereas 4 (10%) revealed Class I features. Among 40 patients with oral lichen planus, 26 (65%) showed Class II features while the remaining 14 (35%) revealed Class I features. In 40 subjects with oral submucous fibrosis, 32 (80%) showed Class II features while the other 8 (20%) showed Class I features. All the 40 control subjects showed Class I features. Thus, OEC can be widely advocated as an addition to clinical conclusion and an adjunct to biopsy.

  3. Screening of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders Using Exfoliative Cytology: A Diagnostic Modality

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    Arpita Kabiraj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Oral exfoliative cytology (OEC has been implemented in the diagnosis of pathologic lesions for ages. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the cytomorphological features of some of the commonest potentially malignant disorders (leukoplakia, lichen planus, and oral submucous fibrosis through a simple procedure and illustrate its importance in mass screening. Materials and Method. A total of 160 subjects with 25–50 years of age were included in the study. Among them, 40 were clinically diagnosed with oral leukoplakia, 40 were diagnosed with oral lichen planus, 40 were diagnosed with oral submucous fibrosis, and 40 were in the control group. The prepared smears were subjected to Papanicolaou stain and analyzed microscopically for the evaluation of the cytomorphological features. Results and Discussion. When analyzed microscopically, 36 (90% out of the 40 oral leukoplakic lesions showed Class II cytological features whereas 4 (10% revealed Class I features. Among 40 patients with oral lichen planus, 26 (65% showed Class II features while the remaining 14 (35% revealed Class I features. In 40 subjects with oral submucous fibrosis, 32 (80% showed Class II features while the other 8 (20% showed Class I features. All the 40 control subjects showed Class I features. Thus, OEC can be widely advocated as an addition to clinical conclusion and an adjunct to biopsy.

  4. Anticancer property of bromelain with therapeutic potential in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Krishna; Akhter, Javed; Chua, Terence C; Morris, David Lawson

    2013-05-01

    Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes that is capable of hydrolyzing glycosidic linkages in glycoprotein. Glycoprotein's are ubiquitously distributed throughout the body and serve a variety of physiologic functions. Faulty glycosylation of proteins may lead to cancer. Antitumor properties of bromelain have been demonstrated in both, in vitro and in vivo studies, along with scanty anecdotal human studies. Various mechanistic pathways have been proposed to explain the anticancer properties of bromelain. However, proteolysis by bromelain has been suggested as a main pathway by some researchers. MUC1 is a glycoprotein that provides tumor cells with invasive, metastatic, and chemo-resistant properties. To date, there is no study that examines the effect of bromelain on MUC1. However, the viability of MUC1 expressing pancreatic and breast cancer cells are adversely affected by bromelain. Further, the efficacy of cisplatin and 5-FU are enhanced by adjuvant treatment with bromelain, indicating that the barrier function of MUC1 may be affected. Other studies have also indicated that there is a greater accumulation of 5-FU in the cell compartment on treatment with 5-FU and bromelain. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) expresses MUC1 and initial studies have shown that the viability of MPM cells is adversely affected by exposure to bromelain. Further, bromelain in combination with either 5-FU or cisplatin, the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic drug is enhanced. Hence, current evidence indicates that bromelain may have the potential of being developed into an effective anticancer agent for MPM.

  5. Prevalence of oral potentially malignant disorders in workers of Udupi taluk

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    Yeturu Sravan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of oral potentially malignant disorders (PMD among industrial workers of Udupi taluk, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of industrial workers aged >18 years from randomly selected industries in Udupi Taluk. A self-administered questionnaire was given to the participants to assess sociodemographic factors and abusive habits (Tobacco, Alcohol, and Betel quid followed by clinical oral examination by single trained and calibrated examiner. Results: A total of 396 completed all steps of the survey and were included for analysis. A total of 14, 11.4, and 14.4% were tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid users, respectively. A total of 8.6% (n = 34 have at least one PMD. A significantly higher number of participants with single (11.4% or combined habits (60.4% had oral lesions while none of the participants without habits reported any oral lesions (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Prevalence of abusive habits and oral premalignant lesions or conditions was substantial among the workers. The cause and effect relationship and dose-response were also shown to be significantly associated. Prevention and early diagnosis through workplace screening are the major cornerstones for the control of oral cancer.

  6. Potentially malignant oral disorders and high-risk habits in liver cirrhosis and lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarić, I; Povrzanović, I; Brajdić, D; Lukšić, I; Macan, D

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the role of smoking, drinking, and their synergistic effect in the occurrence of potentially malignant oral disorders (PMOD). We examined three groups: 50 patients with lung cancer, 50 patients with liver cirrhosis, and 50 patients with clear medical history. Scores were developed for drinking, smoking, drinking & smoking, and PMOD. All four scores were the lowest in the control group. The lung cancer group showed the highest Smoking, Alcohol & Smoking and Lesions score, while the liver cirrhosis group had the Alcohol score the highest. Compared with the control group, lung cancer group is more likely to develop a PMOD than the liver cirrhosis group (OR = 12.31/OR = 6.71). Statistical significance between the groups was found in the Lesions score (χ(2)  = 15.34; P = 0.001). The patients with lung cancer and liver cirrhosis represent a high-risk group for PMOD. Patients with lung cancer and liver cirrhosis have never, to our knowledge, been categorized as high-risk patients for PMOD. After diagnosed, patients with lung cancer and liver cirrhosis should have a routine oral cavity examination, as they present a high-risk group for PMOD and oral cancer. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Oral submucous fibrosis--a potentially malignant condition of growing concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, F

    2012-11-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a premalignant condition that primarily affects the oral cavity. The clinical hallmark of this disease is the development of progressive trismus. The latter is a direct consequence of loss of the normal fibro-elasticity of the oral mucosa and replacement of the fibromuscular connective tissue by the deposition of dense collagen. This change in the oral mucosa is aetiologically linked to the areca nut chewing habit where the development of OSF results from the interaction of the mucosa with the chemical constituents of areca. Areca nuts are used as a masticatory substance either alone, in a self-prepared quid or in various commercial preparations known as paan masala and gutka. The habitual usage of these products is rapidly increasing and oral health professionals globally are likely to encounter patients with this disease. The potentially malignant nature of OSF is well documented and habitual areca nut chewing even in the absence of tobacco is an independent risk factor for oral cancer. Public health education against the areca nut chewing habit is essential to eradicate the deleterious effects of this habit on oral health.

  8. Longitudinal evaluation of patients with oral potentially malignant disorders using optical imaging and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Richard A.; Pierce, Mark C.; Mondrik, Sharon; Gao, Wen; Quinn, Mary K.; Bhattar, Vijayashree; Williams, Michelle D.; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2012-02-01

    Dysplastic and cancerous alterations in oral tissue can be detected noninvasively in vivo using optical techniques including autofluorescence imaging, high-resolution imaging, and spectroscopy. Interim results are presented from a longitudinal study in which optical imaging and spectroscopy were used to evaluate the progression of lesions over time in patients at high risk for development of oral cancer. Over 100 patients with oral potentially malignant disorders have been enrolled in the study to date. Areas of concern in the oral cavity are measured using widefield autofluorescence imaging and depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy during successive clinical visits. Autofluorescence intensity patterns and autofluorescence spectra are tracked over time and correlated with clinical observations. Patients whose lesions progress and who undergo surgery are also measured in the operating room immediately prior to surgery using autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy, with the addition of intraoperative high-resolution imaging to characterize nuclear size, nuclear crowding, and tissue architecture at selected sites. Optical measurements are compared to histopathology results from biopsies and surgical specimens collected from the measured sites. Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy measurements are continued during post-surgery followup visits. We examined correlations between clinical impression and optical classification over time with an average followup period of 4 months. The data collected to date suggest that multimodal optical techniques may aid in noninvasive monitoring of the progression of oral premalignant lesions, biopsy site selection, and accurate delineation of lesion extent during surgery.

  9. Survivin and cycline D1 expressions are associated with malignant potential in mucinous ovarian neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Mehmet; Turan, Gulay; Usta, Ceyda; Usta, Akin; Esen, H Hasan; Tavlı, Lema; Celik, Cetin; Demirkol, Yusuf; Kanter, Betül

    2016-04-01

    The most prevalent malignant ovarian neoplasms are epithelial ovarian cancers which is the most common cause of death among all gynecologic malignancies and a result of complex interaction of multiple oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The aim of this study was to evaluate expression of survivin and cycline D1 biomarkers in mucinous ovarian neoplasms and their correlations with clinicopathological variables in mucinous ovarian cancers. We analyzed pathological specimens of 98 patients with benign (n = 34), borderline (n = 22) and malignant (n = 42) mucinous ovarian neoplasms. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that survivin and cyclin D1 expressions were located primarily in the nucleus of ovarian tumor cells and relatively weaker cytoplasmic staining. Survivin expression was significantly higher in malignant tumors (88.1 %) than those found in borderline (18.2 %) and benign tumors (8.8 %) (p neoplasms.

  10. Expression of Potential Cancer Stem Cell Marker ABCG2 is Associated with Malignant Behaviors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Guang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite improvement in treatment, the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC remains disastrous. Cancer stem cells (CSCs may be responsible for cancer malignant behaviors. ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, member 2 (ABCG2 is widely expressed in both normal and cancer stem cells and may play an important role in cancer malignant behaviors. Methods. The expression of ABCG2 in HCC tissues and SMMC-7721 cells was examined, and the relevance of ABCG2 expression with clinical characteristics was analyzed. ABCG2+ and ABCG2− cells were sorted, and the potential of tumorigenicity was determined. Expression level of ABCG2 was manipulated by RNA interference and overexpression. Malignant behaviors including proliferation, drug resistance, migration, and invasion were studied in vitro. Results. Expression of ABCG2 was found in a minor group of cells in HCC tissues and cell lines. ABCG2 expression showed tendencies of association with unfavorable prognosis factors. ABCG2 positive cells showed a superior tumorigenicity. Upregulation of ABCG2 enhanced the capacity of proliferation, doxorubicin resistance, migration, and invasion potential, while downregulation of ABCG2 significantly decreased these malignant behaviors. Conclusion. Our results indicate that ABCG2 is a potential CSC marker for HCC. Its expression level has a close relationship with tumorigenicity, proliferation, drug resistance, and metastasis ability.

  11. Ex vivo confocal imaging with contrast agents for the detection of oral potentially malignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hallani, S; Poh, C F; Macaulay, C E; Follen, M; Guillaud, M; Lane, P

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the potential use of real-time confocal microscopy in the non-invasive detection of occult oral potentially malignant lesions. Our objectives were to select the best fluorescence contrast agent for cellular morphology enhancement, to build an atlas of confocal microscopic images of normal human oral mucosa, and to determine the accuracy of confocal microscopy to recognize oral high-grade dysplasia lesions on live human tissue. Five clinically used fluorescent contrast agents were tested in vitro on cultured human cells and validated ex vivo on human oral mucosa. Images acquired ex vivo from normal and diseased human oral biopsies with bench-top fluorescent confocal microscope were compared to conventional histology. Image analyzer software was used as an adjunct tool to objectively compare high-grade dysplasia versus low-grade dysplasia and normal epithelium. Acriflavine Hydrochloride provided the best cellular contrast by preferentially staining the nuclei of the epithelium. Using topical application of Acriflavine Hydrochloride followed by confocal microscopy, we could define morphological characteristics of each cellular layer of the normal human oral mucosa, building an atlas of histology-like images. Applying this technique to diseased oral tissue specimen, we were also able to accurately diagnose the presence of high-grade dysplasia through the increased cellularity and changes in nuclear morphological features. Objective measurement of cellular density by quantitative image analysis was a strong discriminant to differentiate between high-grade dysplasia and low-grade dysplasia lesions. Pending clinical investigation, real-time confocal microscopy may become a useful adjunct to detect precancerous lesions that are at high risk of cancer progression, direct biopsy and delineate excision margins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential role of cholesterol in distinguishing malignant from benign pleural effusion

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    Plavec Goran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels in pleural effusion and sera, were measured in 199 patients with pleural effusions of various origins. Malignant cause was found in 93, and nonmalignant in 106 patients. Mean cholesterol level in sera of patient with malignant disease was 5.0 ± 0.93mmol/L, and in nonmalignant group 4.34 ± 1.32 mmol/L. The difference was not statistically significant. Mean cholesterol level in nonmalignant pleural effusions was higher thAn those in malignant (2.51 ± 1.23 mmol/L; and 2.28 ± 1.06 mmol/L, but the difference was also not significant. Average pleural fluid/serum cholesterol ratio (HolI/S in nonmalignant group was 0.61 ± 0.32 and in malignant group 0.46 ± 0.22. The difference between those mean values was significant. Higher ratio, at the cut off value of 0.5 was found in 79/106 and in 25/93 malignant patients. Calculated sensitivity was 75%, specificity 73%, positive predictive value 76%, negative predictive value 65% and accuracy 69%. Significant negative correlation between Holi/S and pleural fluid CEA was found (p<0.05. It was assumed that pleural fluid/serum cholesterol ratio lower than 0,5 could be of great benefit, as an additional test in the differentiation of malignant from benign pleural effusion.

  13. [Potential role of cholesterol in distinguishing malignant from benign pleural effusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavec, Goran; Tomić, Ilija; Nidzović, Natasa; Radojcić, Branko; Aćimović, Slobodan; Bokun, Radojka

    2004-01-01

    Cholesterol and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in pleural effusion and sera, were measured in 199 patients with pleural effusions of various origins. Malignant cause was found in 93, and nonmalignant in 106 patients. Mean cholesterol level in sera of patient with malignant disease was 5.0 +/- 0.93 mmol/L, and in nonmalignant group 4.34 +/- 1.32 mmol/L. The difference was not statistically significant. Mean cholesterol level in nonmalignant pleural effusions was higher thAn those in malignant (2.51 +/- 1.23 mmol/L; and 2.28 +/- 1.06 mmol/L), but the difference was also not significant. Average pleural fluid/serum cholesterol ratio (Holl/S) in nonmalignant group was 0.61 +/- 0.32 and in malignant group 0.46 +/- 0.22. The difference between those mean values was significant. Higher ratio, at the cut off value of 0.5 was found in 79/106 and in 25/93 malignant patients. Calculated sensitivity was 75%, specificity 73%, positive predictive value 76%, negative predictive value 65% and accuracy 69%. Significant negative correlation between Holi/S and pleural fluid CEA was found (p < 0.05). It was assumed that pleural fluid/serum cholesterol ratio lower than 0.5 could be of great benefit, as an additional test in the differentiation of malignant from benign pleural effusion.

  14. Paclitaxel-loaded ethosomes®: potential treatment of squamous cell carcinoma, a malignant transformation of actinic keratoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Donatella; Celia, Christian; Trapasso, Elena; Cilurzo, Felisa; Fresta, Massimo

    2012-05-01

    Topical application of anticancer drugs for the treatment of malignancies represents a new challenge in dermatology, potentially being an alternative therapeutic approach for the efficacious treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, that is, actinic keratoses, and malignant lesions of the skin caused by ultraviolet radiation. Anti-proliferative and antimitotic drugs, including many of the taxanes, are currently under investigation for the treatment of cutaneous malignant transformation of actinic keratoses, particularly the squamous cell carcinoma. Paclitaxel-loaded ethosomes® are proposed as topical drug delivery systems for the treatment of this pathology due to their suitable physicochemical characteristics and enhanced skin penetration ability for deep dermal delivery. Our in vitro data show that the skin application of paclitaxel-loaded ethosomes® improved the permeation of paclitaxel in a stratum corneum-epidermis membrane model and increased its anti-proliferative activity in a squamous cell carcinoma model as compared to the free drug. The results obtained encouraged the use of the paclitaxel-loaded ethosomes® as the formulation for the potential treatment of squamous cell carcinoma, a malignant transformation of actinic keratoses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hepatic small vessel neoplasm, a rare infiltrative vascular neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ryan M; Buelow, Benjamin; Mather, Cheryl; Joseph, Nancy M; Alves, Venancio; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Makhlouf, Hala; Marginean, Celia; Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Sempoux, Christine; Snover, Dale C; Thung, Swan N; Yeh, Matthew M; Ferrell, Linda D

    2016-08-01

    Characteristic but rare vascular neoplasms in the adult liver composed of small vessels with an infiltrative border were collected from an international group of collaborators over a 5-year period (N=17). These tumors were termed hepatic small vessel neoplasm (HSVN), and the histologic differential diagnosis was angiosarcoma (AS). The average age of patients was 54years (range, 24-83years). HSVN was more common in men. The average size was 2.1cm (range, 0.2-5.5cm). Diagnosis was aided by immunohistochemical stains for vascular lineage (CD31, CD34, FLI-1), which were uniformly positive in HSVN. Immunohistochemical stains (p53, c-Myc, GLUT-1, and Ki-67) for possible malignant potential are suggestive of a benign/low-grade tumor. Capture-based next-generation sequencing (using an assay that targets the coding regions of more than 500 cancer genes) identified an activating hotspot GNAQ mutation in 2 of 3 (67%) tested samples, and one of these cases also had a hotspot mutation in PIK3CA. When compared with hepatic AS (n=10) and cavernous hemangioma (n=6), the Ki-67 proliferative index is the most helpful tool in excluding AS, which demonstrated a tumor cell proliferative index greater than 10% in all cases. Strong p53 and diffuse c-Myc staining was also significantly associated with AS but not with HSVN or cavernous hemangioma. There have been no cases with rupture/hemorrhage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, or Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. Thus far, there has been no metastasis or recurrence of HSVN, but complete resection and close clinical follow-up are recommended because the outcome remains unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxidative stress may enhance the malignant potential of human hepatocellular carcinoma by telomerase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Taichiro; Nakajima, Tomoki; Katagishi, Tatsuo; Okada, Yoshihisa; Jo, Masayasu; Kagawa, Keizo; Okanoue, Takeshi; Itoh, Yoshito; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2009-07-01

    Continuous oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in the progression of chronic liver diseases and hepatocarcinogenesis through telomere shortening in hepatocytes. However, it has not been established how the OS influences the progression of human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). We examined the correlations of OS with telomere length of cancer cells, telomerase activity and other clinicopathological factors in 68 HCCs. The level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a marker of OS was examined immunohistochemically and OS was scored in four grades (0-3). The telomere length of cancer cells was measured by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Telomerase activity was measured by (i) immunodetection of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and (ii) telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Telomerase related proteins, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and Akt, and other clinicopathological factors were also evaluated. As the OS grade increased, the average telomere length became significantly shorter in HCCs, especially in the hTERT-negative group. In the state of high-grade OS, hTERT-positive HCC cells showed more proliferative and less apoptotic features compared with hTERT-negative HCC cells. Telomerase activity, as measured by the TRAP assay, was strongly correlated with OS grade in HCCs. Furthermore, a high OS grade was correlated with the downexpression of PTEN and the activation of Akt. Oxidative stress enhanced the malignant potential of HCCs through the activation of telomerase, which raises the possibility of using OS as a marker for assessing the clinical state of HCCs.

  17. 'Cytology-on-a-chip' based sensors for monitoring of potentially malignant oral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Timothy J; Floriano, Pierre N; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; James, Robert; Kerr, A Ross; Thornhill, Martin H; Redding, Spencer W; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Speight, Paul M; Vick, Julie; Murdoch, Craig; Freeman, Christine; Hegarty, Anne M; D'Apice, Katy; Phelan, Joan A; Corby, Patricia M; Khouly, Ismael; Bouquot, Jerry; Demian, Nagi M; Weinstock, Y Etan; Rowan, Stephanie; Yeh, Chih-Ko; McGuff, H Stan; Miller, Frank R; Gaur, Surabhi; Karthikeyan, Kailash; Taylor, Leander; Le, Cathy; Nguyen, Michael; Talavera, Humberto; Raja, Rameez; Wong, Jorge; McDevitt, John T

    2016-09-01

    Despite significant advances in surgical procedures and treatment, long-term prognosis for patients with oral cancer remains poor, with survival rates among the lowest of major cancers. Better methods are desperately needed to identify potential malignancies early when treatments are more effective. To develop robust classification models from cytology-on-a-chip measurements that mirror diagnostic performance of gold standard approach involving tissue biopsy. Measurements were recorded from 714 prospectively recruited patients with suspicious lesions across 6 diagnostic categories (each confirmed by tissue biopsy -histopathology) using a powerful new 'cytology-on-a-chip' approach capable of executing high content analysis at a single cell level. Over 200 cellular features related to biomarker expression, nuclear parameters and cellular morphology were recorded per cell. By cataloging an average of 2000 cells per patient, these efforts resulted in nearly 13 million indexed objects. Binary "low-risk"/"high-risk" models yielded AUC values of 0.88 and 0.84 for training and validation models, respectively, with an accompanying difference in sensitivity+specificity of 6.2%. In terms of accuracy, this model accurately predicted the correct diagnosis approximately 70% of the time, compared to the 69% initial agreement rate of the pool of expert pathologists. Key parameters identified in these models included cell circularity, Ki67 and EGFR expression, nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear area, and cell area. This chip-based approach yields objective data that can be leveraged for diagnosis and management of patients with PMOL as well as uncovering new molecular-level insights behind cytological differences across the OED spectrum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ‘Cytology-on-a-Chip’ Based Sensors for Monitoring of Potentially Malignant Oral Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Timothy J.; Floriano, Pierre N.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; James, Robert; Kerr, A. Ross; Thornhill, Martin H.; Redding, Spencer W.; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Speight, Paul M.; Vick, Julie; Murdoch, Craig; Freeman, Christine; Hegarty, Anne M.; D’Apice, Katy; Phelan, Joan A.; Corby, Patricia M.; Khouly, Ismael; Bouquot, Jerry; Demian, Nagi M.; Weinstock, Y. Etan; Rowan, Stephanie; Yeh, Chih-Ko; McGuff, H. Stan; Miller, Frank R.; Gaur, Surabhi; Karthikeyan, Kailash; Taylor, Leander; Le, Cathy; Nguyen, Michael; Talavera, Humberto; Raja, Rameez; Wong, Jorge; McDevitt, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant advances in surgical procedures and treatment, long-term prognosis for patients with oral cancer remains poor, with survival rates among the lowest of major cancers. Better methods are desperately needed to identify potential malignancies early when treatments are more effective. Objective To develop robust classification models from cytology-on-a-chip measurements that mirror diagnostic performance of gold standard approach involving tissue biopsy. Materials and Methods Measurements were recorded from 714 prospectively recruited patients with suspicious lesions across 6 diagnostic categories (each confirmed by tissue biopsy -histopathology) using a powerful new ‘cytology-on-a-chip’ approach capable of executing high content analysis at a single cell level. Over 200 cellular features related to biomarker expression, nuclear parameters and cellular morphology were recorded per cell. By cataloging an average of 2,000 cells per patient, these efforts resulted in nearly 13 million indexed objects. Results Binary “low-risk”/“high-risk” models yielded AUC values of 0.88 and 0.84 for training and validation models, respectively, with an accompanying difference in sensitivity + specificity of 6.2%. In terms of accuracy, this model accurately predicted the correct diagnosis approximately 70% of the time, compared to the 69% initial agreement rate of the pool of expert pathologists. Key parameters identified in these models included cell circularity, Ki67 and EGFR expression, nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear area, and cell area. Conclusions This chip-based approach yields objective data that can be leveraged for diagnosis and management of patients with PMOL as well as uncovering new molecular-level insights behind cytological differences across the OED spectrum. PMID:27531880

  19. Assessment of Salivary Flow Rate and pH Among Areca Nut Chewers and Oral Submucous Fibrosis Subjects: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Khader, Nishat Fatima; Dyasanoor, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Background: To assess and compare the salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary pH among areca nut chewers, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and apparently healthy individuals. Methods: A comparative study was conducted to assess and compare the SFR and pH among 135 outpatients (45 areca nut chewers + 45 OSMF + 45 control) at The Oxford Dental College and Research Hospital, Bangalore, India. Subjects were interviewed using structural proforma and Modified Schirmer strips and pH paper were ...

  20. Optical imaging for the diagnosis of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Imaging is being conducted as a therapeutic non-invasive. Many kinds of the light source are selected for this purpose. Recently the oral cancer screening is conducted by using light-induced tissue autofluorescence examination such as several kinds of handheld devices. However, the mechanism of its action is still not clear. Therefore basic experimental research was conducted. One of auto fluorescence Imaging (AFI) device, VELscopeTM and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using ICG-labeled antibody as a probe were compared using oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) mouse models. The experiments revealed that intracutaneous tumor was successfully visualized as low density image by VELscopeTM and high density image by NIR image. In addition, VELscopeTM showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity than that of NIR fluorescence imaging and the sensitivity of identification of carcinoma areas with the VELscopeTM was good results. However, further more studies were needed to enhance the screening and diagnostic uses, sensitivity and specificity for detecting malignant lesions and differentiation from premalignant or benign lesions. Therefore, additional studies were conducted using a new developed near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging method targeting podoplanine (PDPN) which consists of indocyanine green (ICG)-labeled anti-human podoplanin antibody as a probe and IVIS imaging system or a handy realtime ICG imaging device that is overexpressed in oral malignant neoplasm to improve imaging for detection of early oral malignant neoplasm. Then evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm in xenografted mice model and compared with VELscopeTM. The results revealed that ICG fluorescence imaging method and VELscopeTM had the almost the same sensitivity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm. The current topics of optical imaging about oral malignant neoplasm were reviewed.

  1. Fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of potentially malignant disorders and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Ana Lucia Noronha; Correr, Wagner Rafael; Azevedo, Luciane Hiramatsu; Kern, Vivian Galletta; Pinto, Clóvis Antônio Lopes; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Kurachi, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    Oral cancer is a public health problem with relevant incidence in the world population. The affected patient usually presents advanced stage disease and the consequence of this delay is a reduction in survival rates. Given this, it is essential to detect oral cancer at early stages. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic tool that can improve cancer detection in real time. It is a fast and accurate technique, relatively simple, which evaluates the biochemical composition and structure using the tissue fluorescence spectrum as interrogation data. Several studies have positive data regarding the tools for differentiating between normal mucosa and cancer, but the difference between cancer and potentially malignant disorders is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fluorescence spectroscopy in the discrimination of normal oral mucosa, oral cancer, and potentially malignant disorders. The fluorescence spectroscopy was evaluated in 115 individuals, of whom 55 patients presented oral squamous cell carcinoma, 30 volunteers showing normal oral mucosa, and 30 patients having potentially malignant disorders. The spectra were classified and compared to histopathology to evaluate the efficiency in diagnostic discrimination employing fluorescence. In order to classify the spectra, a decision tree algorithm (C4.5) was applied. Despite of the high variance observed in spectral data, the specificity and sensitivity obtained were 93.8% and 88.5%, respectively at 406 nm excitation. These results point to the potential use of fluorescence spectroscopy as an important tool for oral cancer diagnosis and potentially malignant disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Breast lesions of uncertain malignant nature and limited metastatic potential: Proposals to improve their recognition and clinical management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, Emad A.; Badve, Sunil; Eusebi, Vincenzo; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Fox, Stephen B.; Dabbs, David J.; Decker, Thomas; Hodi, Zsolt; Ichihara, Shu; Lee, Andrew HS.; Palacios, José; Richardson, Andrea L.; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Schmitt, Fernando C.; Tan, Puay-Hoon; Tse, Gary M.; Ellis, Ian O.

    2016-01-01

    Breast lesions comprise a family of heterogeneous entities with variable patterns of presentation, morphology and clinical behaviour. The majority of breast lesions are traditionally classified into benign and malignant conditions and their behaviour can, in the vast majority of cases, be predicted with a reasonable degree of accuracy. However, there remain lesions which show borderline features and lie in a grey-zone between benign and malignant as their behaviour cannot be predicted reliably. Defined pathological categorisation of such lesions is challenging and for some entities is recognised to be subjective and include a range of diagnoses, and forms of terminology, which may trigger over-treatment or under-treatment. The rarity of these lesions makes acquisition of clinical evidence problematic and limits the development of a sufficient evidence base to support informed decision making by clinicians and patients. Emerging molecular evidence is providing a greater understanding of the biology of these lesions, but this may or may not be reflected in their clinical behaviour. Herein we discuss some breast lesions that are associated with uncertainty regarding classification, behaviour and hence management. These include biologically invasive malignant lesions associated with uncertain metastatic potential such as low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, low-grade fibromatosis-like spindle cell carcinoma and encapsulated papillary carcinoma. Other lesions remain of uncertain malignant nature such as mammary cylindroma, atypical microglandular adenosis, mammary pleomorphic adenoma and infiltrating epitheliosis. The concept of categories of 1) breast lesions of uncertain malignant nature and 2) breast lesions of limited metastatic potential, are proposed with details of which histological entities could be included in each category, and their management implications are discussed. PMID:26348644

  3. Factors predicting malignant transformation in oral potentially malignant disorders among patients accrued over a 10-year period in South East England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, S; Kovacevic, T; Madden, P; Coupland, V H; Sperandio, M; Odell, E; Møller, H

    2011-10-01

     The aims of the study were to determine how frequently oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) transform to cancer and to identify clinical and histological factors determining the rates of transformation.  The study included 1357 patients with biopsy-confirmed OPMDs seen at Guy's Hospital between 1990 and 1999 and followed up until 2005. The patients' details (name, date of birth, gender and any other relevant information) were matched to the Thames Cancer Registry (TCR) database and Office for National Statistics (ONS) to identify patients who subsequently developed oral cancer (ICD-10 C00-C06). From each patient's record, we identified their highest grade of dysplasia, graded as none, mild, moderate or severe. The outcome of principal interest was transformation to oral squamous cell carcinoma. To avoid co-existing malignancies, follow-up was started 6 months after the date of the index biopsy. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard analysis were undertaken to explore the factors associated with the time to transformation to oral cancer.  One thousand three hundred and fifty-seven patients were included in the study. The majority of patients were women (60.9%), and ∼30% were under 47 years of age. The most common OPMD was lichen planus/lichenoid reaction. Among all OPMDs, 204 (15.1%) had oral epithelial dysplasia (30 severe, 70 moderate and 104 mild). Thirty-five patients developed oral cancer over the follow-up period (2.6%). There was an association between dysplasia grade and time to transformation. Patients with severe dysplasia had a higher risk of transformation to oral cancer [HR 35.4 95% CI (14.2-88.3)] compared to those with no dysplasia. This association remained significant although attenuated [HR 21.6 95% CI (5.8-80.5)] following adjustment for sex, age, anatomical site of OPMD and diagnosis. A significant trend over dysplasia grades was evident (P Transformation to oral cancer was also associated with increasing age

  4. MicroRNA-214 and MicroRNA-126 Are Potential Biomarkers for Malignant Endothelial Proliferative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishima, Kazuki; Mori, Takashi; Ichikawa, Yukie; Sakai, Hiroki; Kuranaga, Yuki; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Tanaka, Yuiko; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Masuzawa, Mikio; Sugito, Nobuhiko; Murakami, Mami; Yamada, Nami; Akao, Yukihiro; Maruo, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    Malignant endothelial proliferative diseases including human angiosarcoma (AS) and canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) are serious diseases with a grave prognosis. Establishing liquid biopsy-based biomarkers for screening has definite clinical utility; however, plasma miRNAs up- or down-regulated in these sarcomas have been unclear. For identifying possible diagnostic plasma miRNAs for these sarcomas, we investigated whether plasma miR-214 and miR-126, which miRNAs play important roles in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis, were elevated in malignant endothelial proliferative diseases. For this investigation, human angiosarcoma and canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines and clinical plasma samples of canine hemangiosarcoma were examined by performing miRNA qRT-PCR. We report here that human angiosarcoma and canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines over-secreted miR-214 and miR-126 via microvesicles; in addition, their levels in the plasma samples from canines with hemangiosarcoma were increased. Moreover, the surgical resection of primary tumors decreased the levels of plasma miR-214 and miR-126. Our findings suggest that these malignant endothelial proliferative diseases over-secreted miR-214 and miR-126, thus suggesting that these miRNAs have potential as diagnostic biomarkers for malignant endothelial proliferative diseases in canine and possible in human angiosarcoma. PMID:26512652

  5. MicroRNA-214 and MicroRNA-126 Are Potential Biomarkers for Malignant Endothelial Proliferative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Heishima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Malignant endothelial proliferative diseases including human angiosarcoma (AS and canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA are serious diseases with a grave prognosis. Establishing liquid biopsy-based biomarkers for screening has definite clinical utility; however, plasma miRNAs up- or down-regulated in these sarcomas have been unclear. For identifying possible diagnostic plasma miRNAs for these sarcomas, we investigated whether plasma miR-214 and miR-126, which miRNAs play important roles in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis, were elevated in malignant endothelial proliferative diseases. For this investigation, human angiosarcoma and canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines and clinical plasma samples of canine hemangiosarcoma were examined by performing miRNA qRT-PCR. We report here that human angiosarcoma and canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines over-secreted miR-214 and miR-126 via microvesicles; in addition, their levels in the plasma samples from canines with hemangiosarcoma were increased. Moreover, the surgical resection of primary tumors decreased the levels of plasma miR-214 and miR-126. Our findings suggest that these malignant endothelial proliferative diseases over-secreted miR-214 and miR-126, thus suggesting that these miRNAs have potential as diagnostic biomarkers for malignant endothelial proliferative diseases in canine and possible in human angiosarcoma.

  6. Study of the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism in oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders in Argentine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Ana Maria; Don, Julieta; Secchi, Dante; Carrica, Andres; Galindez Costa, Fernanda; Panico, Rene; Brusa, Martin; Barra, José Luis; Brunotto, Mabel

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the prevalence of TP53Arg72Pro mutations and their possible relationship with oral carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders in Argentine patients. A cross-sectional study was performed on 111 exfoliated cytologies from patients with oral cancer (OC), oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and controls. The TP53Arg72Pro mutations were determined using conventional PCR. We evaluated univariate and multivariate study variables, setting p oral leukoplakia (OL) diagnosis; (b) multivariate association among the TP53CC genotype and females over 45 years with no tobacco nor alcohol habits with oral lichen planus pathology; (c) multivariate association between the TP53GC genotype and males with alcohol and tobacco habits and OC and OL pathologies. Our results showed that the wild-type Arg72variant was related to control patients and Pro72variant was related to OC and OPMD, in Argentine patients.

  7. Assessment of serum copper, iron and immune complexes in potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu TIWARI

    Full Text Available Abstract Potentially malignant disorders (PMDs of oral cavity and oral cancer remain a cause of serious concern despite intensive research and development. Diet and immunity have been identified to play a crucial role as modifying factors in these diseases. Our study intended to explore this relationship by estimating and comparing the serum levels of copper, iron and circulating immune complexes (CICs in patients diagnosed with PMDs and oral cancer and normal healthy individuals. In this study, 40 histopathologically diagnosed cases of PMDs and oral cancer were included along with 30 healthy controls and 5 ml of venous blood was drawn using venipuncture. Serum estimation of copper, iron and CIC then followed using the colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using one way ANOVA and Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation Test. The mean serum copper level was measured as 138.98 ± 10.13µg/100ml in the PMD group and 141.99 ± 21.44 µg/100ml in the oral cancer as compared to 105.5 + 18.81µ/100ml in the controls. The mean serum CIC levels was highest in the oral cancer (9.65 ± 0.16OD470 followed by the PMD group (0.18 + 0.21 OD470 and least in the control group (0.048 ± 0.02OD470. Whereas, the serum levels of iron showed a significant decrease in the PMD group (110.9 ± 10.54 µg/100ml and the oral cancer group (114.29 ± 25.83 µg/100ml as compared with the control group (136.85 ± 14.48 µg/100ml. There was no positive correlation obtained between the three groups with respect to the chosen parameters indicating that the variables were independent of each other. It can be thus be ascertained that trace elements like copper and iron as well as humoral responses (CICs have a close relationship with PMDs and oral cancers.

  8. Ultrastructural analysis of oral exfoliated epithelial cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers: A scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sameera Shamim; Shreedhar, Balasundari; Kamboj, Mala

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to correlate epithelial surface pattern changes of oral exfoliated cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers and also to compare them with patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy individuals. In this cross-sectional study, a total of fifty persons were included in the study, out of which thirty formed the study group (15 each tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers) and twenty formed the control group (ten each of OSCC patients - positive control and ten normal buccal mucosa - negative control). Their oral exfoliated cells were scraped, fixed, and studied under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The statistical analysis was determined using ANOVA, Tukey honestly significant difference, Chi-square test, and statistical SPASS software, P characteristics observed by scanning electron microscopy between OSCC, tobacco smokers, betel nut chewers compared to normal oral mucosa have been tabulated. In normal oral mucosa, cell surface morphology depends on the state of keratinization of the tissue. Thus, it could prove helpful in detecting any carcinomatous change at its incipient stage and also give an insight into the ultra-structural details of cellular differentiations in epithelial tissues.

  9. Cytological features of well-differentiated tumors of uncertain malignant potential: Indeterminate cytology and WDT-UMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigami, Keiko; Liu, Zhiyan; Taniguchi, Emiko; Koike, Eisuke; Ozaki, Takashi; Mori, Ichiro; Kakudo, Kennichi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the cytopathological features of well-differentiated tumors of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP), a possible borderline lesion of thyroid follicular cell tumor. We analysed the cytopathological findings of fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears from 6 cases histologically diagnosed as WDT-UMP. WDT-UMP, benign and malignant lesions were compared retrospectively and morphologically. No (0%) nuclear pseudoinclusions were found in adenomatous goiter (AG), follicular adenoma (FTA) and WDT-UMP. Nuclear pseudoinclusions were increased in number in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with indeterminate cytology (0.8%) and PTC with malignant cytology (1.2%). The incidence of nuclear grooves increased gradually from AG/FTA (0%), WDT-UMP (4.5%), PTC with indeterminate cytology (6.2%) and PTC with malignant cytology (6.5%). The nuclear area of WDT-UMP, an average of 40.0 µm(2), was between that for benign AG/FTA and PTC with malignant cytology. The maximum/minimum axis of WDT-UMP (0.934) lied between that of AG/FTA and PTC. The degree of the nuclear circularity of WDT-UMP was less than that for PTC. WDT-UMP belong to indeterminate category between PTC and follicular adenoma morphologically, and this is one of the major reasons why some of PTC can be found in the indeterminate category. Questionable PTC-N including questionable nucler inclusions (artifact vacuole) may be seen in WDT-UMP, but absolute or definite nuclear inclusions with sharp border are not found in our 6 cases. Therefore this group of thyroid tumors (EnFVPTC and WDT-UMP) may be found in indeterminate category more often, because of intermediate nuclear morphology and incomplete nuclear vacuoles.

  10. High incidence of potentially virus-induced malignancies in systemic lupus erythematosus: a long-term followup study in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Lene; Faurschou, Mikkel; Mogensen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) seem to experience an increased prevalence of oncogenic virus infections. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether SLE patients have an increased risk of virus-associated malignancies, defined as malignancies potentially caused...

  11. [Preliminary approach towards construction of peptide libraries as potential tools for diagnosis of malignant thyroid tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerzak, Waldemar; Bednarz, Wiktor; Domosławski, Paweł; Olewiński, Robert; Kolesińska, Justyna; Kaminski, Zbigniew; Dziarkowska, Katarzyna; Wieczorek, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    Cancer of thyroid gland is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The treatment improvement could be achieved by early diagnosis. The aim of the study was to identify cancer specific antigenes with use of peptide libraries. The material from 6 patients with thyroid cancer (4 with papillary cancer, 1 with follicular cancer and 1 with oxyphilic tumor) were analyzed. It was performed with use of lipophylic peptide libraries by direct comparison of staining of specimens prepared from normal and malignant tissue. Preliminary results confirm practical value of peptide libraries in early diagnostics of thyroid cancer. It is important to optimize construction of peptide libraries by using different staining agents hydrolyzed by proteases.

  12. Involvement of potential pathways in malignant transformation from Oral Leukoplakia to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma revealed by proteomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is one of the most common forms of cancer associated with the presence of precancerous oral leukoplakia. Given the poor prognosis associated with oral leukoplakia, and the difficulties in distinguishing it from cancer lesions, there is an urgent need to elucidate the molecular determinants and critical signal pathways underlying the malignant transformation of precancerous to cancerous tissue, and thus to identify novel diagnostic and therapeutic target. Results We have utilized two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE followed by ESI-Q-TOF-LC-MS/MS to identify proteins differentially expressed in six pairs of oral leukoplakia tissues with dysplasia and oral squamous cancer tissues, each pair was collected from a single patient. Approximately 85 differentially and constantly expressed proteins (> two-fold change, P Conclusion Varying levels of differentially expressed proteins were possibly involved in the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. Their expression levels, bioprocess, and interaction networks were analyzed using a bioinformatics approach. This study shows that the three homologs of PA28 may play an important role in malignant transformation and is an example of a systematic biology study, in which functional proteomics were constructed to help to elucidate mechanistic aspects and potential involvement of proteins. Our results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of oral cancer. These differentially expressed proteins may have utility as useful candidate markers of OSCC.

  13. Goats are a potential reservoir for the herpesvirus (MCFV-WTD), causing malignant catarrhal fever in deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Cunha, Cristina W; Abbitt, Bruce; deMaar, Thomas W; Lenz, Stephen D; Hayes, Jeffrey R; Taus, Naomi S

    2013-06-01

    In the recent investigation of malignant catarrhal fever in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) from a Texas zoo, the viral DNA from the herpesvirus termed MCFV-WTD, which causes disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), was detected. The epidemiology information revealed that the red brocket deer had been associated with a herd of pygmy goats (Capra hircus) at the zoo. MCFV-WTD DNA was also detected in one of these 12 goats that were malignant catarrhal fever viral antibody positive. The amplified herpesviral sequences from the affected deer and the MCFV-WTD-positive goat were identical, and matched the sequence in GenBank. Three of 123 DNA samples from various breeds of goats from different geographic locations in the United States were positive for MCFV-WTD DNA. The study shows that MCFV-WTD is capable of causing malignant catarrhal fever in other species of deer besides white-tailed deer and suggests that goats are a potential reservoir for the virus.

  14. P36. The prognostic potential of circulating and tissue activin A level in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yawen; Hoda, Mir Alireza; Schelch, Karin; Rozsas, Anita; Laszlo, Viktoria; Dome, Balazs; Grusch, Michael; Berger, Walter; Klepetko, Walter; Hegedus, Balazs

    2014-01-01

    Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive malignancy characterized by poor outcome and there is a lack of prognostic biomarkers to estimate prognosis. Previously we have shown that suppression of activin A can interfere with MPM tumor growth. In the current study, we compare the circulating and tissue expression level of activin A as a prognostic biomarker in MPM. Methods In a cohort of 53 MPM patients, plasma samples were collected between 2010 and 2014. Controls consisted of age-matched healthy individuals (n=46) and patients with pleuritis or pleural fibrosis (n=16). Circulating activin A was measured by ELISA and correlated to clinicopathological data. Furthermore, activin A expression in the tumor tissue was semiquantitatively measured by immunohistochemistry in 24 patients. Results Plasma activin A level was significantly elevated in MPM patients (n=53, 843±122 pg/mL) when compared to healthy controls (452±144 pg/mL, P=0.0039). Non-malignant pleuritis or pleural fibrosis patients only showed a modest, non-significant increase (625±95 pg/mL, P=0.093). Circulating activin A levels were slightly increased in cases with non-epitheloid morphology (n=16, 1101±183) when compared to epithelioid (n=37, 732±153 pg/mL, P=0.13). MPM patients with below median activin A concentrations had a modestly and non-significantly longer overall survival when compared to the high activin A level patients (469 vs. 271 days, P=0.4751). Interestingly, there was no correlation between circulating and tissue expression level of activin A in 17 patients where both parameters could have been analyzed. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the measurement of circulating activin A may support the diagnosis and prognosis of MPM but additional patient cohorts need to be analyzed to establish the diagnostic and prognostic value of this non-invasive biomarker.

  15. Potential of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Takuya; Andoh, Tooru; Sudo, Tamotsu; Fujita, Ikuo; Fukase, Naomasa; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Inoue, Masayoshi; Hirose, Tkanori; Sakuma, Toshiko; Moritake, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Tohru; Kawamoto, Teruya; Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Satomi; Atagi, Shinji; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Ono, Koji; Ichikawa, Hideki; Suzuki, Minoru

    2015-12-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are relatively rare neoplasms with poor prognosis. At present there is no effective treatment for MPNST other than surgical resection. Nonetheless, the anti-tumor effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was recently demonstrated in two patients with MPNST. Subsequently, tumor-bearing nude mice subcutaneously transplanted with a human MPNST cell line were injected with p-borono-L-phenylalanine (L-BPA) and subjected to BNCT. Pathological studies then revealed that the MPNST cells were selectively destroyed by BNCT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of serum malondialdehyde in potentially malignant disorders and post-antioxidant treated patients: A biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa D′souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco causes the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS which are responsible for the high rate of lipid peroxidation. Malondialdehyde (MDA is the most widely used agent to estimate the extent of lipid peroxidation. Timely diagnosis of the condition followed by supplementation with antioxidants like beta-carotene, pro-vitamin A, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, lipoic acid, zinc, selenium, and spirulina can prevent potentially malignant disorders. Materials and Methods: In this study, serum MDA was measured according to the method of Buege, in 15 normal samples and 15 patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with potentially malignant disordered and they were prescribed with antioxidants for a period of 4 week-time following which potentially malignant patients serum MDA was analyzed again to determine the extent of peroxidation reactions. Results: The mean serum MDA level in Group C1 was 0.7900 ± 0.2336 μM/L were as the mean serum MDA level of Group S1 was 2.478 ± 0.50756 μM/L and the values between them were highly significant. The values between C1 and S2 were found to be statistically significant. The mean serum MDA of S2 was 2.160 ± 0.41252 μM/L and the values were significant when compared to S1. Conclusion: Serum MDA estimation in oral pre-cancer would serve in determining the extent of lipid peroxidation. Diagnosis of patients and administration of antioxidants has proven to be effective in declining the ROS and thus reducing the extent of damage on the cells. MDA may serve as a diagnostic tool in the estimation of oral pre-cancer and in evaluation of post-treated cases.

  17. Clinicopathologic Review of 31 Cases of Solid Pseudopapillary Pancreatic Tumors: Can We Use the Scoring System of Microscopic Features for Suggesting Clinically Malignant Potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang-Hee; Lee, Jae-Myeong

    2016-04-01

    A solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) is a pancreatic neoplasm of low malignant potential. The potentially malignant pathologic features of SPTs were regarded as angioinvasion, perineural invasion, deep invasion of the surrounding acinar tissue, and nuclear pleomorphism. We retrospectively reviewed 31 cases of SPTs (25 female and 6 male patients, with an average age of 35 ± 14 years). The mean follow-up period was 132.0 ± 55.9 months. To evaluate the clinical impact of above pathological parameters, we analyzed their correlation with actually observed clinical malignancy. In three cases, the SPTs were clearly clinically malignant: one patient had recurrences three times, one showed lymph node metastases, and one deep soft tissue invasion around the gastroduodenal artery. Tumor infiltration to the peripancreatic soft tissue was observed in 17 cases (54.8%). The pathologic features considered suggestive of malignant potential were angioinvasion (25.8%), perineural invasion (6.5%), presence of mitosis in 10 high-power fields (16.1%), and moderate nuclear pleomorphism (19.4%). The presence of at least three of these features was not correlated with clinically confirmed malignant behavior (P = 0.570). Microscopic pathologic features of SPTs cannot be reliably associated with aggressive clinical behavior. Moreover, the absence of these microscopic features cannot exclude clinical malignancy.

  18. Liver function tests as a measure of hepatotoxicity in areca nut chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Singroha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Areca nut has been listed as a carcinogenic agent in humans and is linked to cancers of oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and hepatobiliary system. Liver function tests (LFTs, the estimation of enzymes specific to the hepatic system, give an assessment of its cellular integrity, and functionality. Aim and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the state of the liver in patients consuming areca nut and its products over a period. Materials and Methods: LFTs were carried out on 10 nonareca nut chewers and thirty patients with a history of areca nut, quid or a combination of tobacco and areca nut chewing, extending from 6 months to 30 years. The LFTs included estimation of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, direct bilirubin, albumin, and total protein content. A comparative analysis was done for each biochemical marker with duration, form (betel nut alone, quid, and betel nut with tobacco, and frequency of chewing areca nut. Results: A mild increment in AST was seen in 33.3% cases. Statistically significant association (P < 0.05 was observed between the control and cases for AST, ALP, and total protein content. A significant positive Pearson's correlation (+0.417 was obtained for a form of areca nut chewing (areca nut and tobacco and AST. A significant negative Pearson's correlation (−0.05 was observed between total protein content and form of chewing (areca nut and tobacco. Conclusion: The results of the study seem to indicate that even long-term chewing of areca nut is not hepatotoxic. Minor alterations in LFTs were well within limits.

  19. Expression of MUC1 mucin in potentially malignant disorders, oral squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa: An immunohistochemical study.

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    Kumar, M Harish; Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumarswamy, Jayalakshmi; Keshavaiah, Roopavathi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Divya, S

    2016-01-01

    Mucins alteration in glycosylation is associated with the development and progression of malignant diseases. Therefore, mucins are used as valuable markers to distinguish normal and disease conditions. Many studies on MUC1 expression have been conducted on variety of neoplastic lesions other than head and neck region. None of the study has made an attempt to show its significance in potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Hence, ours is one of the pioneer studies done to assess and evaluate the same. This study aims to compare and correlate the expression of MUC1 mucin protein in normal oral mucosa (NOM), PMD's and OSCC by immunohistochemical method. Institutional study, archived tissue sections of OSCC (n = 20), PMD's (n = 20) and NOM (n = 20) were immunostained for MUC1 mucin and percentage of positive cells evaluated. Results obtained were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test. The mean MUC1 mucin positive cells in the study groups were as follows, 40% in OSCC, 28% in PMD's and 0.75% in NOM. Higher mean immunohistochemical score was observed in OSCC group followed by PMD's group and NOM group. The difference in immunohistochemical score among the groups was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). The result of the current study suggests that determination of MUC1 mucin expression may be a parameter in the diagnosis of malignant behavior of PMD's to OSCC. MUC1 mucin expression may be a useful diagnostic marker for prediction of the invasive/metastatic potential of OSCC.

  20. E-cadherin as a potential biomarker of malignant transformation in oral leukoplakia: a retrospective cohort study.

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    von Zeidler, Sandra Ventorin; de Souza Botelho, Talitha; Mendonça, Elismauro Francisco; Batista, Aline Carvalho

    2014-12-17

    Numerous attempts have been made to establish and develop tumor markers that could determine the susceptibility of normal tissues to transform into cancerous ones. To determine whether altered expression patterns of E-cadherin could be an early event in the progression of potentially malignant disorders to oral squamous cell carcinoma, this study aimed to assess the relationship between the immunoexpression of E-cadherin and the different degrees of epithelial dysplasia in oral leukoplakia. Surgically excised specimens from patients with oral leukoplakia (n=31), oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with cervical lymph node metastasis (n=12) and normal oral mucosa (n=9) were immunostained for E-cadherin. Oral leukoplakia samples were distributed into low and high risk group according to a binary system for grading oral epithelial dysplasia. Comparative analyses between E-cadherin expression and microscopic features (WHO histological grading and epithelial dysplasia) were performed by Pearson Chi-square test (Pleukoplakia (P=0.006), low and high risk oral leukoplakia (P=0.019), and high risk oral leukoplakia and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with cervical lymph node metastasis (P=0.0001). In addition, as epithelia undergo dysplastic changes, the risk of malignant transformation increases, and there is a reduction or loss of E-cadherin expression by keratinocytes. Reduced E-cadherin expression was an early phenomenon and it was observed in moderate-severe dysplasia, showing that the loss of epithelial cohesion may be an indicator of progression to oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. E-cadherin could be used as a novel biomarker to identify lesions with potential risk for malignant transformation, which may provide opportunities for prophylactic interventions in high risk patient groups.

  1. Incidence of Severe Malaria Syndromes and Status of Immune Responses among Khat Chewer Malaria Patients in Ethiopia.

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    Tsige Ketema

    Full Text Available Although more emphasis has been given to the genetic and environmental factors that determine host vulnerability to malaria, other factors that might have a crucial role in burdening the disease have not been evaluated yet. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the effect of khat chewing on the incidence of severe malaria syndromes and immune responses during malaria infection in an area where the two problems co-exist. Clinical, physical, demographic, hematological, biochemical and immunological data were collected from Plasmodium falciparum mono-infected malaria patients (age ≥ 10 years seeking medication in Halaba Kulito and Jimma Health Centers. In addition, incidences of severe malaria symptoms were assessed. The data were analyzed using SPSS (version 20 software. Prevalence of current khat chewer malaria patients was 57.38% (95%CI =53-61.56%. Malaria symptoms such as hyperpyrexia, prostration and hyperparasitemia were significantly lower (P0.05, IgG3 antibody was significantly higher (P<0.001 among khat chewer malaria patients. Moreover, IgM, IgG, IgG1and IgG3 antibodies had significant negative association (P<0.001 with parasite burden and clinical manifestations of severe malaria symptoms, but not with severe anemia and hypoglycemia. Additionally, a significant increment (P<0.05 in CD4+ T-lymphocyte population was observed among khat users. Khat might be an important risk factor for incidence of some severe malaria complications. Nevertheless, it can enhance induction of humoral immune response and CD4+ T-lymphocyte population during malaria infection. This calls for further investigation on the effect of khat on parasite or antigen-specifc protective malaria immunity and analysis of cytokines released upon malaria infection among khat chewers.

  2. Interdependence of antioxidants and micronutrients in oral cancer and potentially malignant oral disorders: a serum and saliva study.

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    Shishir Ram Shetty

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our previous studies we have evaluated the role of antioxidants and trace elements in potentially malignant disorders and cancers of the oral cavity, taking into consideration the importance of antioxidants as biomarkers in cancer detection. We felt that other than evaluation, the correlation and interdependence that existed among antioxidants and trace elements require further evaluation in order to develop a better understanding.Serum and salivary zinc, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase levels were evaluated in 65 healthy controls, 115 subjects with potentially malignant oral disorders, and 50 subjects with oral squamous cell carcinoma, using the atom absorption photometry, [5, 5-Dithiobis (2 nitrobenzoic acid], and nitroblue tetrazolium methods, respectively.Serum zinc and serum glutathione showed significant positive correlation (r=0.76, P=0.01. Similarly, salivary glutathione and salivary zinc levels had a positive correlation (r=0.68, P=0.01. Serum superoxide dismutase showed a strong positive correlation with serum zinc (r=0.64, P=0.01. Similarly, there was a moderate positive correlation between salivary superoxide dismutase and salivary zinc (r=0.67, P=0.01.Our findings showed that trace elements and antioxidants exhibited interdependence in serum, as well as in saliva, in both physiologic and pathologic states such as oral cancer.

  3. Evaluation of an autofluorescence based imaging system (VELscope™) in the detection of oral potentially malignant disorders and benign keratoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, K H; Morgan, P R; Warnakulasuriya, S

    2011-04-01

    Early detection of oral cancer is crucial in improving survival rate. Identification and detection of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) allow delivery of interventions to reduce the evolution of these disorders to malignancy. A variety of new and emerging diagnostic aids and adjunctive techniques are currently available to potentially assist in the detection of OPMD. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of autofluorescence against conventional oral examination and surgical biopsy. A total of 126 patients, 70 males and 56 females (mean age 58.5±11.9 years) who presented to the Oral Medicine Clinics at King's and Guy's Hospitals, London with oral white and red patches suspicious of OPMD were enrolled. Following a complete visual and autofluorescence examination, all underwent an incisional biopsy for histopathological assessment. Seventy patients had oral leukoplakia/erythroplakia, 32 had oral lichen planus, 9 chronic hyperplastic candidiasis and rest frictional keratosis (13) or oral submucous fibrosis (2). Of 126 lesions, 105 (83%) showed loss of fluorescence. Following biopsy 44 had oral epithelial dysplasia (29 mild, 8 moderate and 7 severe). The sensitivity (se) and specificity (sp) of autofluorescence for the detection of a dysplastic lesion was 84.1% and 15.3% respectively. While VELscope was useful in confirming the presence of oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia and other oral mucosal disorders, the device was unable to discriminate high-risk from low-risk lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels in tobacco chewers and smokers: A pilot study

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    Chundru Venkata Naga Sirisha

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study gave us an insight about the relationship between antioxidant enzyme activity, oxidative stress and tobacco. The altered antioxidant enzyme levels observed in this study will act as a predictor for pre potentially malignant lesions. Therefore an early intervention of tobacco habit and its related oxidative stress would prevent the development of tobacco induced lesions.

  5. IgG1-iS18 impedes the adhesive and invasive potential of early and late stage malignant melanoma cells.

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    Munien, Carmelle; Rebelo, Thalia M; Ferreira, Eloise; Weiss, Stefan F T

    2017-02-15

    The 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is a non-integrin laminin receptor which is overexpressed in tumorigenic cells and supports progression of cancer via promoting metastasis, angiogenesis and telomerase activity and impediment of apoptosis. The present study investigates the role of LRP/LR on the metastatic potential of early (A375) and late (A375SM) stage malignant melanoma cells. Flow cytometry revealed that both early and late stage malignant melanoma cells display high levels of LRP/LR on their cell surface. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that late stage malignant melanoma cells display significantly higher total and cell surface LRP/LR levels in comparison to early stage malignant melanoma cells and the poorly invasive breast cancer (MCF-7) control cell line. Targeting LRP/LR using the LRP/LR specific antibody IgG1-iS18 resulted in a significant reduction of the adhesive potential to laminin-1 and the invasive potential through the 'ECM-simulating' Matrigel™ of both early and late stage malignant melanoma cells. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient confirmed that increased LRP levels correlate with the increased invasive and adhesive potential in early and late stage melanoma cells. Thus, blocking LRP/LR using the IgG1-iS18 antibody may therefore be a promising therapeutic strategy for early and late stage malignant melanoma treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of light based detection systems for early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders: Systematic review.

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    Nagi, R; Reddy-Kantharaj, Y-B; Rakesh, N; Janardhan-Reddy, S; Sahu, S

    2016-07-01

    Earlier detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) is essential for dental professionals to improve patient survival rates. The aim of this systematic review is to to evaluate the effectiveness of devices that utilise the principles of chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence as adjuncts in the detection of OSCC and OPMD. The electronic retrieval systems and databases searched for relevant articles were PubMed [MEDLINE] and Science direct. The search was for limited articles published in English or with an English abstract and articles published during the period from January 2005 to April 2014. Clinical trials utilized ViziLite, Microlux TM/DL and Visual Enhanced Light scope (VELscope) for early detection of OPMD and OSCC. Twenty primary studies published satisfied our criteria for selection - 10 utilised chemiluminescence and 10 tissue autofluorescence. Senstivity of Vizilite for detecting OSCC nad OPMD ranged from 77.1 % to 100% and specificity was low that ranged from 0% to 27.8%.Most have shown that chemiluminescence increases the brightness and margins of oral mucosal white lesions and thus assist in identification of mucosal lesions not considered under Conventional visual examination. However, it preferentially detects leukoplakia and may fail to spot red patches. Clinical trials demonstrated that sensitivity of VELscope in detecting malignancy and OPMD ranged from 22 % to 100 % and specificity ranged from 16 % to 100%. Most studies concluded that VELscope can help the experienced clinician to find oral precursor malignant lesions. But it couldnot differentiate between dysplasia and benign inflammatory conditions. Both devices are simple, non-invasive test of the oral mucosa but are suited for clinicians with sufficient experience and training. More clinical trials in future should be conducted to establish optical imaging as an efficacious adjunct tool in early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD.

  7. Immunoexpression of tenascin as a predictor of the malignancy potential of oral leukoplakia associated with a tobacco habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, D R; Bhat, K; Kale, A D; Hallikerimath, S

    2015-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia is a morphological alteration of tissue that is an early indicator for malignancy. Tenascin (TN) is a large hexameric extracellular matrix (ECM) protein with anti-adhesive properties that fosters cell migration during development, wound healing and tissue remodeling; it is present in small amounts in adult tissues. Overexpression of TN in a pathological condition may be either a cause or a consequence of the disease. We evaluated the efficacy of TN for early prediction of tobacco-associated oral cancers. We studied retrospectively 95 cases of oral leukoplakia, including mild, moderate and severe cases, using immunohistochemistry for TN. We evaluated the intensity, area and pattern of TN expression. Greater intensity and area of TN expression was observed in mild and severe dysplasia than in moderate dysplasia. Most cases showed a reticular pattern of expression, especially in mild and moderate dysplasia; a fibrillar pattern was more evident in severe dysplasia. We also observed homogeneous expression pattern in some cases. TN is a marker for dysplastic changes in epithelium and its expression may be helpful for predicting the malignancy potential of tobacco-associated oral leukoplakia.

  8. Involvement of potential pathways in malignant transformation from Oral Leukoplakia to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma revealed by proteomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Feng, Xiaodong; Liu, Xinyu; Jiang, Lu; Zeng, Xin; Ji, Ning; Li, Jing; Li, Longjiang; Chen, Qianming

    2009-01-01

    Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common forms of cancer associated with the presence of precancerous oral leukoplakia. Given the poor prognosis associated with oral leukoplakia, and the difficulties in distinguishing it from cancer lesions, there is an urgent need to elucidate the molecular determinants and critical signal pathways underlying the malignant transformation of precancerous to cancerous tissue, and thus to identify novel diagnostic and therapeutic target. Results We have utilized two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by ESI-Q-TOF-LC-MS/MS to identify proteins differentially expressed in six pairs of oral leukoplakia tissues with dysplasia and oral squamous cancer tissues, each pair was collected from a single patient. Approximately 85 differentially and constantly expressed proteins (> two-fold change, P leukoplakia. Their expression levels, bioprocess, and interaction networks were analyzed using a bioinformatics approach. This study shows that the three homologs of PA28 may play an important role in malignant transformation and is an example of a systematic biology study, in which functional proteomics were constructed to help to elucidate mechanistic aspects and potential involvement of proteins. Our results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of oral cancer. These differentially expressed proteins may have utility as useful candidate markers of OSCC. PMID:19691830

  9. Extracellular signal regulated kinase 5: A potential therapeutic target for malignant mesotheliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Arti; Miller, Jill M.; Cason, Christopher; Sayan, Mutlay; MacPherson, Maximilian B.; Beuschel, Stacie L.; Hillegass, Jedd; Vacek, Pamela M.; Pass, Harvey I.; Mossman, Brooke T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a devastating disease with a need for new treatment strategies. In the present study we demonstrated the importance of ERK5 in MM tumor growth and treatment. Experimental Design ERK5 as a target for MM therapy was verified using mesothelial and mesothelioma cell lines as well as by xenograft SCID mouse models. Results We first showed that crocidolite asbestos activated ERK5 in LP9 cells and mesothelioma cell lines exhibit constitutive activation of ERK5. Addition of doxorubicin resulted in further activation of ERK5 in MM cells. ERK5 silencing increased DOX-induced cell death and DOX retention in MM cells. In addition, shERK5 MM lines exhibited both attenuated colony formation on soft agar and invasion of MM cells in vitro that could be related to modulation of gene expression linked to cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration/invasion and drug resistance as shown by microarray analysis. Most importantly, injection of shERK5 MM cell lines into SCID mice showed significant reduction in tumor growth using both subcutaneous and intraperitoneal models. Assessment of selected human cytokine profiles in peritoneal lavage fluid from IP shERK5 and control tumor-bearing mice showed that ERK5 was critical in regulation of various proinflammatory (RANTES/CCL5, MCP-1) and angiogenesis related (IL-8, VEGF) cytokines. Finally, use of doxorubicin and cisplatin in combination with ERK5 inhibition showed further reduction in tumor weight and volume in the IP model of tumor growth. Conclusion ; ERK5 inhibition in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs is a beneficial strategy for combination therapy in MM patients. PMID:23446998

  10. Inhibition of autophagy potentiates pemetrexed and simvastatin-induced apoptotic cell death in malignant mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Wan; Kwon, Su-Jin; Park, Do-Sim; Cha, Byong-Ki; Oh, Seon-Hee; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Jeong, Eun-Taik; Kim, Hak-Ryul

    2015-01-01

    Pemetrexed, a multitarget antifolate used to treat malignant mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), has been shown to stimulate autophagy. In this study, we determined whether autophagy could be induced by pemetrexed and simvastatin cotreatment in malignant mesothelioma and NSCLC cells. Furthermore, we determined whether inhibition of autophagy drives apoptosis in malignant mesothelioma and NSCLC cells. Malignant mesothelioma MSTO-211H and A549 NSCLC cells were treated with pemetrexed and simvastatin alone and in combination to evaluate their effect on autophagy and apoptosis. Cotreatment with pemetrexed and simvastatin induced greater caspase-dependent apoptosis and autophagy than either drug alone in malignant mesothelioma and NSCLC cells. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA), ATG5 siRNA, bafilomycin A, and E64D/pepstatin A enhanced the apoptotic potential of pemetrexed and simvastatin, whereas rapamycin and LY294002 attenuated their induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Our data indicate that pemetrexed and simvastatin cotreatment augmented apoptosis and autophagy in malignant mesothelioma and NSCLC cells. Inhibition of pemetrexed and simvastatin-induced autophagy was shown to enhance apoptosis, suggesting that this could be a novel therapeutic strategy against malignant mesothelioma and NSCLC. PMID:26334320

  11. Role of bcl-2 oncoprotein in oral potentially malignant disorders and squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

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    V M Sudha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The product of bcl-2 gene, bcl-2 protein, an anti-apoptotic protein, is known to be over-expressed in potentially malignant disorders and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oral cavity. The aim of this study is to compare the topographical aspect and degree of bcl-2 over-expression in potentially malignant disorders including leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF, and oral lichen planus (OLP, with that of the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and to determine whether bcl-2 protein can be considered as a tumor marker. Materials and Methods : A group of 60 histo-pathologically diagnosed, formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue samples was included in the study. The study group was further subdivided into four groups: Group I, consisting of oral leukoplakia; Group II, OSMF; Group III, OLP and Group IV, OSCC. These samples were collected from Government Dental College, Bangalore, and then subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC staining using indirect immunoenzyme labeled streptavidin biotin (LSAB method. Results : Out of 30 cases of OSCC: 11 (36.7% cases showed greater supra-basal keratinocyte staining; 15 (50% cases showed greater number of positive cells in the basal cell layer, with relatively less number of supra-basal cells showing positive staining; and, rest of the 4 (13.3% cases did not show convincing staining. Among the total 30 cases of potentially malignant disorders: 10 each of leukoplakia, OSMF and OLP, 2 (20%, 2 (20%, 4 (40% of the cases showed greater supra-basal cell layer positive staining and 8 (80%, 6 (60%, 6 (60% of them showed greater basal cell staining, respectively. Two cases of OSMF did not show convincing staining. In the cases that were bcl-2 positive: 2 (6.67% of the OSCC, 3 (30% of leukoplakia, 2 (20% of OSMF and 1 (10% of OLP, showed more than 50% of the cells positive. 25-50% cells were positive in 21 (70% of OSCC, 6 (60% of leukoplakia, 4 (40% of OSMF and 6 (60% of OLP cases. 10

  12. Clinical and cytological study of the oral mucosa of smoking and non-smoking qat chewers in Yemen.

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    Hijazi, M; Jentsch, H; Al-Sanabani, J; Tawfik, M; Remmerbach, T W

    2016-05-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the role of qat and smoking habits on the prevalence of visible and cytological abnormalities in the oral mucosa among Yemenites. We recruited 30 non-smoking and 30 smoking Yemenites chewing qat unilaterally for at least 5 years. We inspected oral cavities for the presence of lesions and took brush biopsies from the buccal mucosa/gingiva of the chewing/non-chewing region. All visible oral lesions were flat and homogeneous, and cytological changes were detected frequently. Among both non-smokers and smokers, white lesions and cytological changes were detected in 77% of all cases. On the chewing area, the proportion with white lesions ranged--depending on anatomical area and smoking status--between 47 and 93% and was significantly more frequent than on the non-chewing side (range 3-47%). The proportion of regions with changes was similar in non-smokers and smokers. Kappa statistics for "interobserver" agreement between visual inspection and cytological specimens of brush biopsies was at best fair (≤0.25). The high prevalence of visible lesions and cytological abnormalities among qat chewers was independent of smoking status. The moderate level of agreement between visual inspection and exfoliative cytology demonstrates the still challenging clinical management of chronic qat chewers, though brush biopsies including adjuvant techniques like DNA cytometry may support the clinical decision-making process in future.

  13. Evaluation of the metastatic potential of malignant cells by image processing of digital holographic microscopy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calin, Violeta L; Mihailescu, Mona; Scarlat, Eugen I; Baluta, Alexandra V; Calin, Daniel; Kovacs, Eugenia; Savopol, Tudor; Moisescu, Mihaela G

    2017-10-01

    The cell refractive index has been proposed as a putative cancer biomarker of great potential, being correlated with cell content and morphology, cell division rate and membrane permeability. We used digital holographic microscopy to compare the refractive index and dry mass density of two B16 murine melanoma sublines of different metastatic potential. Using statistical methods, the distribution of phase shifts within the reconstructed quantitative phase images was analyzed by the method of bimodality coefficients. The observed correlation of refractive index, dry mass density and bimodality profile with the metastatic potential of the cells was validated by real time impedance-based assay and clonogenic tests. We suggest that the refractive index and bimodality analysis of quantitative phase image histograms could be developed as optical biomarkers useful in label-free detection and quantitative evaluation of cell metastatic potential.

  14. Oral active vitamin d therapy as a potential chemoprevention against post-transplant malignancy

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    Yoshitsugu Obi

    2012-06-01

    Our results suggest a novel potential strategy to prevent PTM by using a normal dose of AVDs with a well-known safety profile. A randomized controlled trial should be performed to confirm our findings.

  15. Evaluation of the metastatic potential of malignant cells by image processing of digital holographic microscopy data

    OpenAIRE

    Calin, Violeta L.; Mihailescu, Mona; Scarlat, Eugen I.; Baluta, Alexandra V.; Calin, Daniel; Kovacs, Eugenia; Savopol, Tudor; Moisescu, Mihaela G.

    2017-01-01

    The cell refractive index has been proposed as a putative cancer biomarker of great potential, being correlated with cell content and morphology, cell division rate and membrane permeability. We used digital holographic microscopy to compare the refractive index and dry mass density of two B16 murine melanoma sublines of different metastatic potential. Using statistical methods, the distribution of phase shifts within the reconstructed quantitative phase images was analyzed by the method of b...

  16. Long-term outcome of primary Papillary Urothelial Neoplasm of Low Malignant Potential (PUNLMP) including PUNLMP with inverted growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Jay P; Wang, Cheng; Wiebe, Nicholas; Yilmaz, Asli; Trpkov, Kiril

    2015-03-13

    Few larger studies have evaluated the long-term outcome after a diagnosis of papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), demonstrating a broad range of recurrence and progression rates. Additionally, no study has addressed the outcome of PUNLMP exhibiting inverted growth. We evaluated the long term clinical outcome of primary papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), including PUNLMP with inverted growth in a large single center study. We evaluated 189 primary PUNLMP (177 exophytic, 12 inverted), diagnosed from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009, in a centralized uropathology practice. We excluded PUNLMP diagnosed after a previous or with a concurrent urothelial neoplasm. Recurrence was defined as any subsequent urothelial neoplasm, regardless of the grade. Progression was defined as any subsequent higher-grade or invasive urothelial neoplasm. Recurrence and progression were established only if documented on a subsequent biopsy. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed using Microsof Excel software package. The location of PUNLMP included bladder (187) and renal pelvis and ureter (1 each). After a median follow-up of 61 months (range, 9-128 months), 20.1% patients developed a recurrence. Recurrence with PUNLMP only was found in 9% of patients. Subsequent low-grade urothelial carcinoma was documented in 9.5% of patients. Progression to high-grade urothelial carcinoma was found in 1.6% patients (1% with muscle invasion). No patients with recurrent PUNLMP or subsequent low-grade carcinoma demonstrated invasion. All patients with PUNLMP exhibiting an inverted growth had no recurrence or progression on follow-up. In this study, primary PUNLMP recurred primarily either as PUNLMP or low grade urothelial carcinoma. Primary PUNLMP rarely progressed to high grade or invasive carcinoma on long term follow-up. No recurrence or progression was documented on follow-up for PUNLMP that demonstrated exclusively inverted

  17. Immunohistochemical expression of p53, p16 and hTERT in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorders

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    Aline Correa Abrahao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral carcinogenesis is a multi-step process. One possible step is the development of potentially malignant disorders known as leukoplakia and erytroplakia. The objective of this study was to use immunohistochemistry to analyze the patterns of expression of the cell-cycle regulatory proteins p53 and p16INK4a in potentially malignant disorders (PMD of the oral mucosa (with varying degrees of dysplasia and in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC to correlate them with the expression of telomerase (hTERT. Fifteen PMD and 30 OSCC tissue samples were analyzed. Additionally, 5 cases of oral epithelial hyperplasia (OEH were added to analyze clinically altered mucosa presenting as histological hyperplasia without dysplasia. p53 positivity was observed in 93.3% of PMD, in 63.3% of OSCC and in 80% of OEH. Although there was no correlation between p53 expression and the grade of dysplasia, all cases with severe dysplasia presented p53 suprabasal immunoexpression. p16INK4a expression was observed in 26.7% of PMD, in 43.3% of OSCC and in 2 cases of OEH. The p16INK4a expression in OEH, PMD and OSCC was unable to differentiate non-dysplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. hTERT positivity was observed in all samples of OEH and PMD and in 90% of OSCC. The high hTERT immunoexpression in all three lesions indicates that telomerase is present in clinically altered oral mucosa but does not differentiate hyperplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. In PMD of the oral mucosa, the p53 immunoexpression changes according to the degree of dysplasia by mechanisms independent of p16INK4a and hTERT.

  18. Down-regulation of malignant potential by alpha linolenic acid in human and mouse colon cancer cells.

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    Chamberland, John P; Moon, Hyun-Seuk

    2015-03-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (also called ω-3 fatty acis or n-3 fatty acid) are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. Numerous test tube and animal studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids may prevent or inhibit the growth of cancers, suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids are important in cancer physiology. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is one of an essential omega-3 fatty acid and organic compound found in seeds (chia and flaxseed), nuts (notably walnuts), and many common vegetable oils. ALA has also been shown to down-regulate cell proliferation of prostate, breast, and bladder cancer cells. However, direct evidence that ALA suppresses to the development of colon cancer has not been studied. Also, no previous studies have evaluated whether ALA may regulate malignant potential (adhesion, invasion and colony formation) in colon cancer cells. In order to address the questions above, we conducted in vitro studies and evaluated whether ALA may down-regulate malignant potential in human (HT29 and HCT116) and mouse (MCA38) colon cancer cell lines. We observed that treatment with 1-5 mM of ALA inhibits cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion in both human and mouse colon cancer cell lines. Interestingly, we observed that ALA did not decrease total colony numbers when compared to control. By contrast, we found that size of colony was significantly changed by ALA treatment when compared to control in all colon cancer cell lines. We suggest that our data enhance our current knowledge of ALA's mechanism and provide crucial information to further the development of new therapies for the management or chemoprevention of colon cancer.

  19. Female Adnexial Tumor of Probable Wolffian Origin (FATWO) without Ki-67 Expression Reflecting Low Malignant Potential in a 55-Year-Old Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahyaoglu, Serkan; Kahyaoglu, Inci; Sirvan, Levent; Sengul, Ilker; Timur, Hakan; Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla

    2012-12-01

    Female adnexial tumors of probable Wolffian origin (FATWO) are rare tumors derived from the remnants of the mesonephric duct. These tumors generally exhibit a low malignant potential, but recurrence and or metastasis is possible during the course of the disease according to the tumors' possible malignant potential. We report a case of FATWO without estrogen and progesterone receptors and with negative immunostaining for Ki-67 (a proliferation marker) as a probable low-malignant-potential tumor. A 55-year-old woman presented with a complaint of heavy menstrual bleeding and pelvic pain. Pre-operative ultrasonographic evaluation revealed an intramural uterine leiomyoma of 4 cm in diameter and a right adnexial solid mass measuring 5 cm in diameter. Following total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, immunostaining based on the labeled streptavidin-biotin method was performed on sections from representative blocks of paraffin-embedded tissues sampled from the mass, revealing a low mitotic index with negative Ki-67 immunostaining. Immunohistochemical staining with promising new markers and pathological investigation of the entire tumor are needed to determine the malignant behavior of an individual FATWO. Ki-67 is a helpful marker for determining Wolffian duct tumors' potential malignant behavior.

  20. Urinary Exosomes: The Potential for Biomarker Utility, Intercellular Signaling and Therapeutics in Urological Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Carrie A; Blackwell, Robert H; Foreman, Kimberly E; Kuo, Paul C; Flanigan, Robert C; Gupta, Gopal N

    2016-05-01

    Exosomes are small secreted vesicles that contain proteins, mRNA and miRNA with the potential to alter signaling pathways in recipient cells. While exosome research has flourished, few publications have specifically considered the role of genitourinary cancer shed exosomes in urine, their implication in disease progression and their usefulness as noninvasive biomarkers. In this review we examined the current literature on the role of exosomes in intercellular communication and as biomarkers, and their potential as delivery vehicles for therapeutic applications in bladder, prostate and renal cancer. We searched PubMed® and Google® with the key words prostate cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, exosomes, microvesicles and urine. Relevant articles, including original research studies and reviews, were selected based on contents. A review of this literature was generated. Cancer exosomes can be isolated from urine using various techniques. Cancer cells have been found to secrete more exosomes than normal cells. These exosomes have a role in cellular communication by interacting with and depositing their cargo in target cells. Bladder, prostate and renal cancer exosomes have been shown to enhance migration, invasion and angiogenesis. These exosomes have also been shown to increase proliferation, confer drug resistance and promote immune evasion. Urinary exosomes can be isolated from bladder, kidney and prostate cancer. They serve as a potential reservoir for biomarker identification. Exosomes also have potential for therapeutics as siRNA or pharmacological agents can be loaded into exosomes. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Production of carcinogenic acetaldehyde by Candida albicans from patients with potentially malignant oral mucosal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainza-Cirauqui, M L; Nieminen, M T; Novak Frazer, L; Aguirre-Urizar, J M; Moragues, M D; Rautemaa, R

    2013-03-01

    Production of carcinogenic acetaldehyde by Candida has been suggested to contribute to epithelial dysplasia and oral carcinogenesis. Oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesion (OLL) and oral leukoplakia (OL) are potentially carcinogenic oral diseases where colonisation by Candida is common, but acetaldehyde production by Candida has not been studied. Acetaldehyde production in ethanol (11 mM), glucose (100 mM), ethanol-glucose (11 mM and 100 mM) or red wine (1200 mM ethanol) incubation by Candida albicans from patients with OLL (n = 6), OLP (n = 16), OL (n = 6) and controls (n = 6) was measured by gas chromatography. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding their smoking habits and alcohol consumption. All Candida albicans isolates produced potentially carcinogenic levels of acetaldehyde (>100 μM) in all incubations containing ethanol. The control group isolates produced the highest acetaldehyde levels. Isolates from smokers produced more acetaldehyde in all incubations than those from non-smokers. The difference was significant in ethanol-glucose incubation. Isolates from patients who were both smokers and drinkers produced the highest amounts when incubated in ethanol, ethanol-glucose and wine. Candida albicans isolated from potentially carcinogenic oral diseases can produce mutagenic amounts of acetaldehyde. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption may favour adaptational changes resulting in the upregulation of candidal acetaldehyde metabolism. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. All rights reserved.

  2. Ascorbic acid, but not dehydroascorbic acid increases intracellular vitamin C content to decrease Hypoxia Inducible Factor -1 alpha activity and reduce malignant potential in human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Adam P; Miles, Sarah L

    2017-02-01

    Accumulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) in malignant tissue is known to contribute to oncogenic progression and is inversely associated with patient survival. Ascorbic acid (AA) depletion in malignant tissue may contribute to aberrant normoxic activity of HIF-1α. While AA supplementation has been shown to attenuate HIF-1α function in malignant melanoma, the use of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) as a therapeutic means to increase intracellular AA and modulate HIF-1α function is yet to be evaluated. Here we compared the ability of AA and DHA to increase intracellular vitamin C content and decrease the malignant potential of human melanoma by reducing the activity of HIF-1α. HIF-1α protein accumulation was evaluated by western blot and transcriptional activity was evaluated by reporter gene assay using a HIF-1 HRE-luciferase plasmid. Protein expressions and subcellular localizations of vitamin C transporters were evaluated by western blot and confocal imaging. Intracellular vitamin C content following AA, ascorbate 2-phosphate (A2P), or DHA supplementation was determined using a vitamin C assay. Malignant potential was accessed using a 3D spheroid Matrigel invasion assay. Data was analyzed by One or Two-way ANOVA with Tukey's multiple comparisons test as appropriate with pascorbic acid as an adjuvant cancer therapy remains under investigated. While AA and A2P were capable of modulating HIF-1α protein accumulation/activity, DHA supplementation resulted in minimal intracellular vitamin C activity with decreased ability to inhibit HIF-1α activity and malignant potential in advanced melanoma. Restoring AA dependent regulation of HIF-1α in malignant cells may prove beneficial in reducing chemotherapy resistance and improving treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Smokeless Tobacco and Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders in South Asia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zohaib; Khan, Sheraz; Christianson, Lara; Rehman, Sara; Ekwunife, Obinna; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence

    2016-12-07

    Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMDs) are chronic lesions or conditions characterized by a potential for malignant transformation. While recent meta-analyses show that smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is a risk factor for oral cancer in South Asia, there is a lack of pooled evidence regarding SLT use and the development of OPMDs. We searched Medline via PubMed, the Science Citation Index (SCI) via Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, Global Index Medicus and Google Scholar databases for relevant literature using a combination of keywords and MeSH terms. Eighteen case-control studies were included in the review, all of which reported significantly elevated risk estimates for OPMDs associated with SLT use. Overall and subgroup, Meta Odds Ratios (mOR) were calculated through a random effects analysis using "generic inverse variance" method in Rev Man 5.3. Heterogeneity was quantified by calculating the I (2) statistic. The mOR for any OPMD with the use of any SLT product was 15.5 [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 9.9-24.2]. Women had a higher risk, mOR = 22.2 (95% CI, 9.1-54.1) compared to men, mOR = 8.7 (95% CI, 2.1-34.8). Betel quid with tobacco carried the highest risk for OPMD, mOR = 16.1 (95% CI, 7.8-33.5). Although the cumulative evidence is informed by case-control studies only, the magnitude of the pooled estimates and the presence of exposure-response indicate a very strong association between OPMDs and SLT use. In addition to tobacco control, results of this review may help in informing oral cancer control policies in South Asia, since OPMDs lie on the causal pathway for oral cancer. More than 250 million South and South East Asians use SLT in some form. As cigarettes prices climb up all over the world, more people could potentially take up SLT, particularly in the absence of epidemiological evidence regarding the harmful effects of these products, and SLT being advocated as a means of tobacco harm reduction. Our findings are thus relevant and timely in

  4. Utility of chemiluminescence (ViziLite™) in the detection of oral potentially malignant disorders and benign keratoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, K H; Morgan, P R; Warnakulasuriya, S

    2011-08-01

     Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) are known to precede the development of oral cancer. Detection of OPMD allows delivery of interventions that may reduce the evolution of these disorders to malignancy. Following oral examinations, the accuracy of detection of OPMD by chemiluminescence was evaluated using a commercially available detection kit - ViziLite. Data derived were compared in relation to conventional oral examination and surgical biopsy. A total of 126 patients, 70 men and 56 women (mean age 58.5 ± 11.9 years) attending Oral Medicine Clinics at King's and Guy's Hospitals, London, with oral white, red, and mixed white and red patches were enrolled. Sixty-one patients were current smokers, 28 were ex-smokers, while 92 were alcohol users. In a detailed investigation, these patients underwent ViziLite examination followed by surgical biopsy.  Based on the clinical diagnosis, 70 patients had oral leukoplakia/erythroplakia, 32 had oral lichen planus, nine had chronic hyperplastic candidiasis, and rest had frictional keratosis (13) or oral submucous fibrosis (2). Of 126 lesions, 95 (75.4%) showed aceto-whitening. Most oral leukoplakias had enhanced visibility and sharpness of the lesion when viewed with the ViziLite system. Following biopsy, 44 had oral epithelial dysplasia (29 mild, eight moderate, and seven severe). The sensitivity (se) and specificity (sp) of chemiluminescence for the detection of a dysplastic lesion were 77.3% and 27.8%, respectively. While ViziLite has the ability to detect OPMD, it does not accurately delineate dysplastic lesions. The device can be used as a general oral mucosal examination system and may in particular improve the visualization of leukoplakias. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Imaging mitochondrial dynamics in human skin reveals depth-dependent hypoxia and malignant potential for diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouli, Dimitra; Balu, Mihaela; Alonzo, Carlo A; Liu, Zhiyi; Quinn, Kyle P; Rius-Diaz, Francisca; Harris, Ronald M; Kelly, Kristen M; Tromberg, Bruce J; Georgakoudi, Irene

    2016-11-30

    Active changes in mitochondrial structure and organization facilitate cellular homeostasis. Because aberrant mitochondrial dynamics are implicated in a variety of human diseases, their assessment is potentially useful for diagnosis, therapy, and disease monitoring. Because current techniques for evaluating mitochondrial morphology are invasive or necessitate mitochondria-specific dyes, their clinical translation is limited. We report that mitochondrial dynamics can be monitored in vivo, within intact human skin by relying entirely on endogenous two-photon-excited fluorescence from the reduced metabolic coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). We established the sensitivity of this approach with in vivo, fast temporal studies of arterial occlusion-reperfusion, which revealed acute changes in the mitochondrial metabolism and dynamics of the lower human epidermal layers. In vitro hypoxic-reperfusion studies validated that the in vivo outcomes were a result of NADH fluorescence changes. To demonstrate the diagnostic potential of this approach, we evaluated healthy and cancerous human skin epithelia. Healthy tissues displayed consistent, depth-dependent morphological and mitochondrial organization patterns that varied with histological stratification and intraepithelial mitochondrial protein expression. In contrast, these consistent patterns were absent in cancerous skin lesions. We exploited these differences to successfully differentiate healthy from cancerous tissues using a predictive classification approach. Collectively, these results demonstrate that our label-free, automated, near real-time assessments of mitochondrial organization-relying solely on endogenous contrast-could be useful for accurate, noninvasive in vivo diagnosis. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a potential targeting agent for delivery of boron to malignant gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J.; Barth, R.F.; Adams, D.M.; Bailey, M.Q.; Soloway, A.H. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Carlsson, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Sciences

    1994-12-31

    The majority of high grade gliomas express an amplified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and this often is associated with an increase in cell surface receptor expression. The rapid internalization and degradation of EGF-EGFR complexes, as well as their high affinity make EGF a potential targeting agent for delivery of {sup 10}B to tumor cells with an amplified number of EGFR. Human glioma cells can expresses as many as 10{sup 5} {minus}10{sup 6} EGF receptors per cell, and if these could be saturated with boronated EGF, then > 10{sup 8} boron atoms would be delivered per cell. Since EGF has a comparatively low molecular weight ({approximately} 6 kD), this has allowed us to construct relatively small bioconjugates containing {approximately} 900 boron atoms per EGF molecule{sup 3}, which also had high affinity for EGFR on tumor cells. In the present study, the feasibility of using EGF receptors as a potential target for therapy of gliomas was investigated by in vivo scintigraphic studies using {sup 131}I{minus} or {sup 99m}{Tc}-labeled EGF in a rat brain tumor model. Our results indicate that intratumorally delivered boron- EGF conjugates might be useful for targeting EGFR on glioma cells if the boron containing moiety of the conjugates persisted intracellularly. Further studies are required, however, to determine if this approach can be used for BNCT of the rat glioma.

  7. Puromycin based inhibitors of aminopeptidases for the potential treatment of hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit; Williams, Jessica; Vince, Robert

    2017-10-20

    Substantial progress has been described in the study of puromycin and its analogs for antibiotic properties. However, the peptidase inhibitory activity of related analogs has not been explored as extensively. Specifically, inhibiting aminopeptidases for achieving antitumor effect has been sparsely investigated. Herein, we address this challenge by reporting the synthesis of a series of analogs based on the structural template of puromycin. We also present exhaustive biochemical and in vitro analyses in support of our thesis. Analyzing the structure-activity relationship revealed a steric requirement for maximum potency. Effective inhibitors of Puromycin-Sensitive Aminopeptidase (PSA) are disclosed here. These potential therapeutic agents display superior in vitro antitumor potency against two leukemic cell lines, as compared to known inhibitors of aminopeptidases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. [Treatment by non-physicians of skin diseases--including potentially malignant diseases with lasers and intense pulsed light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Wulf, Hans Christian O; Stender, Ida-Marie; Haedersdal, Merete

    2006-11-06

    Laser and IPL treatment by non-physicians raises professional concern. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate laser and IPL treatment carried out by non-physicians and to assess the level of pre-treatment information given to patients. Approached clinics were found by internet-searches and from advertisements in telephone directories and national newspapers. The target group was clinics in Zealand that offer laser or IPL treatment of pigmented lesions, pigmented nevi, sun-damaged skin, acne and/or unwanted hair growth. The investigation did not include specialised clinics run by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. By means of anonymous telephone calls the clinics were presented for standardized questions under the pretext of being a potential client. Of 28 clinics investigated, 93% offered treatment for unwanted hair growth, 75% for pigmented lesions, 50% for acne, 36% for possible actinic keratoses and 29% for pigmented nevi. Medical examination was an exception (11%). In none of the clinics were medical examinations performed by specialists in dermatology or plastic surgery. Cosmeticians or nurses generally gave the laser and IPL treatments. In 57% of the clinics patients were informed that the treatment did not have any risks. In June treatment was offered in 79% of the clinics, 18% of which mentioned that no special precautions were necessary when treating in sunny periods. Laser and IPL treatment of skin diseases, including potential malignant diseases, is carried out by non-physicians and pre-treatment information contains major errors and shortcomings.

  9. Human BK Polyomavirus—The Potential for Head and Neck Malignancy and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Burger-Calderon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the human Polyomaviridae family are ubiquitous and pathogenic among immune-compromised individuals. While only Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV has conclusively been linked to human cancer, all members of the polyomavirus (PyV family encode the oncoprotein T antigen and may be potentially carcinogenic. Studies focusing on PyV pathogenesis in humans have become more abundant as the number of PyV family members and the list of associated diseases has expanded. BK polyomavirus (BKPyV in particular has emerged as a new opportunistic pathogen among HIV positive individuals, carrying harmful implications. Increasing evidence links BKPyV to HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIVSGD. HIVSGD is associated with elevated risk of lymphoma formation and its prevalence has increased among HIV/AIDS patients. Determining the relationship between BKPyV, disease and tumorigenesis among immunosuppressed individuals is necessary and will allow for expanding effective anti-viral treatment and prevention options in the future.

  10. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Roberts; Dianne M. Runk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3–0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10–30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumo...

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF POTENTIALLY MALIGNANT PULMONARY NODULES IN HIGH-RISK MALE SMOKERS DETECTED IN LUNG CANCER SCREENING TRIAL IN CRACOW, POLAND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiszka, Kinga; Rudnicka-Sosin, Lucyna; Tomaszewska, Romana; Urbanczyk-Zawadzka, Malgorzata; Krupinski, Maciej; Pikul, Patrycja; Podsiadlo, Kaja; Pasowicz, Mieczyslaw; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Miszalski-Jamka, Tomasz

    The purpose of this paper was to present morphological characteristics of potentially malignant nodules revealed in a group of male smokers aged 50-74 with a very high risk for developing lung cancer estimated in the study for lung cancer screening in Cracow (Poland). Nine hundred male smokers aged

  12. The Occurrence of Potentially Malignant Disorders in the Oral Cavity: A Survey from Bagru-Khurd of Rural Jaipur, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Siddharth

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: India accounts for about 33% of the world’s oral cancer as a result of the prevailing unhealthy oral hygiene and detrimental oral habits, such as the consumption of smoked or smokeless tobacco. The objective of this study is to determine the occurrence of premalignant lesions and conditions in the oral cavity among the different age groups and gender in the Bagru-Khurd region of rural Jaipur (Rajasthan and to assess the degree of awareness of the ill–effects of consuming smoked or smokeless tobacco. Material and Methods: In this study 114 patients presenting premalignant lesions or conditions were included. They had been reported in the OPD records of the Rajasthan Dental College and Hospital. Results: Predominantly potentially malignant disorders were observed within the age group of 30-60 years, among which smoker’s palate lesions were most predominant. Besides, Leukoplakia and Tobacco pouch keratosis were also presented in some. Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSF and smoker’s melanosis as premalignant conditions were presented in a few. Conclusion: Although the elderly and most women were aware of the ill-effects of tobacco consumption, several patients were unaware.

  13. Performance of F-18 FDG PET/CT for Predicting Malignant Potential of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Jang; Lee, Sang-Woo

    2017-10-10

    We aimed to explore the role of the diagnostic accuracy of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) or positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for prediction of malignant potential of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library database, from the earliest available date of indexing through May 31, 2017, were searched for studies evaluating the diagnostic performance of F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT for prediction of malignant potential of GIST. We determined the sensitivities and specificities across studies, calculated positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-), and constructed summary receiver operating characteristic curves. Across 7 studies (188 patients), the pooled sensitivity for F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT was 0.88 (95% CI; 0.80-0.94) without heterogeneity (χ(2) =6.15, p=0.72) and a pooled specificity of 0.88 (95% CI; 0.75-0.94) with heterogeneity (χ(2) =23.2, p= 0.01). Likelihood ratio (LR) syntheses gave an overall positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 7.2 (95% CI; 3.3-15.3) and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) of 0.13 (95% CI; 0.07-0.24). The pooled DOR was 54 (95% CI; 16-181). F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of malignant potential of GIST. At present, the literature regarding the use of F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT for the prediction of malignant potential of GIST remains still limited; thus, further large multicenter studies would be necessary to substantiate the diagnostic accuracy of F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT prediction of malignant potential of GIST. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigating potential exogenous tumor initiating and promoting factors for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas (CTCL), a rare skin malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litvinov, Ivan V.; Shtreis, Anna; Kobayashi, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    as well as in other areas of the United States. Multiple infectious, occupational, and medication causes have been proposed as triggers or promoters of this malignancy including hydrochlorothiazide diuretics, Staphylococcus aureus, dermatophytes, Mycobacterium leprae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, human T...

  15. Morphological characteristics of potentially malignant pulmonary nodules in high-risk male smokers detected in lung cancer screening trial in Cracow, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiszka, K; Rudnicka-Sosin, L; Tomaszewska, R; Urbańczyk-Zawadzka, M; Krupiński, M; Pikul, P; Podsiadło, K; Pasowicz, M; Vliegenthart, R; Oudkerk, M; Miszalski-Jamka, T

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to present morphological characteristics of potentially malignant nodules revealed in a group of male smokers aged 50-74 with a very high risk for developing lung cancer estimated in the study for lung cancer screening in Cracow (Poland). Nine hundred male smokers aged 50 to 74 years were invited to the study and were asked in questionnaires about e.g. smoking exposure history. Exclusion criteria included e.g. positive cancer history and chest computed tomography (CT) examination in the previous year. Based on CT results and characteristics of pulmonary nodules subjects were classified to group A (low risk), group B (indeterminate) and group C (high-risk individuals - required work-up). Final diagnosis was based on pathological results of postoperative material. Thirty-nine males of mean age 63.4 (standard deviation (SD): 6.69 years) revealed 41 potentially malignant pulmonary nodules in baseline screening. In 14 subjects 16 type C pulmonary nodules were histologically proved. Nine nodules were found to be benign lesions, while 7 nodules revealed malignant lung cancer: 5 cases of adenocarcinoma and 2 cases of adenosquamous carcinoma. We determined morphological characteristics of potentially malignant pulmonary nodules in 39 high-risk male smokers and proved lung cancer in 7 subjects.

  16. Clinical assessment to screen for the detection of oral cavity cancer and potentially malignant disorders in apparently healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Tanya; Liu, Joseph L Y; Brocklehurst, Paul; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Lingen, Mark; Kerr, Alexander R; Ogden, Graham; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Scully, Crispian

    2013-11-21

    The early detection and excision of potentially malignant disorders (PMD) of the lip and oral cavity that require intervention may reduce malignant transformations (though will not totally eliminate malignancy occurring), or if malignancy is detected during surveillance, there is some evidence that appropriate treatment may improve survival rates. To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of conventional oral examination (COE), vital rinsing, light-based detection, biomarkers and mouth self examination (MSE), used singly or in combination, for the early detection of PMD or cancer of the lip and oral cavity in apparently healthy adults. We searched MEDLINE (OVID) (1946 to April 2013) and four other electronic databases (the Cochrane Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies Register, the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, EMBASE (OVID), and MEDION) from inception to April 2013. The electronic databases were searched on 30 April 2013. There were no restrictions on language in the searches of the electronic databases. We conducted citation searches, and screened reference lists of included studies for additional references. We selected studies that reported the diagnostic test accuracy of any of the aforementioned tests in detecting PMD or cancer of the lip or oral cavity. Diagnosis of PMD or cancer was made by specialist clinicians or pathologists, or alternatively through follow-up. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for relevance. Eligibility, data extraction and quality assessment were carried out by at least two authors independently and in duplicate. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using QUADAS-2. We reported the sensitivity and specificity of the included studies. Thirteen studies, recruiting 68,362 participants, were included. These studies evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of COE (10 studies), MSE (two studies). One randomised controlled of test accuracy trial directly evaluated COE and vital rinsing. There were no

  17. Prevalence, distribution and factors associated with the presence and the potential for malignancy of cutaneous neoplasms in 174 dogs admitted to a clinic in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldrymidou, H; Leontides, L; Koutinas, A F; Saridomichelakis, M N; Karayannopoulou, M

    2002-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-four dogs diagnosed with cutaneous neoplasms in the Animal Medical and Surgical Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, were studied. Thirty-one types of neoplasm were diagnosed, among which mast cell tumours (13.8%), hepatoid gland adenomas (9.8%), lipomas (5.7%) and histiocytomas (5.7%) were the most common. The prevalence of epithelial, mesenchymal, lymphohistiocytic and melanocytic tumours was 47.7, 40.8, 8.6 and 2.9%, respectively. Potentially malignant neoplasms were less frequently recorded than benign neoplasms. The tumours were single (80.5%) or multiple (19.5%) and located on the head and neck (18.4%), the body trunk (49.4%), the limbs (25.9%) or at multiple sites (6.3%). The factors evaluated in multivariable logistic regression models for possible association with the odds of a tumour's potential for malignancy included the age, the sex and the breed of the dog, as well as the histological type of the neoplasm. Dogs with mesenchymal tumours had two times higher odds of potential for malignancy than those with epithelial tumours. In contrast, dogs with either lymphohistiocytic or melanocytic tumours did not have increased risk of malignancy compared with dogs with epithelial tumours. The odds of tumour malignancy linearly increased with increasing age of the dog by a factor of 1.1 per year. Finally, the effect of the sex and the breed of the dog on the risk of developing cutaneous neoplasms was investigated in an age-matched case-control sample of 348 dogs by conditional logistic regression analysis. The odds of neoplasm presence were two times higher in pure bred dogs than in mongrels but did not differ between cross-breeds and mongrels.

  18. Smoking and drinking in relation to oral potentially malignant disorders in Puerto Rico: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morse Douglas E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral cancer incidence is high on the Island of Puerto Rico (PR, particularly among males. As part of a larger study conducted in PR, we evaluated smoking and drinking as risk factors for oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs. Methods Persons diagnosed with either an OPMD (n = 86 [oral epithelial dysplasia (OED, oral hyperkeratosis/epithelial hyperplasia without OED] or a benign oral tissue condition (n = 155 were identified through PR pathology laboratories. Subjects were interviewed using a standardized, structured questionnaire that obtained information, including detailed histories of smoking and drinking. Odds ratios (ORs for smoking and drinking in relation to having an OPMD, relative to persons with a benign oral tissue condition, were obtained using logistic regression and adjusted for age, gender, education, fruit/vegetable intake and smoking or drinking. Results For persons with an OPMD and relative to individuals with a benign oral tissue condition, the adjusted OR for current smoking was 4.32 (95% CI: 1.99-9.38, while for former smokers, the ORadj was 1.47 (95% CI: 0.67-3.21, each ORadj relative to never smokers. With regard to drinking, no adjusted ORs approached statistical significance, and few point estimates exceeded 1.0, whether consumption was defined in terms of ever, current, level (drinks/week, or beverage type. Conclusions In this study, conducted in Puerto Rico, current smoking was a substantial risk factor for OPMDs while former smokers had a considerably reduced risk compared to current smokers. There was little evidence suggesting that alcohol consumption was positively associated with OPMD risk.

  19. Doxycycline potentiates antitumor effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Jen; Hung, Shih-Hsuan; Huang, Mu-Ching; Tsai, Tsuimin; Chen, Chin-Tin

    2017-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common neurocutaneous disorders. Some NF1 patients develop benign large plexiform neurofibroma(s) at birth, which can then transform into a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). There is no curative treatment for this rapidly progressive and easily metastatic neurofibrosarcoma. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been developed as an anti-cancer treatment, and 5-aminolevulinic (ALA) mediated PDT (ALA-PDT) has been used to treat cutaneous skin and oral neoplasms. Doxycycline, a tetracycline derivative, can substantially reduce the tumor burden in human and animal models, in addition to its antimicrobial effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect and to investigate the mechanism of action of combined doxycycline and ALA-PDT treatment of MPNST cells. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that the combination of ALA-PDT and doxycycline significantly reduce MPNST survival rate, compared to cells treated with each therapy alone. Isobologram analysis showed that the combined treatment had a synergistic effect. The increased cytotoxic activity could be seen by an increase in cellular protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation. Furthermore, we found that the higher retention of PpIX was mainly due to increasing ALA uptake, rather than activity changes of the enzymes porphobilinogen deaminase and ferrochelatase. The combined treatment inhibited tumor growth in different tumor cell lines, but not in normal human Schwann cells or fibroblasts. Similarly, a synergistic interaction was also found in cells treated with ALA-PDT combined with minocycline, but not tetracycline. In summary, doxycycline can potentiate the effect of ALA-PDT to kill tumor cells. This increased potency allows for a dose reduction of doxycycline and photodynamic radiation, reducing the occurrence of toxic side effects in vivo.

  20. Drug-Loaded Nanoparticle Systems And Adult Stem Cells: A Potential Marriage For The Treatment Of Malignant Glioma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffinger, Brenda; Morshed, Ramin; Tobias, Alex; Cheng, Yu; Ahmed, Atique U; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2013-01-01

    Despite all recent advances in malignant glioma research, only modest progress has been achieved in improving patient prognosis and quality of life. Such a clinical scenario underscores the importance of investing in new therapeutic approaches that, when combined with conventional therapies, are able to effectively eradicate glioma infiltration and target distant tumor foci. Nanoparticle-loaded delivery systems have recently arisen as an exciting alternative to improve targeted anti-glioma drug delivery. As drug carriers, they are able to efficiently protect the therapeutic agent and allow for sustained drug release. In addition, their surface can be easily manipulated with the addition of special ligands, which are responsible for enhancing tumor-specific nanoparticle permeability. However, their inefficient intratumoral distribution and failure to target disseminated tumor burden still pose a big challenge for their implementation as a therapeutic option in the clinical setting. Stem cell-based delivery of drug-loaded nanoparticles offers an interesting option to overcome such issues. Their ability to incorporate nanoparticles and migrate throughout interstitial barriers, together with their inherent tumor-tropic properties and synergistic anti-tumor effects make these stem cell carriers a good fit for such combined therapy. In this review, we will describe the main nanoparticle delivery systems that are presently available in preclinical and clinical studies. We will discuss their mechanisms of targeting, current delivery methods, attractive features and pitfalls. We will also debate the potential applications of stem cell carriers loaded with therapeutic nanoparticles in anticancer therapy and why such an attractive combined approach has not yet reached clinical trials. PMID:23594406

  1. Doxycycline potentiates antitumor effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jen Lee

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 is one of the most common neurocutaneous disorders. Some NF1 patients develop benign large plexiform neurofibroma(s at birth, which can then transform into a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST. There is no curative treatment for this rapidly progressive and easily metastatic neurofibrosarcoma. Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been developed as an anti-cancer treatment, and 5-aminolevulinic (ALA mediated PDT (ALA-PDT has been used to treat cutaneous skin and oral neoplasms. Doxycycline, a tetracycline derivative, can substantially reduce the tumor burden in human and animal models, in addition to its antimicrobial effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect and to investigate the mechanism of action of combined doxycycline and ALA-PDT treatment of MPNST cells. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay showed that the combination of ALA-PDT and doxycycline significantly reduce MPNST survival rate, compared to cells treated with each therapy alone. Isobologram analysis showed that the combined treatment had a synergistic effect. The increased cytotoxic activity could be seen by an increase in cellular protoporphyrin IX (PpIX accumulation. Furthermore, we found that the higher retention of PpIX was mainly due to increasing ALA uptake, rather than activity changes of the enzymes porphobilinogen deaminase and ferrochelatase. The combined treatment inhibited tumor growth in different tumor cell lines, but not in normal human Schwann cells or fibroblasts. Similarly, a synergistic interaction was also found in cells treated with ALA-PDT combined with minocycline, but not tetracycline. In summary, doxycycline can potentiate the effect of ALA-PDT to kill tumor cells. This increased potency allows for a dose reduction of doxycycline and photodynamic radiation, reducing the occurrence of toxic side effects in vivo.

  2. High ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase expression in hepatocellular carcinoma denotes a poor prognosis with highly malignant potential.

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    Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Enooku, Kenichiro; Soroida, Yoko; Ohkawa, Ryunosuke; Kudo, Yotaro; Nakagawa, Hayato; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Shinzawa, Seiko; Moriya, Kyoji; Ohtomo, Natsuko; Nishikawa, Takako; Inoue, Yukiko; Tomiya, Tomoaki; Kojima, Soichi; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Koike, Kazuhiko; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ikeda, Hitoshi

    2014-05-01

    We previously reported the increased serum mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) activity in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mostly due to the increase in ubiquitous MtCK (uMtCK), and high uMtCK mRNA expression in HCC cell lines. We explored the mechanism(s) and the relevance of high uMtCK expression in HCC. In hepatitis C virus core gene transgenic mice, known to lose mitochondrial integrity in liver and subsequently develop HCC, uMtCK mRNA and protein levels were increased in HCC tissues but not in non-tumorous liver tissues. Transient overexpression of ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signaling box protein 9 (ASB9) reduced uMtCK protein levels in HCC cells, suggesting that increased uMtCK levels in HCC cells may be caused by increased gene expression and decreased protein degradation due to reduced ASB9 expression. The reduction of uMtCK expression by siRNA led to increased cell death, and reduced proliferation, migration and invasion in HCC cell lines. Then, consecutive 105 HCC patients, who underwent radiofrequency ablation with curative intent, were enrolled to analyze their prognosis. The patients with serum MtCK activity >19.4 U/L prior to the treatment had significantly shorter survival time than those with serum MtCK activity ≤ 19.4 U/L, where higher serum MtCK activity was retained as an independent risk for HCC-related death on multivariate analysis. In conclusion, high uMtCK expression in HCC may be caused by hepatocarcinogenesis per se but not by loss of mitochondrial integrity, of which ASB9 could be a negative regulator, and associated with highly malignant potential to suggest a poor prognosis. © 2013 UICC.

  3. Lymphatic vascular invasion in ovarian serous tumors of low malignant potential with stromal microinvasion: a case control study.

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    Sangoi, Ankur R; McKenney, Jesse K; Dadras, Soheil S; Longacre, Teri A

    2008-02-01

    Stromal microinvasion in ovarian serous tumors of low malignant potential (S-LMP) stratifies patients at long-term risk for disease progression independent of stage and primary ovarian histology. Despite the histologic impression and often-quoted incidence of lymphatic vascular invasion (LVI) in S-LMP with stromal microinvasion, there has been no formal evaluation in a case control series of S-LMP. The presence and extent of (LVI) was assessed in 20 S-LMP with stromal microinvasion and 20 S-LMP case controls without stromal microinvasion and compared with a series of low-grade and high-grade serous carcinomas using D2-40 monoclonal antibody recognizing podoplanin, a novel lymphatic endothelial marker. S-LMP case controls were matched for primary ovarian histology (usual vs. micropapillary), International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, and age (best possible match). The patterns of stromal microinvasion included individual eosinophilic cells and cell clusters, cribriform, simple and noncomplex branching papillae, and inverted macropapillae. Immunohistologic staining with D2-40 monoclonal antibody clearly identified intratumoral LVI in 12/20 (60%) S-LMP with stromal microinvasion and 0/20 S-LMP without stromal microinvasion. Although only 4/13 (31%) low-grade serous carcinomas and 7/20 (35%) high-grade serous carcinomas had intratumoral LVI, hilar LVI was more common in the carcinomas (15% low-grade; 69% high-grade). Intratumoral LVI in S-LMP ranged from focal (6 cases) to multifocal (6 cases, maximum of 5 discrete foci) in any 1 section and included isolated single cells, simple papillae, and in 1 case, cribriform glands. Multifocal LVI was identified in 1 study patient who was pregnant. One of the 12 S-LMP patients with LVI had an intra-abdominal recurrence with high-grade disease at 16 months; whereas all other patients with follow-up were free of disease. LVI in ovarian S-LMP was significantly associated with the presence of stromal

  4. MR spectroscopy of intracranial tuberculomas: A singlet peak at 3.8 ppm as potential marker to differentiate them from malignant tumors

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    Alfaro, David; Martinot, Carlos; Fayed, Nicolas; Gaskill-Shipley, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The diagnosis of intracranial tuberculomas is often challenging. Our purpose is to describe the most common metabolic patterns of tuberculomas by MR spectroscopy (MRS) with emphasis on potential specific markers. Methods Single-voxel MRS short echo time was performed in 13 cases of tuberculomas proven by histology and/or response to anti-mycobacterial therapy. For comparison MRS was also performed in 19 biopsy-proven malignant tumors (13 high-grade gliomas and six metastasis). Presence of metabolic peaks was assessed visually and categorical variables between groups were compared using chi-square. Metabolite ratios were compared using Mann-Whitney test and diagnostic accuracy of the metabolite ratios was compared using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis. Results Spectroscopic peaks representing lipids and glutamate/glutamine (Glx) as well as a peak at ∼3.8 ppm were well defined in 77% (10/13), 77% (10/13) and 69% (nine of 13) of tuberculomas, respectively. Lipid and Glx peaks were also present in most of the malignant lesions, 79% (15/19) and 74% (14/19) respectively. However, a peak at ∼3.8 ppm was present in only 10% (two of 19) of the tumor cases (p < 0.001). Higher Cho/Cr and mI/Cr ratios helped discriminate malignant lesions with an area under the ROC curve of 0.86 (SE: 0.078, p < 0.002, CI: 0.7–1) and 0.8 (SE: 0.1, p < 0.009, CI: 0.6–1), respectively. Threshold values between 1.7–1.9 for Cho/Cr and 0.8–0.9 for mI/Cr provided high specificity (91% for both metabolites) and adequate sensitivity (75% and 80%, respectively) for discrimination of malignant lesions. Conclusion A singlet peak at ∼3.8 ppm is present in the majority of tuberculomas and absent in most malignant tumors, potentially a marker to differentiate these lesions. The assignment of the peak is difficult from our analysis; however, guanidinoacetate (Gua) is a possibility. Higher Cho/Cr and mI/Cr ratios should favor malignant lesions

  5. Midkine is a potential novel marker for malignant mesothelioma with different prognostic and diagnostic values from mesothelin.

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    Ak, Guntulu; Tada, Yuji; Shimada, Hideaki; Metintas, Selma; Ito, Masaaki; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Tagawa, Masatoshi; Metintas, Muzaffer

    2017-03-23

    We evaluated possible diagnostic and prognostic values of serum midkine in malignant pleural mesothelioma in comparison with those of serum mesothelin, a well-established diagnostic biomarker. Serum mesothelin and midkine levels were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We examined specimens from 95 Turkish cases with malignant pleural mesothelioma, 56 metastatic cancers to pleura, 27 other types of benign pleural diseases and 20 benign asbestos pleurisy. The cut-off values were 1.5 nmol/L for mesothelin and 421 pg/mL for midkine. Sensitivity and specificity of mesothelin were 51.6 and 71.4%, 51.6 and 85.2%, and 51.6 and 85% for differentiating mesothelioma from metastatic cancers to pleura, other benign pleural diseases and benign asbestos pleurisy, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of midkine were 61.1 and 41.1%, 61.1 and 48.1%, and 61.1 and 75% to distinguish mesothelioma from metastatic cancers to pleura, other benign pleural diseases and benign asbestos pleurisy, respectively. Combination of both biomarkers did not improve the differential diagnostic efficacy. Mesothelin levels were elevated in the epitheloid type and in the advanced cases, but were not related to the prognosis. In contrast, elevated baseline levels of midkine were independently associated with a poor prognosis of mesothelioma patients after adjusting for the stage, the histological subtypes and treatment schedules (HR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.09-3.09) (p = 0.022). Serum mesothelin showed moderate sensitivity and high specificity to differentiate malignant pleural mesothelioma from metastatic malignancy to pleura and from benign pleural diseases. In contrast, midkine was a useful marker for predicting prognosis of mesothelioma patients.

  6. The oxidation states and chemical environments of iron and zinc as potential indicators of brain tumour malignancy grade - preliminary results.

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    Wandzilak, Aleksandra; Czyzycki, Mateusz; Wrobel, Pawel; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena; Radwanska, Edyta; Adamek, Dariusz; Lankosz, Marek

    2013-11-01

    Despite the enormous advances in medicine, brain tumours are still among the lesser-known types of tumours and carry the worst prognoses. Transition metals are believed to play an essential role in carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the average oxidation state and trends in the changes in the chemical environment of iron and zinc contained in healthy and neoplastic tissues of the human brain. For this purpose, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy was used, which enables the study of disordered matter. The samples were taken intraoperatively and then immediately frozen to slow down chemical processes. Sixteen tumour samples with various malignancy grades were studied as well as one control sample. For each sample four to eight spectra were recorded, with a shift between them not greater than 0.2 eV. In all of the samples, iron occurred in compounds with both Fe(2+) and Fe(3+). However, the ratio of Fe(ii) to Fe(iii) content in the tissue visibly increased with the tumour malignancy grade. The change in the oxidation state of iron did not correlate with the hypoxia level of the tissues. Analysis of EXAFS spectra of zinc atoms showed that the chemical environment of zinc atoms differed with the tumour malignancy grade. Additionally, cryogenic conditions were found to produce positive results in studies of biological samples, whose form under such conditions is close to their native state, without preparation-caused artefacts.

  7. Pleural malignancies.

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    Friedberg, Joseph S; Cengel, Keith A

    2010-07-01

    Pleural malignancies, primary or metastatic, portend a grim prognosis. In addition to the serious oncologic implications of a pleural malignancy, these tumors can be highly symptomatic. A malignant pleural effusion can cause dyspnea, secondary to lung compression, or even tension physiology from a hydrothorax under pressure. The need to palliate these effusions is a seemingly straightforward clinical scenario, but with nuances that can result in disastrous complications for the patient if not attended to appropriately. Solid pleural malignancies can cause great pain from chest wall invasion or can cause a myriad of morbid symptoms because of the invasion of thoracic structures, such as the heart, lungs, or esophagus. This article reviews pleural malignancies, the purely palliative treatments, and the treatments that are performed with definitive (curative) intent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Epigenetic down-regulation of integrin α7 increases migratory potential and confers poor prognosis in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

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    Laszlo, Viktoria; Hoda, Mir Alireza; Garay, Tamas; Pirker, Christine; Ghanim, Bahil; Klikovits, Thomas; Dong, Yawen W; Rozsas, Anita; Kenessey, Istvan; Szirtes, Ildiko; Grusch, Michael; Jakopovic, Marko; Samarzija, Miroslav; Brcic, Luka; Kern, Izidor; Rozman, Ales; Popper, Helmut; Zöchbauer-Müller, Sabine; Heller, Gerwin; Altenberger, Corinna; Ziegler, Barbara; Klepetko, Walter; Berger, Walter; Dome, Balazs; Hegedus, Balazs

    2015-10-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a devastating malignancy characterized by invasive growth and rapid recurrence. The identification and inhibition of molecular components leading to this migratory and invasive phenotype are thus essential. Accordingly, a genome-wide expression array analysis was performed on MPM cell lines and a set of 139 genes was identified as differentially expressed in cells with high versus low migratory activity. Reduced expression of the novel tumour suppressor integrin α7 (ITGA7) was found in highly motile cells. A significant negative correlation was observed between ITGA7 transcript levels and average displacement of cells. Forced overexpression of ITGA7 in MPM cells with low endogenous ITGA7 expression inhibited cell motility, providing direct evidence for the regulatory role of ITGA7 in MPM cell migration. MPM cells showed decreased ITGA7 expressions at both transcription and protein levels when compared to non-malignant mesothelial cells. The majority of MPM cell cultures displayed hypermethylation of the ITGA7 promoter when compared to mesothelial cultures. A statistically significant negative correlation between ITGA7 methylation and ITGA7 expression was also observed in MPM cells. While normal human pleura samples unambiguously expressed ITGA7, a varying level of expression was found in a panel of 200 human MPM samples. In multivariate analysis, ITGA7 expression was found to be an independent prognostic factor. Although there was no correlation between histological subtypes and ITGA7 expression, importantly, patients with high tumour cell ITGA7 expression had an increased median overall survival compared to the low- or no-expression groups (463 versus 278 days). In conclusion, our data suggest that ITGA7 is an epigenetically regulated tumour suppressor gene and a prognostic factor in human MPM. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. An Individual with Gastric Schwannoma with Pathologically Malignant Potential Surviving Two Years after Laparoscopy-Assisted Partial Gastrectomy

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    Akira Watanabe

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are a kind of neurogenic tumor. They are generally benign and originate primarily from the central and peripheral nerve. They rarely develop in the gastrointestinal tract: gastric schwannomas make up 0.2% of gastric neoplasms. A malignant gastric schwannoma is a comparatively rare tumor, a few cases have been reported until now. We present the case of a 34-year-old male patient diagnosed during medical examination. The patient was treated with surgical resection, and 2 years passed without recurrence.

  10. Mesothelioma - malignant

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    ... 2016:chap 82. National Cancer Institute. PDQ malignant mesothelioma treatment. Updated August 5, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/mesothelioma/hp/mesothelioma-treatment-pdq#section/29 . Accessed July 8, 2016. National ...

  11. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling of socio-cultural constructs among chamorro and non-chamorro micronesian betel nut chewers.

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    Murphy, Kelle L; Liu, Min; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2017-07-05

    Betel nut chewing is embedded within the cultures of South Asia, and Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific. The determinants of betel nut consumption are complex. Ongoing consumption of betel nut is affected by cultural, social, and drug-specific effects (i.e. dependence). This study's first objective was to assess the psychometric properties (i.e. reliability and validity) of the socio-cultural constructs in a survey developed for betel nut chewers. The study's second objective was to investigate the influence of socio-cultural variables on betel nut chewing behaviors among Chamorro and non-Chamorro Micronesians in Guam. The current study was a secondary analysis of a larger study (N = 600; n = 375 chewers and n = 225 former chewers) that examined socio-cultural factors that influence why chewers chew betel nut, along with assessing chewing behaviors, perceptions of risks, probability of changing behaviors, and methods that could be used to reduce use or quit. The socio-cultural constructs of the survey were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The socio-cultural factors were a sufficient fit with data and the instrument is reliable and valid, as indicated by various model fit indices (χ 2 (13) = 18.49 with p = .14, TLI = .99, CFI = 1.00, SRMR = .02, RMSEA = .03 with 90% CIs [.00,.07]). Cronbach's alpha, the sign and magnitude of the factor loadings, the inter-factor correlations, and the large proportion of variance extracted for each factor, all indicate that the instrument is reliable and valid. Additionally, multivariate analyses showed that socio-cultural reasons were important contributing or chewing betel nut. Participants cited chewing because their friends and family members chewed, the behavior is embedded within their culture, and it would be considered rude and disrespectful to not chew. Based on the findings, this study provides important implications pertaining to

  12. A contemporary series of renal masses with emphasis on recently recognized entities and tumors of low malignant potential: A report based on 624 consecutive tumors from a single tertiary center.

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    Raspollini, Maria Rosaria; Montagnani, Ilaria; Montironi, Rodolfo; Cheng, Liang; Martignoni, Guido; Minervini, Andrea; Serni, Sergio; Nicita, Giulio; Carini, Marco; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    A number of new renal tumor entities have been recognized by the 2016 World Health Organization classification of urologic tumors. The classification includes tumors with different behavior and introduces one tumor with low malignant potential, the multilocular cystic clear cell renal cell neoplasm of low malignant potential (mcCCRCNLMP). However, some categories still labeled as "carcinoma", such as clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC), renal angioleiomyomatous tumor (RAT), and tubulocystic carcinoma (TCRCC), all with a particularly good prognosis when diagnosed as low stage, show no malignant behavior: in fact, no metastases have been reported in these categories when surgically excised. Current experience is limited to supporting these neoplasms as benign entities although, recent literature data is defining these entities as "low malignant potential tumors". We conducted a search through our files on a consecutive series of 624 renal tumors diagnosed over a period of 2 years to address the incidence of this category of tumors. Applying strict histological criteria, the "low malignant potential" tumors, comprised 7% of renal masses that are less than 4cm in size and 3.8% of renal masses measuring 4-7cm in the series of 624 renal tumors. When benign tumors are taken into considerations, the benign and "low malignant potential tumors" represent about one third of renal masses potential" tumors or small renal masses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunohistochemical determination of HER-2/neu overexpression in malignant melanoma reveals no prognostic value, while c-Kit (CD117 overexpression exhibits potential therapeutic implications

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    Potti Anil

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER-2/neu and c-kit (CD117 onco-protein are increasingly being recognized as targets for therapy in solid tumors, but data on their role in malignant melanoma is currently limited. We studied the prevalence of overexpression of HER-2/neu and c-Kit in 202 patients with malignant melanoma to evaluate a possible prognostic value of these molecular targets in malignant melanoma. Methods Overexpression of HER-2/neu and c-Kit was evaluated using immunohistochemical assays in 202 archival tissue specimens. Results Between 1991 and 2001, 202 subjects (109 males; 54% and 93 females; 46% with malignant melanoma were studied with a mean age of 57 years (age range: 15–101 years. The most common histologic type was amelanotic melanoma (n = 62; 30.7% followed by superficial spreading melanoma (n = 54; 26.7%. The depth of penetration of melanoma (Breslow thickness, pT Stage ranged from 0.4 mm (stage pT1 to 8.0 mm (stage pT4A. Mean thickness was 2.6 mm (stage pT3A. The ECOG performance scores ranged from 0 to 3. Only 2 patients (0.9% revealed HER-2/neu overexpression, whereas 46 (22.8% revealed c-Kit overexpression. Multivariate analysis performed did not show a significant difference in survival between c-Kit positive and negative groups (p = 0.36. Interestingly, not only was c-Kit more likely to be overexpressed in the superficial spreading type, a preliminary association between the presence or absence of c-Kit overexpression and the existence of another second primary tumor was also observed. Conclusions The results of our large study indicate that the HER-2/neu onco-protein neither has a role in melanogenesis nor is a potential target for clinical trials with monoclonal antibody therapy. This indicates there is no role for its testing in patients with malignant melanoma. Although c-Kit, expressed preferentially in the superficial spreading type, may not have prognostic value, it does have significant therapeutic implications as a

  14. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor.

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    Roberts, Nathan; Runk, Dianne M

    2015-01-01

    Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3-0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10-30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumor will recur locally or metastasize. Distinguishing this subset of malignant phyllodes tumor is paramount. We present a case of malignant phyllodes which presented with metastatic disease. What is fascinating about this case is not only the initial presentation but also the aggressiveness of this variation of phyllodes tumor. The patient initially presented with a large mass which encompassed her whole right breast. On surgical pathology the mass measured roughly 31cm in diameter and weighed over 10kg. Within 5 weeks from surgery the patient had suffered brain metastases and also 6 local recurrent tumors. The patient passed roughly 11 weeks after her first visit to our office. Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. PLC-β2 is modulated by low oxygen availability in breast tumor cells and plays a phenotype dependent role in their hypoxia-related malignant potential.

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    Brugnoli, Federica; Grassilli, Silvia; Al-Qassab, Yasamin; Capitani, Silvano; Bertagnolo, Valeria

    2016-12-01

    Limited oxygen availability plays a critical role in the malignant progression of breast cancer by orchestrating a complex modulation of the gene transcription largely dependent on the tumor phenotype. Invasive breast tumors belonging to different molecular subtypes are characterized by over-expression of PLC-β2, whose amount positively correlates with the malignant evolution of breast neoplasia and supports the invasive potential of breast tumor cells. Here we report that hypoxia modulates the expression of PLC-β2 in breast tumor cells in a phenotype-related manner, since a decrease of the protein was observed in the BT-474 and MCF7 cell lines while an increase was revealed in MDA-MB-231 cells as a consequence of low oxygen availability. Under hypoxia, the down-modulation of PLC-β2 was mainly correlated with the decrease of the EMT marker E-cadherin in the BT-474 cells and with the up-regulation of the stem cell marker CD133 in MCF7 cells. The increase of PLC-β2 induced by low oxygen in MDA-MB-231 cells supports the hypoxia-related reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and sustains invasion capability. In all examined cell lines, but with an opposite role in the ER-positive and ER-negative cells, PLC-β2 was involved in the hypoxia-induced increase of HIF-1α, known to affect both EMT and CD133 expression. Our data include PLC-β2 in the complex and interconnected signaling pathways induced by low oxygen availability in breast tumor cells and suggest that the forced modulation of PLC-β2 programmed on the basis of tumor phenotype may prevent the malignant progression of breast neoplasia as a consequence of intra-tumoral hypoxia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Transcription analysis in the MeLiM swine model identifies RACK1 as a potential marker of malignancy for human melanocytic proliferation

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    Vincent-Naulleau Silvia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic melanoma is a severe disease. Few experimental animal models of metastatic melanoma exist. MeLiM minipigs exhibit spontaneous melanoma. Cutaneous and metastatic lesions are histologically similar to human's. However, most of them eventually spontaneously regress. Our purpose was to investigate whether the MeLiM model could reveal markers of malignancy in human melanocytic proliferations. Results We compared the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE between normal pig skin melanocytes and melanoma cells from an early pulmonary metastasis of MeLiM minipigs. Tag identification revealed 55 regulated genes, including GNB2L1 which was found upregulated in the melanoma library. In situ hybridisation confirmed GNB2L1 overexpression in MeLiM melanocytic lesions. GNB2L1 encodes the adaptor protein RACK1, recently shown to influence melanoma cell lines tumorigenicity. We studied the expression of RACK1 by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy in tissues specimens of normal skin, in cutaneous and metastatic melanoma developped in MeLiM minipigs and in human patients. In pig and human samples, the results were similar. RACK1 protein was not detected in normal epidermal melanocytes. By contrast, RACK1 signal was highly increased in the cytoplasm of all melanocytic cells of superficial spreading melanoma, recurrent dermal lesions and metastatic melanoma. RACK1 partially colocalised with activated PKCαβ. In pig metastases, additional nuclear RACK1 did not associate to BDNF expression. In human nevi, the RACK1 signal was low. Conclusion RACK1 overexpression detected in situ in human melanoma specimens characterized cutaneous and metastatic melanoma raising the possibility that RACK1 can be a potential marker of malignancy in human melanoma. The MeLiM strain provides a relevant model for exploring mechanisms of melanocytic malignant transformation in humans. This study may contribute to a better understanding of melanoma

  17. Malignant Catatonia

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    Ayca Ozkul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia is a syndrome characterized by mutism, immobility, negativism, stereotypy, mannerisms, echophenomena, perseveration and passive obedience. The underlying causes can be psychiatric or may be associated with general medical status or neurological diseases. Additionally catatonia has two subtypes as malignant and nonmalignant catatonia. Main symptoms of malignant catatonia are hyperthermia and autonomic symptoms such as tachycardia, tachypnea and hyperhidrosis. It is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible for an appropriate medical treatment. Clinicians should be aware of the fatal outcome of the disease.

  18. The thymidine kinase-1 as a potential tumor marker: structure, function, activity in normal and malignant tissues

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    N. S. Sergeeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the review the role of the thymidine kinase (TK to ensure the replication of DNA de novo and spare (salvage the way in health and activate alternate ways in carcinogenesis is described. The structure of cytoplasmic TK (TК-1, also called fetal, and the level of regulation of its activity in the cells and their change during the cell cycle is described. Considering the data about the absence of TK-1 in resting (G0 cells, TK-1 is positioned as a marker of proliferating cells, which activity is recorded from late G1 phase, peaking in S-phase, it is stored in the G2 and mitosis, quickly decreasing to undetectable levels in the early G1 phase. Data on the expression TK-1 (as compared with Ki-67 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen in tumor tissues (colorectal, breast, cervical, lung, renal, prostate and ovarian cancer, as well as some benign and precancerous pathological processes in relation to the clinical and diagnostic features of these processes are systemized. These data suggest that the proliferative index studies on TK-1 (antibody to the domain HRA-210 should be used together with Ki-67 and PCNA, for a more complete assessment of the proliferative status of malignant tumors and pre-cancerous and benign conditions, with the aim of prognosis of the tumor process and treatment planning.

  19. Preclinical demonstration of synergistic Active Nutrients/Drug (AND combination as a potential treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

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    Viviana Volta

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is a poor prognosis disease lacking adequate therapy. We have previously shown that ascorbic acid administration is toxic to MPM cells. Here we evaluated a new combined therapy consisting of ascorbate/epigallocatechin-3-gallate/gemcitabine mixture (called AND, for Active Nutrients/Drug. In vitro effects of AND therapy on various MPM cell lines revealed a synergistic cytotoxic mechanism. In vivo experiments on a xenograft mouse model for MPM, obtained by REN cells injection in immunocompromised mice, showed that AND strongly reduced the size of primary tumor as well as the number and size of metastases, and prevented abdominal hemorrhage. Kaplan Meier curves and the log-rank test indicated a marked increase in the survival of AND-treated animals. Histochemical analysis of dissected tumors showed that AND induced a shift from cell proliferation to apoptosis in cancer cells. Lysates of tumors from AND-treated mice, analyzed with an antibody array, revealed decreased TIMP-1 and -2 expressions and no effects on angiogenesis regulating factors. Multiplex analysis for signaling protein phosphorylation exhibited inactivation of cell proliferation pathways. The complex of data showed that the AND treatment is synergistic in vitro on MPM cells, and blocks in vivo tumor progression and metastasization in REN-based xenografts. Hence, the AND combination is proposed as a new treatment for MPM.

  20. Spotlight on bevacizumab and its potential in the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma: the evidence to date

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    Levin PA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pavel A Levin,1 Jonathan E Dowell1,2 1Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 2Section of Hematology/Oncology, Veteran Affairs North Texas Health Care System, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is a rare, but aggressive cancer. Surgery and radiation offer limited benefit, and systemic chemotherapy remains the primary treatment modality for the majority of patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and its receptor have been recognized as important players in the biology of this disease. Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds VEGF and blocks its interaction with the VEGF receptor. Recent studies have shown benefit with the addition of bevacizumab to the combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed in MPM. This combination is now included in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines (with a category 2A recommendation as a possible first-line treatment for unresectable MPM in appropriately selected patients. This review discusses the rationale behind the use of bevacizumab in MPM, as well as summarizes the pharmacology, efficacy, safety, and toxicity of bevacizumab across multiple trials. The use of small-molecule inhibitors of angiogenesis in the treatment of MPM is also discussed. Keywords: angiogenesis, monoclonal antibody, VEGF

  1. Claudin-18 coupled with EGFR/ERK signaling contributes to the malignant potentials of bile duct cancer.

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    Takasawa, Kumi; Takasawa, Akira; Osanai, Makoto; Aoyama, Tomoyuki; Ono, Yusuke; Kono, Tsuyoshi; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Murata, Masaki; Sawada, Norimasa

    2017-09-10

    Our recent work revealed that elevated expression of claudin-18 is involved in bile duct neoplasia. In the present study, we found that wound generation of a cell sheet de novo induced claudin-18 expression in its leading edge, coincident with high mitotic activity. We also found that the suppression of claudin-18 expression significantly reduced cell growth and invasiveness of bile duct cancer cell lines and tumorigenicity in vivo. In addition, an antibody specific to an extracellular loop of claudin-18 showed similar effects on the cells such as cell proliferation. Interestingly, treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and overexpression of RAS oncogene induced claudin-18 expression by activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2. Furthermore, enhanced claudin-18 expression activated ERK1/2. These findings provide evidence for an oncogenic property of claudin-18 in bile duct carcinoma cells via modulation of EGFR/ERK signaling, indicating that claudin-18 is a possible therapeutic target for this malignancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Simulants of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald E. Piérard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the recent period, dermoscopy has yielded improvement in the early disclosure of various atypical melanocytic neoplasms (AMN of the skin. Beyond this clinical procedure, AMN histopathology remains mandatory for establishing their precise diagnosis. Of note, panels of experts in AMN merely report moderate agreement in various puzzling cases. Divergences in opinion and misdiagnosis are likely increased when histopathological criteria are not fine-tuned and when facing a diversity of AMN types. Furthermore, some AMN have been differently named in the literature including atypical Spitz tumor, metastasizing Spitz tumor, borderline and intermediate melanocytic tumor, malignant Spitz nevus, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma or animal-type melanoma. Some acronyms have been further suggested such as MELTUMP (after melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential and STUMP (after Spitzoid melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential. In this review, such AMN at the exclusion of cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM variants, are grouped under the tentative broad heading skin melanocytoma. Such set of AMN frequently follows an indolent course, although they exhibit atypical and sometimes worrisome patterns or cytological atypia. Rare cases of skin melanocytomas progress to loco regional clusters of lesions (agminate melanocytomas, and even to regional lymph nodes. At times, the distinction between a skin melanocytoma and MM remains puzzling. However, multipronged immunohistochemistry and emerging molecular biology help profiling any malignancy risk if present.

  3. Anoxia-induced up-regulation of interleukin-8 in human malignant melanoma. A potential mechanism for high tumor aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, M; Hartmann, A; Flory, E; Toksoy, A; Koczan, D; Thiesen, H J; Mukaida, N; Neumann, M; Rapp, U R; Bröcker, E B; Gillitzer, R

    1999-09-01

    Besides its proinflammatory properties, interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been suggested as an important promoter for melanoma growth. To study the role of IL-8 in melanoma biology, we determined the in vivo expression of IL-8 mRNA by in situ hybridization in primary melanoma lesions and metastases. High levels of melanoma cell-associated IL-8-specific transcripts were exclusively detected in close vicinity of necrotic/hypoxic areas of melanoma metastases, whereas both in primary melanomas and in non-necrotic metastases IL-8 expression was low or absent. To analyze further the up-regulation of IL-8 mRNA expression in necrotic/hypoxic tumor areas, human melanoma cell lines of different aggressiveness exposed to severe hypoxic stress (anoxia) were used as an in vitro model. Anoxia induced IL-8 mRNA and protein expression in the highly aggressive/metastatic cell lines MV3 and BLM but not in the low aggressive cell lines IF6 and 530. As shown by IL-8 promoter-dependent reporter gene analysis and mRNA stability assays, elevated mRNA levels in melanoma cells were due to both enhanced transcriptional activation and enhanced IL-8 mRNA stability. Interestingly, transcriptional activation was abolished by mutations in the AP-1 and the NF-kappaB-like binding motifs, indicating that both sites are critical for IL-8 induction. Concomitantly, anoxia induced an enhanced binding activity of AP-1 and NF-kappaB transcription factors only in the highly aggressive cells. From our in vitro and in vivo data we suggest that anoxia-induced regulation of IL-8 might be a characteristic feature of aggressive tumor cells, thus indicating that IL-8 might play a critical role for tumor progression in human malignant melanoma.

  4. Validation of the diagnostic utility of salivary interleukin 8 in the differentiation of potentially malignant oral lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma in a region with high endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, K; Nandhini, G; Ramya, R; Rajashree, P; Kumar, A Ramesh; Anandan, S Nirmala

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of salivary interleukin 8 (IL-8) in the differential diagnosis of potentially malignant lesions (PMLs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in a region with high oral cancer prevalence. Saliva and blood samples were collected from 100 participants in each group (OSCC, PMLs, and healthy controls). Serum and salivary IL-8 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The data were subjected to appropriate statistical analysis. A significant increase in levels of serum and salivary IL-8 was found in OSCC compared with PMLs and healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found salivary IL-8 to have superior sensitivity in detecting OSCC. A significant increase in IL-8 levels based on the histologic grading of OSCC was also observed. This study confirms that salivary IL-8 can be a potent marker that can be used as a tool in the differential diagnosis of PMLs and OSCC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multivariate analysis of structure and contribution per shares made by potential risk factors at malignant neoplasms in trachea, bronchial tubes and lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Aydinov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of multivariate analysis of structure and contribution per shares made by potential risk factors at malignant neoplasms in trachea, bronchial tubes and lung. The authors used specialized databases comprising personified records on oncologic diseases in Taganrog, Rostov region, over 1986-2015 (30,684 registered cases of malignant neoplasms, including 3,480 cases of trachea cancer, bronchial tubes cancer, and lung cancer. When carrying out analytical research we applied both multivariate statistical techniques (factor analysis and hierarchical cluster correlation analysis and conventional techniques of epidemiologic analysis including etiologic fraction calculation (EF, as well as an original technique of assessing actual (epidemiologic risk. Average long-term morbidity with trachea, bronchial tubes and lung cancer over 2011-2015 amounts to 46.64 o / oooo . Over the last 15 years a stable decreasing trend has formed, annual average growth being – 1.22 %. This localization holds the 3rd rank place in oncologic morbidity structure, its specific weight being 10.02 %. We determined etiological fraction (EF for smoking as a priority risk factor causing trachea, bronchial tubes and lung cancer; this fraction amounts to 76.19 % for people aged 40 and older, and to 81.99 % for those aged 60 and older. Application of multivariate statistical techniques (factor analysis and cluster correlation analysis in this research enabled us to make factor structure more simple; namely, to highlight, interpret, give a quantitative estimate of self-descriptiveness and rank four group (latent potential risk factors causing lung cancer.

  6. Estimation of serum β2-microglobulin in potentially malignant disorders and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: A clinicopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Pratap Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumor markers are substances, which quantitatively changes in serum, during the tumor development, one such tumor marker is serum β2-microglobulin (β2-m. The aim of this study was to establish the role of β2-m as a biochemical parameter for diagnosis and prognosis of oral carcinoma by estimation of serum β2-m levels in potentially malignant lesions, conditions, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 48 subjects (16 control, 8 oral submucous fibrosis, 8 oral leukoplakia, and 16 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients of different stages, conducted at department of Oral Medicine, Kothiwal Dental College, Moradabad, India. Under aseptic precautions, 5 ml venous blood was drawn and serum was separated. Estimation of β2-m level in serum was carried out by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The data were analyzed by using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 17.0 software. Cases and controls were tested for statistical significance with one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey′s HSD. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The mean serum β2-m level in the control group was 1.173 ± 0.059, in potentially malignant lesions/conditions group was 1.688 ± 0.137 and in oral squamous cell carcinoma group was 2.835 ± 0.0313. This progressive increase in serum β2-m level was found to be highly significant (P value < 0.001. Results of Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed β2-m as a 100% sensitive and specific biomarker for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: The present study establishes β2-m as a specific biological tumor marker for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. Approach of pharmacists and herbalists while offering guidance on potentially malignant oral lesions: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Gouraha

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Apart from pharmacists, the new probable off-clinical counselors (herbalists and pharmacy assistants have been identified as potential factors of patient diagnostic delay in oral cancer. Educational strategies to improve advice and referral for these identified groups should be designed.

  8. Potential of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI in the characterization of malignant, benign and healthy breast tissues and molecular subtypes of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma eSharma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC in the diagnosis of breast cancer and its association with molecular biomarkers was investigated in 259 patients with breast cancer, 67 with benign pathology and 54 healthy volunteers using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI at 1.5 T. In 59 breast cancer patients, dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCEMRI was also acquired. Mean ADC of malignant lesions was significantly lower (1.02 ± 0.17 x 10-3 mm2/s compared to benign (1.57 ± 0.26 x 10-3 mm2/s and healthy (1.78 ± 0.13 x 10-3 mm2/s breast tissues. A cut-off ADC value of 1.23 x 10-3 mm2/s (sensitivity 92.5%; specificity 91.1%; AUC 0.96 to differentiate malignant from benign diseases was arrived by ROC analysis. In 10/59 breast cancer patients, indeterminate DCE curve was seen while their ADC value showed as positive for malignancy implying the potential of the addition of DWI in increasing the specificity of DCEMRI data. Further, the association of ADC with the tumor volume, stage, hormonal receptors [estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and human epidermal growth factor (HER2] and menopausal status was investigated. A significant difference was seen in tumor volume between breast cancer patients of stages IIA and IIIA; IIB and IIIA; and IIB and III (B + C (p<0.05. A statistically significant lower ADC and a lower tumor volume was seen in patients with early (n=52 compared to those with locally advanced breast cancer (n=207. No association was found in ADC and tumor volume with the menopausal status. Breast cancers with ER-, PR- and triple negative (TN status showed a significantly larger tumor volume compared to ER+, PR+ and non-triple negative (nTN cancers, respectively. Also, TN cancers showed a significantly higher ADC compared to ER+, PR+ and nTN cancers. Patients with ER- and TN cancers were of younger age compared to those with ER+ and nTN cancers. The present study demonstrated that ADC may increase the diagnostic specificity of

  9. The use of light-based (optical) detection systems as adjuncts in the detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, A; Warnakulasuriya, S

    2015-05-01

    In recent decades, optical techniques utilising the principles of chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence have emerged to facilitate the early detection of any oral mucosal changes suspicious of cancer. To evaluate the effectiveness of devices that utilise the principles of chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence as adjuncts in the detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). A systematic review of the published literature to evaluate the effectiveness of the ViziLite(®) and ViziLite(®) Plus with toluidine blue, MicroLux™/DL and the VELscope™ as aids in the detection of oral cancer and OPMDs. Twenty-five primary studies published between 2004 and 2013 satisfied our criteria for selection - 13 utilised chemiluminescence and 12 tissue autofluorescence. Some had utilised both study methods on the same population. Chemiluminescence shows good sensitivity at detecting any OPMDs and oral cancer. However, it preferentially detects leukoplakia and may fail to spot red patches. The additive use of toluidine blue may improve specificity. Tissue autofluorescence is sensitive at detecting white, red and white and red patches, and the area of fluorescence visualisation loss (FVL) often extends beyond the clinically visible lesion. However, in addition to OPMDs, VELScope may detect erythematous lesions of benign inflammation resulting in false-positive test results. There is limited evidence for their use in primary care, and these tools are better suited to specialist clinics in which there is a higher prevalence of disease and where experienced clinicians may better discriminate between benign and malignant lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. SEMI–MATURE DENDRITIC CELLS AS A POTENTIAL BASIS FOR THE INDUCTION OF ANTI–TUMOR RESPONSE IN PATIENTS WITH MALIGNANT GLIOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Leplina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The comparative analysis of phenotypical and functional features of dendritic cells (DCs, generated in presence of GM–CSF and IFNα from blood monocytes of patients with malignant gliomas (MG and healthy donors, was carried out in this research. The potential value of the DC–based immunotherapy in the induction of anti–tumor response in patients with MG was also examined. Our results show that within generated DCs of healthy donors 90 and 52% cells expressed correspondingly HLA–DR and CD86, only 17–18% cells were CD14+monocytes, whereas 38% cells exhibited the phenotype of mature CD83+ dendritic cells. The both monocyte conditioned medium (MCM, 30% v/v and Leukinferon® (250 IU of IFNα were comparably efficient as maturation–induced stimuli. Despite monocyte’s disturbances in malignant gliomas, the analogous population of DCs was efficiently generated in all examined patients with MG. However, the percentage of mature CD83+DCs was significantly decreased compared to that in healthy donors (24 vs 38%, and these data strongly suggest the delay maturation of DCs in MG. Nevertheless the patient’s DCs showed the allostimulatory activity, comparable with healthy donor’s DCs, and 52–62% cells maintained the ability for the receptor–dependent en–docytosis. Moreover, the patient’s DCs effectively presented bacterial and tumor–associated antigens (TAA. Immunotherapy with autologous DCs allowed to induce the TAA–specific immune reactions, both in skin test in vivo and in vitro, in 50% patients with MG. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 4, pp. 365–374

  11. The potential of identification of a malignancy-associated biomarker in breast cancer diagnosis and research: hTERT gene DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Shahla; El-Gabry, Ehab; Zhang, Chuhua; Wang, Zhiqianq

    2016-08-01

    DNA hypermethylation has been documented to be prominent at a CpG island rich region about 600 bp upstream the transcription start site of the hTERT gene using qualitative methylation specific PCR on DNA isolated from tumor cell lines. In order to assess the potential significance of this biomarker in breast cancer research and diagnosis, we explored if such findings are reproducible on surgically resected fresh breast tumor cells. Using quantitative pyrosequencing technology, we investigated and present methylation status of four CpG islands of this region in a cohort of 77 invasive breast carcinomas using normal breast tissue as controls. Globally, a significant hypermethylation in tumor cells was observed in the four CpG islands as a sum, in comparison to methylation of the normal breast tissue. Individually, certain CpG islands displayed methylation greater than 50% in about 3/4 of the 77 breast cancers, but in none of the normal breast tissue. Our results highlight the value of DNA hypermethylation in the -600 bp region of the hTERT gene as a potential marker for breast cancer diagnosis. We believe that integration of this novel, malignancy-associated molecular testing with morphology is of significant value in the accurate interpretation of small tumor sample size obtained via fine needle aspiration biopsy, ductal lavage, and nipple fluid aspirates both in clinical practice and in breast cancer research. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:670-675. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. FOXM1 upregulation is an early event in human squamous cell carcinoma and it is enhanced by nicotine during malignant transformation.

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    Emilios Gemenetzidis

    Full Text Available Cancer associated with smoking and drinking remains a serious health problem worldwide. The survival of patients is very poor due to the lack of effective early biomarkers. FOXM1 overexpression is linked to the majority of human cancers but its mechanism remains unclear in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC.FOXM1 mRNA and protein expressions were investigated in four independent cohorts (total 75 patients consisting of normal, premalignant and HNSCC tissues and cells using quantitative PCR (qPCR, expression microarray, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry. Effect of putative oral carcinogens on FOXM1 transcriptional activity was dose-dependently assayed and confirmed using a FOXM1-specific luciferase reporter system, qPCR, immunoblotting and short-hairpin RNA interference. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array was used to 'trace' the genomic instability signature pattern in 8 clonal lines of FOXM1-induced malignant human oral keratinocytes. Furthermore, acute FOXM1 upregulation in primary oral keratinocytes directly induced genomic instability. We have shown for the first time that overexpression of FOXM1 precedes HNSCC malignancy. Screening putative carcinogens in human oral keratinocytes surprisingly showed that nicotine, which is not perceived to be a human carcinogen, directly induced FOXM1 mRNA, protein stabilisation and transcriptional activity at concentrations relevant to tobacco chewers. Importantly, nicotine also augmented FOXM1-induced transformation of human oral keratinocytes. A centrosomal protein CEP55 and a DNA helicase/putative stem cell marker HELLS, both located within a consensus loci (10q23, were found to be novel targets of FOXM1 and their expression correlated tightly with HNSCC progression.This study cautions the potential co-carcinogenic effect of nicotine in tobacco replacement therapies. We hypothesise that aberrant upregulation of FOXM1 may be inducing genomic instability through a

  13. Deep penetrating nevus-like borderline tumors: A unique subset of ambiguous melanocytic tumors with malignant potential and normal cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Cynthia M; Abraham, Ronnie M; Guo, Ruifeng; Li, Shibo; Wang, Xuan; Proper, Steven; Crowson, A Neil; Mihm, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Deep penetrating nevi (DPN) are a relatively uncommon subtype of melanocytic nevi. A small subset of these lesions exhibit atypical features (cytologic and architectural atypia, mitotic activity) seen in melanoma. These lesions we term the deep penetrating nevus-like borderline tumor. Unequivocal melanomas can show overlapping morphologic features of DPN, which have been termed plexiform melanomas. 40 cases of DPN-like borderline tumor were identified along with 6 cases of plexiform melanoma. Clinical follow up was obtained, along with cytogenetic analysis in the form of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). The DPN-like borderline tumor cases included 24 females and 16 males. Of sentinel lymph node biopsies performed, 1/3 of cases showed lymph node involvement. All patients where an aggressive clinical approach was adopted remain free of disease. All 6 DPN-like borderline tumor cases tested by CGH showed normal cytogenetics, as did 7 of 9 cases tested by FISH. Of the plexiform melanomas, 4/6 patients died of disease. In 3 cases there was morphologic progression from a DPN-like borderline tumor to overt melanoma. In one case of progression, cytogenetics was normal in the DPN-like borderline tumor and then abnormal in the progressed melanoma. DPN-like borderline tumors are melanocytic tumors associated with a high incidence of regional lymph node disease and exhibiting the potential for melanoma progression despite a normal cytogenetic profile. Patients with these lesions should be aggressively managed, with at least complete re-excision and consideration of sentinel node biopsy, regardless of cytogenetic data.

  14. Lymphoscintigraphy in gynecologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomer, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy is an easily performed noninvasive procedure that offers the potential to detect small numbers of ascitic tumor cells and early diaphragmatic tumor involvement. Moreover, it can be used to delineate and define abnormalities in lymph nodes that are not routinely visualized by bipedal contrast lymphangiography, ultrasound or computed tomography. Lymphoscintigraphy is recommended as an important investigative and adjunctive procedure in diagnosing gynecologic malignancies; there does not appear to be sufficient sensitivity and specificity to justify its routine clinical use.

  15. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha is a poor prognostic factor and potential therapeutic target in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.

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    Suguru Fukushima

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST is a rare soft tissue sarcoma with poor prognosis. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 plays a crucial role in the cellular response to hypoxia and regulates the expression of multiple genes involved in tumor progression in various cancers. However, the importance of the expression of HIF-1α in MPNSTs is unclear.The expression of HIF-1α was examined immunohistochemically in 82 MPNST specimens. Cell culture assays of human MPNST cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions were used to evaluate the impact of anti-HIF-1α-specific siRNA inhibition on cell survival. A screening kit was employed to identify small molecules that inhibited HIF-1α.The nuclear expression of HIF-1α was positive in 75.6% of MPNST samples (62/82 cases. Positivity for HIF-1α was a significant poor prognostic factor both in univariate (P = 0.048 and multivariate (P ≤ 0.0001 analyses. HIF-1α knockdown abrogated MPNST cell growth, inducing apoptosis. Finally, chetomin, an inhibitor of HIF-1α, effectively inhibited the growth of MPNST cells and induced their apoptosis.Inhibition of HIF-1α signaling is a potential treatment option for MPNSTs.

  16. Radiosensitization by fullerene-C60 dissolved in squalene on human malignant melanoma through lipid peroxidation and enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shinya; Kimura, Masatsugu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2014-04-01

    We examined fullerene-C60 dissolved in squalene (C60/Sqe) for the ability to potentiate the radiosensitization under X-ray irradiation on human malignant melanoma HMV-II cells, which were treated with C60/Sqe and thereafter irradiated with X-ray. The cell proliferation for C60/Sqe was inhibited more markedly than for Sqe alone. Meanwhile, cell proliferation was almost unaltered for C60/squalane (Sqa) or Sqa, a hydrogenated form of Sqe, as compared to no-additive control. Thus radiosensitization of C60/Sqe is attributed to peroxidation of unsaturated bonds of squalene by X-ray-excited C60 in contrast to squalane. The fluorescence images of HMV-II cells stained with Rhodamine123, an indicator for mitochondrial membrane potential, were monitored for 6 h after X-ray irradiation. C60/Sqe obviously exhibited more augmented fluorescence intensity on perinuclear region of HMV-II cells than Sqe alone. TBARS assay showed that the lipid peroxidation level as malondialdehyde-equivalent increased by combination of C60/Sqe and X-ray dose-dependently on X-ray doses. C60/Sqe exhibited lipid peroxidation more markedly by 1.2-fold than Sqe alone. Thus the level of lipid peroxidation of squalene was sufficiently higher in C60/Sqe than in Sqe in the absence of C60 under X-ray irradiation, suggesting the combination of C60/Sqe and X-ray irradiation induced radiosensitization on HMV-II cells by peroxidation of absorbed Sqe in mitochondrial membrane via oxidative stress mediated by fullerene-C60.

  17. Hematuria and urologic malignancies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lien, Yeong-Hau H

    2014-01-01

    ...% of total malignancies and 3.7% of malignancy-related mortality. Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria is the most common presenting sign of urologic malignancies that may lead to early diagnosis and cure of these cancers...

  18. Giant Malignant Pheochromocytoma with Palpable Rib Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Korgali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma is a rare and usually benign neuroendocrine neoplasm. Only 10% of all these tumors are malignant and there are no definitive histological or cytological criteria of malignancy. Single malignancy criteria are the presence of advanced locoregional disease or metastases. We report a case, with a giant retroperitoneal tumor having multiple metastases including palpable rib metastases, who was diagnosed as a malignant pheochromocytoma. The patient was treated with surgery. The literature was reviewed to evaluate tumor features and current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with metastatic or potentially malignant pheochromocytoma.

  19. Telomerase in hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruedigam, Claudia; Lane, Steven W

    2016-07-01

    The activation of telomere maintenance pathways has long been regarded as a key hallmark of cancer and this has propelled the development of novel inhibitors of telomerase. In this review, we detail the background biology on telomere maintenance in health and disease, then concentrate on the recent preclinical and clinical development behind targeting telomerase in blood cancers. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that imetelstat, a competitive inhibitor of telomerase, has activity in certain hematologic malignancies, in particular the myeloproliferative neoplasms and acute myeloid leukemia. Telomerase inhibition has shown remarkable efficacy in myeloid malignancies, and current and future preclinical and clinical studies are necessary to comprehensively investigate its underlying mechanism of action. Future work should identify the potential genetic susceptibilities to telomerase inhibition therapy, and evaluate rational combinations of telomerase inhibitors with chemotherapy and other novel agents. Robust preclinical evaluation is essential to best translate these new agents successfully into our clinical treatment algorithm for myeloid and other blood cancers.

  20. Areca nut extract induces pyknotic necrosis in serum-starved oral cells via increasing reactive oxygen species and inhibiting GSK3β: an implication for cytopathic effects in betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wen-Tsai; Lee, Cheng-I; Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu; Cheng, Ya-Ping; Yang, Sheng-Ru; Chen, Jung-Hua; Chen, Hau-Ren

    2013-01-01

    Areca nut has been proven to be correlated with various pathologic alterations in oral cavity. However, the mechanisms for such cytopathic effects are still elusive due mostly to the limitations of cell culture systems. Here we discovered that areca nut extract (ANE) induced production of autophagosome vacuoles in cells cultured with rich medium but induced pyknosis and ballooning, two morphological alterations frequently observed in betel quid chewers, in cells under a serum-free culture condition. Permeability of the serum-starved cells to propidium iodide (PI) confirmed ANE induced novel necrosis with pyknosis (pyknotic necrosis), providing a possible explanation for inflammatory infiltration in chewers' mucosa. In these serum-starved cells, ANE strongly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), which acted as a key switch for the initiation of pyknotic necrosis. Calcium flux was also involved in the morphological alterations. Besides, inhibition of GSK3β by SB216763 significantly exacerbated the pyknotic necrosis either induced by ANE or H2O2 in serum-starved cells, suggesting that GSK3β is a critical regulator for ANE/ROS-mediated pyknotic necrosis. Interestingly, LC3-II transition and PARP cleavage were still detected in the serum-starved cells after ANE treatment, suggesting concurrent activation of apoptotic and autophagic pathways. Finally, insulin could counteract the effect of ANE-induced pyknotic necrosis. Taken together, these data provide a platform for studying ANE-induced cytopathogenesis and the first clinical implication for several pathological alterations, such as ballooning and inflammatory infiltration, in betel quid chewers.

  1. Malignant hypercalcemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, U; Maruzzo, M; Roma, A; Camozzi, V; Luisetto, G; Lumachi, F

    2011-01-01

    Malignancy-associated hypercalcemia (MAH) is one of the clinical emergencies in medical oncology, arising early or, more often, during the late phases of disease. Prevalence cannot be estimated accurately because previous figures of 5-30% of all cancer patients have progressively reduced thanks to the widespread use of bisphosphonates for the prevention of skeletal events. The classic distinction of humoral vs. osteolytic hypercalcemia is still relevant from an etiological point of view, but should not be considered as a rigid alternative since both mechanisms may be active in the same patients and the activation of the RANKL pathway is a common pathogenetic mechanism. Parathyroid hormone-related protein mimics the effects of PTH on the bone and kidney (tubular calcium resorption) and may represent an attractive druggable target, but additional agents (cytokines or other mediators) as well as ectopic production of 1,25(OH)₂D₃ may give an important contribution to humoral hypercalcemia. Conversely, bone invasion by cancer cells determines massive bone reabsorption due to the release of proteolytic enzymes and pro-osteolytic agents with paracrine activity on adjacent bone and stromal cells. When cancer patients develop headache, confusion, de-hydration and tremors hypercalcemia should be suspected although slow rise of calcium levels may produce more indolent symptoms. Bisphosphonates (with or without hydration and diuretics) may efficiently control MAH but only if an active treatment for the underlying cancer is promptly started. The anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody denosumab represents a novel agent able to revert the vicious cycle of bone metastases and data from phase III studies are currently showing promising activity in reverting bone resorption with manageable toxicity.

  2. Segmental neurofibromatosis and malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Julie D; Cohen, Philip R

    2010-01-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is an uncommon variant of neurofibromatosis type I characterized by neurofibromas and/or café-au-lait macules localized to one sector of the body. Although patients with neurofibromatosis type I have an associated increased risk of certain malignancies, malignancy has only occasionally been reported in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis. The published reports of patients with segmental neurofibromatosis who developed malignancy were reviewed and the characteristics of these patients and their cancers were summarized. Ten individuals (6 women and 4 men) with segmental neurofibromatosis and malignancy have been reported. The malignancies include malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (3), malignant melanoma (2), breast cancer (1), colon cancer (1), gastric cancer (1), lung cancer (1), and Hodgkin lymphoma (1). The most common malignancies in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis are derived from neural crest cells: malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and malignant melanoma. The incidence of malignancy in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis may approach that of patients with neurofibromatosis type I.

  3. Identifying opportunities to bridge disparity gaps in curing childhood cancer in Malawi: Malignancies with excellent curative potential account for the majority of diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mallawany, Nader Kim; Wasswa, Peter; Mtete, Idah; Mutai, Mercy; Stanley, Christopher C; Mtunda, Mary; Chasela, Mary; Mpasa, Atupele; Wachepa, Stella; Kamiyango, William; Villiera, Jimmy; Kazembe, Peter N; Mehta, Parth S

    2017-11-30

    The majority of African children with cancer die without access to resources. We describe efforts to build a public treatment program with curative intent for childhood cancer in Lilongwe, Malawi despite severe limitations in diagnostic and therapeutic resources. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of childhood cancer patients at Kamuzu Central Hospital from 12/2011-6/2013. Consistently available chemotherapeutic agents were limited to cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, bleomycin, methotrexate, and prednisone. Of 258 newly diagnosed childhood malignancies, 17 patients with retinoblastoma were excluded from clinical analyses due to insufficient clinical data. Among the remainder of the cohort (n = 241), 42% were female with median age 8.4 years (range 0.6-17.9). Forty-six (19%) were HIV-infected (42 Kaposi sarcoma, 3 Burkitt lymphoma, 1 Hodgkin lymphoma). The most common clinical presentations were palpable abdominal mass (41%), peripheral lymphadenopathy (33%), and jaw mass (17%). Nearly two-thirds of total diagnoses were accounted for by Burkitt lymphoma (n = 74), Kaposi sarcoma (n = 52), Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 21), and Wilms tumor (n = 19). Twelve-month overall survival for these 4 most common diagnoses was 54% (95% confidence interval 46-61) versus 19% (95% confidence interval 11-30) for all other diagnoses (median follow-up 19 months). Treatment-related mortality was highest in patients with non-Wilms solid tumors of the abdomen (48% versus 10% for the overall cohort, p treatment abandonment was highest in patients with bone and soft-tissue sarcomas (29% versus 14% overall, p = 0.05). Childhood cancers with excellent curative potential accounted for the majority of patients, establishing an opportunity to build treatment programs with curative intent despite severe limitations.

  4. EGFR/HER2 inhibitors effectively reduce the malignant potential of MDR breast cancer evoked by P-gp substrates in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yiting; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hongying; Zhang, Zijing; Chu, Chengyu; Liu, Xiuping; Zou, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) induced by chemotherapy in breast cancer frequently leads to tumor invasion, metastasis and poor clinical outcome. We preliminarily found that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in enhancing the malignant potential of MDR breast cancer cells, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated in vitro and in vivo that EGFR/HER2 promote the invasive and metastatic abilities of MDR breast cancer. More importantly, a new function of EGFR/HER2 inhibitors was revealed for the first time, which could improve the treatment efficacy of breast cancer by reversing the MDR process rather than by inhibiting tumor growth. Firstly, using quantitative real‑time PCR and western blot analysis, we found that overexpression of EGFR/HER2 in MCF7/Adr cells upregulated CD147 and MMP2/9 at both the transcription and protein expression levels, which promoted tumor cell migration, as determined using an in vitro invasion assay. Secondly, the upregulated levels of CD147 and MMP2/9 were decreased when EGFR/HER2 activity was inhibited, and therefore tumor invasion was also significantly inhibited. These phenomena were also demonstrated in nude mouse assays. Additionally, in MDR breast cancer patients, we found that overexpression of EGFR and P‑gp levels led to shorter overall survival (OS) and disease‑free survival (DFS) by IHC assays and Kaplan‑Meier survival analysis. In conclusion, EGFR/HER2 play a crucial role in enhancing CD147 and MMP expression to establish favorable conditions for invasion/metastasis in MDR breast cancer. The scope of application of EGFR/HER2 inhibitors may be expanded in EGFR/HER2‑positive patients. We suggest that MDR breast cancer patients may benefit from novel therapies targeting EGFR/HER2.

  5. Urologic malignancies in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Laura A; Sawinski, Deirdre; Guzzo, Thomas; Locke, Jayme E

    2018-01-01

    With advances in immunosuppression, graft and patient outcomes after kidney transplantation have improved considerably. As a result, long-term complications of transplantation, such as urologic malignancies, have become increasingly important. Kidney transplant recipients, for example, have a 7-fold risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and 3-fold risk of urothelial carcinoma (UC) compared with the general population. While extrapolation of data from the general population suggest that routine cancer screening in transplant recipients would allow for earlier diagnosis and management of these potentially lethal malignancies, currently there is no consensus for posttransplantation RCC or UC screening as supporting data are limited. Further understanding of risk factors, presentation, optimal management of, and screening for urologic malignancies in kidney transplant patients is warranted, and as such, this review will focus on the incidence, surveillance, and treatment of urologic malignancies in kidney transplant recipients. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Malignant hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollock Neil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stresses such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:5,000 to 1:50,000–100,000 anesthesias. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 3,000 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs, horses, and probably other animals. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia to marked degree, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. Early recognition of the signs of MH, specifically elevation of end-expired carbon dioxide, provides the clinical diagnostic clues. In humans the syndrome is inherited in autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs in autosomal recessive. The pathophysiologic changes of MH are due to uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation. Due to ATP depletion, the muscle membrane integrity is compromised leading to hyperkalemia and rhabdomyolysis. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 90 mutations have been identified in the RYR-1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 25 are causal for MH. Diagnostic testing relies on assessing the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and other drugs. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction, on a limited basis so far, of genetic testing for susceptibility to MH. As the sensitivity of genetic testing increases, molecular genetics will be used for identifying those at risk with

  7. Expression of LOC285758, a potential long non-coding biomarker, is methylation-dependent and correlates with glioma malignancy grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjasic Alenka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the early genetic drivers can help diagnose glioma tumours in their early stages, before becoming malignant. However, there is emerging evidence that disturbance of epigenetic mechanisms also contributes to cell’s malignant transformation and cancer progression. Long non-coding RNAs are one of key epigenetic modulators of signalling pathways, since gene expression regulation is one of their canonical mechanisms. The aim of our study was to search new gliomagenesis-specific candidate lncRNAs involved in epigenetic regulation.

  8. Lesions of uncertain malignant potential (B3) on core biopsy in the NHS Breast Screening Programme: is the screening round relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R J; Steel, J R; Porter, G J R; Holgate, C S; Watkins, R M

    2012-03-01

    Most women who have screening mammography and undergo subsequent open biopsy following an indeterminate core biopsy result are eventually found to have benign disease. However, a significant number have malignant disease and the rate of malignancy in such cases may be influenced by various factors. This study examined the effect of the type of screening round (prevalent or incident) on the likelihood of breast cancer being present. A total of 199 women who had NHS breast screening mammograms and subsequent indeterminate (B3) core biopsy results followed by excision biopsy over an 11-year period in a single breast screening unit were reviewed. The rate of malignancy following excision of a lesion graded as B3 on core biopsy was 21% for women in the prevalent screening round compared to 33% in subsequent rounds (Fisher's exact test, p=0.038). The incidence of malignancy associated with a B3 core biopsy result appears to be related to the screening round in which the lesion is detected, being approximately 50% higher in the subsequent incident rounds compared to the initial prevalent round. This finding may be useful in formulating management plans for women who have an indeterminate biopsy result.

  9. Diagnostic potential of miR-126, miR-143, miR-145, and miR-652 in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Grauslund, Morten; Ravn, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is difficult to distinguish from reactive mesothelial proliferations (RMPs). It is uncertain whether miRNAs are useful biomarkers for differentiating MPM from RMPs. Thus, we screened with a quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR)-based platform the expression of 742 mi...

  10. Non-hematopoietic PAR-2 is essential for matriptase-driven pre-malignant progression and potentiation of ras-mediated squamous cell carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales, K U; Friis, S; Konkel, J E

    2015-01-01

    The membrane-anchored serine protease, matriptase, is consistently dysregulated in a range of human carcinomas, and high matriptase activity correlates with poor prognosis. Furthermore, matriptase is unique among tumor-associated proteases in that epithelial stem cell expression of the protease...... and dermal fibrosis. Selective ablation of PAR-2 from bone marrow-derived cells did not prevent matriptase-driven pre-malignant progression, indicating that matriptase activates keratinocyte stem cell PAR-2 to elicit its pro-inflammatory and pro-tumorigenic effects. When combined with previous studies, our...... suffices to induce malignant transformation. Here, we use genetic epistasis analysis to identify proteinase-activated receptor (PAR)-2-dependent inflammatory signaling as an essential component of matriptase-mediated oncogenesis. In cell-based assays, matriptase was a potent activator of PAR-2, and PAR-2...

  11. The “don't eat me” signal CD47 is a novel diagnostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for diffuse malignant mesothelioma

    OpenAIRE

    Schürch, Christian; Forster, Stefan; Brühl, Frido; Yang, Sara Hsin-Yi; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Hewer, Ekkehard

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) is one of the prognostically most discouraging cancers with median survivals of only 12–22 months. Due to its insidious onset and delayed detection, DMM is often at an advanced stage at diagnosis and is considered incurable. Combined chemo- and radiotherapy followed by surgery only marginally affect outcome at the cost of significant morbidity. Because of the long time period between exposure to asbestos and disease onset, the incidence of DMM is still ris...

  12. Lesions with unclear malignant potential (B3) after minimally invasive breast biopsy: evaluation of vacuum biopsies performed in Switzerland and recommended further management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Camilla; Haueisen, Harald; Kampmann, Gert; Oehlschlegel, Christian; Seifert, B; Rageth, Luzi; Rageth, Christoph; Stadlmann, S; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A

    2016-07-01

    Histopathological B3 lesions after minimal invasive breast biopsy (VABB) are a particular challenge for the clinician, as there are currently no binding recommendations regarding the subsequent procedure. To analyze all B3 lesions, diagnosed at VABB and captured in the national central Swiss MIBB database and to provide a data basis for further management in this subgroup of patients. All 9,153 stereotactically, sonographically, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsies, performed in Switzerland between 2009 and 2011, captured in a central database, were evaluated. The rate of B3 lesions and the definitive pathological findings in patients who underwent surgical resection were analyzed. The B3 rate was 17.0% (1532 of 9000 biopsies with B classification). Among the 521 lesions with a definitive postoperative diagnosis, the malignancy rate (invasive carcinoma or DCIS) was 21.5%. In patients with atypical ductal hyperplasia, papillary lesions, flat epithelial atypia, lobular neoplasia, and radial scar diagnosed by VABB, the malignancy rates were 25.9%, 3.1%, 18.3%, 26.4%, and 11.1%, respectively. B3 lesions, comprising 17%, of all analyzed biopsies, were common and the proportion of malignancies in those lesions undergoing subsequent surgical excision was high (21.5%). © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  13. Areca nut extract induces pyknotic necrosis in serum-starved oral cells via increasing reactive oxygen species and inhibiting GSK3β: an implication for cytopathic effects in betel quid chewers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tsai Ji

    Full Text Available Areca nut has been proven to be correlated with various pathologic alterations in oral cavity. However, the mechanisms for such cytopathic effects are still elusive due mostly to the limitations of cell culture systems. Here we discovered that areca nut extract (ANE induced production of autophagosome vacuoles in cells cultured with rich medium but induced pyknosis and ballooning, two morphological alterations frequently observed in betel quid chewers, in cells under a serum-free culture condition. Permeability of the serum-starved cells to propidium iodide (PI confirmed ANE induced novel necrosis with pyknosis (pyknotic necrosis, providing a possible explanation for inflammatory infiltration in chewers' mucosa. In these serum-starved cells, ANE strongly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS, which acted as a key switch for the initiation of pyknotic necrosis. Calcium flux was also involved in the morphological alterations. Besides, inhibition of GSK3β by SB216763 significantly exacerbated the pyknotic necrosis either induced by ANE or H2O2 in serum-starved cells, suggesting that GSK3β is a critical regulator for ANE/ROS-mediated pyknotic necrosis. Interestingly, LC3-II transition and PARP cleavage were still detected in the serum-starved cells after ANE treatment, suggesting concurrent activation of apoptotic and autophagic pathways. Finally, insulin could counteract the effect of ANE-induced pyknotic necrosis. Taken together, these data provide a platform for studying ANE-induced cytopathogenesis and the first clinical implication for several pathological alterations, such as ballooning and inflammatory infiltration, in betel quid chewers.

  14. Malignant phyllodes breast tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa R. Shah-Patel, MD

    2017-01-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare tumor of the breast occurring in females usually between the ages of 35 and 55 years. It is often difficult to distinguish benign from malignant phyllodes tumors from other benign entities such as fibroadenomas. This case presentation demonstrates a woman with malignant phyllodes tumor treated with mastectomy with abdominal skin flap reconstruction.

  15. Malignant phyllodes breast tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Shah-Patel, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare tumor of the breast occurring in females usually between the ages of 35 and 55 years. It is often difficult to distinguish benign from malignant phyllodes tumors from other benign entities such as fibroadenomas. This case presentation demonstrates a woman with malignant phyllodes tumor treated with mastectomy with abdominal skin flap reconstruction.

  16. Fertility preservation and refreezing of transplanted ovarian tissue-a potential new way of managing patients with low risk of malignant cell recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine Gry; Giorgione, Veronica; Humaidan, Peter

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the first successful refreezing of ovarian tissue recovered more than 3 years after transplantation in a woman previously treated for early-stage ovarian cancer. DESIGN: Evaluation of cryopreserved and grafted ovarian tissue. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): A 23-year-old...... of functional follicles than previously estimated can actually support ovarian function. Removing and refreezing grafted tissue could be a new way of handling not only cancer patients with a risk of malignant cell recurrence, but also certain groups of patients with genetic conditions....

  17. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of a Modified Liquid-Based Cytology using OralCDx Brush in early detection of oral potentially malignant lesions and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavarian, Zahra; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Mosannen-Mozafari, Pegah; Pakfetrat, Atessa; Shakeri, Mohammad-Taghi; Ghafoorian-Maddah, Rasoul

    2010-09-01

    To determine diagnostic value of modified Liquid Based Brush Biopsy technique. 26 oral premalignant and malignant lesions in 25 patients (12 females; 54.23+/-19.77 years and 13 males; 53.77+/-15.43 years) underwent Modified (Liquid Based) Brush Biopsy and scalpel biopsy simultaneously from the same area. There were 16 positive and 10 negative brush biopsy results, with no inadequate readings. Histological findings were compatible with oral leukoplakia (n=5) with dysplasia, Oral lichen planus and lichenoid reaction (n=7) (with or without dysplasia) oral squamous cell carcinoma (n=11),verrucous carcinoma (n=1) and granular cell tumors (n=2). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive diagnostic likelihood ratio (LR+) and negative diagnostic likelihood ratio (LR-) were 88.8%, 100%, 100%, 80%, infinity and 0.11 respectively (no false positive results). It is the first attempt to do LBC with a specialized oral brush. Our results show that modified technique is a useful tool for screening of oral premalignant and malignant lesions.

  18. Population-based screening program for reducing oral cancer mortality in 2,334,299 Taiwanese cigarette smokers and/or betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu-Lin; Su, William Wang-Yu; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Lee, Yi-Chia; Chiu, Han-Mo; Chang, Dun-Cheng; Jou, Yann-Yuh; Wu, Chien-Yuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Chiou, Shu-Ti

    2017-05-01

    To reduce oral cancer mortality, an organized, population-based screening program for the early detection of oral premalignancy and oral cancer was designed for high-risk individuals with habits of betel quid chewing, cigarette smoking, or both. The objective of this report was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this program in reducing the incidence of advanced disease and deaths from oral cancer. A nationwide, population-based screening program for oral cancer has been conducted in Taiwan since 2004. Residents aged ≥ 18 years with oral habits of cigarette smoking and/or betel quid chewing were invited. The standardized mortality ratio method was used to compare the observed numbers of advanced oral cancers and deaths from oral cancer among screening attendees with the expected numbers derived from mortality among nonattendees. An intention-to-treat analysis of the relative rate of reductions in advanced-stage oral cancers and oral cancer mortality also was conducted. The overall screening rate was 55.1%. The relative risk of death from oral cancer was 0.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.56) as a result of screening compared with the expected risk of oral cancer deaths in the absence of screening. The corresponding relative risk was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.72-0.77) after adjusting for self-selection bias. The relative risk of advanced oral cancer for the screened group versus the nonscreened group was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.59-0.64), which increased to 0.79 (95% CI, 0.76-0.82) after adjustment for self-selection bias. An organized, population-based oral cancer screening program targeting more than 2 million Taiwanese cigarette smokers and/or betel quid chewers demonstrated the effectiveness of reducing stage III or IV oral cancers and oral cancer mortality. These evidence-based findings corroborate and support the screening strategy of oral visual inspection for the prevention of oral cancer among high-risk individuals in areas with a high incidence of oral

  19. The role of estrogen receptor {beta} (ER{beta}) in malignant diseases-A new potential target for antiproliferative drugs in prevention and treatment of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Margaret [Center for BioSciences, Department of BioSciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Gustafsson, Jan-Ake, E-mail: jan-ake.gustafsson@mednut.ki.se [Center for BioSciences, Department of BioSciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-05-21

    The discovery of ER{beta} in the middle of the 1990s represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of estrogen signaling. It has turned out that estrogen action is not mediated by one receptor, ER{alpha}, but by two balancing factors, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, which are often antagonistic to one another. Excitingly, ER{beta} has been shown to be widespread in the body and to be involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological events. This has led to a strong interest of the pharmaceutical industry to target ER{beta} by drugs against various diseases. In this review, focus is on the role of ER{beta} in malignant diseases where the anti proliferative activity of ER{beta} gives hope of new therapeutic approaches.

  20. Detection of interleukins-6 and 8 in saliva as potential biomarkers of oral pre-malignant lesion and oral carcinoma: A breakthrough in salivary diagnostics in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khyani, Iqbal A Muhammad; Qureshi, Masood A; Mirza, Talat; Farooq, M Umar

    2017-05-01

    Oral cancer is at rise in our population due to increasing use of areca nut (Betel nut) with or without tobacco. It is the second frequent malignant tumour for both the gender in Pakistan. This non-interventional case control study was carried out with the aim to explore saliva as diagnostic medium for detecting interleukins (IL) 6 and 8 as biomarkers of pre-malignant lesions (PML) and oral carcinoma. Total 105 subjects were recruited and were divided into three groups "A", "B" and "C" each comprising of 35 subjects. Group "A" comprised of cases with strong clinical evidence of oral PML. Group "B" constitute clinical and histologically proven OSCC and group "C" include disease free subjects as controls. Saliva from all the recruited subjects was procured by drooling method and stored at-200C before further process. All the collected samples were centrifuged at 4500 rpm for 15 minutes at 4oC. Supernatant fluid was used in ELISA for detection and quantification of IL-6 & IL-8. Data was analysed by using Chi-square test and multivariate analysis was done by non-parametric test. P-value of 0.05 was taken as standard reference. Significant co-relation was found for qualitative salivary detection of IL-6 and IL-8 among the groups (P<0.001 and <0.0001 respectively). Regarding quantitative salivary concentration of leukotrienes, no significant co-relation was found in levels of IL-6 among the groups while there was significant association of IL-8 levels between the groups (P<0.0001).On post Hoc multiple comparison, significant co-relation was found among oral PML group and controls (P=0.001) and OSCC group and control (P=<0.0001). In conclusion salivary detection of IL-6 & IL-8 could be used as probable biomarker for early detection of oral PML & OSCC in etiologically distinct population of Pakistan.

  1. Performance of biomarkers SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA 21-1 as potential tumor markers for malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer in a cohort of workers formerly exposed to asbestos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gube, M. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine, Medical Faculty, Aachen (Germany); Westfaelische Technische Hochschule, Institut fuer Arbeitsmedizin und Sozialmedizin am Universitaetsklinikum Aachen, Rheinisch, Aachen (Germany); Taeger, D.; Weber, D.G.; Pesch, B.; Johnen, G.; Gross, I.M.; Wiethege, T.; Weber, A.; Bruening, T. [Institute of the Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (IPA), Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Bochum (Germany); Brand, P.; Mueller-Lux, A.; Kraus, T. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine, Medical Faculty, Aachen (Germany); Raithel, H.J. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The aim of the study is to examine the cancer-predictive values of SMRP (soluble mesothelin-related peptides), CA125, and CYFRA21-1 as potential tumor markers for lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma in a cohort of workers formerly exposed to asbestos. A voluntary surveillance program has been established for German workers with former asbestos exposure. A subgroup of 626 subjects with a mean age of 63 years (range 53-70 years) at baseline was enrolled in an extended health examination program with high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT) of the chest and blood drawing between 1993 and 1997. Serum concentrations of SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA21-1 were measured in archived serum samples in 2005 and 2006. A mortality follow-up was conducted through 2007. So far, 12 cases with lung cancer and 20 cases with malignant mesothelioma have been observed in this cohort. The average time between sample collection and diagnosis was 4.7 years. Analyzed biomarkers showed low sensitivities (5-25%) and positive predictive values (4-30%) for both cancer sites. Marker combinations resulted in sensitivities between 5 and 50% and positive predictive values ranging from 3 to 14%. Even in those cases, where biomarker concentrations were available within 36 months before diagnosis, no trend for increasing biomarker levels was observed. The analyzed tumor markers were characterized by high specificities, but low sensitivities. SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA21-1 alone or in combination were less suitable to serve as predictors for the diagnosis of lung cancer or malignant mesothelioma. However, a prospective study with annual sampling might reveal a better predictive value of these markers. (orig.)

  2. Diagnostic potential of fluorescence of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded malignant melanoma and pigmented skin lesions: quantitative study of fluorescence intensity using fluorescence microscope and digital imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwirot, B W; Sypniewska, N; Swiatlak, J

    2001-12-01

    The background for this study was reports in the literature of stronger fluorescence observed visually for melanomas compared with benign naevi in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections. Our objective was to carry out a quantitative study of the phenomenon and to investigate if such an approach could be used in the detection of melanomas. Microscopic digital imaging was used to measure quantitatively the fluorescence intensity in specimens from 50 malignant melanomas, four basal cell carcinomas and 58 benign lesions. The mean fluorescence intensity of the melanomas was considerably higher than of the other lesions. For melanomas, the intensity depended both on the distance from the skin surface and the distance from the centre of the lesion. A simple algorithm based on the intensity threshold correctly classified the melanomas with a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 59%. Quantitative measurements of the fluorescence of the pigmented skin lesions fixed with formalin and embedded in paraffin can be a useful auxiliary tool for differentiating melanoma from other pigmented lesions histopathologically.

  3. THE THYMIDINE KINASE-1(TK-1 AS A POTENTIAL TUMOR MARKER: SERUM LEVELS IN SERUM OF PATIENTS WITH SOLID AND SYSTEM MALIGNANCE NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Sergeeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review summarizes the results of studies of levels and/or activity in the blood serum of a metabolic marker thymidine kinase-1 (TK-1 of proliferating cells in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD and malignant neopasms (NM.Comparison of the data in the literature in some cases have been difficult due to the fundamentally different methods of detection the activity or concentration of TK-1, used by authors, even despite the presence of relatively high (but not absolute correlation between these parameters (maximum 0.8.Many clinical and laboratory studies have shown levels of correlation and/or TK-1 activity with clinical stages and different types of LPD and solid MN and can serve as a prognostic factor for overall and recurrence-free survival of patients. When solid MN shown that the activity of TK-1 accurately reflects the proliferative status of tumor.A comparison of the dynamics of TC-1 in the process of chemotherapy and its clinical efficacy, different authors have received fundamentally different results: in some cases the marker reduction was associated with treatment efficacy, and in part of publications they show that the clinically relevant effects of the treatment observed increase in the marker after the first chemotherapy.The entire set of received data demonstrates the relevance of the further development of the algorithm use of TK-1 in oncology practice.

  4. Malignant vasovagal syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, G K; Lee, C; Coatesworth, A P

    2004-01-01

    We present the management of a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma with a history of recurrent syncopal attacks diagnosed as malignant vasovagal syndrome. We discuss clinical presentation as well as the resolution of disease symptoms. The importance of metastatic nasopharyngeal malignancy in relation to syncope is discussed.

  5. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.

  6. The “don't eat me” signal CD47 is a novel diagnostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for diffuse malignant mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sara H.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) is one of the prognostically most discouraging cancers with median survivals of only 12–22 months. Due to its insidious onset and delayed detection, DMM is often at an advanced stage at diagnosis and is considered incurable. Combined chemo- and radiotherapy followed by surgery only marginally affect outcome at the cost of significant morbidity. Because of the long time period between exposure to asbestos and disease onset, the incidence of DMM is still rising and predicted to peak around 2020. Novel markers for the reliable diagnosis of DMM in body cavity effusion specimens as well as more effective, targeted therapies are urgently needed. Here, we show that the “don't eat me” signalling molecule CD47, which inhibits phagocytosis by binding to signal regulatory protein α on macrophages, is overexpressed in DMM cells. A two-marker panel of high CD47 expression and BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP-1) deficiency had a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 100% in discriminating DMM tumour cells from reactive mesothelial cells in effusions, which is superior to the currently used four-marker combination of BAP-1, glucose transporter type 1, epithelial membrane antigen and desmin. In addition, blocking CD47 inhibited growth and promoted phagocytosis of DMM cell lines by macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, DMM tumours in surgical specimens from patients as well as in a mouse DMM model expressed high levels of CD47 and were heavily infiltrated by macrophages. Our study demonstrates that CD47 is an accurate novel diagnostic DMM biomarker and that blocking CD47 may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for DMM. PMID:29296529

  7. Large fibroadenoma mimicking malignancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    looking features that can mimic malignancy. ... breast. Due to the fact that there was a positive family history of breast carci- noma and the mass ... Histological diagnosis confirmed a fibroadenoma. ... texture with regular, lobulated or irregular ...

  8. Stages of Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... malignant mesothelioma, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . ... and decortication , with or without radiation therapy , as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . ...

  9. Epigenetic alterations in hematopoietic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Young Rock; Schatoff, Emma; Abdel-Wahab, Omar

    2012-10-01

    Gene discovery efforts in patients with hematopoietic malignancies have brought to the forefront a series of mutations in genes thought to be involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. These mutations occur in genes known, or suspected, to play a role in modifying cytosine nucleotides on DNA and/or altering the state of histone modifications. Genes such as ASXL1, DNMT3A, EZH2, IDH1/2, MLL1, and TET2 all have been shown to be mutated and/or translocated in patients with myeloid malignancies. Intriguingly, many of the alterations affecting DNA cytosine modifications in myeloid malignancies (mutations in DNMT3A, IDH1/2, and TET2) have also been found in patients with T-cell lymphomas, and EZH2 mutations appear to be critical in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia development as well. In addition, the discovery of frequent mutations in CREBBP, EP300, EZH2, and MLL2 in B-cell lymphomas suggests that epigenetic alterations play a critical role in lymphomagenesis. The purpose of this review is to present functional evidence of how alterations in these epigenetic modifiers promote hematopoietic transformation. The conclusions drawn from these data are valuable in understanding biological mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets.

  10. Management of malignant pleural effusions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Uzbeck, Mateen H

    2010-06-01

    Malignant pleural effusions are a common clinical problem in patients with primary thoracic malignancy and metastatic malignancy to the thorax. Symptoms can be debilitating and can impair tolerance of anticancer therapy. This article presents a comprehensive review of pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical approaches to the management of malignant pleural effusion, and a novel algorithm for management based on patients\\' performance status.

  11. Anti-metastatic potential of resveratrol and its metabolites by the inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, and invasion of malignant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cho-Won; Hwang, Kyung-A; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-12-15

    Increased epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration and invasion abilities of cancer cells play important roles in the metastatic process of cancer. Resveratrol is a stilbenoid, a type of natural polyphenol found in the skin of grapes, berries, and peanuts. A number of experiments have examined resveratrol's ability to target diverse pathways associated with carcinogenesis and cancer progression. This article aims to present updated overview of the knowledge that resveratrol and its metabolites or analogs have the potential to inhibit metastasis of cancer via affecting many signaling pathways related with EMT, cancer migration, and invasion in diverse organs of the body. This article starts with a short introduction describing diverse beneficial effects of resveratrol including cancer prevention and the aim of the present study. To address the effects of resveratrol on cancer metastasis, mechanisms of EMT, migration, invasion, and their relevance with cancer metastasis, anti-metastatic effects of resveratrol through EMT-related signaling pathways and inhibitory effects of resveratrol on migration and invasion are highlighted. In addition, anti-metastatic potential of resveratrol metabolites and analogs is addressed. Resveratrol was demonstrated to turn back the EMT process induced by diverse signaling pathways in several cellular and animal cancer models. In addition, resveratrol can exert chemopreventive efficacies on migration and invasion of cancer cells by inhibiting the related pathways and target molecules. Although these findings display the anti-metastatic potential of resveratrol, more patient-oriented clinical studies demonstrating the marked efficacies of resveratrol in humans are still needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Malignancy following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arichi, N; Kishikawa, H; Nishimura, K; Mitsui, Y; Namba, Y; Tokugawa, S; Ichikawa, Y

    2008-09-01

    A cohort of 429 patients who received kidney grafts between 1973 and 2007 at our hospital was studied for the incidence and sites of malignancy. Sixty-two malignant diseases developed in 57 of 429 patients (13.3%). The cumulative incidences of malignancy increased markedly in the second and third posttransplantation decades. The overall rates were 1.8% at 5 years, 6.7% at 10 years, 12.5% at 15 years, 17.3% at 20 years, and 25.6% at 25 years. In the second and third posttransplantation decades, patients without malignancy showed significantly superior survival versus than those with cancer (P = .0002). Their survival rates were 83.4% versus 86.9% at 10 years and 63.1% versus 80.3% at 20 years, respectively. Skin cancer, renal cell carcinoma of the native kidney, hepatocellular carcinoma, posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease, uterine cancer, and colorectal cancer were common in our series. The 5-year survival rates after the treatment of malignancy were better for skin cancer and renal cell carcinoma of the native kidney. Concerning the effects of immunosuppression, the tacrolimus-based group displayed a higher incidence among 3 groups (P = .0044).

  13. Malignancy-Induced Hypercalcemia—Diagnostic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Hoyoux

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypercalcemia in children is a rare metabolic finding. The clinical picture is usually non-specific, and the etiology includes several entities (metabolic, nutritional, drug-induced, inflammatory, cancer-associated, or genetic depending on the age at presentation, but severe hypercalcemia is associated mainly with malignancy in childhood and sepsis in neonates. Severe parathyroid hormone (PTH-suppressed hypercalcemia is challenging and requires multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to (i confirm or rule out a malignant cause, (ii treat it and its potentially dangerous complications. We report a case of severe and complicated PTH-independent hypercalcemia in a symptomatic 3-year-old boy. His age, severity of hypercalcemia and its complicated course, and the first imaging reports were suggestive of malignancy. The first bone and kidney biopsies and bone marrow aspiration were normal. The definitive diagnosis was a malignant-induced hypercalcemia, and we needed 4 weeks to assess other differential diagnoses and to confirm, on histopathological and immunochemical base, the malignant origin of hypercalcemia. Using this case as an illustrative example, we suggest a diagnostic approach that underlines the importance of repeated histology if the clinical suspicion is malignancy-induced hypercalcemia. Effective treatment is required acutely to restore calcium levels and to avoid complications.

  14. New potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of B-Cell malignancies using chlorambucil/hydroxychloroquine-loaded anti-CD20 nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Mezzaroba

    Full Text Available Current B-cell disorder treatments take advantage of dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens and immunotherapy via use of monoclonal antibodies. Unfortunately, they may lead to insufficient tumor distribution of therapeutic agents, and often cause adverse effects on patients. In this contribution, we propose a novel therapeutic approach in which relatively high doses of Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil were loaded into biodegradable nanoparticles coated with an anti-CD20 antibody. We demonstrate their ability to effectively target and internalize in tumor B-cells. Moreover, these nanoparticles were able to kill not only p53 mutated/deleted lymphoma cell lines expressing a low amount of CD20, but also circulating primary cells purified from chronic lymphocitic leukemia patients. Their safety was demonstrated in healthy mice, and their therapeutic effects in a new model of Burkitt's lymphoma. The latter serves as a prototype of an aggressive lympho-proliferative disease. In vitro and in vivo data showed the ability of anti-CD20 nanoparticles loaded with Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil to increase tumor cell killing in comparison to free cytotoxic agents or Rituximab. These results shed light on the potential of anti-CD20 nanoparticles carrying Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil for controlling a disseminated model of aggressive lymphoma, and lend credence to the idea of adopting this therapeutic approach for the treatment of B-cell disorders.

  15. Immunotherapy of Genitourinary Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruo Inamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cancer patients are treated with some combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in local therapy with curative intent, chemotherapeutic treatments for metastatic disease often remain unsatisfying due to severe side effects and incomplete long-term remission. Therefore, the evaluation of novel therapeutic options is of great interest. Conventional, along with newer treatment strategies target the immune system that suppresses genitourinary (GU malignancies. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma and non-muscle-invasive bladder caner represent the most immune-responsive types of all human cancer. This review examines the rationale and emerging evidence supporting the anticancer activity of immunotherapy, against GU malignancies.

  16. Rheumatologic Manifestations of Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashefi, Mandana

    2017-02-01

    A variety of conditions mimicking rheumatologic syndromes may be associated with an underlying malignancy. Therefore, distinguishing these syndromes from more common, nonparaneoplastic rheumatologic conditions can be perplexing. Some autoimmune conditions and the medications used for their management can be associated with increased future risk of malignancy. Some cancers can directly involve the musculoskeletal structures, whereas others present with systemic manifestations at sites away from the tumor and its metastases. Better awareness and timely recognition of these associations may lead to earlier cancer detection and hopefully better long-term survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Angiogenesis in malignant lymphoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.; Raemaekers, J.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Angiogenesis plays an important role in the pathophysiology of both solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Angiogenesis-associated parameters are important prognosticators, and tumor blood vessels are an emerging target for therapy. This review addresses the evidence of the

  18. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Roberts

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation.

  19. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck, Marcus Matheus Johannes

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the author studied the diagnostic procedures for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH), with special emphasis upon refining the biological diagnostic test and improving protocols and guidelines for investigation of MH susceptibility. MH is a pharmacogenetic disease of skeletal

  20. [Pregnancy and malignant melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankova, T; Stoikov, S; Nikolova, M

    2010-01-01

    The authors review on a rare pregnancy accompanying disease--Melanoma malignum. After the definition are presented the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, pathomorphology, clinical forms, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Described are the effects of the pregnancy on this malignant disease and the impact of it during the pregnancy.

  1. Trauma - the malignant epidemic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    life are lost annually from trauma than malignant disease, heart disease, and AIDS combined, and by the ... diffused and rapidly spreading condition affecting many people in anyone region at the same time and tending ... upon inadequate and overcrowded methods of transportation. TABLE I. INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE ...

  2. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI in the differentiation between uterine leiomyosarcoma / smooth muscle tumor with uncertain malignant potential and benign leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gigin; Yang, Lan-Yan; Huang, Yu-Ting; Ng, Koon-Kwan; Ng, Shu-Hang; Ueng, Shir-Hwa; Chao, Angel; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lai, Chyong-Huey

    2016-02-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) in the differentiation between uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) / smooth muscle tumor with uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) and benign leiomyoma. A consecutive cohort of 8 LMS/STUMP and 25 benign leiomyomas underwent pelvic MRI exam at 3T. Two radiologists independently evaluated images based on CE-MRI (central nonenhancement at equilibrial phase) and DWI (hyperintensity on b = 1000 s/mm2 and hypointensity on apparent diffusion coefficients [ADC] map). The ADC values were calculated from b = 0 and 1000 s/mm2 . CE-MRI yielded a significantly superior diagnostic accuracy (0.94 vs. 0.52) and a significantly higher specificity (0.96 vs. 0.36) than DWI (P < 0.05 for both), and remained a comparably high sensitivity as DWI (0.88 vs. 1.00). A combination of DWI and ADC value <1.08 × 10(-3) mm2 /s (determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis) improved diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of DWI to 0.88, 0.88, and 0.88, respectively, by post-hoc analysis based on the same study cohort. For prospective differentiation between uterine LMS/STUMP and benign leiomyoma, CE-MRI can provide accurate information and is preferable to DWI. Combination of DWI and ADC values can achieve a comparable diagnostic accuracy to CE-MRI. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Proportion of Uterine Malignant Tumors in Patients with Laparoscopic Myomectomy: A National Multicenter Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The proportion of malignancy is low after using morcellation in patients who undergo laparoscopic myomectomy. Patients with fast-growing uterine fibroids and abnormal ultrasonic tumor blood flow should be considered for malignant potential, and morcellation should be avoided.

  4. Malignant hyperthermia resolving with discontinuation of sevoflurane alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abolkhair

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An otherwise healthy 13 year old developed hypercarbia and increased temperature during anesthesia with sevoflurane. Discontinuation of sevoflurane, surface cooling, and hyperventilation resulted in prompt resolution. However, hyperkalemia continued to raise the suspicion for malignant hyperthermia, which was ultimately confirmed by ryanodine receptor gene sequencing. The case underlines the importance of intraoperative monitoring of end-tidal CO2 and temperature and the potential benefits of early discontinuation of inhalational anesthetics in the presence of signs and symptoms suspicious for malignant hyperthermia. The severe hyperkalemia suggests that standard guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of malignant hyperthermia, including dantrolene treatment, should be followed whenever malignant hyperthermia is suspected.

  5. Malignant mesenchymoma of the scrotum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Brynitz, S

    1991-01-01

    Paratesticular sarcomas are rare, especially the malignant mesenchymoma. To our knowledge only four cases of paratesticular malignant mesenchymoma have been described previously. All were localized to the spermatic cord. We present a case of malignant mesenchymoma in the scrotum free of the sperm...

  6. [Malignant cartilage tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirnaerdt, M J; Hogendoorn, P C; Taminiau, A H; Bloem, J L

    1998-06-01

    Malignant cartilaginous tumors (chondrosarcomas) are, with a relative frequency of 20%, the second most common malignant tumors of bone after osteosarcoma. The diagnosis of chondrosarcoma can usually be made confidently based on combination of clinical information, radiographs, Gd-enhanced MR imaging, and histologic examination of a biopsy sample. The combination of these parameters is important because accuracy of histologic diagnosis is adversely affected by unrepresentative sampling of these usually large tumors. The prognosis of patients with chondrosarcoma becomes poorer with more axial location, higher histologic grade, larger tumor size and inadequate resection. By careful analysis of radiographs and Gd-enhanced MR imaging the radiologist has the ability to improve the management of patients with chondrosarcoma.

  7. Intravascular malignant lymphomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Duverneuil, N.; Lafitte, F.; Chiras, J. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Batiment Babinski, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 75013 Paris (France); Mokhtari, K. [Service de Neuropathologie, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 75013 Paris (France); Behin, A.; Hoang-Xuan, K. [Departement de Neurologie, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 75013 Paris (France)

    2002-09-01

    Intravascular malignant lymphomatosis is a rare and probably often overlooked disease characterised by massive intravascular proliferation of lymphoid cells, usually with a poor prognosis. CT and MRI appearances are nonspecific; the most suggestive finding being both asymmetrical, bilateral, contrast enhancing high-signal areas on T2 weighting and infarct-like lesions of the cortex and basal ganglia. We report two patients with previously unreported dural and spinal cord involvement. (orig.)

  8. Candidiasis in Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Taher, Diany N; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Abdullah, Murdani; Atmakusuma, Jumhana; Chen, Khie

    2006-01-01

    Esophageal candidiasis presents with a range of clinical findings and is rarely found among immunocompetent patient without predisposing factors. Between 20-50% of patient may be asymptomatic. One of predisposing factor of candidiasis is immunocompromised condition due to Malignancy. Dysphagia is the most frequently presented feature of esophageal carcinoma. We demonstrated a case of esophageal candidiasis as one of early clinical presentation in patient with esophageal carcinoma.

  9. Malignant histiocytosis. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Oscar; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, y Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo; QUIÑONES, WILLY; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; MISAD, OSCAR; Laboratorio de Anatomia Patológica “Oscar Misad; DELGADO, CARLOS; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, UNMSM; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; Ronceros, Sergio; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Marangoni, Manuela; Departamento de Enfermería, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Lima, Perú; BARDALES, LUZ; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; REYES, RAFAEL; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; CASTILLO, ALFREDO; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; URRUTIA, KATIA; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen year-old male patient referred from Huancayo who presented one month gastric intolerance, jaundice, fever and a lymph proliferative syndrome. Laboratory tests revealed severe pancytopenia due to phagocytosis. Haematologic and anatomy-pathology diagnosis was human malignant histiocytosis. We present this case due to its low frequency and the emergency character of the disease. Paciente varón de 14 años, procedente de Huancayo, que presenta un mes antes de su hospitalización intoler...

  10. Immunotherapy for gastrointestinal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Paul G; Vohra, Nasreen A; Ghansah, Tomar; Sarnaik, Amod A; Pilon-Thomas, Shari A

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the most common human tumors encountered worldwide. The majority of GI cancers are unresectable at the time of diagnosis, and in the subset of patients undergoing resection, few are cured. There is only a modest improvement in survival with the addition of modalities such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Due to an increasing global cancer burden, it is imperative to integrate alternative strategies to improve outcomes. It is well known that cancers possess diverse strategies to evade immune detection and destruction. This has led to the incorporation of various immunotherapeutic strategies, which enable reprogramming of the immune system to allow effective recognition and killing of GI tumors. A review was conducted of the results of published clinical trials employing immunotherapy for esophageal, gastroesophageal, gastric, hepatocellular, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers. Monoclonal antibody therapy has come to the forefront in the past decade for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Immunotherapeutic successes in solid cancers such as melanoma and prostate cancer have led to the active investigation of immunotherapy for GI malignancies, with some promising results. To date, monoclonal antibody therapy is the only immunotherapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for GI cancers. Initial trials validating new immunotherapeutic approaches, including vaccination-based and adoptive cell therapy strategies, for GI malignancies have demonstrated safety and the induction of antitumor immune responses. Therefore, immunotherapy is at the forefront of neoadjuvant as well as adjuvant therapies for the treatment and eradication of GI malignancies.

  11. A functional screening of the kinome identifies the Polo-like kinase 4 as a potential therapeutic target for malignant rhabdoid tumors, and possibly, other embryonal tumors of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sredni, Simone Treiger; Suzuki, Mario; Yang, Jian-Ping; Topczewski, Jacek; Bailey, Anders W; Gokirmak, Tufan; Gross, Jeffrey N; de Andrade, Alexandre; Kondo, Akihide; Piper, David R; Tomita, Tadanori

    2017-11-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are deadly embryonal tumors of the infancy. With poor survival and modest response to available therapies, more effective and less toxic treatments are needed. We hypothesized that a systematic screening of the kinome will reveal kinases that drive rhabdoid tumors and can be targeted by specific inhibitors. We individually mutated 160 kinases in a well-characterized rhabdoid tumor cell line (MON) using lentiviral clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9). The kinase that most significantly impaired cell growth was further validated. Its expression was evaluated by microarray gene expression (GE) within 111 pediatric tumors, and functional assays were performed. A small molecule inhibitor was tested in multiple rhabdoid tumor cell lines and its toxicity evaluated in zebrafish larvae. The Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) was identified as the kinase that resulted in higher impairment of cell proliferation when mutated by CRISPR/Cas9. PLK4 CRISPR-mutated rhabdoid cells demonstrated significant decrease in proliferation, viability, and survival. GE showed upregulation of PLK4 in rhabdoid tumors and other embryonal tumors of the brain. The PLK4 inhibitor CFI-400945 showed cytotoxic effects on rhabdoid tumor cell lines while sparing non-neoplastic human fibroblasts and developing zebrafish larvae. Our findings indicate that rhabdoid tumor cell proliferation is highly dependent on PLK4 and suggest that targeting PLK4 with small-molecule inhibitors may hold a novel strategy for the treatment of MRT and possibly other embryonal tumors of the brain. This is the first time that PLK4 has been described as a potential target for both brain and pediatric tumors. © 2017 The Authors. Pediatric Blood & Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Malignancy risk models for oral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Ana-María; Brezzo, María-Magdalena; Secchi, Dante-Gustavo; Barra, José-Luis; Brunotto, Mabel

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work was to assess risk habits, clinical and cellular phenotypes and TP53 DNA changes in oral mucosa samples from patients with Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMD), in order to create models that enable genotypic and phenotypic patterns to be obtained that determine the risk of lesions becoming malignant. Clinical phenotypes, family history of cancer and risk habits were collected in clinical histories. TP53 gene mutation and morphometric-morphological features were studied, and multivariate models were applied. Three groups were estabished: a) oral cancer (OC) group (n=10), b) oral potentially malignant disorders group (n=10), and c) control group (n=8). An average of 50% of patients with malignancy were found to have smoking and drinking habits. A high percentage of TP53 mutations were observed in OC (30%) and OPMD (average 20%) lesions (p=0.000). The majority of these mutations were GC TA transversion mutations (60%). However, patients with OC presented mutations in all the exons and introns studied. Highest diagnostic accuracy (p=0.0001) was observed when incorporating alcohol and tobacco habits variables with TP3 mutations. Our results prove to be statistically reliable, with parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. Models 2 and 3 were the most accurate for assessing the risk of an OPMD becoming cancerous. However, in a public health context, model 3 is the most recommended because the characteristics considered are easier and less costly to evaluate.

  13. Meningioma maligno Malignant meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvei González Orlandi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los meningiomas intracraneales son tumores por lo general benignos, de crecimiento lento, y se originan en la capa de células aracnoideas, especialmente en las granulaciones aracnoideas. Los meningiomas anaplásicos o malignos representen solo el 1-3 %. En ocasiones simulan lesiones tumorales neuroepiteliales malignas, por su crecimiento rápido y la frecuente invasión al tejido cerebral vecino; suelen recidivar con mayor frecuencia y muchas veces requieren terapia coadyuvante. Las imágenes topográficas de este tipo de tumores suelen ser hiperdensas, con muy buena captación del contraste, regulares y bien delimitadas con poco o ningún edema asociado, todo lo contrario a lo visto en el caso que se presenta, en el cual las imágenes parecían corresponder a las de un glioma maligno (glioblastoma multiforme.The intracranial meningiomas are tumors in general of benign type of a slow growth originating in the arachnoid cells layer, especially in arachnoid granulations. The anaplastic or malignant meningiomas accounted for only the 1-3%. Sometimes they simulate malignant neuroepithelial lesions due to its fast growth and the frequent invasion of surrounding cerebral tissue with very frequent relapses and many times they required adjuvant therapy. The topographic images of this type of tumor are hyper-denses with a good contrast capture, regular and well defined with not much or not associated edema, quite the contrary that observed in present case where images seems to correspond with those of a malignant glioma (multiforme glioblastoma.

  14. [Malignant tumors of thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhliarová, B; Bugová, G; Hajtman, A

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing. The aim of this work was to determine risk factors, diagnostic methods and extent of surgical treatment of malignant goiter. The authors retrospectively analyzed patients who were surgically treated for thyroid disease at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Comenius University, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Teaching Hospital in Martin, Slovakia, from the January 1st, 2006 to December 31st, 2013, for thyroid disease. The incidence, risk factors of malignant thyroid tumors, indication for surgery and its complications were evaluated. A total of 1,620 adult patients were surgically treated for thyroid disease at the Department of ENT, Head and Neck Surgery, CU JMF, UH in Martin, Slovakia, between 2006- 2013. Malignant tumors were identified in 238 patients (15%). Microcarcinoma (incidentally detected malignant tumor 1 cm) occurred in 78 cases (5%). Malignant thyroid tumor was more common in younger patients (p = 0.002). Newly created and larger nodules positively correlated with the occurrence of malignancy (p = 0.003, p = 0.041, resp.). Gender, family history of thyroid disorder, previous radiation therapy, and previous malignancy did not affect the incidence of malignant tumor of thyroid gland. High sensitivity and specificity in the dia-gnosis of malignant thyroid nodule was observed using aspiration cytology (75%, 97%, resp.) and intraoperative histopathological examination (88%, 100%, resp.). Malignant tumor of thyroid gland is more common in younger patients with newly developed nodule. The risk factors of malignancy increase with the size of the thyroid nodule. Aspiration cytology and peroperative histopathology have high sensitivity and specificity in the dia-gnosis of malignant thyroid tumor; therefore, they should be a standard method in the dia-gnosis of nodular goiter. The method of choice in the treatment of thyroid malignancy is total thyroidectomy.

  15. Helminths and malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennervald, Birgitte J; Polman, K.

    2009-01-01

    It has been estimated that chronic infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites contribute to 17.8% of the global burden of cancer, although only a relatively small proportion of the infection-related cancers can be attributed to helminth infections. These are important because of the high...... oxidize and damage DNA and lead to genetic instabilities and malignant transformation. Physical damage caused by the parasites, their eggs or secreted products leads to restorative hyperplasia of the damaged tissue. This may promote the propagation of cells, in which genotoxic damage and pre...

  16. Maligne adnekstumorer i huden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Anders; Hærskjold, Ann; Lei, Ulrikke

    2016-01-01

    types entirely on their clinical appearance. The histologic diagnosis is troublesome, and the lesions are often mistaken for their benign counterpart, basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. The lesions are treated with surgery. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy may play a role in treatment......Malignant adnexal carcinomas of the skin are rare but associated with high propensity for local recurrence, and for some of the distinct subgroups they are known to metastasize regionally or distant. Biopsy is necessary for correct diagnosis, as the lesions cannot be separated from other tumour...

  17. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bino Rajamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is a life-threatening emergency that is often seen as a complication of antipsychotic agents. It is characterized by a tetrad of motor, behavioral, autonomic, and laboratory abnormalities. We report a case of a 34-year-old man with a history of newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus, mental retardation, and behavioral abnormalities who developed NMS after starting on antipsychotic agents. He presented with high temperature, muscle rigidity, tachycardia, and elevated blood pressure. After a week of hospital treatment in the general ward of a secondary care unit, he was discharged in a hemodynamically and mentally stable state.

  18. [Acute catatonic syndrome after neuroleptic malignant syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjelloun, G; Jehel, L; Abgrall, G; Pelissolo, A; Allilaire, Jf

    2005-01-01

    We report the case of a young woman who deve-loped catatonic syndrome a few days after neuroleptic mali-gnant syndrome (NMS), arising the problem of the chronology of both affections. A 20-year old woman with an history of bipolar disorder, experienced an acute manic syndrome that made hospitalization necessary. Fourteen days after loxa-pine prescription, the patient developed a NMS (DSM IV criteria) dyskinesia, dysphagia, fever and alteration of cons-ciousness. Hepatic transaminases and muscular enzymes increased. Neuroleptic was immediately interrupted and benzodiazepines (Lorazepam) was started. Biological parameters were normalized after 7 days, hyperpyrexia decreased and extrapyramidal symptoms disappeared but manic symptoms persisted. Two weeks later, the patient presented nega-tivism, rigidity of the four limb, catalepsia and hyperpyrexia. She also had been anxious for death and presented auditory hallucinations. Bacteriological samples and computed tomography were normal. This catatonic symptoms did not decreased and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was necessary. After six ECT, she started standing up, walking, taking food and speaking. After 12 ECT, the clinical state was the same as it was before the acute episod. The patient was then treated with valproate and lorazepam for anxiety symptoms. Acute catatonie, a rare and life-threatening acute syndrome was described in psychosis before the advent of neuroleptic drugs. It's characterized by hyperexia, stupor alternated with exctement, rigidity. Many etiolologic factors have been reported for this affection: psychogenic, organic or toxic. Neuroletic malignant syndrome is a potentially fatal complication of neuroleptic treatment occuring in about 1% of patients treated with neuroleptic. This syndrome is characterised by consciousness alteration, extrapyramidal symptoms, autonomic and thermic disorders. Similar clinical and biological features in catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) suggest a

  19. Complementary and Integrative Medicine in Hematologic Malignancies: Questions and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Moshe; Sapire, Kenneth

    2017-10-14

    Hematologic malignancies represent 9.7% of all cancers, making them the fourth most common type of cancer in the United States. The aggressive and complex treatments administered in hematologic malignancies result in a high burden of psychological needs. Complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) is becoming one of the options that patients use to address their distress during and after cancer treatments. It is not clear whether appropriate CIM can relieve distress in patients affected by these malignancies. This review covers the potential benefits of CIM as relates to nutrition, nutritional supplements, exercise, circadian rhythm, methods for reducing distress during bone marrow aspiration, massage therapy, and acupuncture, in treating patients with hematological malignancies. This review may provide a framework to enhance patient-doctor dialogue regarding CIM use in hematologic malignancies.

  20. Temozolomide in malignant glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Dresemann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Gregor DresemannCenter for Neurooncology at Aerztehaus Velen, Velen, GermanyAbstract: Glioblastoma multiforme WHO grade IV (GBM is the most aggressive ­malignant glioma and the most frequent primary tumor of the central nervous system. The median ­survival of newly diagnosed GBM patients was between 9 to 12 months prior to treatment with ­temozolomide being introduced. Primary resection that is as complete as possible is recommended for malignant glioma. Conventional fractionated irradiation 55 to 60 gy with concomitant temozolomide followed by standard temozolomide 6 cycles (5/28 (EORTC/NCIC-regime published by R Stupp in 2005 is the standard of care for newly diagnosed GBM after surgery, independent of the methylation status of the MGM-T gene promoter. Age is no ­contraindication for treatment with temozolomide, although comorbidity and performance status have to be ­considered. For temozolomide naive GBM and astrocytoma grade III patients with disease progression, temozolomide is still the treatment of choice outside of clinical studies. A ­general consensus regarding the schedule of choice has not yet been achieved; so far the 5 out of 28 days regimen (5/28 is the standard of care in most countries. Patients with disease progression after standard temozolomide (5/28 are candidates for clinical studies. Outside of clinical ­studies, dose-dense (7/7, prolonged (21/28, or metronomic (28/28 temozolomide, or alternatively a nitrosourea-based regimen can be an option. The excellent toxicity profile of ­temozolomide allows for various combinations with antitumor agents. None of these ­combinations, however, have been demonstrated to be statistically significantly superior compared to temozolomide alone. The role of lower dosed, dose-dense, or continuous regimen with or without drug combination and the role of temozolomide for newly diagnosed astrocytoma grade III and low grade glioma still has to be determined.Keywords: glioblastoma

  1. Gastric malignancies and associated pre-malignant lesions in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... lesions like chronic gastritis, glandular atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, H. pylori infection play some role in the pathogenesis of gastric malignancies. The aims of this investigation were to study the histological type of gastric malignancies seen in the. Department of Morbid Anatomy and Forensic Medicine,.

  2. EBV-Related Malignancies, Outcomes and Novel Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozoya, Oluwatobi Ohiole; Sokol, Lubomir; Dalia, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is a common gamma herpes virus with a high prevalence in adults worldwide. Infection is mostly latent in affected individuals. EBV has been linked mostly with lymphoid malignancies but its association with epithelial and other non-lymphoid malignancies has also been described. Using MEDLINE, the terms "Epstein Barr Virus AND Malignancy"; "EBV mechanisms"; EBV treatment AND outcomes"; and "EBV prevention" were combined to find articles pertinent to this review. The search was limited to more recent publications between January 1, 2000 and August 1, 2015. In this review, we describe current knowledge about the pathogenesis of EBV-related malignancies and evaluate their therapeutic options and outcomes. Current and prospective novel preventive options are also critically reviewed. EBV infection is a very common viral infection worldwide and has been implicated in various malignancies including lymphomas, gastric cancer, and nasopharangeal cancer. Patients with EBV positive PTLD and NK/T-cell lymphoma tend to have a better prognosis than EBV negative patients. On the other hand, patients with EBV positive HL or DLBCL tend to have a poorer prognosis especially in elderly patients. Further research is needed to better understand if EBV status is a true prognostic indicator in most malignancies. Treatment approaches remain similar for EBV positive and EBV negative malignancies while the use of novel agents remain under investigation. EBV vaccination trials are underway and these remain a potentially effective strategy to prevent EBV-related malignancies and the associated sequela.

  3. Comparative distribution of Lysyl Oxidase (G473A) and NQO1 (C609T) polymorphism among tea-garden workers (habitual chewers of betel quid) of Darjeeling district and Kolkata city of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jay Gopal; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Mahato, Basudev; Sripathi Rao, B H; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2013-10-01

    Chewing of processed arecanut products with tobacco and betel quid has been attributed to many oral pathological conditions. These products are very popular among the youngsters of lower economic groups. Genetic predisposition has been now identified as a major risk factor for increasing the susceptibility toward the disease among these chewers. Our study mainly aims to find out the predisposition of LOX (G473A) and NQO1 (C609T) polymorphisms and present a comparison between the population (habitually exposed to processed arecanut and smokeless tobacco products) of a metro-city Kolkata and the tea-garden workers of Darjeeling district of West Bengal. Subjects for the study was recruited from various oral health check-up camps organized in the tea-gardens of Darjeeling district and Kolkata city. Genotyping analysis was done through a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)-based approach. A two-way contingency table analysis software (JAVASTAT: http://statpages.org/ctab2 × 2.html) using 95% confidence interval was used to study the distribution of genotypes among the populations. A P T (609) was found to be significantly higher among the north Bengal tea-garden workers [OR 0.480 (0.280-0.82) P = 0.01; 0.218 (0.091-0.524) P = 0.0001], respectively. Interestingly CT (21% in both) and TT (8% and 7%, respectively) were found to be equally distributed in the two populations. For LOX G > A (473) a significantly higher number of Kolkata individuals were found to carry the heterozygous GA allele in individuals aged garden workers aged above 31 years. A close observation of occurrence of oral diseases over time among such a population will be helpful to identify risk genotypes responsible for betel quid-induced oral diseases.

  4. Malignant pleural effusion

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Lisete Ribeiro; Pinto, José Antonio de Figueiredo; Marchi, Evaldo

    2006-01-01

    O derrame pleural neoplásico é uma complicação freqüente nos pacientes portadores de tumores avançados. A presença de células malignas no líquido pleural ou na biópsia da pleura é indicativa de disseminação da doença primária, com conseqüente redução da expectativa de vida. O diagnóstico e tratamento precoce do derrame pleural maligno são fundamentais para promover uma melhor qualidade de vida aos pacientes portadores de câncer avançado.The malignant pleural effusion is a frequent complicatio...

  5. Targeting Malignant Brain Tumors with Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Rok Razpotnik; Neža Novak; Vladka Čurin Šerbec; Uros Rajcevic

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies have been shown to be a potent therapeutic tool. However, their use for targeting brain diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancers, has been limited, particularly because the blood–brain barrier (BBB) makes brain tissue hard to access by conventional antibody-targeting strategies. In this review, we summarize new antibody therapeutic approaches to target brain tumors, especially malignant gliomas, as well as their potential drawbacks. Many different brain deli...

  6. Malign katatoni, et neuropsykiatrisk syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Katinka; Lublin, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes a 36-year-old schizophrenic man who developed malignant catatonia during a hospital stay. He was treated with benzodiazepines (BZD) and 26 sessions of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). After the therapy his condition normalised. Malignant catatonia is a rare condition...

  7. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What Is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the ... people of all age groups, even the young. Melanoma in the Foot Melanoma that occurs in the ...

  8. Malignant priapism: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-12-01

    Metastatic involvement of the penis is most commonly from a primary malignant genitourinary tumour. It is a rare phenomenon usually reflecting disseminated malignancy associated with a poor prognosis. Metastasis to the penis mimicking priapism is extremely rare, particularly in the absence of disseminated disease.

  9. Malignant ameloblastoma or ameloblastic carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, P.J.; Müller, H.

    1984-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines malignant ameloblastoma as a lesion exhibiting features of an ameloblastoma in primary and metastatic growths. To cases collected from the literature we have added two of our own cases in which features of an ameloblastoma were coupled with malignant behavior.

  10. Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Gungor

    2009-06-01

    Conclusion: Although malignant melanoma of the female genital tract is uncommon, elderly women should undergo regular gynecologic examinations and suspicious pigmented lesions should be biopsied. The use of immunohistochemical assays could markedly improve diagnosis. However, the prognosis for these tumors is poor, regardless of the treatment delivered, and they are associated with a high rate of recurrence and low long-term survival. Surgery is the best available treatment for controlling and potentially curing malignant melanomas.

  11. Immunotherapy in genitourinary malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathan Mehta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of cancer patients involves a multidisciplinary approach including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Traditionally, patients with metastatic disease are treated with combination chemotherapies or targeted agents. These cytotoxic agents have good response rates and achieve palliation; however, complete responses are rarely seen. The field of cancer immunology has made rapid advances in the past 20 years. Recently, a number of agents and vaccines, which modulate the immune system to allow it to detect and target cancer cells, are being developed. The benefit of these agents is twofold, it enhances the ability the body’s own immune system to fight cancer, thus has a lower incidence of side effects compared to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Secondly, a small but substantial number of patients with metastatic disease are cured by immunotherapy or achieve durable responses lasting for a number of years. In this article, we review the FDA-approved immunotherapy agents in the field of genitourinary malignancies. We also summarize new immunotherapy agents being evaluated in clinical studies either as single agents or as a combination.

  12. [Malignant melanoma : Current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, J K; Buder-Bakhaya, K; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A; Enk, A; Hassel, J C

    2017-10-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma is continuously increasing. The prognosis of metastatic disease is still limited. Until a few years ago palliative chemotherapy with a limited response rate was the standard treatment for metastatic melanoma. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy provide new treatment options. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have significantly improved the prognosis. Regional lymph node sonography, computed tomography (CT) of the neck, chest and abdomen and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used. As an alternative to CT scans 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may be used. Immunotherapy provides the chance of long-term disease control in metastatic melanoma. Ipilimumab may provide long-term tumor control in approximately 20% of patients. Median overall survival of approximately 2 years is achieved during therapy with anti-programmed cell death (PD) 1 antibodies. For combined therapy of ipilimumab and nivolumab a response rate of almost 60% is achieved and 2‑year survival is also approximately 60%. The range of immune-mediated side effects demands particular consideration. For response evaluation immune-related response criteria were defined. Furthermore, immunotherapeutic approaches, such as talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), which is a modified herpes virus can be used for intralesional injection. An individual definition of the appropriate therapy for each patient is of particular importance. In the context of modern therapy regimens close patient monitoring is crucial.

  13. RARE METASTASES OF MALIGNANT MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Trenkić-Božinović

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are malignant neoplasms that originate from melanocytes. The most common are on the skin and mucous membranes. Choroidal melanomas are quite different from cutaneous melanomas with regard to presentation, metastases, and treatment. We report two cases of metastatic gastric malignant melanoma of the eye and skin, with reference to the literature. The first patient was a woman aged 23 years, who underwent gastrectomy 22 months after enucleation of the eye due to malignant choroid melanoma. The second patient was a man, 72 years old, who underwent surgery 28 months before because of malignant melanoma of the skin of the forehead. Paraffin sections, 4 μm thick were stained using a classic method, as well as immunohistochemical DAKO APAAP method, using a specific S - 100 antibody and Melan A antibodies. The stomach is considered a rare place for the development of metastases. Metastases in the stomach are often limited to the submucosal as well as the serousmuscular layer, as noted in one of our patients. Metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract should be suspected in any patient with a history of malignant melanoma and new gastrointestinal symptoms. Because of the similarity between certain common histopathological types of malignant melanoma, primarily achromatic, and types of primary cancers of the stomach, the following immunohistochemical studies are needed: Melan A and S - 100 protein ( markers of malignant melanoma , as well as mucins: MUC5AC, MUC2 and CDX2 ( markers of different types of primary gastric carcinoma.

  14. Malignancy and chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramon

    2003-01-01

    Increased incidence of cancer at various sites is observed in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Certain malignant diseases, such as lymphomas and carcinomas of the kidney, prostate, liver and uterus, show an enhanced prevalence compared with the general population. In particular, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) shows an excess incidence in ESRD patients. A multitude of factors, directly or indirectly associated with the renal disease and the treatment regimens, may contribute to the increased tumor formation in these patients. Patients undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT) are prone to develop acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), which may subsequently lead to the development of RCC. In pre-dialysis patients with coexistent renal disease, as in dialysis and transplant patients, the presence of ACKD may predispose to RCC. Previous use of cytotoxic drugs (eg, cyclophosphamide) or a history of analgesic abuse, are additional risk factors for malignancy. Malignancy following renal transplantation is an important medical problem during the follow-up. The most common malignancies are lymphoproliferative disorders (early after transplantation) and skin carcinomas (late after transplantation). Another important confounder for risk of malignancy after renal transplantation is the type of immunosuppression. The type of malignancy is different in various countries and dependent on genetic and environmental factors. Finally, previous cancer treatment in a uremic patient on the transplant waiting list is of great importance in relation to waiting time and post-malignancy screening.

  15. Women with gynecologic malignancies have a greater incidence of suicide than women with other cancer types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kristy K.; Roncancio, Angelica M.; Plaxe, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate risk of suicide of women with invasive gynecologic malignancies, the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (1973-2007) was queried. Suicide/100,000 women with gynecologic malignancies was compared to that of women with other malignancies; suicide was 30% more likely in those with gynecologic malignancies. Most suicides occurred within 4 years of diagnosis. Better understanding of the descriptive epidemiology of suicide among women with gynecologic malignancies could lead to improved risk assessment, screening, and prevention of this potentially avoidable cause of death. PMID:23278597

  16. Ewing's Sarcoma and Second Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Schiffman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma (ES is a rare tumor that is most common in children and young adults. Late effects of ES therapy include second cancers, a tragic outcome for survivors of such a young age. This paper will explore the frequencies and types of malignancies that occur after ES. Additionally, it will review how second malignancies have changed with the shift in treatment from high-dose radiation to chemotherapy regimens including alkylators and epipodophyllotoxins. The risk of additional cancers in ES survivors will also be compared to survivors of other childhood cancers. Finally, the possible genetic contribution to ES and second malignancies will be discussed.

  17. Nonurological malignancies in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Parida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nonurological malignancies in children include a wide variety of tumors. These tumors include primary tumors of the liver, thyroid, lung, gastrointestinal tract (GIT, and adrenals; soft tissue sarcomas (STSs like rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS and non-RMS; and finally extragonadal germ cell tumors (GCT. Aims: This article aims at describing the current thinking in the management of these childhood solid tumors. This is critical in view of the recent advances in the elucidation of the molecular, genetic, and biologic behavior of these tumors and how these factors are getting integrated not only in the staging but also in developing a risk-based approach towards the management of these tumors. Materials and Methods: Reference was made to recently published literature from the leading pediatric cancer centers of the world to make a sense of things of the most current thinking in this rapidly expanding field. This will provide surgeons and physicians taking care of these children with a working knowledge in this somewhat challenging field. Conclusions: Treatment results vary from center to center depending on access to resources and following different management protocols. Results have improved for these tumors with the advent of newer chemotherapeutic agents, novel delivery methods of radiation therapy (RT, and improvement in surgical technique. Due to the limited number of patients presenting with these tumors, national and international collaboration of data is critical for all and beneficial to individual treatment centers. This has resulted in better results in the past and will definitely result in still better results in the future.

  18. AMG 319 Lymphoid Malignancy FIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-08

    Cancer; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Hematologic Malignancies; Hematology; Leukemia; Low Grade Lymphoma; Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Oncology; Oncology Patients; T Cell Lymphoma; Tumors

  19. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for malignant mesothelioma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. Multiple Cutaneous (pre)-Malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.T. van der Leest (Robert)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The three most common cutaneous malignancies are derived from melanocytes and keratinocytes (ordered in decreasing aggressiveness): melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). This thesis focuses only on these three types of cancer and

  1. General Information about Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... malignant mesothelioma, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . ... and decortication , with or without radiation therapy , as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Malignant Mesothelioma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... malignant mesothelioma, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . ... and decortication , with or without radiation therapy , as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . ...

  3. Treatment Options for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... malignant mesothelioma, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . ... and decortication , with or without radiation therapy , as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . ...

  4. Comparative distribution of Lysyl Oxidase (G473A and NQO1 (C609T polymorphism among tea-garden workers (habitual chewers of betel quid of Darjeeling district and Kolkata city of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Gopal Ray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chewing of processed arecanut products with tobacco and betel quid has been attributed to many oral pathological conditions. These products are very popular among the youngsters of lower economic groups. Genetic predisposition has been now identified as a major risk factor for increasing the susceptibility toward the disease among these chewers. Aims: Our study mainly aims to find out the predisposition of LOX (G473A and NQO1 (C609T polymorphisms and present a comparison between the population (habitually exposed to processed arecanut and smokeless tobacco products of a metro-city Kolkata and the tea-garden workers of Darjeeling district of West Bengal. Settings and Design: Subjects for the study was recruited from various oral health check-up camps organized in the tea-gardens of Darjeeling district and Kolkata city. Materials and Methods: Genotyping analysis was done through a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP-based approach. Statistical Analysis Used: A two-way contingency table analysis software (JAVASTAT: http://statpages.org/ctab2 × 2.html using 95% confidence interval was used to study the distribution of genotypes among the populations. A P T (609 was found to be significantly higher among the north Bengal tea-garden workers [OR 0.480 (0.280-0.82 P = 0.01; 0.218 (0.091-0.524 P = 0.0001], respectively. Interestingly CT (21% in both and TT (8% and 7%, respectively were found to be equally distributed in the two populations. For LOX G > A (473 a significantly higher number of Kolkata individuals were found to carry the heterozygous GA allele in individuals aged <30 years [OR 3.779 (1.684-6.547 P = 0.001]. However, none were carrier of heterozygous GA allele of Kolkata population as compared with 29% north Bengal tea-garden workers aged above 31 years. Conclusions: A close observation of occurrence of oral diseases over time among such a population will be helpful to identify risk

  5. Areca nut extracts exert different effects in oral cancer cells depending on serum concentration: A clue to the various oral alterations in betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wen-Tsai; Chuang, Yao-Chi; Chen, Han-Po; Lee, Ching-Chih; Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu; Yang, Sheng-Ru; Chen, Jung-Hua; Wang, Chun-Jen; Chen, Hau-Ren

    2014-01-01

    Betel quid chewing is associated with various pathologic alterations in oral mucosa. However, the molecular mechanism behind so many contradictory alterations remains unclear. Here we aimed to build a model to facilitate the related studies in cultured cells. In our results, areca nut extract (ANE) was found to exert different effects in oral cells depending on the supplemented serum level. ANE strongly induced DNA damage, necrotic ballooning, and inflammatory cytokines under lower serum concentration while might convert to facilitate deregulated growth of serum-supplemented cells via modulating the activity/expression of factors such as E-cadherin and Snail. Despite ANE significantly activated NF-κB, a mediator critical for inflammation, inhibition of NF-κB did not prevent the activation of IL8 promoter. We further discovered Y705-dephosphorylated STAT3 might enhance IL8 transcription. Since necrosis and the inflammatory cytokines could cause massive inflammation, infiltration of interstitial fluid might potentiate cellular resistance against the acute cytotoxicity of ANE and further support the proliferation of transforming cells. Induction of VEGF and angiogenesis under lower serum condition also paved the way for cell growth and subsequent metastasis. Accordingly, we concluded that in correlation with serum infiltration ANE caused particular effects in oral cells and possibly the various clinicopathological alterations in vivo.

  6. Areca nut extracts exert different effects in oral cancer cells depending on serum concentration: A clue to the various oral alterations in betel quid chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tsai Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid chewing is associated with various pathologic alterations in oral mucosa. However, the molecular mechanism behind so many contradictory alterations remains unclear. Here we aimed to build a model to facilitate the related studies in cultured cells. In our results, areca nut extract (ANE was found to exert different effects in oral cells depending on the supplemented serum level. ANE strongly induced DNA damage, necrotic ballooning, and inflammatory cytokines under lower serum concentration while might convert to facilitate deregulated growth of serum-supplemented cells via modulating the activity/expression of factors such as E-cadherin and Snail. Despite ANE significantly activated NF-κB, a mediator critical for inflammation, inhibition of NF-κB did not prevent the activation of IL8 promoter. We further discovered Y705-dephosphorylated STAT3 might enhance IL8 transcription. Since necrosis and the inflammatory cytokines could cause massive inflammation, infiltration of interstitial fluid might potentiate cellular resistance against the acute cytotoxicity of ANE and further support the proliferation of transforming cells. Induction of VEGF and angiogenesis under lower serum condition also paved the way for cell growth and subsequent metastasis. Accordingly, we concluded that in correlation with serum infiltration ANE caused particular effects in oral cells and possibly the various clinicopathological alterations in vivo.

  7. Håndens maligne tumorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britt Mejer; Svabo Rasmussen, Per Joen; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz

    2011-01-01

    Malignant tumours of the hand are rare and are often misdiagnosed. A painful swelling of the hand or digits are often diagnosed with an infection, benign tumours such as ganglion cysts, or arthritis. Wounds that do not heal despite adequate treatment should be biopsied to rule out malignancy. A c....... A correct diagnosis without delay is important because the life expectancy, due to a metastasis on the hand or fingers is approximately six months....

  8. Metabonomics by proton nuclear magnetic resonance in human pleural effusions: A route to discriminate between benign and malignant pleural effusions and to target small molecules as potential cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zennaro, Lucio; Vanzani, Paola; Nicolè, Lorenzo; Cappellesso, Rocco; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2017-05-01

    Cytopathology is a noninvasive and cost-effective method for detecting cancer cells in pleural effusions (PEs), although in many cases, the diagnostic performance is hindered by the paucity of significant cells or the lack of clear morphological criteria. This study presents the results of an omics approach to improving the diagnostic performance of PE cytology. Metabolic profiling with proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR) was performed for 92 PEs (44 malignant cases of 8 different cancers and 48 benign cases of 7 nonneoplastic conditions). Light's criteria were used to further classify PEs as transudates or exudates, and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy was used to differentiate malignant pleural effusions (mPEs) from benign pleural effusions (bPEs). 1 H-NMR metabolic analysis showed clearly different spectra for mPEs and bPEs in the regions of the signals due to lipids, branched amino acids, and lactate, which were increased in mPEs. Transudates and exudates in bPEs were differentiated as well on the basis of the 1 H-NMR signals from lipids and lipoproteins, which were increased in exudates. Subject to validation in further larger studies, 1 H-NMR metabonomics could be an effective and reliable ancillary tool for PE investigations and diagnoses. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:341-348. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  9. A rare case of malignant paraganglioma of urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vinaya B; Bhandare, Amit T

    2015-01-01

    Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder is a rare pathologic entity with no definitive histological, immunohistochemical or molecular features to determine its malignant potential. Malignancy is essentially determined by the presence of deep local invasion, invasion of adjacent structures and lymph node or distant metastases. So far, up to 180 cases of paraganglioma have been reported, with bladder mass was given as invasive urothelial carcinoma. Patient underwent radical cystectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy. The gross morphological brown discoloration of mass on formalin fixation was suspicious of paraganglioma and was confirmed on immunohistochemistry. The diagnosis of malignant paraganglioma was made based on regional lymph node metastases. We describe a rare case of a patient with malignant urinary bladder paraganglioma with main differential diagnostic considerations on the histomorphology.

  10. INFLAMMATORY ORBITAL PSEUDOTUMOR WITH A MALIGNANT COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Štabuc-Šilih

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammatory pseudotumor or inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a benign, tumor forming proliferation of myofibroblasts with a potential for recurrence and persistent local growth, in some respects similar to fibromatosis. The lesion does not metastasize except exceedingly rarely. Though inflammatory pseudotumor is not a malignant lesion, it may occasionally behave aggressively, like fibromatosis or fibrosarcoma, and threatens patient’s life.Patients and methods. Patient D. E., born in 1974, in the second month of pregnancy, was admitted to our Clinic in 1996 because of the protrusion of the left eye. She has often had evening headaches for the last 5 years. She has previously been treated for epistaxis. CT showed a tumorous formation in the ethmoidal labyrinth, which grew into adjacent structures, destroyed the neighboring bones and extended into extradural space of cranial cavity.The patient was operated upon at the ENT clinic where a tumor of a »woman’s fist« size was excised. It showed expansive, non-infiltrative growth. Microscopically, it was an inflammatory pseudotumor. For one year after the operation the patient was in good health, without protrusion. After that period, she had repeated recurrences, reoperations, she was irradiated and received chemotherapy. In spite of all treatment, the tumor locally progressed and the patient died in December 2000. Conclusions. Although repeated histopathologic examinations showed a benign inflammatory pseudotumor, because of the proximity of vital structures the course of disease was malignant just like in a malignant neoplasm.

  11. Tremelimumab for the treatment of malignant mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzelli, Alice; Hussain, Michelle; Krstic-Demonacos, Marija; Mutti, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Tremelimumab demonstrated therapeutic activity in different malignancies, including malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM); however, continued research could improve the therapeutic index of this agent. This review describes tremelimumab's clinical efficacy, administration and safety in patients affected with MPM and reports the state of the art clinical trials of tremelimumab. A literature search using the PubMed database was conducted using the search terms tremelimumab, MPM, current therapy, immune checkpoint blockage and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4. Data was also obtained from meeting abstracts and clinical trial registries. The use of immunotherapy has been extended from melanoma to thoracic malignancies or lung cancer and MPM. The first clinical trials for MPM with drugs modulating immune checkpoints have been tested or are currently being tested with the first results now under critical consideration. Among these drugs, tremelimumab has been attracting attention as a potential new treatment for MPM. Nevertheless, even though clinical efficacy has been preliminarily demonstrated, the cost/benefit ratio of this drug for this neoplasm is yet to be ascertained.

  12. Pigmented Pre-malignant and Malignant Lesions of Skin with Special Reference to Atypical Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Nadia; Jindal, Rashmi; Singh, Sneha; Harsh, Meena; Ahmad, Sohaib

    2015-07-01

    Cutaneous melanocytic proliferations are diverse both morphologically as well as in their behavioural patterns. Both dermatologists and pathologists regularly encounter diagnostic dilemmas while interpreting such lesions. To study all cutaneous premalignant and malignant lesions with respect to their clinical features and histopathological findings. A retrospective study was done in the Department of Pathology over a period of 10 years (2004-14) on all the clinically pigmented lesions that were biopsied or excised. Out of these only premalignant and malignant melanocytic lesions were analysed with respect to their important clinical and histologic features. Immunohistochemistry was carried out using HMB-45 and S-100 where indicated. A total of 338 skin cancers were reported, out of these 27, 7.9% were cutaneous malignant melanoma. Premalignant lesions were 33. The mean age for premalignant lesions and melanomas was 43 years and 50.7 years respectively with a male predominance in both groups. The sole of foot/ankle was the most common site of involvement by melanoma (n=8,29.6%) while sun exposed sites like face and scalp were common sites for development of premalignant lesions like dysplastic nevi, lentigo simplex, pigmented seborrheic keratosis and Bowens disease. One case presented as post-traumatic scar tissue which turned out to be desmoplastic melanoma. One case of amelanotic melanoma presented as recurrent painful penile ulcers. Both cases were confirmed on Immunohistochemistry. All pigmented lesions should be regarded as tumours of uncertain malignant potential and treated with complete excision if possible with long term follow up.

  13. Basic and clinical aspects of malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathanson, L. (Health Sciences Center, State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (US))

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: The role of oncogenes in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma; Laminin and fibronectin modulate the metastatic activity of melanoma cells; Structure, function and biosynthesis of ganglioside antigens associated with human tumors derived from the neuroectoderm; Epidemiology of ocular melanoma; Malignant melanoma: Prognostic factors; Endocrine influences on the natural history of human malignant melanoma; Psychosocial factors associated with prognostic indicators, progression, psychophysiology, and tumor-host response in cutaneous malignant melanoma; Central nervous system metastases in malignant melanoma; Interferon trials in the management of malignant melanoma and other neoplasms: an overview; and The treatment of malignant melanoma by fast neutrons.

  14. Recognizing and managing a malignant hyperthermia crisis: guidelines from the European Malignant Hyperthermia Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahn, K P E; Ellis, F.R.; Halsall, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Survival from a malignant hyperthermia (MH) crisis is highly dependent on early recognition and prompt action. MH crises are very rare and an increasing use of total i.v. anaesthesia is likely to make it even rarer, leading to the potential risk of reduced awareness of MH. In addition, dantrolene....... The guidelines consist of two textboxes: Box 1 on recognizing MH and Box 2 on the treatment of an MH crisis...

  15. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma associated with coxofemoral arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Daniel G; Michanié, Ernesto; Oivi, Liliana; Santini-Araujo, Eduardo; Cabrini, Rómulo L

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of biomaterials led to their use in the manufacture of implants for biomedical applications. In vivo, no metal or alloy is completely inert. The potential toxicity of some of the metals most frequently employed in the manufacture of orthopedic implants has been reported. Their carcinogenic potential has been evaluated in experimental animal models. However, few reports have discussed the potential development of malignant tumors associated with prosthetic structures in humans. The present study documents a case of intraosseous sarcoma that developed in the vicinity of a metallic prosthesis 43 months after a coxofemoral arthrodesis with metallic pins and screws. With this report the authors seek to contribute to the understanding of the potential toxicity and risks of using metallic implants. Since metallic implants employed in the rehabilitation of osteo-muscular-articular disorders usually remain in the organism for long periods of time, the need to monitor the metallic structures and the adjacent tissues is extremely relevant.

  16. Anti-CD123 chimeric antigen receptor T-cells (CART): an evolving treatment strategy for hematological malignancies, and a potential ace-in-the-hole against antigen-negative relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Katherine D; Gill, Saar

    2017-09-13

    Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cells (CART) are a potent and targeted immunotherapy which have induced remissions in some patients with chemotherapy refractory or relapsed (RR) hematologic malignancies. Hundreds of patients have now been treated worldwide with anti-CD19 CART cells, with complete response rates of up to 90%. CART therapy has a unique toxicity profile, and unfortunately not all responses are durable. Treatment failure occurs via two main routes - by loss of the CART cell population, or relapse with antigen loss. Emerging data indicate that targeting an alternative antigen instead of, or as well as CD19, could improve CART cell efficacy and reduce antigen-negative relapse. Other strategies include the addition of other immune-based therapies. This review explores the rationale, pre-clinical data and currently investigative strategies underway for CART therapy targeting the myeloid and lymphoid stem/progenitor antigen CD123.

  17. Personalized Clinical Decision Making in Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Søren; Bjerring, Ole Steen; Pfeiffer, Per

    2016-01-01

    and initial stages. This article outlines the potential use of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT in clinical decision making with special regard to preoperative evaluation and response assessment in gastric cancer (including the gastroesophageal junction), pancreatic cancer (excluding neuroendocrine tumors......Gastrointestinal malignancies comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases that include both common and rare diseases with very different presentations and prognoses. The mainstay of treatment is surgery in combination with preoperative and adjuvant chemotherapy depending on clinical presentation......), colorectal cancer, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors....

  18. Eosinophilic Dermatosis of Hematologic Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Truyols, S; Rodrigo-Nicolás, B; Lloret-Ruiz, C; Quecedo-Estébanez, E

    Dermatosis characterized by tissue eosinophilia arising in the context of hematologic disease is known as eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy. The most commonly associated malignancy is chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a rare condition with a wide variety of clinical presentations, ranging from papules, erythematous nodules, or blisters that simulate arthropod bites, to the formation of true plaques of differing sizes. Histology reveals the presence of abundant eosinophils. We present 4 new cases seen in Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valencia, during the past 7 years. Three of these cases were associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 1 with mycosis fungoides. It is important to recognize this dermatosis as it can indicate progression of the underlying disease, as was the case in 3 of our patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome and methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehara, H; Maegaki, Y; Takeshita, K

    1998-10-01

    A 1-year-old female presented with neuroleptic malignant syndrome probably caused by methylphenidate. She had defects in the supratentorial brain including the basal ganglia and the striatum (multicystic encephalomalacia) due to severe perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, which was considered to be a possible predisposing factor causing neuroleptic malignant syndrome. A dopaminergic blockade mechanism generally is accepted as the pathogenesis of this syndrome. However, methylphenidate is a dopamine agonist via the inhibition of uptake of dopamine, and therefore dopaminergic systems in the brainstem (mainly the midbrain) and the spinal cord were unlikely to participate in the onset of this syndrome. A relative gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic deficiency might occur because diazepam, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-mimetic agent, was strikingly effective. This is the first reported patient with neuroleptic malignant syndrome probably caused by methylphenidate.

  20. Immunomodulation of hematological malignancies using oligonucleotides based-nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Landesman-Milo, Dalit; Rosenblum, Daniel; Mizrahy, Shoshy; Ng, Brandon D; Peer, Dan

    2016-12-28

    Hematological malignancies are a group of diseases characterized by clonal proliferation of blood-forming cells. Malignant blood cells are classified as myeloid or lymphoid cells depending on their stem cell origin. Lymphoid malignancies are characterized by lymphocyte accumulation in the blood stream, in the bone marrow, or in lymphatic nodes and organs. Several of these diseases are associated with chromosomal translocations, which cause gene fusion and amplification of expression, while others are characterized with aberrant expression of oncogenes. Overall, these genes play a major role in development and maintenance of malignant clones. The discovery of antisense oligonucleotides and RNA interference (RNAi) mechanisms offer new tools to specifically manipulate gene expression. Systemic delivery of inhibitory oligonucleotides molecules for manipulation of gene expression in lymphocytes holds a great potential for facilitating the development of an oligonucleotides -based therapy platform for lymphoid blood cancer. However, lymphocytes are among the most difficult targets for oligonucleotides delivery, as they are resistant to conventional transfection reagents and are dispersed throughout the body, making it difficult to successfully localize or deliver oligonucleotides payloads via systemic administration. In this review, we will survey the latest progress in the field of oligonucleotides based nanomedicine in the heterogeneous group of hematological malignancies with special emphasis on RNA based strategies. We will describe the most advanced non-viral nanocarriers for RNA delivery to malignant blood cells. We will also discuss targeted strategies for cell specific delivery of RNA molecules using nanoparticles and the therapeutic benefit of manipulating gene function in hematological malignancies. Finally, we will focus on the ex vivo, in vivo, and clinical trial strategies, that are currently under development in hematological malignancies - strategies that

  1. Malignant Nodular Hidradenoma of Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of malignant nodular hidradenoma in an old woman, who presented with a nodular swelling in the right side of nose near the medial canthus of the right eye. Wide excision of the nodular mass with a clear margin of healthy surrounding tissue was performed along with primary closure. Post operatively, adjuvant radiation therapy was given on a telecobalt machine due to the presence of high risk features. In general, malignant forms of hidradenomas are not usual and treatment strategies should be individualized.

  2. Cutavirus in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Sarah; Fridholm, Helena; Vinner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains to be in......A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains...

  3. Malignant diseases as suicidal motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Suicide is a conscious and intentional destruction of one’s own life, which occurs as a result of mutual influence of a person’s disposition and motives (facts inspiring the commitment of suicide. It is well known that various diseases, including malignancies, could be important and in some cases the only motive for committing suicide. Objective The purpose of the study was to analyze in detail suicides of persons whose only motive was an established malignant disease. Method The analysis was performed using the autopsy material of the Institute of Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, during the period from 1990 to 2004. The reports on performed medico-legal autopsies were used, as well as history data obtained from the family members of suicidal persons, investigation reports and the available medical documents. Results In 1931 cases there was established suicidal nature of a violent death. Neoplasms were the suicidal motive in 37 persons (1.9%. The basic characteristics of the analyzed sample were predominance of males (26:11, ratio 2.4:1, the age of over 70 years and the highest incidence of malignant lung and breast tumors. Almost all cases were the persons who underwent treatment for malignant neoplasms over a longer period of time. During 19 autopsies (51.3% out of 37, a progressive phase of malignancy was established, i.e. metastases. The data on prior oral announcement of suicide intention were obtained for 70.3% (26 cases, and on previous suicidal attempts only for 13.5% (5 cases. In the majority of cases (78.4% the place of committed suicide was the person’s home. In 16 cases (43.2% the suicide was committed with a firearm. Hanging as a manner of destroying one’s own life was chosen by 12 persons (32.4%, while other ways were less frequently used. Conclusion Although malignancies were not present with high incidence as a suicidal motive in our analyzed sample, such cases require particular

  4. Gastric malignancies and associated pre-malignant lesions in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and two (95.33%) cases of gastric malignancies were in the pyloric antrum, 3 (2.80%) were in the gastric cardia, and 1 case each (0.93%) in the corpus and fundus. Sixty-four (60%) of cases showed moderate to numerous Helicobacter pylori. Mild chronic gastritis was seen in 11 (10%) cases, moderate chronic ...

  5. Malignant and pre-malignant oesophageal pathology in a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: South Africa (SA) has one of the highest global incidences of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus (SCC). A decreasing incidence of oesophageal SCC in SA has been suggested. The study aimed to assess whether the incidence of these malignant histopathological subtypes has changed in this ...

  6. EZH2 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, K; Adams, P D; Copland, M

    2014-01-01

    The histone methyltransferase Enhancer of Zeste Homologue 2 (EZH2), a component of the polycomb group complex, is vital for stem cell development, including hematopoiesis. Its primary function, to deposit the histone mark H3K27me3, promotes transcriptional repression. The activity of EZH2 influences cell fate regulation, namely the balance between self-renewal and differentiation. The contribution of aberrant EZH2 expression to tumorigenesis by directing cells toward a cancer stem cell (CSC) state is increasingly recognized. However, its role in hematological malignancies is complex. Point mutations, resulting in gain-of-function, and inactivating mutations, reported in lymphoma and leukemia, respectively, suggest that EZH2 may serve a dual purpose as an oncogene and tumor-suppressor gene. The reduction of CSC self-renewal via EZH2 inhibition offers a potentially attractive therapeutic approach to counter the aberrant activation found in lymphoma and leukemia. The discovery of small molecules that specifically inhibit EZH2 raises the exciting possibility of exploiting the oncogenic addiction of tumor cells toward this protein. However, interference with the tumor-suppressor role of wild-type EZH2 must be avoided. This review examines the role of EZH2 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis and recent developments in harnessing the therapeutic potential of EZH2 inhibition.

  7. Malignant nodular hidradenoma of scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Maiti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant nodular hidradenoma (MNH is a rare tumor of sweat gland known by many names in the literature. Scalp is a known and yet uncommon site of occurrence. We describe two patients with scalp MNH with brain parenchymal invasion. Both tumors recurred in spite of total excision and radiotherapy.

  8. CT triage for lung malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Martin Weber; Karstoft, Jens; Mussmann, Bo

    2015-01-01

    : To assess detection performance using only coronal multiplanar reformations (MPR) when triaging patients for lung malignancies with CT compared to images in three orthogonal planes, and to evaluate performance comparison of novice and experienced readers. Material and Methods: Retrospective study of 63...

  9. Management of malignant pleural effusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, R.C.

    2017-01-01

    The first part of this thesis focuses on IPCs (indwelling pleural catheters) in malignant pleural effusion (MPE) management. In an invited review, the (dis)advantages and prejudices of IPCs are described (Chapter1.1). Since costs and reimbursement issues are the main reasons in the Netherlands to

  10. Radioguided surgery in urological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Weckermann

    2008-01-01

    In all urological malignancies the SLN concept is only a staging procedure. When the sentinel node(s is (are negative, the other lymph nodes are negative, too. Since there are no randomized prospective trials comparing the results of sentinel lymphadenectomy with other techniques of lymph node dissection, it is not clear whether sentinel lymph node dissection also has a prognostic impact.

  11. Cutaneous malignancies of the perineum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David; Pootrakul, Llana; Harmon, Jenna; Trotter, Shannon

    2015-03-01

    This review discusses multiple cutaneous malignancies that can present on the perineum. Although all of these neoplasms are uncommon, a focus will be on the more common neoplasms including extramammary Paget disease, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Other more rare entities discussed are superficial leiomyosarcoma, giant solitary trichoepithelioma, and cutaneous endometriosis.

  12. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  13. Malignant Phyllodes Tumor Presenting in Bone, Brain, Lungs, and Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Johnson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phyllodes tumors (PTs are rare fibroepithelial tumors of the breast which are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. Malignant PTs account for <1% of malignant breast tumors, and borderline tumors have potential to progress to malignant tumors. Metastatic recurrences are most commonly documented in bone and lungs. We report an extremely rare presentation of recurrent malignant PTs involving the brain, lung, lymph nodes, and bone. Case: A 66-year-old female presented with a large breast mass. Biopsy identified malignant PT, treated by mastectomy. One year later she presented with acute back pain; imaging showed pathological L4 spinal compression fracture. Core biopsy confirmed PT. Staging identified additional metastases in the lymph nodes, brain, and lung. Discussion: PTs are rare and fast-growing tumors that originate from periductal stromal tissues and are composed of both epithelial and stromal components. Histologically, they are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. The prognosis of the malignant type is poorly defined, with local recurrence occurring in 10–40% and metastases in 10%. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are generally ineffective in this tumor type. The most common metastatic sites for malignant cases are the lung and bones, but in rare instances, PTs may metastasize elsewhere. Conclusion: We report a rare presentation of recurrent malignant PT presenting as pathological fracture of the lumbar spine with impingement on the spinal column, along with cerebellar, nodal, and pulmonary metastases. Only 1 similar case has been previously reported.

  14. Malignant melanoma (non-metastatic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Philip

    2007-06-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased over the past 25 years in the UK, but death rates have remained fairly constant. Five-year survival ranges from 20% to 95% depending on disease stage. Risks are greater in white populations and in people with higher numbers of skin naevi. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent malignant melanoma? Is there an optimal surgical margin for the primary excision of melanoma? What are the effects of elective lymph node dissection in people with malignant melanoma with clinically uninvolved lymph nodes? What are the effects of sentinel lymph node biopsy in people with malignant melanoma with clinically uninvolved lymph nodes? What are the effects of adjuvant treatment for malignant melanoma? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to October 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 30 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: adjuvant vaccines; elective lymph node dissection; low-, intermediate-, and high-dose adjuvant interferon alfa; sentinel lymph node biopsy; suncreens; surveillance for early recurrence; and wide excisions.

  15. 'Trained immunity': consequences for lymphoid malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Wendy B. C.; Netea, Mihai G.; Kater, Arnon P.; van der Velden, Walter J. F. M.

    2016-01-01

    In hematological malignancies complex interactions exist between the immune system, microorganisms and malignant cells. On one hand, microorganisms can induce cancer, as illustrated by specific infection-induced lymphoproliferative diseases such as Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric

  16. Allelic imbalance in the diagnosis of benign, atypical and malignant Spitz tumours.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, M.C.R.F. van; Rombout, P.D.M.; Mooi, W.J.; Molengraft, F.J. van de; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Ruiter, D.J.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.

    2002-01-01

    To test the diagnostic usefulness of allelic imbalance (AI) analysis based on routinely paraffin-embedded tissue, a series of 55 benign Spitz naevi, Spitz tumours with uncertain malignant potential, and malignant Spitzoid melanomas was investigated. Laser microdissection was used to ensure

  17. [Risk evaluation for malignant transformation breast intraductal papilloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, A

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the risk evaluation for malignant transformation breast intraductal papiloma. 277 women with pathologic nipple discharge were evaluated and operated on during 1994-2005. Nipple discharge was unilateral in 217 patients and bilateral in 60. The main diagnostic methods were clinical examination, ductography, discharge cytology. Cytologycal test was of greatest evidence. All 277 women were with small multiple papillomes. We found carcinoma in only 3 cases--1 intraductal and 2 invasive ductal carcinomas. According to our results 1.1% of our patient were with malignant potential.

  18. The targeting of immunosuppressive mechanisms in hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M H

    2014-01-01

    to evade otherwise effective T-cell responses. A growing number of immune evasion mechanisms have been characterized mainly in solid tumors. In hematological malignancies, less is known about how different immune escape mechanisms influence tumor immune evasion and the extent of their impact on ongoing...... immune responses. The present review highlights the potential role of three well-defined immunosuppressive mechanisms in hematological malignancies: (i) inhibitory T-cell pathways (especially programmed death ligand 1/programmed death 1 (PD-L1/PD-1)), (ii) regulatory immune cells, and (iii) metabolic...

  19. Paediatric Malignancies | Joseph | African Journal of Paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    malignancies. Other common malignancies included sarcomas 10(14.71%), neurofibromatosis 9(13.24%), nephroblastoma 8(11.77%), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia 5(7.35%) and retinoblastoma 4(5.88%). The less common paediatric malignancies were melanoma, invasive lobular breast carcinoma and squamous cell ...

  20. Paediatric and adult malignant glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Chris; Perryman, Lara; Hargrave, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas in children differ from their adult counterparts by their distribution of histological grade, site of presentation and rate of malignant transformation. Although rare in the paediatric population, patients with high-grade gliomas have, for the most part, a comparably dismal clinical outcome...... to older patients with morphologically similar lesions. Molecular profiling data have begun to reveal the major genetic alterations underpinning these malignant tumours in children. Indeed, the accumulation of large datasets on adult high-grade glioma has revealed key biological differences between...... the adult and paediatric disease. Furthermore, subclassifications within the childhood age group can be made depending on age at diagnosis and tumour site. However, challenges remain on how to reconcile clinical data from adult patients to tailor novel treatment strategies specifically for paediatric...

  1. VACCINATION OF CHILDREN WITH MALIGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Yu. Kachanov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Children suffering from oncological diseases fall into the group of immunocompromised patients. They are more at risk of severe children’s banal infections. Development of safe and efficient methods for immunological prevention of preventable infections diseases in this group of children is one of priorities for modern medicine. It is also important to properly organise the process of vaccinating the persons surrounding the patient to eliminate the risk of postvaccinal complications in the sick (non-vaccinated child. The article provides a detailed overview of the global experience in vaccinating children with malignant neoplasms. It describes modern principles of immunological prevention in children both being administered the standard anticancer therapy and those have undergone transplantation of hemopoietic stem cells. Key words: children, malignancy, vaccination.(Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:28-34

  2. Overview of hypercalcemia of malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimando, D A

    2001-11-15

    The etiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of hypercalcemia associated with malignant diseases are discussed. In humans, calcium is controlled by three mechanisms: parathyroid hormone, which regulates bone resorption and renal reabsorption of calcium; calcitonin, an antagonist of parathyroid hormone; and cholecalciferol, which regulates calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM) results primarily from increased bone resorption by osteoclasts and, to a lesser extent, from increased renal tubular reabsorption. In most tumors, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is the primary mediator of calcium. PTHrP stimulates increased bone resorption by osteoclasts. This stimulation also activates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), which stimulates tumor cells, thus perpetuating the cycle. Hypercalcemia is usually defined as a serum calcium concentration greater than 12 mg/dL, corrected for the serum albumin concentration. In diagnosing HCM, it is important to rule out other causes of hypercalcemia, such as primary hyperparathyroidism.

  3. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang, E-mail: deliang.guo@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center & Arthur G James Cancer Hospital, Columbus, OH 43012 (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation.

  4. Hot skull: Malignant or feminine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, J.C.; Isslet, J.W. van; Buul, M.M.C. van; Oei, H.Y.; Rijk, P.P. van

    1987-07-01

    Diffusely increased uptake in the calvarium on bone scintigraphy (a hot skull) is often present in patients with bone metastases and metabolic diseases. Excluding these known facts the prevalence of the hot skull and its relation with malignancy and, more specifically, with breast carcinoma have been studied in 673 patients. In women, the hot skull is clearly related to malignancy and to a lesser extent to breast carcinoma. However, another remarkable feature of the hot skull is its predominance in women in general (compared to men) and, therefore, the data suggest that the hot skull can also represent a normal variant of the female skull. We conclude that the hot skull has no clinical value in screening protocols.

  5. Liminal reproductive experiences after therapies for hematological malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Lesley E; Boughton, Maureen A; Kerridge, Ian

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we discuss the psychosocial health of young women related to fertility, pregnancy, and motherhood after therapies for hematological malignancies. We utilized a hermeneutical phenomenological approach to conduct in-depth interviews with 12 women who had previously received treatment for a hematological malignancy and had experienced uncertainty surrounding their ability to start or extend their biological family. Our presented findings are interpretations of the women's own words as they articulated how they inhabited a liminal space. We concluded that although fertility and motherhood possibly might not be immediate concerns when they received a diagnosis of hematological malignancy, young women could subsequently experience ongoing issues and concerns related to reproductive uncertainty and motherhood capabilities, which have the potential to affect emotionally and psychosocially on their lives. These issues might possibly require longer-term support, counseling, and informational resources. We also discuss the strengths, limitations, and implications of the study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Non-coding RNA repertoires in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Leah; Finn, Stephen P; Cuffe, Sinead; Gray, Steven G

    2015-12-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignancy, with extremely poor survival rates. There are limited treatment options, with no second line standard of care for those who fail first line chemotherapy. Recent advances have been made to characterise the underlying molecular mechanisms of mesothelioma, in the hope of providing new targets for therapy. With the discovery that non-coding regions of our DNA are more than mere junk, the field of research into non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has exploded in recent years. Non-coding RNAs have diverse and important roles in a variety of cellular processes, but are also implicated in malignancy. In the following review, we discuss two types of non-coding RNAs, long non-coding RNAs and microRNAs, in terms of their role in the pathogenesis of MPM and their potential as both biomarkers and as therapeutic targets in this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanotechnology applications in hematological malignancies (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAMIR, AHMED; ELGAMAL, BASMA M; GABR, HALA; SABAAWY, HATEM E

    2015-01-01

    A major limitation to current cancer therapies is the development of therapy-related side-effects and dose limiting complications. Moreover, a better understanding of the biology of cancer cells and the mechanisms of resistance to therapy is rapidly developing. The translation of advanced knowledge and discoveries achieved at the molecular level must be supported by advanced diagnostic, therapeutic and delivery technologies to translate these discoveries into useful tools that are essential in achieving progress in the war against cancer. Nanotechnology can play an essential role in this aspect providing a transforming technology that can translate the basic and clinical findings into novel diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive tools useful in different types of cancer. Hematological malignancies represent a specific class of cancer, which attracts special attention in the applications of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment. The aim of the present review is to elucidate the emerging applications of nanotechnology in cancer management and describe the potentials of nanotechnology in changing the key fundamental aspects of hematological malignancy diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. PMID:26134389

  8. Oral malignant melanoma: A silent killer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhye, Ashvini; D’souza, Jovita

    2011-01-01

    Oral malignant melanomas are extremely rare lesions and occur commonly in the maxillary gingiva more frequently on the palate with fewer incidences in the mandibular gingiva. Though these lesions are biologically aggressive, they often go unnoticed since they are clinically asymptomatic in the early stages and usually present merely as a hyperpigmented patch on the gingival surface. These lesions if diagnosed at an early in situ stage are potentially curable and definitely have a better prognosis, but unfortunately as they are clinically asymptomatic, it results in delayed diagnosis thus making the prognosis extremely poor. This paper presents the case of a patient who visited our department with the complaint of darkened patches on the gums and his concern was purely aesthetic. There were no symptoms associated with the hyperpigmented lesions and hence the patient did not approach us earlier. When the lesions grew larger and were unsightly, the patient has seeked dental advice. Histopathologic investigation confirmed the diagnosis as ‘Oral Malignant Melanoma’. Though aggressive therapy was instilled immediately, unfortunately, the patient succumbed to death within a few months after diagnosis as the lesion was highly invasive. Due to the biologically aggressive but clinically silent nature of progression of the lesion, the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion and early detection and diagnosis for any pigmented gingival lesions cannot be overemphasised. Diagnosis must be based on thorough detailed history and valid histologic evidence. PMID:22368374

  9. Primary malignant gastric PEComa - Diagnostic and technical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Peadar S; Mitchell, David P; Murphy, Ruth; McKenna, Michael; Waldron, Ronan P

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organisation defines PEComa's as "a mesenchymal tumour composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive perivascular cells".(1) These ubiquitous tumours show distinctive perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation and arise most commonly at visceral and abdominopelvic sites. We present a case of a forty-two year old man presenting to accident and emergency department with upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. He had a palpable epigatric mass on examination. He underwent a CT Scan Abdomen which displayed a tumour arising from the gastric wall. Upper GI endoscopy and biopsy was carried out and biopsied were taken for histological analysis. A primary gastric PEComa was diagnosed and the patient underwent distal polya gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy. This is believed to be the first reported case of a Primary malignant gastric PEComa. Perivascular epithelioid carcinomas were first described in 1943 as an abnormal myoblast in a case of renal angiomyolipoma. PEComas display a strong female predominance with a typical benign course. There are approximately 100 reported cases of PEComa to date, with 55 of which were malignant. PEComa's may be subdivided into benign, uncertain malignant potential and malignant. Their natural history can be very aggressive leading to multiple metastases and death as expected with a high-grade sarcoma. This case depicts the aggressive nature of malignant gastric PEComa's. The majority of PEComa's are benign in nature and have a better prognosis. We display here the challenges in ascertaining a definitive diagnosis and management of such patients due to limited clinical studies.

  10. Polymer Nanoparticle-Based Chemotherapy for Spinal Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant spinal tumors, categorized into primary and metastatic ones, are one of the most serious diseases due to their high morbidity and mortality rates. Common primary spinal tumors include chordoma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, and multiple myeloma. Spinal malignancies are not only locally invasive and destructive to adjacent structures, such as bone, neural, and vascular structures, but also disruptive to distant organs (e.g., lung. Current treatments for spinal malignancies, including wide resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, have made significant progress like improving patients’ quality of life. Among them, chemotherapy plays an important role, but its potential for clinical application is limited by severe side effects and drug resistance. To ameliorate the current situation, various polymer nanoparticles have been developed as promising excipients to facilitate the effective treatment of spinal malignancies by utilizing their potent advantages, for example, targeting, stimuli response, and synergetic effect. This review overviews the development of polymer nanoparticles for antineoplastic delivery in the treatment of spinal malignancies and discusses future prospects of polymer nanoparticle-based treatment methods.

  11. Malignant melanoma in a cow

    OpenAIRE

    Mesarić M.; Zadnik T.; Cerne Manca

    2002-01-01

    A malignant melanoma located in the area of the ocular orbit and maxillary sinus of a 2,5 year old, female Brown Swiss cow is described. Complete clinical examination of the cow was performed and blood samples were taken for haematological analyses. According to the unfavorable prognosis, the cow was submitted for necropsy. After necropsy representative sections of tissue were sampled for gross and micro histopathology. Selected sections of tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Clin...

  12. [Chemotherapy of malignant bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höffken, K; Seeber, S; Gallmeier, W M; Bruntsch, U; Hossfeld, D K; Schmidt, C G

    1977-04-01

    In several primary malignant tumors significant improvement of formely bad prognosis has been achieved by the introduction of new cytostatic compounds and the study of new cytostatic combination regimens. Adjuvant chemotherapy in osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma led to remarkable increase in survival rates. Leaning on natural history and on remission rates reached by cytostatic treatment in metastasizing stages of disease, proposals for adjuvant chemotherapy are made and chemotherapy regimen appliable on out-patient basis is described.

  13. Malignant endobronchial lesions of adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellah, R.D. (Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Mahboubi, S. (Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Berdon, W.E. (Dept. of Radiology, Babies Hospital/Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Rare primary endobronchial malignancies were diagnosed in four adolescents: atypical bronchial carcinoid, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, bronchogenic (squamous cell) carcinoma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Metastatic disease was evident in each case. Three of the four patients died within one year of diagnosis. This paper describes each of these entities, illustrates their plain film and CT abnormalities (bronchial 'cut-off', hilar mass, local congestive edema, lobar collapse, hyperinflation), and discusses the utility of CT in their diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. Malignant transformation in chronic osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lino Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Carcinomatous degeneration is a rare and late complication developing decades after the diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis. OBJECTIVES: To present the results from a retrospective study of six cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising from chronic osteomyelitis. METHODS: Six cases of chronic osteomyelitis related to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma were identified. The cause and characteristics of the osteomyelitis were analyzed, as well as time up to malignancy, the suspicion signs for malignancy, the localization and histological type of the cancer, and the type and result of the treatment. RESULTS: The mean time between osteomyelitis onset and the diagnosis of malignant degeneration was 49.17 years (range: 32-65. The carcinoma resulted from tibia osteomyelitis in five cases and from femur osteomyelitis in one. The pathological examination indicated cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in all cases. All the patients were staged as N0M0, except for one, whose lomboaortic lymph nodes were affected. The treatment consisted of amputation proximal to the tumor in all patients. No patient presented signs of local recurrence and only one had carcinoma metastasis. CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis and proximal amputation are essential for prognosis and final results in carcinomatous degeneration secondary to chronic osteomyelitis.

  15. Malignant mandibular tumors: two case reports of rare mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandibular lesions can be benign or malignant, malignant being less common. The most common malignant tumor of mandible is squamous cell carcinoma. Others are ameloblastic carcinoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma and metastasis. Osteosarcoma is a bone tumor.

  16. Benign and malignant neurogenic tumors of nerve sheath origin on FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, M. J.; Go, D. H.; Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, K. H.; Lee, J. D [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The differentiation between benign and malignant nerve sheath tumors is difficult based on conventional radiological imaging. This study was undertaken to investigate the value of FDG PET in distinguishing benign from malignant neurogenic tumors of nerve sheath origin. We performed a retrospective review of the medical record to select patients with nerve sheath tumors who had underdone FDG PET imaging. Fifteen patients (7F: 8M) with benign or malignant nerve sheath tumors were included in this study. Of the 15 patients, 9 were diagnosed with the known neurofibromatosis type I. A total of 19 nerve sheath tumors were included from the 15 patients. All patients had undergone FDG PET to evaluate for malignant potential of the known lesions. Images of FDG PET were semi-quantitatively analyzed and a region of interest (ROI) was placed over the area of the maximum FDG uptake and an average standardized uptake value was taken for final analysis. There were 5 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 5 schwannomas, and 9 neurofibromas. The mean SUV was 2 (ranged from 1.6 to 3.3) for schwannomas, 1.3 (0.7 to 2.5) for neurofibromas, and 8.4 (4.6 to 12.2) for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Of 14 benign tumors, all except one schwannoma showed a SUV less than 3. When a cutoff SUV of 4 was used to differentiate the nerve sheath tumors, all tumors were correctly classified as benign or malignant, respectively. Among the 9 patients diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type I. 4 had malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and FDG PET accurately detected all the 4 lesions with malignant transformation. According to our results, FDG PET seems to have a great potential for accurately characterizing benign versus malignant nerve sheath tumors. It appears to be extremely useful for patients with neurofibromatosis to localize the lesion with malignant transformation.

  17. Malignant Hyperthermia and Idiopathic HyperCKemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a rare but life-threatening condition that is more frequently encountered and discussed within the anesthesia literature. Here we through a case specifically discuss the susceptibility of individuals and/or families with asymptomatic unexplained elevations of creatine kinase (CK, also frequently referred to as hyperCKemia or idiopathic hyperCKemia (IHCK in recent reports. The clinical implications would be to underscore the importance of this as a susceptibility to developing MH and highlight the importance of genetic susceptibility testing in such cases. Anesthesiologists and critical care intensivists as well as primary care physicians should keep this in mind when seeing patients with asymptomatic hyperCKemia and potentially inform them about the possibility of developing MH if exposed to triggering agents. Genetic susceptibility testing should be considered if available and family members should also receive nontriggering agents when undergoing anesthesia and wear Medic Alert tags.

  18. Differentiation of malignant melanoma from benign nevus using a novel genomic microarray with low specimen requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Wells M; Rowe, Leslie R; Florell, Scott R; Jahromi, Mona S; Schiffman, Joshua D; South, Sarah T

    2012-08-01

    Histologic examination of clinically suspicious melanocytic lesions is very sensitive and specific for the detection of malignant melanoma. Yet, the malignant potential of a small percentage of melanocytic lesions remains histologically uncertain. Molecular testing offers the potential to detect the genetic alterations that lead to malignant behavior without overt histologic evidence of malignancy. To differentiate benign melanocytic nevi from malignant melanoma and to predict the clinical course of melanocytic lesions with ambiguous histology using a novel genomic microarray. We applied a newly developed single-nucleotide polymorphism genomic microarray to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded melanocytic lesions to differentiate benign nevi (n  =  23) from malignant melanoma (n  =  30) and to predict the clinical course of a set of histologically ambiguous melanocytic lesions (n  =  11). For cases with unambiguous histology, there was excellent sensitivity and specificity for identifying malignant melanoma with this genomic microarray (89% sensitivity, 100% specificity). For cases with ambiguous histology, the performance of this genomic microarray was less impressive. Without microdissection and with quantities of DNA one-tenth what is required for more commonly used microarrays, this microarray can differentiate between malignant melanoma and benign melanocytic nevi. For histologically ambiguous lesions, longer clinical follow-up is needed to confidently determine the sensitivity and specificity of this microarray. Some of the previous technical hurdles to the clinical application of genomic microarray technology are being overcome, and the advantages over targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization assays currently in clinical use are becoming apparent.

  19. Giant hydronephrosis mimicking progressive malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidenreich Axel

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cases of giant hydronephroses are rare and usually contain no more than 1–2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. We report a remarkable case of giant hydronephrosis mimicking a progressive malignant abdominal tumour. Case presentation A 78-year-old cachectic woman presented with an enormous abdominal tumour, which, according to the patient, had slowly increased in diameter. Medical history was unremarkable except for a hysterectomy >30 years before. A CT scan revealed a giant cystic tumour filling almost the entire abdominal cavity. It was analysed by two independent radiologists who suspected a tumour originating from the right kidney and additionally a cystic ovarian neoplasm. Subsequently, a diagnostic and therapeutic laparotomy was performed: the tumour presented as a cystic, 35 × 30 × 25 cm expansive structure adhesive to adjacent organs without definite signs of invasive growth. The right renal hilar vessels could finally be identified at its basis. After extirpation another tumourous structure emerged in the pelvis originating from the genital organs and was also resected. The histopathological examination revealed a >15 kg hydronephrotic right kidney, lacking hardly any residual renal cortex parenchyma. The second specimen was identified as an ovary with regressive changes and a large partially calcified cyst. There was no evidence of malignant growth. Conclusion Although both clinical symptoms and the enormous size of the tumour indicated malignant growth, it turned out to be a giant hydronephrosis. Presumably, a chronic obstruction of the distal ureter had caused this extraordinary hydronephrosis. As demonstrated in our case, an accurate diagnosis of giant hydronephrosis remains challenging due to the atrophy of the renal parenchyma associated with chronic obstruction. Therefore, any abdominal cystic mass even in the absence of other evident pathologies should include the differential diagnosis of a

  20. Clinical study for classification of benign, dysplastic, and malignant oral lesions using autofluorescence spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Veld, DCG; Skurichina, M; Witjes, MJH; Duin, RPW; Sterenborg, HJCM; Roodenburg, JLN

    2004-01-01

    Autofluorescence spectroscopy shows promising results for detection and staging of oral (pre-)malignancies. To improve staging reliability, we develop and compare algorithms for lesion classification. Furthermore, we examine the potential for detecting invisible tissue alterations. Autofluorescence

  1. HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF COLORECTAL MALIGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in men and in women worldwide. Incidence rates of colorectal cancer vary 10 - fold in both sexes worldwide, Within Asia, the incidence rates vary widely and are uniformly low in all south Asian countries and high i n all developed Asian countries. Fortunately, the age adjusted incidence rates of colorectal cancer in all the Indian cancer registries are very close to the lowest rates in the world. The present study is under taken to study the prevalence and types of c olorectal cancer among the patients in the rural population in and around Chidambaram. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of malignant colorectal neoplasms among the speci mens received in the Department of Pathology and the gross and histomorphological pa ttern of the lesions and finally to correlate the findings with clinical data. METHOD: The materials consisted of 68 specimens who were submitted to the Department of Pathology, during the period of Jan 2008 - Dec 2012. Data collected and entered in MS - Excel and were analyzed using SPSS - 16. RESULTS : Out of 8454 colonoscopic specimens, 68(0.8% showed colorectal malignancy. A higher frequency of colorectal was seen in 6 th decade. Out of 68 specimens of malignant neoplasms majority were Carcinoma of the Rectum (79.41% followed in decreasing order of frequency by malignant lesions of descending colon(8.82%, ascending and Sigmoid colon (4.41% each, recto - sigmoid (2.94% and cecum (2.63%, and transverse colon (2.63%. Youngest patient was 19 years old and the o ldest patient was 80 years old with a mean age of 49.5 years and median age of 50 years. CONCLUSION: Colorectal cancer is a common and lethal disease. The adenoma carcinoma. S equence offers a window of opportunity in which the precursor lesion or early car cinoma can be removed endoscopically to prevent systematic disease. The result of a careful and systematic examination of surgical specimens from patients with

  2. Malignant melanoma (non-metastatic)

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased over the past 25 years in the UK, but death rates have remained fairly constant. Five year survival ranges from 20% to 95% depending on disease stage. Risks are greater in white populations and in people with higher numbers of skin naevi.Prognosis depends on depth of tumour, ulceration, and number of lymph nodes involved. Survival may be better in women compared with men, and for lesions on the limbs compared with the trunk.Lesions can recu...

  3. Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Karakurum, Mehmet Çağrı; Pekcan, Zeynep; Özmen, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    Melanomlar melanosit ve melanoblastların benign veya malign tümörleridir. Malign melanom kedilerde oldukça nadir gözlenen bir tümördür. Bu vaka takdiminde 16 yaşlı bir kedide kutanöz malign melonoma’nın klinik ve histopatolojik bulguları bildirilmiştir. Bu, aynı zamanda, Türkiye’de bir kedide bildirilen ilk kutanöz malign melanoma vakasıdır. Melanomas are neoplasia of melanocytes and melanoblasts which may in benign or malign character. Malign melanoma is typically considered as a rare neo...

  4. Malignant small round cell tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwanshi, Arvind; Srinivas, Radhika; Upasana, Gautam

    2009-01-01

    Malignant small round cell tumors are characterised by small, round, relatively undifferentiated cells. They generally include Ewing's sarcoma, peripheral neuroectodermal tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, retinoblastoma, neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma, and nephroblastoma or Wilms’ tumor. Other differential diagnoses of small round cell tumors include small cell osteogenic sarcoma, undifferentiated hepatoblastoma, granulocytic sarcoma, and intraabdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Differential diagnosis of small round cell tumors is particularly difficult due to their undifferentiated or primitive character. Tumors that show good differentiation are generally easy to diagnose, but when a tumor is poorly differentiated, identification of the diagnostic, morphological features is difficult and therefore, no definitive diagnosis may be possible. As seen in several study reports, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has become an important modality of diagnosis for these tumors. The technique yields adequate numbers of dissociated, viable cells, making it ideally suitable for ancillary techniques. Typically, a multimodal approach is employed and the principal ancillary techniques that have been found to be useful in classification are immunohistochemistry and immunophenotyping by flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and electron microscopy. However, the recent characterization of chromosomal breakpoints and the corresponding genes involved in malignant small round cell tumors means that it is possible to use molecular genetic approaches for detection. PMID:21938141

  5. Stents for malignant ureteral obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Pavlovic

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant ureteral obstruction can result in renal dysfunction or urosepsis and can limit the physician's ability to treat the underlying cancer. There are multiple methods to deal with ureteral obstruction including regular polymeric double J stents (DJS, tandem DJS, nephrostomy tubes, and then more specialized products such as solid metal stents (e.g., Resonance Stent, Cook Medical and polyurethane stents reinforced with nickel-titanium (e.g., UVENTA stents, TaeWoong Medical. In patients who require long-term stenting, a nephrostomy tube could be transformed subcutaneously into an extra-anatomic stent that is then inserted into the bladder subcutaneously. We outline the most recent developments published since 2012 and report on identifiable risk factors that predict for failure of urinary drainage. These failures are typically a sign of cancer progression and the natural history of the disease rather than the individual type of drainage device. Factors that were identified to predict drainage failure included low serum albumin, bilateral hydronephrosis, elevated C-reactive protein, and the presence of pleural effusion. Head-to-head studies show that metal stents are superior to polymeric DJS in terms of maintaining patency. Discussions with the patient should take into consideration the frequency that exchanges will be needed, the need for externalized hardware (with nephrostomy tubes, or severe urinary symptoms in the case of internal DJS. This review will highlight the current state of diversions in the setting of malignant ureteral obstruction.

  6. Oncolytic Virotherapy for Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarna Bais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematological malignancies such as leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma (MM, and the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs primarily affect adults and are difficult to treat. For high-risk disease, hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT can be used. However, in the setting of autologous HCT, relapse due to contamination of the autograft with cancer cells remains a major challenge. Ex vivo manipulations of the autograft to purge cancer cells using chemotherapies and toxins have been attempted. Because these past strategies lack specificity for malignant cells and often impair the normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, prior efforts to ex vivo purge autografts have resulted in prolonged cytopenias and graft failure. The ideal ex vivo purging agent would selectively target the contaminating cancer cells while spare normal stem and progenitor cells and would be applied quickly without toxicities to the recipient. One agent which meets these criteria is oncolytic viruses. This paper details experimental progress with reovirus, myxoma virus, measles virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, coxsackievirus, and vaccinia virus as well as requirements for translation of these results to the clinic.

  7. Malignant acanthosis nigricans with occult primary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Moly

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A case of generalized malignant acanthosis nigricans of 2 years duration is reported. In spite of the long duration of this cutaneous marker of internal malignancy, the patient was completely asymptamatic and extensive investigations revealed the presence of widespread metastasis of mucin secreting signet cell adenocarcinoma from an unknown primary site. In addition the patient also had acquired hypertrichosis lanuginose and florid cutaneous papillomatosis which are also markers of internal malignancy.

  8. Hypercalcemia and electrolyte disturbances in malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barri, Y M; Knochel, J P

    1996-08-01

    Hypercalcemia and electrolyte abnormalities are common problems in patients with malignancy. In this article we discuss the pathophysiology, clinical features, and management of hypercalcemia, which is the most common metabolic abnormality. We also analyze the electrolyte disturbances that occur in association with malignancy, including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia, and hyperkalemia. Recognition and treatment of these disturbances are important parts of the management of patients with malignant disease.

  9. [Acute surgical treatment of malignant stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja-Cyron, Alexander; Eskesen, Vagn; Hansen, Klaus; Kondziella, Daniel; Kelsen, Jesper

    2016-10-24

    Malignant stroke is an intracranial herniation syndrome caused by cerebral oedema after a large hemispheric or cerebellar stroke. Malignant middle cerebral artery infarction is a devastating disease with a mortality around 80% despite intensive medical treatment. Decompressive craniectomy reduces mortality and improves functional outcome - especially in younger patients (age ≤ 60 years). Decompression of the posterior fossa is a life-saving procedure in patients with malignant cerebellar infarctions and often leads to good neurological outcome.

  10. Mistletoe in the treatment of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Sakallı Çetin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a malignant neoplasia drives from melanocytes. Malignant melanoma, the most causing death, is seen in the third place at skin cancer. Malignant melanoma shows intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and variability in the course of the disease which are distinct features separating from other solid tumors. These features prevent the development and standardization of non-surgical treatment models of malignant melanoma. Although there is a large number of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma, it hasn’t been demonstrated the survival advantage of adjuvant treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Because of the different clinical course of malignant melanoma, the disease is thought to be closely associated with immune system. Therefore, immunomodulatory therapy models were developed. Mistletoe stimulates the immune system by increasing the number and activity of dendritic cells, thus it has been shown to effect on tumor growth and metastasis of malignant melanoma patient. Outlined in this review are the recent developments in the understanding the role of mistletoe as a complementary therapy for malignant melanoma. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 145-152

  11. B-Cell Hematologic Malignancy Vaccination Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-28

    Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance; Multiple Myeloma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Lymphocytosis; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hematological Malignancies

  12. Phenotypes and karyotypes of human malignant mesothelioma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relan, Vandana; Morrison, Leanne; Parsonson, Kylie; Clarke, Belinda E; Duhig, Edwina E; Windsor, Morgan N; Matar, Kevin S; Naidoo, Rishendran; Passmore, Linda; McCaul, Elizabeth; Courtney, Deborah; Yang, Ian A; Fong, Kwun M; Bowman, Rayleen V

    2013-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive tumour of serosal surfaces most commonly pleura. Characterised cell lines represent a valuable tool to study the biology of mesothelioma. The aim of this study was to develop and biologically characterise six malignant mesothelioma cell lines to evaluate their potential as models of human malignant mesothelioma. Five lines were initiated from pleural biopsies, and one from pleural effusion of patients with histologically proven malignant mesothelioma. Mesothelial origin was assessed by standard morphology, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and immunocytochemistry. Growth characteristics were assayed using population doubling times. Spectral karyotyping was performed to assess chromosomal abnormalities. Authentication of donor specific derivation was undertaken by DNA fingerprinting using a panel of SNPs. Most of cell lines exhibited spindle cell shape, with some retaining stellate shapes. At passage 2 to 6 all lines stained positively for calretinin and cytokeratin 19, and demonstrated capacity for anchorage-independent growth. At passage 4 to 16, doubling times ranged from 30-72 hours, and on spectral karyotyping all lines exhibited numerical chromosomal abnormalities ranging from 41 to 113. Monosomy of chromosomes 8, 14, 22 or 17 was observed in three lines. One line displayed four different karyotypes at passage 8, but only one karyotype at passage 42, and another displayed polyploidy at passage 40 which was not present at early passages. At passages 5-17, TEM showed characteristic features of mesothelioma ultrastructure in all lines including microvilli and tight intercellular junctions. These six cell lines exhibit varying cell morphology, a range of doubling times, and show diverse passage-dependent structural chromosomal changes observed in malignant tumours. However they retain characteristic immunocytochemical protein expression profiles of mesothelioma during maintenance in artificial culture systems. These

  13. Phenotypes and karyotypes of human malignant mesothelioma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Relan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive tumour of serosal surfaces most commonly pleura. Characterised cell lines represent a valuable tool to study the biology of mesothelioma. The aim of this study was to develop and biologically characterise six malignant mesothelioma cell lines to evaluate their potential as models of human malignant mesothelioma. METHODS: Five lines were initiated from pleural biopsies, and one from pleural effusion of patients with histologically proven malignant mesothelioma. Mesothelial origin was assessed by standard morphology, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and immunocytochemistry. Growth characteristics were assayed using population doubling times. Spectral karyotyping was performed to assess chromosomal abnormalities. Authentication of donor specific derivation was undertaken by DNA fingerprinting using a panel of SNPs. RESULTS: Most of cell lines exhibited spindle cell shape, with some retaining stellate shapes. At passage 2 to 6 all lines stained positively for calretinin and cytokeratin 19, and demonstrated capacity for anchorage-independent growth. At passage 4 to 16, doubling times ranged from 30-72 hours, and on spectral karyotyping all lines exhibited numerical chromosomal abnormalities ranging from 41 to 113. Monosomy of chromosomes 8, 14, 22 or 17 was observed in three lines. One line displayed four different karyotypes at passage 8, but only one karyotype at passage 42, and another displayed polyploidy at passage 40 which was not present at early passages. At passages 5-17, TEM showed characteristic features of mesothelioma ultrastructure in all lines including microvilli and tight intercellular junctions. CONCLUSION: These six cell lines exhibit varying cell morphology, a range of doubling times, and show diverse passage-dependent structural chromosomal changes observed in malignant tumours. However they retain characteristic immunocytochemical protein expression profiles of

  14. Zgodnje odkrivanje maligne alteracije pigmentnih znamenj: Early detection of pigmented nevi malignant alteration:

    OpenAIRE

    Golmajer, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a highly malignant tumor, and its response to treatment is poor. Its incidence is on an increase world-wide. Amplified surface microscopy is a riew non-invasive diagnostic method enabling the detection of atypical (dysplastic) nevi, which are frequent precursors of malignant melanoma, as well as of signs that indicate the initial symptoms of malignant afteration much earlier than it used to be possible by a standard clinical examination. Therefore, our study was aimed at...

  15. The Role of Toll Like Receptors in Hematopoietic Malignancies

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    Darlene Monlish

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that shape the innate immune system by identifying pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS and host-derived damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPS. TLRs are widely expressed on both immune cells and non-immune cells, including hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, effector immune cell populations, and endothelial cells. In addition to their well-known role in the innate immune response to acute infection or injury, accumulating evidence supports a role for TLRs in the development of hematopoietic and other malignancies. Several hematopoietic disorders, including lymphoproliferative disorders and myelodysplastic syndromes, which possess a high risk of transformation to leukemia, have been linked to aberrant TLR signaling. Furthermore, activation of TLRs leads to the induction of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which can promote tumorigenesis by driving cell proliferation and migration and providing a favorable microenvironment for tumor cells. Beyond hematopoietic malignancies, the upregulation of a number of TLRs has been linked to promoting tumor cell survival, proliferation, and metastasis in a variety of cancers, including those of the colon, breast, and lung. This review focuses on the contribution of TLRs to hematopoietic malignancies, highlighting the known direct and indirect effects of TLR signaling on tumor cells and their microenvironment. In addition, the utility of TLR agonists and antagonists as potential therapeutics in the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies is discussed.

  16. Everolimus and Malignancy after Solid Organ Transplantation: A Clinical Update

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    Hallvard Holdaas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignancy after solid organ transplantation remains a major cause of posttransplant mortality. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor class of immunosuppressants exerts various antioncogenic effects, and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus is licensed for the treatment of several solid cancers. In kidney transplantation, evidence from registry studies indicates a lower rate of de novo malignancy under mTOR inhibition, with some potentially supportive data from randomized trials of everolimus. Case reports and small single-center series have suggested that switch to everolimus may be beneficial following diagnosis of posttransplant malignancy, particularly for Kaposi’s sarcoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer, but prospective studies are lacking. A systematic review has shown mTOR inhibition to be associated with a significantly lower rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC recurrence versus standard calcineurin inhibitor therapy. One meta-analysis has concluded that patients with nontransplant HCC experience a low but significant survival benefit under everolimus monotherapy, so far unconfirmed in a transplant population. Data are limited in heart transplantation, although observational data and case reports have indicated that introduction of everolimus is helpful in reducing the recurrence of skin cancers. Overall, it can be concluded that, in certain settings, everolimus appears a promising option to lessen the toll of posttransplant malignancy.

  17. Intercellular Communication in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Properties of Tunneling Nanotubes

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    Justin William Ady

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a particularly aggressive and locally invasive malignancy with a poor prognosis despite advances in understanding of cancer cell biology and development of new therapies. At the cellular level, cultured mesothelioma cells present a mesenchymal appearance and a strong capacity for local cellular invasion. One important but underexplored area of mesothelioma cell biology is intercellular communication. Our group has previously characterized in multiple histological subtypes of mesothelioma a unique cellular protrusion known as tunneling nanotubes (TnTs. TnTs are long, actin filament-based, narrow cytoplasmic extensions that are non-adherent when cultured in vitro and are capable of shuttling cellular cargo between connected cells. Our prior work confirmed the presence of nanotube structures in tumors resected from patients with human mesothelioma. In our current study, we quantified the number of TnTs/cell among various mesothelioma subtypes and normal mesothelial cells using confocal microscopic techniques. We also examined TnT length among adherent cells and cells in suspension. We further examined potential approaches to the in vivo study of TnTs in animal models of cancer. We have developed novel approaches to study TnTs in aggressive solid tumor malignancies and define fundamental characteristics of TnTs in malignant mesothelioma. There is mounting evidence that TnTs play an important role in intercellular communication in mesothelioma and thus merit further investigation of their role in vivo.

  18. Possible novel therapy for malignant gliomas with secretable trimeric TRAIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonsup Jeong

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Despite intensive clinical investigation and many novel therapeutic approaches, average survival for the patients with malignant gliomas is only about 1 year. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL has shown potent and cancer-selective killing activity and drawn considerable attention as a promising therapy for cancers, but concerns over delivery and toxicity have limited progress. We have developed a secretable trimeric TRAIL (stTRAIL and here evaluated the therapeutic potential of this stTRAIL-based gene therapy in brain tumors. An adenovirus (Ad-stTRAIL delivering stTRAIL was injected into intra-cranial human glioma tumors established in nude mice and tumor growth monitored using the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Ad-stTRAIL gene therapy showed potent tumor suppressor activity with no toxic side effects at therapeutically effective doses. When compared with 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU, a conventional therapy for malignant gliomas, Ad-stTRAIL suppressed tumor growth more potently. The combination of Ad-stTRAIL and BCNU significantly increased survival compared to the control mice or mice receiving Ad-stTRAIL alone. Our data indicate that Ad-stTRAIL, either alone or combined with BCNU, has promise as a novel therapy for malignant gliomas.

  19. Epigenetic mechanisms in the initiation of hematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Maleki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer development is not restricted to the genetic changes, but also to epigenetic changes. Epigenetic processes are very important in the development of hematological malignancies. The main epigenetic alterations are aberrations in DNA methylation, post-translational modifications of histones, chromatin remodeling and microRNAs patterns, and these are associated with tumor genesis. All the various cellular pathways contributing to the neoplastic phenotype are affected by epigenetic genes in cancer. These pathways can be explored as biomarkers in clinical use for early detection of disease, malignancy classification and response to treatment with classical chemotherapy agents and epigenetic drugs. Materials and Method: A literature review was performed using PUBMED from 1985 to 2008. Cross referencing of discovered articles was also reviewed.Results: In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, regional hypermethylation of gene promoters leads to gene silencing. Many of these genes have tumor suppressor phenotypes. In myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, CDKN2B (alias, P15, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that negatively regulates the cell cycle, has been shown to be hypermethylated in marrow stem (CD34+ cells in patients with MDS. At present both Vidaza and Decitabine (DNA methyltransferase inhibitors are approved for the treatment of MDS.Conclusion: Unlike mutations or deletions, DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation are potentially reversible by pharmacological inhibition, therefore those epigenetic changes have been recognized as promising novel therapeutic targets in hematopoietic malignances. In this review, we discussed molecular mechanisms of epigenetics, epigenetic changes in hematological malignancies and epigenetic based treatments

  20. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Jill W.; Latouche, Eduardo L.; Sano, Michael B.; Rossmeisl, John H.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Verbridge, Scott S.

    2015-11-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100 μs) is enhanced for larger cells, short pulses (~1 μs) preferentially result in high fields within the cell interior, which scale in magnitude with nucleus size. Because enlarged nuclei represent a reliable indicator of malignancy, this suggested a means of preferentially targeting malignant cells. While we demonstrate killing of both normal and malignant cells using pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to treat spontaneous canine GBM, we proposed that properly tuned PEFs might provide targeted ablation based on nuclear size. Using 3D hydrogel models of normal and malignant brain tissues, which permit high-resolution interrogation during treatment testing, we confirmed that PEFs could be tuned to preferentially kill cancerous cells. Finally, we estimated the nuclear envelope electric potential disruption needed for cell death from PEFs. Our results may be useful in safely targeting the therapy-resistant cell niches that cause recurrence of GBM tumors.

  1. Comparative Expression Study of the Endo–G Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) Repertoire in Human Glioblastoma Cancer Stem-like Cells, U87-MG Cells and Non Malignant Cells of Neural Origin Unveils New Potential Therapeutic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Sarah; Carapito, Christine; Dong, Jihu; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Cianférani, Sarah; Haiech, Jacques; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly aggressive, invasive brain tumors with bad prognosis and unmet medical need. These tumors are heterogeneous being constituted by a variety of cells in different states of differentiation. Among these, cells endowed with stem properties, tumor initiating/propagating properties and particularly resistant to chemo- and radiotherapies are designed as the real culprits for tumor maintenance and relapse after treatment. These cells, termed cancer stem-like cells, have been designed as prominent targets for new and more efficient cancer therapies. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), a family of membrane receptors, play a prominent role in cell signaling, cell communication and crosstalk with the microenvironment. Their role in cancer has been highlighted but remains largely unexplored. Here, we report a descriptive study of the differential expression of the endo-GPCR repertoire in human glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells (GSCs), U-87 MG cells, human astrocytes and fetal neural stem cells (f-NSCs). The endo-GPCR transcriptome has been studied using Taqman Low Density Arrays. Of the 356 GPCRs investigated, 138 were retained for comparative studies between the different cell types. At the transcriptomic level, eight GPCRs were specifically expressed/overexpressed in GSCs. Seventeen GPCRs appeared specifically expressed in cells with stem properties (GSCs and f-NSCs). Results of GPCR expression at the protein level using mass spectrometry and proteomic analysis are also presented. The comparative GPCR expression study presented here gives clues for new pathways specifically used by GSCs and unveils novel potential therapeutic targets. PMID:24662753

  2. Malignant melanoma as second malignant neoplasm in long-term childhood cancer survivors: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, Katja I.; Overbeek, Annelies; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Ronckers, Cecile M.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Annette Y. N.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Veening, Margreet A.

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review provides information on malignant melanoma as second malignant neoplasm (SMN) after childhood cancer and evaluates its risk factors. Study reports describing incidences of SMN and malignant melanoma as SMN in a population of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) were included. Of

  3. The role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in differentiation between malignant and non malignant pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. Atef

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Pleural fluid level of TNF-α can be used in differentiating malignant from non malignant effusion. Also levels of TNF-α in the serum and pleural fluid could be useful as a complementary marker in the differential diagnosis of two most common types of exudates (tuberculous and malignant.

  4. Nivolumab: Immunotherapy in Malignant Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, Heather; Schneider, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Although patients diagnosed with melanoma that is confined to the skin have a five-year survival rate of 98%, this number drops to 16% with widely metastatic disease. Melanoma rates have been steadily increasing since the 1970s, but cytotoxic chemotherapy generally prolongs survival by about four months. Nivolumab is an effective immunotherapy agent. This article discusses the use of nivolumab for metastatic melanoma. Clinical trial and early postmarketing data were reviewed. In clinical trials, patients with advanced melanoma experienced partial sustained responses to nivolumab, a new targeted immunotherapy agent, for more than one year. Nivolumab helps the immune system mobilize lymphocytes that have been inactivated by melanoma cells, enhancing the body's ability to recognize the cancer as abnormal. Compared to conventional chemotherapy, nivolumab has been shown to greatly improve survival in widespread, inoperable malignant melanoma. Oncology nurses will administer, monitor, and educate patients about nivolumab.

  5. Malignant mesothelioma: development to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joyce K; Westbom, Catherine M; Shukla, Arti

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer of the mesothelium caused by asbestos. Asbestos use has been reduced but not completely stopped. In addition, natural or man-made disasters will continue to dislodge asbestos from old buildings into the atmosphere and as long as respirable asbestos is available, MM will continue to be a threat. Due to the long latency period of MM development, it would still take decades to eradicate this disease if asbestos was completely removed from our lives today. Therefore, there is a need for researchers and clinicians to work together to understand this deadly disease and find a solution for early diagnosis and treatment. This article focuses on developmental mechanisms as well as current therapies available for MM. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Thigmotropism of Malignant Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Quatresooz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During malignant melanoma (MM progression including incipient metastasis, neoplastic cells follow some specific migration paths inside the skin. In particular, they progress along the dermoepidermal basement membrane, the hair follicles, the sweat gland apparatus, nerves, and the near perivascular space. These features evoke the thigmotropism phenomenon defined as a contact-sensing growth of cells. This process is likely connected to modulation in cell tensegrity (control of the cell shape. These specifically located paucicellular aggregates of MM cells do not appear to be involved in the tumorigenic growth phase, but rather they participate in the so-called “accretive” growth model. These MM cell collections are often part of the primary neoplasm, but they may, however, correspond to MM micrometastases and predict further local overt metastasis spread.

  7. [Historic malignant tumour: 27 observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparsa, A; Doffoel-Hantz, V; Durox, H; Gaston, J; Delage-Core, M; Bédane, C; Labrousse, F; Sannajust, J P; Bonnetblanc, J-M

    2012-03-01

    When used in the French medical literature to describe a pathological state, the word "historic" normally refers to tumours of startling appearance because of their size. It is difficult to understand how a patient can allow such tumours to continue to grow. We attempt to define this concept. Two dermatologists carried out a retrospective, independent and comparative selection of photographs taken between 1978 and 2008 of malignant cutaneous tumours of unusual size given the histological diagnosis. Socio-professional, demographic, clinical, histological psychological data, and details of treatment history and progress were collected. Twenty-seven patients (11 M, 16 F) of mean age 74 years (34-99 years) presented a "historic" tumour. Twelve patients lived in rural regions. Five patients were company executives. The average duration of development of the "historic" tumours was 4.5 years (6-420 months). The tumours were classed histologically as epidermoid carcinomas (nine) and melanomas (seven). The mean size was 13 cm (6-30 cm). Psychiatric problems, membership of sects or dementia were noted for 13 patients. Treatment consisted of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or, less frequently, surgery. Eighteen patients died on average 13 months after diagnosis. "Historic" malignant tumour (also described in the literature as "giant" tumour) is a real-life fact. No studies have been made of a series of such patients. Despite histological diagnosis, the size was associated with slow tumoral progress and/or late treatment, chiefly accounted for by psychiatric disorders. Socio-professional data indicate that "historic" tumours are equally common in urban and rural areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Significance of cobalamin inactivation in normal and malignant hematopoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ermens, Anton

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with several aspects of the effects of cobalamin inactivation by nitrous oxide on cellular folate metabolism and the consequences on normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Kroes et al. demonstrated the antileukemic effects of nitrous oxide either or not in combination with other drugs interfering with the folate metabolism (132-136). Especially the potentiation of methotrexate activity in the employed rat model for myeloid leukemia (BNML) after preexposure to nitrou...

  9. p53 Codon 72 Gene Polymorphism Studies and p53 Expression by Immunohistochemistry in Oral Lesions as Risk Factor for Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Nishi; Srivastava, Anand Narain; Fatima, Naseem; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Kumar, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    Background: Wild-type p53 nuclear phosphoproteins are critical cell cycle regulatory tumor-suppressor gene. Genetic mutation of p53 gene is common in several head–neck cancers, usually associated with smoking and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In India, instead of HPV, tobacco/pan masala chewing is more commonly associated with oral cancer. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate p53 codon 72 gene polymorphism and expression of p53 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in oral lesions as a risk factor for its association with malignancy. Materials and Methods: A total of 41 cases of oral lesions comprising 6 cases of leukoplakia and 35 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), between 30 and 60 years age and tobacco/pan masala chewers were taken. Molecular analysis of p53 codon 72 gene polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction – restriction fragment length polymorphism for Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro, and Pro/Pro. Tissue expression of p53 was done by IHC. Results: Genotype frequencies of 35 carcinoma cases of p53 Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro, and Pro/Pro were 23%, 57%, and 20%, respectively, and six leukoplakia cases of p53 Arg/Arg and Arg/Pro genotype were 50% and 50%, respectively. By IHC for expression of p53 out of 35 cases of OSCC biopsies, 17 (48.57%) had weak staining, 14 cases (40%) showed evidence of p53 protein staining, and four cases (11.42%) showed negative staining. Among six cases of leukoplakia, 3 (50%) showed weak staining and 3 (50%) showed negative results. Conclusion: The findings of the study indicate that there is no significant association between p53 codon 72 gene polymorphism with OSCC and leukoplakia associated with tobacco/pan masala chewing. PMID:29308362

  10. Malignant occlusion of the coeliac axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, K.; Wattsgaard, C.; Genell, S. (Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus, Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1982-01-01

    Occlusion or extensive stenosis of the coeliac trunk due to malignant tumor are described in three patients. If, at angiography of a patient with a malignant tumor, occlusion of the coeliac trunk is found, tumor or lymph node metastases causing the occlusion must be considered; this may be of importance when intra-arterial chemotherapy of the tumor is planned.

  11. Primary malignant lymphoma of the rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirakata, K.; Nakata, H.; Nakayama, T.; Kajiwara, Y.; Kuroda, Y.

    1989-07-01

    A rare case of a primary malignant lymphoma of the rectum in a 7 year old girl is presented. Although rectal polyps in children are usually benign juvenile polyps, a rare possibility of malignancy should be kept in mind. An adequate histological examination is essential. (orig.).

  12. MULTIPLE PRIMARY MALIGNANCIES IN PATIENTS.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    Two patients had cancers of the colon followed by ovarian malignancy in one and a rectal malignancy in the other. Of the other patients, one had cancer of the cervix and later she developed None Hodgkin's lymphoma. ..... primary cancer after treatment of the first with radiotherapy or chemotherapy is well documented.

  13. Type B lactic acidosis in solid malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, R. de; Sprenger, R.A.; Imholz, A.L.; Gerding, M.N.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type B lactic acidosis is thought to be a rare complication of malignancy. It was first described in patients with acute leukaemia by Field et al. in 1963. Since then, it has been observed more often, in particular in haematological malignancies and rarely in solid tumours. METHODS:

  14. Dermatological malignancies in Kano, Northern Nigeria: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Malignant skin tumours comprised 12.7% of all histologically diagnosed cancers. As in other Negroid populations, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common constituting 40%, followed by melanomas comprising 34%. Cutaneous malignancies were most prevalent in the 6th and 7th decades of life and males ...

  15. Secondary ovarian malignancies: frequency, origin, and characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, Y.R. de; Thomas, C.M.G.; Oei, A.L.M.; Sweep, F.C.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of metastatic tumors among malignant ovarian neoplasms, the site distribution of the primary malignancies that give rise to ovarian metastasis and the clinicopathologic features of metastatic tumors. METHODS: We analyzed a total number of 116 patients diagnosed

  16. Malignant Triton Tumor (MTT) of the neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristine Bjørndal; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2006-01-01

    Malignant Triton Tumor (MTT) is a rare, malignant periphere nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. One third of described MTT's were located at the head and neck region. One third of these are associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. MTT most often appears in the third decade...

  17. Isolated Pancreatic Metastasis from Malignant Melanoma: Is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pancreatic metastatic tumors are uncommon and account for less than 2% of all pancreatic carcinomas.[1] Renal-cell cancer, colorectal cancer, melanoma and sarcoma are the most common sites of primary malignancy.[1] Around one-third of patients with malignant melanoma develop metastases.[2] Metastatic melanoma ...

  18. Epidemiological aspects of cutaneous malignant melanoma (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraino, D; Fratino, L; Gianni, W; Campisi, C; Pietropaolo, M; Trimarco, G; Marigliano, V

    1998-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the etiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). Once considered a rare tumour, CMM is now the fourth commonest cancer in Australia and New Zeland, the tenth in the Usa, Canada and Scandinavia and the eighteenth in Great Britain. The growing scientific concern on the urgent need to highlight the cause/s of CMM is well documented by the large number of well-designed and well-conducted epidemiological studies reported in the last two decades. Such studies facilitated testing of many etiological hypotheses derived from earlier descriptive investigations and contributed to significant progress in understanding the etiology of such disease. The quantification of the extent to which the increases in CMM incidence and mortality rates are related to new lifestyles and to new patterns of exposure to potential carcinogenetic agents is essential in order to establish an appropriate preventive strategy. In population of mainly European origin a substantial proportion of the increased incidence of CMM is attributable to steady change from predominantly occupational to predominantly recreational exposure to solar radiation. Therefore the present review puts particular emphasis on exposure to sunlight as well as to artificial ultraviolet light, as modifiable causes of CMM. Incidence and mortality data and other potential risk factors for the development of CMM will also be briefly reviewed.

  19. Obinutuzumab for B-cell malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Carolyn J; Stewart, Douglas A

    2014-08-01

    We analyse data for the use of obinutuzumab in the treatment of CD20(+) lymphoproliferative disorders with a focus on chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Targeted therapy against CD20 with the mAb rituximab led to significant improvements in survival for patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is the current mainstay of treatment for CD20(+) malignancies. Despite this, many patients relapse or become refractory after rituximab-containing therapies, so efforts have been made to develop better anti-CD20 mAbs. Obinutuzumab recently demonstrated superiority over rituximab in the only published Phase III study comparing the two antibodies. Obinutuzumab is a humanised, anti-CD20 mAb being compared to rituximab in several Phase III studies. An overview of obinutuzumab, its mechanisms of action and results of Phase I-III studies are presented. The demonstration of superiority of obinutuzumab over rituximab in the CLL11 Phase III study is potentially practice-changing. Obinutuzumab has also proven safe and efficacious in CD20(+) NHL in Phase I/II studies and results of Phase III studies in NHL are eagerly awaited. The potential implications of improved outcomes for CLL and NHL with the introduction of this more potent anti-CD20 antibody are tremendous given the impressive results obtained after the introduction of rituximab over a decade ago.

  20. [Malignant Melanoma - from Classical Histology towards Molecular Genetic Testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryška, A; Horký, O; Berkovcová, J; Tichá, I; Kalinová, M; Matějčková, M; Bóday, Á; Drábek, J; Martínek, P; Šimová, J; Sieglová, K; Vošmiková, H

    Malignant melanoma is - in comparison with other skin tumors - a relatively rare malignant neoplasm with highly aggressive biologic behavior and variable prognosis. Recent data in pathology and molecular diagnostics indicate that malignant melanoma is in fact not a single entity but a group of different neoplasms with variable etiopathogenesis, biologic behavior and prognosis. New therapeutic options using targeted treatment blocking MAPK signaling pathway require testing of BRAF gene mutation status. This helps to select patients with highest probability of benefit from this treatment. This article summarizes information on the correlation of morphological findings with genetic changes, discusses the representation of individual genetic types in various morphological subgroups and deals with the newly proposed genetic classification of melanoma and the current possibilities, pitfalls and challenges in BRAF testing of malignant melanoma. It also describes the current testing situation in the Czech Republic - the methods used, the representation of BRAF mutations in the tested population and the future of testing. It also shows the limitations of the BRAF and MEK targeted treatment concept resulting from the heterogeneity of the tumor population. Mechanisms of acquired resistance to MAPK pathway inhibitors, possibilities of their detection, and issues of combination of targeted therapy and immunotherapy are discussed.Key words: malignant melanoma - BRAF - mutation - molecular targeted therapy - tumor microenvironment - tumor heterogeneity This work was supported by projects PROGRES Q40/11, BBMRICZ LM2015089, SVV 260398 and GACR 17-10331S. The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 28. 3. 2017Accepted: 16. 5. 2017.

  1. Oral malignant melanoma: A case report of an unusual clinical and histologic presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Iqbal Belgaumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a potentially aggressive tumor of melanocytic origin. Primary oral malignant melanoma is a rare neoplasm, accounting for 0.5% of all oral malignancies. The present case occurred in a 60-year-old female patient, as a pedunculated growth involving the palate and alveolar ridge and histologically showing a desmoplastic differentiation. The article discusses the distinct clinico-pathologic presentation of this case and emphasizes on the need to identify and report such cases for further understanding of their biologic behavior.

  2. Risk of malignancy with systemic psoriasis treatment in the Psoriasis Longitudinal Assessment Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, David; Ho, Vincent; Lebwohl, Mark G; Leite, Luiz; Hopkins, Lori; Galindo, Claudia; Goyal, Kavitha; Langholff, Wayne; Fakharzadeh, Steven; Srivastava, Bhaskar; Langley, Richard G

    2017-11-01

    The effect of systemic therapy on malignancy risk among patients with psoriasis is not fully understood. Evaluate the impact of systemic treatment on malignancy risk among patients with psoriasis in the Psoriasis Longitudinal Assessment and Registry (PSOLAR). Nested case-control analyses were performed among patients with no history of malignancy. Cases were defined as first malignancy (other than nonmelanoma skin cancer) in the Psoriasis Longitudinal Assessment and Registry, and controls were matched by age, sex, geographic region, and time on registry. Study therapies included methotrexate, ustekinumab, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors. Exposure was defined as 1 or more doses of study therapy within 12 months of malignancy onset and further stratified by duration of therapy. Multivariate conditional logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders, was used to estimate odds ratios of malignancies associated with therapy. Among 12,090 patients, 252 malignancy cases were identified and 1008 controls were matched. Treatment with methotrexate or ustekinumab for more than 0 months to less than 3 months, 3 months to less than 12 months, or 12 months or longer was not associated with increased malignancy risk versus no exposure. Longer-term (≥12 months) (odds ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.15; P = .01), but not shorter-term treatment, with a TNF-α inhibitor was associated with increased malignancy risk. Cases and controls could belong to 1 or more therapy categories. Long-term (≥12 months) treatment with a TNF-α inhibitor, but not methotrexate and ustekinumab, may increase risk for malignancy in patients with psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Utility of commercial DNA analysis in detecting malignancy within pancreatic cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda S; Wu, Bechien U; Banks, Peter A; Kadiyala, Vivek; Mehta, Shivani; Saltzman, John R; Thompson, Christopher C; Bellizzi, Andrew M

    2013-03-10

    Pancreatic cysts raise concern because of their malignant potential. Our aims were to assess accuracy of DNA analysis in detecting malignant pancreatic cysts at EUS-FNA and to determine whether DNA analysis added to imaging and cyst fluid studies enhanced International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) guidelines for resection of pancreatic cysts. This is a retrospective study including pancreatic cysts undergoing EUS-FNA and DNA analysis with k-ras and loss of heterozygosity testing. Diagnostic models of 2006 and 2012 IAP guidelines, DNA analysis alone, and DNA combined with 2012 IAP guidelines were developed, and area under receiver operator characteristic curves (AUC) compared to determine the added value of DNA for detecting malignant cysts at the time of EUS-FNA. Two-hundreds and fifty-seven patients were included with 8 (3.1%) malignant cysts. Solid component (P<0.001), main pancreatic duct dilation (P=0.012), suspicious or malignant cytology (P=0.001), and high DNA quantity (P<0.001) were associated with malignancy. Concurrent high amplitude k-ras with loss of heterozygosity mutations was highly specific (98.4%) though insensitive (12.5%) for malignancy. The 2012 IAP guideline (AUC=0.87; 95% CI: 0.82-0.91) was superior to 2006 IAP guideline (AUC=0.54; 95% CI: 0.47-0.60) and DNA analysis alone (AUC=0.60; 95% CI: 0.53-0.66) for detecting malignant cysts (P=0.004 and P=0.002, respectively). Addition of DNA did not improve performance of the 2012 IAP guideline (AUC=0.84; 95% CI: 0.79-0.88). Commercial DNA analysis does not add useful information beyond imaging and cytology for detection of malignant pancreatic cysts. The 2012 IAP guideline better predicted malignant cysts than the 2006 IAP guideline.

  4. Radiotherapy-induced malignancies: Review of clinical features, pathobiology and evolving approaches for mitigating risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eBraunstein

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant effects of radiation therapy on normal tissues is mutagenesis, which is the basis for radiation-induced malignancies. Radiation-induced malignancies are late complications arising after radiotherapy, increasing in frequency among survivors of both pediatric and adult cancers. Genetic backgrounds harboring germline mutations in tumor suppressor genes are recognized risk factors. Some success has been found with using genome wide association studies to identify germline polymorphisms associated with susceptibility. The insights generated by genetics, epidemiology and the development of experimental models are defining potential strategies to offer to individuals at-risk for radiation-induced malignancies. Concurrent technological efforts are developing novel radiotherapy delivery to reduce irradiation of normal tissues, and thereby, to mitigate the risk of radiation-induced malignancies. The goal of this review is to discuss epidemiologic, molecular and radiotherapy delivery data and where these lines of research intersect and their potential impact on patient care.

  5. Oxidative stress-induced epigenetic changes associated with malignant transformation of human kidney epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingaiah, Prathap Kumar S; Ponnusamy, Logeswari; Singh, Kamaleshwar P

    2017-02-14

    Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) in humans is positively influenced by oxidative stress status in kidneys. We recently reported that adaptive response to low level of chronic oxidative stress induces malignant transformation of immortalized human renal tubular epithelial cells. Epigenetic alterations in human RCC are well documented, but its role in oxidative stress-induced malignant transformation of kidney cells is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential role of epigenetic changes in chronic oxidative stress-induced malignant transformation of HK-2, human renal tubular epithelial cells. The results revealed aberrant expression of epigenetic regulatory genes involved in DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3a and MBD4) and histone modifications (HDAC1, HMT1 and HAT1) in HK-2 cells malignantly transformed by chronic oxidative stress. Additionally, both in vitro soft agar assay and in vivo nude mice study showing decreased tumorigenic potential of malignantly transformed HK-2 cells following treatment with DNA de-methylating agent 5-aza 2' dC further confirmed the crucial role of DNA hypermethyaltion in oxidative stress-induced malignant transformation. Changes observed in global histone H3 acetylation (H3K9, H3K18, H3K27 and H3K14) and decrease in phospho-H2AX (Ser139) also suggest potential role of histone modifications in increased survival and malignant transformation of HK-2 cells by oxidative stress. In summary, the results of this study suggest that epigenetic reprogramming induced by low levels of oxidative stress act as driver for malignant transformation of kidney epithelial cells. Findings of this study are highly relevant in potential clinical application of epigenetic-based therapeutics for treatments of kidney cancers.

  6. Pleomorphic liposarcoma arising in a malignant phyllodes tumor of breast: A rare occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancheti, Sankalp M; Sawaimoon, Satyakam K; Ahmed, Rosina

    2015-01-01

    Primary malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast accounts for 0.3-1% of all the tumors of breast and only a couple of cases of pleomorphic liposarcoma (PL) arising in a malignant phyllodes (MP) tumor have been reported. A thorough sampling is most essential in phyllodes tumor, not only to detect high grade component of the neoplasm but also to diagnose heterologous elements in the same lesion elsewhere, as it may affect the prognosis adversely and may have a greater metastatic potential.

  7. Calcific Tendinosis: A Potential Mimicker of Malignancy on PET

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Morrison, William; Zoga, Adam; Bergin, Diane; Gopez, Angela; Fayad, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 53 year old female with breast cancer and elevated glucose activity at the left greater trochanter on PET imaging. Further imaging with CT and MRI showed that this focus of increased FDG activity on PET was calcific tendinosis of the gluteus medius tendon, which mimicked metastatic disease in this patient.

  8. CT-guided biopsy of suspected malignancy: A potential pitfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Henderson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Paragangliomas are rare catecholamine-secreting neuro-endocrine tumours that can arise from sympathetic or parasympathetic tissue. Any manipulation of these tumours, without appropriate medical therapy, can result in excess catecholamine release leading to a catecholamine crisis. Neuro-endocrine tumours must be considered prior to interventional biopsy of an unknown soft-tissue mass, and appropriate biochemical investigations should be performed in suspected cases to prevent catastrophic complications.

  9. The potential for targeting extracellular LOX proteins in human malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayorca Guiliani, Alejandro Enrique; Erler, Janine T

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the physical scaffold where cells are organized into tissues and organs. The ECM may be modified during cancer to allow and promote proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. The family of lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzymes cross-links collagens and elastin and, therefore...

  10. The potential for targeting extracellular LOX proteins in human malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayorca-Guiliani A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Alejandro Mayorca-Guiliani, Janine T Erler Biotech Research and Innovation Centre, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract: The extracellular matrix (ECM is the physical scaffold where cells are organized into tissues and organs. The ECM may be modified during cancer to allow and promote proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. The family of lysyl oxidase (LOX enzymes cross-links collagens and elastin and, therefore, is a central player in ECM deposition and maturation. Extensive research has revealed how the LOX proteins participate in every stage of cancer progression, and two family members, LOX and LOX-like 2, have been linked to metastasis, the final stage of cancer responsible for over 90% of cancer patient deaths. However, LOX biosynthesis results in by-product with antiproliferative properties in certain cancers, and LOX enzymes may have different effects depending on the molecular network in which they are active. Therefore, the design of therapies targeting the LOX family needs to be guided by the molecular makeup of the individual disease and will probably require other agents to act on both the LOX enzymes and their associated network. Keywords: cancer, extracellular matrix, lysyl oxidase, metastasis

  11. CT-guided biopsy of suspected malignancy: A potential pitfall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paragangliomas are rare catecholamine-secreting neuro-endocrine tumours that can arise from sympathetic or parasympathetic tissue. Any manipulation of these tumours, without appropriate medical therapy, can result in excess catecholamine release leading to a catecholamine crisis. Neuro-endocrine tumours must be ...

  12. Metastatic malignant melanoma affecting stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Eivazi-Ziaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma has been reported to affect all organs of the human body with the metastasis. Stomach metastases are quite rare in cases of the most commonly reported primaries including, melanoma and breast, and lung carcinomas. This report involves, a 56-year-old man suffering from melanoma of the lower extremity that developed into gastric, pulmonary, and brain metastases. The patient who experienced epigastric pain with suspicious melanoma was referred to undergo endoscopy. A black and white ulcer with dimensions of 1 × 1.5 cm and a mass of 1 × 2 cm mass were found at D1 and lesser curvature. Physical examination revealed a 2 × 3 cm black lesion at his right heel. Pathologic examination provided multiple pieces of creamy soft-tissue measuring 0.3 × 0.2 × 0.1 cm showing pigmented tumor cells in lamina propria. Staining biopsy samples with anti-HMB-45 and Fontana demonstrated a higher degree of positivity in tumor cells. The patient was admitted to the hospital, but unfortunately his general conditions were deteriorated and he developed convulsion and deceased four days after admission.

  13. RENAL DAMAGE WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Kolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between renal damage and malignant neoplasms is one of the most actual problems of the medicine of internal diseases. Very often, exactly availability of renal damage determines the forecast of cancer patients. The range of renal pathologies associated with tumors is unusually wide: from the mechanical effect of the tumor or metastases on the kidneys and/or the urinary tract and paraneoplastic manifestations in the form of nephritis or amyloidosis to nephropathies induced with drugs or tumor lysis, etc. Thrombotic complications that develop as a result of exposure to tumor effects, side effects of certain drugs or irradiation also play an important role in the development of the kidney damage. The most frequent variants of renal damage observed in the practice of medical internists (therapists, urologists, surgeons, etc., as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches are described in the article. Timely and successful prevention and treatment of tumor-associated nephropathies give hope for retaining renal functions, therefore, a higher life standard after completion of anti-tumor therapy. Even a shortterm episode of acute renal damage suffered by a cancer patient must be accompanied with relevant examination and treatment. In the caseof transformation of acute renal damage into the chronic kidney disease, such patients need systematic and weighted renoprotective therapy and correct dosing of nephrotoxic drugs.

  14. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, O.W.

    1992-03-24

    This research project proposes to develop novel new approaches of improving the radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of malignancies by augmenting retention of radioimmunoconjugates by tumor cells. The approaches shown to be effective in these laboratory experiments will subsequently be incorporated into out ongoing clinical trials in patients. Specific project objectives include: to study the rates of endocytosis, intracellular routing, and metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens on human leukemia and lymphoma cells; To examine the effects of lysosomotropic amines (e.g. chloroquine, amantadine), carboxylic ionophores (monensin, nigericin), and thioamides (propylthiouracil), on the retention of radiolabeled MoAbs by tumor cells; to examine the impact of newer radioiodination techniques (tyramine cellobiose, paraiodobenzoyl) on the metabolic degradation of radioiodinated antibodies; to compare the endocytosis, intracellular routing, and degradation of radioimmunoconjugates prepared with different radionuclides ({sup 131}Iodine, {sup 111}Indium, {sup 90}Yttrium, {sup 99m}Technetium, {sup 186}Rhenium); and to examine the utility of radioimmunoconjugates targeting oncogene products for the radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoscintigraphy of cancer.

  15. Malignant tumors of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudzik, Bartosz; Miszalski-Jamka, Karol; Glowacki, Jan; Lekston, Andrzej; Gierlotka, Marek; Zembala, Marian; Polonski, Lech; Gasior, Mariusz

    2015-10-01

    Primary malignant cardiac tumors are rare, and mostly manifest as sarcomas in various types. As non-invasive diagnostic modalities, e.g. echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging, have become more sensitive, there is a marked increase in the number of patients diagnosed. Nevertheless, most patients die within one year of initial diagnosis, either because of the often asymptomatic presentation of cardiac tumors until advanced disease, or a low index of suspicion on the part of the physician. The presenting symptoms, treatment options and, indeed, prognosis are largely controlled by the tumor's anatomic location. Cardiac sarcomas may present with a variety of symptoms and are known to be great mimickers. A quick diagnosis facilitates the initiation of a proper treatment (surgical resection, adjuvant chemotherapy), which may in turn improve the prognosis. Metastases to the heart are far more common, unfortunately, clinical manifestations are mainly dominated by generalized tumor spread. The article summarizes epidemiology, symptoms, diagnostic modalities, and possible treatment options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impression cytology diagnosis of ulcerative eyelid malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S; Lyngdoh, A D; Pushker, N; Meel, R; Bajaj, M S; Chawla, B

    2015-02-01

    The utility of impression cytology in ocular diseases has predominantly been restricted to the diagnosis of dry eye, limbal stem cell deficiency and conjunctival neoplasias. Its role in malignant eyelid lesions remains largely unexplored. Although scrape cytology is more popular for cutaneous lesions, impression cytology, being non-traumatic, has an advantage in small and delicate areas such as the eyelid. The present study has been designed to evaluate its role in the diagnosis and management of malignant eyelid lesions. Thirty-two histopathologically proven malignant eyelid lesions diagnosed over a 2-year period, including 13 basal cell carcinomas, 11 sebaceous carcinomas, four squamous cell carcinomas, two malignant melanomas and two poorly differentiated carcinomas, formed the study group. The results of impression cytology were compared with those of histopathology in the study group and with an age- and sex-matched group of benign cases as controls. The sensitivity of impression cytology was 84% (27/32) for the diagnosis of malignancy and 28% (9/32) for categorization of the type of malignancy. Impression cytology is a simple, useful, non-invasive technique for the detection of malignant ulcerative eyelid lesions. It is especially useful as a follow-up technique for the detection of recurrences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Diagnostic yield of bronchoalveolar lavage in immunocompromised children with malignant and non-malignant disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimpalli, Sruti; Foca, Marc; Satwani, Prakash; Sulis, Maria Luisa; Constantinescu, Andrei; Saiman, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    The diagnostic yield of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in the Immunocompromised pediatric population has ranged from 28% to 68%. We hypothesized that the diagnostic yield of BALs would be higher in more recent years due to new diagnostic assays. A retrospective case series was performed among immunocompromised children ≤18 years old who underwent BALs from 2001 to 2012, to assess the yield of microbiologic diagnostic studies and to determine the impact of BAL findings on antimicrobial management. In all, 123 subjects underwent 174 BALs (mean age 9.9 years). Underlying diagnoses included both malignant (n = 79) and non-malignant (n = 44) disorders, and 75 (61.0%) subjects were hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Fifty-four (31.0%) of 174 BAL were positive for ≥1 potential pathogen (n = 58 microorganisms). The diagnostic yield of BALs performed from 2001 to 2006 versus2007-2012 was similar (40.5% vs. 26.6%, respectively, P = 0.07). Most subjects (86.2%) were on ≥1 antimicrobial at the time of BAL. Most (65.8%) negative BALs were associated with narrowing antimicrobial therapy, while most (74.1%) positive BALs were associated with continuing or changing to targeted antimicrobial therapy. In this study population, the diagnostic yield of BAL was similar to that previously described and unchanged in more recent years. Both negative and positive BALs were associated with changes in antimicrobial management. A 10-year retrospective review of bronchoalveolar lavage in 123 immunocompromised children determined that the rate of isolation of potential pathogens was 31% in this population. The majority of BAL was associated with a change in antimicrobial therapy. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:820-826. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Long noncoding RNAs during normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Hu, Wenqian; Gromatzky, Austin A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2014-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized to contribute to cellular development via diverse mechanisms during both health and disease. Here, we highlight recent progress on the study of lncRNAs that function in the development of blood cells. We emphasize lncRNAs that regulate blood cell fates through epigenetic control of gene expression, an emerging theme among functional lncRNAs. Many of these noncoding genes and their targets become dysregulated during malignant hematopoiesis, directly implicating lncRNAs in blood cancers such as leukemia. In a few cases, dysregulation of an lncRNA alone leads to malignant hematopoiesis in a mouse model. Thus, lncRNAs may be not only useful as markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancers of the blood, but also as potential targets for novel therapies.

  19. The role of JARID2 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Anne Katrine

    2015-01-01

    , in preserving correct HSC maintenance. Aberrant function is shown to influence malignant transformation and propagation of disease. A number of PRC2 auxiliary factors has been identified, one being JARID2, which is involved in modulating the activity of the complex by regulating binding to target genes......Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are under tight transcriptional regulation ensuring proper function and maintenance of key features such as self-renewal and multi-lineage reconstitution potential. Erroneous regulation can confer unwanted properties to the cells and ultimately lead to malignant...... transformation. Correct regulation is carried out by a variety of transcription factors and epigenetic regulators. Several studies have implicated the epigenetic modulator Polycomb Repressive complex 2 (PRC2), responsible for the deposition of the H3K27me3 mark associated with transcriptional repression...

  20. Immunotherapy Approaches for Malignant Glioma From 2007 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant glioma is a deadly disease for which there have been few therapeutic advances over the past century. Although previous treatments were largely unsuccessful, glioma may be an ideal target for immune-based therapy. Recently, translational research led to several clinical trials based on tumor immunotherapy to treat patients with malignant glioma. Here we review 17 recent glioma immunotherapy clinical trials, published over the past 3 years. Various approaches were used, including passive transfer of naked and radiolabeled antibodies, tumor antigen-specific peptide immunization, and the use of patient tumor cells with or without dendritic cells as vaccines. We compare and discuss the current state of the art of clinical immunotherapy treatment, as well as its limited successes, pitfalls, and future potential. PMID:20424975

  1. Photoacoustic spectroscopic differences between normal and malignant thyroid tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xie, Wengming; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    The thyroid is one of the main endocrine glands of human body, which plays a crucial role in the body's metabolism. Thyroid cancer mortality ranks only second to ovarian cancer in endocrine cancer. Routine diagnostic methods of thyroid diseases in present clinic exist misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis to varying degrees. Those lead to miss the best period of cancer treatment--early. Photoacoustic spectroscopy technology is a new tool, which provides an effective and noninvasive way for biomedical materials research, being highly sensitive and without sample pretreatment. In this paper, we use photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) to detect the absorption spectrum between normal and malignant thyroid tissues. The result shows that the photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) could differentiate malignant thyroid tissue from normal thyroid tissue very well. This technique combined with routine diagnostic methods has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy in clinical thyroid cancer diagnosis.

  2. EZH2 in normal hematopoiesis and hematological malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herviou, Laurie; Cavalli, Giacomo; Cartron, Guillaume; Klein, Bernard; Moreaux, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), the catalytic subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 2, inhibits gene expression through methylation on lysine 27 of histone H3. EZH2 regulates normal hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. EZH2 also controls normal B cell differentiation. EZH2 deregulation has been described in many cancer types including hematological malignancies. Specific small molecules have been recently developed to exploit the oncogenic addiction of tumor cells to EZH2. Their therapeutic potential is currently under evaluation. This review summarizes the roles of EZH2 in normal and pathologic hematological processes and recent advances in the development of EZH2 inhibitors for the personalized treatment of patients with hematological malignancies. PMID:26497210

  3. EZH2 in normal hematopoiesis and hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herviou, Laurie; Cavalli, Giacomo; Cartron, Guillaume; Klein, Bernard; Moreaux, Jérôme

    2016-01-19

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), the catalytic subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 2, inhibits gene expression through methylation on lysine 27 of histone H3. EZH2 regulates normal hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. EZH2 also controls normal B cell differentiation. EZH2 deregulation has been described in many cancer types including hematological malignancies. Specific small molecules have been recently developed to exploit the oncogenic addiction of tumor cells to EZH2. Their therapeutic potential is currently under evaluation. This review summarizes the roles of EZH2 in normal and pathologic hematological processes and recent advances in the development of EZH2 inhibitors for the personalized treatment of patients with hematological malignancies.

  4. Metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor involving the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, J Jordi; Prayson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases from malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast are a rare occurrence. We report a patient with a malignant phyllodes tumor of the right breast which subsequently metastasized to the right lower lobe of the lung 1 year after initial presentation, and to the right cerebellar hemisphere 2 years after diagnosis of her breast mass. After both chemotherapy and whole brain radiotherapy the patient is tumor free at most recent follow-up, 116 months after the breast tumor diagnosis was made. The literature is briefly reviewed and the differential diagnosis of malignant spindle cell brain tumors is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Update in Treatment of Malignant Eyelid Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin A. Katırcıoğlu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of malignant eyelid tumors have different properties according to histological diagnosis, assessment of tumor margins and local or systemic spread. Chances of success in the treatment of malignant tumors of the eyelids are high only when the right procedures through which all tumor cells are eradicated with the condition that the role of protecton of ocular surface of the eyelids are functional. The aim of this review is to scrutinize the current treatment of malignant eyelid tumors. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 55-60

  6. A case of intracranial malignant fibrous histiocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Sarrami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of intracranial malignant fibrous histiocytoma which had infiltrated pons, cerebellum and basal surface of left temporal lobe without any visible mass. The patient presented with a sudden loss of consciousness and vomiting. Clinical findings, laboratory tests, imaging and examination of the cerebrospinal fluid tended to establish the diagnosis of an infectious condition than a malignancy. Without any response to the antibiotics and with a progressive deterioration of neurologic and mental condition, the patient died after 20 days. In the autopsy, histological and immunohistochemical study of the brain revealed the diagnosis of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH.

  7. Differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies with CT spectral imaging: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Yan; Lang, Ning; Yuan, Huishu [Peking University Third Hospital, No.49 North Garden Street, Haidian District, Beijing (China); Li, Jianying [GE Healthcare, CT imaging Research Center, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-15

    To investigate the value of dual-energy spectral computed tomography (DESCT) for differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies during venous phase. This study was institutional review board-approved, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Thirty-seven patients were examined by DESCT during venous phase. Twenty patients had malignant vertebral tumours, 17 had non-malignant vertebral tumours. The iodine/water densities for the lesion, the lesion-to-muscle ratio, and lesion-to-artery ratio for iodine density measurements were calculated and compared between the two groups with the two-tailed Student t test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Sensitivity and specificity were compared between the qualitative and quantitative studies. The iodine density, lesion-to-muscle ratio, and lesion-to-artery ratio of the iodine density measurement for malignant vertebral tumours were significantly different from the respective values for non-malignancies (all p < 0.05). Using 0.52 as the threshold value for the lesion-to-artery iodine density ratio, one could obtain sensitivity of 85 % and specificity of 100 % for differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies, significantly higher than the qualitative diagnosis. DESCT imaging enables analysis of a number of additional quantitative CT parameters to improve the accuracy for differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies during venous phase. (orig.)

  8. Mesenchymal stromal cells in myeloid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Thomas; Geyh, Stefanie; Germing, Ulrich; Haas, Rainer

    2016-12-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are clonal myeloid disorders characterized by hematopoietic insufficiency. As MDS and AML are considered to originate from genetic and molecular defects of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), the main focus of research in this field has focused on the characterization of these cells. Recently, the contribution of BM microenvironment to the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies, in particular MDS and AML has gained more interest. This is based on a better understanding of its physiological role in the regulation of hematopoiesis. Additionally, it was demonstrated as a 'proof of principle' that genetic disruption of cells of the mesenchymal or osteoblastic lineage can induce MDS, MPS or AML in mice. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the contribution of the BM microenvironment, in particular mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) to the pathogenesis of AML and MDS. Furthermore, potential models integrating the BM microenvironment into the pathophysiology of these myeloid disorders are discussed. Finally, strategies to therapeutically exploit this knowledge and to interfere with the crosstalk between clonal hematopoietic cells and altered stem cell niches are introduced.

  9. Management of intestinal obstruction in advanced malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry John Murray Ferguson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with incurable, advanced abdominal or pelvic malignancy often present to acute surgical departments with symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction. It is rare for bowel strangulation to occur in these presentations, and spontaneous resolution often occurs, so the luxury of time should be afforded while decisions are made regarding surgery. Cross-sectional imaging is valuable in determining the underlying mechanism and pathology. The majority of these patients will not be suitable for an operation, and will be best managed in conjunction with a palliative medicine team. Surgeons require a good working knowledge of the mechanisms of action of anti-emetics, anti-secretories and analgesics to tailor early management to individual patients, while decisions regarding potential surgery are made. Deciding if and when to perform operative intervention in this group is complex, and fraught with both technical and emotional challenges. Surgery in this group is highly morbid, with no current evidence available concerning quality of life following surgery. The limited evidence concerning operative strategy suggests that resection and primary anastomosis results in improved survival, over bypass or stoma formation. Realistic prognostication and involvement of the patient, care-givers and the multidisciplinary team in treatment decisions is mandatory if optimum outcomes are to be achieved.

  10. Overexpression of NIMA-related kinase 2 is associated with poor prognoses in malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huajie; Liu, Bin; Hou, Xianzeng; Pang, Bo; Guo, Pengbo; Jiang, Wanli; Ding, Qian; Zhang, Rui; Xin, Tao; Guo, Hua; Xu, Shangchen; Pang, Qi

    2017-05-01

    Eleated expression of NIMA-related kinase 2 (NEK2) was frequently observed in a variety of malignant cancers, and it appears to be involved in the initiation, maintenance, progression, metastasis of cancer and is positively associated with poor prognosis. We sought to investigate NEK2 expression and its predictive roles in malignant gliomas, and study the correlation of NEK2 protein expression with proliferation, clinical parameters, overall survival and some other parameters. We investigate NEK2 protein expression in 99 samples of malignant gliomas, including 35 WHO grade II, 22 grade III, and 42 grade IV gliomas, by immunohistochemistry and western blot (n = 50). We then made correlative analysis of protein overexpression using the Kaplan-Meier method, Log rank test, and Cox proportional-hazards model analysis. NEK2 protein was overexpressed in malignant gliomas, but not in normal brain tissues. Overexpression of NEK2 correlated with malignancy, proliferation and adverse overall survival in gliomas. Moreover, chemotherapy, resection extent and WHO grade also correlate with overall survival in gliomas. However, within WHO grade II glioma subgroup, NEK2 overexpression showed no impact on overall survival. The present study firstly reveals that NEK2 protein is widely overexpressed in gliomas. NEK2 overexpression correlates significantly with malignancy (WHO grades), proliferation (Ki-67) and prognosis in malignant gliomas. NEK2 is a potential gene therapy target and prognostic indicator.

  11. Malignant melanoma. Current status; Malignes Melanom. Aktueller Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J.K.; Buder-Bakhaya, K.; Enk, A.; Hassel, J.C. [Universitaetshautklinik, Nationales Centrum fuer Tumorerkrankungen, Heidelberg (Germany); Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Klinische Kooperationseinheit Nuklearmedizin, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    The incidence of malignant melanoma is continuously increasing. The prognosis of metastatic disease is still limited. Until a few years ago palliative chemotherapy with a limited response rate was the standard treatment for metastatic melanoma. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy provide new treatment options. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have significantly improved the prognosis. Regional lymph node sonography, computed tomography (CT) of the neck, chest and abdomen and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used. As an alternative to CT scans 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may be used. Immunotherapy provides the chance of long-term disease control in metastatic melanoma. Ipilimumab may provide long-term tumor control in approximately 20% of patients. Median overall survival of approximately 2 years is achieved during therapy with anti-programmed cell death (PD) 1 antibodies. For combined therapy of ipilimumab and nivolumab a response rate of almost 60% is achieved and 2-year survival is also approximately 60%. The range of immune-mediated side effects demands particular consideration. For response evaluation immune-related response criteria were defined. Furthermore, immunotherapeutic approaches, such as talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), which is a modified herpes virus can be used for intralesional injection. An individual definition of the appropriate therapy for each patient is of particular importance. In the context of modern therapy regimens close patient monitoring is crucial. (orig.) [German] Die Inzidenz des Melanoms steigt stetig an. Die Prognose bei metastasierter Erkrankung ist weiterhin limitiert. Bis vor wenigen Jahren war eine palliative Chemotherapie mit begrenzten Ansprechraten Standardtherapie des metastasierten Melanoms. Immuntherapie und zielgerichtete Therapien stellen neue Behandlungsoptionen dar. Insbesondere Immuncheckpointinhibitoren haben die Prognose verbessert. Routinemaessig werden die

  12. Early stage malignant phyllodes tumor case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbert, Thao; Leigh, Emilia C N; Barry, Rahman; Traylor, Jack R; Legenza, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast is an extremely rare entity usually presenting with similar clinical features with those of benign fibroadenoma. Due to its scarcity and clinical presentation, it is quite difficult for clinicians to suspect and diagnose the disease at its early stage. There is currently no consensus regarding adjunctive radiotherapy, hormonal therapy and systemic chemotherapy recommended for malignant phyllodes tumors. This report presents a case of early-stage malignant phyllodes tumor treated by lumpectomy only without adjunctive chemoradiation therapy, but with an excellent outcome. Early diagnosis and staging with high suspicion are crucial in malignant phyllodes tumor patients since they do not only improve the overall outcome of the disease after lumpectomy only but they also decrease morbidity and mortality with adjunctive chemoradiation therapy. This case report has been reported in line with the SCARE criteria (Agha et al., 2016 [1]). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Adult high-grade malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fable Zustovich

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS malignant gliomas are relatively rare diseases. Prognosis is poor but has improved over recent years due to the improvement in the multi-disciplinary treatment: surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy...

  14. Malignant duodenocolic fistula. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusto, F; Arzillo, G; Lodo, N; Falchero, F; Gramegna, A

    1986-01-01

    Malignant duodenocolic fistula is a rare condition in which radical surgical treatment is seldom possible. A personal case treated by pancreaticoduodenectomy is presented with a review of the literature.

  15. clinico-histopathologic types of maxillofacial malignancies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HISTOPATHOLOGIC TYPES OF MAXILLOFACIAL MALIGNANCIES WITH EMPHASIS ON SARCOMAS: A 10-YEAR REVIEW. M. W. Kamau, BDS, M. L. Chindia, BDS, MSc, FFDRCSI, E. A. O. Dimba, BDS, PHD, D. Awange, BDS, MSc. Department of.

  16. Isolated malignant melanoma metastasis to the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne K; Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field....

  17. Malignant Appendage Tumours in Zaria | Samaila | Sudanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and immunohistochemical studies should help in making diagnosis. Surgical intervention with wide margin excision should reduce recurrence rate. Further characterization of these tumours is desirable in our setting. Keywords: Skin Appendage, Malignant, Eccrine Sweat gland. Sudanese Journal of Dermatology Vol.

  18. Malignant transformation of oral lichen planus by a chronic inflammatory process. Use of topical corticosteroids to prevent this progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Rey, Eva Maria; Suarez-Alen, Fatima; Peñamaria-Mallon, Manuel; Lopez-Lopez, Jose; Blanco-Carrion, Andres

    2014-11-01

    Oral lichen planus is a potentially malignant disorder with a capacity, although low, for malignant transformation. Of all the factors related to the process of malignant transformation, it is believed that the chronic inflammatory process plays a key role in the development of oral cancer. This inflammatory process is capable of providing a microenvironment based on different inflammatory cells and molecules that affect cellular growth, proliferation and differentiation. The objectives of our study are: to review the available evidence about the possible relationship between the chronic inflammatory process present in oral lichen planus and its malignant transformation, to discuss the potential therapeutic implications derived from this relationship and to study the role that topical corticosteroids play in the control of oral lichen planus inflammation and its possible progression to malignant transformation. The maintenance of a minimum dose of topical corticosteroids could prevent the inflammatory progression of oral lichen planus to oral cancer.

  19. Pediatric second primary malignancies after retinoblastoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temming, Petra; Viehmann, Anja; Arendt, Marina; Eisele, Lewin; Spix, Claudia; Bornfeld, Norbert; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Lohmann, Dietmar R

    2015-10-01

    Children with retinoblastoma carry a high risk to develop second primary malignancies in childhood and adolescence. This study characterizes the type of pediatric second primary malignancies after retinoblastoma treatment and investigates the impact of different treatment strategies and prognostic factors at presentation. All national patients treated for retinoblastoma at the German referral center with a current age of 6-27 years were invited to participate in a study to characterize late effects. Data on pediatric second primary malignancies were recorded from 488 patients. Ten developed a malignancy before the age of 18 years. For children with heterozygous oncogenic RB1 alteration (heritable retinoblastoma), the cumulative incidence to develop a second malignancy at the age of 10 years was 5.2% (95% CI 1.7; 8.7%). This results in an elevated risk for sarcoma (n = 4) (SIR 147.98; 95% CI 39.81; 378.87) and leukemia (n = 4) (SIR 41.38; 95% CI 11.13; 105.95). Neither the functional type of the RB1 alteration nor its origin showed a significant impact. Treatment modality influenced incidence, latency, and type of malignancy. Previous radiotherapy increased the risk for solid tumors and 3 of 91 children developed acute leukemia after chemotherapy. However, 2 of 10 malignancies were diagnosed in patients with heritable retinoblastoma but without previous chemotherapy or external beam radiotherapy. Screening for second primary malignancy is an important part of pediatric oncological follow-up in patients with heritable retinoblastoma. For patients with sporadic unilateral retinoblastoma, genetic information influences treatment decisions and allows tailoring of follow-up schedules. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma arising on chronic osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, C; Giannelli, G; Berloco, A; Mascolo, V; Ingravallo, G; Giardina, C

    2002-07-01

    We present a case of a primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the skin (MFH) arising on chronic osteomyelitis in a 67-year-old woman. Although this condition seems to be a predisposing factor for the onset of the malignancy, MFH complicating chronic osteomyelitis is generally localized at the level of the bone tissue. In the case we report the neoplasm was primitively localized at the dermal and subcutaneous level and presented as a rapidly growing mass.

  1. Needle phobia and malignant vasovagal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, P S; Yanny, W

    1998-10-01

    A case is reported in which suspicion of malignant vasovagal syndrome was aroused by a history of faints and needle phobia. The vasovagal response was successfully avoided using a gaseous induction of anaesthesia with sevoflurane. Intravenous access was achieved under general anaesthesia. The diagnosis of malignant vasovagal syndrome was confirmed postoperatively using a head-up tilt table test. An outline of the pathophysiology of the syndrome gives some indication for suitable anaesthetic management strategies in similar cases.

  2. Malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia: a retrospective cohort study of 218 Chinese patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Oral leukoplakia (OL) is the best-known potentially malignant disorder. A new binary system to grade dysplasia was proposed by WHO, but the biological significance in predicting malignant transformation risk is unknown. The objective of this study is to estimate the rate of malignant transformation in a long-term follow-up cohort, explore the usefulness of the new binary system of grading dysplasia and identify significant risk factors of OL malignant transformation in China. Methods A total of 218 patients with clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of OL were retrospectively reviewed. They were selected among all archived files at the Department of Oral Mucosal Diseases, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. The mean follow-up period was 5.3 years. Results Among 218 cases, 39 (17.9%) OL patients developed oral cancer, with a mean duration of 5.2 years. Cox regression analysis revealed that dysplasia was an independent risk factor for OL malignant transformation, but age, gender, lesion site, diet habit, smoking and ethanol intake were not risk factors. High-risk dysplastic OL was associated with a 4.57-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.36-8.84; P < 0.001) increased risk of malignant transformation, compared with low-risk dysplasia. Consistent with this result, high-risk dysplastic OL had signicantly higher malignant incidence than low-risk dysplasia, particularly during the first 2-3 years of follow-up, by Kaplan-Meier analysis (Log-rank test, P < 0.001). Conclusions The new binary system's function in predicting OL malignant transformation risk was investigated in this survey. The utilization of high-risk dysplasia as a significant indicator for evaluating malignant transformation risk in patients with OL was suggested, which may be helpful to guide treatment selection in clinical practice. PMID:21159209

  3. [Three cases of primary pulmonary malignant lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, M; Onuki, T; Mae, M; Yoshida, T; Nitta, S

    2000-09-01

    Primary pulmonary malignant lymphoma is a rare disease that is thought to belong to a category of malignant lymphomas arising from mucosa- or bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT or BALT). We encountered 3 cases of primary pulmonary malignant lymphoma, Case 1: In a 51-year-old male, an abnormal shadow was detected in chest radiography in the right S9 after an operation for thyroid carcinoma. A right lower lobectomy was performed. The diagnosis was malignant lymphoma (marginal zone B-cell lymphoma). Immunohistochemical staining for IgM gave a positive result. Case 2: Multiple nodular shadows were noted in both lungs of a 55-year-old man after a bout of pneumonia. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed, and the diagnosis was malignant lymphoma (marginal zone B-cell lymphoma). Gene analysis revealed rearrangement of a heavy chain gene. Case 3: An abnormal shadow was seen in the chest radiograph of a 60-year-old man. He was treated by right upper and middle lobectomy. The diagnosis was Hodgkin's disease, nodular sclerosing type. Chemotherapy was given after surgery and the patient is now alive without recurrence. As the pulmonary malignant lymphoma was difficult to diagnosepreoperatively, it was necessary to resect the mass for diagnostic purposes. The prognosis of a resected solitary lesion in the lobe was good. Therefore lobectomy was performed as the treatment of choice. Systemic chemotherapy is performed for the diffuse type of pulmonary lymphoma.

  4. Incidence and overall survival of malignant ameloblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Rizzitelli

    Full Text Available Malignant ameloblastoma, comprising metastasizing ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma, represents 1.6-2.2% of all odontogenic tumors. Due to its rare nature, malignant ameloblastoma has only been reported in the literature in small case series or case reports. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER database, we have performed a population-based study to determine the incidence rate and the absolute survival of malignant ameloblastoma.Using the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O codes 9310/3 and 9270/3, data from the SEER database were used to calculate the incidence rate and absolute survival rate of population with malignant ameloblastoma.The overall incidence rate of malignant ameloblastoma was 1.79 per 10 million person/year. The incidence rate was higher in males than females and also higher in black versus white population. The median overall survival was 17.6 years from the time of diagnosis and increasing age was associated with a statistically significant poorer survival.To our best knowledge, we report the largest population-based series of malignant ameloblastoma. The incidence rate was 1.79 per 10 million person/year and the overall survival was 17.6 years.

  5. 'Trained immunity': consequences for lymphoid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Wendy B C; Netea, Mihai G; Kater, Arnon P; van der Velden, Walter J F M

    2016-12-01

    In hematological malignancies complex interactions exist between the immune system, microorganisms and malignant cells. On one hand, microorganisms can induce cancer, as illustrated by specific infection-induced lymphoproliferative diseases such as Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. On the other hand, malignant cells create an immunosuppressive environment for their own benefit, but this also results in an increased risk of infections. Disrupted innate immunity contributes to the neoplastic transformation of blood cells by several mechanisms, including the uncontrolled clearance of microbial and autoantigens resulting in chronic immune stimulation and proliferation, chronic inflammation, and defective immune surveillance and anti-cancer immunity. Restoring dysfunction or enhancing responsiveness of the innate immune system might therefore represent a new angle for the prevention and treatment of hematological malignancies, in particular lymphoid malignancies and associated infections. Recently, it has been shown that cells of the innate immune system, such as monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells, harbor features of immunological memory and display enhanced functionality long-term after stimulation with certain microorganisms and vaccines. These functional changes rely on epigenetic reprogramming and have been termed 'trained immunity'. In this review the concept of 'trained immunity' is discussed in the setting of lymphoid malignancies. Amelioration of infectious complications and hematological disease progression can be envisioned to result from the induction of trained immunity, but future studies are required to prove this exciting new hypothesis. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  6. European Malignant Hyperthermia Group guidelines for investigation of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, P M; Rüffert, H; Snoeck, M M

    2015-01-01

    It is 30 yr since the British Journal of Anaesthesia published the first consensus protocol for the laboratory diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility from the European Malignant Hyperthermia Group. This has subsequently been used in more than 10 000 individuals worldwide to inform use...... of anaesthetic drugs in these patients with increased risk of developing malignant hyperthermia during general anaesthesia, representing an early and successful example of stratified medicine. In 2001, our group also published a guideline for the use of DNA-based screening of malignant hyperthermia...

  7. Magnetic nanoparticles: an emerging technology for malignant brain tumor imaging and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhede, Mamta; Bouras, Alexandros; Kaluzova, Milota; Hadjipanayis, Costas G

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) represent a promising nanomaterial for the targeted therapy and imaging of malignant brain tumors. Conjugation of peptides or antibodies to the surface of MNPs allows direct targeting of the tumor cell surface and potential disruption of active signaling pathways present in tumor cells. Delivery of nanoparticles to malignant brain tumors represents a formidable challenge due to the presence of the blood–brain barrier and infiltrating cancer cells in the normal brain. Newer strategies permit better delivery of MNPs systemically and by direct convection-enhanced delivery to the brain. Completion of a human clinical trial involving direct injection of MNPs into recurrent malignant brain tumors for thermotherapy has established their feasibility, safety and efficacy in patients. Future translational studies are in progress to understand the promising impact of MNPs in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. PMID:22390560

  8. Thrombocytosis associated with malignant ovarian lesions within a pediatric/adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, L B; Laufer, M R

    2008-10-01

    To determine if there is an association between pediatric ovarian malignancies and elevated platelet counts: Retrospective chart review. Large referral children's hospital. 154 patients taken to the operating room between February 1993 and February 2006 with an adnexal mass where ovarian tissue was submitted for pathological analysis. The principle outcome was the presence of ovarian malignancy. We found that there is an increase in thrombocytosis among individuals with ovarian malignancy, with as high as 33% of those with ovarian germ cell tumors demonstrating preoperative thrombocytosis. These results suggest that thrombocytosis may be a useful marker for ovarian malignancy in this population. Further studies will be needed to determine if there is any prognostic value to thrombocytosis among these patients, with a potential value for counseling and future intervention based on these findings.

  9. Prognostic value of long noncoding RNA MALAT1 in digestive system malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hui; Li, Xiao-Mei; Maimaiti, Ailifeire; Chen, Qing-Jie; Liao, Wu; Lai, Hong-Mei; Liu, Fen; Yang, Yi-Ning

    2015-01-01

    MALAT1, a newly discovered long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), has been reported to be highly expressed in many types of cancers. This meta-analysis summarizes its potential prognostic value in digestive system malignancies. A quantitative meta-analysis was performed through a systematic search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for eligible papers on the prognostic impact of MALAT1 in digestive system malignancies from inception to Apr. 25, 2015. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to summarize the effect. Five studies were included in the study, with a total of 527 patients. A significant association was observed between MALAT1 abundance and poor overall survival (OS) of patients with digestive system malignancies, with pooled hazard ratio (HR) of 7.68 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.32-13.66, Pdigestive system malignancies.

  10. Deep Benign Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Anterior Mediastinum Mimicking Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puopolo, Angelica; Newmarch, William; Casserly, Brian

    2017-08-01

    The following report describes the case of a 43-year-old male smoker that was referred to the rapid access lung clinic with haemoptysis, chest pain, and axillary lymphadenopathy-a clinical picture that raised concern for a possible underlying malignancy. Preliminary investigations revealed elevated D-dimers, low-volume haemoptysis, and a normal chest X-ray, which lowered the index of suspicion. However, computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiogram identified a right hilar mass, several parenchymal cysts, and a large mediastinal mass. In addition, a left-sided adrenal lesion was also discovered following CT abdomen pelvis, potentially indicating metastatic disease. Fortunately, a positron emission tomography scan failed to detect any metabolic activity in either the right hilar mass, left adrenal lesion or the anterior mediastinal mass. CT-guided biopsy identified the mediastinal mass as a low-grade spindle cell tumour. Due to its large size, the mass was surgically resected and confirmed to be a deep benign fibrous histiocytoma. The significance of this report is to highlight a clinical presentation suggestive of malignancy but actually resulting from a rare variant of a benign tumour. The constellation of regional lymphadenopathy, respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, lung cysts, an adrenal tumour, and a mediastinal mass appeared to suggest a progressive disease pattern more commonly associated with malignancy.

  11. Immunotherapy of Malignancy by in vivo Gene Transfer into Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plautz, Gregory E.; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Bei-Yue; Gao, Xiang; Huang, Leaf; Nabel, Gary J.

    1993-05-01

    The immune system confers protection against a variety of pathogens and contributes to the surveillance and destruction of neoplastic cells. Several cell types participate in the recognition and lysis of tumors, and appropriate immune stimulation provides therapeutic effects in malignancy. Foreign major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins also serve as a potent stimulus to the immune system. In this report, a foreign MHC gene was introduced directly into malignant tumors in vivo in an effort to stimulate tumor rejection. In contrast to previous attempts to induce tumor immunity by cell-mediated gene transfer, the recombinant gene was introduced directly into tumors in vivo. Expression of the murine class I H-2K^s gene within the CT26 mouse colon adenocarcinoma (H-2K^d) or the MCA 106 fibrosarcoma (H-2K^b) induced a cytotoxic T-cell response to H-2K^s and, more importantly, to other antigens present on unmodified tumor cells. This immune response attenuated tumor growth and caused complete tumor regression in many cases. Direct gene transfer in vivo can therefore induce cell-mediated immunity against specific gene products, which provides an immunotherapeutic effect for malignancy, and potentially can be applied to the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases in man.

  12. The glycome of normal and malignant plasma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M Moehler

    Full Text Available The glycome, i.e. the cellular repertoire of glycan structures, contributes to important functions such as adhesion and intercellular communication. Enzymes regulating cellular glycosylation processes are related to the pathogenesis of cancer including multiple myeloma. Here we analyze the transcriptional differences in the glycome of normal (n = 10 and two cohorts of 332 and 345 malignant plasma-cell samples, association with known multiple myeloma subentities as defined by presence of chromosomal aberrations, potential therapeutic targets, and its prognostic impact. We found i malignant vs. normal plasma cells to show a characteristic glycome-signature. They can ii be delineated by a lasso-based predictor from normal plasma cells based on this signature. iii Cytogenetic aberrations lead to distinct glycan-gene expression patterns for t(11;14, t(4;14, hyperdiploidy, 1q21-gain and deletion of 13q14. iv A 38-gene glycome-signature significantly delineates patients with adverse survival in two independent cohorts of 545 patients treated with high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation. v As single gene, expression of the phosphatidyl-inositol-glycan protein M as part of the targetable glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchor-biosynthesis pathway is associated with adverse survival. The prognostically relevant glycome deviation in malignant cells invites novel strategies of therapy for multiple myeloma.

  13. Bcl-2 antisense therapy in B-cell malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanan-Khan, Asher

    2005-07-01

    Bcl-2 is an apoptosis regulating protein, overexpression of which is associated with chemotherapy resistant disease, aggressive clinical course, and poor survival in patients with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Overexpression of Bcl-2 protein results in an aberrant intrinsic apoptotic pathway that confers a protective effect on malignant cells against a death signal (e.g., chemotherapy or radiotherapy). Downregulation of this oncoprotein, thus, represents a possible new way to target clinically aggressive disease. Preclinical studies have shown that this oncoprotein can be effectively decreased by Bcl-2 antisense in malignant lymphoid cells and can reverse chemotherapy resistance, as well as enhance the anti-apoptotic potential of both chemotherapeutic and biologic agents. Ongoing clinical trials are exploring the role of Bcl-2 downregulation with oblimersen (Bcl-2 antisense) in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma. Early results from these studies are promising and support the proof of the principle. As these studies are completed and mature data emerges, the role of Bcl-2 antisense therapy in the treatment of B-cell malignancies will become clearer.

  14. Helicobacter pylori and Gastrointestinal Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the principal trigger of gastric carcinogenesis and gastric cancer (GC) and remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes worldwide. In a big Japanese study, the risk of developing GC in patients with peptic ulcer disease who received H. pylori eradication therapy and annual endoscopic surveillance for a mean of 9.9 years was significantly lower after successful eradication therapy compared to the group with persistent infection (0.21%/year and 0.45%/year, respectively, p = .049). According to a recent meta-analysis, H. pylori eradication is insufficient in GC risk reduction in subjects with advanced precancerous conditions (i.e., intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia). A microsimulation model suggested screening smokers over the age of 50 in the U.S. for serum pepsinogens. This would allow to detect advanced gastric atrophy with endoscopic follow-up of subjects testing positive as a cost-effective strategy to reduce GC mortality. In a Taiwanese study, the anti-H. pylori IgG-based test-and-treat program had lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios than that with (13)C-urea breath test in both sexes to prevent GC whereas expected years of life lost for GC were higher and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of test-and-treat programs were more cost-effective in young adults (30-69 years old) than in elders (>70 years old). With respect to gastrointestinal malignancies other than GC, a meta-analysis confirmed the inverse association between H. pylori infection and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In a Finnish study, H. pylori seropositivity was associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancers (multivariate adjusted OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.08-6.37), another meta-analysis showed a slightly increased rate of pancreatic cancer in patients with CagA-negative strains (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.65), whereas current data suggest that the association between H. pylori and colorectal neoplasms may be population

  15. Malignant astrocytoma in elderly patients: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabai, Ghazaleh; Stupp, Roger; Wick, Wolfgang; Weller, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Age is inversely correlated with clinical outcome and a strong prognostic factor for the course of most primary brain tumors including malignant astrocytoma, i.e. anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma. We here review available clinical outcome data and discuss future directions of clinical research. The standard of care in patients with malignant astrocytoma above the range of 65-70 years was considered radiotherapy, preferentially using a hypofractionated regimen (15 × 2.66 Gy). Two phase III clinical trials, the NOA-08 and Nordic trials, demonstrated that temozolomide (TMZ) therapy alone was not inferior to radiotherapy alone, and methylation of the O-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter was predictive with a methylated MGMT promoter indicating a benefit from TMZ chemotherapy. Ongoing clinical trials in this patient population include the National Cancer Institute of Canada/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer intergroup trial, investigating the combination of hypofractionated radiotherapy and TMZ chemotherapy, and the Swiss ARTE trial, investigating the combination of bevacizumab and hypofractionated radiotherapy. Recent translational studies indicate that prognostically favorable factors in malignant astrocytoma from younger patients are virtually absent in the elderly. Current standard of care for elderly patients with malignant astrocytoma involves a treatment strategy based on the MGMT gene promoter methylation status. The role of combined radiotherapy and TMZ chemotherapy and a potential role for the addition of anti-VEGF therapy to radiotherapy are currently addressed in ongoing trials. The lack of favorable prognostic factors in tumor tissue might in part explain the poorer clinical outcome of elderly patients.

  16. Resection for secondary malignancy of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Hsia; Wang, Shin-E; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chen, Tien-Hua; Wu, Chew-Wun

    2012-01-01

    This study tried to clarify the role of pancreatic resection in the treatment of secondary malignancy with metastasis or local invasion to the pancreas in terms of surgical risk and survival benefit. Data of secondary malignancy of the pancreas from our 19 patients and cases reported in the English literature were pooled together for analysis. There were 329 cases of resected secondary malignancy of the pancreas, including 241 cases of metastasis and 88 cases of local invasion. The most common primary tumor metastatic to the pancreas and amenable to resection was renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (73.9%). More than half (52.3%) of the primary cancers with local invasion to the pancreas were colon cancer, and nearly half (40.9%) were stomach cancer. The median metastatic interval was 84 months (7 years) for overall primary tumors and 108 months (9 years) for RCC. The 5-year survival for secondary malignancy of the pancreas after resection was 61.1% for metastasis and 58.9% for local invasion, with 72.8% for RCC metastasis, 69.0% for colon cancer, and 43.8% for stomach cancer with local invasion to the pancreas. Pancreatic resection should not be precluded for secondary malignancy of the pancreas because long-term survival could be achieved with acceptable surgical risk in selected patients.

  17. Malignant melanocytic neoplasm of pancreas with liver metastasis: Is it malignant melanoma or clear cell sarcoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodiatte, Thomas Alex; George, Sam Varghese; Chacko, Raju Titus; Ramakrishna, Banumathi

    2017-01-01

    Malignant melanocytic neoplasm, usually seen in soft tissues, is rare in a visceral location and presents as a diagnostic dilemma. We present a case of pancreatic malignant melanocytic neoplasm with liver metastasis. A 58-year-old man presented with left upper abdominal swelling and loss of appetite. Imaging revealed a large mass arising from the pancreatic tail, and this was diagnosed as malignant neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation on biopsy with the possible differentials of malignant melanoma, clear cell sarcoma (CCS), and perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy for the same. Follow-up imaging 6 months later showed a metastatic liver lesion, for which he also underwent a liver resection. BRAF mutational analysis was found to be negative. Both CCS and malignant melanoma have similar morphological features and melanocytic differentiation, but each harbors a distinct genetic background. Differentiation of both has diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  18. Heat shock proteins and their association with major pediatric malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skora, Dorota; Gorska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins belong to a group of molecular chaperones responsible for the regulation of many intracellular processes. HSPs play a pivotal role in the survival of cells under stressful conditions. Over-expression of these proteins have been found in both healthy and a great number of cancer cells. HSPs may be involved in numerous carcinogenic and chemoresistant processes. Due to that fact, they may be referred to as diagnostic biomarkers of oncogenesis and potential targets for anticancer drugs. Thus, we decided to review the involvement of major HSPs in the most malignant childhood cancers.

  19. [Malignant otitis externa and diabetes: report of 4 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecube Torelló, A; Hernández Pascual, C; Lorente Guerrero, J; Quesada Martínez, J L; Simó Canonge, R

    1999-12-01

    Malignant otitis externa (MOE) is an uncommon infective but potentially fatal entity caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It involves almost exclusively advanced aged diabetic patients. We report here four cases diagnosed at our hospital during the last 7 years. Clinical manifestations included otalgia, purulent otorrhoea, involvement of different cranial nerves and bony destruction; one patient died because of bronchoaspiration and two are alive but with sequelae. MOE should be suspected in every diabetic patient with otitis which goes unresolved with the usual antibiotic therapy. On the other hand, facial palsy should not always be attributed to a diabetic mononeuropathy and the presence of MOE should be ruled out when otitis coexists or precedes it.

  20. Identification of Monocyte Chemotactic Activity Produced by Malignant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, D. T.; Jiang, Y. L.; Williamson, M. J.; Valente, A. J.

    1989-09-01

    Human malignant cells secrete low molecular size proteins that attract peripheral blood monocytes and may be responsible for the accumulation of tumor-associated macrophages observed in vivo. Similar chemotactic proteins are secreted by cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. The predominant monocyte chemoattractants produced by tumor cells of differing origin were demonstrated to be related to smooth muscle cell-derived chemotactic factor. Thus, a single class of chemotactic proteins is produced by different cell types, which suggests a common mechanism for the recruitment of monocytes and macrophages. These results are significant in view of the potential of macrophages to affect tumor growth.

  1. Targeted therapy in the treatment of malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimas V Lukas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Rimas V Lukas1, Adrienne Boire2, M Kelly Nicholas1,2 1Department of Neurology; 2Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Malignant gliomas are invasive tumors with the potential to progress through current available therapies. These tumors are characterized by a number of abnormalities in molecular signaling that play roles in tumorigenesis, spread, and survival. These pathways are being actively investigated in both the pre-clinical and clinical settings as potential targets in the treatment of malignant gliomas. We will review many of the therapies that target the cancer cell, including the epidermal growth factor receptor, mammalian target of rapamycin, histone deacetylase, and farnesyl transferase. In addition, we will discuss strategies that target the extracellular matrix in which these cells reside as well as angiogenesis, a process emerging as central to tumor development and growth. Finally, we will briefly touch on the role of neural stem cells as both potential targets as well as delivery vectors for other therapies. Interdependence between these varied pathways, both in maintaining health and in causing disease, is clear. Thus, attempts to easily classify some targeted therapies are problematic.Keywords: glioma, EGFR, mTOR, HDAC, Ras, angiogenesis

  2. Acute psychosis followed by fever: Malignant neuroleptic syndrome or viral encephalitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zvezdana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is rare, but potentially fatal idiosyncratic reaction to antipsychotic medications. It is sometimes difficult to diagnose some clinical cases as neuroleptic malignant syndrome and differentiate it from the acute viral encephalitis. Case report. We reported a patient diagnosed with acute psychotic reaction which appeared for the first time. The treatment started with typical antipsychotic, which led to febrility. The clinical presentation of the patient was characterised by the signs and symptoms that might have indicated the neuroleptic malignant syndrome as well as central nervous system viral disease. In order to make a detailed diagnosis additional procedures were performed: electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging of the head, lumbar puncture and a serological test of the cerebrospinal fluid. Considering that after the tests viral encephalitis was ruled out and the diagnosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome made, antipsychotic therapy was immediately stopped. The patient was initially treated with symptomatic therapy and after that with atypical antipsychotic and electroconvulsive therapy, which led to complete recovery. Conclusion. We present the difficulties of early diagnosis at the first episode of acute psychotic disorder associated with acute febrile condition. Concerning the differential diagnosis it is necessary to consider both neuroleptic malignant syndrome and viral encephalitis, i.e. it is necessary to make the neuroradiological diagnosis and conduct cerebrospinal fluid analysis and blood test. In neuroleptic malignant syndrome treatment a combined use of electroconvulsive therapy and low doses of atypical antipsychotic are confirmed to be successful.

  3. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis as a Pre-malignant Biliary Tract Disease: Surveillance and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Sumera; Eaton, John E.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a pre-malignant biliary tract disease that confers a significant risk for the development of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The chronic biliary tract inflammation of PSC promotes pro-oncogenic processes such as cellular proliferation, induction of DNA damage, alterations of the extracellular matrix and cholestasis. The diagnosis of malignancy in PSC can be challenging as inflammation-related changes in PSC may produce dominant biliary tract strictures mimicking CCA. Biomarkers such as detection of methylated genes in biliary specimens represent non-invasive techniques which may discriminate malignant biliary ductal changes from PSC strictures. However, conventional cytology and advanced cytologic techniques such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for polysomy remain the practice standard for diagnosing CCA in PSC. Curative treatment options of malignancy arising in PSC are limited. For a subset of patients selected using stringent criteria, liver transplantation following neoadjuvant chemoradiation is a potential curative therapy. However, most patients have advanced malignancy at the time of diagnosis. Advances directed at identifying high risk patients, early cancer detection, and development of chemopreventive strategies will be essential to better manage the cancer risk in this pre-malignant disease. A better understanding of dysplasia definition and especially its natural history is also needed in this disease. Herein, we review recent developments in our understanding of the risk factors, pathogenic mechanisms of PSC associated with CCA, as well as advances in early detection and therapies. PMID:26051390

  4. The expression of RUNDC3B is associated with promoter methylation in lymphoid malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Burmeister, Dane W.; Smith, Emily H.; Cristel, Robert T.; McKay, Stephanie D; Shi, Huidong; Arthur, Gerald L; Davis, Justin Wade; Taylor, Kristen H

    2015-01-01

    Abstract DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. The function of RUNDC3B has yet to be determined, although its dysregulated expression has been associated with malignant potential of both breast and lung carcinoma. To elucidate the potential of using DNA methylation in RUNDC3B as a biomarker in lymphoid malignancies, the methylation status of six regions spanning the CpG island in the promoter region of RUNDC3B was dete...

  5. An update on studies on etiological factors, disease progression, and malignant transformation in oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiha Bari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide estimates of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF show a confinement to Indians and Southeast Asians. In India, the prevalence of OSMF has increased over the past four decades from 0.03% to 6.42%. The condition is well recognized for its malignant potential rate of 7-30%. The condition has a multifactorial etiology and may remain either stationary or become severe, leaving an individual physically challenged both physically and psychologically. Hence, the study aims at reviewing studies done on various etiological factors leading to its onset. Their analysis may serve as an adjunct in defining the broad spectrum of the causation of this potentially malignant disorder.

  6. A potential pitfall

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of paraganglioma. Such procedures can cause a surged release of catecholamines into the systemic circulation, which can lead to features of a catecholamine crisis − headache, sweating, elevated blood pressure,. CT-guided biopsy of suspected malignancy: A potential pitfall. S Henderson,1 MB ChB; W Elsaify,2 MB ChB, ...

  7. The case of malignancy mimicking legionella pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karakuş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is a bacterium, which can grow inwater pipe networks and climate systems. Contaminationoccurs by aspiration of infected water or aerosol inhalation.It is usually presented with fever, bradycardia, andchange in mental status, hyponatremia, elevation of liverenzymes and deterioration of renal function. The definitediagnosis is established by detection of the antigens andcultivating in the culture medium. Also, malign lung tumorscan encounter with the same clinical findings, so lungcancer should be remembered in differential diagnosis.The patient hospitalized for the Legionella pneumophiladue to the physical examination and laboratory findingsduring the first evaluation in the emergency department.However, further examinations pointed to the cancer. Weaimed to emphasize the probability of malignant tumorsin terms of hyponatremia, increase in the liver enzymes,and failure in the renal functions, which were usually experiencedin emergency unit. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4(3: 390-392Key words: Legionella pneumophila, pneumonia, lung malignancy

  8. Advances in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan D. Yan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive neoplasm. The incidence of malignant mesothelioma is increasing worldwide. Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM represents one-fourth of all mesotheliomas. Association of asbestos exposure with DMPM has been observed, especially in males. A great majority of patients present with abdominal pain and distension, caused by accumulation of tumors and ascitic fluid. In the past, DMPM was considered a pre-terminal condition; therefore attracted little attention. Patients invariably died from their disease within a year. Recently, several prospective trials have demonstrated median survival of 40 to 90 months and 5-year survival of 30% to 60% after the combined treatment using cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This improvement in survival has prompted new searches into the medical science related to DMPM, a disease previously ignored as uninteresting. This review article focuses on the key advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatments and prognosis of DMPM that have occurred in the past decade.

  9. Permanent pacing for cardioinhibitory malignant vasovagal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M. E.; Chamberlain-Webber, R.; Fitzpatrick, A. P.; Ingram, A.; Williams, T.; Sutton, R.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the effect of permanent pacing in cardioinhibitory malignant vasovagal syndrome. PATIENTS AND METHODS--37 patients with permanent pacemakers for cardioinhibitory malignant vasovagal syndrome. All presented with syncope (median six episodes, median frequency two episodes a year) and after conventional investigation and invasive electrophysiological assessment they remained undiagnosed, and without a generally accepted indication for pacemaker implantation. In all vasovagal syncope with cardioinhibition (heart rate at syncope vasovagal syndrome. Improved acquisition of tilt test data may enable better selection of patients who are suitable for permanent pacing. A randomised prospective study to compare permanent pacing with no treatment or with medical treatment in cardioinhibitory malignant vasovagal syndrome is indicated. PMID:8142198

  10. [Molecular classification and markers of malignant melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tímár, József; Hársing, Judit; Somlai, Beáta

    2013-06-01

    Pathological classification of malignant melanoma did not change in the past decade, it was just completed with UV-induced skin alterations. A new feature, however, is the establishment of molecular classification of melanoma indicating that beside the most frequent genetic alterations (BRAF, NRAS, CKIT mutations) there is a wide variety of rare molecular subclasses. Unfortunately, none of these genetic alterations can be used to discriminate benign lesions from malignant ones. The frequently used "melanoma" markers are mostly melanosomal markers, therefore they are not helpful for this diagnostic purpose either. More recently, novel FISH kits have been developed analyzing characteristic copy number alterations specific for malignant melanoma. Though melanosomal markers are helpful in differencial diagnostics, the presence of normal melanocytes in various tissues (lymph nodes, intestine or brain) requires application of molecular techniques when melanoma metastasis is in question.

  11. Malignant Melanoma of the Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Hashemi Pour

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral malignant melanoma (OMM accounts for 5% of all oral malignancies. It is a rare aggressive neoplasm usually found on the hard palate and gingiva. The etiology is unknown, but tobacco and chronic irritation are suggested as probable causative factors.Over 30% of the cases have been reported to arise from pre-existing pigmented lesions.A biopsy is required to establish the diagnosis and the treatment of choice is surgery which may be affected by several factors such as size of the lesion and anatomic location. Despite aggressive resection and adjuvant treatments such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy, the five-year survival rate of this malignancy is poor.

  12. Giant metastasizing malignant hidradenoma in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Bajaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old girl presented with a scalp swelling. The swelling was recurrent, reappearing everytime after local excision. She underwent surgery and the histopathologic diagnosis was malignant hidradenoma. This very rare and aggressive tumor is known to occur in elderly population and is histopathologically distinct from its commonly occuring benign counterpart. Malignant hidradenoma is resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We empahsize that being cognizant of the possibility of this rare tumor would assist in timely action in the form of wide resection, with possible reduction in morbidity and mortality.

  13. Duodenal Metastasis of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Chi Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic malignant mesothelioma of the pleura is uncommon at the time of initial diagnosis. The gastrointestinal lumen is rarely found at autopsy in patients with widespread disease. Here, we describe an extremely rare case of isolated duodenal metastasis of sarcomatoid mesothelioma of the pleura in a 73-year-old man, without memory of any direct exposure to asbestos. The possibility of gastrointestinal tract metastasis should be considered in the presence of anemia or positive occult blood test in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  14. Renal malignancies with normal excretory urograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, D.A. (Univ. of California, San Francisco); Hricak, H.; Davidson, A.J.

    1983-10-01

    Four patients with malignant renal masses showed no abnormality of excretory urograms with tomography. Of the four lesions, two were primary renal cell carcinomas, one was a metastatic focus from a contralateral renal cell carcinoma, and one was a metastatic lesion from rectal adenocarcinoma. A normal excretory urogram should not be considered sufficient to exclude a clinically suspected malignant renal mass. In such an instance, diagnostic evaluation should be pursued using a method capable of topographic anatomic display, such as computed tomography or sonography.

  15. MALIGNANCIES IN CHILDHOOD: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Chinnappa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Barring malnutrition and infection, cancer is the most common cause of death in children below the age of 14 years of age. Malignancies are coming into greater focus because of the preventive measures being taken for the former. In general, the features of malignancy in children differ greatly from neoplasm in adults. Tissues which are developing and growing are more likely to undergo neoplastic transformation. Hence, high incidence of embryonic cancers in children. Today, the diagnosis of cancer particularly in children is still regarded as in some circles as death sentences for the malignant disease is second only to trauma and infectious diseases as a killer in children above the age of one year. Hence, early diagnosis and confirmation by haematological and histopathological methods are crucial in early diagnosis and treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence and morphological features of malignant neoplasm occurring in children. The present study is a retrospective study undertaken in the Department of Pathology, JJM Medical College, Davangere, over a period of three years, i.e., March 1994-February 1997. The material was obtained from paediatric patients aged from 0-14 years admitted to Chigateri General Hospital, Bapuji Child Health Institute attached to JJM Medical College, Davangere, and Hospitals and nursing homes in and around Davangere. RESULTS 1. This study presents an observation on the paediatric malignancies in relation to age, sex and incidence and in the clinical and morphological findings. 2. The malignant tumours in paediatric age group are less common and they form about 10.90% of malignant tumours occurring at all ages. 3. These tumours show a slight male preponderance compared to females in the ratio of 1.2:1. 4. 38.75% of the tumours were encountered in children below the age of 5 years. Most of the tumours (61.25% occurred between 6-14 years indicating a higher

  16. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Mimicking Ischemic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuusuke Mitsuka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is extremely poor with a mean survival time of 12 months. The initial symptoms are poor and atypical. Because of its rare entity and little knowledge of its treatments, there are few reports of long-term survival. We encountered a very unique case with strong impression on radiological findings of malignant peritoneal methothelioma. We had misdiagnosed it because of the findings and because the time course was similar to that of ischemic colitis. The radiological findings on CT and enema disappeared within one week after antibiotic therapy.

  17. Targeting Malignant Brain Tumors with Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razpotnik, Rok; Novak, Neža; Čurin Šerbec, Vladka; Rajcevic, Uros

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies have been shown to be a potent therapeutic tool. However, their use for targeting brain diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancers, has been limited, particularly because the blood-brain barrier (BBB) makes brain tissue hard to access by conventional antibody-targeting strategies. In this review, we summarize new antibody therapeutic approaches to target brain tumors, especially malignant gliomas, as well as their potential drawbacks. Many different brain delivery platforms for antibodies have been studied such as liposomes, nanoparticle-based systems, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), and cell-based approaches. We have already shown the successful delivery of single-chain fragment variable (scFv) with CPP as a linker between two variable domains in the brain. Antibodies normally face poor penetration through the BBB, with some variants sufficiently passing the barrier on their own. A "Trojan horse" method allows passage of biomolecules, such as antibodies, through the BBB by receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT). Such examples of therapeutic antibodies are the bispecific antibodies where one binding specificity recognizes and binds a BBB receptor, enabling RMT and where a second binding specificity recognizes an antigen as a therapeutic target. On the other hand, cell-based systems such as stem cells (SCs) are a promising delivery system because of their tumor tropism and ability to cross the BBB. Genetically engineered SCs can be used in gene therapy, where they express anti-tumor drugs, including antibodies. Different types and sources of SCs have been studied for the delivery of therapeutics to the brain; both mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neural stem cells (NSCs) show great potential. Following the success in treatment of leukemias and lymphomas, the adoptive T-cell therapies, especially the chimeric antigen receptor-T cells (CAR-Ts), are making their way into glioma treatment as another type of cell-based therapy using the

  18. Targeting Malignant Brain Tumors with Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Razpotnik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies have been shown to be a potent therapeutic tool. However, their use for targeting brain diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancers, has been limited, particularly because the blood–brain barrier (BBB makes brain tissue hard to access by conventional antibody-targeting strategies. In this review, we summarize new antibody therapeutic approaches to target brain tumors, especially malignant gliomas, as well as their potential drawbacks. Many different brain delivery platforms for antibodies have been studied such as liposomes, nanoparticle-based systems, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs, and cell-based approaches. We have already shown the successful delivery of single-chain fragment variable (scFv with CPP as a linker between two variable domains in the brain. Antibodies normally face poor penetration through the BBB, with some variants sufficiently passing the barrier on their own. A “Trojan horse” method allows passage of biomolecules, such as antibodies, through the BBB by receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT. Such examples of therapeutic antibodies are the bispecific antibodies where one binding specificity recognizes and binds a BBB receptor, enabling RMT and where a second binding specificity recognizes an antigen as a therapeutic target. On the other hand, cell-based systems such as stem cells (SCs are a promising delivery system because of their tumor tropism and ability to cross the BBB. Genetically engineered SCs can be used in gene therapy, where they express anti-tumor drugs, including antibodies. Different types and sources of SCs have been studied for the delivery of therapeutics to the brain; both mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and neural stem cells (NSCs show great potential. Following the success in treatment of leukemias and lymphomas, the adoptive T-cell therapies, especially the chimeric antigen receptor-T cells (CAR-Ts, are making their way into glioma treatment as another type of cell

  19. Effect of microbial siderophores on mammalian non-malignant and malignant cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokarn, Karuna; Sarangdhar, Vishwas; Pal, Ramprasad B

    2017-03-09

    Iron is a vital nutrient for all cells, and malignant cells have a higher requirement for the metal due to their rapid multiplication. Bacterial siderophores can be used to reduce free ferric ion concentration from the cellular environment. In the present study, we have evaluated effect of three siderophores - exochelin-MS, mycobactin S and deferoxamine B on the proliferation of mammalian cell lines using MTT assay. These siderophores caused a significant decrease in the viability of malignant cells, without significantly affecting non-malignant cells. Based on these results, we suggest that iron-chelation therapy could be explored as an adjunctive therapeutic option against cancer along with other therapies.

  20. Exfoliative cytology as a tool for monitoring pre-malignant and malignant lesions based on combined stains and morphometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Segura, Ignacio; Secchi, Dante; Carrica, Andres; Barello, Rosario; Arbelo, Dario; Burgos, Adriana; Brunotto, Mabel; Zarate, Ana M

    2015-03-01

    Prevention and early diagnosis have the greatest potential for public health and are the most effective method in the long-term to control oral cancer. The aim was to apply PAP staining together with AgNOR staining and morphometric analysis in oral exfoliative cytology, to determine the sensitivity and specificity of these methods in the detection of malignant changes for the purposes of both initial population monitoring and follow-up. AgNOR, Papanicolau, and morphometric tests were conducted in samples of patients with oral cancer, oral potentially malignant disorders and controls (opposite side of lesions). Specificity and sensitivity values for each stain method and the curve under ROC area were estimated. The diagnostic variables which allowed greatest accuracy in identifying malignancy relative to the healthy control were cluster (76.92%), satellite (75.64%), and total (90%). The diagnosis was seen to be associated with PAP and total AgNOR, total AgNOR and PAP, total AgNOR and satellites and clusters, and total AgNOR nuclear area/cytoplasmic area ratio. The total number of AgNOR is a reliable marker for detecting neoplastic cells; this method increases sensitivity and specificity by decreasing the likelihood of false negatives or positives, as the accuracy obtained was 90%. It is also a low-cost, non-invasive, simple methodology that can be recommended to help the early detection of oral cancer and monitoring of patients with a first diagnosis of cancer. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Schistosomiasis and malignancy | Lemmer | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is generally accepted that schistosomiasis, if not causative, is at least associated with malignancy. In this review, the epidemiology of schistosomiasis and bladder carcinoma, as well as the role of chronic bladder infection, are discussed together with known carcinogenic factors, possible abnormal vitamin metabolism ...

  2. Ocular malignant lymphoma. A clinical pathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda A

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven histologically proved cases of ocular malignant lymphoma diagnosed and managed during the year 1974-81 are reported. The follow-up period ranges from 2-7 years. The difficulties in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are discussed.

  3. Acute cardiac failure in neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sparrow, Patrick

    2012-02-03

    We present a case of rapid onset acute cardiac failure developing as part of neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a 35-year-old woman following treatment with thioridazine and lithium. Post mortem histology of cardiac and skeletal muscle showed similar changes of focal cellular necrosis and vacuolation suggesting a common disease process.

  4. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the left atrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Bhambhani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors to the heart usually involve right sided chambers. We report a rare case of malignant phyllodes tumor of breast with metastatic involvement of left atrium occurring through direct invasion from mediastinal micro-metastasis and presenting as a left atrial mass causing arrhythmia.

  5. Cytology of Pericardial Effusion due to Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalogeraki Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malignant pericardial effusion occurs in one tenth of all cancers. It is a very serious disorder that is mainly a secondary process due to metastasis because primary neoplasms of the pericardium such as mesotheliomas, sarcomas being exceedingly rare.

  6. Non malignant peripheral lymphadenopathy in Nigerians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. Persistent peripheral lymphadenopathy (PL) not associated with malignancy or a focal lesion can pose a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. This study reports the pathological findings in the lymph nodes of 225 patients who presented with PL at the University Hospital, lle-Ife, Nigeria within a period of ten years.

  7. Non malignant peripheral lymphadenopathy in Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistent peripheral lymphadenopathy (PL) not associated with malignancy or a focal lesion can pose a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. This study reports the pathological findings in the lymph nodes of 225 patients who presented with PL at the University Hospital, lle-Ife, Nigeria within a period of ten years. Majority of ...

  8. Non malignant peripheral lymphadenopathy in Nigerians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. Persistent peripheral lymphadenopathy (PL) not associated with malignancy or a focal lesion can pose a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. This study reports the pathological findings in the lymph nodes of 225 patients who presented with PL at the University Hospital, lle-Ife, Nigeria within a period of ten years.

  9. Malignant pirates of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Lixin; Schmitz, Roland; Ceribelli, Michele; Staudt, Louis M

    2011-09-20

    At great human cost, cancer is the largest genetic experiment ever conducted. This review highlights how lymphoid malignancies have genetically perverted normal immune signaling and regulatory mechanisms for their selfish oncogenic goals of unlimited proliferation, perpetual survival and evasion of the immune response.

  10. Biomarkers and Prognosis in Malignant Lymphomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenbeek, Anton; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Dreyling, Martin; Kluin, Philip; Engert, Andreas; Salles, Gilles

    Approximately 100 hematologists and pathologists from Europe, the United States, and Canada participated in the workshop Biomarkers and Prognosis in Malignant Lymphomas, held in Mandelieu, France,April 11-13, 2008, under the leadership of Anton Hagenbeek, Randy Gascoyne, and Gilles Salles.

  11. Primary Oral Malignancy Imitating Peri-Implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiser, Vadim; Abu-El Naaj, Immad; Shlomi, Benjamin; Fliss, Dan M; Kaplan, Ilana

    2016-07-01

    To describe new cases of primary malignancy arising around dental implants. Three patients presented with asymptomatic lesions around longstanding dental implants that resembled peri-implantitis. One case was primary large B-cell lymphoma and the remaining cases were primary squamous cell carcinoma in patients with oral lichen planus. The literature was reviewed for cases mimicking peri-implantitis. Of 42 implant-associated malignancies reported from 2000 through 2014, 85.7% were squamous cell carcinoma (69% primary and 9.4% metastatic). Most patients presented with pre-existing risk factors for oral cancer. Lymphoma was not associated with dental implants. Primary and metastatic malignancies can occur in peri-implant mucosa, often with clinical and radiographic features resembling peri-implantitis. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for changes in peri-implant mucosa in patients with existing risk factors; however, rare cases such as lymphoma might present outside this risk population. Histopathologic analysis should be included in the management of selected peri-implant lesions to avoid delayed diagnosis of malignancy. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Delirium followed by neuroleptic malignant syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delirium and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) are two uncommon syndromes that are often unrecognized or misdiagnosed by the primary physicians as functional psychiatric disorders. The infrequency and the heterogeneity of clinical manifestation, progression and outcome with which those diagnoses are ...

  13. Metastatic malignant melanoma. Successfull treatment with ipilimumab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, T.J.G.; Bruch-Gerharz, D.; Reifenberger, J.; Schulte, K.W.

    2013-01-01

    A 73-year-old man, in whom 26 years ago a malignant melanoma with cervical lymph node metastases of the right retroauricular region was diagnosed, developed BRAF V600E-negative distant metastases, which progressed during both monochemotherapy and polychemotherapy. Therefore he was started on

  14. Correlating haematological malignancies with radio-diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the radiological diagnostic findings in patients with haematological malignancies and its relative function in total patient management in an African setting. Materials: A prospective study correlating radiographic and ultrasound image findings in adult patients with confirmed haematological ...

  15. clinico-histopathologic types of maxillofacial malignancies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... Request for reprints to: Dr. M. W. Kamau, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral Pathology and Medicine,. School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00200, Nairobi, Kenya. CLINICO-HISTOPATHOLOGIC TYPES OF MAXILLOFACIAL MALIGNANCIES. WITH EMPHASIS ...

  16. Infarcted Tarsal Pyogenic Granuloma Simulating Malignant Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Norman C; Kahn, Jonathan B

    The authors describe a rapidly enlarging, pedunculated brown tarsal lesion in a 34-year-old man with a history of chalazia. Following excision, histopathologic analysis showed the features of a necrotic pyogenic granuloma. This unique case expands the differential diagnosis of conjunctival malignant melanoma.

  17. Secondary chondrosarcoma: Malignant transformation of pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary chondrosarcoma is a malignant hyaline cartilage tumour originating from a cartilaginous precursor, either osteochondroma or enchondroma. We contrast two different cases of biopsy-proven secondary chondrosarcomas resulting from benign, pre-existing cartilaginous lesions – our aim is to contrast and ...

  18. Epidemiology of Environmental Exposure and Malignant Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bian; van Gerwen, Maaike; Bonassi, Stefano; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-07-01

    Although the association between exposure to asbestos and malignant mesothelioma (particularly malignant pleural mesothelioma) has been well established, the health impact of environmental exposure (EE) to asbestos has been less studied. This review summarizes the most recent studies on the association between malignant mesothelioma and EE with asbestos to identify features associated with EE and quantify the association with malignant mesothelioma. There were 44 studies from 18 countries that met our selection criteria, with a considerable amount of heterogeneity in their study design, measures of exposure, and health outcomes. The male-to-female ratio was close to or less than 1 and generally lower than the ratio reported when both occupational and environmental exposures were considered. Although recent studies have continued to improve our understanding of environmental exposure to asbestos, challenges remain. We have highlighted a few new research directions, such as a need for reliable matrices to identify common and less recognized types of EE, asbestos biomarker studies specifically focusing on EE, and research on populations and geographic areas that have not been previously studied. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacteremia and candidemia in hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, B; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Hovgaard, D

    1988-01-01

    The microorganisms isolated in 1981-1985 from 171 cases of septicemia in patients with hematological malignancies were on the whole the same as those found in 1970-1972. The distribution between species was also quite similar for the two periods except within staphylococci, where the isolation ra...

  20. Bacteremia and candidemia in hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, D; Skinhøj, P; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    1988-01-01

    171 episodes of bacteremia and candidemia in 142 patients were recorded during the period 1981-1985 in patients with hematological malignancies. Overall mortality, within 1 week of onset of bacteremia, was 20%. Increased mortality was found in patients with poor disease-prognosis (39%), with gran...