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Sample records for chewers potentially malignant

  1. Screening for oral potentially malignant disorders among areca (betel) nut chewers in Guam and Saipan.

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    Paulino, Yvette C; Hurwitz, Eric L; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Gatewood, Robert R; Pierson, Kenneth D; Tenorio, Lynnette F; Novotny, Rachel; Palafox, Neal A; Wilkens, Lynne R; Badowski, Grazyna

    2014-12-11

    The Mariana Islands, including Guam and Saipan, are home to many ethnic subpopulations of Micronesia. Oral cancer incidence rates vary among subpopulations, and areca (betel) nut chewing, a habit with carcinogenic risks, is common. Our objectives were to conduct a screening program to detect oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) in betel nut chewers, measure their betel nut chewing practices, and assess the prevalence of the oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a subset of betel nut chewers in these islands. A cross-section of 300 betel nut chewers ≥18 years old [in Guam (n = 137) and in Saipan (n = 163)] were recruited between January 2011-June 2012. We collected demographic, socioeconomic, and oral behavioural characteristics. Latent class analysis was used to identify chewing patterns from selected chewing behaviours. Following calibration of OPMD against an expert, a registered oral hygienist conducted oral examinations by house to house visits and referred positive cases to the study dentist for a second oral examination. Buccal smears were collected from a subset (n = 123) for HPV testing. Two classes of betel nut chewers were identified on 7 betel nut behaviours, smoking, and alcohol use; a key difference between the two Classes was the addition of ingredients to the betel quid among those in Class 2. When compared on other characteristics, Class 1 chewers were older, had been chewing for more years, and chewed fewer nuts per day although chewing episodes lasted longer than Class 2 chewers. More Class 1 chewers visited the dentist regularly than Class 2 chewers. Of the 300 participants, 46 (15.3%; 3.8% for Class 1 and 19.4% for Class 2) had OPMD and one (0.3%) was confirmed to have squamous cell carcinoma. The prevalence of oral HPV was 5.7% (7/123), although none were high-risk types. We found two patterns of betel nut chewing behaviour; Class 2 had a higher frequency of OPMD. Additional epidemiologic research is needed to

  2. Potential effects of earthworms on leaf-chewer performance

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    Newington, J.E.; Setälä, H.; Bezemer, T.M.; Jones, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    Detritivores affect plant performance and therefore have the potential indirectly to affect above-ground herbivore populations. 2. In a microcosm study we asked whether changes in the performance of two plant species, Cardamine hirsuta L. and Veronica persica Poiret., arising from the activity of

  3. Betel Quid and Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders in a Periurban Township in Myanmar.

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    Zaw, Ko-Ko; Ohnmar, Mya; Hlaing, Moh-Moh; Oo, Yin-Thet-Nu; Win, Swe-Swe; Htike, Maung-Maung-Than; Aye, Phyu-Phyu; Shwe, Sein; Htwe, Moe-Thida; Thein, Zaw-Moe

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe betel quid chewing practice and compare oral potentially malignant disorders between chewers and non-chewers of betel quid among residents in Dagon Myothit (East) Township, Myanmar. The study used a cross-sectional design conducted with a representative sample of 542 adults aged 18 years and above in the township. The trained interviewers collected data using a pretested structured questionnaire. On-site oral examination was done for suspected oral lesions. The mean age of the respondents was 45 years and 59% were women. Fifty-two percent of the respondents were currently in the habit of chewing betel quids (72% of men and 39% of women). Among 284 current betel quid chewers, 240 (85%) chewed betel quids together with tobacco. Out of 284 current betel quid chewers, 24 (8.5%) were found to have oral potentially malignant disorders; out of 258 betel quid non-chewers, only 1 (0.4%) was found to have oral potentially malignant disorders. This highlights the growing importance of smokeless tobacco use as public health problem.

  4. Cytomorphometric analysis of oral buccal mucosal smears in tobacco and arecanut chewers who abused with and without betel leaf.

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    Noufal, Ahammed; George, Antony; Jose, Maji; Khader, Mohasin Abdul; Jayapalan, Cheriyanthal Sisupalan

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco in any form (smoking or chewing), arecanut chewing, and alcohol are considered to be the major extrinsic etiological factors for potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity and for squamous cell carcinoma, the most common oral malignancy in India. An increase in nuclear diameter (ND) and nucleus-cell ratio (NCR) with a reduction in cell diameter (CD) are early cytological indicators of dysplastic change. The authors sought to identify cytomorphometric changes in ND, CD, and NCR of oral buccal cells in tobacco and arecanut chewers who chewed with or without betel leaf. Participants represented 3 groups. Group I consisted of 30 individuals who chewed tobacco and arecanut with betel leaf (BQT chewers). Group II consisted of 30 individuals who chewed tobacco and arecanut without betel leaf (Gutka chewers). Group III comprised 30 apparently healthy nonabusers. Cytological smears were prepared and stained with modified-Papanicolaou stain. Comparisons between Groups I and II and Groups II and III showed that ND was increased, with P values of .054 and .008, respectively, whereas a comparison of Groups I and III showed no statistical significance. Comparisons between Groups I and II and Groups II and III showed that CD was statistically reduced, with P values of .037 and <.000, respectively, whereas comparison of Groups I and III showed no statistical significance. Comparisons between Groups I and II and groups II and III showed that NCR was statistically increased, with P values of <.000, whereas a comparison of Groups I and III showed no statistical significance. CD, ND, and NCR showed statistically significant changes in Group II in comparison with Group I, which could indicate larger and earlier risk of carcinoma for Gutka chewers than in BQT chewers.

  5. Comparison of oral Candida species prevalence and carriage among gutka-chewers and betel-quid chewers.

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    Abduljabbar, Tariq; Hussain, Mudassir; Adnan, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Javed, Fawad

    2017-03-01

    To compare prevalence and carriage of Candida species among gutka-chewers and betel-quid-chewers. The cross-sectional case-control study was conducted between January and December, 2015 at the Oral Surgery department of Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and the Dental department of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and comprised oral yeast samples of gutka-chewers, betel-quid-chewers, and non-chewers. A standardised questionnaire was used to gather demographic data and oral hygiene maintenance information. Oral Candida strains were collected, cultured and identified using standard techniques and yeast identification system. In all groups, unstimulated whole salivary flow rate was determined. Lesions on the tongue and oral mucosa were clinically investigated and numbers of missing teeth were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the total 185 samples, 50(27%) were from gutka-chewers, 50(27%)betel-quid-chewers, and 85(46%) non-chewers. Oral Candida carriage was comparable among betel-quid-chewers (18 [36%])and gutka-chewers (20 [40%]), but it was significantly higher than the non-chewers (11 [12.9%]) (pbetel-quid-chewers (p>0.05). Prevalence and carriage of Candida species were comparable between betel-quid-chewers and gutka-chewers compared to non-chewers.

  6. Tobacco use, Body Mass Index, and Potentially Malignant Disorders Among petrol fillers in Pimpri-Pune (India: A descriptive study

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    Mamatha G. S. Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since petrol is combustible and smoking is banned at the petrol pumps, it may be predicted that use of smokeless tobacco is more prevalent among the petrol fillers. Also, smokeless tobacco is a major risk factor for developing oral potentially malignant disorders. The present study was conducted to determine the tobacco use, body mass index (BMI, and potentially malignant disorders among a cohort of petrol fillers and also to evaluate the interaction of tobacco use and BMI with the presence of potentially malignant disorders. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at 45 petrol stations located at Pimpri-Pune, India. A descriptive study design was used. Materials and Method: Four hundred and ten petrol fillers aged 17-64 years participated in the study. General information and tobacco history was obtained by interview. Height and weight were recorded to obtain BMI. Oral examination was conducted to identify the potentially malignant disorders. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test, Z test, and logistic regression were used. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Results and Conclusions: It was found that 242 (59.02% used tobacco in different forms. 77.68% were tobacco chewers, and 8.26% were smokers. Leukoplakia was prevalent among 68.47%, oral submucous fibrosis among 27.45%, and 5.08% had erythroplakia. Age (χ2 = 11.46, P < 0.05, duration (χ2 = 17.46, P < 0.05, and frequency of tobacco chewing (χ2 = 14.16, P < 0.05 were significantly associated with potentially malignant disorders. Tobacco chewing was more prevalent as compared to smoking. It can be concluded that the petrol fillers are at a high risk for developing oral potentially malignant disorders.

  7. Sociocultural Factors that Affect Chewing Behaviors among Betel Nut Chewers and Ex-Chewers on Guam.

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    Murphy, Kelle L; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-12-01

    Areca nut (betel nut) is chewed by an estimated 10% of the world's population which is equivalent to about 600 million people. It is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and has been linked to various types of oral cancer. Chewing areca predominates in South and South East Asia, East Africa, and the Western Pacific and has important social and cultural implications. The purpose of the pilot study was twofold: (1) to examine sociocultural factors that affect why people on Guam chew betel nut, their chewing behaviors, perceptions of risks, probability of changing behaviors, and methods that could be used to reduce use or quit; and (2) to pilot two surveys (one for chewers and one for ex-chewers) to be used in a larger study in the future. A mixed methods design was employed that included surveys pertaining to their status (chewer or ex-chewer) and in-depth interviews. A total of 30 adults participated in this pilot study: adult betel nut chewers (n = 15) and ex-chewers (n = 15). Chewing betel nut is a learned behavior, embedded within the culture, and is viewed as an important cultural identifier. Socially, chewing is viewed as positive. Chewers stated that they were not as aware of health issues; however, ex-chewers stated health reasons for quitting.

  8. Presence of Helicobacter pylori in betel chewers and non betel chewers with and without oral cancers

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    Fernando, Neluka; Jayakumar, Gnanapragasam; Perera, Naomal; Amarasingha, Indranee; Meedin, Fahra; Holton, John

    2009-01-01

    Background Betel chewing has been shown to predispose to periodontal disease and oral cancer. Studies show that people with gum disease are more likely to test positive for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). It is not known if the lesions produced by betel quid and the resulting, chemical changes predispose to colonization by H. pylori. Further the role of this organism in oral cancer is not known. Our objective was to determine the presence of H. pylori in oral lesions of thirty oral cancer patients and to determine the presence of IgG antibodies to H. pylori in oral cancer patients who are betel chewers and non betel chewers, healthy betel chewers and healthy non-betel chewers and to compare the presence of H. pylori in these four groups. This case control study was conducted at the Cancer Institute Maharagama and the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Methods One hundred and seventy three subjects, of whom fifty three were patients presenting with oral cancer to the Cancer Institute Maharagama, sixty healthy betel chewers and sixty healthy non-betel chewers from the Religious and Welfare Service Centre Maharagama were tested for H. pylori by serology. Thirty oral biopsies from oral cancer patients were cultured under microaerophilic condition to isolate H. pylori. The statistic used was Chi-square test. Results Of the fifty-three oral cancer patients, forty-four were betel chewers. Among the 53 oral cancer patients examined, ten of forty-four (10/44 = 22.7%) patients who are betel chewers and four of nine (4/9 = 44.4%) patients who are non-betel chewers were detected positive for IgG antibody against H. pylori. In the healthy group (betel chewers and non betel chewers) ten (16.7%) of the healthy betel chewers tested positive for H. pylori by serology. None of the healthy non-betel chewers tested positive for H. pylori Fourteen [26.4%] of oral cancer patients tested positive for H. pylori by serology, of

  9. [Tooth wear in Hindu betel nut chewers].

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    Gerreth, Karolina

    2006-01-01

    Literature data describe the impact of certain factors on oral health. Very well known is habitual chewing of different plant products, including tobacco, which depending on the geographical area and the substances used, have various names. It has been estimated that approximately 200 million residents of the West Pacific Rim and South-East Asia indulge in betel chewing. Betel is composed of a leaf of the betel pepper, lime, tobacco and the nut of the areca palm. This study aimed to assess the degree of abrasive changes in residents of the Korunalaya Leprosy Care Center. The examinations were carried out on 85 patients (45 females and 40 males), aged 35-95 years, at the local dental surgery. Patients had their teeth assessed and they were further interviewed as to the duration of their habit with regard to their sex and age (35-44; 45-64 and > or = 65 years). The abrasive changes were evaluated using Gerasimov's 7-degree scale. Interview data indicate that 71.76% of the patients were habitual betel chewers. Among female patients, third-degree abrasion was the most frequent change while among males--fifth degree (53.3% and 45.0%, respectively). The abrasive changes, increasing with age, can be attributed to the duration of betel chewing. It is worth noticing that a vegetarian diet can be a contributing factor to abrasion as most of the food consumed by Hindus are plants.

  10. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus among oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinomas in the South Indian tobacco-chewing population.

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    Reddy, Sujatha S; Sharma, Shivani; Mysorekar, Vijaya

    2017-07-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the world. Viruses are the causative agents of approximately 10-15% of all cancers worldwide (Cancers, 6, 2014 and 2155). The tumorigenic roles of Epstein-Barr virus in oral cancer are unclear. Literature search results are conflicting and dependent on various factors such as geographical/regional variations, sociocultural lifestyles, dietary habits, chewing/smoking tobacco habit. This study is the first original observation about frequency of Epstein-Barr virus among South Indian tobacco-chewing patients to elucidate its involvement in oral carcinogenesis and to know whether this can be a valuable diagnostic and prognostic indicator. A total number of 75 tobacco chewer subjects aged between 23 and 76 years with histopathologically confirmed oral potentially malignant disorders (25), oral squamous cell carcinoma (25), and age-matched healthy controls (25) formed the study group. Immunohistochemical expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 was assessed among cases and healthy controls. Out of the total 75 subjects, six subjects (8%) were positive for Epstein-Barr virus antigen and 69 subjects (92%) negative. The antigen positivity was observed among two cases of moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma, two cases of leukoplakia, and two healthy controls. No significant association between Epstein-Barr virus positivity was observed among oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma among South Indian tobacco-chewing patients. This can be partially explained by the methodology employed, by the patient population analyzed and different habits in various geographical regions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Markers of potential malignancy in chronic hyperplastic candidiasis.

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    Darling, Mark R; McCord, Christina; Jackson-Boeters, Linda; Copete, Maria

    2012-08-01

    To examine the presence of markers associated with malignancy, including p53, p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, murine double minutes-2, and others, in chronic hyperplastic candidiasis. Immunohistochemical methods were used to examine the expression of p53, murine double minutes-2, p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, metallothionein, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in 42 chronic hyperplastic candidiasis lesions and 11 non-infected control tissues. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling was used to examine apoptosis, which was correlated with p53 expression. These markers were measured in lesions of chronic hyperplastic candidiasis that did not show any epithelial dysplasia or histological signs of malignancy. p53 scores were higher in chronic hyperplastic candidiasis than in controls (P = 0.0046). Murine double-minutes 2 levels were not elevated. p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A was increased in parabasal (P candidiasis lesions showed a similar basal/parabasal metallothionein staining pattern to that seen in normal squamous epithelium. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was increased (P = 0.0007), as was apoptosis (P = 0.0033). Increased p53 in oral chronic hyperplastic candidiasis suggests an increased potential for malignant change in the epithelium, above that of normal tissues. Further functional investigation is required, as well as clinical follow-up studies. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Meta-analysis of the predictive value of DNA aneuploidy in malignant transformation of oral potentially malignant disorders.

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    Alaizari, Nader A; Sperandio, Marcelo; Odell, Edward W; Peruzzo, Daiane; Al-Maweri, Sadeq A

    2018-02-01

    DNA aneuploidy is an imbalance of chromosomal DNA content that has been highlighted as a predictor of biological behavior and risk of malignant transformation. To date, DNA aneuploidy in oral potentially malignant diseases (OPMD) has been shown to correlate strongly with severe dysplasia and high-risk lesions that appeared non-dysplastic can be identified by ploidy analysis. Nevertheless, the prognostic value of DNA aneuploidy in predicting malignant transformation of OPMD remains to be validated. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the role of DNA aneuploidy in predicting malignant transformation in OPMD. The questions addressed were (i) Is DNA aneuploidy a useful marker to predict malignant transformation in OPMD? (ii) Is DNA diploidy a useful negative marker of malignant transformation in OPMD? These questions were addressed using the PECO method. Five studies assessing aneuploidy as a risk marker of malignant change were pooled into the meta-analysis. Aneuploidy was found to be associated with a 3.12-fold increased risk to progress into cancer (RR=3.12, 95% CI 1.86-5.24). Based on the five studies meta-analyzed, "no malignant progression" was more likely to occur in DNA diploid OPMD by 82% when compared to aneuploidy (RR=0.18, 95% CI 0.08-0.41). In conclusion, aneuploidy is a useful marker of malignant transformation in OPMD, although a diploid result should be interpreted with caution. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Identification of Candida albicans by using different culture medias and its association in potentially malignant and malignant lesions.

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    Saigal, Sonal; Bhargava, Ankur; Mehra, S K; Dakwala, Falguni

    2011-07-01

    The present study evaluates the association of Candida albicans with normal control group, potentially malignant and malignant lesions of oral cavity by using two different liquid culture media. Saliva was collected and biopsy was taken only from those clinically suspected potentially malignant and malignant lesions for histopathological diagnosis. Saliva samples were inoculated for fungal growth in Sabouraud's dextrose agar and culture-positive samples had undergone for Germ tube test. Germ tube-positive samples were further taken for quantification of chlamydospore production in liquid media at 8 and 16 hours. In normal control groups no fungus growth was found; however, potentially malignant and malignant cases showed fungus growth, positive germ tube test and chlamydospore formation. The result also showed rapid and quantitatively more chlamydospore formation in corn meal broth + 5% milk in comparison to serum milk culture media. The oral mucosa is compromised in potentially malignant lesions, it can be argued that this species may be involved in carcinogenesis by elaborating the nitrosamine compounds which either act directly on oral mucosa or interact with other chemical carcinogens to activate specific proto-oncogenes and thereby initiate oral neoplasia.

  14. Identification of Candida albicans by using different culture medias and its association in potentially malignant and malignant lesions

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    Sonal Saigal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The present study evaluates the association of Candida albicans with normal control group, potentially malignant and malignant lesions of oral cavity by using two different liquid culture media. Materials and Methods: Saliva was collected and biopsy was taken only from those clinically suspected potentially malignant and malignant lesions for histopathological diagnosis. Saliva samples were inoculated for fungal growth in Sabouraud′s dextrose agar and culture-positive samples had undergone for Germ tube test. Germ tube-positive samples were further taken for quantification of chlamydospore production in liquid media at 8 and 16 hours. Results: In normal control groups no fungus growth was found; however, potentially malignant and malignant cases showed fungus growth, positive germ tube test and chlamydospore formation. The result also showed rapid and quantitatively more chlamydospore formation in corn meal broth + 5% milk in comparison to serum milk culture media. Conclusion: The oral mucosa is compromised in potentially malignant lesions, it can be argued that this species may be involved in carcinogenesis by elaborating the nitrosamine compounds which either act directly on oral mucosa or interact with other chemical carcinogens to activate specific proto-oncogenes and thereby initiate oral neoplasia.

  15. A Potential Therapeutic Strategy for Malignant Mesothelioma with Gene Medicine

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    Yuji Tada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma, closely linked with occupational asbestos exposure, is relatively rare in the frequency, but the patient numbers are going to increase in the next few decades all over the world. The current treatment modalities are not effective in terms of the overall survival and the quality of life. Mesothelioma mainly develops in the thoracic cavity and infrequently metastasizes to extrapleural organs. A local treatment can thereby be beneficial to the patients, and gene therapy with an intrapleural administration of vectors is one of the potential therapeutics. Preclinical studies demonstrated the efficacy of gene medicine for mesothelioma, and clinical trials with adenovirus vectors showed the safety of an intrapleural injection and a possible involvement of antitumor immune responses. Nevertheless, low transduction efficiency remains the main hurdle that hinders further clinical applications. Moreover, rapid generation of antivector antibody also inhibits transgene expressions. In this paper, we review the current status of preclinical and clinical gene therapy for malignant mesothelioma and discuss potential clinical directions of gene medicine in terms of a combinatory use with anticancer agents and with immunotherapy.

  16. Focal Endometrial Adenocarcinoma in Atypical Polypoid Adenomyoma of Low Malignant Potential

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    Coskun Salman

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a perimenopausal woman with atypical polypoid adenomyoma of low malignant potential with focal adenocarcinoma on endometrial biopsy who subsequently underwent hysterectomy in which no residual malignant lesion was found.

  17. Salivary micro RNA as a potential biomarker in oral potentially malignant disorders: A systematic review

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    T N Uma Maheswari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD are oral mucosal disorders which have a high potential to turn into malignancy. A recent report suggests that 16%–62% of epithelial dysplasia cases of OPMD undergo malignant transformation, showing the need for early detection of malignancy in these disorders. Micro RNA (miRNA plays an important role in cellular growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and immune response, and hence, deregulation of miRNA is considered a signature of oral carcinogenesis. A search was done using MeSH terms in the PubMed, ScienceDirect databases, hand search, and finally, six studies were included in this systematic review. A total of 167 patients with oral cancer, 78 with OPMDs, 147 healthy controls, and 20 disease controls were analyzed for the expression of salivary miRNAs. Quality assessment based on the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool was used to obtain a risk of bias chart using Revman 5.3 software and it was proved that the study done by Zahran et al. in 2015 had a low risk of bias. The results of this study revealed upregulated miRNA 184 with an area under the curve (AUC of 0.86 and miRNA 21 with an AUC of 0.73 and downregulated miRNA 145 with an AUC of 0.68, which proved that these miRNAs are significant in detecting early malignancy in OPMD and should be further analyzed in various populations. This systematic review explored the potential of expression of salivary miRNA in OPMD for future studies. This could pave the way to utilize saliva as a surrogate marker in diagnosing early malignant changes in OPMD.

  18. E-Cigarette as a Harm Reduction Approach among Tobacco Smoking Khat Chewers: A Promising Bullet of Multiple Gains

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    Saba Kassim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Khat chewing/use, a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects is socially integrated in the Middle East and Africa. Khat chewing is often associated with tobacco smoking and occurs in closed places, such as a family home setting where the smoke-free laws cannot be implemented. Tobacco cigarette smoking among khat chewers is a significant concern, but there is also second-hand exposure to smoke at home or in places where khat users gather. Evidence suggests that e-cigarettes represent a significantly less harmful form of nicotine intake. Evaluating the effects of e-cigarettes among khat chewers could be important in understanding the impact of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction approach, with the potential to reduce the health risk associated with smoking.

  19. E-Cigarette as a Harm Reduction Approach among Tobacco Smoking Khat Chewers: A Promising Bullet of Multiple Gains.

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    Kassim, Saba; Farsalinos, Konstantinos E

    2016-02-19

    Khat chewing/use, a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects is socially integrated in the Middle East and Africa. Khat chewing is often associated with tobacco smoking and occurs in closed places, such as a family home setting where the smoke-free laws cannot be implemented. Tobacco cigarette smoking among khat chewers is a significant concern, but there is also second-hand exposure to smoke at home or in places where khat users gather. Evidence suggests that e-cigarettes represent a significantly less harmful form of nicotine intake. Evaluating the effects of e-cigarettes among khat chewers could be important in understanding the impact of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction approach, with the potential to reduce the health risk associated with smoking.

  20. Evaluation of AgNORs in Oral Potentially Malignant Lesions

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    Karin Berria Tomazelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is usually preceded by detectable mucosal changes, as leukoplakias and erythroplakia. Histologically, these lesions can range from hyperkeratosis and acanthosis to epithelial dysplasia and even OSCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the proliferative activity, using AgNORs quantification proteins, in low- and high-risk oral epithelial dysplasia, OSCC, and nondysplastic epithelium (inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia. The sample was divided into 4 groups: G1: 10 cases of inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (IFH, G2: 11 cases of low-risk epithelial dysplasia (LD, G3: 10 cases of high-risk epithelial dysplasia (HD, and G4: 11 cases of OSCC. The quantitative analysis was performed using an image processing software in photomicrographs at 1000x magnification. The one-way ANOVA was used for comparison of the mean AgNORs counts between the study groups. The mean AgNORs count was significantly higher P≤0.01 in OSCC when compared to IFH and the LD; however, it was not statistically different from HD. The mean number of LD was significantly lower than the HD and OSCC, with no difference related to IFH. AgNORs quantification can be an important and cheap method to help in the determination of the degree of epithelial dysplasia and, consequently, in the analysis of their potential for malignant transformation.

  1. Genetic polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in potentially malignant and malignant lesions of the head and neck

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    Asotra Kamlesh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family of zinc-dependent proteinases that are capable of cleaving all extra cellular matrix (ECM substrates. Degradation of matrix is a key event in progression, invasion and metastasis of potentially malignant and malignant lesions of the head and neck. It might have an important polymorphic association at the promoter regions of several MMPs such as MMP-1 (-1607 1G/2G, MMP-2 (-1306 C/T, MMP-3 (-1171 5A/6A, MMP-9 (-1562 C/T and TIMP-2 (-418 G/C or C/C. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs are naturally occurring inhibitors of MMPs, which inhibit the activity of MMPs and control the breakdown of ECM. Currently, many MMP inhibitors (MMPIs are under development for treating different malignancies. Useful markers associated with molecular aggressiveness might have a role in prognostication of malignancies and to better recognize patient groups that need more antagonistic treatment options. Furthermore, the introduction of novel prognostic markers may also promote exclusively new treatment possibilities, and there is an obvious need to identify markers that could be used as selection criteria for novel therapies. The objective of this review is to discuss the molecular functions and polymorphic association of MMPs and TIMPs and the possible therapeutic aspects of these proteinases in potentially malignant and malignant head and neck lesions. So far, no promising drug target therapy has been developed for MMPs in the lesions of this region. In conclusion, further research is required for the development of their potential diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities.

  2. Altered Brain Functional Connectivity in Betel Quid-Dependent Chewers.

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    Huang, Xiaojun; Pu, Weidan; Liu, Haihong; Li, Xinmin; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Dursun, Serdar M; Xue, Zhimin; Liu, Zhening

    2017-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) is a common psychoactive substance worldwide with particularly high usage in many Asian countries. This study aimed to explore the effect of BQ use on functional connectivity by comparing global functional brain networks and their subset between BQ chewers and healthy controls (HCs). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was obtained from 24 betel quid-dependent (BQD) male chewers and 27 healthy male individuals on a 3.0T scanner. We used independent component analysis (ICA) to determine components that represent the brain's functional networks and their spatial aspects of functional connectivity. Two sample t -tests were used to identify the functional connectivity differences in each network between these two groups. Seventeen networks were identified by ICA. Nine of them showed connectivity differences between BQD and HCs (two sample t -tests, p  betel quid dependence scale scores were positively related to the increased functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal ( r  = 0.39, p  = 0.03) while negatively related to the decreased functional connectivity in medial frontal/anterior cingulate networks ( r  = -0.35, p  = 0.02). Our findings provide further evidence that BQ chewing may lead to brain functional connectivity changes, which may play a key role in the psychological and physiological effects of BQ.

  3. Spatial short-term memory is impaired in dependent betel quid chewers.

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    Chiu, Meng-Chun; Shen, Bin; Li, Shuo-Heng; Ho, Ming-Chou

    2016-08-01

    Betel quid is regarded as a human carcinogen by the World Health Organization. It remains unknown whether chewing betel quid has a chronic effect on healthy betel quid chewers' memory. The present study aims to investigate whether chewing betel quid can affect short-term memory (STM). Three groups of participants (24 dependent chewers, 24 non-dependent chewers, and 24 non-chewers) were invited to carry out the matrix span task, the object span task, and the digit span task. All span tasks' results were adopted to assess spatial STM, visual STM, and verbal STM, respectively. Besides, there are three set sizes (small, medium, and large) in each span task. For the matrix span task, results showed that the dependent chewers had worse performances than the non-dependent chewers and the non-chewers at medium and large set sizes. For the object span task and digit span task, there were no differences in between groups. In each group, recognition performances were worse with the increasing set size and showing successful manipulation of memory load. The current study provided the first evidence that dependent betel quid chewing can selectively impair spatial STM rather than visual STM and verbal STM. Theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed.

  4. [Potentially malignant character of oral lichen planus and lichenoid lesions].

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    Mares, S; Ben Slama, L; Gruffaz, F; Goudot, P; Bertolus, C

    2013-11-01

    Many authors have reported the possible malignant transformation of oral lichen. The incidence of this event remains controversial. Many authors make a distinction between the "true" oral lichen planus (OLP) and lichenoid lesions (LL) according to the WHO clinical and histological classification. For these authors an increased risk of development of oral cancer could occur only on LL. Our aim was to check this hypothesis on a cohort followed for 10 years. We included patients who were referred to our team for the first time between 1995 and 1997, still followed in 2010, with a histological diagnosis of buccal lichen planus. We classified lesions as OLP or LL according to the WHO clinical and histological classification: the two clinical criteria for OLP were a reticulated aspect and bilateral and symmetric lesions. Three histological criteria were necessary for the diagnosis: dense inflammatory infiltrate in the upper lamina propria, liquefaction degeneration of basal keratinocytes, and no signs of dysplasia. The final diagnosis was OLP, when all clinical ad histological criteria were met otherwise it was LL. We studied the patient's outcome between their first consultations and May 2010. Thirty-two patients, whose data was available, met inclusion criteria. Eight were diagnosed with OLP and 24 with LL. The mean follow-up was 164 months [154-183]. No oral cancer was observed in the OLP group. Two patients in the LL group presented with oral cancer after 45 and 143 months of follow-up. Malignant transformations were observed only in the LL group. Our results correlate with those of Van Der Meij et al. published in 2006. The strict use of the WHO diagnostic criteria seems to allow identifying patients at risk of developing oral cancer (LL) and others with only a benign course of this chronic oral mucosal disease. These results need to be confirmed by prospective multicentric studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Altered Brain Functional Connectivity in Betel Quid-Dependent Chewers

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    Xiaojun Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBetel quid (BQ is a common psychoactive substance worldwide with particularly high usage in many Asian countries. This study aimed to explore the effect of BQ use on functional connectivity by comparing global functional brain networks and their subset between BQ chewers and healthy controls (HCs.MethodsResting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was obtained from 24 betel quid-dependent (BQD male chewers and 27 healthy male individuals on a 3.0T scanner. We used independent component analysis (ICA to determine components that represent the brain’s functional networks and their spatial aspects of functional connectivity. Two sample t-tests were used to identify the functional connectivity differences in each network between these two groups.ResultsSeventeen networks were identified by ICA. Nine of them showed connectivity differences between BQD and HCs (two sample t-tests, p < 0.001 uncorrected. We found increased functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal, bilateral frontoparietal, frontotemporal, occipital/parietal, frontotemporal/cerebellum, and temporal/limbic networks, and decreased connectivity in the parietal and medial frontal/anterior cingulate networks in the BQD compared to the HCs. The betel quid dependence scale scores were positively related to the increased functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal (r = 0.39, p = 0.03 while negatively related to the decreased functional connectivity in medial frontal/anterior cingulate networks (r = −0.35, p = 0.02.DiscussionOur findings provide further evidence that BQ chewing may lead to brain functional connectivity changes, which may play a key role in the psychological and physiological effects of BQ.

  6. Potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity: a clinical study.

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    Shukla, Anirudh

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancers in India, unlike in the West are the most common cancers encountered, be it a primary or a tertiary referral practice. This makes the study and management of these cancers an important issue especially for the otolaryngologist. It is well known that the most common variant of oral cancers is the squamous cell carcinoma. Also the etiology is well established; with tobacco use in both smoking and smokeless forms, alcohol, betel nut and recently the Human Papilloma virus infection being implicated. Certain conditions which definitely increase the probability of getting oral cancers are known and this study aims in revisiting these aspects of pre-malignancy. The progression from a pre-cancerous lesion/condition to frank cancer is well established across many studies and many specialties. Also timely recognizing these pre-cancerous conditions and administration of proper treatment will greatly help in reducing the morbidity and mortality from subsequent much advanced and dangerous oral cancer. Keeping these facts in mind this study was planned to study the established pre-cancerous lesions which are known to progress to oral cancers.

  7. Khat Dependency and Psychophysical Symptoms among Chewers in Jazan Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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    Maged El-Setouhy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Khat chewing is highly prevalent in Africa, Yemen and Jazan region, southwest of Saudi Arabia. Most of Jazani Khat chewers consider khat session as a social activity and do not consider khat dependency. The aim of this study was to explore khat dependency and its relationship with the psychophysical symptoms among chewers. Methods. Cross-sectional study on seventy Saudi male khat chewers living in Jazan area. Psychological dependence to khat chewing was evaluated using the Severity of Dependency Scale (SDS. The participants filled in a self-administrated assisted structured questionnaire designed to collect data about their medical history, neurological symptoms, and their chewing behavior. Results. Half (52.2% of khat chewers showed psychological dependency. Those having longer khat sessions (≥6 hours were more liable for dependency. Physical and psychological symptoms were more prevalent among khat dependent chewers. Conclusions. khat has a psychological dependence effect that can be measured by the SDS, even in low doses and with irregular use. SDS scale is a useful tool to expect the burden of either physical or psychological symptoms on khat chewers.

  8. Intention to quit betel quid: a comparison of betel quid chewers and cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa A; Pokhrel, Pallav; Murphy, Kelle L; Kawamoto, Crissy T; Suguitan, Gil S; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-06-01

    Despite the global significance of betel quid chewing and the associated health risks, there have been no studies assessing chewers' intention to quit. Given the difficulties associated with quitting betel quid and the serious health consequences of chewing, it is important for researchers to develop interventions aimed at helping chewers quit. Betel quid chewers experience similar patterns of dependence and withdrawal symptoms as tobacco smokers, and the use of both substances causes serious adverse health effects. Therefore, it is possible that intention to quit betel quid and tobacco would also be similar. If similarities were found, researchers could look to existing tobacco cessation interventions to inform the development of betel quid cessation interventions. In the current study we sought to understand chewers' intention to quit and how it compares to smokers' intention to quit cigarettes. A total of 351 adult betel quid chewers from Guam were compared against 1,555 adult tobacco users from Hawaii. These comparisons were made possible because of the deliberate use of identical questionnaire items (mutatis mutandis) for betel quid chewing and cigarette smoking. Smokers reported higher levels of wanting to quit, intending to quit, and wishing they have never started in the first place compared to chewers (p'sbetel quid cessation interventions.

  9. Assessment of periodontal status in smokeless tobacco chewers and nonchewers among industrial workers in North Bengaluru

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    Dinta Kathiriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: More than one-third of the tobacco consumed in India is of smokeless form. While the smokeless tobacco (ST products have been strongly associated with oral cancer, the association between ST and periodontal disease is less clear. The present study was conducted on industrial workers because in premises, there is a ban on smoking tobacco and hence workers tend to consume more of ST products. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess periodontal status in ST chewers and nonchewers among industrial workers in North Bengaluru. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 800 industrial workers (400 ST chewers and 400 nonchewers of North Bengaluru. Information regarding ST habits was obtained using the Global Adult Tobacco Survey questionnaire, followed by clinical examination to assess periodontal status using the community periodontal index and attachment loss. The comparison between chewers and nonchewers was done using Pearson's Chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the difference of periodontal status and loss of attachment (LOA between chewers and nonchewers. Results: ST chewing habit was observed the maximum (46.5% among age group 25–44 years. Most of male chewers had habit of chewing gutkha followed by khaini, and majority of the female chewers were using khaini followed by betel nut quid. A significantly higher prevalence of bleeding on probing and calculus was found among nonchewers. ST chewers had 2.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.55–2.75 times more risk of developing periodontal pockets and 2.23 (95% CI: 1.68–2.98 times more risk of having LOA when compared with nonchewers. Conclusions: ST has deleterious effects on the periodontium. Hence, it is one of the important risk factors for periodontal disease.

  10. Lesions of uncertain malignant potential in the breast (B3): what do we know?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purushothaman, H.N.; Lekanidi, K.; Shousha, S.; Wilson, R.

    2016-01-01

    Breast lesions classified as of uncertain malignant potential (B3) on biopsy form a diverse group of abnormalities, which pose a diagnostic and management challenge. In this paper, we discuss the imaging and pathology features as well as the management of the most controversial B3 lesions, consisting of papillary lesions, complex sclerosing lesions/radial scars, lobular intraepithelial neoplasia, and atypical epithelial proliferation of ductal type. As there is an association with malignancy at the time of diagnosis, as well as an increase in the risk of subsequent development of cancer, a multidisciplinary discussion is almost always required to tailor treatment.

  11. The role of hypoxia in oral cancer and potentially malignant disorders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujan, Omar; Shearston, Kate; Farah, Camile S

    2017-04-01

    Oral and oropharyngeal cancer are major health problems globally with over 500 000 new cases diagnosed annually. Despite the fact that oral cancer is a preventable disease and has the potential for early detection, the overall survival rate remains at around 50%. Most oral cancer cases are preceded by a group of clinical lesions designated 'potentially malignant disorders'. It is difficult to predict if and when these lesions may transform to malignancy, and in turn it is difficult to agree on appropriate management strategies. Understanding underlying molecular pathways would help in predicting the malignant transformation of oral potentially malignant disorders and ultimately identifying effective methods for early detection and prevention of oral cancer. Reprogramming energy metabolism is an emerging hallmark of cancer that is predominantly controlled by hypoxia-induced genes regulating angiogenesis, tumour vascularization, invasion, drug resistance and metastasis. This review aims to highlight the role of hypoxia in oral carcinogenesis and to suggest future research implications in this arena. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. MCM-2 expression differentiates potentially malignant verrucous lesions from oral carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, Kochli Channappa; Sarathy, Niharika Abhay; Alrani, Devendra

    2018-03-13

    Mcm-2 is a biomarker belonging to Mcm family of proteins which has rarely been used in oral potentially malignant and malignant lesions of the verrucous type. The objective of this study is to assess the expression of Mcm-2 in Normal Oral Mucosa (NM), Verrucous Hyperplasia (VH), Verrucous Carcinoma (VC) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) and compare it with the clinicopathological characteristics. A total of 70 formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples (10 cases of Normal Mucosa NM- Group A, 10 cases of Verrucous Hyperplasia- VH without Dysplasia- Group B, 10 cases of Verrucous Hyperplasia- VH with Dysplasia- Group C, 20 cases of Verrucous Carcinoma VC-Group D, 20 cases of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma OSCC- Group E) were subjected to immunohistochemistry with Mcm-2 antibody. Statistical analysis was carried out with various tests like ANOVA, Tukey HSD, Chi-Square and Shapiro-Wilk test by using the SPSS software. There was a significant difference in Mcm-2 expression with quantitative analysis among all the groups (p Mcm-2 may be a sensitive proliferation marker in oral potentially malignant and malignant lesions which may be useful for differentiating between VH with/ without dysplasia, VC and OSCC. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Salivary ascorbic acid levels in betel quid chewers: A biochemical study

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    Shishir R Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quid chewing practice has been a part of our tradition since centuries with little known evidence of oral cancer. However, recent trends show a rise in occurrence of oral cancer often associated with tobacco and arecanut usage. Ascorbic acid is an important salivary antioxidant. Betel leaf which is used in quid is known to contain ascorbic acid. Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the salivary levels of ascorbic acid in traditional quid chewers so as to determine whether the betel leaf has protective antioxidant action. Materials and Methods: Salivary ascorbic acid levels of 60 subjects were estimated using the Dinitrophenyl hydrazine method. Results: The results revealed that quid chewers who used betel leaf had higher salivary ascorbic acid content compared to nonbetel leaf quid chewers. This could possibly be due to the protective antioxidants in the betel leaf.

  14. Salivary ascorbic acid levels in betel quid chewers: A biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shishir R; Babu, Subhas; Kumari, Suchetha; Prasad, Rajendra; Bhat, Supriya; Fazil, K A

    2013-07-01

    Quid chewing practice has been a part of our tradition since centuries with little known evidence of oral cancer. However, recent trends show a rise in occurrence of oral cancer often associated with tobacco and arecanut usage. Ascorbic acid is an important salivary antioxidant. Betel leaf which is used in quid is known to contain ascorbic acid. The aim of our study was to assess the salivary levels of ascorbic acid in traditional quid chewers so as to determine whether the betel leaf has protective antioxidant action. Salivary ascorbic acid levels of 60 subjects were estimated using the Dinitrophenyl hydrazine method. The results revealed that quid chewers who used betel leaf had higher salivary ascorbic acid content compared to nonbetel leaf quid chewers. This could possibly be due to the protective antioxidants in the betel leaf.

  15. Galectin-3 as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Tumors Arising from Malignant Endothelia

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    Kim D. Johnson

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcoma (ASA in humans, hemangiosarcoma (HSA in dogs are deadly neoplastic diseases characterized by an aggressive growth of malignant cells with endothelial phenotype, widespread metastasis, poor response to chemotherapy. Galectin-3 (Gal-3, a p-galactoside-binding lectin implicated in tumor progression, metastasis, endothelial cell biology, angiogenesis, regulation of apoptosis, neoplastic cell response to cytotoxic drugs, has not been studied before in tumors arising from malignant endothelia. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Gal-3 could be widely expressed in human ASA, canine HSA, could play an important role in malignant endothelial cell biology. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that 100% of the human ASA (10 of 10, canine HSA (17 of 17 samples analyzed expressed Gal-3. Two carbohydrate-based Gal-3 inhibitors, modified citrus pectin (MCP, lactulosyl-l-leucine (LL, caused a dose-dependent reduction of SVR murine ASA cell clonogenic survival through the inhibition of Gal-3 antiapoptotic function. Furthermore, both MCP, LL sensitized SVR cells to the cytotoxic drug doxorubicin to a degree sufficient to reduce the in vitro IC50 of doxorubicin by 10.7-fold, 3.64old, respectively. These results highlight the important role of Gal-3 in the biology of ASA, identify Gal-3 as a potential therapeutic target in tumors arising from malignant endothelial cells.

  16. Primary intraosseous smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential: original report and molecular characterization

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    Lauren Kropp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of primary intraosseous smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP which is analogous to borderline malignant uterine smooth muscle tumors so designated. The tumor presented in the femur of an otherwise healthy 30-year-old woman. Over a 3-year period, the patient underwent 11 biopsies or resections and 2 cytologic procedures. Multiple pathologists reviewed the histologic material including musculoskeletal pathologists but could not reach a definitive diagnosis. However, metastases eventually developed and were rapidly progressive and responsive to gemcitabine and docetaxel. Molecular characterization and ultrastructural analysis was consistent with smooth muscle origin, and amplification of unmutated chromosome 12p and 12q segments appears to be the major genomic driver of this tumor. Primary intraosseous STUMP is thought to be genetically related to leiomyosarcoma of bone, but likely representing an earlier stage of carcinogenesis. Wide excision and aggressive followup is warranted for this potentially life-threatening neoplasm.

  17. Primary Intraosseous Smooth Muscle Tumor of Uncertain Malignant Potential: Original Report and Molecular Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Lauren; Siegal, Gene P; Frampton, Garrett M; Rodriguez, Michael G; McKee, Svetlana; Conry, Robert M

    2016-11-17

    We report the first case of primary intraosseous smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) which is analogous to borderline malignant uterine smooth muscle tumors so designated. The tumor presented in the femur of an otherwise healthy 30-year-old woman. Over a 3-year period, the patient underwent 11 biopsies or resections and 2 cytologic procedures. Multiple pathologists reviewed the histologic material including musculoskeletal pathologists but could not reach a definitive diagnosis. However, metastases eventually developed and were rapidly progressive and responsive to gemcitabine and docetaxel. Molecular characterization and ultrastructural analysis was consistent with smooth muscle origin, and amplification of unmutated chromosome 12p and 12q segments appears to be the major genomic driver of this tumor. Primary intraosseous STUMP is thought to be genetically related to leiomyosarcoma of bone, but likely representing an earlier stage of carcinogenesis. Wide excision and aggressive follow-up is warranted for this potentially life-threatening neoplasm.

  18. Expression of cytokeratin 18 and 19 in oral potentially malignant disorders: A systematic review

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    Sam Prasad Prabakaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to evaluate the expression of cytokeratin 18 and 19 in oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD. Systematic review was performed using Medline and PubMed. Hand searches were taken from the back references. Articles published till 15 July 2014 were included in the search. The search yielded a total of 20 articles, out of which 16 articles were eliminated, as they did not fulfill the inclusion criteria and 4 articles were included for the final analysis. The available literature showed that cytokeratin 18 and 19 were expressed in all OPMDs. The level of expression varied among different oral, potentially malignant disorders and among different studies.

  19. Treatment resistance in potentially malignant disorders-'Nature' or 'Nurture'…?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, P J; Goodson, M L; Smith, D R

    2017-11-01

    Contemporary potentially malignant disorder management is based upon provisional histological diagnosis followed by interventional surgery to excise or ablate 'high-risk' mucosal lesions. Although the majority of patients achieve disease-free status post-treatment, others develop further or persistent disease unresponsive to intervention. A detailed, retrospective clinico-pathological review of treatment resistant potentially malignant lesions, from a 590 patient cohort treated by CO 2 laser surgery and followed for a mean of 7.3 years, was undertaken. Clinical outcome was determined at study census date (31 December 2014). A total of 87 patients (15%) exhibited PMD disease resistant to treatment: 34 (6%) became disease free following further treatment, whilst 53 (9%) had persistent disease despite intervention. Disease-free patients were younger, changed lesion appearance from erythroleukoplakia to leukoplakia (P = .004), developed further lesions at new sites, demonstrated reduction in dysplasia severity with time and required multiple treatments to achieve disease-free status (P = .0005). In contrast, persistent disease patients were older, male, often presented with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) on gingival and alveolar sites, displayed less severe dysplasia initially and underwent laser ablation rather than excision (P = .027). Despite clinico-pathological profiling of treatment resistant patients, the precise inter-relationship between the inherent nature of potentially malignant disease and the external influence of treatment intervention remains obscure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effect of curcumin in reducing burning sensation in potentially malignant disorders of oral cavity

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    Nitin Nigam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Curcumin, chemically named as diferuloylmethane is a yellow coloured pigment which shows anti inflammatory, antioxidant, pro apoptotic, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. It suppresses cyclooxygenase, lipooxygenase and other inflammatory mediators and destroys free radicals. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of curcumin in reducing the burning sensation in potentially malignant disorders of oral cavity. Materials and Methods: 100 subjects diagnosed clinically with potentially malignant disorders of oral cavity were included in this study. The patients were administered commercially available turmeric systemically and topical application of turmeric and honey was advised. Their burning sensation on VAS scale was evaluated after 15 days, and the data was then statistically analysed by Wilcoxon sign rank test. Results: After the treatment there was a significant decrease in VAS scale. The median showed decrease from 7 to 4. The mean value also showed decrease from 6.91 to 3.98. Conclusion: Hence, it is concluded that turmeric and honey showed positive results in reducing burning sensation in potentially malignant disorders of oral cavity.

  1. Disparities in risky sexual behavior among khat chewer and non- chewer college students in Southern Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Eyasu; Tura, Gurmesa; Alemu, Tsedach; Andarge, Eshetu

    2018-04-27

    Risky sexual behavior (RSB) and its consequence among school adolescents and youths have been well understood. It is still a common practice among college and university students living away from their controlling families compounded with the ever-worsening khat chewing habits. However, the relation between khat chewing and RSB is not well studied particularly among college students in Ethiopia. Hence, this study contributes to the literature by examining disparities of RSB among khat chewer and non-chewer students in Southern Ethiopia with the purpose of improving adolescent and youth health. An institution-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 1211 college students at Arba Minch town in March 2015. Respondents were selected by employing a simple random sampling technique. Data was collected by using a pre-tested, structured, self- administered questionnaire. The data was entered into Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics version 21. Level of statistical significance was declared at a p- value of pornographic movies (AOR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.79,3.51), khat chewing (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI:=1.91,4.76) and alcohol drinking (AOR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.54,3.35) were factors associated with RSB. Considerable proportions of students were engaged in khat chewing and RSB. RSB was significantly higher among khat chewers as compared to non- chewers. Comprehensive sexuality education was recommended to college communities and by extension to the ministry of health and education to address the identified factors so that RSB can be reshaped.

  2. Diagnostic criteria of well differentiated thyroid tumor of uncertain malignant potential; a histomorphological and immunohistochemical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Fatma El-Zahraa Salah El-Deen

    2015-06-01

    Well differentiated thyroid tumor of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP) represents a true "gray zone" of "follicular patterned" thyroid lesions, that needs to be characterized in order to outright the diagnosis of carcinoma and avoid unnecessary aggressive treatment. To emphasize on the histomorphological criteria for more accurate diagnosis of WDT-UMP. Also to compare the immunohistochemical expression of CK19 of WDT-UMP versus adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The study included 60 thyroid specimens; 18 WDT-UMPs, 24 PTC (18 classic variant and 6 follicular variants) and 18 benign thyroid lesions (8 adenoma, 6 Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 4 hyperplastic nodules). H&E stained sections were assessed according to the published major and minor criteria of malignancy in the thyroid. CK 19 immunostaining was examined and evaluated according to the proportion and intensity scores. We could detect the absence of nuclear inclusions, presence of characteristic nuclear groove, nuclear clearing, ovoid nuclei, nuclear crowdness, nuclear enlargement and pleomorphism as important reliable features for diagnosis of WDT-UMP with p value (<0.0001 for each). WDT-UMP showed moderate to strong CK 19 immunostaining with proportion scores 3 and 4; an intermediate expression profile; higher than adenoma and less than papillary carcinoma (p<0.0001). The constellations of both major and minor criteria of malignancy are important clues for WDT-UMP diagnosis which could be ascertained by CK 19 immunostaining. Copyright © 2015. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Podoplanin expression in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A G, Deepa; Janardanan-Nair, Bindu; B R, Varun

    2017-12-01

    Podoplanin is a type I transmembrane sialomucin-like glycoprotein that is specifically expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells. Studies have shown that assessment of podoplanin expression in the epithelial cells can be used to predict the malignant transformation of potentially malignant disorders and the metastatic tendency of primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of our study was to compare the expression of podoplanin in oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma with that in normal buccal mucosa by immunohistochemical methods. Immunohistochemical expression of podoplanin was analyzed in 20 cases each of oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, oral squamous cell carcinoma and normal buccal mucosa, with monoclonal antibody D2-40. The expression of podoplanin was graded from grade 0-4. There was a statistically significant upregulation of the grades of podoplanin expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma(100%), oral submucous fibrosis (90%) and oral leukoplakia (65%) when compared to that in normal mucosa(35%). Podoplanin expression increased with decrease in grades of differentiation in oral squamous cell carcinoma . Podoplanin expression in the samples of oral submucous fibrosis was higher than that in oral leukoplakia. Evaluation of podoplanin expression in the epithelial cells of oral dysplastic lesions may provide valuable information to predict their risk of malignant transformation. Key words: Immunohistochemistry, Oral leukoplakia, Oral submucous fibrosis, Podoplanin, Squamous cell carcinoma.

  4. Immunohistochemical expression of ezrin in oral potentially malignant disorders-A descriptive study

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    Raghini Mohanraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ezrin, also known as cytovillin, is a member of the ERM family of protein. Ezrin cross-links actin filament with the plasma membrane. They are involved in the formation of microvilli, cell–cell adhesion, maintenance of cell shape, cell motility, and membrane trafficking. Recent analysis reveals their involvement in signaling pathways. Ezrin is highly expressed in several types of human cancers, and correlation between its immunoreactivity and histopathological data as well as the patient outcome has previously been studied. Objective: The objective of the study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression pattern of ezrin in oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs, namely, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF with different grades and clinically leucoplakia (hyperkeratosis with various degree of dysplasia and its use as a predictive marker for malignant transformation. Subjects and Methods: Sample size n = 43, histopathologically confirmed cases of OPMDs (13 cases of OSMF with different grades and 30 cases of clinically leukoplakia were retrieved from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Immunohistochemistry was done using anti-ezrin antibody, and the expression was graded in terms of proportion and intensity. Results: There was a significant expression of ezrin in OPMDs, and its cytoplasmic shift can be used as a predictive marker for malignant transformation. Conclusion: The findings of the current study revealed that the expression of ezrin in OPMDs may be related to the progression of the disease.

  5. Minimal invasive biopsy results of 'uncertain malignant potential' in digital mammography screening. High prevalence but also high predictive value for malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigel, S.; Heindel, W.; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster; Decker, T.; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster; Korsching, E.; Biesheuvel, C.; Woestmann, A.; Boecker, W.; Hungermann, D.; Roterberg, K.; Tio, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the rate, the histological spectrum and the positive predictive value (PPV) for malignancy of minimally invasive biopsies with 'uncertain malignant potential (B3)' in digital mammography screening. Methods and Materials: Consecutive data of 37 178 participants of one digital unit of the German screening program were included. Results: The B 3 rate was 15.1 % (148/979). The frequencies of lesion subtypes were as follows: atypical epithelial proliferation of ductal type (AEPDT) 35.1 % (52/148), radial scar (RS) 28.4 % (42/148), papillary lesions (PAP) 20.3 % (30/148), lobular carcinoma in situ 8.8 % (13/148), flat epithelial atypia 5.4 % (8/148), and mucocele-like lesions 2.0 % (3/148). The PPV for malignancy in surgical excisions was overall 0.28 (25/91); in detail 0.40 (19/47) for AEPDT, 0.20 (5/25) for RS, 0.08 (1/12) for PAP. Conclusion: Despite a higher B 3 rate of minimally invasive biopsies with 'uncertain malignant potential' in digital screening, the benign surgical biopsy rate is not disproportionally increased compared with analog screening programs. Together with defined management protocols, this results in an increased cancer detection rate per screening participant with surgical excision. (orig.)

  6. Minimal invasive biopsy results of 'uncertain malignant potential' in digital mammography screening. High prevalence but also high predictive value for malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, S.; Heindel, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Decker, T. [Dietrich Bonhoeffer Klinikum, Neubrandenburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Korsching, E. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Bioinformatik; Biesheuvel, C.; Woestmann, A.; Boecker, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Hungermann, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Gerhard-Domagk-Inst. fuer Pathologie; Roterberg, K.; Tio, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Bereich Senologie

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the rate, the histological spectrum and the positive predictive value (PPV) for malignancy of minimally invasive biopsies with 'uncertain malignant potential (B3)' in digital mammography screening. Methods and Materials: Consecutive data of 37 178 participants of one digital unit of the German screening program were included. Results: The B 3 rate was 15.1 % (148/979). The frequencies of lesion subtypes were as follows: atypical epithelial proliferation of ductal type (AEPDT) 35.1 % (52/148), radial scar (RS) 28.4 % (42/148), papillary lesions (PAP) 20.3 % (30/148), lobular carcinoma in situ 8.8 % (13/148), flat epithelial atypia 5.4 % (8/148), and mucocele-like lesions 2.0 % (3/148). The PPV for malignancy in surgical excisions was overall 0.28 (25/91); in detail 0.40 (19/47) for AEPDT, 0.20 (5/25) for RS, 0.08 (1/12) for PAP. Conclusion: Despite a higher B 3 rate of minimally invasive biopsies with 'uncertain malignant potential' in digital screening, the benign surgical biopsy rate is not disproportionally increased compared with analog screening programs. Together with defined management protocols, this results in an increased cancer detection rate per screening participant with surgical excision. (orig.)

  7. Strategies to Genetically Modulate Dendritic Cells to Potentiate Anti-Tumor Responses in Hematologic Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelisa M. Cornel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC vaccination has been investigated as a potential strategy to target hematologic malignancies, while generating sustained immunological responses to control potential future relapse. Nonetheless, few clinical trials have shown robust long-term efficacy. It has been suggested that a combination of surmountable shortcomings, such as selection of utilized DC subsets, DC loading and maturation strategies, as well as tumor-induced immunosuppression may be targeted to maximize anti-tumor responses of DC vaccines. Generation of DC from CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs may provide potential in patients undergoing allogeneic HSPC transplantations for hematologic malignancies. CD34+ HSPC from the graft can be genetically modified to optimize antigen presentation and to provide sufficient T cell stimulatory signals. We here describe beneficial (gene-modifications that can be implemented in various processes in T cell activation by DC, among which major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I and MHC class II presentation, DC maturation and migration, cross-presentation, co-stimulation, and immunosuppression to improve anti-tumor responses.

  8. Mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis of "uncertain malignant potential" - an evolving concept: case report and review of the literature

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    Yilmaz Asli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis is a rare neoplasm, typically demonstrating frankly malignant morphology and aggressive behavior. Rare cases of well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas have also been reported, which, in contrast, demonstrate indolent behavior. There are, however, cases which do not fit into the well-differentiated or diffuse malignant mesothelioma categories and can be considered mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis of "uncertain malignant potential", which is an emerging diagnostic category. A 57-year-old man presented with a neoplasm in a hydrocele sac. The neoplasm was non-invasive, but showed focal complex and solid growth and it was difficult to categorize either as well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas or malignant mesothelioma. After the initial limited resection, the patient underwent radical orchiectomy with hemiscrotectomy and is alive and without disease progression after 6 years. Documentation of these rare tumors will allow their distinction from true malignant mesotheliomas and will facilitate the development of specific treatment recommendations.

  9. Estimation of serum, salivary immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A levels and total protein, hemoglobin in smokeless tobacco chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients

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    Chandrakanth Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a debilitating, potentially cancerous oral condition. Although areca nut is the most important causative agent, it is also considered that the disease is immunologically mediated. Aim of the Study: To establish that autoimmunity and nutritional deficiency play a role in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Objectives of the Study: To show that serum immunoglobulin markers (immunoglobulin-G [IgG], immunoglobulin-A [IgA] and nutritional parameters such as total serum protein (TSP, Hemoglobin (Hb play a role in causing OSMF and also to correlate serum, salivary IgG, IgA levels in OSMF patients. Settings and Design: A case-control study was done with 50 patients (25 patients who were provisionally diagnosed as OSMF - Group I, and 25 patients who were chronic smokeless tobacco chewers and who did not have any intraoral lesion - Group II. Materials and Methods: Five milliliters of blood and saliva were collected from both the groups. Quantitative analysis of serum, and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hemoglobin (Hb were estimated by spectrophotometry. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed by independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: All patients of OSMF showed significant (P < 0.01 increase in serum IgG, IgA, and salivary IgG levels as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. The salivary IgA levels showed a significant decrease in OSMF patients (P < 0.05. TSP and Hb levels showed significant (P < 0.01 decrease in OSMF patients as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. Conclusion: The elevation of immunoglobulin levels supports the concept of autoimmunity. The decrease in TSP and Hb suggests that nutritional deficiency plays a defined role in the occurrence as well as a further progression of OSMF.

  10. Mapping brain functional alterations in betel-quid chewers using resting-state fMRI and network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jun-Cheng; Chou, Yu-Syuan; Huang, Guo-Joe; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Ho, Ming-Chou

    2018-04-01

    The World Health Organization regards betel quid (BQ) as a human carcinogen, and DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence symptoms may develop with its heavy use. BQ's possible effects of an enhanced reward system and disrupted inhibitory control may increase the likelihood of habitual substance use. The current study aimed to employ resting-state fMRI to examine the hypothesized enhanced reward system (e.g., the basal forebrain system) and disrupted inhibitory control (e.g., the prefrontal system) in BQ chewers. The current study recruited three groups of 48 male participants: 16 BQ chewers, 15 tobacco- and alcohol-user controls, and 17 healthy controls. We used functional connectivity (FC), mean fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (mfALFF), and mean regional homogeneity (mReHo) to evaluate functional alternations in BQ chewers. Graph theoretical analysis (GTA) and network-based statistical (NBS) analysis were also performed to identify the functional network differences among the three groups. Our hypothesis was partially supported: the enhanced reward system for the BQ chewers (e.g., habitual drug-seeking behavior) was supported; however, their inhibitory control was relatively preserved. In addition, we reported that the BQ chewers may have enhanced visuospatial processing and decreased local segregation. The current results (showing an enhanced reward system in the chewers) provided the clinicians with important insight for the future development of an effective abstinence treatment.

  11. Aberrant proteins featured in the saliva of habitual betel quid chewers: an indication of early oral premalignancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie, Kala; Jayapalan, Jaime Jacqueline; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2014-12-01

    Prolonged chewing of betel quid is known to cause oral diseases, including cancer. The present study was performed to screen for aberrant proteins in the saliva of habitual betel quid chewers compared to nonchewers. Saliva of female subjects (n = 10) who had been chewing betel quid for more than 20 years and nonbetel quid chewers (n = 10) of the same gender and range of age was analyzed by gel-based proteomics. Increased structural microheterogeneity of saliva haptoglobin beta chains indicated by shifts of focused spots similar to that earlier reported in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, and their relatively higher abundance compared to nonbetel quid chewers, were detected in saliva protein profiles of all chewers. In addition, the majority of the betel quid chewers also showed significant higher abundance of hemopexin, alpha-1B glycoprotein, alpha1-antitrypsin, complement C3, and transthyretin. These proteins had previously been associated with several different cancers. Our data demonstrated different forms of protein aberration in the saliva of betel quid chewers, which may be indicative of early oral precancerous conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Genetic Background of Iris Melanomas and Iris Melanocytic Tumors of Uncertain Malignant Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Poppelen, Natasha M; Vaarwater, Jolanda; Mudhar, Hardeep S; Sisley, Karen; Rennie, Ian G; Rundle, Paul; Brands, Tom; van den Bosch, Quincy C C; Mensink, Hanneke W; de Klein, Annelies; Kiliç, Emine; Verdijk, Robert M

    2018-01-19

    BAP1 expression as seen in choroidal melanoma. Consequently, iris melanoma is a distinct molecular subgroup of UM. Histologic borderline malignant iris nevi can harbor BAP1 mutations and may be designated iris melanocytic tumors of uncertain malignant potential. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunohistochemical Differentiation between Urothelial Papillomas and Papillary Neoplasms of Low Malignant Potential of the Urinary Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashidy, Mohammed; Atef, Aliaa; Baky, Tarek Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Urothelial papilloma and non-invasive papillary carcinoma are common neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Distinguishing papillomas and papillary carcinomas, especially the low grade type, is often debatable on the basis of histological features alone. We investigated immunohistochemical expression of cytokeratin 20 (CK20), p53, and Ki-67 in a group of 20 urothelial papilloma cases and 30 noninvasive papillary neoplasms of low malignant potential (PNLMP) of the urinary bladder. Whole tissue sections were examined. Among the 30 carcinoma cases, 12 (40%) showed strong reactivity for the whole panel, 16 (53%) reacted positively for two markers, and 2 (7%) reacted just to one of them. Ki-67 was considered positive in 27 cases (90%) and p53 in 24 (80%), CK20 showed positive reactivity in 21 cases (70%). Only small percentages of papillomas were positive, and then only weakly. We concluded that the intense positivity of suspicious cells for at least one of these markers would confirm the presence of malignant changes and favours the diagnosis of carcinoma.

  14. The probability of malignancy in small pulmonary nodules coexisting with potentially operable lung cancer detected by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yue; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Hiyama, Atsuto; Miura, Goji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Emoto, Takuya; Kawamura, Takeo; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the probability of malignancy in one or two small nodules 1 cm or less coexisting with potentially operable lung cancer (coexisting small nodules). The preoperative helical CT scans of 223 patients with lung cancer were retrospectively reviewed. The probability of malignancy of coexisting small nodules was evaluated based on nodule size, location, and clinical stage of the primary lung cancers. Seventy-one coexisting small nodules were found on conventional CT in 58 (26%) of 223 patients, and 14 (6%) patients had malignant nodules. Eighteen (25%) of such nodules were malignant. The probability of malignancy was not significantly different between two groups of nodules larger and smaller than 0.5 cm (p=0.1). The probability of malignancy of such nodules within primary tumor lobe was significantly higher than that in the other lobes (p<0.01). Metastatic nodules were significantly fewer in clinical stage-IA patients than in the patients with the other stage (p<0.01); however, four (57%) of seven synchronous lung cancers were located in the non-primary tumor lobes in the clinical stage-I patients. Malignant coexisting small nodules are not infrequent, and such nodules in the non-primary tumor lobes should be carefully diagnosed. (orig.)

  15. Salivary caries parameters: Comparative study among Yemeni khat chewers and nonchewers

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Rashad Al-Alimi; Abdul Aziz Abdul Razak; Roslan Saub

    2014-01-01

    Background/purpose: Millions of people in Yemen and East African countries chew khat for more than 5 hours daily for its amphetamine-like effects. Previous studies have associated khat chewing with salivary glands enlargement, inflammation, and xerostomia. However, no information is available on the possible effects of this habit on salivary parameters. This comparative study aims to evaluate salivary parameters, such as salivary flow rate, pH, and viscosity among Yemeni khat chewers and nonc...

  16. Acute effects of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers

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    Vikas Thakran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term adverse cardiovascular effects of smokeless tobacco are well established, however, the effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamic have not been studied. We intended to analyze the acute effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Materials and Methods: We prospectively enrolled seven habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease with single vessel disease or double vessel disease satisfying the criteria for elective PCI. Patients were instructed to keep 1 g of crushed dried tobacco leaves in the mouth after a successful PCI. Lesion in last stented vessels was evaluated for fractional flow reserve (FFR, coronary flow reserve (CFR, and index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR post-PCI, after 15 min and 30 min of tobacco chewing along with the measurement of serum cotinine levels. Results: Oral tobacco led to high levels of cotinine in the majority of patients. There was an insignificant rise in heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure following tobacco consumption. Baseline CFR (median 1.6, range 1.1–5.5 was low in tobacco chewers after PCI even after optimum FFR (0.9 ± 0.05 in the majority of patients suggesting abnormal microvascular hemodynamics (high IMR in 3 patients, overall median 14.2, range 7–36.2. However, there was no significant change in the estimated CFR or IMR values following tobacco chewing. One patient had bradycardia and hypotension which may be related to vagal reaction or acute nicotine poisoning. Conclusion: Tobacco chewers have abnormal coronary microcirculation hemodynamics even following a successful PCI. However, the coronary micocirculation and hemodynamics do not change acutely following tobacco chewing despite high serum cotinine concentrations.

  17. Potential of the Dietary Antioxidants Resveratrol and Curcumin in Prevention and Treatment of Hematologic Malignancies

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    Marc Diederich

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable improvements in the tolerance and efficacy of novel chemotherapeutic agents, the mortality of hematological malignancies is still high due to therapy relapse, which is associated with bad prognosis. Dietary polyphenolic compounds are of growing interest as an alternative approach, especially in cancer treatment, as they have been proven to be safe and display strong antioxidant properties. Here, we provide evidence that both resveratrol and curcumin possess huge potential for application as both chemopreventive agents and anticancer drugs and might represent promising candidates for future treatment of leukemia. Both polyphenols are currently being tested in clinical trials. We describe the underlying mechanisms, but also focus on possible limitations and how they might be overcome in future clinical use – either by chemically synthesized derivatives or special formulations that improve bioavailability and pharmacokinetics.

  18. Evaluation of Potential Risk Factors that contribute to Malignant Transformation of Oral Lichen Planus: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Sheykhbahaei, Nafiseh; SadrZadeh-Afshar, Maryam-Sadat

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have suggested that a lesion originally diagnosed as oral lichen planus (OLP) has different possibilities of undergoing malignant transformation in time, although these findings remain a controversial issue; for example, some studies reported different values of potential malignancy of OLP. World Health Organization (WHO) classifies OLP as a "potentially malignant disorder" with unspecified malignant transformation risk, and suggests that OLP patients should be closely monitored. Numerous studies have attempted to confirm the malignant transformation potential of OLP. The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline and EMBASE databases, PubMed, Google Scholar, Ovid, Up To Date, BMJ Clinical Evidence, MD Consult, and Science Direct were searched for papers published between 1997 and 2015. The medical subject heading search terms were "lichen planus," "oral lichen planus," "erosive oral lichen planus," "dysplasia," "oral precancerous condition," "oral premalignant condition," oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and atrophic lichen planus. A total of 120 English language abstracts were reviewed, and 50 relevant articles identified. Because of the extensive literature on the association between OLP and SCC, we have divided the data into genetic and non-genetic factors for more accurate assessment. In this evidence base, malignant transformation ranges from 0 to 37% with a mean of 4.59%. The highest rate of malignancy was noted in erythematosus and erosive lesions. In this way, follow-up of OLP patients could be carried out more efficiently and appropriately. Oral lichen planus is a premalignant lesion. All types of OLP in any site of oral mucosa must be monitored regularly.

  19. Expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in oral potentially malignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalley, Andrew J; Pitty, Luke P; Major, Aidan G; AbdulMajeed, Ahmad A; Farah, Camile S

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis is vital for effective treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The optimal time for clinical intervention is prior to malignancy when patients present with oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia or erythroplakia. Transformation rates for oral dysplasia vary greatly and more rigorous methods are needed to predict the malignant potential of oral lesions. We hypothesized that the expression of two putative stem cell markers, ABCG2 and Bmi-1, would correlate with disease severity for non diseased, potentially malignant and OSCC specimens and cell lines derived from an equivalent range of tissues. We compared immunoreactive protein and relative gene expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in eight cell lines derived from source tissues ranging in disease severity from normal (OKF6-TERT2) through mild and moderate/severe dysplasia (DOK, POE-9n) to OSCC (PE/CA-PJ15, SCC04, SCC25, SCC09, SCC15). We also analyzed immunoreactive protein expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in 189 tissue samples with the same range of disease severity. A trend between oral lesion severity to ABCG2 and Bmi-1 immunostain intensity was observed. Flow cytometry of oral cell lines confirmed this trend and gave good correlation with RT-PCR results for ABCG2 (r = 0.919, P = 0.001; Pearson) but not Bmi-1 (r = −0.311). The results provide evidence of increased density of ABCG2 and Bmi-1-positive populations in malignant and oral potentially malignant lesions and derived cell lines, but that intragroup variability within IHC, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR results compromise the diagnostic potential of these techniques for discriminating oral dysplasia from normal tissue or OSCC

  20. Expression of podoplanin in oral premalignant and malignant lesions and its potential as a biomarker

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    J Logeswari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The podoplanin may be considered as a predictor marker in assessing malignant transformation of premalignancies and prognosis of oral malignancy. Indeed it is believed that podoplanin might play a role in tumor progression though exact mechanism is not fully elucidated. Further research is required to understand its exact pathophysiology.

  1. Mutational Profiling of Malignant Mesothelioma Revealed Potential Therapeutic Targets in EGFR and NRAS

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    Jeong Eun Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pemetrexed and platinum (PP combination chemotherapy is the current standard first-line therapy for treatment of malignant mesothelioma (MM. However, a useful predictive biomarker for PP therapy is yet to be found. Here, we performed targeted exome sequencing to profile somatic mutations and copy number variations in 12 MM patients treated with PP therapy. We identified 187 somatic mutations in 12 patients (65 synonymous, 102 missense, 2 nonsense, 5 splice site, and 13 small coding insertions/deletions. We identified somatic mutations in 23 genes including BAP1, TP53, NRAS, and EGFR. Interestingly, rare NRAS p.Q61K and EGFR exon 19 deletions were observed in 2 patients. We also found somatic chromosomal copy number deletions in CDKN2A and CDKN2B genes. Genetic alteration related to response after PP therapy was not found. Somatic mutation profiling in MM patients receiving PP therapy revealed genetic alterations in potential therapeutic targets such as NRAS and EGFR. No alterations in genes with potential predictive role for PP therapy were found.

  2. SFRP Tumour Suppressor Genes Are Potential Plasma-Based Epigenetic Biomarkers for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

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    Yuen Yee Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is associated with asbestos exposure. Asbestos can induce chronic inflammation which in turn can lead to silencing of tumour suppressor genes. Wnt signaling pathway can be affected by chronic inflammation and is aberrantly activated in many cancers including colon and MPM. SFRP genes are antagonists of Wnt pathway, and SFRPs are potential tumour suppressors in colon, gastric, breast, ovarian, and lung cancers and mesothelioma. This study investigated the expression and DNA methylation of SFRP genes in MPM cells lines with and without demethylation treatment. Sixty-six patient FFPE samples were analysed and have showed methylation of SFRP2 (56% and SFRP5 (70% in MPM. SFRP2 and SFRP5 tumour-suppressive activity in eleven MPM lines was confirmed, and long-term asbestos exposure led to reduced expression of the SFRP1 and SFRP2 genes in the mesothelium (MeT-5A via epigenetic alterations. Finally, DNA methylation of SFRPs is detectable in MPM patient plasma samples, with methylated SFRP2 and SFRP5 showing a tendency towards greater abundance in patients. These data suggested that SFRP genes have tumour-suppresive activity in MPM and that methylated DNA from SFRP gene promoters has the potential to serve as a biomarker for MPM patient plasma.

  3. Mutational Profiling of Malignant Mesothelioma Revealed Potential Therapeutic Targets in EGFR and NRAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Deokhoon; Hong, Yong Sang; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Yoon, Young Kwang; Lee, Dae Ho; Kim, Sang-We; Chun, Sung-Min; Jang, Se Jin; Kim, Tae Won

    2018-04-01

    Pemetrexed and platinum (PP) combination chemotherapy is the current standard first-line therapy for treatment of malignant mesothelioma (MM). However, a useful predictive biomarker for PP therapy is yet to be found. Here, we performed targeted exome sequencing to profile somatic mutations and copy number variations in 12 MM patients treated with PP therapy. We identified 187 somatic mutations in 12 patients (65 synonymous, 102 missense, 2 nonsense, 5 splice site, and 13 small coding insertions/deletions). We identified somatic mutations in 23 genes including BAP1, TP53, NRAS, and EGFR. Interestingly, rare NRAS p.Q61K and EGFR exon 19 deletions were observed in 2 patients. We also found somatic chromosomal copy number deletions in CDKN2A and CDKN2B genes. Genetic alteration related to response after PP therapy was not found. Somatic mutation profiling in MM patients receiving PP therapy revealed genetic alterations in potential therapeutic targets such as NRAS and EGFR. No alterations in genes with potential predictive role for PP therapy were found. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chromatin Phenotype Karyometry Can Predict Recurrence in Papillary Urothelial Neoplasms of Low Malignant Potential

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    Rodolfo Montironi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A preceding exploratory study (J. Clin. Pathol. 57(2004, 1201–1207 had shown that a karyometric assessment of nuclei from papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential (PUNLMP revealed subtle differences in phenotype which correlated with recurrence of disease. Aim of the Study: To validate the results from the exploratory study on a larger sample size. Materials: 93 karyometric features were analyzed on haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from 85 cases of PUNLMP. 45 cases were from patients who had a solitary PUNLMP lesion and were disease-free during a follow-up period of at least 8 years. The other 40 were from patients with a unifocal PUNLMP, with one or more recurrences in the follow-up. A combination of the previously defined classification functions together with a new P-index derived classification method was used in an attempt to classify cases and identify a biomarker of recurrence in PUNLMP lesions. Results: Validation was pursued by a number of separate approaches. First, the exact procedure from the exploratory study was applied to the large validation set. Second, since the discriminant function 2 of the exploratory study had been based on a small sample size, a new discriminant function was derived. The case classification showed a correct classification of 61% for non-recurrent and 74% for recurrent cases, respectively. Greater success was obtained by applying unsupervised learning technologies to take advantage of phenotypical composition (correct classification of 92%. This approach was validated by dividing the data into training and test sets with 2/3 of the cases assigned to the training sets, and 1/3 to the test sets, on a rotating basis, and validation of the classification rate was thus tested on three separate data sets by a leave-k-out process. The average correct classification was 92.8% (training set and 84.6% (test set. Conclusions: Our validation study detected subvisual differences in

  5. Profil saliva pada penyirih di Kecamatan Rembon Kabupaten Tana Toraja Salivary profile of betel quid tobacco chewers in District of Rembon, Tana Toraja

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    Marcelina Marcelina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid tobacco (BQT chewing is a process of chewing betel leaves, areca nut, lime, gambier, and tobacco. Chewing and chemical stimulation of BQT can affect the salivary profile. The purpose of this study is to observe the differences of salivary profile such as volume, pH, and salivary inorganic component (Na + and phosphate between BQT chewers and non-chewers. This study is an observation analytic with cross sectional design on 30-60 years old women that live in Rembon district of Tana Toraja (n=96 using cluster random sampling technique. Salivary volume was measured by measured glass, salivary pH was measured by indicator pH (Macherey-Nagel. The content of the salivary inorganic component was seen using atomic absorption spectrophotometer in BPTP Laboratory, Maros. Data were analyzed by t-test and chi square test using SPSS v 15.0. The result were mean of salivary volume (chewers=3.88 ml/10 s; p=0.051. Mean of salivary pH (chewers=6.92; p=0.001. Mean of salivary Na+  (chewers=0.38 ppm; p=0.112, Mg2+ (chewers=11.9 ppm; p=0.002, phosphate (chewers=156.8 ppm; p=0.001, Ca 2+ (chewers=174.8 ppm; p=0.000, K concluded that there was no significant difference on salivary volume, pH, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg(chewers=445.9 ppm; p=0.429. It was +and K+ content between chewers and non chewers, but the content of salivary Mg 2+, Ca2+and phosphate had significant difference.

  6. The Role of Physical Activity in Harm Reduction among Betel Quid Chewers from a Prospective Cohort of 419,378 Individuals.

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    Feng En Lo

    Full Text Available To assess the benefits of regular exercise in reducing harms associated with betel quid (BQ chewing.The study cohort, 419,378 individuals, participated in a medical screening program between 1994 and 2008, with 38,324 male and 1,495 female chewers, who consumed 5-15 quids of BQ a day. Physical activity of each individual, based on "MET-hour/week", was classified as "inactive" or "active", where activity started from a daily 15 minutes/day or more of brisk walking (≥3.75 MET-hour/week. Hazard ratios for mortality and remaining years in life expectancy were calculated.Nearly one fifth (18.7% of men, but only 0.7% of women were chewers. Chewers had a 10-fold increase in oral cancer risk; and a 2-3-fold increase in mortality from lung, esophagus and liver cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, with doubling of all-cause mortality. More than half of chewers were physically inactive (59%. Physical activity was beneficial for chewers, with a reduction of all-cause mortality by 19%. Inactive chewers had their lifespan shortened by 6.3 years, compared to non-chewers, but being active, chewers improved their health by gaining 2.5 years. The improvement, however, fell short of offsetting the harms from chewing.Chewers had serious health consequences, but being physically active, chewers could mitigate some of these adverse effects, and extend life expectancy by 2.5 years and reduce mortality by one fifth. Encouraging exercise, in addition to quitting chewing, remains the best advice for 1.5 million chewers in Taiwan.

  7. Fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity: analysis of 30 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, A L N; Correr, W R; Kurachi, C; Azevedo, L H; Galletta, V K; Pinto, C A L; Kowalski, L P

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is a major health problem worldwide and although early diagnosis of potentially malignant and malignant diseases is associated with better treatment results, a large number of cancers are initially misdiagnosed, with unfortunate consequences for long-term survival. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a noninvasive modality of diagnostic approach using induced fluorescence emission in tumors that can improve diagnostic accuracy. The objective of this study was to determine the ability to discriminate between normal oral mucosa and potentially malignant disorders by fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence investigation under 408 and 532 nm excitation wavelengths was performed on 60 subjects, 30 with potentially malignant disorders and 30 volunteers with normal mucosa. Data was analyzed to correlate fluorescence patterns with clinical and histopathological diagnostics. Fluorescence spectroscopy used as a point measurement technique resulted in a great variety of spectral information. In a qualitative analysis of the fluorescence spectral characteristics of each type of injury evaluated, it was possible to discriminate between normal and abnormal oral mucosa. The results show the potential use of fluorescence spectroscopy for an improved discrimination of oral disorders. (paper)

  8. Predictive Factors of Potential Malignant Transformation in Recurrent Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor: Review of the Literature

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    Sepideh Mokhtari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT demonstrates considerable diversity in histopathology and clinical behavior. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC is the rare malignant counterpart of CCOT and it frequently arises from malignant transformation of a recurrent CCOT. In this paper, we present a case of CCOT and discuss its distinct histopathologic features in recurrence. Then, we will have a review on clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical aspects of GCOC in the literature. Predictive factors of malignant transformation in a benign CCOT will also be discussed.

  9. Biological significance of TERT promoter mutation in papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Chieh; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Jhuang, Yu-Lin; Chen, Chih-Chi; Jeng, Yung-Ming

    2018-04-01

    Mutations in FGFR3 and the promoter region of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene have been found frequently in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder. However, related data for papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP) are limited. In this study, we investigated the mutation status of the TERT promoter, FGFR3 and HRAS in low-grade papillary urothelial neoplasms and evaluated their prognostic significance. The cases included in this study comprised 21 inverted papillomas, 30 PUNLMPs and 34 low-grade non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinomas (NIPUCs). TERT promoter mutations were observed in 10 (33%) PUNLMPs and 17 (50%) low-grade NIPUCs, but not in any inverted papilloma. FGFR3 mutations were observed more frequently in PUNLMP and low-grade NIPUC than in inverted papillomas (P = 0.009), whereas the opposite trend was noted for HRAS mutations (P low-grade NIPUC (P = 0.530). Notably, PUNLMP cases with TERT promoter mutations had a similar recurrence rate to that in low-grade NIPUC cases (P = 0.487). Our results suggest that the status of the TERT promoter mutation may serve as a biomarker of prognostic stratification in patients with PUNLMP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. First International Consensus Conference on lesions of uncertain malignant potential in the breast (B3 lesions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rageth, Christoph J; O'Flynn, Elizabeth Am; Comstock, Christopher; Kurtz, Claudia; Kubik, Rahel; Madjar, Helmut; Lepori, Domenico; Kampmann, Gert; Mundinger, Alexander; Baege, Astrid; Decker, Thomas; Hosch, Stefanie; Tausch, Christoph; Delaloye, Jean-François; Morris, Elisabeth; Varga, Zsuzsanna

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain a consensus for the therapy of B3 lesions. The first International Consensus Conference on lesions of uncertain malignant potential in the breast (B3 lesions) including atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), flat epithelial atypia (FEA), classical lobular neoplasia (LN), papillary lesions (PL), benign phyllodes tumors (PT), and radial scars (RS) took place in January 2016 in Zurich, Switzerland organized by the International Breast Ultrasound School and the Swiss Minimally Invasive Breast Biopsy group-a subgroup of the Swiss Society of Senology. Consensus recommendations for the management and follow-up surveillance of these B3 lesions were developed and areas of research priorities were identified. The consensus recommendation for FEA, LN, PL, and RS diagnosed on core needle biopsy or vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) is to therapeutically excise the lesion seen on imaging by VAB and no longer by open surgery, with follow-up surveillance imaging for 5 years. The consensus recommendation for ADH and PT is, with some exceptions, therapeutic first-line open surgical excision. Minimally invasive management of selected B3 lesions with therapeutic VAB is acceptable as an alternative to first-line surgical excision.

  11. Can Prostate-Specific Antigen Kinetics before Prostate Biopsy Predict the Malignant Potential of Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Jeong, Tae Yoong; Yoo, Dae Seon; Park, Jinsung; Cho, Seok; Kang, Seok Ho; Lee, Sang Hyub; Jeon, Seung Hyun; Lee, Tchun Yong; Park, Sung Yul

    2015-11-01

    To predict the malignant potential of prostate cancer (PCa) according to prostate-specific antigen velocity (PSAV), PSA density (PSAD), free/total PSA ratio (%fPSA), and digital rectal examination (DRE). From January 2009 to December 2012, 548 adult male patients were diagnosed with PCa by prostate biopsy at four hospitals in Korea. We retrospectively analyzed 155 adult male patients with an initial PSA level≤10 ng/mL and whose PSA levels had been checked more than two times at least 6 months before they had been diagnosed with PCa, with test intervals of more than 3 months. Patients with a urinary tract infection, and patients who had previously undergone cystoscopy or surgery of the prostate were excluded. We separated patients into two groups according to Gleason sum [Gleason sum≤7 (n=134) or Gleason sum≥8 (n=21)] and the presence of extracapsular invasion [organ confined (n=129) or extracapsular invasion (n=26)]. Differences between the groups were compared. The group with a Gleason sum≥8 or extracapsular invasion of PCa showed high PSAV and significantly lower %fPSA. There were no significant differences in PSAD and the presence of an abnormality on DRE between two groups. In PCa patients treated with other therapies besides prostatectomy, a high PSA velocity and a low %fPSA may predict high grade PCa with a Gleason sum≥8 or the presence of extracapsular invasion.

  12. Prevalence of oral potentially malignant disorders in workers of Udupi taluk

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    Yeturu Sravan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of oral potentially malignant disorders (PMD among industrial workers of Udupi taluk, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of industrial workers aged >18 years from randomly selected industries in Udupi Taluk. A self-administered questionnaire was given to the participants to assess sociodemographic factors and abusive habits (Tobacco, Alcohol, and Betel quid followed by clinical oral examination by single trained and calibrated examiner. Results: A total of 396 completed all steps of the survey and were included for analysis. A total of 14, 11.4, and 14.4% were tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid users, respectively. A total of 8.6% (n = 34 have at least one PMD. A significantly higher number of participants with single (11.4% or combined habits (60.4% had oral lesions while none of the participants without habits reported any oral lesions (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Prevalence of abusive habits and oral premalignant lesions or conditions was substantial among the workers. The cause and effect relationship and dose-response were also shown to be significantly associated. Prevention and early diagnosis through workplace screening are the major cornerstones for the control of oral cancer.

  13. Screening of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders Using Exfoliative Cytology: A Diagnostic Modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabiraj, A.

    2016-01-01

    Oral exfoliative cytology (OEC) has been implemented in the diagnosis of pathologic lesions for ages. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the cytomorphological features of some of the commonest potentially malignant disorders (leukoplakia, lichen planus, and oral sub mucous fibrosis) through a simple procedure and illustrate its importance in mass screening. Materials and Method. A total of 160 subjects with 25-50 years of age were included in the study. Among them, 40 were clinically diagnosed with oral leukoplakia, 40 were diagnosed with oral lichen planus, 40 were diagnosed with oral sub mucous fibrosis, and 40 were in the control group. The prepared smears were subjected to Papanicolaou stain and analyzed microscopically for the evaluation of the cytomorphological features. Results and Discussion. When analyzed microscopically, 36 (90%) out of the 40 oral leukoplakic lesions showed Class II cytological features whereas 4 (10%) revealed Class I features. Among 40 patients with oral lichen planus, 26 (65%) showed Class II features while the remaining 14 (35%) revealed Class I features. In 40 subjects with oral sub mucous fibrosis, 32 (80%) showed Class II features while the other 8 (20%) showed Class I features. All the 40 control subjects showed Class I features. Thus, OEC can be widely advocated as an addition to clinical conclusion and an adjunct to biopsy.

  14. Cyclin D1 in well differentiated thyroid tumour of uncertain malignant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba Saini, Monika; Weynand, Birgit; Rahier, Jacques; Mourad, Michel; Hamoir, Marc; Marbaix, Etienne

    2015-04-18

    Encapsulated follicular tumours with equivocal papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) type nuclear features continue to remain a challenge despite the recent attempts to classify these borderline lesions. The term 'well differentiated tumour of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP)' was introduced to classify these tumours. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of a cell cycle regulator like cyclin D1 in these tumours along with assessment of other well established PTC markers like galectin-3, HBME-1, CK19. Thirteen cases of metastatic PTC, papillary microcarcinoma and follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC) were identified from a histological review of 510 cases. In addition, 13 cases of a subset of follicular adenomatoid nodules with focal areas showing nuclear features characteristic of PTC, identified as WDT-UMP, were also analyzed. Immunohistochemical analysis of galectin-3, HBME-1, CK19 and the proliferation markers Ki67 and cyclin D1 was performed. Lesions were analyzed for cyclin D1 gene amplification by fluorescent in-situ hybridization. All WDT-UMP lesions showed immunolabelling of cyclin D1, Ki67; 11/ 13 cases showed immunolabelling of CK19; 10/13 cases showed immunolabelling of HBME-1 and 4/13 cases showed immunolabelling of galectin-3. Surrounding benign adenomatoid areas showed no to faint focal staining in all thirteen cases of cyclin D1, HBME-1 and galectin-3. A low rate of cyclin D1 gene amplification was identified in a significant proportion of cells in the WDT-UMP lesions as compared to surrounding benign adenomatoid areas. Increased expression of cyclin D1 and amplification of its gene along with immunolabelling of HBME-1 in WDT-UMP lesions showing cytological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma within follicular adenomatoid nodules suggest that these areas could correspond to a precursor lesion of follicular variant of PTC. Overexpression of cyclin D1, associated with the amplification of the gene suggests that these WDT-UMP lesions are an

  15. Expression of Potential Cancer Stem Cell Marker ABCG2 is Associated with Malignant Behaviors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Guang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite improvement in treatment, the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC remains disastrous. Cancer stem cells (CSCs may be responsible for cancer malignant behaviors. ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, member 2 (ABCG2 is widely expressed in both normal and cancer stem cells and may play an important role in cancer malignant behaviors. Methods. The expression of ABCG2 in HCC tissues and SMMC-7721 cells was examined, and the relevance of ABCG2 expression with clinical characteristics was analyzed. ABCG2+ and ABCG2− cells were sorted, and the potential of tumorigenicity was determined. Expression level of ABCG2 was manipulated by RNA interference and overexpression. Malignant behaviors including proliferation, drug resistance, migration, and invasion were studied in vitro. Results. Expression of ABCG2 was found in a minor group of cells in HCC tissues and cell lines. ABCG2 expression showed tendencies of association with unfavorable prognosis factors. ABCG2 positive cells showed a superior tumorigenicity. Upregulation of ABCG2 enhanced the capacity of proliferation, doxorubicin resistance, migration, and invasion potential, while downregulation of ABCG2 significantly decreased these malignant behaviors. Conclusion. Our results indicate that ABCG2 is a potential CSC marker for HCC. Its expression level has a close relationship with tumorigenicity, proliferation, drug resistance, and metastasis ability.

  16. Salivary ascorbic acid levels in betel quid chewers: A biochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Shishir R.; Babu, Subhas; Kumari, Suchetha; Prasad, Rajendra; Bhat, Supriya; Fazil, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Quid chewing practice has been a part of our tradition since centuries with little known evidence of oral cancer. However, recent trends show a rise in occurrence of oral cancer often associated with tobacco and arecanut usage. Ascorbic acid is an important salivary antioxidant. Betel leaf which is used in quid is known to contain ascorbic acid. Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the salivary levels of ascorbic acid in traditional quid chewers so as to determine whether the b...

  17. Research on curcumin: A meta-analysis of potentially malignant disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Syeda Arshiya; Mudda, Jayashree A; Lingappa, Ashok; Rao, Purushottam

    2016-01-01

    Turmeric has been described in ayurveda, and is referred by different names in different cultures, the active principle called curcumin or diferuloylmethane, has been shown to exhibit numerous activities. Extensive research over the last half century has revealed several important functions of curcumin. It binds to a variety of proteins and inhibits the activity of various kinases. By modulating the activation of various transcription factors, curcumin regulates the expression of inflammatory enzymes, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and cell survival proteins. Various preclinical, clinical, and animal studies suggest that curcumin has potential as an antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and antiangiogenic, as a mediator of chemoresistance, chemopreventive, and as a therapeutic agent. Thus, curcumin a spice once relegated to the kitchen shelf has moved into the clinic and may prove to be "Curecumin." Methodology and Objectives: The focus of this publication is to provide research on curcumin with scientific publications on curcumin indexed in PubMed, Google J-Gate including systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCT's), observational studies, or case series reports for various potentially malignant disorders (PMD's) with special attention to studies on oral submucous fibrosis. This research will be valuable in terms of identifying opportunities to provide recommendations for future research, in terms of the populations to research, the types of interventions needed, the types of outcomes to be measured, the study designs needed, to initiate a pathway for a low-cost research plan for future clinical trials in this field with an emphasis on conducting studies in regions of the world where PMD's are prevalent. There is a lacunae for scientific review of curcumin for PMDs specially on OSMF. Appropriate therapeutic interventions are needed for the initial, intermediate, and advanced stages of the disease. High-quality RCTs should be initiated.

  18. NRF2 Mutation Confers Malignant Potential and Resistance to Chemoradiation Therapy in Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cancer

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    Tatsuhiro Shibata

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal squamous cancer (ESC is one of the most aggressive tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. A combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CRT has improved the clinical outcome, but the molecular background determining the effectiveness of therapy remains unknown. NRF2 is a master transcriptional regulator of stress adaptation, and gain of-function mutation of NRF2 in cancer confers resistance to stressors including anticancer therapy. Direct resequencing analysis revealed that Nrf2 gain-of-function mutation occurred recurrently (18/82, 22% in advanced ESC tumors and ESC cell lines (3/10. The presence of Nrf2 mutation was associated with tumor recurrence and poor prognosis. Short hairpin RNA-mediated down-regulation of NRF2 in ESC cells that harbor only mutated Nrf2 allele revealed that themutant NRF2 conferred increased cell proliferation, attachment-independent survival, and resistance to 5-fluorouracil and γ-irradiation. Based on the Nrf2 mutation status, gene expression signatures associated with NRF2 mutation were extracted from ESC cell lines, and their potential utility for monitoring and prognosis was examined in a cohort of 33 pre-CRT cases of ESC. The molecular signatures of NRF2 mutation were significantly predictive and prognostic for CRT response. In conclusion, recurrent NRF2 mutation confers malignant potential and resistance to therapy in advanced ESC, resulting in a poorer outcome. Molecular signatures of NRF2 mutation can be applied as predictive markers of response to CRT, and efficient inhibition of aberrant NRF2 activation could be a promising approach in combination with CRT.

  19. [Potential role of cholesterol in distinguishing malignant from benign pleural effusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavec, Goran; Tomić, Ilija; Nidzović, Natasa; Radojcić, Branko; Aćimović, Slobodan; Bokun, Radojka

    2004-01-01

    Cholesterol and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in pleural effusion and sera, were measured in 199 patients with pleural effusions of various origins. Malignant cause was found in 93, and nonmalignant in 106 patients. Mean cholesterol level in sera of patient with malignant disease was 5.0 +/- 0.93 mmol/L, and in nonmalignant group 4.34 +/- 1.32 mmol/L. The difference was not statistically significant. Mean cholesterol level in nonmalignant pleural effusions was higher thAn those in malignant (2.51 +/- 1.23 mmol/L; and 2.28 +/- 1.06 mmol/L), but the difference was also not significant. Average pleural fluid/serum cholesterol ratio (Holl/S) in nonmalignant group was 0.61 +/- 0.32 and in malignant group 0.46 +/- 0.22. The difference between those mean values was significant. Higher ratio, at the cut off value of 0.5 was found in 79/106 and in 25/93 malignant patients. Calculated sensitivity was 75%, specificity 73%, positive predictive value 76%, negative predictive value 65% and accuracy 69%. Significant negative correlation between Holi/S and pleural fluid CEA was found (p < 0.05). It was assumed that pleural fluid/serum cholesterol ratio lower than 0.5 could be of great benefit, as an additional test in the differentiation of malignant from benign pleural effusion.

  20. Potential role of cholesterol in distinguishing malignant from benign pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavec Goran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels in pleural effusion and sera, were measured in 199 patients with pleural effusions of various origins. Malignant cause was found in 93, and nonmalignant in 106 patients. Mean cholesterol level in sera of patient with malignant disease was 5.0 ± 0.93mmol/L, and in nonmalignant group 4.34 ± 1.32 mmol/L. The difference was not statistically significant. Mean cholesterol level in nonmalignant pleural effusions was higher thAn those in malignant (2.51 ± 1.23 mmol/L; and 2.28 ± 1.06 mmol/L, but the difference was also not significant. Average pleural fluid/serum cholesterol ratio (HolI/S in nonmalignant group was 0.61 ± 0.32 and in malignant group 0.46 ± 0.22. The difference between those mean values was significant. Higher ratio, at the cut off value of 0.5 was found in 79/106 and in 25/93 malignant patients. Calculated sensitivity was 75%, specificity 73%, positive predictive value 76%, negative predictive value 65% and accuracy 69%. Significant negative correlation between Holi/S and pleural fluid CEA was found (p<0.05. It was assumed that pleural fluid/serum cholesterol ratio lower than 0,5 could be of great benefit, as an additional test in the differentiation of malignant from benign pleural effusion.

  1. Betel-quid dependence and oral potentially malignant disorders in six Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chu, Koung-Shing; Gao, Yi-Jun; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Sunarjo; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Patrick, Walter K; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-11-01

    Despite gradual understanding of the multidimensional health consequences of betel-quid chewing, information on the effects of dependent use is scant. To investigate the 12-month prevalence patterns of betel-quid dependence in six Asian populations and the impact of this dependence on oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD). A multistage random sample of 8922 participants was recruited from Taiwan, mainland China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Participants were evaluated for betel-quid dependency using DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria and assessed clinically for oral mucosal lesions. The 12-month prevalence of dependence was 2.8-39.2% across the six Asian samples, and 20.9-99.6% of those who chewed betel-quid were betel-quid dependent. Men dominated the prevalence among the east Asian samples and women dominated the prevalence in south-east Asian samples. 'Time spent chewing' and 'craving' were the central dependence domains endorsed by the Chinese and southern/south-east Asian samples respectively, whereas the Nepalese samples endorsed 'tolerance' and 'withdrawal'. Dependency was linked to age, gender, schooling years, drinking, smoking, tobacco-added betel-quid use and environmental accessibility of betel-quid. Compared with non-users, those with betel-quid dependency had higher pre-neoplastic risks (adjusted odds ratios 8.0-51.3) than people with non-dependent betel-quid use (adjusted odds ratio 4.5-5.9) in the six Asian populations. By elucidating differences in domain-level symptoms of betel-quid dependency and individual and environmental factors, this study draws attention to the population-level psychiatric problems of betel-quid chewing that undermine health consequences for OPMD in six Asian communities.

  2. Aminopeptidase N/CD13 as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Takahiko; Nakashima, Taku; Hamada, Hironobu; Takayama, Yusuke; Akita, Shin; Masuda, Takeshi; Horimasu, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Fujitaka, Kazunori; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Masayuki; Kohno, Nobuoki; Okada, Morihito; Hattori, Noboru

    2018-03-08

    Angiogenesis is a crucial factor in the progression of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), and antiangiogenic strategies might be effective against MPM. Aminopeptidase N/CD13 (APN/CD13) promotes tumour angiogenesis and is associated with poor prognosis; however, its clinical significance in MPM remains unclear.In 37 consecutive patients with surgically resected MPM, we evaluated the association between immunohistochemical APN/CD13 expression in resected tumours and survival. Additionally, the antitumour and antiangiogenic effects of MT95-4, a fully humanized anti-APN/CD13 monoclonal antibody, were evaluated in mice orthotopically implanted with EHMES-10 (abundantly expressing APN/CD13) and MSTO-211H (scarcely expressing APN/CD13) MPM cells.High tumour APN/CD13 expression was associated with poor prognosis in MPM patients ( P =0.04), and MT95-4 treatment reduced tumour growth and angiogenesis in mice harbouring EHMES-10, but not MSTO-211H, cells. Furthermore, in mice harbouring EHMES-10 cells, MT95-4 combined with cisplatin more effectively suppressed tumour progression than cisplatin alone.Taken together these results suggested that APN/CD13 is implicated in the aggressiveness of MPM. Here, MT95-4 treatment reduced tumour progression likely by inhibiting angiogenesis, suggesting APN/CD13 as a potential molecular target for MPM treatment. Additionally, combination treatment with MT95-4 and cisplatin could represent a promising approach to treating MPM exhibiting high APN/CD13 expression. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  3. Optical imaging for the diagnosis of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Imaging is being conducted as a therapeutic non-invasive. Many kinds of the light source are selected for this purpose. Recently the oral cancer screening is conducted by using light-induced tissue autofluorescence examination such as several kinds of handheld devices. However, the mechanism of its action is still not clear. Therefore basic experimental research was conducted. One of auto fluorescence Imaging (AFI) device, VELscopeTM and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using ICG-labeled antibody as a probe were compared using oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) mouse models. The experiments revealed that intracutaneous tumor was successfully visualized as low density image by VELscopeTM and high density image by NIR image. In addition, VELscopeTM showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity than that of NIR fluorescence imaging and the sensitivity of identification of carcinoma areas with the VELscopeTM was good results. However, further more studies were needed to enhance the screening and diagnostic uses, sensitivity and specificity for detecting malignant lesions and differentiation from premalignant or benign lesions. Therefore, additional studies were conducted using a new developed near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging method targeting podoplanine (PDPN) which consists of indocyanine green (ICG)-labeled anti-human podoplanin antibody as a probe and IVIS imaging system or a handy realtime ICG imaging device that is overexpressed in oral malignant neoplasm to improve imaging for detection of early oral malignant neoplasm. Then evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm in xenografted mice model and compared with VELscopeTM. The results revealed that ICG fluorescence imaging method and VELscopeTM had the almost the same sensitivity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm. The current topics of optical imaging about oral malignant neoplasm were reviewed.

  4. Utility of whole-lesion ADC histogram metrics for assessing the malignant potential of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David H; Ream, Justin M; Hajdu, Christina H; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate whole-lesion ADC histogram metrics for assessing the malignant potential of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), including in comparison with conventional MRI features. Eighteen branch-duct IPMNs underwent MRI with DWI prior to resection (n = 16) or FNA (n = 2). A blinded radiologist placed 3D volumes-of-interest on the entire IPMN on the ADC map, from which whole-lesion histogram metrics were generated. The reader also assessed IPMN size, mural nodularity, and adjacent main-duct dilation. Benign (low-to-intermediate grade dysplasia; n = 10) and malignant (high-grade dysplasia or invasive adenocarcinoma; n = 8) IPMNs were compared. Whole-lesion ADC histogram metrics demonstrating significant differences between benign and malignant IPMNs were: entropy (5.1 ± 0.2 vs. 5.4 ± 0.2; p = 0.01, AUC = 86%); mean of the bottom 10th percentile (2.2 ± 0.4 vs. 1.6 ± 0.7; p = 0.03; AUC = 81%); and mean of the 10-25th percentile (2.8 ± 0.4 vs. 2.3 ± 0.6; p = 0.04; AUC = 79%). The overall mean ADC, skewness, and kurtosis were not significantly different between groups (p ≥ 0.06; AUC = 50-78%). For entropy (highest performing histogram metric), an optimal threshold of >5.3 achieved a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 70%, and an accuracy of 83% for predicting malignancy. No significant difference (p = 0.18-0.64) was observed between benign and malignant IPMNs for cyst size ≥3 cm, adjacent main-duct dilatation, or mural nodule. At multivariable analysis of entropy in combination with all other ADC histogram and conventional MRI features, entropy was the only significant independent predictor of malignancy (p = 0.004). Although requiring larger studies, ADC entropy obtained from 3D whole-lesion histogram analysis may serve as a biomarker for identifying the malignant potential of IPMNs, independent of conventional MRI features.

  5. Role of human papillomavirus in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: A review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shikha; Gupta, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are epitheliotropic viruses with an affinity for keratinocytes and are principally found in the anogenital tract, urethra, skin, larynx, tracheobronchial and oral mucosa. On the basis of high, but variable frequency of HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), malignant potential of HPV infection has been hypothesized but not definitely confirmed. The aim of this review was to highlight the genomic structure and possible mechanism of infection and carcinogenesis by HPV in the oral mucosa and to review the frequency of HPV prevalence in OSCC and oral potentially malignant disorders. A computer database search was performed through the use of PubMed from 1994 to 2014. Search keywords used were: HPV and oral cancer, HPV and oral leukoplakia, HPV and oral lichen planus, HPV and OSCC, HPV and verrucous carcinoma, HPV and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, HPV and oral papilloma. PMID:26097339

  6. Assessment of serum copper, iron and immune complexes in potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer

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    Ritu TIWARI

    Full Text Available Abstract Potentially malignant disorders (PMDs of oral cavity and oral cancer remain a cause of serious concern despite intensive research and development. Diet and immunity have been identified to play a crucial role as modifying factors in these diseases. Our study intended to explore this relationship by estimating and comparing the serum levels of copper, iron and circulating immune complexes (CICs in patients diagnosed with PMDs and oral cancer and normal healthy individuals. In this study, 40 histopathologically diagnosed cases of PMDs and oral cancer were included along with 30 healthy controls and 5 ml of venous blood was drawn using venipuncture. Serum estimation of copper, iron and CIC then followed using the colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using one way ANOVA and Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation Test. The mean serum copper level was measured as 138.98 ± 10.13µg/100ml in the PMD group and 141.99 ± 21.44 µg/100ml in the oral cancer as compared to 105.5 + 18.81µ/100ml in the controls. The mean serum CIC levels was highest in the oral cancer (9.65 ± 0.16OD470 followed by the PMD group (0.18 + 0.21 OD470 and least in the control group (0.048 ± 0.02OD470. Whereas, the serum levels of iron showed a significant decrease in the PMD group (110.9 ± 10.54 µg/100ml and the oral cancer group (114.29 ± 25.83 µg/100ml as compared with the control group (136.85 ± 14.48 µg/100ml. There was no positive correlation obtained between the three groups with respect to the chosen parameters indicating that the variables were independent of each other. It can be thus be ascertained that trace elements like copper and iron as well as humoral responses (CICs have a close relationship with PMDs and oral cancers.

  7. High resolution spiral CT for determining the malignant potential of solitary pulmonary nodules: refining and testing the test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harders, Stefan Walbom; Madsen, Hans Henrik; Rasmussen, Finn (Dept. of Radiology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)), Email: stefhard@rm.dk; Rasmussen, Torben Riis (Dept. of Pulmonology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)); Hager, Henrik (Dept. of Pathology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2011-05-15

    Background A solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) may represent early stage lung cancer. Lung cancer is a devastating disease with an overall 5-year mortality rate of approximately 84% but with early detection and surgery as low as 47%. Currently a contrast-enhanced multiple-row detector CT (MDCT) scan is the first examination when evaluating patients with suspected lung cancer. Purpose To apply an additional high resolution CT (HRCT) to SPNs to test whether certain morphological characteristics are associated with malignancy, to assess the diagnostic accuracy of HRCT in the characterization of SPNs, and to address the reproducibility of all measures. Material and Method Two hundred and thirteen participants with SPNs were included in a follow-up study. Blinded HRCT images were assessed with regard to margin risk categories (MRCs), calcification patterns and certain other characteristics and overall malignancy potential ratings (MPRs) were given. Morphological characteristics were tested against reference standard and ROC methodology was applied to assess diagnostic accuracy. Reproducibility was measured with Kappa statistics and 95% confidence intervals were computed for all results. Histopathology (90%) and CT follow-up (10%) were used as reference standard. Results MRCs (P < 0.001), calcification patterns (P = 0.003), and pleural retraction (P < 0.001) were all statistically significantly associated to malignancy. Reproducibility was moderate to substantial. Sensitivity, specificity, and overall diagnostic accuracy of HRCT were 98%, 23% and 87%, respectively. Reproducibility was substantial. Conclusion Statistically significant associations between SPN MRCs, calcification patterns, pleural retraction and malignancy were found. HRCT yielded a very high sensitivity and a somewhat lower specificity for malignancy. Reproducibility was high

  8. High resolution spiral CT for determining the malignant potential of solitary pulmonary nodules: refining and testing the test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harders, Stefan Walbom; Madsen, Hans Henrik; Rasmussen, Finn; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Hager, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Background A solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) may represent early stage lung cancer. Lung cancer is a devastating disease with an overall 5-year mortality rate of approximately 84% but with early detection and surgery as low as 47%. Currently a contrast-enhanced multiple-row detector CT (MDCT) scan is the first examination when evaluating patients with suspected lung cancer. Purpose To apply an additional high resolution CT (HRCT) to SPNs to test whether certain morphological characteristics are associated with malignancy, to assess the diagnostic accuracy of HRCT in the characterization of SPNs, and to address the reproducibility of all measures. Material and Method Two hundred and thirteen participants with SPNs were included in a follow-up study. Blinded HRCT images were assessed with regard to margin risk categories (MRCs), calcification patterns and certain other characteristics and overall malignancy potential ratings (MPRs) were given. Morphological characteristics were tested against reference standard and ROC methodology was applied to assess diagnostic accuracy. Reproducibility was measured with Kappa statistics and 95% confidence intervals were computed for all results. Histopathology (90%) and CT follow-up (10%) were used as reference standard. Results MRCs (P < 0.001), calcification patterns (P = 0.003), and pleural retraction (P < 0.001) were all statistically significantly associated to malignancy. Reproducibility was moderate to substantial. Sensitivity, specificity, and overall diagnostic accuracy of HRCT were 98%, 23% and 87%, respectively. Reproducibility was substantial. Conclusion Statistically significant associations between SPN MRCs, calcification patterns, pleural retraction and malignancy were found. HRCT yielded a very high sensitivity and a somewhat lower specificity for malignancy. Reproducibility was high

  9. Malignant transformation potentials of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells both spontaneously and via 3-methycholanthrene induction.

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    Qiuling Tang

    Full Text Available Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs are highly proliferative and can be induced to differentiate into advanced derivatives of all three germ layers. Thus, HUMSCs are considered to be a promising source for cell-targeted therapies and tissue engineering. However there are reports on spontaneous transformation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs derived from human bone marrows. The capacity for HUMSCs to undergo malignant transform spontaneously or via induction by chemical carcinogens is presently unknown. Therefore, we isolated HUMSCs from 10 donors and assessed their transformation potential either spontaneously or by treating them with 3-methycholanthrene (3-MCA, a DNA-damaging carcinogen. The malignant transformation of HUMSCs in vitro was evaluated by morphological changes, proliferation rates, ability to enter cell senescence, the telomerase activity, chromosomal abnormality, and the ability to form tumors in vivo. Our studies showed that HUMSCs from all 10 donors ultimately entered senescence and did not undergo spontaneous malignant transformation. However, HUMSCs from two of the 10 donors treated with 3-MCA displayed an increased proliferation rate, failed to enter senescence, and exhibited an altered cell morphology. When these cells (tHUMSCs were injected into immunodeficient mice, they gave rise to sarcoma-like or poorly differentiated tumors. Moreover, in contrast to HUMSCs, tHUMSCs showed a positive expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT and did not exhibit a shortening of the relative telomere length during the long-term culture in vitro. Our studies demonstrate that HUMSCs are not susceptible to spontaneous malignant transformation. However, the malignant transformation could be induced by chemical carcinogen 3-MCA.

  10. Malignant Transformation Potentials of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Both Spontaneously and via 3-Methycholanthrene Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xiulan; Liu, Sizheng; Chen, Yezeng; Zheng, Zexin; Xie, Qingdong; Maldonado, Martin; Cai, Zhiwei; Qin, Shan; Ho, Guyu; Ma, Lian

    2013-01-01

    Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) are highly proliferative and can be induced to differentiate into advanced derivatives of all three germ layers. Thus, HUMSCs are considered to be a promising source for cell-targeted therapies and tissue engineering. However there are reports on spontaneous transformation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human bone marrows. The capacity for HUMSCs to undergo malignant transform spontaneously or via induction by chemical carcinogens is presently unknown. Therefore, we isolated HUMSCs from 10 donors and assessed their transformation potential either spontaneously or by treating them with 3-methycholanthrene (3-MCA), a DNA-damaging carcinogen. The malignant transformation of HUMSCs in vitro was evaluated by morphological changes, proliferation rates, ability to enter cell senescence, the telomerase activity, chromosomal abnormality, and the ability to form tumors in vivo. Our studies showed that HUMSCs from all 10 donors ultimately entered senescence and did not undergo spontaneous malignant transformation. However, HUMSCs from two of the 10 donors treated with 3-MCA displayed an increased proliferation rate, failed to enter senescence, and exhibited an altered cell morphology. When these cells (tHUMSCs) were injected into immunodeficient mice, they gave rise to sarcoma-like or poorly differentiated tumors. Moreover, in contrast to HUMSCs, tHUMSCs showed a positive expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and did not exhibit a shortening of the relative telomere length during the long-term culture in vitro. Our studies demonstrate that HUMSCs are not susceptible to spontaneous malignant transformation. However, the malignant transformation could be induced by chemical carcinogen 3-MCA. PMID:24339974

  11. Betel-quid dependence domains and syndrome associated with betel-quid ingredients among chewers: an Asian multi-country evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Hua, Chun-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Sunarjo; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ling, Tian-You; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2014-07-01

    Betel-quid (BQ) contains biologically psychoactive ingredients; however, data are limited concerning the symptoms and syndrome of BQ dependence among chewers. The aims of this study were to evaluate the ingredients-associated BQ dependence syndrome and country-specific chewing features and behaviour for BQ dependence among chewers from six Asian communities. An intercountry Asian Betel-quid Consortium study. Six Asian general communities in Taiwan, Mainland China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Six multi-stage random samples of BQ chewers in the Asian Betel-quid Consortium study (n = 2078). All chewers were evaluated for BQ dependence using the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. The 12-month BQ dependence rate was 12.5-92.6% and 47.9-99.3% (P = 0.023) among tobacco-free and tobacco-added BQ chewers across the six Asian communities, with a higher dependence rate in chewers who used tobacco-free BQ with lime added than without (23.3-95.6% versus 4.0%, P ≤ 0.001). Taiwanese and Hunanese BQ chewers both notably endorsed the dependency domain of 'time spent chewing'. 'Tolerance' and 'withdrawal' were the major dependence domains associated with the Nepalese and Indonesian chewers, with high BQ dependence rates. Malaysian and Sri Lankan chewers formed a BQ dependence cluster linked closely to 'craving'. In Sri Lanka, the quantity consumed explained 90.5% (P betel quid users in Asian communities, more so if they use it with tobacco or lime. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Pulmonary Metastases of a Uterine Smooth Muscle Tumour with Undefined Malignancy Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, M; Teschner, M; Braesen, J-H

    2014-03-01

    Smooth muscle neoplasms with atypical proliferative behaviour, but without clear histopathological malignancy represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, as distinction from a sarcoma can be difficult and no guaranteed treatment recommendations are available due to the rarity of these changes. In the event of uncertain primary histology, even metastases cannot be assessed as malignancy criteria, but may contribute to the clarification of the histology. Similarities with other smooth muscle proliferations, such as lymphangioleiomyomatosis, are striking. The diagnostic difficulties and treatment options are explained based on the example of a 59-year-old patient, in whom a retroperitoneal mass and pulmonary lesion of such a tumour occurred 4 years after a hysterectomy. Even though the genesis and histological diagnostics have not been conclusively clarified, slow growth and a low recurrence rate for post-menopausal patients allow for a wait-and-see approach, whereby the option for anti-hormonal treatment exists in the event of positive evidence of hormone receptors.

  13. The effect of quitting smoking on the risk of unfavorable events after surgical treatment of oral potentially malignant lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vladimirov, B S; Schiødt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    smokers at the time of diagnosis and were treated surgically. Patients were advised to quit smoking at each visit. The change of smoking habits and occurrence of unfavorable events were noted during follow-up. Descriptive statistics, Fischer's exact test, Kaplan-Meier curves with log-rank test, and Cox......The aim of this study was to examine if cessation of smoking after surgical excision of oral potentially malignant lesions in smokers reduced the risk of recurrences, development of new lesions or malignancies. 51 patients with oral leukoplakia or erythroplakia were included. They were daily...... proportional hazards model were used for analysis. 16 patients (31%) quit smoking during the observation period. Only one quitter (6%) developed recurrence compared with 11 continuing smokers (33%) (p

  14. The human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir is potentially active against urological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Akinori Sato Department of Urology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Japan Abstract: The human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir has recently been shown to have antineoplastic activity, and its use in urological malignancies is under investigation with an eye toward drug repositioning. Ritonavir is thought to exert its antineoplastic activity by inhibiting multiple signaling pathways, including the Akt and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways. It can increase the amount of unfolded proteins in the cell by inhibiting both the proteasome and heat shock protein 90. Combinations of ritonavir with agents that increase the amount of unfolded proteins, such as proteasome inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors, or heat shock protein 90 inhibitors, therefore, induce endoplasmic reticulum stress cooperatively and thereby kill cancer cells effectively. Ritonavir is also a potent cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein inhibitor, increasing the intracellular concentration of combined drugs by inhibiting their degradation and efflux from cancer cells and thereby enhancing their antineoplastic activity. Furthermore, riotnavir’s antineoplastic activity includes modulation of immune system activity. Therapies using ritonavir are thus an attractive new approach to cancer treatment and, due to their novel mechanisms of action, are expected to be effective against malignancies that are refractory to current treatment strategies. Further investigations using ritonavir are expected to find new uses for clinically available drugs in the treatment of urological malignancies as well as many other types of cancer. Keywords: drug repositioning, novel treatment

  15. Targeting the Hippo Pathway Is a New Potential Therapeutic Modality for Malignant Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekido, Yoshitaka

    2018-03-22

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) constitutes a very aggressive tumor that arises from the pleural or peritoneal cavities and is highly refractory to conventional therapies. Several key genetic alterations are associated with the development and progression of MM including mutations of the CDKN2A/ARF , NF2 , and BAP1 tumor-suppressor genes. Notably, activating oncogene mutations are very rare; thus, it is difficult to develop effective inhibitors to treat MM. The NF2 gene encodes merlin, a protein that regulates multiple cell-signaling cascades including the Hippo pathway. MMs also exhibit inactivation of Hippo pathway components including LATS1/2, strongly suggesting that merlin-Hippo pathway dysregulation plays a key role in the development and progression of MM. Furthermore, Hippo pathway inactivation has been shown to result in constitutive activation of the YAP1/TAZ transcriptional coactivators, thereby conferring malignant phenotypes to mesothelial cells. Critical YAP1/TAZ target genes, including prooncogenic CCDN1 and CTGF , have also been shown to enhance the malignant phenotypes of MM cells. Together, these data indicate the Hippo pathway as a therapeutic target for the treatment of MM, and support the development of new strategies to effectively target the activation status of YAP1/TAZ as a promising therapeutic modality for this formidable disease.

  16. [Modern kind of treatment for ovarian tumors with low malignant potential/summarized our and foreign experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, S

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the ovarian tumors with low malignant potential. We tried to summarize our and foreign experience for 10 years period (2000-2011) in this field. The method of choice is the surgical treatment with total cytoreduction if possible. Appendectomy is performed for the serous pathological types of ovarian tumors. In the early stages we try to spare the reproductive functions of the patients. In the advanced stages hysterectomy with BSO, omentecromy and appendectomy is performed. Systematic pelvic and paraaortal lymph node dissection is not recommended. Resection only of the suspected lymph nodes is performed. The chemotherapy has no prognostic significance.

  17. Giant cell tumor of soft tissues of low malignant potential: A rare diagnosis on fine needle aspiration cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maithili M Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary giant cell tumors of soft tissues (GCT-ST are extremely rare soft tissue tumors, located in both superficial and deep soft tissues. They resemble osseous giant cell tumors morphologically and immunohistochemically. The tumor exhibits strong positive immunoreactivity for cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68 within multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells and focal staining of mononuclear cells. Case reports describing the cytohistological features of this entity are very few. We report a case of GCT-ST of low malignant potential diagnosed on fine needle aspiration (FNA and confirmed on histological and immunohistochemical studies.

  18. Histo-blood group ABO antigen in oral potentially malignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma--genotypic and phenotypic characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Bennett, Erik Paul; Reibel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Loss of histo-blood group A/B antigens is frequent in oral cancer. It is unclear whether this alteration is due to loss of the chromosomal region encoding the genes. The aim was to investigate genotypic alterations in the ABO locus in oral potentially malignant lesions and carcinomas. Seventy...... to establish the ABO genotype. Total and patchy loss of A/B antigen expression was found in 24/32 carcinomas, 6/7 leukoplakias with severe dysplasia, 12/17 leukoplakias with mild and moderate dysplasia, and 6/17 leukoplakias without dysplasia. Specific A/B allele loss was found in 8/24 cases with carcinoma...

  19. Boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumor and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Hatanaka, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents therapeutic experience with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant brain tumors. Nine patients who survived for 10 years or more as of 1986 are given in a table. A review of the 9 patients concluded that physical dose of 15 Gy is required. In addition, the following factors are defined to be the most important: (1) to determine tumor size and depth as accurately as possible, (2) to measure neutron doses in the deepest site of the tumor during irradiation, (3) to measure the content of boron within the tumor, and to deliver neutron beams as deeply as possible. Finally, the importance of knowing RBE of alpha particles for tumor cells of the human brain is emphasized. (N.K.)

  20. Analysis of adrenocortical tumours morphology as regards their structure and potential malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajor, M.; Ciupinska-Kajor, M.; Dobrosz, Z.; Ziaja, J.; Krol, R.; Heitzman, M.; Cierpka, L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: A consequence of diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is introduction of pharmacological therapy, precise monitoring of the patients and in some cases re-operation. The aim of the study is to analyse morphology of adrenocortical tumours as regards their malignancy by use of criteria proposed by Weiss. Material and methods: 110 adrenocortical tumours in 107 patients were analysed (M 27.1%, F 72.9%; age 32 to 77 years, mean 55.2 ± 9.7). Conn syndrome was diagnosed in 16 patients (14.9%), Cushing syndrome in 12 (11.2%), and virilisation in 3 (2.8%). In 76 patients (71.0%) biochemical tests did not reveal hormonal hyperactivity of the tumour. Results: In routine histopathological examination ACC was diagnosed in 6 tumours (5.4%), adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) in 92 (83.6%) and adrenocortical hyperplasia in 12 (10.9%). Nuclear grade III or IV was observed in 8 tumours (7.3%), mitotic rate > 5/50 high power fields in 6 (5.4%), atypical mitoses in 5 (4.5%), clear cells constituting < 25% of the tumour in 10 (9.1%), diffuse architecture in 8 (7.3%), necrosis in 16 (14.5%), veins infiltration in 4 (3.6%), sinusoids infiltration in 7 (6.3%), and tumour capsule infiltration in 5 (4.5%). Among ACC tumours 4 - 9 features of malignancy were present, among ACA - 0 - 3 features. Statistical analysis revealed correlation between number of criteria proposed by Weiss and maximal tumour size (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The structure and cell arrangement in adrenocortical adenoma are heterogeneous. Application of criteria proposed by Weiss in histopathological examination of adrenocortical tumours can be useful in differentiating adrenocortical adenoma from carcinoma. (author)

  1. Human papilloma virus 18 detection in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant lesions using saliva samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goot-Heah, Khor; Kwai-Lin, Thong; Froemming, Gabriele Ruth Anisah; Abraham, Mannil Thomas; Nik Mohd Rosdy, Nik Mohd Mazuan; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancer has become one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide and human Papillomavirus is one of the risk factors for developing oral cancer. For this study HPV18 was chosen as it is one of the high risk HPV types and may lead to carcinogenesis. However, prevalence of HPV18 infection in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Malaysia remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the viral load of HPV18 DNA in OSCC and potentially malignant lesions using saliva samples. Genomic DNAs of thirty saliva samples of normal subjects and thirty saliva samples compromised of 16 samples from potentially malignant lesions and 14 of OSCC patients were amplified for HPV18 DNA using a nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. All PCR products were then analyzed using the Bioanalyzer to confirm presence of HPV18 DNA. From thirty patients examined, only one of 30 (3.3%) cases was found to be positive for HPV18 in this study. The finding of this study revealed that there is a low viral detection of HPV18 in Malaysian OSCC by using saliva samples, suggesting that prevalence of HPV18 may not be important in this group of Malaysian OSCC.

  2. Estimation and correlation of salivary thiocyanate levels in periodontally healthy subjects, smokers, nonsmokers, and gutka-chewers with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Shashikanth; Chatterjee, Elashri; Rajesh, K S; Kumar, M S Arun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate and correlate salivary thiocyanate (SCN) levels in periodontally healthy subjects, smokers, nonsmokers, and gutka-chewers with chronic periodontitis. The study population consisted of 40 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years that was further divided into four groups: Control, smokers, nonsmokers, and gutka-chewers with chronic periodontitis. Gingival index (GI) (Loe and Silness-1963), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss was assessed. Estimation of SCN was performed by ultraviolet spectrophotometer at 447 nm wavelength. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way ANOVAs Welch test and Pearson's correlation test using SPSS version 17 software. Results showed statistically significant increase in SCN levels in smokers as compared to gutka-chewers with chronic periodontitis, control, and nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis subjects. Significantly higher PD and loss of attachment were seen in smokers group compared with other groups. A negative correlation observed between the GI and thiocyanate levels. The present study revealed a significant increase in SCN levels in smokers with periodontitis as compared to nonsmokers.

  3. Ultrastructural analysis of oral exfoliated epithelial cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers: A scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sameera Shamim; Shreedhar, Balasundari; Kamboj, Mala

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to correlate epithelial surface pattern changes of oral exfoliated cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers and also to compare them with patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy individuals. In this cross-sectional study, a total of fifty persons were included in the study, out of which thirty formed the study group (15 each tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers) and twenty formed the control group (ten each of OSCC patients - positive control and ten normal buccal mucosa - negative control). Their oral exfoliated cells were scraped, fixed, and studied under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The statistical analysis was determined using ANOVA, Tukey honestly significant difference, Chi-square test, and statistical SPASS software, P betel nut chewers compared to normal oral mucosa have been tabulated. In normal oral mucosa, cell surface morphology depends on the state of keratinization of the tissue. Thus, it could prove helpful in detecting any carcinomatous change at its incipient stage and also give an insight into the ultra-structural details of cellular differentiations in epithelial tissues.

  4. Efficacy of light based detection systems for early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagi, R; Reddy-Kantharaj, Y-B; Rakesh, N; Janardhan-Reddy, S; Sahu, S

    2016-07-01

    Earlier detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) is essential for dental professionals to improve patient survival rates. The aim of this systematic review is to to evaluate the effectiveness of devices that utilise the principles of chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence as adjuncts in the detection of OSCC and OPMD. The electronic retrieval systems and databases searched for relevant articles were PubMed [MEDLINE] and Science direct. The search was for limited articles published in English or with an English abstract and articles published during the period from January 2005 to April 2014. Clinical trials utilized ViziLite, Microlux TM/DL and Visual Enhanced Light scope (VELscope) for early detection of OPMD and OSCC. Twenty primary studies published satisfied our criteria for selection - 10 utilised chemiluminescence and 10 tissue autofluorescence. Senstivity of Vizilite for detecting OSCC nad OPMD ranged from 77.1 % to 100% and specificity was low that ranged from 0% to 27.8%.Most have shown that chemiluminescence increases the brightness and margins of oral mucosal white lesions and thus assist in identification of mucosal lesions not considered under Conventional visual examination. However, it preferentially detects leukoplakia and may fail to spot red patches. Clinical trials demonstrated that sensitivity of VELscope in detecting malignancy and OPMD ranged from 22 % to 100 % and specificity ranged from 16 % to 100%. Most studies concluded that VELscope can help the experienced clinician to find oral precursor malignant lesions. But it couldnot differentiate between dysplasia and benign inflammatory conditions. Both devices are simple, non-invasive test of the oral mucosa but are suited for clinicians with sufficient experience and training. More clinical trials in future should be conducted to establish optical imaging as an efficacious adjunct tool in early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD.

  5. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-independent potentiation of nitrosourea cytotoxicity by 3-aminobenzamide in human malignant glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S; Weller, M

    2000-06-16

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is a zinc-finger DNA-binding protein that detects specifically DNA strand breaks generated by genotoxic agents and is thought to be involved in DNA repair. Here, we examined the effects of 3-aminobenzamide, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, on the chemosensitivity of human malignant glioma cells. 3-Aminobenzamide selectively potentiated the cytotoxicity of the nitrosoureas, nimustine, carmustine and lomustine in 10 of 12 human malignant glioma cell lines. In contrast, 3-aminobenzamide did not modulate the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicine, teniposide, vincristine, camptothecin or cytarabine. The nitrosoureas did not induce poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity in the glioma cells. Ectopic expression of truncated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase containing the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase DNA-binding domain, which acts as a dominant-negative mutant, in LN-18 or LN-229 cells did not alter the 3-aminobenzamide effect on nitrosourea-mediated cytotoxicity. Thus, 3-aminobenzamide may target another nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-requiring enzyme, but not poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, when enhancing nitrosourea cytotoxicity in human malignant glioma cells. Carmustine cytotoxicity was associated with a G2/M arrest. Coexposure to carmustine and 3-aminobenzamide overcame this G2/M arrest in T98G cells, which are sensitized to carmustine by 3-aminobenzamide, but not in U251MG cells, which are refractory to 3-aminobenzamide-mediated sensitization to carmustine. Thus, 3-aminobenzamide-mediated sensitization to carmustine cytotoxicity may result from interference with the stable G2/M arrest response to carmustine in human glioma cells.

  6. Morcellator's Port-site Metastasis of a Uterine Smooth Muscle Tumor of Uncertain Malignant Potential After Minimally Invasive Myomectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Lorusso, Domenica; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Carcangiu, Maria L; Fiore, Marco; Gronchi, Alessandro; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Since the safety warning from the US Food and Drug Administration on the use of power morcellators, minimally invasive procedures involving the removal of uterine myomas and large uteri are under scrutiny. Growing evidence suggests that morcellation of undiagnosed uterine malignancies is associated with worse survival outcomes of patients affected by uterine sarcoma. However, to date, only limited data regarding morcellation of low-grade uterine neoplasms are available. In the present article, we reported a case of a (morcellator) port-site implantation of a smooth muscle tumor that occurred 6 years after laparoscopic morcellation of a uterine smooth muscle tumor of uncertain potential. This case highlights the effects of intra-abdominal morcellation, even in low-grade uterine neoplasms. Caution should be used when determining techniques for tissue extraction; the potential adverse consequences of morcellation should be more fully explored. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An improved synthesis of [125I]N-(diethylaminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide: a potential ligand for imaging malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, C.S.; Reba, R.C.; Varma, V.M.; McAfee, J.G.; Saga, T.; Kinuya, S.; Le, N.; Jeong, J.M.; Paik, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    To improve the radiolabeling yield and the specific activity of [ 125 I]N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide(DAB), the aryltributyltin precursor was synthesized from the N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-4-bromobenzamide derivative by palladium catalyzed stannylation using bis(tributyltin). The radiolabeled product, [ 125 I]DAB, was obtained by an iododestannylation reaction in high radiochemical yields (85-94%, radiochemical purity, > 98%) using chloramine-T as an oxidizing agent. The specific activity was greater than 1600 Ci/mmol. The biodistribution studies in nude mice implanted with human malignant melanoma xenograft showed a good tumor uptake (6.14% ID/g at 1 h, 2.81% ID/g at 6 h and 0.42% ID/g at 24 h) of [ 125 I]DAB. Unfortunately, a high uptake in the non-target organs, such as liver and lung was found. At 1 h post-injection the activity level in liver and lung was 11.76 and 7.58% ID/g, respectively. A slow clearance of activity from liver and lung was observed at 6 h (3.43 and 0.49% ID/g). These results demonstrate that iodinated IDAB is a potential radiopharmaceutical for the management of patients with malignant melanoma. (Author)

  8. An improved synthesis of [[sup 125]I]N-(diethylaminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide: a potential ligand for imaging malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C.S.; Reba, R.C.; Varma, V.M.; McAfee, J.G. (Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)); Saga, T.; Kinuya, S.; Le, N.; Jeong, J.M.; Paik, C.H. (National Insts. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1993-01-01

    To improve the radiolabeling yield and the specific activity of [[sup 125]I]N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide(DAB), the aryltributyltin precursor was synthesized from the N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-4-bromobenzamide derivative by palladium catalyzed stannylation using bis(tributyltin). The radiolabeled product, [[sup 125]I]DAB, was obtained by an iododestannylation reaction in high radiochemical yields (85-94%, radiochemical purity, > 98%) using chloramine-T as an oxidizing agent. The specific activity was greater than 1600 Ci/mmol. The biodistribution studies in nude mice implanted with human malignant melanoma xenograft showed a good tumor uptake (6.14% ID/g at 1 h, 2.81% ID/g at 6 h and 0.42% ID/g at 24 h) of [[sup 125]I]DAB. Unfortunately, a high uptake in the non-target organs, such as liver and lung was found. At 1 h post-injection the activity level in liver and lung was 11.76 and 7.58% ID/g, respectively. A slow clearance of activity from liver and lung was observed at 6 h (3.43 and 0.49% ID/g). These results demonstrate that iodinated IDAB is a potential radiopharmaceutical for the management of patients with malignant melanoma. (Author).

  9. Focal adhesion kinase a potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanteti, Rajani; Mirzapoiazova, Tamara; Riehm, Jacob J; Dhanasingh, Immanuel; Mambetsariev, Bolot; Wang, Jiale; Kulkarni, Prakash; Kaushik, Garima; Seshacharyulu, Parthasarathy; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P; Kindler, Hedy L; Nasser, Mohd W; Batra, Surinder K; Salgia, Ravi

    2018-04-03

    The non-receptor cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is known to play a key role in a variety of normal and cancer cellular functions such as survival, proliferation, migration and invasion. It is highly active and overexpressed in various cancers including Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM). Here, initially, we demonstrate that FAK is overexpressed in both PDAC and MPM cell lines. Then we analyze effects of two small molecule inhibitors PF-573228, and PF-431396, which are dual specificity inhibitors of FAK and proline rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), as well as VS-6063, another small molecule inhibitor that specifically inhibits FAK but not PYK2 for cell growth, motility and invasion of PDAC and MPM cell lines. Treatment with PF-573228, PF-431396 and VS-6063 cells resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of growth and anchorage-independent colony formation in both cancer cell lines. Furthermore, these compounds suppressed the phosphorylation of FAK at its active site, Y397, and functionally induced significant apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in both cell lines. Using the ECIS (Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing) system, we found that treatment of both PF compounds suppressed adherence and migration of PDAC cells on fibronectin. Interestingly, 3D-tumor organoids derived from autochthonous KC (Kras;PdxCre) mice treated with PF-573228 revealed a significant decrease in tumor organoid size and increase in organoid cell death. Taken together, our results show that FAK is an important target for mesothelioma and pancreatic cancer therapy that merit further translational studies.

  10. Oral active vitamin d therapy as a potential chemoprevention against post-transplant malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitsugu Obi

    2012-06-01

    Our results suggest a novel potential strategy to prevent PTM by using a normal dose of AVDs with a well-known safety profile. A randomized controlled trial should be performed to confirm our findings.

  11. Immunohistochemical expression of p53, p16 and hTERT in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Correa Abrahao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral carcinogenesis is a multi-step process. One possible step is the development of potentially malignant disorders known as leukoplakia and erytroplakia. The objective of this study was to use immunohistochemistry to analyze the patterns of expression of the cell-cycle regulatory proteins p53 and p16INK4a in potentially malignant disorders (PMD of the oral mucosa (with varying degrees of dysplasia and in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC to correlate them with the expression of telomerase (hTERT. Fifteen PMD and 30 OSCC tissue samples were analyzed. Additionally, 5 cases of oral epithelial hyperplasia (OEH were added to analyze clinically altered mucosa presenting as histological hyperplasia without dysplasia. p53 positivity was observed in 93.3% of PMD, in 63.3% of OSCC and in 80% of OEH. Although there was no correlation between p53 expression and the grade of dysplasia, all cases with severe dysplasia presented p53 suprabasal immunoexpression. p16INK4a expression was observed in 26.7% of PMD, in 43.3% of OSCC and in 2 cases of OEH. The p16INK4a expression in OEH, PMD and OSCC was unable to differentiate non-dysplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. hTERT positivity was observed in all samples of OEH and PMD and in 90% of OSCC. The high hTERT immunoexpression in all three lesions indicates that telomerase is present in clinically altered oral mucosa but does not differentiate hyperplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. In PMD of the oral mucosa, the p53 immunoexpression changes according to the degree of dysplasia by mechanisms independent of p16INK4a and hTERT.

  12. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) and Its Receptors FGFR-2 and FGFR-3 May Be Putative Biomarkers of Malignant Transformation of Potentially Malignant Oral Lesions into Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Seema; Goel, Madhu Mati; Makker, Annu; Bhatia, Vikram; Chandra, Saumya; Kumar, Sandeep; Agarwal, S P

    2015-01-01

    There are several factors like angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, genetic alterations, mutational factors that are involved in malignant transformation of potentially malignant oral lesions (PMOLs) to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is one of the prototypes of the large family of growth factors that bind heparin. FGF-2 induces angiogenesis and its receptors may play a role in synthesis of collagen. FGFs are involved in transmission of signals between the epithelium and connective tissue, and influence growth and differentiation of a wide variety of tissue including epithelia. The present study was undertaken to analyze expression of FGF-2 and its receptors FGFR-2 and FGFR-3 in 72 PMOLs, 108 OSCC and 52 healthy controls, and their role in risk assessment for malignant transformation of Leukoplakia (LKP) and Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) to OSCC. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against FGF-2, FGFR-2 and FGFR-3. IHC results were validated by Real Time PCR. Expression of FGF-2, FGFR-2 and FGFR-3 was upregulated from PMOLs to OSCC. While 90% (9/10) of PMOLs which showed malignant transformation (transformed) expressed FGF-2, only 24.19% cases (15/62) of PMOLs which were not transformed (untransformed) to OSCC expressed FGF-2. Similarly, FGFR-2 expression was seen in 16/62 (25.81%) of untransformed PMOLs and 8/10 (80%) cases of transformed PMOLs. FGFR-3 expression was observed in 23/62 (37.10%) cases of untransformed PMOLs and 6/10 (60%) cases of transformed PMOLs. A significant association of FGF-2 and FGFR-2 expression with malignant transformation from PMOLs to OSCC was observed both at phenotypic and molecular level. The results suggest that FGF-2 and FGFR-2 may be useful as biomarkers of malignant transformation in patients with OSMF and LKP.

  13. High expression of Wee1 is associated with poor disease-free survival in malignant melanoma: potential for targeted therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry Irene Magnussen

    Full Text Available Notoriously resistant malignant melanoma is one of the most increasing forms of cancer worldwide; there is thus a precarious need for new treatment options. The Wee1 kinase is a major regulator of the G(2/M checkpoint, and halts the cell cycle by adding a negative phosphorylation on CDK1 (Tyr15. Additionally, Wee1 has a function in safeguarding the genome integrity during DNA synthesis. To assess the role of Wee1 in development and progression of malignant melanoma we examined its expression in a panel of paraffin-embedded patient derived tissue of benign nevi and primary- and metastatic melanomas, as well as in agarose-embedded cultured melanocytes. We found that Wee1 expression increased in the direction of malignancy, and showed a strong, positive correlation with known biomarkers involved in cell cycle regulation: Cyclin A (p<0.0001, Ki67 (p<0.0001, Cyclin D3 (p = 0.001, p21(Cip1/WAF1 (p = 0.003, p53 (p = 0.025. Furthermore, high Wee1 expression was associated with thicker primary tumors (p = 0.001, ulceration (p = 0.005 and poor disease-free survival (p = 0.008. Transfections using siWee1 in metastatic melanoma cell lines; WM239(WTp53, WM45.1(MUTp53 and LOX(WTp53, further support our hypothesis of a tumor promoting role of Wee1 in melanomas. Whereas no effect was observed in LOX cells, transfection with siWee1 led to accumulation of cells in G(1/S and S phase of the cell cycle in WM239 and WM45.1 cells, respectively. Both latter cell lines displayed DNA damage and induction of apoptosis, in the absence of Wee1, indicating that the effect of silencing Wee1 may not be solely dependent of the p53 status of the cells. Together these results reveal the importance of Wee1 as a prognostic biomarker in melanomas, and indicate a potential role for targeted therapy, alone or in combination with other agents.

  14. Urinary Exosomes: The Potential for Biomarker Utility, Intercellular Signaling and Therapeutics in Urological Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Carrie A; Blackwell, Robert H; Foreman, Kimberly E; Kuo, Paul C; Flanigan, Robert C; Gupta, Gopal N

    2016-05-01

    Exosomes are small secreted vesicles that contain proteins, mRNA and miRNA with the potential to alter signaling pathways in recipient cells. While exosome research has flourished, few publications have specifically considered the role of genitourinary cancer shed exosomes in urine, their implication in disease progression and their usefulness as noninvasive biomarkers. In this review we examined the current literature on the role of exosomes in intercellular communication and as biomarkers, and their potential as delivery vehicles for therapeutic applications in bladder, prostate and renal cancer. We searched PubMed® and Google® with the key words prostate cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, exosomes, microvesicles and urine. Relevant articles, including original research studies and reviews, were selected based on contents. A review of this literature was generated. Cancer exosomes can be isolated from urine using various techniques. Cancer cells have been found to secrete more exosomes than normal cells. These exosomes have a role in cellular communication by interacting with and depositing their cargo in target cells. Bladder, prostate and renal cancer exosomes have been shown to enhance migration, invasion and angiogenesis. These exosomes have also been shown to increase proliferation, confer drug resistance and promote immune evasion. Urinary exosomes can be isolated from bladder, kidney and prostate cancer. They serve as a potential reservoir for biomarker identification. Exosomes also have potential for therapeutics as siRNA or pharmacological agents can be loaded into exosomes. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels in tobacco chewers and smokers: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chundru Venkata Naga Sirisha

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study gave us an insight about the relationship between antioxidant enzyme activity, oxidative stress and tobacco. The altered antioxidant enzyme levels observed in this study will act as a predictor for pre potentially malignant lesions. Therefore an early intervention of tobacco habit and its related oxidative stress would prevent the development of tobacco induced lesions.

  16. Production of carcinogenic acetaldehyde by Candida albicans from patients with potentially malignant oral mucosal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainza-Cirauqui, M L; Nieminen, M T; Novak Frazer, L; Aguirre-Urizar, J M; Moragues, M D; Rautemaa, R

    2013-03-01

    Production of carcinogenic acetaldehyde by Candida has been suggested to contribute to epithelial dysplasia and oral carcinogenesis. Oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesion (OLL) and oral leukoplakia (OL) are potentially carcinogenic oral diseases where colonisation by Candida is common, but acetaldehyde production by Candida has not been studied. Acetaldehyde production in ethanol (11 mM), glucose (100 mM), ethanol-glucose (11 mM and 100 mM) or red wine (1200 mM ethanol) incubation by Candida albicans from patients with OLL (n = 6), OLP (n = 16), OL (n = 6) and controls (n = 6) was measured by gas chromatography. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding their smoking habits and alcohol consumption. All Candida albicans isolates produced potentially carcinogenic levels of acetaldehyde (>100 μM) in all incubations containing ethanol. The control group isolates produced the highest acetaldehyde levels. Isolates from smokers produced more acetaldehyde in all incubations than those from non-smokers. The difference was significant in ethanol-glucose incubation. Isolates from patients who were both smokers and drinkers produced the highest amounts when incubated in ethanol, ethanol-glucose and wine. Candida albicans isolated from potentially carcinogenic oral diseases can produce mutagenic amounts of acetaldehyde. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption may favour adaptational changes resulting in the upregulation of candidal acetaldehyde metabolism. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. All rights reserved.

  17. Computer vision approach to morphometric feature analysis of basal cell nuclei for evaluating malignant potentiality of oral submucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu Rama Krishnan, M; Pal, Mousumi; Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Chakraborty, Chandan; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy; Ray, Ajoy K

    2012-06-01

    This research work presents a quantitative approach for analysis of histomorphometric features of the basal cell nuclei in respect to their size, shape and intensity of staining, from surface epithelium of Oral Submucous Fibrosis showing dysplasia (OSFD) to that of the Normal Oral Mucosa (NOM). For all biological activity, the basal cells of the surface epithelium form the proliferative compartment and therefore their morphometric changes will spell the intricate biological behavior pertaining to normal cellular functions as well as in premalignant and malignant status. In view of this, the changes in shape, size and intensity of staining of the nuclei in the basal cell layer of the NOM and OSFD have been studied. Geometric, Zernike moments and Fourier descriptor (FD) based as well as intensity based features are extracted for histomorphometric pattern analysis of the nuclei. All these features are statistically analyzed along with 3D visualization in order to discriminate the groups. Results showed increase in the dimensions (area and perimeter), shape parameters and decreasing mean nuclei intensity of the nuclei in OSFD in respect to NOM. Further, the selected features are fed to the Bayesian classifier to discriminate normal and OSFD. The morphometric and intensity features provide a good sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 98.53% and positive predicative accuracy of 97.35%. This comparative quantitative characterization of basal cell nuclei will be of immense help for oral onco-pathologists, researchers and clinicians to assess the biological behavior of OSFD, specially relating to their premalignant and malignant potentiality. As a future direction more extensive study involving more number of disease subjects is observed.

  18. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a potential targeting agent for delivery of boron to malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capala, J.; Barth, R.F.; Adams, D.M.; Bailey, M.Q.; Soloway, A.H.; Carlsson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The majority of high grade gliomas express an amplified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and this often is associated with an increase in cell surface receptor expression. The rapid internalization and degradation of EGF-EGFR complexes, as well as their high affinity make EGF a potential targeting agent for delivery of 10 B to tumor cells with an amplified number of EGFR. Human glioma cells can expresses as many as 10 5 -10 6 EGF receptors per cell, and if these could be saturated with boronated EGF, then > 10 8 boron atoms would be delivered per cell. Since EGF has a comparatively low molecular weight (∼ 6 kD), this has allowed us to construct relatively small bioconjugates containing ∼ 900 boron atoms per EGF molecule 3 , which also had high affinity for EGFR on tumor cells. In the present study, the feasibility of using EGF receptors as a potential target for therapy of gliomas was investigated by in vivo scintigraphic studies using 131 I- or 99m T c -labeled EGF in a rat brain tumor model. Our results indicate that intratumorally delivered boron- EGF conjugates might be useful for targeting EGFR on glioma cells if the boron containing moiety of the conjugates persisted intracellularly. Further studies are required, however, to determine if this approach can be used for BNCT of the rat glioma

  19. Incidence of Severe Malaria Syndromes and Status of Immune Responses among Khat Chewer Malaria Patients in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsige Ketema

    Full Text Available Although more emphasis has been given to the genetic and environmental factors that determine host vulnerability to malaria, other factors that might have a crucial role in burdening the disease have not been evaluated yet. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the effect of khat chewing on the incidence of severe malaria syndromes and immune responses during malaria infection in an area where the two problems co-exist. Clinical, physical, demographic, hematological, biochemical and immunological data were collected from Plasmodium falciparum mono-infected malaria patients (age ≥ 10 years seeking medication in Halaba Kulito and Jimma Health Centers. In addition, incidences of severe malaria symptoms were assessed. The data were analyzed using SPSS (version 20 software. Prevalence of current khat chewer malaria patients was 57.38% (95%CI =53-61.56%. Malaria symptoms such as hyperpyrexia, prostration and hyperparasitemia were significantly lower (P0.05, IgG3 antibody was significantly higher (P<0.001 among khat chewer malaria patients. Moreover, IgM, IgG, IgG1and IgG3 antibodies had significant negative association (P<0.001 with parasite burden and clinical manifestations of severe malaria symptoms, but not with severe anemia and hypoglycemia. Additionally, a significant increment (P<0.05 in CD4+ T-lymphocyte population was observed among khat users. Khat might be an important risk factor for incidence of some severe malaria complications. Nevertheless, it can enhance induction of humoral immune response and CD4+ T-lymphocyte population during malaria infection. This calls for further investigation on the effect of khat on parasite or antigen-specifc protective malaria immunity and analysis of cytokines released upon malaria infection among khat chewers.

  20. Quantitative assessment of silver-stained nucleolar organizer region in odontogenic cysts to correlate the growth and malignant potentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sailendra Nath; Paul, R R; Ray, Jay Gopal; Majumdar, Sumit; Uppala, Divya

    2017-01-01

    The most common and important odontogenic cyst involving jaws is the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) or primordial cyst, the dentigerous cyst and the radicular cyst. These cysts all though do not show similar behavior, they all have the potentiality to recur. Silver nitrate staining of the nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) of the benign and malignant lesions is becoming very useful as a diagnostic indicator. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic potential of AgNORs in the cystic epithelium of common odontogenic cysts. Archived specimens of odontogenic cysts were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and AgNOR stain. The comparative evaluation of the AgNOR counts was done among the three varieties of odontogenic cysts, i.e., radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts and OKC and were observed that the mean for OKC was significantly higher than that of radicular cyst. Therefore, AgNor could be used as an efficient tool for comparative evaluation of microscopic features such as epithelial thickness, surface keratinization and mural proliferation in dentigerous cyst to that of the AgNOR count.

  1. Human BK Polyomavirus—The Potential for Head and Neck Malignancy and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Burger-Calderon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the human Polyomaviridae family are ubiquitous and pathogenic among immune-compromised individuals. While only Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV has conclusively been linked to human cancer, all members of the polyomavirus (PyV family encode the oncoprotein T antigen and may be potentially carcinogenic. Studies focusing on PyV pathogenesis in humans have become more abundant as the number of PyV family members and the list of associated diseases has expanded. BK polyomavirus (BKPyV in particular has emerged as a new opportunistic pathogen among HIV positive individuals, carrying harmful implications. Increasing evidence links BKPyV to HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIVSGD. HIVSGD is associated with elevated risk of lymphoma formation and its prevalence has increased among HIV/AIDS patients. Determining the relationship between BKPyV, disease and tumorigenesis among immunosuppressed individuals is necessary and will allow for expanding effective anti-viral treatment and prevention options in the future.

  2. Investigating potential exogenous tumor initiating and promoting factors for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas (CTCL), a rare skin malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litvinov, Ivan V.; Shtreis, Anna; Kobayashi, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    -Cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV1), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV). In this report, we review recent evidence evaluating the involvement of these agents in cancer initiation/progression. Most importantly, recent molecular experimental evidence documented for the first time that S....... aureus can activate oncogenic STAT3 signaling in malignant T cells. Specifically, S. aureus Enterotoxin type A (SEA) was recently shown to trigger non-malignant infiltrating T cells to release IL-2 and other cytokines. These signals upon binging to their cognate receptors on malignant T cells...

  3. Expression of small leucine-rich extracellular matrix proteoglycans biglycan and lumican reveals oral lichen planus malignant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lončar-Brzak, Božana; Klobučar, Marko; Veliki-Dalić, Irena; Sabol, Ivan; Kraljević Pavelić, Sandra; Krušlin, Božo; Mravak-Stipetić, Marinka

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine molecular alterations on the protein level in lesions of oral lichen planus (OLP), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy mucosa. Global protein profiling methods based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used, with a special emphasis on evaluation of deregulated extracellular matrix molecules expression, as well as on analyses of IG2F and IGFR2 expression in healthy mucosa, OLP and OSCC tissues by comparative semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics profiling of healthy mucosa, OLP and OSCC tissues (and accompanied histologically unaltered tissues, respectively) identified 55 extracellular matrix proteins. Twenty among identified proteins were common to all groups of samples. Expression of small leucine-rich extracellular matrix proteoglycans lumican and biglycan was found both in OSCC and OLP and they were validated by Western blot analysis as putative biomarkers. A significant increase (p < 0.05) of biglycan expression in OLP-AT group was determined in comparison with OLP-T group, while lumican showed significant up-regulation (p < 0.05) in OLP-T and OSCC-T groups vs. adjacent and control tissue groups. Biglycan expression was only determined in OSCC-AT group. Immunohistochemical analysis of IGF2 and IG2FR expression revealed no significant difference among groups of samples. Biglycan and lumican were identified as important pathogenesis biomarkers of OLP that point to its malignant potential.

  4. The risk of cirrhosis in non-alcohol drinkers is greater in female than male betel nut chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yu-Hua; Wang, Lee; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Lan, Shou-Jen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2018-02-02

    The association of betel nut with liver cirrhosis among alcohol drinkers has been clearly shown. However, very few studies have shown such an association among non-alcohol drinkers. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between betel nut chewing and cirrhosis among non-alcohol drinkers. This study retrospectively analyzed data retrieved from the 2012 Adult Preventive Medical Services and the National Health Insurance Research Datasets in Taiwan. Participants' information included physical examination and lifestyle, alongside laboratory tests. Betel nut chewers were grouped into three categories: never, occasional and frequent. Diseases were diagnosed using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). Initially, 1573024 adults aged 40 years and above who engaged in the free adult preventive medical services in 2012 were recruited. However, only 1065246 of them were included in the analysis. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for the analyses. After multivariable adjustments, there were significant relationships between cirrhosis and betel nut chewing in both sexes (P-trend betel nut chewing and cirrhosis in both male and female non-alcohol drinkers. The risk of cirrhosis was greater in female than male chewers.

  5. Evaluation of Female Breast Cancer Risk Among the Betel Quid Chewer: A Bio-Statistical Assessment in Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbongshi, Nijara; Mahanta, Lipi B; Nath, Dilip C

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among the female population of Assam, India. Chewing of betel quid with or without tobacco is common practice among female population of this region. Moreoverthe method of preparing the betel quid is different from other parts of the country.So matched case control study is conducted to analyse whetherbetel quid chewing plays a significant role in the high incidence of breast cancer occurrences in Assam. Here, controls are matched to the cases by age at diagnosis (±5 years), family income and place of residence with matching ratio 1:1. Conditional logistic regression models and odd ratios (OR) was used to draw conclusions. It is observed that cases are more habituated to chewing habits than the controls.Further the conditional logistic regression analysis reveals that betel quid chewer faces 2.353 times more risk having breast cancer than the non-chewer with p value 0.0003 (95% CI 1.334-4.150). Though the female population in Assam usually does not smoke, the addictive habits typical to this region have equal effect on the occurrence of breast cancer.

  6. MR spectroscopy of intracranial tuberculomas: A singlet peak at 3.8 ppm as potential marker to differentiate them from malignant tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Humberto; Alfaro, David; Martinot, Carlos; Fayed, Nicolas; Gaskill-Shipley, Mary

    2015-06-01

    The diagnosis of intracranial tuberculomas is often challenging. Our purpose is to describe the most common metabolic patterns of tuberculomas by MR spectroscopy (MRS) with emphasis on potential specific markers. Single-voxel MRS short echo time was performed in 13 cases of tuberculomas proven by histology and/or response to anti-mycobacterial therapy. For comparison MRS was also performed in 19 biopsy-proven malignant tumors (13 high-grade gliomas and six metastasis). Presence of metabolic peaks was assessed visually and categorical variables between groups were compared using chi-square. Metabolite ratios were compared using Mann-Whitney test and diagnostic accuracy of the metabolite ratios was compared using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis. Spectroscopic peaks representing lipids and glutamate/glutamine (Glx) as well as a peak at ∼3.8 ppm were well defined in 77% (10/13), 77% (10/13) and 69% (nine of 13) of tuberculomas, respectively. Lipid and Glx peaks were also present in most of the malignant lesions, 79% (15/19) and 74% (14/19) respectively. However, a peak at ∼3.8 ppm was present in only 10% (two of 19) of the tumor cases (p values between 1.7-1.9 for Cho/Cr and 0.8-0.9 for mI/Cr provided high specificity (91% for both metabolites) and adequate sensitivity (75% and 80%, respectively) for discrimination of malignant lesions. A singlet peak at ∼3.8 ppm is present in the majority of tuberculomas and absent in most malignant tumors, potentially a marker to differentiate these lesions. The assignment of the peak is difficult from our analysis; however, guanidinoacetate (Gua) is a possibility. Higher Cho/Cr and mI/Cr ratios should favor malignant lesions over tuberculomas. The presence of lipids and Glx is non-specific. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Bone marrow-derived CD13+ cells sustain tumor progression: A potential non-malignant target for anticancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondossola, Eleonora; Corti, Angelo; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Non-malignant cells found within neoplastic lesions express alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase (ANPEP, best known as CD13), and CD13-null mice exhibit limited tumor growth and angiogenesis. We have recently demonstrated that a subset of bone marrow-derived CD11b + CD13 + myeloid cells accumulate within neoplastic lesions in several murine models of transplantable cancer to promote angiogenesis. If these findings were confirmed in clinical settings, CD11b + CD13 + myeloid cells could become a non-malignant target for the development of novel anticancer regimens.

  8. Diagnostic potential of real-time elastography (RTE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiangdong; Liu, Yujiang; Qian, Linxue

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Real-time elastography (RTE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) are noninvasive and easily available imaging techniques that measure the tissue strain, and it has been reported that the sensitivity and the specificity of elastography were better in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodules than conventional technologies. Methods: Relevant articles were searched in multiple databases; the comparison of elasticity index (EI) was conducted with the Review Manager 5.0. Forest plots of the sensitivity and specificity and SROC curve of RTE and SWE were performed with STATA 10.0 software. In addition, sensitivity analysis and bias analysis of the studies were conducted to examine the quality of articles; and to estimate possible publication bias, funnel plot was used and the Egger test was conducted. Results: Finally 22 articles which eventually satisfied the inclusion criteria were included in this study. After eliminating the inefficient, benign and malignant nodules were 2106 and 613, respectively. The meta-analysis suggested that the difference of EI between benign and malignant nodules was statistically significant (SMD = 2.11, 95% CI [1.67, 2.55], P benign and malignant thyroid nodules. PMID:29068996

  9. Potentiation of radiation therapy by the oncolytic adenovirus dl1520 (ONYX-015) in human malignant glioma xenografts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geoerger, B; Grill, J; Opolon, P; Morizet, J; Aubert, G; Lecluse, Y; Beusechem-Kaptein, van V.W.; Gerritsen, W.R.; Kirn, DH; Vassal, G

    2003-01-01

    In spite of aggressive surgery, irradiation and/or chemotherapy, treatment of malignant gliomas remains a major challenge in adults and children due to high treatment failure. We have demonstrated significant cell lysis and antitumour activity of the E1B-55 kDa-gene-deleted adenovirus ONYX-015

  10. Long-term low-dose α-particle enhanced the potential of malignant transformation in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Weili; Xiao, Linlin; Dong, Chen; He, Mingyuan; Pan, Yan; Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Fu, Jiamei; Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Multi-exposures of 25 mGy α-ray enhanced cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. • MAPK/Akt but not JNK/P66 was positively correlated with cell invasive phenotypes. • LDR of α-irradiation triggers cell malignant transformation through MAPK/Akt. - Abstract: Since the wide usage of ionizing radiation, the cancer risk of low dose radiation (LDR) (<0.1 Gy) has become attractive for a long time. However, most results are derived from epidemiologic studies on atomic-bomb survivors and nuclear accidents surrounding population, and the molecular mechanism of this risk is elusive. To explore the potential of a long-term LDR-induced malignant transformation, human bronchial epithelial cells Beas-2B were fractionally irradiated with 0.025 Gy α-particles for 8 times in total and then further cultured for 1–2 months. It was found that the cell proliferation, the abilities of adhesion and invasion, and the protein expressions of p-ERK, p-Akt, especially p-P38 were not only increased in the multiply-irradiated cells but also in their offspring 1–2 months after the final exposure, indicating high potentiality of cell malignant transformation. On opposite, the expressions of p-JNK and p-P66 were diminished in the subcultures of irradiated cells and thus may play a role of negative regulation in canceration. When the cells were transferred with p38 siRNA, the LDR-induced enhancements of cell adhesion and invasion were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that long-term LDR of α-particles could enhance the potential of malignant transformation incidence in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway.

  11. Long-term low-dose α-particle enhanced the potential of malignant transformation in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weili; Xiao, Linlin; Dong, Chen; He, Mingyuan; Pan, Yan; Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Fu, Jiamei; Shao, Chunlin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-exposures of 25 mGy α-ray enhanced cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. • MAPK/Akt but not JNK/P66 was positively correlated with cell invasive phenotypes. • LDR of α-irradiation triggers cell malignant transformation through MAPK/Akt. - Abstract: Since the wide usage of ionizing radiation, the cancer risk of low dose radiation (LDR) (<0.1 Gy) has become attractive for a long time. However, most results are derived from epidemiologic studies on atomic-bomb survivors and nuclear accidents surrounding population, and the molecular mechanism of this risk is elusive. To explore the potential of a long-term LDR-induced malignant transformation, human bronchial epithelial cells Beas-2B were fractionally irradiated with 0.025 Gy α-particles for 8 times in total and then further cultured for 1–2 months. It was found that the cell proliferation, the abilities of adhesion and invasion, and the protein expressions of p-ERK, p-Akt, especially p-P38 were not only increased in the multiply-irradiated cells but also in their offspring 1–2 months after the final exposure, indicating high potentiality of cell malignant transformation. On opposite, the expressions of p-JNK and p-P66 were diminished in the subcultures of irradiated cells and thus may play a role of negative regulation in canceration. When the cells were transferred with p38 siRNA, the LDR-induced enhancements of cell adhesion and invasion were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that long-term LDR of α-particles could enhance the potential of malignant transformation incidence in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway

  12. Malignant mesothelioma

    OpenAIRE

    Parker Robert J; Moore Alastair J; Wiggins John

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Malignant mesothelioma is a fatal asbestos-associated malignancy originating from the lining cells (mesothelium) of the pleural and peritoneal cavities, as well as the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis. The exact prevalence is unknown but it is estimated that mesotheliomas represent less than 1% of all cancers. Its incidence is increasing, with an expected peak in the next 10–20 years. Pleural malignant mesothelioma is the most common form of mesothelioma. Typical presenting featu...

  13. MR spectroscopy of intracranial tuberculomas: A singlet peak at 3.8 ppm as potential marker to differentiate them from malignant tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, David; Martinot, Carlos; Fayed, Nicolas; Gaskill-Shipley, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The diagnosis of intracranial tuberculomas is often challenging. Our purpose is to describe the most common metabolic patterns of tuberculomas by MR spectroscopy (MRS) with emphasis on potential specific markers. Methods Single-voxel MRS short echo time was performed in 13 cases of tuberculomas proven by histology and/or response to anti-mycobacterial therapy. For comparison MRS was also performed in 19 biopsy-proven malignant tumors (13 high-grade gliomas and six metastasis). Presence of metabolic peaks was assessed visually and categorical variables between groups were compared using chi-square. Metabolite ratios were compared using Mann-Whitney test and diagnostic accuracy of the metabolite ratios was compared using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis. Results Spectroscopic peaks representing lipids and glutamate/glutamine (Glx) as well as a peak at ∼3.8 ppm were well defined in 77% (10/13), 77% (10/13) and 69% (nine of 13) of tuberculomas, respectively. Lipid and Glx peaks were also present in most of the malignant lesions, 79% (15/19) and 74% (14/19) respectively. However, a peak at ∼3.8 ppm was present in only 10% (two of 19) of the tumor cases (p < 0.001). Higher Cho/Cr and mI/Cr ratios helped discriminate malignant lesions with an area under the ROC curve of 0.86 (SE: 0.078, p < 0.002, CI: 0.7–1) and 0.8 (SE: 0.1, p < 0.009, CI: 0.6–1), respectively. Threshold values between 1.7–1.9 for Cho/Cr and 0.8–0.9 for mI/Cr provided high specificity (91% for both metabolites) and adequate sensitivity (75% and 80%, respectively) for discrimination of malignant lesions. Conclusion A singlet peak at ∼3.8 ppm is present in the majority of tuberculomas and absent in most malignant tumors, potentially a marker to differentiate these lesions. The assignment of the peak is difficult from our analysis; however, guanidinoacetate (Gua) is a possibility. Higher Cho/Cr and mI/Cr ratios should favor malignant lesions

  14. Metal-containing lymph nodes following prosthetic replacement of osseous malignancy: potential role of MR imaging in characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, A.M.; Cooper, S.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Mangham, D.C. [Dept. of Pathology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Grimer, R.J. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Oncology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2001-05-01

    The identification of regional lympadenopathy in patients with bone malignancy treated by excision and insertion of a prosthesis usually indicates metastatic disease. We present two cases in which the lymphadenopathy was due to an uncommon but well-recognized foreign body reaction. This is secondary to the lymphatic uptake of metal debris shed by the prosthesis. In one case the metal within the excised lymph node could be demonstrated on in vitro MR imaging and in retrospect on the original in vivo scans. This condition should be considered when undertaking an MR examination in patients with bone malignancy treated by prosthetic replacement in whom there is a clinical suspicion of metastatic spread to the regional lymph nodes. (orig.)

  15. Malignant mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Alkul

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Seventy percent of patients with malignant mesothelioma have had exposure to asbestos fibers. Other patients without this exposure have had chronic pleural inflammation or received radiation to the thorax. Occasionally patients present with no obvious exposure history relevant to the development of malignant mesothelioma. This diagnosis needs to be in the differential diagnosis of all patients with unexplained pleural disease.

  16. Decreased zinc in the development and progression of malignancy: an important common relationship and potential for prevention and treatment of carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Leslie C.; Franklin, Renty B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Efficacious chemotherapy does not exist for treatment or prevention of prostate, liver, and pancreatic carcinomas, and some other cancers that exhibit decreased zinc in malignancy. Zinc treatment offers a potential solution; but its support has been deterred by adverse bias. Areas covered 1. The clinical and experimental evidence for the common ZIP transporter/Zn down regulation in these cancers. 2. The evidence for a zinc approach to prevent and/or treat these carcinomas. 3. The issues that introduce bias against support for the zinc approach. Expert opinion ZIP/Zn downregulation is a clinically established common event in prostate, hepatocellular and pancreatic cancers. 2. Compelling evidence supports the plausibility that a zinc treatment regimen will prevent development of malignancy and termination of progressing malignancy in these cancers; and likely other carcinomas that exhibit decreased zinc. 3. Scientifically-unfounded issues that oppose this ZIP/Zn relationship have introduced bias against support for research and funding of a zinc treatment approach. 4. The clinically-established and supporting experimental evidence provide the scientific credibility that should dictate the support for research and funding of a zinc approach for the treatment and possible prevention of these cancers. 5. This is in the best interest of the medical community and the public-at-large. PMID:27885880

  17. Immunohistochemical determination of HER-2/neu overexpression in malignant melanoma reveals no prognostic value, while c-Kit (CD117 overexpression exhibits potential therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potti Anil

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER-2/neu and c-kit (CD117 onco-protein are increasingly being recognized as targets for therapy in solid tumors, but data on their role in malignant melanoma is currently limited. We studied the prevalence of overexpression of HER-2/neu and c-Kit in 202 patients with malignant melanoma to evaluate a possible prognostic value of these molecular targets in malignant melanoma. Methods Overexpression of HER-2/neu and c-Kit was evaluated using immunohistochemical assays in 202 archival tissue specimens. Results Between 1991 and 2001, 202 subjects (109 males; 54% and 93 females; 46% with malignant melanoma were studied with a mean age of 57 years (age range: 15–101 years. The most common histologic type was amelanotic melanoma (n = 62; 30.7% followed by superficial spreading melanoma (n = 54; 26.7%. The depth of penetration of melanoma (Breslow thickness, pT Stage ranged from 0.4 mm (stage pT1 to 8.0 mm (stage pT4A. Mean thickness was 2.6 mm (stage pT3A. The ECOG performance scores ranged from 0 to 3. Only 2 patients (0.9% revealed HER-2/neu overexpression, whereas 46 (22.8% revealed c-Kit overexpression. Multivariate analysis performed did not show a significant difference in survival between c-Kit positive and negative groups (p = 0.36. Interestingly, not only was c-Kit more likely to be overexpressed in the superficial spreading type, a preliminary association between the presence or absence of c-Kit overexpression and the existence of another second primary tumor was also observed. Conclusions The results of our large study indicate that the HER-2/neu onco-protein neither has a role in melanogenesis nor is a potential target for clinical trials with monoclonal antibody therapy. This indicates there is no role for its testing in patients with malignant melanoma. Although c-Kit, expressed preferentially in the superficial spreading type, may not have prognostic value, it does have significant therapeutic implications as a

  18. Analysis of the potential effect of ponatinib on the QTc interval in patients with refractory hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnichsen, Daryl; Dorer, David J; Cortes, Jorge; Talpaz, Moshe; Deininger, Michael W; Shah, Neil P; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Bixby, Dale; Mauro, Michael J; Flinn, Ian W; Litwin, Jeffrey; Turner, Christopher D; Haluska, Frank G

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac dysfunction, particularly QT interval prolongation, has been observed with tyrosine kinase inhibitors approved to treat chronic myeloid leukemia. This study examines the effects of ponatinib on cardiac repolarization in patients with refractory hematological malignancies enrolled in a phase 1 trial. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were collected at 3 dose levels (30, 45, and 60 mg) at 6 time points. Electrocardiographic parameters, including QTc interval, were measured, and 11 morphological analyses were conducted. Central tendency analyses of ECG parameters were performed using time-point and time-averaged approaches. All patients with at least 2 baseline ECGs and 1 on-treatment ECG were included in the analyses. Patients with paired ECGs and plasma samples were included in the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis to examine the relationship between ponatinib plasma concentration and change from baseline in QT intervals. Thirty-nine patients at the 30-, 45-, and 60-mg dose levels were included in the central tendency and morphological analyses. There was no significant effect on cardiac repolarization, as evidenced by non-clinically significant mean QTcF changes from baseline of -10.9, -3.6, and -5.0 ms for the 30-, 45-, and 60-mg dose levels, respectively. The morphological analysis revealed 2 patients with atrial fibrillation and 2 with T wave inversion. Seventy-five patients were included in the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis across all dose levels. The slope of the relationship for QTcF versus plasma ponatinib concentration was not positive (-0.0171), indicating no exposure-effect relationship. Ponatinib is associated with a low risk of QTc prolongation in patients with refractory hematological malignancies.

  19. Vascular patterns in nodules of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms depicted under contrast-enhanced ultrasonography are helpful for evaluating malignant potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Naoko; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Okamoto, Yuko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Fujii, Masakuni; Kato, Hironari; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CE-US) to differentiate between benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). Patients and methods: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with a contrast agent was performed on 22 consecutive patients with IPMN suspected of being malignant. This revealed 10 carcinomas, 1 borderline lesion and 11 adenomas. All patients underwent surgery, and the histological diagnosis was confirmed by examination of resected specimens. CE-US was performed using a contrast agent. The detection rates of mural nodules were compared between CE-US and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT), and the imaging of mural nodules depicted under CE-US was analyzed. Results: Seventeen of 22 resected specimens (77.3%) had mural nodules. There was no significant difference in the detection rate between CE-US (n = 15; 88.2%) and CE-CT (n = 12; 70.6%). In 12 (80.0%) of these patients, CE-US revealed small vessels in the mural nodule. The spotty or linear-shaped pattern was detected in 4 patients and the branch-shaped pattern in 8. The branch-shaped pattern lesion was associated with carcinoma. These mural nodules were 10 mm or more in height. In the perfusion image phase, cystic walls and mural nodules were also enhanced in all cases. Conclusion: The vessel shapes of the mural nodules depicted under CE-US were associated with size and pathological findings. These results suggested that CE-US with a contrast agent is a powerful modality with which to evaluate the malignant potential of IPMN.

  20. Preclinical demonstration of synergistic Active Nutrients/Drug (AND combination as a potential treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

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    Viviana Volta

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is a poor prognosis disease lacking adequate therapy. We have previously shown that ascorbic acid administration is toxic to MPM cells. Here we evaluated a new combined therapy consisting of ascorbate/epigallocatechin-3-gallate/gemcitabine mixture (called AND, for Active Nutrients/Drug. In vitro effects of AND therapy on various MPM cell lines revealed a synergistic cytotoxic mechanism. In vivo experiments on a xenograft mouse model for MPM, obtained by REN cells injection in immunocompromised mice, showed that AND strongly reduced the size of primary tumor as well as the number and size of metastases, and prevented abdominal hemorrhage. Kaplan Meier curves and the log-rank test indicated a marked increase in the survival of AND-treated animals. Histochemical analysis of dissected tumors showed that AND induced a shift from cell proliferation to apoptosis in cancer cells. Lysates of tumors from AND-treated mice, analyzed with an antibody array, revealed decreased TIMP-1 and -2 expressions and no effects on angiogenesis regulating factors. Multiplex analysis for signaling protein phosphorylation exhibited inactivation of cell proliferation pathways. The complex of data showed that the AND treatment is synergistic in vitro on MPM cells, and blocks in vivo tumor progression and metastasization in REN-based xenografts. Hence, the AND combination is proposed as a new treatment for MPM.

  1. A qualitative study examining the experience of primary care dentists in the detection and management of potentially malignant lesions. 1. Factors influencing detection and the decision to refer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, P R; Baker, S R; Speight, P M

    2010-01-23

    Many oral squamous cell carcinomas present as late stage disease and so the detection of early and pre-malignancy is considered to be of paramount importance. The majority of research examining primary care dentists' experience of the detection and management of early disease has been undertaken using questionnaires, with the inherent bias this introduces. The aim of this study was to use qualitative methods to develop a richer account of practitioners' views about screening and what factors influence the decision to refer a patient. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with eighteen dentists in Sheffield, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Ten codes were identified according to the aims of the study and organized into four overarching themes. Although many dentists were screening regularly, some did not appear to be adopting a rigorous and systematic approach. A number of participants also placed more reliance on 'classical' presentations rather than the more varied presentation of potentially malignant lesions and were more influenced by the clinical history of the lesion rather than risk factors. Overall, the present research suggests that for some dentists, more rigour is required when examining for early disease.

  2. Malignant Catatonia

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    Ayca Ozkul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia is a syndrome characterized by mutism, immobility, negativism, stereotypy, mannerisms, echophenomena, perseveration and passive obedience. The underlying causes can be psychiatric or may be associated with general medical status or neurological diseases. Additionally catatonia has two subtypes as malignant and nonmalignant catatonia. Main symptoms of malignant catatonia are hyperthermia and autonomic symptoms such as tachycardia, tachypnea and hyperhidrosis. It is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible for an appropriate medical treatment. Clinicians should be aware of the fatal outcome of the disease.

  3. Localization and prediction of malignant potential in recurrent pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PCC/PGL) using 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri, Ahmad Saad Fathinul; Kroiss, A; Ahmad, A Z F; Zanariah, H; Lau, W F E; Uprimny, C; Donnemiller, E; Kendler, D; Nordin, A J; Virgolini, I J

    2014-06-01

    To our knowledge, data are lacking on the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the localization and prediction of neuroendocrine tumors, in particular the pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PCC/PGL) group. To evaluate the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in localizing and predicting the malignant potential of PCC/PGL. Twenty-three consecutive patients with a history of PCC/PGL, presenting with symptoms related to catecholamine excess, underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT. Final confirmation of the diagnosis was made using the composite references. PET/CT findings were analyzed on a per-lesion basis and a per-patient basis. Tumor SUVmax was analyzed to predict the dichotomization of patient endpoints for the local disease and metastatic groups. We investigated 23 patients (10 men, 13 women) with a mean age of 46.43 ± 3.70 years. Serum catecholamine levels were elevated in 82.60% of these patients. There were 136 sites (mean SUVmax: 16.39 ± 3.47) of validated disease recurrence. The overall sensitivities for diagnostic CT, FDG PET, and FDG PET/CT were 86.02%, 87.50%, and 98.59%, respectively. Based on the composite references, 39.10% of patients had local disease. There were significant differences in the SUVmax distribution between the local disease and metastatic groups; a significant correlation was noted when a SUVmax cut-off was set at 9.2 (Plocalization of recurrent tumors. Tumor SUVmax is a potentially useful predictor of malignant tumor potential. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Simulants of malignant melanoma

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    Gérald E. Piérard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the recent period, dermoscopy has yielded improvement in the early disclosure of various atypical melanocytic neoplasms (AMN of the skin. Beyond this clinical procedure, AMN histopathology remains mandatory for establishing their precise diagnosis. Of note, panels of experts in AMN merely report moderate agreement in various puzzling cases. Divergences in opinion and misdiagnosis are likely increased when histopathological criteria are not fine-tuned and when facing a diversity of AMN types. Furthermore, some AMN have been differently named in the literature including atypical Spitz tumor, metastasizing Spitz tumor, borderline and intermediate melanocytic tumor, malignant Spitz nevus, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma or animal-type melanoma. Some acronyms have been further suggested such as MELTUMP (after melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential and STUMP (after Spitzoid melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential. In this review, such AMN at the exclusion of cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM variants, are grouped under the tentative broad heading skin melanocytoma. Such set of AMN frequently follows an indolent course, although they exhibit atypical and sometimes worrisome patterns or cytological atypia. Rare cases of skin melanocytomas progress to loco regional clusters of lesions (agminate melanocytomas, and even to regional lymph nodes. At times, the distinction between a skin melanocytoma and MM remains puzzling. However, multipronged immunohistochemistry and emerging molecular biology help profiling any malignancy risk if present.

  5. [Organization of public oral health services for early diagnosis of potentially malignant disorders in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casotti, Elisete; Monteiro, Ana Beatriz Fonseca; Castro Filho, Evelyn Lima de; Santos, Manuella Pires Dos

    2016-05-01

    This is a study of the organization of public health services in the state of Rio de Janeiro concerning the diagnosis of potentially malignant disorders. Secondary data from the database of the first phase of the Program for Enhancement for Access to and Quality of Primary Care were used. The implementation of actions at different levels for cancer prevention, the availability of diagnostic support services and the organization of the care network were assessed. The results show that only 58.8% of oral health teams record and monitor suspect cases; that only 47.1% reported having preferential channels for referring patients and there is great variation in waiting times to confirm the diagnosis. Local managerial and regional support actions can improve the organization of the care network for oral cancer prevention in the state.

  6. Multivariate analysis of structure and contribution per shares made by potential risk factors at malignant neoplasms in trachea, bronchial tubes and lung

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    G.T. Aydinov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of multivariate analysis of structure and contribution per shares made by potential risk factors at malignant neoplasms in trachea, bronchial tubes and lung. The authors used specialized databases comprising personified records on oncologic diseases in Taganrog, Rostov region, over 1986-2015 (30,684 registered cases of malignant neoplasms, including 3,480 cases of trachea cancer, bronchial tubes cancer, and lung cancer. When carrying out analytical research we applied both multivariate statistical techniques (factor analysis and hierarchical cluster correlation analysis and conventional techniques of epidemiologic analysis including etiologic fraction calculation (EF, as well as an original technique of assessing actual (epidemiologic risk. Average long-term morbidity with trachea, bronchial tubes and lung cancer over 2011-2015 amounts to 46.64 o / oooo . Over the last 15 years a stable decreasing trend has formed, annual average growth being – 1.22 %. This localization holds the 3rd rank place in oncologic morbidity structure, its specific weight being 10.02 %. We determined etiological fraction (EF for smoking as a priority risk factor causing trachea, bronchial tubes and lung cancer; this fraction amounts to 76.19 % for people aged 40 and older, and to 81.99 % for those aged 60 and older. Application of multivariate statistical techniques (factor analysis and cluster correlation analysis in this research enabled us to make factor structure more simple; namely, to highlight, interpret, give a quantitative estimate of self-descriptiveness and rank four group (latent potential risk factors causing lung cancer.

  7. Insights into the therapeutic potential of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α small interfering RNA in malignant melanoma delivered via folate-decorated cationic liposomes

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    Chen Z

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zhongjian Chen,1,* Tianpeng Zhang,2,* Baojian Wu,2 Xingwang Zhang2 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Dermatology Hospital, 2Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Gangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Malignant melanoma (MM represents the most dangerous form of skin cancer, and its incidence is expected to rise in the coming time. However, therapy for MM is limited by low topical drug concentration and multidrug resistance. This article aimed to develop folate-decorated cationic liposomes (fc-LPs for hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α small interfering (siRNA delivery, and to evaluate the potential of such siRNA/liposome complexes in MM therapy. HIF-1α siRNA-loaded fc-LPs (siRNA-fc-LPs were prepared by a film hydration method followed by siRNA incubation. Folate decoration of liposomes was achieved by incorporation of folate/oleic acid-diacylated oligochitosans. The resulting siRNA-fc-LPs were 95.3 nm in size with a ζ potential of 2.41 mV. The liposomal vectors exhibited excellent loading capacity and protective effect toward siRNA. The in vitro cell transfection efficiency was almost parallel to the commercially available Lipofectamine™ 2000. Moreover, the anti-melanoma activity of HIF-1α siRNA was significantly enhanced through fc-LPs. Western blot analysis and apoptosis test demonstrated that siRNA-fc-LPs substantially reduced the production of HIF-1α-associated protein and induced the apoptosis of hypoxia-tolerant melanoma cells. Our designed liposomal vectors might be applicable as siRNA delivery vehicle to systemically or topically treat MM. Keywords: malignant melanoma, HIF-1α siRNA, chitosan, cationic liposomes, gene therapy

  8. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling of socio-cultural constructs among chamorro and non-chamorro micronesian betel nut chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle L; Liu, Min; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2017-07-05

    Betel nut chewing is embedded within the cultures of South Asia, and Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific. The determinants of betel nut consumption are complex. Ongoing consumption of betel nut is affected by cultural, social, and drug-specific effects (i.e. dependence). This study's first objective was to assess the psychometric properties (i.e. reliability and validity) of the socio-cultural constructs in a survey developed for betel nut chewers. The study's second objective was to investigate the influence of socio-cultural variables on betel nut chewing behaviors among Chamorro and non-Chamorro Micronesians in Guam. The current study was a secondary analysis of a larger study (N = 600; n = 375 chewers and n = 225 former chewers) that examined socio-cultural factors that influence why chewers chew betel nut, along with assessing chewing behaviors, perceptions of risks, probability of changing behaviors, and methods that could be used to reduce use or quit. The socio-cultural constructs of the survey were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The socio-cultural factors were a sufficient fit with data and the instrument is reliable and valid, as indicated by various model fit indices (χ 2 (13) = 18.49 with p = .14, TLI = .99, CFI = 1.00, SRMR = .02, RMSEA = .03 with 90% CIs [.00,.07]). Cronbach's alpha, the sign and magnitude of the factor loadings, the inter-factor correlations, and the large proportion of variance extracted for each factor, all indicate that the instrument is reliable and valid. Additionally, multivariate analyses showed that socio-cultural reasons were important contributing or chewing betel nut. Participants cited chewing because their friends and family members chewed, the behavior is embedded within their culture, and it would be considered rude and disrespectful to not chew. Based on the findings, this study provides important implications pertaining to

  9. Approach of pharmacists and herbalists while offering guidance on potentially malignant oral lesions: A cross-sectional survey

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    Abhishek Gouraha

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Apart from pharmacists, the new probable off-clinical counselors (herbalists and pharmacy assistants have been identified as potential factors of patient diagnostic delay in oral cancer. Educational strategies to improve advice and referral for these identified groups should be designed.

  10. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

  11. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  12. [Malignant pheochromocytoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mornex, R; Berthezene, F; Peyrin, L; Tran Minh, V; Martin, J P; Fulchiron, D

    1979-11-01

    The reported incidence of malignant pheochromocytoma varies from series to series. In this series 4 cases (7.2 p. 100) were observed out of a total of 55. In two cases the tumour progressed rapidly but in the other two cases, metastases were detected 3 to 12 years after the apparent cure of a histologically benign pheochromocytoma. The urinary levels of catecholamines and their metabolites gave no indication of the underlying malignancy. The diagnosis was only made from the clinical and radiological detection of metastases (2 hepatic, 2 bone). There is no satisfactory treatment and various therapeutic methods have to be used in succession; surgery for a single metastasis, radiotherapy and antiadrenergic agents to combat clinical manifestations. The natural history of this tumour is relatively long.

  13. The use of light-based (optical) detection systems as adjuncts in the detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, A; Warnakulasuriya, S

    2015-05-01

    In recent decades, optical techniques utilising the principles of chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence have emerged to facilitate the early detection of any oral mucosal changes suspicious of cancer. To evaluate the effectiveness of devices that utilise the principles of chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence as adjuncts in the detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). A systematic review of the published literature to evaluate the effectiveness of the ViziLite(®) and ViziLite(®) Plus with toluidine blue, MicroLux™/DL and the VELscope™ as aids in the detection of oral cancer and OPMDs. Twenty-five primary studies published between 2004 and 2013 satisfied our criteria for selection - 13 utilised chemiluminescence and 12 tissue autofluorescence. Some had utilised both study methods on the same population. Chemiluminescence shows good sensitivity at detecting any OPMDs and oral cancer. However, it preferentially detects leukoplakia and may fail to spot red patches. The additive use of toluidine blue may improve specificity. Tissue autofluorescence is sensitive at detecting white, red and white and red patches, and the area of fluorescence visualisation loss (FVL) often extends beyond the clinically visible lesion. However, in addition to OPMDs, VELScope may detect erythematous lesions of benign inflammation resulting in false-positive test results. There is limited evidence for their use in primary care, and these tools are better suited to specialist clinics in which there is a higher prevalence of disease and where experienced clinicians may better discriminate between benign and malignant lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. SEMI–MATURE DENDRITIC CELLS AS A POTENTIAL BASIS FOR THE INDUCTION OF ANTI–TUMOR RESPONSE IN PATIENTS WITH MALIGNANT GLIOMAS

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    O. Yu. Leplina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The comparative analysis of phenotypical and functional features of dendritic cells (DCs, generated in presence of GM–CSF and IFNα from blood monocytes of patients with malignant gliomas (MG and healthy donors, was carried out in this research. The potential value of the DC–based immunotherapy in the induction of anti–tumor response in patients with MG was also examined. Our results show that within generated DCs of healthy donors 90 and 52% cells expressed correspondingly HLA–DR and CD86, only 17–18% cells were CD14+monocytes, whereas 38% cells exhibited the phenotype of mature CD83+ dendritic cells. The both monocyte conditioned medium (MCM, 30% v/v and Leukinferon® (250 IU of IFNα were comparably efficient as maturation–induced stimuli. Despite monocyte’s disturbances in malignant gliomas, the analogous population of DCs was efficiently generated in all examined patients with MG. However, the percentage of mature CD83+DCs was significantly decreased compared to that in healthy donors (24 vs 38%, and these data strongly suggest the delay maturation of DCs in MG. Nevertheless the patient’s DCs showed the allostimulatory activity, comparable with healthy donor’s DCs, and 52–62% cells maintained the ability for the receptor–dependent en–docytosis. Moreover, the patient’s DCs effectively presented bacterial and tumor–associated antigens (TAA. Immunotherapy with autologous DCs allowed to induce the TAA–specific immune reactions, both in skin test in vivo and in vitro, in 50% patients with MG. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 4, pp. 365–374

  15. Assessment of Salivary Flow Rate and pH Among Areca Nut Chewers and Oral Submucous Fibrosis Subjects: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Khader, Nishat Fatima; Dyasanoor, Sujatha

    2015-09-01

    To assess and compare the salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary pH among areca nut chewers, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and apparently healthy individuals. A comparative study was conducted to assess and compare the SFR and pH among 135 outpatients (45 areca nut chewers + 45 OSMF + 45 control) at The Oxford Dental College and Research Hospital, Bangalore, India. Subjects were interviewed using structural proforma and Modified Schirmer strips and pH paper were implemented for assessing SFR and pH respectively. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS ver. 21.0 software. A statistically significant increase in SFR (35.7 mm at 3rd minutes) among areca nut group and a decrease in SFR among OSMF group (23.4 mm at 3rd minutes) when compared to apparently healthy subjects (30.7 mm at 3rd minutes). The mean pH among areca nut, OSMF and control groups was 6.76, 6.82, and 6.74 respectively with no statistical significance. The observation and findings of the study clearly showed hypersalivation among areca nut group and hyposalivation among OSMF group, with no significant change in salivary pH when compared to healthy subjects.

  16. The potential impact of the tension of the pelvic muscles on set-up errors in radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujko, Krzysztof; Czuchraniuk, Piotr; Zolciak, Agnieszka; Kukolowicz, Pawel; Kepka, Lucyna; Bielik, Agnieszka

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate the potential impact of the tension of pelvic muscles on set-up errors. Twenty-nine consecutive patients with rectal cancer were included. The treatment simulation of the lateral beam in prone position was performed twice-with relaxed and next with maximally tense pelvic muscles. During the second simulation, the couch was moved so as to align the centre of the beam with the actual position of the skin mark tattooed during the first simulation. The bony landmarks on both images of corresponding lateral fields were matched. The beam's centre displacement and the rotation were measured using the beam image taken in relaxed position as a reference. The absolute values were used in calculation of the mean. For the anterior-posterior direction, the mean value of displacements was 15.3 mm, standard deviation (SD) 6.9 mm and the maximal value 37 mm. For the cranial-caudal direction, the mean value was 4.4 mm, SD 4 mm and the maximal value 17 mm. The mean rotation of the pelvis was 5.3 degrees, SD 2.4 degrees and maximal rotation 11 degrees. The majority of displacements were in the posterior (86%) and caudal (55%) directions. The majority of rotations were clockwise (76%). It was shown that pelvic muscle tension was the reason for anal verge displacements and mispositionings of the shielding block. This results in set-up inaccuracy, especially in the anterior-posterior direction, shielding block mispositioning and anal verge displacement

  17. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha is a poor prognostic factor and potential therapeutic target in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.

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    Suguru Fukushima

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST is a rare soft tissue sarcoma with poor prognosis. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 plays a crucial role in the cellular response to hypoxia and regulates the expression of multiple genes involved in tumor progression in various cancers. However, the importance of the expression of HIF-1α in MPNSTs is unclear.The expression of HIF-1α was examined immunohistochemically in 82 MPNST specimens. Cell culture assays of human MPNST cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions were used to evaluate the impact of anti-HIF-1α-specific siRNA inhibition on cell survival. A screening kit was employed to identify small molecules that inhibited HIF-1α.The nuclear expression of HIF-1α was positive in 75.6% of MPNST samples (62/82 cases. Positivity for HIF-1α was a significant poor prognostic factor both in univariate (P = 0.048 and multivariate (P ≤ 0.0001 analyses. HIF-1α knockdown abrogated MPNST cell growth, inducing apoptosis. Finally, chetomin, an inhibitor of HIF-1α, effectively inhibited the growth of MPNST cells and induced their apoptosis.Inhibition of HIF-1α signaling is a potential treatment option for MPNSTs.

  18. Evaluation of T1/T2 ratios in a pilot study as a potential biomarker of biopsy: proven benign and malignant breast lesions in correlation with histopathological disease stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikova, Marina A; Tkacz, Jaroslaw N; Slanetz, Priscilla J; Guo, Chao-Yu; Aakil, Adam; Jara, Hernan

    2017-08-01

    Early breast cancer detection is important for intervention and prognosis. Advances in treatment and outcome require diagnostic tools with highly positive predictive value. To study the potential role of quantitative MRI (qMRI) using T1/T2 ratios to differentiate benign from malignant breast lesions. A cross-sectional study of 69 women with 69 known or suspicious breast lesions were scanned with mixed-turbo spin echo pulse sequence. Patients were grouped according to histopathological assessment of disease stage: untreated malignant tumor, treated malignancy and benign disease. Elevated T1/T2 means were observed for biopsy-proven malignant lesions and for malignant lesions treated prior to qMRI with chemotherapy and/or radiation, as compared with benign lesions. The qMRI-obtained T1/T2 ratios correlated with histopathology. Analysis revealed correlation between elevated T1/T2 ratio and disease stage. This could provide valuable complementary information on tissue properties as an additional diagnostic tool.

  19. FOXM1 upregulation is an early event in human squamous cell carcinoma and it is enhanced by nicotine during malignant transformation.

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    Emilios Gemenetzidis

    Full Text Available Cancer associated with smoking and drinking remains a serious health problem worldwide. The survival of patients is very poor due to the lack of effective early biomarkers. FOXM1 overexpression is linked to the majority of human cancers but its mechanism remains unclear in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC.FOXM1 mRNA and protein expressions were investigated in four independent cohorts (total 75 patients consisting of normal, premalignant and HNSCC tissues and cells using quantitative PCR (qPCR, expression microarray, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry. Effect of putative oral carcinogens on FOXM1 transcriptional activity was dose-dependently assayed and confirmed using a FOXM1-specific luciferase reporter system, qPCR, immunoblotting and short-hairpin RNA interference. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array was used to 'trace' the genomic instability signature pattern in 8 clonal lines of FOXM1-induced malignant human oral keratinocytes. Furthermore, acute FOXM1 upregulation in primary oral keratinocytes directly induced genomic instability. We have shown for the first time that overexpression of FOXM1 precedes HNSCC malignancy. Screening putative carcinogens in human oral keratinocytes surprisingly showed that nicotine, which is not perceived to be a human carcinogen, directly induced FOXM1 mRNA, protein stabilisation and transcriptional activity at concentrations relevant to tobacco chewers. Importantly, nicotine also augmented FOXM1-induced transformation of human oral keratinocytes. A centrosomal protein CEP55 and a DNA helicase/putative stem cell marker HELLS, both located within a consensus loci (10q23, were found to be novel targets of FOXM1 and their expression correlated tightly with HNSCC progression.This study cautions the potential co-carcinogenic effect of nicotine in tobacco replacement therapies. We hypothesise that aberrant upregulation of FOXM1 may be inducing genomic instability through a

  20. The serrated neoplasia pathway of colorectal tumors: Identification of MUC5AC hypomethylation as an early marker of polyps with malignant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Florence; Mariette, Christophe; Vincent, Audrey; Wacrenier, Agnès; Maunoury, Vincent; Leclerc, Julie; Coppin, Lucie; Crépin, Michel; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Buisine, Marie-Pierre

    2016-03-15

    The serrated neoplasia pathway accounts for 20-30% of colorectal cancers (CRC), which are characterized by extensive methylation (CpG island methylation phenotype, CIMP), frequent BRAF mutation and high microsatellite instability (MSI). We recently identified MUC5AC mucin gene hypomethylation as a specific marker of MSI CRC. The early identification of preneoplastic lesions among serrated polyps is currently challenging. Here, we performed a detailed pathological and molecular analysis of a large series of colorectal serrated polyps and evaluated the usefulness of mucin genes MUC2 and MUC5AC to differentiate serrated polyps and to identify lesions with malignant potential. A series of 330 colorectal polyps including 218 serrated polyps [42 goblet cell-rich hyperplastic polyps (GCHP), 68 microvesicular hyperplastic polyps (MVHP), 100 sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) and eight traditional serrated adenoma (TSA)] and 112 conventional adenomas was analyzed for BRAF/KRAS mutations, MSI, CIMP, MLH1 and MGMT methylation, and MUC2 and MUC5AC expression and methylation. We show that MUC5AC hypomethylation is an early event in the serrated neoplasia pathway, and specifically detects MVHP and SSA, arguing for a filiation between MVHP, SSA and CIMP-H/MSI CRC, whereas GCHP and TSA arise from a distinct pathway. Moreover, MUC5AC hypomethylation specifically identified serrated lesions with BRAF mutation, CIMP-H or MSI, suggesting that it may be useful to identify serrated neoplasia pathway-related precursor lesions. Our data suggest that MVHP should be recognized among HP and require particular attention. © 2015 UICC.

  1. Malignant hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollock Neil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stresses such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:5,000 to 1:50,000–100,000 anesthesias. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 3,000 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs, horses, and probably other animals. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia to marked degree, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. Early recognition of the signs of MH, specifically elevation of end-expired carbon dioxide, provides the clinical diagnostic clues. In humans the syndrome is inherited in autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs in autosomal recessive. The pathophysiologic changes of MH are due to uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation. Due to ATP depletion, the muscle membrane integrity is compromised leading to hyperkalemia and rhabdomyolysis. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 90 mutations have been identified in the RYR-1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 25 are causal for MH. Diagnostic testing relies on assessing the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and other drugs. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction, on a limited basis so far, of genetic testing for susceptibility to MH. As the sensitivity of genetic testing increases, molecular genetics will be used for identifying those at risk with

  2. Diagnostic potential of miR-126, miR-143, miR-145, and miR-652 in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Grauslund, Morten; Ravn, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is difficult to distinguish from reactive mesothelial proliferations (RMPs). It is uncertain whether miRNAs are useful biomarkers for differentiating MPM from RMPs. Thus, we screened with a quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR)-based platform the expression of 742 miR...

  3. Diagnostic potential of real-time elastography (RTE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid nodules: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiangdong; Liu, Yujiang; Qian, Linxue

    2017-10-01

    Real-time elastography (RTE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) are noninvasive and easily available imaging techniques that measure the tissue strain, and it has been reported that the sensitivity and the specificity of elastography were better in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodules than conventional technologies. Relevant articles were searched in multiple databases; the comparison of elasticity index (EI) was conducted with the Review Manager 5.0. Forest plots of the sensitivity and specificity and SROC curve of RTE and SWE were performed with STATA 10.0 software. In addition, sensitivity analysis and bias analysis of the studies were conducted to examine the quality of articles; and to estimate possible publication bias, funnel plot was used and the Egger test was conducted. Finally 22 articles which eventually satisfied the inclusion criteria were included in this study. After eliminating the inefficient, benign and malignant nodules were 2106 and 613, respectively. The meta-analysis suggested that the difference of EI between benign and malignant nodules was statistically significant (SMD = 2.11, 95% CI [1.67, 2.55], P benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

  4. Assessing the utility of autofluorescence-based pulmonary optical endomicroscopy to predict the malignant potential of solitary pulmonary nodules in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Sohan; Akram, Ahsan R.; McCool, Paul; Westerfeld, Jody; Wilson, David; McLaughlin, Stephen; Dhaliwal, Kevin; Williams, Christopher K. I.

    2016-08-01

    Solitary pulmonary nodules are common, often incidental findings on chest CT scans. The investigation of pulmonary nodules is time-consuming and often leads to protracted follow-up with ongoing radiological surveillance, however, clinical calculators that assess the risk of the nodule being malignant exist to help in the stratification of patients. Furthermore recent advances in interventional pulmonology include the ability to both navigate to nodules and also to perform autofluorescence endomicroscopy. In this study we assessed the efficacy of incorporating additional information from label-free fibre-based optical endomicrosopy of the nodule on assessing risk of malignancy. Using image analysis and machine learning approaches, we find that this information does not yield any gain in predictive performance in a cohort of patients. Further advances with pulmonary endomicroscopy will require the addition of molecular tracers to improve information from this procedure.

  5. 2-[18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) findings of chronic expanding intrapericardial hematoma: a potential interpretive pitfall that mimics a malignant tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A 77-year-old man who had undergone mitral valve replacement 5 years previously presented with an intrapericardial mass. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed that the mass lesion contained hematoma components. Positron-emission tomography (PET) with 2-[18 F] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) revealed uptake in the peripheral rim of the mass. These findings suggested the presence of hematoma associated with a malignant lesion. Surgical resection was performed, and the histological diagnosis was chronic expanding intrapericardial hematoma without neoplastic changes. Chronic expanding intrapericardial hematoma is a rare disease but should be considered when an expanding mass is found in a patient after cardiac surgery. The FDG-PET findings of chronic expanding hematomas, including FDG uptake in the peripheral rim of the mass as a result of inflammation, should be recognized as a potential interpretive pitfall that mimics a malignant tumor. PMID:23324446

  6. Modeling Myeloid Malignancies Using Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. Potts

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human myeloid malignancies represent a substantial disease burden to individuals, with significant morbidity and death. The genetic underpinnings of disease formation and progression remain incompletely understood. Large-scale human population studies have identified a high frequency of potential driver mutations in spliceosomal and epigenetic regulators that contribute to malignancies, such as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS and leukemias. The high conservation of cell types and genes between humans and model organisms permits the investigation of the underlying mechanisms of leukemic development and potential therapeutic testing in genetically pliable pre-clinical systems. Due to the many technical advantages, such as large-scale screening, lineage-tracing studies, tumor transplantation, and high-throughput drug screening approaches, zebrafish is emerging as a model system for myeloid malignancies. In this review, we discuss recent advances in MDS and leukemia using the zebrafish model.

  7. Association of DSM-5 Betel-Quid Use Disorder With Oral Potentially Malignant Disorder in 6 Betel-Quid Endemic Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Yang, Frances M; Hung, Chung-Chieh; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2018-03-01

    Betel-quid (BQ) is the fourth most popular psychoactive agent worldwide. An emerging trend across Asia is the addictive consumption of BQ, which is associated with oral cancer and other health consequences. To investigate the validity and pattern of DSM-5-defined BQ use disorder (BUD) and its association with oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD) among Asian populations. In-person interviews were conducted from January 1, 2009, to February 28, 2010, among a random sample of 8922 noninstitutionalized adults from the Asian Betel-quid Consortium study, an Asian representative survey of 6 BQ-endemic populations. Statistical analysis was performed from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016. Participants were evaluated for BUD using DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorder and for OPMD using a clinical oral examination. Current users of BQ with 0 to 1 symptoms were classified as having no BUD, those with 2 to 3 symptoms as having mild BUD, those with 4 to 5 symptoms as having moderate BUD, and those with 6 or more symptoms as having severe BUD. Among the 8922 participants (4564 women and 4358 men; mean [SD] age, 44.2 [0.2] years), DSM-5 symptoms showed sufficient unidimensionality to act as a valid measure for BUD. The 12-month prevalence of DSM-5-defined BUD in the 6 study populations was 18.0% (mild BUD, 3.2%; moderate BUD, 4.3%; and severe BUD, 10.5%). The 12-month proportion of DSM-5-defined BUD among current users of BQ was 86.0% (mild BUD, 15.5%; moderate BUD, 20.6%; and severe BUD, 50.0%). Sex, age, low educational level, smoking, and drinking were significantly associated with BUD. Among individuals who used BQ, family use, high frequency of use, and amount of BQ used were significantly linked to moderate to severe BUD. Compared with individuals who did not use BQ, those who used BQ and had no BUD showed a 22.0-fold (95% CI, 4.3-112.4) risk of OPMD (P < .001), whereas those with mild BUD showed a 9.6-fold (95% CI, 1.8-56.8) risk (P = .01), those

  8. Malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinicoroentgenologic semiotics of malignant bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors are presented. Diagnosis of malignant and metastatic bone tumors should be always complex, representing a result of cooperation of a physician, roentgenologist, pathoanatomist

  9. Radiotherapy of malignant lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawska, J [Instytut Onkologii, Krakow (Poland)

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses current views on the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of patients with malignant lymphomas. Principles of radiotherapy employed in the Institute of Oncology in Cracow in case of patients with malignant lymphomas are also presented.

  10. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Much of this research focuses on finding ways to prevent and treat the disorder. Show More Show Less Search Disorders SEARCH SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is ...

  11. EphA2 Is a Potential Player of Malignant Cellular Behavior in Non-Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells but Not in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Chul; Cho, Sung Yong; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Lee, Seung Bae; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Jeong, Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of EphA2 in malignant cellular behavior in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells and whether FAK/RhoA signaling can act as downstream effectors of EphA2 on RCC cells. Expression of EphA2 protein in non-metastatic RCC (Caki-2 and A498), metastatic RCC cells (Caki-1 and ACHN), HEK-293 cells and prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and DU-145; positive controls of EphA2 expression) was evaluated by Western blot. Changes in mRNA or protein expression of EphA2, FAK or membrane-bound RhoA following EphA2, FAK or RhoA small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or Western blot. The effect of siRNA treatment on cellular viability, apoptosis and invasion was analyzed by cell counting kit-8, Annexin-V and modified Matrigel-Boyden assays, respectively. In all RCC cell lines, the expression of EphA2 protein was detectable at variable levels; however, in HEK-293 cells, EphA2 expression was very low. Treatment with EphA2 siRNA significantly reduced the expression of EphA2 mRNA and protein in all RCC cell lines. For non-metastatic RCC cells (Caki-2 and A498) but not metastatic RCC cells (Caki-1 and ACHN), cellular viability, invasiveness, resistance to apoptosis, expression of membrane-bound RhoA protein and FAK phosphorylation were significantly decreased in EphA2 siRNA-treated cells compared to the control. In non-metastatic RCC cells, FAK siRNA significantly attenuated the invasiveness, resistance to apoptosis, as well as expression of membrane-bound RhoA protein without changing protein expression of EphA2. RhoA siRNA significantly decreased the malignant cellular behavior and expression of membrane-bound RhoA protein without changing EphA2 protein expression or FAK phosphorylation. Our data provide the first functional evidence that the EphA2/FAK/RhoA signaling pathway plays a critical role in the malignant cellular behavior of RCC and appears to be functional particularly in the early stage of

  12. Extracellular vesicle-mediated phenotype switching in malignant and non-malignant colon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvey, Hillary E.; Chang, Audrey; Adler, Jason; Del Tatto, Michael; Perez, Kimberly; Quesenberry, Peter J.; Chatterjee, Devasis

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted from many cells, carrying cargoes including proteins and nucleic acids. Research has shown that EVs play a role in a variety of biological processes including immunity, bone formation and recently they have been implicated in promotion of a metastatic phenotype. EVs were isolated from HCT116 colon cancer cells, 1459 non-malignant colon fibroblast cells, and tumor and normal colon tissue from a patient sample. Co-cultures were performed with 1459 cells and malignant vesicles, as well as HCT116 cells and non-malignant vesicles. Malignant phenotype was measured using soft agar colony formation assay. Co-cultures were also analyzed for protein levels using mass spectrometry. The importance of 14-3-3 zeta/delta in transfer of malignant phenotype was explored using siRNA. Additionally, luciferase reporter assay was used to measure the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. This study demonstrates the ability of EVs derived from malignant colon cancer cell line and malignant patient tissue to induce the malignant phenotype in non-malignant colon cells. Similarly, EVs derived from non-malignant colon cell lines and normal patient tissue reversed the malignant phenotype of HCT116 cells. Cells expressing an EV-induced malignant phenotype showed increased transcriptional activity of NF-κB which was inhibited by the NF--κB inhibitor, BAY117082. We also demonstrate that knock down of 14-3-3 zeta/delta reduced anchorage-independent growth of HCT116 cells and 1459 cells co-cultured with HCT derived EVs. Evidence of EV-mediated induction of malignant phenotype, and reversal of malignant phenotype, provides rational basis for further study of the role of EVs in tumorigenesis. Identification of 14-3-3 zeta/delta as up-regulated in malignancy suggests its potential as a putative drug target for the treatment of colorectal cancer

  13. In Silico and In Vitro Analyses of LncRNAs as Potential Regulators in the Transition from the Epithelioid to Sarcomatoid Histotype of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand S; Heery, Richard; Gray, Steven G

    2018-04-26

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignancy, with extremely poor survival rates. At present, treatment options are limited, with no second line chemotherapy for those who fail first line therapy. Extensive efforts are ongoing in a bid to characterise the underlying molecular mechanisms of mesothelioma. Recent research has determined that between 70⁻90% of our genome is transcribed. As only 2% of our genome is protein coding, the roles of the remaining proportion of non-coding RNA in biological processes has many applications, including roles in carcinogenesis and epithelial⁻mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process thought to play important roles in MPM pathogenesis. Non-coding RNAs can be separated loosely into two subtypes, short non-coding RNAs (200 nucleotides). A significant body of evidence has emerged for the roles of short non-coding RNAs in MPM. Less is known about the roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in this disease setting. LncRNAs have been shown to play diverse roles in EMT, and it has been suggested that EMT may play a role in the aggressiveness of MPM histological subsets. In this report, using both in vitro analyses on mesothelioma patient material and in silico analyses of existing RNA datasets, we posit that various lncRNAs may play important roles in EMT within MPM, and we review the current literature regarding these lncRNAs with respect to both EMT and MPM.

  14. In Silico and In Vitro Analyses of LncRNAs as Potential Regulators in the Transition from the Epithelioid to Sarcomatoid Histotype of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand S. Singh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is a rare malignancy, with extremely poor survival rates. At present, treatment options are limited, with no second line chemotherapy for those who fail first line therapy. Extensive efforts are ongoing in a bid to characterise the underlying molecular mechanisms of mesothelioma. Recent research has determined that between 70–90% of our genome is transcribed. As only 2% of our genome is protein coding, the roles of the remaining proportion of non-coding RNA in biological processes has many applications, including roles in carcinogenesis and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT, a process thought to play important roles in MPM pathogenesis. Non-coding RNAs can be separated loosely into two subtypes, short non-coding RNAs (<200 nucleotides or long (>200 nucleotides. A significant body of evidence has emerged for the roles of short non-coding RNAs in MPM. Less is known about the roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs in this disease setting. LncRNAs have been shown to play diverse roles in EMT, and it has been suggested that EMT may play a role in the aggressiveness of MPM histological subsets. In this report, using both in vitro analyses on mesothelioma patient material and in silico analyses of existing RNA datasets, we posit that various lncRNAs may play important roles in EMT within MPM, and we review the current literature regarding these lncRNAs with respect to both EMT and MPM.

  15. Malignant disease and dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Graham; Seymour, Robin A

    2009-11-01

    Reports of an ageing population, increasing incidence of malignancy and improved treatments mean that dentists may have an increasing number of patients with, or who have recovered from, a malignancy. Dental professionals are expected to have an understanding of this important disease group so that appropriate dental care can be provided safely. In this first of three articles, we shall describe the important epidemiological and clinical features of the commonest malignancies in the United Kingdom. Dentists should understand the clinical implications of a patient with, or recovering from, a malignancy. This article gives a summary of the relevant features of the commonest malignancies.

  16. Cryopreservation does not alter main characteristics of Good Manufacturing Process-grade human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells including immunomodulating potential and lack of malignant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetzkendorf, Jana; Nerger, Katrin; Hering, Julian; Moegel, Angelika; Hoffmann, Katrin; Hoefers, Christiane; Mueller-Tidow, Carsten; Mueller, Lutz P

    2015-02-01

    The immunomodulating capacity of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) qualifies them as a therapeutic tool in several diseases. However, repeated transplantation with products of reproducible characteristics may be required. This could be achieved with cryopreserved aliquots of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-grade MSCs. However, the impact of cryopreservation on the characteristics of GMP-MSCs is ill defined. We produced fresh and cryopreserved MSCs from human donors with a xenogen-free GMP protocol. Immunogenicity and immunomodulating capacity were tested in co-culture with putative recipient-specific peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Risk of malignant transformation was assessed in vitro and in vivo. Cryopreservation had no impact on viability and consensus criteria of MSCs. In co-culture with PBMCs, MSCs showed low immunogenicity and suppressed mitogen-stimulated proliferation of PBMC irrespective of cryopreservation. Cytogenetic aberrations were not observed consistently in fresh and cryopreserved products, and no signs of malignant transformation occurred in functional assays. MSC products from an elderly pretreated donor showed reduced functional quality, but imminent failure of functional criteria could be detected by an increased population doubling time in early passages. This study is the first systematic analysis on cryopreservation of xenogen-free human bone marrow-derived GMP-MSCs. The data support that cryopreservation does not alter the characteristics of the cells and thus may allow the generation of products for serial transplantation. In addition, the protocol allowed early detection of MSC products with low functional capacity. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance of biomarkers SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA 21-1 as potential tumor markers for malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer in a cohort of workers formerly exposed to asbestos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gube, M.; Taeger, D.; Weber, D.G.; Pesch, B.; Johnen, G.; Gross, I.M.; Wiethege, T.; Weber, A.; Bruening, T.; Brand, P.; Mueller-Lux, A.; Kraus, T.; Raithel, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the cancer-predictive values of SMRP (soluble mesothelin-related peptides), CA125, and CYFRA21-1 as potential tumor markers for lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma in a cohort of workers formerly exposed to asbestos. A voluntary surveillance program has been established for German workers with former asbestos exposure. A subgroup of 626 subjects with a mean age of 63 years (range 53-70 years) at baseline was enrolled in an extended health examination program with high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT) of the chest and blood drawing between 1993 and 1997. Serum concentrations of SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA21-1 were measured in archived serum samples in 2005 and 2006. A mortality follow-up was conducted through 2007. So far, 12 cases with lung cancer and 20 cases with malignant mesothelioma have been observed in this cohort. The average time between sample collection and diagnosis was 4.7 years. Analyzed biomarkers showed low sensitivities (5-25%) and positive predictive values (4-30%) for both cancer sites. Marker combinations resulted in sensitivities between 5 and 50% and positive predictive values ranging from 3 to 14%. Even in those cases, where biomarker concentrations were available within 36 months before diagnosis, no trend for increasing biomarker levels was observed. The analyzed tumor markers were characterized by high specificities, but low sensitivities. SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA21-1 alone or in combination were less suitable to serve as predictors for the diagnosis of lung cancer or malignant mesothelioma. However, a prospective study with annual sampling might reveal a better predictive value of these markers. (orig.)

  18. Performance of biomarkers SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA 21-1 as potential tumor markers for malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer in a cohort of workers formerly exposed to asbestos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gube, M. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine, Medical Faculty, Aachen (Germany); Westfaelische Technische Hochschule, Institut fuer Arbeitsmedizin und Sozialmedizin am Universitaetsklinikum Aachen, Rheinisch, Aachen (Germany); Taeger, D.; Weber, D.G.; Pesch, B.; Johnen, G.; Gross, I.M.; Wiethege, T.; Weber, A.; Bruening, T. [Institute of the Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (IPA), Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Bochum (Germany); Brand, P.; Mueller-Lux, A.; Kraus, T. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine, Medical Faculty, Aachen (Germany); Raithel, H.J. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The aim of the study is to examine the cancer-predictive values of SMRP (soluble mesothelin-related peptides), CA125, and CYFRA21-1 as potential tumor markers for lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma in a cohort of workers formerly exposed to asbestos. A voluntary surveillance program has been established for German workers with former asbestos exposure. A subgroup of 626 subjects with a mean age of 63 years (range 53-70 years) at baseline was enrolled in an extended health examination program with high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT) of the chest and blood drawing between 1993 and 1997. Serum concentrations of SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA21-1 were measured in archived serum samples in 2005 and 2006. A mortality follow-up was conducted through 2007. So far, 12 cases with lung cancer and 20 cases with malignant mesothelioma have been observed in this cohort. The average time between sample collection and diagnosis was 4.7 years. Analyzed biomarkers showed low sensitivities (5-25%) and positive predictive values (4-30%) for both cancer sites. Marker combinations resulted in sensitivities between 5 and 50% and positive predictive values ranging from 3 to 14%. Even in those cases, where biomarker concentrations were available within 36 months before diagnosis, no trend for increasing biomarker levels was observed. The analyzed tumor markers were characterized by high specificities, but low sensitivities. SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA21-1 alone or in combination were less suitable to serve as predictors for the diagnosis of lung cancer or malignant mesothelioma. However, a prospective study with annual sampling might reveal a better predictive value of these markers. (orig.)

  19. THE THYMIDINE KINASE-1(TK-1 AS A POTENTIAL TUMOR MARKER: SERUM LEVELS IN SERUM OF PATIENTS WITH SOLID AND SYSTEM MALIGNANCE NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Sergeeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review summarizes the results of studies of levels and/or activity in the blood serum of a metabolic marker thymidine kinase-1 (TK-1 of proliferating cells in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD and malignant neopasms (NM.Comparison of the data in the literature in some cases have been difficult due to the fundamentally different methods of detection the activity or concentration of TK-1, used by authors, even despite the presence of relatively high (but not absolute correlation between these parameters (maximum 0.8.Many clinical and laboratory studies have shown levels of correlation and/or TK-1 activity with clinical stages and different types of LPD and solid MN and can serve as a prognostic factor for overall and recurrence-free survival of patients. When solid MN shown that the activity of TK-1 accurately reflects the proliferative status of tumor.A comparison of the dynamics of TC-1 in the process of chemotherapy and its clinical efficacy, different authors have received fundamentally different results: in some cases the marker reduction was associated with treatment efficacy, and in part of publications they show that the clinically relevant effects of the treatment observed increase in the marker after the first chemotherapy.The entire set of received data demonstrates the relevance of the further development of the algorithm use of TK-1 in oncology practice.

  20. Potential of confocal laser scanning microscopy for non-invasive diagnostics of malignant epithelial skin tumors in the course of dermatoheliosis progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Snarskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of malignant epithelial skin neoplasms including actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma, which are characterized by the most complicated course and numerous clinical and morphological options, involve dermatoheliosis progression. The risk of actinic keratosis transformation into basal cell carcinoma varies from 0.1% to 20% and up to 80% in cases of multiple AK lesion foci. A non-invasive method known as reflectance confocal laser scanning microscopy is the most promising one for the purposes of early diagnostics of signs pointing at epithelial skin neoplasm development and makes it possible to monitor the tumor in progress in vivo to diagnose the presence of a pool of squamous cells on a timely basis. The confocal laser scanning microscopy method provides high-contrast images of for any horizontal-oriented morphologic structures in the epidermis and upper dermis with a resolution comparable to those characteristic of traditional optical microscopy of skin tissue samples. According to our data obtained as a result of studying dynamic changes and morphologic structures in actinic keratosis foci (50 cases using the confocal laser scanning microscopy method, we discovered a number of morphologic features, and their further analysis will distinguish the signs of progressing carcinogenesis in case of dermatoheliosis.

  1. The Maximum standardized uptake value is more reliable than size measurement in early follow-up to evaluate potential pulmonary malignancies following radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alafate, Aierken; Shinya, Takayoshi; Okumura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shuhei; Hiraki, Takao; Ishii, Hiroaki; Gobara, Hideo; Kato, Katsuya; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Kaji, Mitsumasa; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the accumulation of fluorodeoxy glucose (FDG) in pulmonary malignancies without local recurrence during 2-year follow-up on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Thirty tumors in 25 patients were studied (10 non-small cell lung cancers;20 pulmonary metastatic tumors). PET/CT was performed before RFA, 3 months after RFA, and 6 months after RFA. We assessed the FDG accumulation with the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) compared with the diameters of the lesions. The SUVmax had a decreasing tendency in the first 6 months and, at 6 months post-ablation, FDG accumulation was less affected by inflammatory changes than at 3 months post-RFA. The diameter of the ablated lesion exceeded that of the initial tumor at 3 months post-RFA and shrank to pre-ablation dimensions by 6 months post-RFA. SUVmax was more reliable than the size measurements by CT in the first 6 months after RFA, and PET/CT at 6 months post-RFA may be more appropriate for the assessment of FDG accumulation than that at 3 months post-RFA.

  2. The Evaluation of Hydroxyethyl Starch (6% HES 130/0.4 Solution’s Potential Preventive Effects on Coagulation Status in Women with Gynecologic Malignancies Using Rotation Thromboelastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Olga Akay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of in vitro hemodilution with 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES 130/0.4 solution on the coagulation status of women with gynecologic malignancies by using rotation thromboelastogram (ROTEM®. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with gynecological tumors scheduled for anesthesia were enrolled. Blood samples were diluted by 20% with 6% HES (130/0.4 solution. RESULTS: In the INTEM assay, clotting time (CT (p<0.01 and clot formation time (CFT (p<0.001 were significantly increased and maximum maximum clot formation (MCF (p< 0.001 was significantly decreased in HES hemodilution compared with the undiluted control samples. In the EXTEM assay, there was a similar significant increase in increase in CFT (p<0.01 and a decrease in maximum a decrease in MCF (p<0.01 in HES hemodilution when compared with control samples. CONCLUSION: HES 130/0.4 solution causes significant hypocoagulable changes in the thromboelastographic profile of gynecologic cancer patients in vitro.

  3. Malignent diseases in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havers, W.

    1980-01-01

    As malignant diseases in childhood are rare, and only a small group of radiotherapists have been able to gain experience in this field, this chapter treats the particularities of childhood from this aspect. The side effects of radiotherapy are particularly important here for the growing and developing organism of the child. The most frequently occuring malignant diseases are treated individually. (MG) [de

  4. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.

  5. Primary malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferhat Mısır

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanomas (MM of the oral cavity are extremely rare, accounting for 0.2% to 8.0% of all malignant melanomas. Malignant melanomas is more frequently seen at the level of the hard palate and gingiva. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for reducing morbidity. Malignant melanoma cells stain positively with antibodies to human melanoma black 45, S-100 protein, and vimentin; therefore, immunohistochemistry can play an important role in evaluating the depth of invasion and the location of metastases. A 76-year-old man developed an oral malignant melanoma, which was originally diagnosed as a bluish reactive denture hyperplasia caused by an ill-fitting lower denture. The tumor was removed surgically, and histopathological examination revealed a nodular-type MM. There was no evidence of recurrence over a 4-year follow-up period.

  6. Malignant Transformation of Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Wanjari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that frequently involves the oral mucosa. It has been regarded by many authors as a premalignant condition. There has been a continuous debate regarding the possible malignant potential of OLP, and these patients have been recommended to have their lesions monitored two to four times annually. A case of a lichen planus transformed into malignancy is reported here. This case does not provide answers to the ongoing controversy about the innate propensity of OLP to become malignant. However, in view of common occurrence of OLP and unresolved issue regarding its malignant potential (MP, thus case report illustrates the need for histologic confirmation and close follow-up of patients with clinical lesions that have lichenoid features.

  7. STMN-1 is a potential marker of lymph node metastasis in distal esophageal adenocarcinomas and silencing its expression can reverse malignant phenotype of tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, Javed; Wang, Zhou; Yu, Che; Li, Chen-Sheng; Shi, Yu-Long; Liu, Hong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    adenocarcinoma cells stably transfected with STMN-1 shRNA significantly reduced tumor xenografts volume in vivo. STMN-1 overexpression is associated with lymph node metastasis and increase malignancy in distal esophageal adenocarcinoma. In vivo and in vitro laboratory findings, suggests that STMN-1 may be a suitable target for future therapeutic strategies in distal esophageal adenocarcinoma

  8. [About the signs of malignant pheochromocytoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonenko, V B; Makanin, M A; Dulin, P A; Vasilchenko, M I; Lesovik, V S

    2012-01-01

    Morphological criteria for malignant pheochromocytoma remain to be developed According to the WHO recommendations, the sole absolute criteria is the presence of metastases in the organs normally containing no chromaffin tissue. Such signs as cellular and nuclear polymorphism, mytotic activity, vascular invasion, capsular ingrowth are not sufficient to describe a pheochromocytoma as malignant. It is equally dfficult to differentiate between malignant and benign tumours based on histological data since histologically mature neoplasms can produce metastases. Based on the results of original studies, the authors believe that such histological features as vascular and capsular invasion do not necessarily suggest unfavourable prognosis. Therefore, the conclusion of malignancy based on such features can not be regarded as absolute. Probably such neoplasms should be called "pheochromocytomas with morphological signs of malignant growths". They should be referred to the tumours with uncertain malignancy potential based on the known discrepancy between morphological structure and biological activity of neoplasms. Comparative studies of clinical and morphological features of pheochromocytomas showed that their histological type (alveolar; solid, dyscomplexed, trabecular) and morphological signs of malignant growth influence both the clinical picture and arterial hypertension. There are no significant relationship between the above morphological signs, timour mass and clinical manifestations of pheochromocytomas.

  9. Population-based screening program for reducing oral cancer mortality in 2,334,299 Taiwanese cigarette smokers and/or betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu-Lin; Su, William Wang-Yu; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Lee, Yi-Chia; Chiu, Han-Mo; Chang, Dun-Cheng; Jou, Yann-Yuh; Wu, Chien-Yuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Chiou, Shu-Ti

    2017-05-01

    To reduce oral cancer mortality, an organized, population-based screening program for the early detection of oral premalignancy and oral cancer was designed for high-risk individuals with habits of betel quid chewing, cigarette smoking, or both. The objective of this report was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this program in reducing the incidence of advanced disease and deaths from oral cancer. A nationwide, population-based screening program for oral cancer has been conducted in Taiwan since 2004. Residents aged ≥ 18 years with oral habits of cigarette smoking and/or betel quid chewing were invited. The standardized mortality ratio method was used to compare the observed numbers of advanced oral cancers and deaths from oral cancer among screening attendees with the expected numbers derived from mortality among nonattendees. An intention-to-treat analysis of the relative rate of reductions in advanced-stage oral cancers and oral cancer mortality also was conducted. The overall screening rate was 55.1%. The relative risk of death from oral cancer was 0.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.56) as a result of screening compared with the expected risk of oral cancer deaths in the absence of screening. The corresponding relative risk was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.72-0.77) after adjusting for self-selection bias. The relative risk of advanced oral cancer for the screened group versus the nonscreened group was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.59-0.64), which increased to 0.79 (95% CI, 0.76-0.82) after adjustment for self-selection bias. An organized, population-based oral cancer screening program targeting more than 2 million Taiwanese cigarette smokers and/or betel quid chewers demonstrated the effectiveness of reducing stage III or IV oral cancers and oral cancer mortality. These evidence-based findings corroborate and support the screening strategy of oral visual inspection for the prevention of oral cancer among high-risk individuals in areas with a high incidence of oral

  10. Malignant Struma Ovarii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant Struma Ovarii: Case Report and a Review of the Literature. Philip CN Okere, Daniel ... uterus was grossly unremarkable. .... abnormal vaginal bleeding, ascites, hydrothorax our patient ... In: Somers SAC, Rosen MR, eds. Pathology.

  11. Asbestos-related malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antmann, K.; Aisner, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Radiology of Asbestosis and Related Neoplasms; Computed Tomography and Malignant Mesothelioma; Radiation Therapy for Pleural Mesothelioma; and Radiation Therapy of Peritoneal Mesothelioma

  12. Imaging malignant and apparent malignant transformation of benign gynaecological disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.Y.; Poder, L.; Qayyum, A.; Wang, Z.J.; Yeh, B.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Coakley, F.V., E-mail: Fergus.Coakley@radiology.ucsf.ed [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Common benign gynaecological diseases, such as leiomyoma, adenomyosis, endometriosis, and mature teratoma, rarely undergo malignant transformation. Benign transformations that may mimic malignancy include benign metastasizing leiomyoma, massive ovarian oedema, decidualization of endometrioma, and rupture of mature teratoma. The aim of this review is to provide a contemporary overview of imaging findings in malignant and apparent malignant transformation of benign gynaecological disease.

  13. Malignant vagal paraganglioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Camilla S; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise S

    2003-01-01

    Approximately 20 cases of malignant vagal paragangliomas (MVP)have been reported in English literature. Malignancy is based on the presence of metastases. A careful preoperative evaluation is necessary to detect multicentricity and/or significant production of catecholamines. A new case of MVP...... treated with embolization and surgery is presented and the literature discussed. It is concluded, that preoperative embolization followed by radical surgical resection is a rational treatment of patients with unilateral MVP....

  14. Malignant eccrine paramar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ahwal, Mahmoud S.; Zimmo, Sameer K; Sawan, Ali S.

    2005-01-01

    Benign eccrine poroma arises from the intraepidermal portion of the eccrine gland duct. Malignant transformation is rare and should be suspected when these lesions present with pain, bleeding or itching. We report a 44-year-old male patient who presented primarily with a lesion diagnostic of benign eccrine poroma of the right foot sole with no clear evidence of malignancy, which was incompletely excised, followed 5 months later by local recurrence, ulceration, occasional bleeding and right inguinal lymphadenopathy. Incomplete excision of the primary tumor as well as excision of a skin lesion on the right knee joint revealed malignant eccrine poroma with aggressive histology, lymphovascular and perineural invasion. Investigations revealed no evidence of distant metastasis. This tumor might be malignant at the first presentation, which was not confirmed histopathologically considering the short duration of only 5 months for malignant transformation. The patient received 3 cycles of Docetaxel Taxotere, Cisplatin combination chemotherapy with partial response. The management of metastatic malignant eccrine poroma is difficult. It has proven resistant to many chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy. (author)

  15. Management of malignant pleural effusions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Uzbeck, Mateen H

    2010-06-01

    Malignant pleural effusions are a common clinical problem in patients with primary thoracic malignancy and metastatic malignancy to the thorax. Symptoms can be debilitating and can impair tolerance of anticancer therapy. This article presents a comprehensive review of pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical approaches to the management of malignant pleural effusion, and a novel algorithm for management based on patients\\' performance status.

  16. Malignancy-Induced Hypercalcemia—Diagnostic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Hoyoux

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypercalcemia in children is a rare metabolic finding. The clinical picture is usually non-specific, and the etiology includes several entities (metabolic, nutritional, drug-induced, inflammatory, cancer-associated, or genetic depending on the age at presentation, but severe hypercalcemia is associated mainly with malignancy in childhood and sepsis in neonates. Severe parathyroid hormone (PTH-suppressed hypercalcemia is challenging and requires multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to (i confirm or rule out a malignant cause, (ii treat it and its potentially dangerous complications. We report a case of severe and complicated PTH-independent hypercalcemia in a symptomatic 3-year-old boy. His age, severity of hypercalcemia and its complicated course, and the first imaging reports were suggestive of malignancy. The first bone and kidney biopsies and bone marrow aspiration were normal. The definitive diagnosis was a malignant-induced hypercalcemia, and we needed 4 weeks to assess other differential diagnoses and to confirm, on histopathological and immunochemical base, the malignant origin of hypercalcemia. Using this case as an illustrative example, we suggest a diagnostic approach that underlines the importance of repeated histology if the clinical suspicion is malignancy-induced hypercalcemia. Effective treatment is required acutely to restore calcium levels and to avoid complications.

  17. Pleural spill malign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho Duran, Fidel; Zamarriego, Roman; Gonzalez, Mauricio

    2002-01-01

    The pleural spills are developed because of an alteration in the mechanisms that usually move between 5 and 10 liters of liquid through the space pleural every 24 hours and this is reabsorbed, only leaving 5 to 20 ml present. The causes more common of spill pleural they are: congestive heart failure, bacterial pneumonia, malign neoplasia and pulmonary clot. The causes more common of pleural spill malign in general are: cancer of the lung, cancer of the breast and lymphomas. In the man, cancer of the lung, lymphomas and gastrointestinal cancer. In the woman, cancer of the breast, gynecological cancer and lung cancer. The paper, includes their characteristics, treatments and medicines

  18. Immunotherapy of Genitourinary Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruo Inamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cancer patients are treated with some combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in local therapy with curative intent, chemotherapeutic treatments for metastatic disease often remain unsatisfying due to severe side effects and incomplete long-term remission. Therefore, the evaluation of novel therapeutic options is of great interest. Conventional, along with newer treatment strategies target the immune system that suppresses genitourinary (GU malignancies. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma and non-muscle-invasive bladder caner represent the most immune-responsive types of all human cancer. This review examines the rationale and emerging evidence supporting the anticancer activity of immunotherapy, against GU malignancies.

  19. Malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentz, K.U.; Irngartinger, G.; Georgi, P.; Kaick, G. van; Kleckow, M.; Vollhaber, H.H.; Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg; Krankenhaus Rohrbach

    1986-01-01

    In 34 patients with suspected malignant pleural mesothelioma the results of computed tomography are compared with the findings of 67 Ga-scintigraphy. The differential diagnosis of 14 pleural mesotheliomas, 7 pleural carcinoses, 10 inflammatory and 3 other pleural diseases is performed more accurately by CT than by scintigraphy. 67 Ga uptake depends on the thickness of inflammatory as well as malignant lesions. Thus, numerous pleural processes that can be localised by CT escape scintigraphic detection, CT is indicated if there is clinical and radiological suspicion of pleural mesothelioma; in that case, there is hardly any indication for 67 Ga scintigraphy. (orig.)

  20. MALIGNANT TRANSFORMATION OF EROSIVE ORAL LICHEN PLANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Chumaeroh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus is a relatively common inflammatory disorder which may have cutaneous and or mucosal manifestation. The malignant potential of oral lichen planus is still debatable. Some authors are sceptical about the premalignant nature of the disease, while other investigators have reported that malignant transformations occur in 1-10% of the cases. The aim of this study is to report a case of erosive lichen plans which shows malignant transformation of histopathologic examination. A man of 39 years old visited the Dental Department or Kajradi's Hospital with pain symptoms of the palate, buccal and gingival mucosa on both sides for 6 months. The physical examination shows the white lesion with striae configuration and pain, red erosive area inside the palate extends to the buccal mucosa and the gingival mucosa. The suspect diagnosis is erosive lichen planus, but the histopathologic examination shows epidermoid carcinoma. It is concluded that erosive oral lichen planus has the potential to transform into epidermoid carcinoma.

  1. Primary malignant intramedullary lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrego P, E.; Heinicke Y, H.; Arbaiza A, D.; Yepez R, V.

    1999-01-01

    A case of primary malignant intramedullary lymphoma, localized in the dorsal part of the spinal cord is presented. The clinical symptoms were associated with motor and sensitive deficit. Clinical investigations excluded the presence of lymphoma in other locations in the central nervous system and the extra neural organs. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy improved relict neurological symptoms. (authors)

  2. Trauma - the malignant epidemic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    national problem and the term 'malignant epidemic' is more applicable. These two ... In 1984 it stood at just over 400 000 per annum and today the figure is close to ... breadwinner, loss of productivity, expenses of rehabilitation and care of the ...

  3. Proportion of Uterine Malignant Tumors in Patients with Laparoscopic Myomectomy: A National Multicenter Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The proportion of malignancy is low after using morcellation in patients who undergo laparoscopic myomectomy. Patients with fast-growing uterine fibroids and abnormal ultrasonic tumor blood flow should be considered for malignant potential, and morcellation should be avoided.

  4. Image diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Akiko; Ueno, Keiko; Isobe, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Akira

    1987-01-01

    3 cases of malignant mesothelioma confirmed by pathological examination were reported. CT showed solid mass with moderate enhancement by contrast medium. CT appears to be a very useful tool to make a diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. (author)

  5. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patkar A

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available An adult schizophrenic patient developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome following treatment with parenteral haloperidol. An early recognition of the syndrome, immediate discontinuation of the offending agent and prompt treatment with bromocriptine and lorazepam produced a good recovery. The various features of the case are discussed in view of the potential lethality of the syndrome.

  6. Positron emission tomography in malignant haematological disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, Bartholomeus Wilhelmus

    2007-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a diagnostic technique with a promising role especially in the haemato-oncology. Although its use in the management ; of malignant lymphoma seems to be established already, much about the true potential and drawbacks of FDG-PET in this disease are still unknown.

  7. Novel therapies for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherpereel, Arnaud; Wallyn, Frederic; Albelda, Steven M; Munck, Camille

    2018-03-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare cancer that is typically associated with exposure to asbestos. Patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma have poor outcomes with suboptimal therapeutic options and currently no treatment is curative. The standard frontline treatment, cisplatin plus pemetrexed chemotherapy, has only short and insufficient efficacy, and no validated treatment beyond first-line therapy is available. New therapeutic strategies are therefore needed. The addition of bevacizumab (an anti-VEGF antibody) combined with cisplatin plus pemetrexed has shown some promise. However, immunotherapy, especially immune checkpoint inhibitors, has generated a lot of excitement because of data suggesting the potential value of immune checkpoint inhibitors for patients who have failed chemotherapy. In this Review, we describe immune checkpoint inhibitors, other immunotherapies, targeted therapies, or combinations of novel drugs being investigated in malignant pleural mesothelioma, as well as the issues surrounding the selection of the best candidates for these treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sironen, R.K.; Tammi, M.; Tammi, R.; Auvinen, P.K.; Anttila, M.; Kosma, V-M.

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  9. Malignant external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuch, K.M.; Iryboz, T.; Firat, M.; Levy, C.; Tubiana, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper illustrates the value of CT and MR in early diagnosis and spread of malignant external otitis. The authors retrospectively analyzed 15 patients with proved malignant external otitis examined with postcontrast high-resolution CT (15/15) and MR (6/15) (T1- and T2-weighting). Gallium studies were done in 6/15 patients. Early diagnosis was made when CT demonstrated a soft-tissue mass of the external auditory canal associated with scattered zones of cortical bone erosions (13/15). Spread of the disease was better delineated by MR than CT, especially skull base extension (6/15). Temporomandibular joint involvement with extension into parotid or/and masticator spaces 6/15 was as well detected with CT as with MR. If CT remains the first and best procedure for diagnosis, MR - despite its cost - appears a good procedure to depict exact anatomic spread, allowing therapeutic management

  10. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sironen, R.K. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tammi, M.; Tammi, R. [Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Auvinen, P.K. [Department of Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Anttila, M. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kosma, V-M., E-mail: Veli-Matti.Kosma@uef.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2011-02-15

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  11. Intravascular malignant lymphomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Duverneuil, N.; Lafitte, F.; Chiras, J.; Mokhtari, K.; Behin, A.; Hoang-Xuan, K.

    2002-01-01

    Intravascular malignant lymphomatosis is a rare and probably often overlooked disease characterised by massive intravascular proliferation of lymphoid cells, usually with a poor prognosis. CT and MRI appearances are nonspecific; the most suggestive finding being both asymmetrical, bilateral, contrast enhancing high-signal areas on T2 weighting and infarct-like lesions of the cortex and basal ganglia. We report two patients with previously unreported dural and spinal cord involvement. (orig.)

  12. Intravascular malignant lymphomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Duverneuil, N.; Lafitte, F.; Chiras, J. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Batiment Babinski, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 75013 Paris (France); Mokhtari, K. [Service de Neuropathologie, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 75013 Paris (France); Behin, A.; Hoang-Xuan, K. [Departement de Neurologie, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 75013 Paris (France)

    2002-09-01

    Intravascular malignant lymphomatosis is a rare and probably often overlooked disease characterised by massive intravascular proliferation of lymphoid cells, usually with a poor prognosis. CT and MRI appearances are nonspecific; the most suggestive finding being both asymmetrical, bilateral, contrast enhancing high-signal areas on T2 weighting and infarct-like lesions of the cortex and basal ganglia. We report two patients with previously unreported dural and spinal cord involvement. (orig.)

  13. Helicobacter and Gastric Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, António Carlos; Isomoto, Hajime; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Fujioka, Toshio; Machado, José Carlos; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    Individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori, a stomach colonizing bacteria, have an increased risk of developing gastric malignancies. The risk for developing cancer relates to the physiologic and histologic changes that H. pylori infection induces in the stomach. In the last year numerous studies have been conducted in order to characterize the association between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer. These studies range from epidemiologic approaches aiming at the identification of envir...

  14. Malignant mesothelioma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, Andrew; Hwang, Harry; Tan, Larry; Qing, Gefei; Taher, Altaf; Tong, Amy; Bilawich, Ana M; Dacic, Sanja

    2018-05-01

    The existence of malignant mesothelioma in situ (MIS) is often postulated, but there are no accepted morphological criteria for making such a diagnosis. Here we report two cases that appear to be true MIS on the basis of in-situ genomic analysis. In one case the patient had repeated unexplained pleural unilateral effusions. Two thoracoscopies 9 months apart revealed only visually normal pleura. Biopsies from both thoracoscopies showed only a single layer of mildly reactive mesothelial cells. However, these cells had lost BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) and showed loss of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2 (CDKN2A) (p16) by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH). NF2 was not deleted by FISH but 28% of the mesothelial cells showed hyperploidy. Six months after the second biopsy the patient has persisting effusions but no evidence of pleural malignancy on imaging. The second patient presented with ascites and minimal omental thickening on imaging, but no visual evidence of tumour at laparoscopy. Omental biopsy showed a single layer of minimally atypical mesothelial cells with rare tiny foci of superficial invasion of fat. BAP1 immunostain showed loss of nuclear BAP1 in all the surface mesothelial cells and the invasive cells. There was CDKN2A deletion, but no deletion of NF2 by FISH. These cases show that morphologically bland single-layered surface mesothelial proliferations with molecular alterations seen previously only in invasive malignant mesotheliomas exist, and presumably represent malignant MIS. More cases are need to understand the frequency of such changes and the time-course over which invasive tumour develops. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Classification of malignant lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.; Thyss, A.

    1986-01-01

    Malignant lymphomas, primary tumors of the lymphoid tissues, were first described in 1832 by Thomas Hodgkin. The histological characteristics were later defined by Sternberg and Reed, and Virchow introduced the concept of lymphosarcoma in 1863. Today, these pathologies are grouped together under the synonymous terms hematosarcoma or malignant lymphoma, which are in turn divided into Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphomas (NHL). The therapy of lymphomas is controversial. The validity of treatment for asymptomatic patients is questioned, owing to the indolent course of many lymphomas. Results for histologically unfavorable forms are highly disparate. Exclusive radiotherapy has occasionally produced up to 78% disease-free survival at 5 years for truly localized stages. Today, however, use of chemotherapy/radiotherapy combinations is almost universal, with chemotherapy occasionally being used alone and providing 90% disease-free survival at 5 years. Chemotherapy is the main treatment for disseminated forms; the major associations include doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, vincristine sulfate, methotrexate, and prednisone. Radiotherapy is used more for adjuvant purposes. Synthesis of recent studies allows us to reasonably expect 40% relapse-free survival at 10 years and the establishment of a cure plateau in the near future

  16. Malignant tumors arising in the maxillary region after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Sawamichi; Shirahata, Yuichi; Uchida, Yutaka

    1984-01-01

    Although radiotherapy has proven of great therapeutic value in the treatment of malignant tumors, it should also be borne in mind that radiation has a serious potential risk of giving rise to a secondary malignancy. We recently experienced 2 cases each of carcinoma and sarcoma arising in the irradiated areas long after radiation therapy for malignant tumors. In these 4 cases, 2 males and 2 females, the primary neoplastic diseases were squamous cell carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, carcinoma of unknown pathology and malignant lymphoma, and the secondary tumors were epidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma, respectively. The sites of occurrence of these malignancies were invariably in the maxillary region; the mean latent period was 15 years, aside from an infantile case with a latent period of 5 years. In view of the primary diseases being malignant tumors the following criteria were set up for the diagnosis of radiation-induced malignancies: (1) the site of occurrence is within the confines of a previously irradiated area, (2) the latent period is prolonged and (3) the malignancy occurs as a double tumor. Therapy was primarily by operation. The prognosis was exceedingly ominous, the average survival time being 22 months. This was probably and mainly because of rapidity of tumor growth. Thus, the secondary tumors had already spread back to inward by the time they were first discovered. This should be kept in mind during a long-term follow-up of patients receiving radiotherapy for malignancy. (author)

  17. Summary of worldwide pediatric malignancies reported after exposure to etanercept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyukhin Nataliya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have been raised about a potential link between the use of TNF inhibitors and development of malignancy in the pediatric population. We examined the worldwide experience of etanercept use in pediatric patients and the occurrence of malignancies as reported from clinical trials, registry studies, post-marketing surveillance, and published scientific literature. Methods All reports of "malignancy" in pediatric patients (including subjects who received etanercept before age 18 and developed a malignancy before age 22 were collected from the etanercept clinical trials database and global safety database using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA; v12.0 standardized MedDRA query "Malignancies" from 1998 to August 2009. Cases were collected irrespective of treatment indication. All cases were included regardless of exposure to other TNF blockers or other biologics and whether the other exposure was before or after etanercept. Results A total of 18 potential malignancies were identified: 4 leukemias, 7 lymphomas, and 7 solid tumors. Three of the 18 malignancies remain unconfirmed. No malignancies were reported from clinical trials or the open-label extension studies in any indication in children. Conclusion The data suggest that there does not appear to be an increased risk of malignancy overall with the use of etanercept. Among etanercept-exposed patients aged 4 to 17 years, the estimated worldwide and US reporting rates for lymphoma were approximately 0.01 per 100 patient-years (1 in 10,000 pt-yrs. While the reported rate of lymphoma is higher in pediatric patients treated with etanercept than in normal children, the expected rate of lymphoma in biologic naïve JIA patients is currently unknown. The risk of TNF inhibitors in the development of malignancies in children and adolescents is difficult to assess because of the rarity of malignant events, the absence of knowledge of underlying frequency of

  18. Maligne adnekstumorer i huden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Anders; Hærskjold, Ann; Lei, Ulrikke

    2016-01-01

    types entirely on their clinical appearance. The histologic diagnosis is troublesome, and the lesions are often mistaken for their benign counterpart, basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. The lesions are treated with surgery. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy may play a role in treatment......Malignant adnexal carcinomas of the skin are rare but associated with high propensity for local recurrence, and for some of the distinct subgroups they are known to metastasize regionally or distant. Biopsy is necessary for correct diagnosis, as the lesions cannot be separated from other tumour...

  19. Malignant thyroid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, W.; Reiners, C.

    1987-01-01

    The subjects dealt with at the symposium cover all topical aspects of pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy, and aftercare of the malignant thyroid tumours. A survey of the histological classification of the thyroid tumours and a review of the latest findings concerning the radiocarcinogenesis are followed by a detailed discussion of the most significant tumours. There are also papers dealing with controversial aspects of the histological classification, the value of diagnostic methods, radicality of the therapy, or after care. For five conference papers, separate records are available in the database. (orig./ECB) With 59 figs.; 57 tabs [de

  20. Helminths and malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennervald, Birgitte J; Polman, K.

    2009-01-01

    -malignant change has taken place. Three helminth infections have been classified as definitely carcinogenic to humans (group 1 carcinogens), namely Schistosoma haematobium, which is associated with cancer of the urinary bladder and the food-borne liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini......It has been estimated that chronic infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites contribute to 17.8% of the global burden of cancer, although only a relatively small proportion of the infection-related cancers can be attributed to helminth infections. These are important because of the high...... coupled with health education, especially in relation to food-borne liver fluke infections....

  1. Child haematological malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Yves

    2016-01-01

    As haematological malignancies represent about 40 per cent of cancers before 15 years of age, and as the international classification makes the distinction between syndromes and leukaemia on the one hand, and lymphomas and neoplasms on the other hand, this document first briefly discuss epidemiological data on these both types of cancer, and then the various environmental risk factors: ionizing radiations, non ionizing radiations, exposure to radon, exposure to pesticides, and other exposures. It finally evokes recent evolutions related to the existence of national paediatric records, and to planned or current epidemiological studies

  2. [Malignant pleural mesothelioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritharan, Sajitha Sophia; Frandsen, Jens Lundby; Omland, Øyvind; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard

    2018-04-09

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare cancer with a poor prognosis. The disease is of importance, since the incidence in Denmark is increasing despite cessation of the use of asbestos in the 1980s. MPM has a long latency period, and the first symptom is often dyspnoea, typically caused by pleural effusion. The diagnosis is a challenge, because cytology often is non-conclusive, and thoracoscopy is needed to obtain biopsies for immunohistochemistry. The occupational history is important, since the patients are entitled to compensation. The treatment is often limited to palliation.

  3. Second malignancy in relation to treatment modality of primary malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Harpreet; Kaur, Parveen; Vashistha, Rajesh; Singh, Jaskaran; Passi, Kamlesh; Jain, Satish

    2001-01-01

    Second malignant tumors among long-term survivors are a sensitive indicator of successful oncologic treatment, particularly in this area of multimodal therapy. 11 patients of abdominopelvic primary malignancy were detected to have a second malignancy of different pathology, and at a different site. These patients were assessed regarding treatment modality of initial cancer and time gap between the first and second malignancy. Lack of proper cancer registries, illiteracy, and lack of resources lead to poor patient follow-up; therefore population based studies is not possible

  4. ADC mapping of benign and malignant breast tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhams, R.; Matsunaga, Keiji; Kan, Shinichi; Hata, Hirofumi; Iwabuchi, Keiichi; Kuranami, Masaru; Watanabe, Masahiko; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Ozaki, Masanori

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value in differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions and evaluating the detection accuracy of the cancer extension. We used DWI to obtain images of 191 benign and malignant lesions (24 benign, 167 malignant) before surgical excision. The ADC values of the benign and malignant lesions were compared, as were the values of noninvasive ductal carcinoma (NIDC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). We also evaluated the ADC map, which represents the distribution of ADC values, and compared it with the cancer extension. The mean ADC value of each type of lesion was as follows: malignant lesions, 1.22±0.31 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s; benign lesions, 1.67±0.54 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s; normal tissues, 2.09±0.27 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. The mean ADC value of the malignant lesions was statistically lower than that of the benign lesions and normal breast tissues. The ADC value of IDC was statistically lower than that of NIDC. The sensitivity of the ADC value for malignant lesions with a threshold of less than 1.6 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s was 95% and the specificity was 46%. A full 75% of all malignant cases exhibited a near precise distribution of low ADC values on ADC maps to describe malignant lesions. The main causes of false negative and underestimation of cancer spread were susceptibility artifact because of bleeding and tumor structure. Major histologic types of false-positive lesions were intraductal papilloma and fibrocystic diseases. Fibrocystic diseases also resulted in overestimation of cancer extension. DWI has the potential in clinical appreciation to detect malignant breast tumors and support the evaluation of tumor extension. However, the benign proliferative change remains to be studied as it mimics the malignant phenomenon on the ADC map. (author)

  5. CT of malignant otitis externa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, K.C.; Elies, W.; Technische Hochschule Aachen

    1991-01-01

    Computed tomography was performed preoperatively in 20 patients suffering from malignant external otitis. The CT findings were nearly completely confirmed by the intraoperative findings. A circumscribed or diffuse thickening of the cartilaginous wall of the external auditory canal and an inflammatory infiltration of the subtemporal fossa are, in combination, most suspicious signs of malignant external otitis. Computed tomography enabels detailed information on the extension of the pneumatic system and the grade of involvement of bones and soft tissues in malignant external otitis. A modified classification of malignant external otitis based on computed tomographic findings is proposed. (orig.) [de

  6. Malign retroperitoneal schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinilla Gonzalez, Rafael; Hadi Al-Bahlooli, Saeed; Lopez Lazo, Sarah; Quintana Diaz, Juan Carlos; Gonzales Rivera, Armando

    2009-01-01

    The retroperitoneal tumors are infrequent and are classified according to the original tissue. This is a case presentation of a patient presenting with pain in right hypochondrium and a tumor in this zone, weight loss and painful discomfort in the anterolateral face of right thigh. In physical examination we found cutaneousmucous paleness and painless tumor in hypochondrium and right flank. Abdominal ultrasound (US) showed a homogenous mass of 14,11 cm and abdominal computed tomography allows to see a right retroperitoneal tumor rejecting the kidney. Excretory urogram showed a anteromedial rejection of right kidney. An encapsulated tumor with a few peritumoral adherences was removed. By histological study it was possible to confirm a fusiform cells tumor with hyperchromatism and nuclear pleomorphism, numerous mitosis and areas of necrosis and in the diagnosis of malign tumor of the sheath of a peripheral nerve.(author)

  7. Immunoscintigraphy of malignant melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, L.; Sandron, A.; Herry, J.Y.; Chevrant-Breton, J.

    1990-01-01

    This work is part of a multicentric European evaluation of the monoclonal antibody 225.28s targeted against malignant melanoma and its metastases. Twenty-eight patients (12 males, 16 females, mean age: 53 yrs), who had initially been treated by resection of the primary tumour, were included in the study. Twenty-three of the 26 metastases more than 1 cm in diameter were visualized by immunoscintigraphy. The sensitivity of the procedure (88%) is limited however by the small size of the lesions and their depth, as well as by background noise caused by circulating antibodies. Immunoscintigraphy enables non-invasive investigation of the whole body and can detect lesions that other conventional complementary explorations fail to identify [fr

  8. Malignant melanoma - a warning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volden, G.; Rajka, G.; Thune, P.; Falk, E.S.; Krogh, H.K.

    1990-01-01

    Incidence of malignant melonoma of the skin has risen rapidly during the last decades. Mortality rates are also rising, although not so much as incidence rates. There is strong evidence that exposure to sunlight is a major factor in the etiology of melanomas. There appears to be no direct cumulative dose-response relationship, except in the case of lentigo maligna melanoma. Episodes of sunburn among children and young individuals seem to be more important as an etiologic factor for melanoma than chronic exposure to the sun. Very high risk of melanoma exists in persons with dysplastic nevus syndrome. Persons with giant congenital nevi are also at increased risk. However, many melanomas arise de novo. The intension of the authors is to reduce mortality by screening families at risk, by early detection and treatment of melanomas, and by education. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Primary intracranial malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Mikiro; Ohtsuka, Takatsugu; Kuroki, Takao; Shibata, Iekado; Terao, Hideo; Kudo, Motoshige

    1988-01-01

    Nine cases of primary intracranial malignant lymphoma, which accounts for 3.3 % of all intracranial tumors seen in the authors' institution, were studied in terms of diagnostic computed tomographic (CT) features, the tumors' histologic appearance, treatment, post-treatment blood immunologic and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) characteristics, and outcome. The patients were seven males and two females aged 42 to 67 years. Their chief signs and symptoms on admission were intracranial hypertension, focal signs, and disturbance of consciousness. CT, which proved the most useful preoperative diagnostic technique, demonstrated multiple lesions in seven cases and, in all cases, regions of isodensity or slight high density that were enhanced by contrast medium. According to the patterns of enhancement, the tumors were classed as diffuse (three cases) or nodular (six cases). The former is considered typical of malignant lymphoma, whereas the latter type was sometimes indistinguishable from metastatic tumor and meningioma. At surgery, one patient underwent radical tumor excision, two partial removal, and six biopsy only. Histologic examination revealed one tumor to be of the diffuse small cell type, three of the medium cell type, and five of the large cell type (Lymphoma Study Group classification). Of seven tumors in which lymphocytes were examined by peroxidase-antiperoxidase staining, four were of the B cell type. Postoperatively, whole brain irradiation with 29 to 46 Gy was followed by local irradiation with 15 to 50 Gy. If the tumor persisted, one of three chemotherapies was administered. In one case, methotrexate was given intrathecally. Seven patients were divided into two groups: long remission (three) and recurrence (four). These two groups were compared in terms of serum immunoglobulin levels, T and B cell ratios, CSF characteristics, CT features, tumor cell type, and treatment. No clear differences were found. (author)

  10. Lower gastrointestinal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, Bruce D.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: This refresher course will review the current knowledge as well as ongoing and future research strategies in lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Radiation therapy has a significant role in the adjuvant treatment of lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Furthermore, there are data to suggest that radiation therapy is an integral component of the conservative management (organ preservation) of rectal and anal cancers. 1. Colon cancer. The standard adjuvant treatment for node positive or high risk transmural colon cancer is postoperative 5-FU and Levamisole. There are retrospective data to suggest that certain subsets of high risk patients may benefit from postoperative radiation therapy. 2. Rectal cancer. Randomized trials have revealed an advantage of postoperative radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in transmural and/or node positive rectal cancer. In the adjuvant setting the use of continuous infusion 5-FU may be more beneficial compared with bolus 5-FU. Despite the improvement in survival, postoperative therapies are associated with an approximately 35% incidence of grade 3+ toxicity. Recent data suggest that the use of preoperative combined modality therapy may be associated with less toxicity as well as increase the chance of sphincter preservation. New Intergroup trials addressing these issues will be presented. In patients with locally advanced unresectable rectal cancer, the addition of intraoperative radiation therapy may further improve local control. 3. Anal cancer. The use of combined 5-FU/Mitomycin-C and pelvic radiation therapy is effective in the treatment of anal carcinoma. The RTOG has recently completed a randomized trial addressing the question of the effectiveness and toxicity of Mitomycin-C. The replacement Intergroup Phase III trial will be presented

  11. Lower gastrointestinal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, Bruce D.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: This refresher course will review the current knowledge as well as ongoing and future research strategies in lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Radiation therapy has a significant role in the adjuvant treatment of lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Furthermore, there are data to suggest that radiation therapy is an integral component of the conservative management (organ preservation) of rectal and anal cancers. 1. Colon cancer. The standard adjuvant treatment for node positive or high risk transmural colon cancer is postoperative 5-FU and Levamisole. There are retrospective data to suggest that certain subsets of high risk patients may benefit from postoperative radiation therapy. 2. Rectal cancer. Randomized trials have revealed an advantage of postoperative radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in transmural and/or node positive rectal cancer. In the adjuvant setting the use of continuous infusion 5-FU may be more beneficial compared with bolus 5-FU. Despite the improvement in survival, postoperative therapies are associated with an approximately 35% incidence of grade 3+ toxicity. Recent data suggest that the use of preoperative combined modality therapy may be associated with less toxicity as well as increase the chance of sphincter preservation. New Intergroup trials addressing these issues will be presented. In patients with locally advanced unresectable rectal cancer, the addition of intraoperative radiation therapy may further improve local control. 3. Anal cancer. The use of combined 5-FU/Mitomycin-C and pelvic radiation therapy is effective in the treatment of anal carcinoma. The RTOG has recently completed a randomized trial addressing the question of the effectiveness and toxicity of Mitomycin-C. The replacement Intergroup Phase III trial will be presented

  12. Malign katatoni, et neuropsykiatrisk syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Katinka; Lublin, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes a 36-year-old schizophrenic man who developed malignant catatonia during a hospital stay. He was treated with benzodiazepines (BZD) and 26 sessions of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). After the therapy his condition normalised. Malignant catatonia is a rare condition...

  13. Malignant priapism: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-12-01

    Metastatic involvement of the penis is most commonly from a primary malignant genitourinary tumour. It is a rare phenomenon usually reflecting disseminated malignancy associated with a poor prognosis. Metastasis to the penis mimicking priapism is extremely rare, particularly in the absence of disseminated disease.

  14. Oral submucous fibrosis: An update on pathophysiology of malignant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Patil, Shekar Gowda; Aljabab, Abdulsalam S; Lin, Kuan-Chou; Merkx, M A W; Gao, Shan; Brennan, Peter A

    2017-07-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant condition associated with areca nut chewing. Formerly confined to the Indian subcontinent, it is now often seen in Asian populations of the United Kingdom, USA and other developed countries, and is therefore a serious problem for global health. What makes it more sinister is the malignant transformation rate, which has been reported to be around 7.6% over a 17-year period. In this concise article, we review the current trends in the pathophysiology of malignant transformation of OSMF. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. RARE METASTASES OF MALIGNANT MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Trenkić-Božinović

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are malignant neoplasms that originate from melanocytes. The most common are on the skin and mucous membranes. Choroidal melanomas are quite different from cutaneous melanomas with regard to presentation, metastases, and treatment. We report two cases of metastatic gastric malignant melanoma of the eye and skin, with reference to the literature. The first patient was a woman aged 23 years, who underwent gastrectomy 22 months after enucleation of the eye due to malignant choroid melanoma. The second patient was a man, 72 years old, who underwent surgery 28 months before because of malignant melanoma of the skin of the forehead. Paraffin sections, 4 μm thick were stained using a classic method, as well as immunohistochemical DAKO APAAP method, using a specific S - 100 antibody and Melan A antibodies. The stomach is considered a rare place for the development of metastases. Metastases in the stomach are often limited to the submucosal as well as the serousmuscular layer, as noted in one of our patients. Metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract should be suspected in any patient with a history of malignant melanoma and new gastrointestinal symptoms. Because of the similarity between certain common histopathological types of malignant melanoma, primarily achromatic, and types of primary cancers of the stomach, the following immunohistochemical studies are needed: Melan A and S - 100 protein ( markers of malignant melanoma , as well as mucins: MUC5AC, MUC2 and CDX2 ( markers of different types of primary gastric carcinoma.

  16. Radiologic evaluation of malignant histiocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Sun Wha; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Wook; Ahn, Chi Yul

    1987-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is a new malignant tumor entity of histiocytic origin which arises as a primary tumor of the bone as well as the soft tissue. Radiologic features of 12 cases of pathologically proven intra-and extraosseous malignant fibrous histiocytoma were analyzed. The results were as follows : 1. Seven cases were of soft tissue origin and 5 cases were of primary bone origin. 2. Seven were male and 5 were female: Eight cases were beyond 5th decades. 3. The clinical presentations of malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the soft tissue origin were a mass with rapid growth or high rate of local recurrence. The roentgen evidence of soft tissue density mass was demonstrated in 7 cases and scintigraphic evidence of cortical invasion was suggested in 2 cases. 4. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma arising from bones had ill defined moth-eaten osteolytic lesion with cortical destruction, periosteal reaction and soft tissue extension. 5. Among 12 cases, there were 2 cases of pulmonary metastases and 2 cases of osseous metastases. 6. In the presence of soft tissue mass with locally aggressive behavior and/or nonspecific roentgen features of malignant bone tumor, one should consider the possibility of malignant fibrous histiocytoma

  17. Skin changes in internal malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopal Ravi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Internal malignancies are accompanied by various skin changes which may be specific infiltrates or non-specific changes. This study is aimed at determining the frequency of such changes in malignant disease treatment center attendees in India. METHODS: A study of 300 confirmed cases of internal malignancy at a malignant disease treatment center was undertaken to evaluate these skin changes. Specific infiltrates were confirmed by histopathology. Statistical methods were employed to calculate significance in non-specific lesions by comparing with 300 controls not suffering from internal malignancy. RESULTS: Skin changes were present in 82 (27.3%. Cutaneous metastases were found in 19 (6.3%; non-contiguous in 5 (1.6%; contiguous in 14 (4.3%. Non-specific skin lesions numbered 74 (11.6% in 52 patients. Statistically significant non-specific skin changes were acquired ichthyosis, herpes zoster and generalized pruritus. CONCLUSION: Metastases usually occurred late in internal malignancy (17, 5.6% except in a case each of histiocytic lymphoma and non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (2, 0.7% where the lesions preceded malignancy by 3 months and 1 month respectively. Contiguous nodules were a marker of relapse after surgery in 3 (1%.

  18. Immunotherapy in genitourinary malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathan Mehta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of cancer patients involves a multidisciplinary approach including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Traditionally, patients with metastatic disease are treated with combination chemotherapies or targeted agents. These cytotoxic agents have good response rates and achieve palliation; however, complete responses are rarely seen. The field of cancer immunology has made rapid advances in the past 20 years. Recently, a number of agents and vaccines, which modulate the immune system to allow it to detect and target cancer cells, are being developed. The benefit of these agents is twofold, it enhances the ability the body’s own immune system to fight cancer, thus has a lower incidence of side effects compared to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Secondly, a small but substantial number of patients with metastatic disease are cured by immunotherapy or achieve durable responses lasting for a number of years. In this article, we review the FDA-approved immunotherapy agents in the field of genitourinary malignancies. We also summarize new immunotherapy agents being evaluated in clinical studies either as single agents or as a combination.

  19. Malignant sigmoidoduodenal fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapey, I M; Mahmood, K; Solkar, M H

    2014-01-01

    Duodenocolic fistula is a rare complication of malignant colonic disease especially when involving and originating from the sigmoid colon. We aim to discuss the unusual clinical presentation of this case as well as the investigation and management of duodenocolic fistulas. A 91 year old lady presented as an emergency to a general surgical service at a District General Hospital with diarrhoea, vomiting and weight loss. Computed Tomography (CT) reported a large ovarian cyst elevating the sigmoid colon into immediate proximity of the duodenum. Adenocarcinoma was confirmed on histology obtained by colonoscopy. A classic apple core lesion with fistulating tract from the sigmoid colon to the duodenum was synchronously demonstrated on barium enema. Sigmoido-duodenal fistulae represent a complex manifestation of gastrointestinal pathologies. Management options must be considered in the context of patient wishes, their co-morbidities, and predicted post-operative outcome. In most cases this is likely to represent a non-operative approach, however surgical resection may benefit selected cases on occasion. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Malignant tumours of the kidney: imaging strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, Anne M.; Kraker, Jan de

    2010-01-01

    Primitive malignant renal tumours comprise 6% of all childhood cancers. Wilms tumour (WT) or nephroblastoma is the most frequent type accounting for more than 90%. Imaging alone cannot differentiate between these tumours with certainty but it plays an important role in screening, diagnostic workup, assessment of therapy response, preoperative evaluation and follow-up. The outcome of WT after therapy is excellent with an overall survival around 90%. In tumours such as those where the outcome is extremely good, focus can be shifted to a risk-based stratification to maintain excellent outcome in children with low risk tumours while improving quality of life and decreasing toxicity and costs. This review will discuss the imaging issues for WT from the European perspective and briefly discuss the characteristics of other malignant renal tumours occurring in children and new imaging techniques with potential in this matter. (orig.)

  1. Imaging of soft tissue malignant fibrous histiocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemni, H.; Bakir, D.; Ben Ahmed, S.; Kraiem, C.; Mrad Dali, K.; Tlili-Graiess, K.; Mnif, Z.; Jeddi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a rare and potentially highly malignant sarcoma. The authors report 6 cases of MFH in various sites : two in the chest wall, one in the pelvis, two in the gluteal zones and one on the scalp. Ultrasonography and computed tomography were the main imaging methods used in the assessment of the structure and extension of the tumor. A poor prognosis was noted in four cases: death within a few months in the two thoracic sites, recurrence in the pelvic and scalp lesions, radical surgery allowed recovery in two cases. A review of the literature showed that MRI and CT are complementary in the initial staging and follow-up these patients. (author)

  2. Malignant Epithelioid Angiomyolipoma of the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-How Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiomyolipoma (AML is a common benign renal tumor composed of thick-walled blood vessels, smooth muscle, and adipose tissue, but the malignant epithelioid variant is extremely rare. A 78-year-old woman presented with fever and left flank pain for 3 days. Computed tomography showed a heterogeneously enhanced mass without fat density in the left kidney. Radical nephrectomy was performed and pathology showed malignant epithelioid AML with regional lymph node metastases. The tumor cells were positive for human melanosome-associated protein (HMB-45 on immunohistochemical staining. The patient died of disseminated metastases (lungs and bones 5 months postoperatively. Epithelioid AML is a potentially aggressive tumor. The prognosis is poor in metastatic disease. HMB-45 immunoreactivity is a useful marker to make diagnosis. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(2 Suppl:S51-S54

  3. Ewing's Sarcoma and Second Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Schiffman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma (ES is a rare tumor that is most common in children and young adults. Late effects of ES therapy include second cancers, a tragic outcome for survivors of such a young age. This paper will explore the frequencies and types of malignancies that occur after ES. Additionally, it will review how second malignancies have changed with the shift in treatment from high-dose radiation to chemotherapy regimens including alkylators and epipodophyllotoxins. The risk of additional cancers in ES survivors will also be compared to survivors of other childhood cancers. Finally, the possible genetic contribution to ES and second malignancies will be discussed.

  4. Metabonomics by proton nuclear magnetic resonance in human pleural effusions: A route to discriminate between benign and malignant pleural effusions and to target small molecules as potential cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zennaro, Lucio; Vanzani, Paola; Nicolè, Lorenzo; Cappellesso, Rocco; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2017-05-01

    Cytopathology is a noninvasive and cost-effective method for detecting cancer cells in pleural effusions (PEs), although in many cases, the diagnostic performance is hindered by the paucity of significant cells or the lack of clear morphological criteria. This study presents the results of an omics approach to improving the diagnostic performance of PE cytology. Metabolic profiling with proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) was performed for 92 PEs (44 malignant cases of 8 different cancers and 48 benign cases of 7 nonneoplastic conditions). Light's criteria were used to further classify PEs as transudates or exudates, and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy was used to differentiate malignant pleural effusions (mPEs) from benign pleural effusions (bPEs). 1 H-NMR metabolic analysis showed clearly different spectra for mPEs and bPEs in the regions of the signals due to lipids, branched amino acids, and lactate, which were increased in mPEs. Transudates and exudates in bPEs were differentiated as well on the basis of the 1 H-NMR signals from lipids and lipoproteins, which were increased in exudates. Subject to validation in further larger studies, 1 H-NMR metabonomics could be an effective and reliable ancillary tool for PE investigations and diagnoses. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:341-348. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Nonurological malignancies in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Parida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nonurological malignancies in children include a wide variety of tumors. These tumors include primary tumors of the liver, thyroid, lung, gastrointestinal tract (GIT, and adrenals; soft tissue sarcomas (STSs like rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS and non-RMS; and finally extragonadal germ cell tumors (GCT. Aims: This article aims at describing the current thinking in the management of these childhood solid tumors. This is critical in view of the recent advances in the elucidation of the molecular, genetic, and biologic behavior of these tumors and how these factors are getting integrated not only in the staging but also in developing a risk-based approach towards the management of these tumors. Materials and Methods: Reference was made to recently published literature from the leading pediatric cancer centers of the world to make a sense of things of the most current thinking in this rapidly expanding field. This will provide surgeons and physicians taking care of these children with a working knowledge in this somewhat challenging field. Conclusions: Treatment results vary from center to center depending on access to resources and following different management protocols. Results have improved for these tumors with the advent of newer chemotherapeutic agents, novel delivery methods of radiation therapy (RT, and improvement in surgical technique. Due to the limited number of patients presenting with these tumors, national and international collaboration of data is critical for all and beneficial to individual treatment centers. This has resulted in better results in the past and will definitely result in still better results in the future.

  6. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for malignant mesothelioma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: malignant hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1722-30. Review. Citation on PubMed Litman RS, Rosenberg H. Malignant hyperthermia: update on susceptibility testing. JAMA. ... 27(10):977-89. Review. Citation on PubMed Rosenberg H, Davis M, James D, Pollock N, Stowell ...

  8. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-01-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull

  9. Håndens maligne tumorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britt Mejer; Rasmussen, Per Joen Svabo; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz

    2011-01-01

    Malignant tumours of the hand are rare and are often misdiagnosed. A painful swelling of the hand or digits are often diagnosed with an infection, benign tumours such as ganglion cysts, or arthritis. Wounds that do not heal despite adequate treatment should be biopsied to rule out malignancy....... A correct diagnosis without delay is important because the life expectancy, due to a metastasis on the hand or fingers is approximately six months....

  10. Retroperitoneal Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, Ayse Nur; Bayar, Mehmet Akif; Caydere, Muzaffer; Deger, Hakki; Tayfur, Mahir

    2015-09-01

    Malignant nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) are rare neoplasias and retroperitoneal cases are fairly rare and clinically difficult to be detected, but they are very agressive neoplasias. MPNST are frequently seen in head, neck and upper extremities. In patients with NF1; MPNST, a poor-prognostic lesion, may result from a malignant degeneration of a former plexiform neurofibroma. It is necessary to be aware of a potential malignancy in patients diagnosed with plexiform neurofibroma. We present a 21-year-old female with a diagnosis of MPNST. The patient was admited to the hospital because of a tumour in the subcutaneous region on her left buttock. The surgeon's clinical diagnosis was lipoma. After the pathological examination of biopsy specimen, the lesion was identified as "plexiform neurofibroma" and then the patient was diagnosed with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). Simultaneously, another mass on the retroperitoneal region was identified as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST).

  11. Vorinostat in solid and hematologic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richon Victoria M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vorinostat (Zolinza®, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in October 2006 for the treatment of cutaneous manifestations in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma who have progressive, persistent or recurrent disease on or following two systemic therapies. This review summarizes evidence on the use of vorinostat in solid and hematologic malignancies and collated tolerability data from the vorinostat clinical trial program. Pooled vorinostat clinical trial data from 498 patients with solid or hematologic malignancies show that vorinostat was well tolerated as monotherapy or combination therapy. The most commonly reported drug-related adverse events (AEs associated with monotherapy (n = 341 were fatigue (61.9%, nausea (55.7%, diarrhea (49.3%, anorexia (48.1%, and vomiting (32.8%, and Grade 3/4 drug-related AEs included fatigue (12.0%, thrombocytopenia (10.6%, dehydration (7.3%, and decreased platelet count (5.3%. The most common drug-related AEs observed with vorinostat in combination therapy (n = 157, most of whom received vorinostat 400 mg qd for 14 days were nausea (48.4%, diarrhea (40.8%, fatigue (34.4%, vomiting (31.2%, and anorexia (20.4%, with the majority of AEs being Grade 2 or less. In Phase I trials, combinations with vorinostat were generally well tolerated and preliminary evidence of anticancer activity as monotherapy or in combination with other systemic therapies has been observed across a range of malignancies. Ongoing and planned studies will further evaluate the potential of vorinostat in combination therapy, including combinations with radiation, in patients with diverse malignancy types, including non-small-cell lung cancer, glioblastoma multiforme, multiple myeloma, and myelodysplastic syndrome.

  12. Recognizing and managing a malignant hyperthermia crisis: guidelines from the European Malignant Hyperthermia Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahn, K P E; Ellis, F R; Halsall, P J

    2010-01-01

    Survival from a malignant hyperthermia (MH) crisis is highly dependent on early recognition and prompt action. MH crises are very rare and an increasing use of total i.v. anaesthesia is likely to make it even rarer, leading to the potential risk of reduced awareness of MH. In addition, dantrolene....... The guidelines consist of two textboxes: Box 1 on recognizing MH and Box 2 on the treatment of an MH crisis....

  13. Risk factors in neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay; Magon, Rakesh; Mishra, B P; Sidhu, G B S; Mahajan, Ranjiv

    2003-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is an uncommon but potentially serious idiosyncratic response to neuroleptic antipsychotics. It usually affects young males, but the risk has been seen to increase with certain factors including the administration practices of antipsychotic neuroleptics in these individuals. Even though no predictors for NMS are yet known, this article highlights the findings on certain risk factors as seen from a series of fifteen patients who developed NMS. Cautious use of neuroleptics in those at risk, early recognition and institution of immediate management is important.

  14. Malignant Tumors Of The Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrava, J.

    2007-01-01

    Autoptic prevalence of the heart tumors is 0,01 – 0,3 %. 12 – 25 % of them are malignant tumors and 75 – 88 % are benign. Malignancies are more frequently found in the right heart. Metastatic tumors occur 20 – 40-times more frequently than primary neoplasms. Even 94 % of primary malignant tumors are sarcomas. Most frequent of them are angio sarcomas. Heart metastases are only found in extensive dissemination. Highest prevalence of heart metastases is observed in melanoma, followed by malignant germ cell tumors, leukemia, lymphoma, lung cancer. The clinical presentation is due to the combination of heart failure, embolism, arrhythmias, pericardial effusion or tamponade. The symptoms depend on anatomical localization and the tumor size but not on the histological type. Prognosis of the heart malignancies is poor. Untreated patients die within several weeks to 2 years after the diagnosis was determined. Whenever possible the heart tumor should be resected, despite the surgery is usually neither definite nor sufficiently effective therapy. The patients with completely resectable sarcomas have better prognosis (median of survival 12 – 24 months) than the patients with incomplete resection (3 – 10 months). Complete excision is possible in only less than half of the patients. In some patients chemotherapy, radiotherapy, heart transplantation or combination of them prolonged the survival up to 2 years. Despite of this treatment median of the survival is only 1 year. (author)

  15. Efficient adenovector CD40 ligand immunotherapy of canine malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Euler, Henrik; Sadeghi, Arian; Carlsson, Björn; Rivera, Patricio; Loskog, Angelica; Segall, Thomas; Korsgren, Olle; Tötterman, Thomas H

    2008-05-01

    Cutaneous canine melanomas are usually benign in contrast to human malignant melanoma. However, the canine oropharyngeal, uveal, and mucocutaneous neoplasms are aggressive and have metastatic potential. Surgery and to a lesser extent radiotherapy and chemotherapy are widely adopted treatments but are seldom curative in advanced stages. The similarities between human and canine melanoma make spontaneous canine melanoma an excellent disease model for exploring novel therapies. Herein, we report the first 2 adenovector CD40L immunogene (AdCD40L) treatments of aggressive canine malignant melanoma. Case no. 1 was an advanced stage III oral melanoma that was cured from malignant melanoma with 2 intratumor AdCD40L injections before cytoreductive surgery. After treatment, the tumor tissue was infiltrated with T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes suggesting immune activation. This dog survived 401 days after the first round of gene therapy and was free of melanoma at autopsy. Case no. 2 had a conjunctival malignant melanoma with a rapid progression. This case was treated with 6 AdCD40L injections over 60 days. One hundred and twenty days after start of gene therapy and 60 days after the last injection, the tumor had regressed dramatically, and the dog had a minimal tumor mass and no signs of progression or metastasis. Our results indicate that AdCD40L immunogene therapy is beneficial in canine malignant melanoma and could be considered for human malignant melanoma as well.

  16. Eosinophilic Dermatosis of Hematologic Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Truyols, S; Rodrigo-Nicolás, B; Lloret-Ruiz, C; Quecedo-Estébanez, E

    Dermatosis characterized by tissue eosinophilia arising in the context of hematologic disease is known as eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy. The most commonly associated malignancy is chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a rare condition with a wide variety of clinical presentations, ranging from papules, erythematous nodules, or blisters that simulate arthropod bites, to the formation of true plaques of differing sizes. Histology reveals the presence of abundant eosinophils. We present 4 new cases seen in Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valencia, during the past 7 years. Three of these cases were associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 1 with mycosis fungoides. It is important to recognize this dermatosis as it can indicate progression of the underlying disease, as was the case in 3 of our patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings.

  18. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk

    1990-01-01

    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings

  19. Malignant Nodular Hidradenoma of Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of malignant nodular hidradenoma in an old woman, who presented with a nodular swelling in the right side of nose near the medial canthus of the right eye. Wide excision of the nodular mass with a clear margin of healthy surrounding tissue was performed along with primary closure. Post operatively, adjuvant radiation therapy was given on a telecobalt machine due to the presence of high risk features. In general, malignant forms of hidradenomas are not usual and treatment strategies should be individualized.

  20. Malignant diseases as suicidal motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Suicide is a conscious and intentional destruction of one’s own life, which occurs as a result of mutual influence of a person’s disposition and motives (facts inspiring the commitment of suicide. It is well known that various diseases, including malignancies, could be important and in some cases the only motive for committing suicide. Objective The purpose of the study was to analyze in detail suicides of persons whose only motive was an established malignant disease. Method The analysis was performed using the autopsy material of the Institute of Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, during the period from 1990 to 2004. The reports on performed medico-legal autopsies were used, as well as history data obtained from the family members of suicidal persons, investigation reports and the available medical documents. Results In 1931 cases there was established suicidal nature of a violent death. Neoplasms were the suicidal motive in 37 persons (1.9%. The basic characteristics of the analyzed sample were predominance of males (26:11, ratio 2.4:1, the age of over 70 years and the highest incidence of malignant lung and breast tumors. Almost all cases were the persons who underwent treatment for malignant neoplasms over a longer period of time. During 19 autopsies (51.3% out of 37, a progressive phase of malignancy was established, i.e. metastases. The data on prior oral announcement of suicide intention were obtained for 70.3% (26 cases, and on previous suicidal attempts only for 13.5% (5 cases. In the majority of cases (78.4% the place of committed suicide was the person’s home. In 16 cases (43.2% the suicide was committed with a firearm. Hanging as a manner of destroying one’s own life was chosen by 12 persons (32.4%, while other ways were less frequently used. Conclusion Although malignancies were not present with high incidence as a suicidal motive in our analyzed sample, such cases require particular

  1. Malignant Otitis Externa and Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Catarino Manso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Malignant otitis externa (MOE is an aggressive but benign entity which evolves into skull base osteomyelitis. An 81-year-old female patient was admitted for left hemiparesis and homonymous hemianopia. She complained of headache radiating to the right cervical area. A recent history of recurrent otitis media was present. Head and neck imaging showed an ischemic infarction (right temporo-occipital and a parapharyngeal soft tissue mass originating in an external and medial ear infection. Culture samples revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection leading to the diagnosis of Malignant otitis externa (MOE. Parenteral antibacterial therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy resulted in improvement.

  2. Comparative distribution of Lysyl Oxidase (G473A and NQO1 (C609T polymorphism among tea-garden workers (habitual chewers of betel quid of Darjeeling district and Kolkata city of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Gopal Ray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chewing of processed arecanut products with tobacco and betel quid has been attributed to many oral pathological conditions. These products are very popular among the youngsters of lower economic groups. Genetic predisposition has been now identified as a major risk factor for increasing the susceptibility toward the disease among these chewers. Aims: Our study mainly aims to find out the predisposition of LOX (G473A and NQO1 (C609T polymorphisms and present a comparison between the population (habitually exposed to processed arecanut and smokeless tobacco products of a metro-city Kolkata and the tea-garden workers of Darjeeling district of West Bengal. Settings and Design: Subjects for the study was recruited from various oral health check-up camps organized in the tea-gardens of Darjeeling district and Kolkata city. Materials and Methods: Genotyping analysis was done through a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP-based approach. Statistical Analysis Used: A two-way contingency table analysis software (JAVASTAT: http://statpages.org/ctab2 × 2.html using 95% confidence interval was used to study the distribution of genotypes among the populations. A P T (609 was found to be significantly higher among the north Bengal tea-garden workers [OR 0.480 (0.280-0.82 P = 0.01; 0.218 (0.091-0.524 P = 0.0001], respectively. Interestingly CT (21% in both and TT (8% and 7%, respectively were found to be equally distributed in the two populations. For LOX G > A (473 a significantly higher number of Kolkata individuals were found to carry the heterozygous GA allele in individuals aged <30 years [OR 3.779 (1.684-6.547 P = 0.001]. However, none were carrier of heterozygous GA allele of Kolkata population as compared with 29% north Bengal tea-garden workers aged above 31 years. Conclusions: A close observation of occurrence of oral diseases over time among such a population will be helpful to identify risk

  3. Malignant Phyllodes Tumor Presenting in Bone, Brain, Lungs, and Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Johnson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phyllodes tumors (PTs are rare fibroepithelial tumors of the breast which are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. Malignant PTs account for <1% of malignant breast tumors, and borderline tumors have potential to progress to malignant tumors. Metastatic recurrences are most commonly documented in bone and lungs. We report an extremely rare presentation of recurrent malignant PTs involving the brain, lung, lymph nodes, and bone. Case: A 66-year-old female presented with a large breast mass. Biopsy identified malignant PT, treated by mastectomy. One year later she presented with acute back pain; imaging showed pathological L4 spinal compression fracture. Core biopsy confirmed PT. Staging identified additional metastases in the lymph nodes, brain, and lung. Discussion: PTs are rare and fast-growing tumors that originate from periductal stromal tissues and are composed of both epithelial and stromal components. Histologically, they are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. The prognosis of the malignant type is poorly defined, with local recurrence occurring in 10–40% and metastases in 10%. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are generally ineffective in this tumor type. The most common metastatic sites for malignant cases are the lung and bones, but in rare instances, PTs may metastasize elsewhere. Conclusion: We report a rare presentation of recurrent malignant PT presenting as pathological fracture of the lumbar spine with impingement on the spinal column, along with cerebellar, nodal, and pulmonary metastases. Only 1 similar case has been previously reported.

  4. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

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    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  5. Haematological malignancy in the adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, G.

    1986-01-01

    The emphasis in this chapter has been placed on those aspects of treatment of the following haematological malignancies of particular relevance to the radiotherapist: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, chronic granulocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia extramedullary leukemic deposits, granulocytic sarcoma, polycythaemia rubra vera, myelofibrosis, multiple myeloma, solitary plasmacytoma. (U.K.)

  6. Malignant neurilemoma with xeroderma pigmentosum

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li Na; Ma, Min Jian; Shi, Ji Tong

    2009-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterised by hypersensitivity to sunlight, and is associated with a high incidence of skin cancer. We report a case of xeroderma pigmentosum with malignant neurilemoma in a 46-year-old woman which is unique due to its presentation, which was confirmed histopathologically.

  7. Malignant nodular hidradenoma of scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Maiti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant nodular hidradenoma (MNH is a rare tumor of sweat gland known by many names in the literature. Scalp is a known and yet uncommon site of occurrence. We describe two patients with scalp MNH with brain parenchymal invasion. Both tumors recurred in spite of total excision and radiotherapy.

  8. Eye involvement in haematological malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the involvement of the eye in haematological malignancies and focuses on two topics; primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) and ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD). The aim of this thesis is first: to compare the efficacy of diverse treatment options of PVRL with regard to

  9. Cutavirus in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Sarah; Fridholm, Helena; Vinner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains to be in...

  10. Management of malignant pleural effusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, R.C.

    2017-01-01

    The first part of this thesis focuses on IPCs (indwelling pleural catheters) in malignant pleural effusion (MPE) management. In an invited review, the (dis)advantages and prejudices of IPCs are described (Chapter1.1). Since costs and reimbursement issues are the main reasons in the Netherlands to

  11. Discriminant analysis of normal and malignant breast tissue based upon INAA investigation of elemental concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwanhoong Ng; Senghuat Ong; Bradley, D.A.; Laimeng Looi

    1997-01-01

    Discriminant analysis of six trace element concentrations measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in 26 paired-samples of malignant and histologically normal human breast tissues shows the technique to be a potentially valuable clinical tool for making malignant-normal classification. Nonparametric discriminant analysis is performed for the data obtained. Linear and quadratic discriminant analyses are also carried out for comparison. For this data set a formal analysis shows that the elements which may be useful in distinguishing between malignant and normal tissues are Ca, Rb and Br, providing correct classification for 24 out of 26 normal samples and 22 out of 26 malignant samples. (Author)

  12. Positron emission tomography/computer tomography in gastrointestinal malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tind, Sofie; Vestergaard, Sys; Farahani, Ziba A

    2017-01-01

    The use of FDG-PET/CT in GI-malignancies may not be as straightforward as in many other cancers, but the potential is clearly there in select clinical settings. The challenges include the relative non-specificity of FDG, the variable degrees of physiologic FDG-uptake, and the heterogeneous FDG-up...

  13. Oral submucous fibrosis: An update on pathophysiology of malignant transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arakeri, G.; Patil, S.G.; Aljabab, A.S.; Lin, K.C.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Gao, S.; Brennan, P.A.

    2017-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant condition associated with areca nut chewing. Formerly confined to the Indian subcontinent, it is now often seen in Asian populations of the United Kingdom, USA and other developed countries, and is therefore a serious problem for global

  14. Bilateral primary malignant lymphoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpitz, B; Witz, M; Kaufman, Z; Griffel, B; Manor, Y; Dinbar, A

    1985-08-01

    A rare case of bilateral primary malignant lymphoma of breast in a 76 year old woman is presented. The lesion was examined by electron microscopy and immunochemistry. The diagnosis of primary malignant lymphoma remains a diagnosis by exclusion and requires extensive work-up to exclude widespread malignant process. The behaviour of this malignancy tends to be an aggressive one and the prognosis is generally poor.

  15. Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics for the Treatment of Malignant Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel F. Aldrich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The employment of the immune system to treat malignant disease represents an active area of biomedical research. The specificity of the immune response and potential for establishing long-term tumor immunity compels researchers to continue investigations into immunotherapeutic approaches for cancer. A number of immunotherapeutic strategies have arisen for the treatment of malignant disease, including various vaccination schemes, cytokine therapy, adoptive cellular therapy, and monoclonal antibody therapy. This paper describes each of these strategies and discusses some of the associated successes and limitations. Emphasis is placed on the integration of techniques to promote optimal scenarios for eliminating cancer.

  16. Mature lymphoid malignancies: origin, stem cells, and chronicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Simon; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    after treatment. Lately, the use of next-generation sequencing techniques has revealed essential information on the clonal evolution of lymphoid malignancies. Also, experimental xenograft transplantation point to the possible existence of an ancestral (stem) cell. Such a malignant lymphoid stem cell...... population could potentially evade current therapies and be the cause of chronicity and death in lymphoma patients; however, the evidence is divergent across disease entities and between studies. In this review we present an overview of genetic studies, case reports, and experimental evidence of the source...

  17. MULTIPLE PRIMARY MALIGNANCIES IN PATIENTS.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    the youngest was 36 years old. Four of our patients were females. Two patients had cancers of the colon followed by ovarian malignancy in one and a rectal malignancy in the other. Of the other patients, one had cancer of the cervix and later she developed None Hodgkin's lymphoma. Two had bilateral breast malignancies.

  18. Paediatric Malignancies | Joseph | African Journal of Paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    malignancies. Other common malignancies included sarcomas 10(14.71%), neurofibromatosis 9(13.24%), nephroblastoma 8(11.77%), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia 5(7.35%) and retinoblastoma 4(5.88%). The less common paediatric malignancies were melanoma, invasive lobular breast carcinoma and squamous cell ...

  19. Coeliac disease, splenic function, and malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, D A F; Swinson, C M; Hall, R; Losowsky, M S

    1982-01-01

    Blood films from 41 cases of coeliac disease complicated by malignancy were examined and evidence of hyposplenism found in 12 cases (29%). This is similar to the proportion of adult coeliacs without malignancy who have hypoplenism and it is concluded that impaired splenic function is not associated with the development of malignancy in coeliac disease.

  20. Polymer Nanoparticle-Based Chemotherapy for Spinal Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant spinal tumors, categorized into primary and metastatic ones, are one of the most serious diseases due to their high morbidity and mortality rates. Common primary spinal tumors include chordoma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, and multiple myeloma. Spinal malignancies are not only locally invasive and destructive to adjacent structures, such as bone, neural, and vascular structures, but also disruptive to distant organs (e.g., lung. Current treatments for spinal malignancies, including wide resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, have made significant progress like improving patients’ quality of life. Among them, chemotherapy plays an important role, but its potential for clinical application is limited by severe side effects and drug resistance. To ameliorate the current situation, various polymer nanoparticles have been developed as promising excipients to facilitate the effective treatment of spinal malignancies by utilizing their potent advantages, for example, targeting, stimuli response, and synergetic effect. This review overviews the development of polymer nanoparticles for antineoplastic delivery in the treatment of spinal malignancies and discusses future prospects of polymer nanoparticle-based treatment methods.

  1. Caveolin-1 overexpression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Nazhvani, Ali Dehghani; Azizi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Caveolin-1, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, is supposed to have different regulatory roles as promoter or suppressor in many human cancers. However, no published study concerned its expression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of Cav-1 in the most common benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and evaluate its correlation with proliferation activity. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and Ki67 were evaluated in 49 samples, including 11 normal salivary glands, 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC), and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The expression of Cav-1 was seen in 18 % of normal salivary glands and 85 % of tumors. The immunoreaction in the tumors was significantly higher than normal tissues (P = 0.001), but the difference between benign and malignant tumors was not significant (P = 0.07). Expression of Cav-1 was correlated with Ki67 labeling index in PAs, but not in malignant tumors. Cav-1 expression was not in association with tumor size and stage. Overexpression of Cav-1 was found in salivary gland tumors in comparison with normal tissues, but no significant difference was observed between benign and malignant tumors. Cav-1 was inversely correlated with proliferation in PA. Therefore, this marker may participate in tumorigenesis of salivary gland tumors and may be a potential biomarker for cancer treatments.

  2. Nanotechnology applications in hematological malignancies (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAMIR, AHMED; ELGAMAL, BASMA M; GABR, HALA; SABAAWY, HATEM E

    2015-01-01

    A major limitation to current cancer therapies is the development of therapy-related side-effects and dose limiting complications. Moreover, a better understanding of the biology of cancer cells and the mechanisms of resistance to therapy is rapidly developing. The translation of advanced knowledge and discoveries achieved at the molecular level must be supported by advanced diagnostic, therapeutic and delivery technologies to translate these discoveries into useful tools that are essential in achieving progress in the war against cancer. Nanotechnology can play an essential role in this aspect providing a transforming technology that can translate the basic and clinical findings into novel diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive tools useful in different types of cancer. Hematological malignancies represent a specific class of cancer, which attracts special attention in the applications of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment. The aim of the present review is to elucidate the emerging applications of nanotechnology in cancer management and describe the potentials of nanotechnology in changing the key fundamental aspects of hematological malignancy diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. PMID:26134389

  3. Spinal metastases of malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materlik, B.; Steidle-Katic, U.; Feyerabend, T.; Richter, E.; Wauschkuhn, B.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Extracranial metastases of malignant gliomas are rare. We report 2 cases with spinal metastases in patients suffering from glioma. Patients and Method: Two patients (33 and 57 years old) developed spinal canal metastases of a glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma Grade III respectively 25 and 9 months after surgical resection and radiotherapy. Both metastases were confirmed pathohistologically. Results: Intraspinal metastases were irradiated with a total dose of 12.6 Gy and 50 Gy. Treatment withdrawal was necessary in one patient due to reduced clinical condition. Regression of neurological symptoms was observed in the second patient. Conclusions: Spinal spread of malignant glioma should be considered during care and follow-up in glioma patients with spinal symptoms. (orig.) [de

  4. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang, E-mail: deliang.guo@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center & Arthur G James Cancer Hospital, Columbus, OH 43012 (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation.

  5. Paediatric and adult malignant glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Chris; Perryman, Lara; Hargrave, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas in children differ from their adult counterparts by their distribution of histological grade, site of presentation and rate of malignant transformation. Although rare in the paediatric population, patients with high-grade gliomas have, for the most part, a comparably dismal clinical outcome...... to older patients with morphologically similar lesions. Molecular profiling data have begun to reveal the major genetic alterations underpinning these malignant tumours in children. Indeed, the accumulation of large datasets on adult high-grade glioma has revealed key biological differences between...... the adult and paediatric disease. Furthermore, subclassifications within the childhood age group can be made depending on age at diagnosis and tumour site. However, challenges remain on how to reconcile clinical data from adult patients to tailor novel treatment strategies specifically for paediatric...

  6. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang

    2013-01-01

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation

  7. VACCINATION OF CHILDREN WITH MALIGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Yu. Kachanov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Children suffering from oncological diseases fall into the group of immunocompromised patients. They are more at risk of severe children’s banal infections. Development of safe and efficient methods for immunological prevention of preventable infections diseases in this group of children is one of priorities for modern medicine. It is also important to properly organise the process of vaccinating the persons surrounding the patient to eliminate the risk of postvaccinal complications in the sick (non-vaccinated child. The article provides a detailed overview of the global experience in vaccinating children with malignant neoplasms. It describes modern principles of immunological prevention in children both being administered the standard anticancer therapy and those have undergone transplantation of hemopoietic stem cells. Key words: children, malignancy, vaccination.(Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:28-34

  8. Malignant glaucoma after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Devesh K; Belovay, Graham W; Tam, Diamond Y; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2014-11-01

    To report a series of eyes that developed malignant glaucoma after cataract surgery. Private academic practice, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Retrospective case series. Eyes that developed malignant glaucoma after cataract surgery were treated with medical therapy. This was followed by laser iridozonulohyaloidotomy, anterior chamber reformation and intraocular lens (IOL) pushback, and finally with surgical iridozonulohyaloidovitrectomy if all other measures were unsuccessful. Refraction, intraocular pressure (IOP), gonioscopy, and anterior chamber depth (ACD) by anterior segment optical coherence tomography were analyzed before treatment and after treatment. The study evaluated 20 eyes of 18 female patients aged 44 to 86 years. Preoperatively, the mean refraction was +3.11 diopters (D) ± 2.89 (SD), the mean axial length was 21.30 ± 1.40 mm, and all eyes had narrow or closed angles. Malignant glaucoma was diagnosed a mean of 5.8 ± 7.1 weeks postoperatively. At diagnosis, the mean refraction was -2.15 ± 2.95 D; the mean ACD, 2.49 ± 0.72 mm; and the mean IOP, 28.3 ± 10.8 mm Hg on a mean of 1.3 ± 1.6 medications. Two eyes responded to cycloplegia, 7 to laser iridozonulohyaloidotomy, and 6 to anterior chamber reformation-IOL pushback; 5 eyes required vitrectomy. Posttreatment, the mean refraction was -0.56 ± 1.07 D; the mean ACD, 3.30 ± 0.50 mm; and the mean IOP, 14.4 ± 4.60 mm Hg on a mean of 1.2 ± 1.4 medications. Cycloplegia was discontinued in 17 eyes. Malignant glaucoma can occur after phacoemulsification and presents with myopic surprise, anterior chamber shallowing and, possibly, elevated IOP. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Edema and malignancy in meningiomas

    OpenAIRE

    Mattei,Tobias Alécio; Mattei,Josias Alécio; Ramina,Ricardo; Aguiar,Paulo Henrique; Plese,José Pindaro; Marino Jr,Raul

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: In recent years there have been many attempts to define a subset of aggressive malignant meningiomas based on histopathology and imaging technologies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of peritumoral edema and its volume using the imaging technologies, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and correlate these results with the histological WHO classification. Reported causes of tumoral edema and its relationships to the histological characteristics were...

  10. Benign chondroblastoma - malignant radiological appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, K.; Treugut, H.; Mueller, G.E.

    1980-04-01

    The very rare benign chondroblastoma occasionally invades soft tissues and may grow beyond the epiphysis into the metaphysis. In the present case such a tumour did not show the typical radiological appearances, but presented malignant features both on plain films and on the angiogram. The importance of biopsy of tumours which cannot be identified with certainty must be stressed before radical surgery is carried out.

  11. Malignant transformation in chronic osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lino Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Carcinomatous degeneration is a rare and late complication developing decades after the diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis. OBJECTIVES: To present the results from a retrospective study of six cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising from chronic osteomyelitis. METHODS: Six cases of chronic osteomyelitis related to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma were identified. The cause and characteristics of the osteomyelitis were analyzed, as well as time up to malignancy, the suspicion signs for malignancy, the localization and histological type of the cancer, and the type and result of the treatment. RESULTS: The mean time between osteomyelitis onset and the diagnosis of malignant degeneration was 49.17 years (range: 32-65. The carcinoma resulted from tibia osteomyelitis in five cases and from femur osteomyelitis in one. The pathological examination indicated cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in all cases. All the patients were staged as N0M0, except for one, whose lomboaortic lymph nodes were affected. The treatment consisted of amputation proximal to the tumor in all patients. No patient presented signs of local recurrence and only one had carcinoma metastasis. CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis and proximal amputation are essential for prognosis and final results in carcinomatous degeneration secondary to chronic osteomyelitis.

  12. Malignant tumours of the vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsen, E.

    1983-01-01

    The thesis analyses 317 patients with vulvar malignancies treated at the University Hospital, Lund, during 1960-1979. The three most common histological types of malignancy have been analysed. The oncological clinic in Lund has since the 1960's used a surgical technique where the primary tumour and the regional lymph nodes are operated on in two separate surgical seances. The vulvectomy is performed with tarm knife technique, and the wound is left open. The 5-year crude survival rate for the entire patient material treated with curative intention was over 60 %, which agrees well with reports from other centres. Our surgical approach using two separate seances has, however, much lower rates of postoperative complications and mortality than the rates in other reports. The overall most important prognostic factors for the patients with invasive vulvar malignancies are the presence of lymphatic metastases at the time of surgery, and the surgical radicality of the primary surgery. The treatment at most stages of tumour development and most histological types should include total vulvectomy preoperative irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymphadenectomy. Only local extirpation and hemivulvectomy are, however, indicated for small microinvasively growing squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Samll invasive onesided squamous cell carcinoma is best treated with ipsilateral surgery combined with preoperative irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes. Patients with metastases in the inguinal lymph nodes should receive additional irradiation of the inguinal and pelvic lymph node stations. (Author)

  13. Neural stem cell-encoded temporal patterning delineates an early window of malignant susceptibility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbonne-Reveau, Karine; Lanet, Elodie; Dillard, Caroline; Foppolo, Sophie; Chen, Ching-Huan; Parrinello, Hugues; Rialle, Stéphanie; Sokol, Nicholas S; Maurange, Cédric

    2016-06-14

    Pediatric neural tumors are often initiated during early development and can undergo very rapid transformation. However, the molecular basis of this early malignant susceptibility remains unknown. During Drosophila development, neural stem cells (NSCs) divide asymmetrically and generate intermediate progenitors that rapidly differentiate in neurons. Upon gene inactivation, these progeny can dedifferentiate and generate malignant tumors. Here, we find that intermediate progenitors are prone to malignancy only when born during an early window of development while expressing the transcription factor Chinmo, and the mRNA-binding proteins Imp/IGF2BP and Lin-28. These genes compose an oncogenic module that is coopted upon dedifferentiation of early-born intermediate progenitors to drive unlimited tumor growth. In late larvae, temporal transcription factor progression in NSCs silences the module, thereby limiting mitotic potential and terminating the window of malignant susceptibility. Thus, this study identifies the gene regulatory network that confers malignant potential to neural tumors with early developmental origins.

  14. Benign and malignant neurogenic tumors of nerve sheath origin on FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, M. J.; Go, D. H.; Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, K. H.; Lee, J. D

    2004-01-01

    The differentiation between benign and malignant nerve sheath tumors is difficult based on conventional radiological imaging. This study was undertaken to investigate the value of FDG PET in distinguishing benign from malignant neurogenic tumors of nerve sheath origin. We performed a retrospective review of the medical record to select patients with nerve sheath tumors who had underdone FDG PET imaging. Fifteen patients (7F: 8M) with benign or malignant nerve sheath tumors were included in this study. Of the 15 patients, 9 were diagnosed with the known neurofibromatosis type I. A total of 19 nerve sheath tumors were included from the 15 patients. All patients had undergone FDG PET to evaluate for malignant potential of the known lesions. Images of FDG PET were semi-quantitatively analyzed and a region of interest (ROI) was placed over the area of the maximum FDG uptake and an average standardized uptake value was taken for final analysis. There were 5 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 5 schwannomas, and 9 neurofibromas. The mean SUV was 2 (ranged from 1.6 to 3.3) for schwannomas, 1.3 (0.7 to 2.5) for neurofibromas, and 8.4 (4.6 to 12.2) for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Of 14 benign tumors, all except one schwannoma showed a SUV less than 3. When a cutoff SUV of 4 was used to differentiate the nerve sheath tumors, all tumors were correctly classified as benign or malignant, respectively. Among the 9 patients diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type I. 4 had malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and FDG PET accurately detected all the 4 lesions with malignant transformation. According to our results, FDG PET seems to have a great potential for accurately characterizing benign versus malignant nerve sheath tumors. It appears to be extremely useful for patients with neurofibromatosis to localize the lesion with malignant transformation

  15. ANCA-associated vasculitis and malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahr, Alfred; Heijl, Caroline; Le Guenno, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    of individual therapeutic agents is difficult to dissect, but cyclophosphamide has emerged as a major contributor to cancer development because of its direct carcinogenic properties. Awareness of cancer risk in AAV calls for increased implementation of measures to prevent or screen for cancer and development......In this review, we summarise the current understanding of the potential link between cancer and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV), including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's; GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). As is true for many autoimmune...... or inflammatory rheumatic diseases, AAV diagnosis and therapy are associated with an increased risk of de novo cancer development, likely as a result of impaired immunosurveillance, direct oncogenicity of immunosuppressive agents and perhaps malignant degeneration of tissues undergoing chronic immune stimulation...

  16. Malignant Hyperthermia and Idiopathic HyperCKemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a rare but life-threatening condition that is more frequently encountered and discussed within the anesthesia literature. Here we through a case specifically discuss the susceptibility of individuals and/or families with asymptomatic unexplained elevations of creatine kinase (CK, also frequently referred to as hyperCKemia or idiopathic hyperCKemia (IHCK in recent reports. The clinical implications would be to underscore the importance of this as a susceptibility to developing MH and highlight the importance of genetic susceptibility testing in such cases. Anesthesiologists and critical care intensivists as well as primary care physicians should keep this in mind when seeing patients with asymptomatic hyperCKemia and potentially inform them about the possibility of developing MH if exposed to triggering agents. Genetic susceptibility testing should be considered if available and family members should also receive nontriggering agents when undergoing anesthesia and wear Medic Alert tags.

  17. Comprehensive immunoproteogenomic analyses of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Sung; Jang, Hee-Jin; Choi, Jong Min; Zhang, Jun; de Rosen, Veronica Lenge; Wheeler, Thomas M; Lee, Ju-Seog; Tu, Thuydung; Jindra, Peter T; Kerman, Ronald H; Jung, Sung Yun; Kheradmand, Farrah; Sugarbaker, David J; Burt, Bryan M

    2018-04-05

    We generated a comprehensive atlas of the immunologic cellular networks within human malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) using mass cytometry. Data-driven analyses of these high-resolution single-cell data identified 2 distinct immunologic subtypes of MPM with vastly different cellular composition, activation states, and immunologic function; mass spectrometry demonstrated differential abundance of MHC-I and -II neopeptides directly identified between these subtypes. The clinical relevance of this immunologic subtyping was investigated with a discriminatory molecular signature derived through comparison of the proteomes and transcriptomes of these 2 immunologic MPM subtypes. This molecular signature, representative of a favorable intratumoral cell network, was independently associated with improved survival in MPM and predicted response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with MPM and melanoma. These data additionally suggest a potentially novel mechanism of response to checkpoint blockade: requirement for high measured abundance of neopeptides in the presence of high expression of MHC proteins specific for these neopeptides.

  18. Radiation biology of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rofstad, E.K.; Norwegian Cancer Society, Oslo)

    1986-01-01

    The survival curves for melanoma cells exposed to single radiation doses in vitro and the specific growth delays for melanoma xenografts irradiated with single doses in vivo were found to differ considerably among individual cell lines and tumours. In fact, the differences could be almost as large as the largest differences observed among cell lines and xenografts from tumours of different histology with very different clinical radiocurability. Moreover, radiobiologic parameters that may have significant influence on tumour response to fractionated irradiation, e.g. growth rate, hypoxic fraction, reoxygenation ability, PLD-repair capacity and contact repair capacity, were found to differ greatly in magnitude among individual melanomas. This review therefore concludes that malignant melanoma is a tumour type that is very heterogeneous in radioresponsiveness, i.e. malignant melanomas should no longer be considered to be radiation resistant in general. The values of the α/β ratio derived from cell survival curves for melanoma cells irradiated in vitro and melanoma xenografts irradiated in vivo were found to cover a wide range relative to those for acutely and late responding normal tissues. Although these α/β ratios are no more than estimates of the effective α/β ratios in a clinical situation, they still indicated that hyperfractionation may be beneficial in the treatment of some melanomas, whereas others may be more efficiently treated by use of conventional fractionation regimes, either based on 2 Gy or higher doses per fraction. Consequently, optimum radiation therapy of malignant melanoma will probably require an individualized treatment strategy. In vitro assays for prediction of radiocurability and choice of treatment strategy for individual melanoma patients seem therefore highly warranted. (orig.)

  19. Giant hydronephrosis mimicking progressive malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Andres Jan; Anderer, Georgia; von Knobloch, Rolf; Heidenreich, Axel; Hofmann, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    Background Cases of giant hydronephroses are rare and usually contain no more than 1–2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. We report a remarkable case of giant hydronephrosis mimicking a progressive malignant abdominal tumour. Case presentation A 78-year-old cachectic woman presented with an enormous abdominal tumour, which, according to the patient, had slowly increased in diameter. Medical history was unremarkable except for a hysterectomy >30 years before. A CT scan revealed a giant cystic tumour filling almost the entire abdominal cavity. It was analysed by two independent radiologists who suspected a tumour originating from the right kidney and additionally a cystic ovarian neoplasm. Subsequently, a diagnostic and therapeutic laparotomy was performed: the tumour presented as a cystic, 35 × 30 × 25 cm expansive structure adhesive to adjacent organs without definite signs of invasive growth. The right renal hilar vessels could finally be identified at its basis. After extirpation another tumourous structure emerged in the pelvis originating from the genital organs and was also resected. The histopathological examination revealed a >15 kg hydronephrotic right kidney, lacking hardly any residual renal cortex parenchyma. The second specimen was identified as an ovary with regressive changes and a large partially calcified cyst. There was no evidence of malignant growth. Conclusion Although both clinical symptoms and the enormous size of the tumour indicated malignant growth, it turned out to be a giant hydronephrosis. Presumably, a chronic obstruction of the distal ureter had caused this extraordinary hydronephrosis. As demonstrated in our case, an accurate diagnosis of giant hydronephrosis remains challenging due to the atrophy of the renal parenchyma associated with chronic obstruction. Therefore, any abdominal cystic mass even in the absence of other evident pathologies should include the differential diagnosis of a possible hydronephrosis. Diagnostic

  20. Intrapontine malignant nerve sheath tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozić, Dusko; Nagulić, Mirjana; Samardzić, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    . On pathological examination, the neoplasm appeared to be an intrapontine nerve sheath tumor originating most likely from the intrapontine segment of one of the cranial nerve fibres. The tumor showed exophytic growth, with consequent spread to adjacent subaracnoid space. MR spectroscopy revealed the presence......The primary source of malignant intracerebral nerve sheath tumors is still unclear We report the imaging and MR spectroscopic findings in a 39-year-old man with a very rare brain stem tumor MR examination revealed the presence of intraaxial brain stem tumor with a partial exophytic growth...

  1. Malignant peritoneal pseudomyxona: Combined treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.; Alvarado, E.; Marcos, A.; Palacios, E.; Gomez, A.

    1993-01-01

    We describe a special treatment for the malignant peritoneal pseudomyxoma as suggested by Sugarbaker. Shortly, it is a combination of surgical cytoreduction with a curative aim, completed with inmediate postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Having in mind the lack of metastasic danger of these tumours, as well as its lack of infiltrative character, by this surgical technique which consists in five different ''peritonectomies'', one may be able to free the patient of macroscopic tumour. The additional intraperitoneal chemotherapy might contribute to increase the survival of these patients and, perhaps, even to cure them. (Author) 12 refs

  2. HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF COLORECTAL MALIGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in men and in women worldwide. Incidence rates of colorectal cancer vary 10 - fold in both sexes worldwide, Within Asia, the incidence rates vary widely and are uniformly low in all south Asian countries and high i n all developed Asian countries. Fortunately, the age adjusted incidence rates of colorectal cancer in all the Indian cancer registries are very close to the lowest rates in the world. The present study is under taken to study the prevalence and types of c olorectal cancer among the patients in the rural population in and around Chidambaram. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of malignant colorectal neoplasms among the speci mens received in the Department of Pathology and the gross and histomorphological pa ttern of the lesions and finally to correlate the findings with clinical data. METHOD: The materials consisted of 68 specimens who were submitted to the Department of Pathology, during the period of Jan 2008 - Dec 2012. Data collected and entered in MS - Excel and were analyzed using SPSS - 16. RESULTS : Out of 8454 colonoscopic specimens, 68(0.8% showed colorectal malignancy. A higher frequency of colorectal was seen in 6 th decade. Out of 68 specimens of malignant neoplasms majority were Carcinoma of the Rectum (79.41% followed in decreasing order of frequency by malignant lesions of descending colon(8.82%, ascending and Sigmoid colon (4.41% each, recto - sigmoid (2.94% and cecum (2.63%, and transverse colon (2.63%. Youngest patient was 19 years old and the o ldest patient was 80 years old with a mean age of 49.5 years and median age of 50 years. CONCLUSION: Colorectal cancer is a common and lethal disease. The adenoma carcinoma. S equence offers a window of opportunity in which the precursor lesion or early car cinoma can be removed endoscopically to prevent systematic disease. The result of a careful and systematic examination of surgical specimens from patients with

  3. Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martires, Kathryn; Callahan, Shields; Terushkin, Vitaly; Brinster, Nooshin; Leger, Marie; Soter, Nicholas A

    2016-12-15

    We report a 68-year-old woman with chroniclymphocytic leukemia, who developed numerous,pruritic, edematous, and vesicobullous skin lesionsof the face and extremities over the course of severalmonths. The diagnosis of eosinophilic dermatosis ofhematologic malignancy (EDHM) was made basedon the clinical history and histopathologic features.Owing to the possible link between EDHM and amore aggressive underlying CLL, she was startedagain on chemotherapy. This case serves as areminder that, although the precise pathogenesis ofEDHM remains unclear, the paraneoplastic disorderis the result of immune dysregulation. Patientswho develop EDHM should undergo prompthematologic/oncologic evaluation.

  4. Photodynamic therapy: anti-tumour potentialities of bis (tri π-hexyl-siloxy) silicon phthalocyanine against malignant achromic M6 melanocytes. EPR study of the photo-toxic mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreau, R.; Viola, A.; Julliard, M.; Hadjur, Ch.; Richard, M.J.; Favier, A.; Jeunet, A.

    1997-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy of cancerous cells is a technique relying upon the irradiation of tumorous cells after selective incorporation of a photo-sensitizer. The bis (tri n-hexyl-siloxy) silicon phthalocyanine is a second generation photo-sensitizer. Anti-cancerous potentialities of this molecule have been evaluated against the melanotic M6 cell line. Results have evidenced a high phototoxicity at low concentration and no dark toxicity under the same conditions. EPR studies on the photochemical pathways involved in phototoxicity processes have been realised in solvent and model membranes (liposomes). Results provide evidences for the production of singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) as well as superoxide (O 2 0- ) and hydroxyl radical ( 0 OH). (authors)

  5. Malignant chondroid syringoma of the pinna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Aggarwal, Niharika; Deen, Suhail; Majhi, Urmila; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Chondroid syringoma (CS) represents the cutaneous counterpart of mixed tumor (pleomorphic adenoma) of salivary glands. The malignant counterpart of CS, termed as “malignant CS” is a malignant eccrine neoplasm which lacks distinctive clinical features, often delaying initial diagnosis. Unlike its benign counterpart which often localizes in the head and neck region, malignant CS most often encountered in the trunk and the extremities. We report a rare case of an aggressive malignant CS of the left pinna with cervical lymph node metastasis. Our patient, to the best of our knowledge, possibly is the first case of malignant CS of the pinna and the fourth to arise in the head and neck region. The diagnostic challenges with an added emphasis on the role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography in aiding the management of this rare tumor are discussed

  6. Computed tomography findings of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiota, Yutaro; Sato, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Ono, Tetsuya; Kaji, Masaro; Niiya, Harutaka (Kure Kyosai Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) findings were assessed in 7 patients with malignant mesothelioma. CT findings were also reviewed in 9 patients with lung cancer and pleuritis carcinomatosa and in 11 patients with tuberculous pleuritis. Five patients with malignant mesothelioma underwent CT scans twice, on admission and from 1 to 7 months after admission. Tuberculous pleuritis could be distinguished from pleuritis carcinomatosa and malignant mesothelioma by the presence or absence of pleural nodularity and chest wall invasion. Although it was difficult to identify specific CT features clearly distinguishing malignant mesothelioma from pleuritis carcinomatosa, characteristic findings of malignant mesothelioma appeared to include the rapid development and progression of pleural rind and a tendency to spread directly into the chest wall. We divided the pleural into the four regions; upper anterior, upper posterior, lower anterior and lower posterior regions. Pleural changes were more frequently seen in the lower pleural regions than in the upper pleural regions in malignant mesothelioma. (author).

  7. Computed tomography findings of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiota, Yutaro; Sato, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Ono, Tetsuya; Kaji, Masaro; Niiya, Harutaka

    1994-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) findings were assessed in 7 patients with malignant mesothelioma. CT findings were also reviewed in 9 patients with lung cancer and pleuritis carcinomatosa and in 11 patients with tuberculous pleuritis. Five patients with malignant mesothelioma underwent CT scans twice, on admission and from 1 to 7 months after admission. Tuberculous pleuritis could be distinguished from pleuritis carcinomatosa and malignant mesothelioma by the presence or absence of pleural nodularity and chest wall invasion. Although it was difficult to identify specific CT features clearly distinguishing malignant mesothelioma from pleuritis carcinomatosa, characteristic findings of malignant mesothelioma appeared to include the rapid development and progression of pleural rind and a tendency to spread directly into the chest wall. We divided the pleural into the four regions; upper anterior, upper posterior, lower anterior and lower posterior regions. Pleural changes were more frequently seen in the lower pleural regions than in the upper pleural regions in malignant mesothelioma. (author)

  8. Novel Indications for Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors, beyond Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Campbell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK is a critical terminal enzyme in the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR pathway. BTK activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of certain B-cell malignancies. Targeting this pathway has emerged as a novel target in B-cell malignancies, of which ibrutinib is the first-in-class agent. A few other BTK inhibitors (BTKi are also under development (e.g., acalabrutinib. While the predominant action of BTKi is the blockade of B-cell receptor pathway within malignant B-cells, increasing the knowledge of off-target effects as well as a potential role for B-cells in proliferation of solid malignancies is expanding the indication of BTKi into non-hematological malignancies. In addition to the expansion of the role of BTKi monotherapy, combination therapy strategies utilizing ibrutinib with established regimens and combination with modern immunotherapy compounds are being explored.

  9. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of metastatic malignant diffuse type tenosynovial giant cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Ramteke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TGCTs arise from the synovium of joint, bursa, and tendon sheath, and are classified into localized and diffuse types. Diffused type often affects the large joint, and has more recurrence, metastasis, and malignant transformation potential compared to the localized type. Malignant diffused TGCT (D-TGCT usually occurs as a large tumor (>5 cm, in older patients, and its histopathologic features include necrosis, cellular anaplasia, prominent nucleoli, high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, brisk mitosis, discohesion of tumor cells, paucity of giant cells, and a diffuse growth pattern. At least five of these criteria are required for the histopathologic diagnosis of malignant TGCT because the benign TGCT also shares many of these morphological features. We describe the cytomorphologic features of a malignant D-TGCT from an unusual case of pulmonary metastasis in an adult patient. Fine needle aspiration cytologic features of malignant D-TGCT have not been described earlier in the English literature.

  10. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  11. Multicentric malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Shailaja; Singh, Sanjeet K; Pujani, Mukta

    2009-01-01

    Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare type of sarcoma that is found in the digestive system, most often in the wall of the stomach. Multiple GISTs are extremely rare and usually associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis and familial GIST. We report here a case of a 70-year-old woman who reported pain in the abdomen, loss of appetite, and weight loss for six months. Ultrasound examination showed a small bowel mass along with multiple peritoneal deposits and a mass within the liver. Barium studies were suggestive of a neoplastic pathology of the distal ileum. A differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma/lymphoma with metastases was entertained. Perioperative findings showed two large growths arising from the jejunum and the distal ileum, along with multiple smaller nodules on the serosal surface and adjoining mesentery of the involved bowel segments. Segmental resection of the involved portions of the intestine was performed. Histopathological features were consistent with those of multicentric malignant GIST-not otherwise specified (GIST-NOS). Follow-up examination three months after surgery showed no evidence of recurrence. (author)

  12. Therapy of malignant brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jellinger, K [ed.

    1987-01-01

    The tumors of the brain claim for a separate position in scientific medicine regarding biology, morphology, features of clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy. During the past years due to rapid progress in medical biotechnics the situation of the neuroclinician in front of brain tumors has been dramatically changed. The prerequisites for early and accurate diagnosis as well as for successful treatment also of malignant neoplasms have increased and remarkably improved. At the same time the information necessary for an appropriate pragmatic use of the available cognitive methods and therapeutic means increased along the same scale. These facts necessitate the preparation of publications in which the state of the art is presented in possible completeness, systematic order and proper dis-posability for rational management and therapeutic strategies. The primary aim of the present book is to serve these purposes. With 8 chapters, two of them are indexed for INIS, the collective of competent authors deal on the biology, pathology and immunology of malignant brain tumors of adults and of children including relevant basic and recent data of experimental research; further on the available methods of therapy: neurosurgery, radiology and chemotherapy, the fundamental principals of their efficacy and the differing models of single respective combined application, in comprehensive critical form. 111 figs.

  13. Therapy of malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellinger, K.

    1987-01-01

    The tumors of the brain claim for a separate position in scientific medicine regarding biology, morphology, features of clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy. During the past years due to rapid progress in medical biotechnics the situation of the neuroclinician in front of brain tumors has been dramatically changed. The prerequisites for early and accurate diagnosis as well as for successful treatment also of malignant neoplasms have increased and remarkably improved. At the same time the information necessary for an appropriate pragmatic use of the available cognitive methods and therapeutic means increased along the same scale. These facts necessitate the preparation of publications in which the state of the art is presented in possible completeness, systematic order and proper dis-posability for rational management and therapeutic strategies. The primary aim of the present book is to serve these purposes. With 8 chapters, two of them are indexed for INIS, the collective of competent authors deal on the biology, pathology and immunology of malignant brain tumors of adults and of children including relevant basic and recent data of experimental research; further on the available methods of therapy: neurosurgery, radiology and chemotherapy, the fundamental principals of their efficacy and the differing models of single respective combined application, in comprehensive critical form. 111 figs

  14. [Acute surgical treatment of malignant stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja-Cyron, Alexander; Eskesen, Vagn; Hansen, Klaus; Kondziella, Daniel; Kelsen, Jesper

    2016-10-24

    Malignant stroke is an intracranial herniation syndrome caused by cerebral oedema after a large hemispheric or cerebellar stroke. Malignant middle cerebral artery infarction is a devastating disease with a mortality around 80% despite intensive medical treatment. Decompressive craniectomy reduces mortality and improves functional outcome - especially in younger patients (age ≤ 60 years). Decompression of the posterior fossa is a life-saving procedure in patients with malignant cerebellar infarctions and often leads to good neurological outcome.

  15. B-Cell Hematologic Malignancy Vaccination Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-29

    Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance; Multiple Myeloma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Lymphocytosis; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hematological Malignancies

  16. Mistletoe in the treatment of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Sakallı Çetin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a malignant neoplasia drives from melanocytes. Malignant melanoma, the most causing death, is seen in the third place at skin cancer. Malignant melanoma shows intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and variability in the course of the disease which are distinct features separating from other solid tumors. These features prevent the development and standardization of non-surgical treatment models of malignant melanoma. Although there is a large number of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma, it hasn’t been demonstrated the survival advantage of adjuvant treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Because of the different clinical course of malignant melanoma, the disease is thought to be closely associated with immune system. Therefore, immunomodulatory therapy models were developed. Mistletoe stimulates the immune system by increasing the number and activity of dendritic cells, thus it has been shown to effect on tumor growth and metastasis of malignant melanoma patient. Outlined in this review are the recent developments in the understanding the role of mistletoe as a complementary therapy for malignant melanoma. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 145-152

  17. Markers of Oral Lichen Planus Malignant Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampa, Mircea; Mitran, Madalina; Mitran, Cristina; Matei, Clara; Georgescu, Simona-Roxana

    2018-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology with significant impact on patients' quality of life. Malignant transformation into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered as one of the most serious complications of the disease; nevertheless, controversy still persists. Various factors seem to be involved in the progression of malignant transformation; however, the mechanism of this process is not fully understood yet. Molecular alterations detected in OLP samples might represent useful biomarkers for predicting and monitoring the malignant progression. In this review, we discuss various studies which highlight different molecules as ominous predictors of OLP malignant transformation. PMID:29682099

  18. Medicinal therapy of malignant lymphomas; Medikamentoese Therapie maligner Lymphome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aul, C.; Schroeder, M.; Giagounidis, A. [Medizinische Klinik II, St.-Johannes-Hospital Duisburg (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Chemotherapy represents the most important therapeutic option in malignant lymphomas. Low to intermediate risk Hodgkin's disease is treated by a combination of chemotherapy and radiation. The new chemotherapy protocol BEACOPP has improved the outcome of advanced stages in comparison with the internationally accepted standard protocol COPP/ABVD. Dependent on the initial staging, cure rates between 50 and 95% can be achieved. Indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas usually present in advanced stages of disease. Chemotherapy in these cases has palliative character and aims at improving patients'quality of life and at avoiding complications due to the disease. In aggressive and very aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma chemotherapy is curative and must be initiated immediately irrespective of the staging results. The efficacy of the standard protocol CHOP (cyclophosphamide,doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone), that was established in the 1970s, has recently been improved by shortening of the therapy interval (CHOP-14 vs.CHOP-21),addition of etoposide (CHOEP) and combination with the monoclonal antibody rituximab (R-CHOP). The value of high dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplantation has been shown unequivocally only for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma and relapsed Hodgkin's disease responsive to chemotherapy. The therapeutic strategy of malignant lymphomas is likely to be improved within the next years due to the introduction of novel cytostatic agents, the broadening application of monoclonal antibodies,upcoming new transplantation procedures and the development of substances with molecular targets.To rapidly increase our current knowledge on the topic it is mandatory to include patients into the large national and international multicenter studies. (orig.) [German] Die Chemotherapie stellt die wichtigste Behandlungsoption maligner Lymphome dar. Bei Hodgkin-Lymphomen niedrigen bzw. intermediaeren Risikoprofils wird eine kombinierte Behandlung

  19. Pre-malignant lymphoid cells arise from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikushige, Yoshikane; Miyamoto, Toshihiro

    2015-11-01

    Human malignancies progress through a multistep process that includes the development of critical somatic mutations over the clinical course. Recent novel findings have indicated that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which have the potential to self-renew and differentiate into multilineage hematopoietic cells, are an important cellular target for the accumulation of critical somatic mutations in hematological malignancies and play a central role in myeloid malignancy development. In contrast to myeloid malignancies, mature lymphoid malignancies, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), are thought to originate directly from differentiated mature lymphocytes; however, recent compelling data have shown that primitive HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells contribute to the pathogenesis of mature lymphoid malignancies. Several representative mutations of hematological malignancies have been identified within the HSCs of CLL and lymphoma patients, indicating that the self-renewing long-lived fraction of HSCs can serve as a reservoir for the development of oncogenic events. Novel mice models have been established as human mature lymphoma models, in which specific oncogenic events target the HSCs and immature progenitor cells. These data collectively suggest that HSCs can be the cellular target involved in the accumulation of oncogenic events in the pathogenesis of mature lymphoid and myeloid malignancies.

  20. Possible novel therapy for malignant gliomas with secretable trimeric TRAIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonsup Jeong

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Despite intensive clinical investigation and many novel therapeutic approaches, average survival for the patients with malignant gliomas is only about 1 year. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL has shown potent and cancer-selective killing activity and drawn considerable attention as a promising therapy for cancers, but concerns over delivery and toxicity have limited progress. We have developed a secretable trimeric TRAIL (stTRAIL and here evaluated the therapeutic potential of this stTRAIL-based gene therapy in brain tumors. An adenovirus (Ad-stTRAIL delivering stTRAIL was injected into intra-cranial human glioma tumors established in nude mice and tumor growth monitored using the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Ad-stTRAIL gene therapy showed potent tumor suppressor activity with no toxic side effects at therapeutically effective doses. When compared with 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU, a conventional therapy for malignant gliomas, Ad-stTRAIL suppressed tumor growth more potently. The combination of Ad-stTRAIL and BCNU significantly increased survival compared to the control mice or mice receiving Ad-stTRAIL alone. Our data indicate that Ad-stTRAIL, either alone or combined with BCNU, has promise as a novel therapy for malignant gliomas.

  1. Epigenetic mechanisms in the initiation of hematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Maleki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer development is not restricted to the genetic changes, but also to epigenetic changes. Epigenetic processes are very important in the development of hematological malignancies. The main epigenetic alterations are aberrations in DNA methylation, post-translational modifications of histones, chromatin remodeling and microRNAs patterns, and these are associated with tumor genesis. All the various cellular pathways contributing to the neoplastic phenotype are affected by epigenetic genes in cancer. These pathways can be explored as biomarkers in clinical use for early detection of disease, malignancy classification and response to treatment with classical chemotherapy agents and epigenetic drugs. Materials and Method: A literature review was performed using PUBMED from 1985 to 2008. Cross referencing of discovered articles was also reviewed.Results: In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, regional hypermethylation of gene promoters leads to gene silencing. Many of these genes have tumor suppressor phenotypes. In myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, CDKN2B (alias, P15, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that negatively regulates the cell cycle, has been shown to be hypermethylated in marrow stem (CD34+ cells in patients with MDS. At present both Vidaza and Decitabine (DNA methyltransferase inhibitors are approved for the treatment of MDS.Conclusion: Unlike mutations or deletions, DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation are potentially reversible by pharmacological inhibition, therefore those epigenetic changes have been recognized as promising novel therapeutic targets in hematopoietic malignances. In this review, we discussed molecular mechanisms of epigenetics, epigenetic changes in hematological malignancies and epigenetic based treatments

  2. Intercellular Communication in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Properties of Tunneling Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin William Ady

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a particularly aggressive and locally invasive malignancy with a poor prognosis despite advances in understanding of cancer cell biology and development of new therapies. At the cellular level, cultured mesothelioma cells present a mesenchymal appearance and a strong capacity for local cellular invasion. One important but underexplored area of mesothelioma cell biology is intercellular communication. Our group has previously characterized in multiple histological subtypes of mesothelioma a unique cellular protrusion known as tunneling nanotubes (TnTs. TnTs are long, actin filament-based, narrow cytoplasmic extensions that are non-adherent when cultured in vitro and are capable of shuttling cellular cargo between connected cells. Our prior work confirmed the presence of nanotube structures in tumors resected from patients with human mesothelioma. In our current study, we quantified the number of TnTs/cell among various mesothelioma subtypes and normal mesothelial cells using confocal microscopic techniques. We also examined TnT length among adherent cells and cells in suspension. We further examined potential approaches to the in vivo study of TnTs in animal models of cancer. We have developed novel approaches to study TnTs in aggressive solid tumor malignancies and define fundamental characteristics of TnTs in malignant mesothelioma. There is mounting evidence that TnTs play an important role in intercellular communication in mesothelioma and thus merit further investigation of their role in vivo.

  3. The Role of Toll Like Receptors in Hematopoietic Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene Monlish

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that shape the innate immune system by identifying pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS and host-derived damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPS. TLRs are widely expressed on both immune cells and non-immune cells, including hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, effector immune cell populations, and endothelial cells. In addition to their well-known role in the innate immune response to acute infection or injury, accumulating evidence supports a role for TLRs in the development of hematopoietic and other malignancies. Several hematopoietic disorders, including lymphoproliferative disorders and myelodysplastic syndromes, which possess a high risk of transformation to leukemia, have been linked to aberrant TLR signaling. Furthermore, activation of TLRs leads to the induction of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which can promote tumorigenesis by driving cell proliferation and migration and providing a favorable microenvironment for tumor cells. Beyond hematopoietic malignancies, the upregulation of a number of TLRs has been linked to promoting tumor cell survival, proliferation, and metastasis in a variety of cancers, including those of the colon, breast, and lung. This review focuses on the contribution of TLRs to hematopoietic malignancies, highlighting the known direct and indirect effects of TLR signaling on tumor cells and their microenvironment. In addition, the utility of TLR agonists and antagonists as potential therapeutics in the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies is discussed.

  4. Clinical radiobiology of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, S.M.; Overgaard, J.; Overgaard, M.; Thames, H.D.; Vejby Hansen, P.; Von der Maase, H.; Meder, J.

    1989-01-01

    Tumor-control probability (TCP) was analyzed in a series of 121 patients having 239 histologically proven recurrent or metastatic malignant melanomas. These were treated with fractionated radiotherapy with various doses per fraction, total doses, and overall times. Cutaneous lesions (127,53%) were treated with electron beams, and more deeply seated tumors (112,47%) with 60 Co or 4-8 MV X-rays. The fraction size was highly variable, and this permitted determination of the α/β ration in the multifraction linearquadratic model, which was estimated at 0.57 Gy with 95% confidence limits [-1.07,2.5]Gy Threatment time had no demonstrable influenc on TCP. Thus this tumor exhibits the fractionation sensitivity characteristic of a late-responding normal tissue, suggesting that an adequate fractionation schedule for malignant melanomas would be characterized by larger-than-conventional doses per fraction, possibly about 6 Gy per fraction. This is consistent with the conclusions of other authors. Tumor size, evaluated as mean tumor diameter, S, had a major impact on TCP: the number of target cells increased as a power function of S with exponent 0.72 (95% confidence limits) [1.49, 0.94]. In fact, a considerable amount of the heterogeneity in the dose-responce data could be removed by accounting for size. Thus, the weak, or absent dose response became highly significant. When a patient had multiple lesions, the responses of these to radiotherapy tended to be similar, thus implying that results were significantly influenced by a 'hidden parameter' (such as inherent radiosensitivity or immunological status). A test of the predictive value of the TCP-model was performed in a different series of 183 cutaneous and lymph node malignant melanomas. The observed dose-response relationship in this data set was in good agreement with the model prediction. A chi-square test for goodness-of-fit showed that the variation between predicted and observed results could be explained by the

  5. The role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in differentiation between malignant and non malignant pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. Atef

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Pleural fluid level of TNF-α can be used in differentiating malignant from non malignant effusion. Also levels of TNF-α in the serum and pleural fluid could be useful as a complementary marker in the differential diagnosis of two most common types of exudates (tuberculous and malignant.

  6. Isolated urachal malakoplakia mimicking malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saisriharsha Pakalapati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malakoplakia is an unusual inflammatory disease with uncertain pathogenesis affecting any organ in the body, but predominantly genitourinary tract, with specific predilection to the bladder. We report a rare case of isolated malakoplakia of the urachus in a 29-year-old male patient who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms without any hematuria. Investigations revealed sterile pyuria with no bacterial growth in urine. Radiological investigations revealed a mass in the urachal region. The patient underwent cystoscopy with biopsy followed by pelvic lymph node dissection and partial cystectomy with excision of the urachal mass. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed malakoplakia. Postoperative course was uneventful. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever case report of isolated urachal malakoplakia without any concomitant malignancy or bladder involvement reported in our country and one of the very few reported worldwide.

  7. Radiotherapy of malignant eyelid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.I.; Chentsova, O.B.; Korshunov, A.I.; Biryukov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Immediate, early and delayed results of short-remote and combined radiotherapy in 348 patients with malignant eyelid neoplasms were presented. A single focal dose was 1.5.-2.5 Gy, an integral dose 45-80 Gy with relation to tumor prevalence and histological strucute. The eyeball was protected with the help of a lead lens (''eye prosthesis'') and a universal tun.gsten membrane. The devices ensured nearly 100% protection of the eyelid against ionizing radiation. Direct clinical cure was noted in 342 patients, partial tumor resorption in 6 patients. Three-year recurrence-free survival was noted in 330 patients (94.8%), five-year survival in 319 (92.8%)

  8. Salvage immunotherapy of malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M; Jacques, S; Freshwater, D B; Techy, G B; Shelden, C H; Helsper, J T

    1987-12-01

    We present the preliminary results of a phase I trial of adoptive immunotherapy for recurrent or residual malignant glioma. The protocol is based on surgical debulking followed by implantation into the tumor bed of autologous lymphocytes that have been stimulated with phytohemagglutinin-P and then cultured in vitro in the presence of interleukin 2. Fifty-five patients with a mean Karnofsky rating of 64 were treated between February 1985 and March 1987. No significant toxicity was associated with the immunotherapy. Fifty patients had a positive initial response to therapy, nine patients had early recurrence (two to four months after treatment), and 22 patients died. We comment on major differences between the protocol described and other immunotherapy protocols.

  9. Malignant tumors of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    International histological classification and classification according to TNM systems, domestic clinical classification according to stages of carcinoma of stomach, large intestine and rectum are presented. Diagnosis of tumoral processes of the given localizations should be based on complex application of diagnostic methods: clinical, ultrasonic, radiological and others. Surgical method and variants of surgical method with preoperative radiotherapy play a leading role in treatment of mentioned tumors. Combined method of treatment-surgical intervention with postoperation intravenous injection of colloid 198 Au - is applied for preventing propagation of stomach cancer metastases. Advisability of combining operations with radiological and antitumoral medicamentous therapy is shown. Reliable results of treatment of malignant tumors of gastrointestinal tract are presented

  10. Surgery of malignant pancreatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, M.; Friess, H.; Kleeff, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the pancreas. Despite great efforts in basic and clinical pancreatic cancer research, the prognosis remains poor with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Complete surgical resection represents the only curative treatment option and 5-year survival rates of 20-25% can be achieved following curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy. Although pancreatic surgery is considered one of the most technically demanding and challenging procedures, there has been constant progress in surgical techniques and advances in perioperative care with a modern interdisciplinary approach including anesthesiology, oncology, radiology and nursing. This has reduced morbidity and especially mortality rates in high-volume centers. Among extended resection procedures multivisceral and venous resections are technically feasible and should be considered if a complete tumor resection can be achieved. Multimodal regimens have shown promising results, however, only adjuvant chemotherapy is supported by solid evidence from randomized controlled trials. (orig.) [de

  11. Aftercare of malignant thyroid growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, W.; Reiners, C.

    1982-01-01

    The 'standard programme of aftercare for patients with malignant thyroid growths' practised in our department comprises the following measures: - Searching for residual tissues and recurrences in the neck/throat region and for metastases by means of physical examination, scintigraphy, x-ray diagnosis and laboratory tests (including determination of tumour markers); - monitoring and treatment of side effects by thyroidectomy (recurrent paresis, parathyroprival tetany); - prevention, detection and treatment of side effects of high-dosed radio-iodine therapy (on salivary glands and bone marrow) or those of cytostatic treatment (on heart muscle and bone marrow); - monitoring substitutive and suppressive treatment with thyroxines; - psychological guidance and genetic counselling. Corresponding to therapeutic approach, the overall aftercare programme is aimed primarily at papillary and follicular carcinoma and C-cell carcinoma. However, aftercare is hardly effective with anaplastic carcinoma owing to its persistently bad prognosis and its 50% survival time of some three months. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Malignant transformation of breast fibroadenoma to malignant phyllodes tumor: long-term outcome of 36 malignant phyllodes tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Makoto; Miyata, Satoshi; Nishimura, Seiichiro; Iijima, Kotaro; Makita, Masujiro; Akiyama, Futoshi; Iwase, Takuji

    2011-10-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare neoplasm for which clinical findings remain insufficient for determination of optimal management. We examined the clinical behavior of these lesions in an attempt to determine appropriate management. We evaluated long-term outcome and clinical characteristics of malignant phyllodes tumors arising from fibroadenomas of the breast. A total of 173 patients were given a diagnosis of phyllodes tumor and underwent surgery at the Cancer Institute Hospital in Japan between January 1980 and December 1999. Of these patients, 39 (22.5%) were given a diagnosis of malignant phyllodes tumor; in three of these cases, detailed medical records were lost. Malignant phyllodes tumors were classified into two groups based on history of malignant transformation. Of the 36 malignant cases, 11 (30.6%) were primary and were given a diagnosis of fibroadenoma, experienced recurrence during the follow-up period, and were diagnosed with malignant phyllodes tumor (cases with a history of fibroadenoma). The other group was defined as cases without history of fibroadenoma and in whom lesions initially occurred as malignant phyllodes tumors. Based on differences between the two groups, overall survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan–Meier method, and statistical comparisons were performed using the log-rank test and Peto and Peto’s test. The outcome of cases with history of fibroadenoma was significantly better than that of cases without history of fibroadenoma. Patients with malignant phyllodes tumors but without prior history of malignant transformation who exhibit rapid growth within 6 months require aggressive treatment.

  13. Medicinal therapy of malignant lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aul, C.; Schroeder, M.; Giagounidis, A.

    2002-01-01

    Chemotherapy represents the most important therapeutic option in malignant lymphomas. Low to intermediate risk Hodgkin's disease is treated by a combination of chemotherapy and radiation. The new chemotherapy protocol BEACOPP has improved the outcome of advanced stages in comparison with the internationally accepted standard protocol COPP/ABVD. Dependent on the initial staging, cure rates between 50 and 95% can be achieved. Indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas usually present in advanced stages of disease. Chemotherapy in these cases has palliative character and aims at improving patients'quality of life and at avoiding complications due to the disease. In aggressive and very aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma chemotherapy is curative and must be initiated immediately irrespective of the staging results. The efficacy of the standard protocol CHOP (cyclophosphamide,doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone), that was established in the 1970s, has recently been improved by shortening of the therapy interval (CHOP-14 vs.CHOP-21),addition of etoposide (CHOEP) and combination with the monoclonal antibody rituximab (R-CHOP). The value of high dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplantation has been shown unequivocally only for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma and relapsed Hodgkin's disease responsive to chemotherapy. The therapeutic strategy of malignant lymphomas is likely to be improved within the next years due to the introduction of novel cytostatic agents, the broadening application of monoclonal antibodies,upcoming new transplantation procedures and the development of substances with molecular targets.To rapidly increase our current knowledge on the topic it is mandatory to include patients into the large national and international multicenter studies. (orig.) [de

  14. Bronchology Treatment Of The Malignant Airway Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slivka, R. et al

    2007-01-01

    Central airway stenosis is benign or malignant etiology. Multidiscplinary approach is useful in treatment central airway stenosis. In inoperable cases, interventional bronchology is good therapeutic alternative. We can use NdYAG laser, argon plasma coagulation, elektrocautery, cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy and stents for obstruction release. In malignant stenosis, we combine often methods of the interventional bronchology with brachytherapy, chemotherapy and external radiotherapy. (author)

  15. Histopathological study of malignant melanoma in highlanders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathological study of malignant melanoma in highlanders. AZ Mohammed, AN Manasseh, BM Mandong, ST Edino. Abstract. Background:Malignant melanoma is a fatal skin cancer that is curable when detected and treated early. Recent reports indicate a rising incidence globally. This study aims at identifying the ...

  16. Oral malignant melanoma: A case report of an unusual clinical and histologic presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Iqbal Belgaumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a potentially aggressive tumor of melanocytic origin. Primary oral malignant melanoma is a rare neoplasm, accounting for 0.5% of all oral malignancies. The present case occurred in a 60-year-old female patient, as a pedunculated growth involving the palate and alveolar ridge and histologically showing a desmoplastic differentiation. The article discusses the distinct clinico-pathologic presentation of this case and emphasizes on the need to identify and report such cases for further understanding of their biologic behavior.

  17. Gynecologic Malignancies Post-LeFort Colpocleisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayan Elkattah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. LeFort colpocleisis (LFC is a safe and effective obliterative surgical option for older women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse who no longer desire coital activity. A major disadvantage is the limited ability to evaluate for post-LFC gynecologic malignancies. Methods. We present the first case of endometrioid ovarian cancer diagnosed after LFC and review all reported gynecologic malignancies post-LFC in the English medical literature. Results. This is the second reported ovarian cancer post-LFC and the first of the endometrioid subtype. A total of nine other gynecologic malignancies post-LFC have been reported in the English medical literature. Conclusions. Gynecologic malignancies post-LFC are rare. We propose a simple 3-step strategy in evaluating post-LFC malignancies.

  18. [Malignant Melanoma - from Classical Histology towards Molecular Genetic Testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryška, A; Horký, O; Berkovcová, J; Tichá, I; Kalinová, M; Matějčková, M; Bóday, Á; Drábek, J; Martínek, P; Šimová, J; Sieglová, K; Vošmiková, H

    Malignant melanoma is - in comparison with other skin tumors - a relatively rare malignant neoplasm with highly aggressive biologic behavior and variable prognosis. Recent data in pathology and molecular diagnostics indicate that malignant melanoma is in fact not a single entity but a group of different neoplasms with variable etiopathogenesis, biologic behavior and prognosis. New therapeutic options using targeted treatment blocking MAPK signaling pathway require testing of BRAF gene mutation status. This helps to select patients with highest probability of benefit from this treatment. This article summarizes information on the correlation of morphological findings with genetic changes, discusses the representation of individual genetic types in various morphological subgroups and deals with the newly proposed genetic classification of melanoma and the current possibilities, pitfalls and challenges in BRAF testing of malignant melanoma. It also describes the current testing situation in the Czech Republic - the methods used, the representation of BRAF mutations in the tested population and the future of testing. It also shows the limitations of the BRAF and MEK targeted treatment concept resulting from the heterogeneity of the tumor population. Mechanisms of acquired resistance to MAPK pathway inhibitors, possibilities of their detection, and issues of combination of targeted therapy and immunotherapy are discussed.Key words: malignant melanoma - BRAF - mutation - molecular targeted therapy - tumor microenvironment - tumor heterogeneity This work was supported by projects PROGRES Q40/11, BBMRICZ LM2015089, SVV 260398 and GACR 17-10331S. The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 28. 3. 2017Accepted: 16. 5. 2017.

  19. Risk of malignancy with systemic psoriasis treatment in the Psoriasis Longitudinal Assessment Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, David; Ho, Vincent; Lebwohl, Mark G; Leite, Luiz; Hopkins, Lori; Galindo, Claudia; Goyal, Kavitha; Langholff, Wayne; Fakharzadeh, Steven; Srivastava, Bhaskar; Langley, Richard G

    2017-11-01

    The effect of systemic therapy on malignancy risk among patients with psoriasis is not fully understood. Evaluate the impact of systemic treatment on malignancy risk among patients with psoriasis in the Psoriasis Longitudinal Assessment and Registry (PSOLAR). Nested case-control analyses were performed among patients with no history of malignancy. Cases were defined as first malignancy (other than nonmelanoma skin cancer) in the Psoriasis Longitudinal Assessment and Registry, and controls were matched by age, sex, geographic region, and time on registry. Study therapies included methotrexate, ustekinumab, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors. Exposure was defined as 1 or more doses of study therapy within 12 months of malignancy onset and further stratified by duration of therapy. Multivariate conditional logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders, was used to estimate odds ratios of malignancies associated with therapy. Among 12,090 patients, 252 malignancy cases were identified and 1008 controls were matched. Treatment with methotrexate or ustekinumab for more than 0 months to less than 3 months, 3 months to less than 12 months, or 12 months or longer was not associated with increased malignancy risk versus no exposure. Longer-term (≥12 months) (odds ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.15; P = .01), but not shorter-term treatment, with a TNF-α inhibitor was associated with increased malignancy risk. Cases and controls could belong to 1 or more therapy categories. Long-term (≥12 months) treatment with a TNF-α inhibitor, but not methotrexate and ustekinumab, may increase risk for malignancy in patients with psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Malignant transformation of Taiwanese patients with oral leukoplakia: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Yuan Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Oral leukoplakia (OL is one of the clinically diagnosed oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs with an increased risk of oral cancer development. In this study, we investigated the malignant transformation of OL in Taiwanese population. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was analyzed from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was randomly frequency-matched with the OL cohort according to age, sex, and index year. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF and oral lichen planus (OLP were further stratified to evaluate the possible synergistic effects for OL-associated malignant transformation. Results: In this cohort, 102 (5.374% of 1898 OL patients were observed to transform into oral cancer. The malignant transformation rate was 26.40-fold in the OL cohort than in the comparison cohort after adjustment (95% confidence intervals 18.46–37.77. To further stratify with OSF and OLP, OL with OSF (58.38; 95% confidence intervals 34.61–98.50 and OL with OLP (36.88; 95% confidence intervals 8.90–152.78 had higher risk of malignant transformation rate than OL alone (27.01; 95% confidence intervals 18.91–38.59. The Kaplan–Meier plot revealed the free of malignant transformation rate was significant over the 13 years follow-up period (log-rank test, p < 0.001. Conclusion: OL patients exhibited a significantly higher risk of malignant transformation than those without OL. In addition, both OSF and OLP could enhance malignant transformation in patients with OL. However, further studies are required to identify the histopathological and clinical parameters in the pathogenesis of malignant transformation among OPMDs. Keywords: Oral leukoplakia, Oral submucous fibrosis, Oral lichen planus, Malignant transformation, Nationwide population, Cohort study, Taiwan

  1. Malignant transformation of a potentially low risk lichenoid reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashir, K.R.; Chatra, L.

    2012-01-01

    Lichenoid reaction represents a family of oral lesions identical, both clinically and histologically to oral lichen planus. The triggering factor for this lesion varies from medicines to dental materials, usually demonstrating a cause-effect relationship unlike lichen planus. We present a typical case of lichenoid reaction on the buccal mucosa that appeared in response to betel quid which progressed to carcinoma during a follow-up period of 6 months. Lichenoid reactions occurring in response to known carcinogens and that occurring in risk group population has to be observed more cautiously. (author)

  2. The potential for targeting extracellular LOX proteins in human malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayorca Guiliani, Alejandro Enrique; Erler, Janine T

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the physical scaffold where cells are organized into tissues and organs. The ECM may be modified during cancer to allow and promote proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. The family of lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzymes cross-links collagens and elastin and, therefore......, is a central player in ECM deposition and maturation. Extensive research has revealed how the LOX proteins participate in every stage of cancer progression, and two family members, LOX and LOX-like 2, have been linked to metastasis, the final stage of cancer responsible for over 90% of cancer patient deaths...

  3. AR Signaling in Human Malignancies: Prostate Cancer and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, Emmanuel S

    2018-01-18

    The notion that androgens and androgen receptor (AR) signaling are the hallmarks of prostate cancer oncogenesis and disease progression is generally well accepted. What is more poorly understood is the role of AR signaling in other human malignancies. This special issue of Cancers initially reviews the role of AR in advanced prostate cancer, and then explores the potential importance of AR signaling in other epithelial malignancies. The first few articles focus on the use of novel AR-targeting therapies in castration-resistant prostate cancer and the mechanisms of resistance to novel antiandrogens, and they also outline the interaction between AR and other cellular pathways, including PI3 kinase signaling, transcriptional regulation, angiogenesis, stromal factors, Wnt signaling, and epigenetic regulation in prostate cancer. The next several articles review the possible role of androgens and AR signaling in breast cancer, bladder cancer, salivary gland cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as the potential treatment implications of using antiandrogen therapies in these non-prostatic malignancies.

  4. Impression cytology diagnosis of ulcerative eyelid malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S; Lyngdoh, A D; Pushker, N; Meel, R; Bajaj, M S; Chawla, B

    2015-02-01

    The utility of impression cytology in ocular diseases has predominantly been restricted to the diagnosis of dry eye, limbal stem cell deficiency and conjunctival neoplasias. Its role in malignant eyelid lesions remains largely unexplored. Although scrape cytology is more popular for cutaneous lesions, impression cytology, being non-traumatic, has an advantage in small and delicate areas such as the eyelid. The present study has been designed to evaluate its role in the diagnosis and management of malignant eyelid lesions. Thirty-two histopathologically proven malignant eyelid lesions diagnosed over a 2-year period, including 13 basal cell carcinomas, 11 sebaceous carcinomas, four squamous cell carcinomas, two malignant melanomas and two poorly differentiated carcinomas, formed the study group. The results of impression cytology were compared with those of histopathology in the study group and with an age- and sex-matched group of benign cases as controls. The sensitivity of impression cytology was 84% (27/32) for the diagnosis of malignancy and 28% (9/32) for categorization of the type of malignancy. Impression cytology is a simple, useful, non-invasive technique for the detection of malignant ulcerative eyelid lesions. It is especially useful as a follow-up technique for the detection of recurrences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. P16.29 Malignant craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, E.; Kilic, K.; Ozdemir, N.; Gunver, F.; Isik, S.; Can, S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Malignant transformation of craniopharyngioma has rarely been described. In this article, we report a case of 28th malignant craniopharyngioma ever mentioned in English literature. Materials and Methods: We performed a PUBMED, HUBMED, BAU Library Database and Ovid search on malignant craniopharyngiomas and identified 27 reported cases. CASE DESCRIPTION: 44 years old female patient was diagnosed with craniopharyngioma two years ago and underwent surgical resection of a typical craniopharyngioma, the histopathological result was adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma of Grade I. There was no malignancy. One year ago cavernous sinus invasion has been detected and gamma knife irradiation has been made. At admission she was blind in the right eye for the last six months and the vision was diminished in the left eye for a month. The MRI showed that nasal cavity was full of tumor, that the clivus was almost completely destructed and that orbita and maxillary sinus were also invaded. Firstly the ENT surgeons debulked the tumor via transmaxillary route and then the transcranial approach allowed only a subtotal removal due to a profuse bleeding. The histopatological examination showed malignant tumoral infiltration rich in cells with many mitoses. The patient died two years later. CONCLUSION: The relevant literature of malignant craniopharyngioma is reviewed and discussed. The surgeon must be aware that total removal of a malignant craniopharyngioma can be hazardous because of intractable bleedings occurring during surgery.

  6. Treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusa, Toshikazu

    2007-01-01

    In Japan, it is predicted that mesothelioma will rapidly increase in the future. Malignant pleural mesothelioma that accounts for approximately 90% of mesothelioma as a whole has a median survival time of approximately nine months which is considered a poor prognosis. As for the treatment of this disease, extrapleural pneumonectomy or pleurectomy/decortication are available for those patients who can be surgically operated on. However, since a complete cure rate is low when only surgical treatment is performed, generally a multimodality treatment is performed wherein chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are combined. For chemotherapy, a large-scale randomized phase III study demonstrated that a treatment using two agents: pemetrexed, which is a new multitargeted antifolate, and cisplatin is effective. Pemetrexed will be the drug of first choice for mesothelioma in the future. As other treatment methods, chemohyperthermia, treatments using various kinds of cytokines and angiogenesis inhibitors, genetic treatment and photodynamic therapy have been attempted. The current treatment results for this disease are very poor, and there has been a strong demand for establishing an effective treatment method. (author)

  7. DYSPHAGIA – BEYOND MALIGNANT PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Constantinescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Esophageal dysphagia can be caused by functional or structural abnormalities of the esophagus like esophageal strictures due to acid reflux disease, eosinophilic esophagitis, tumors and extrinsic compression, or by neuromuscular disorders like achalasia and diffuse spasm. The true prevalence of esophageal dysphagia is unknown, although epidemiological studies estimate a prevalence rate of 16% to 22% among individuals over 50 years of age. Case presentation. We present the case of a 55-year-old man, admitted to our hospital with progressive dysphagia for solids and important weight loss over the last two months. The upper endoscopy revealed an extrinsic compression of the middle esophagus. At this point, a thorax and abdomen computed tomography scan was performed, that showed a retrohilar mass of 58/44/38 mm, which compressed the right inferior lobar bronchus at the origin and the thoracic esophagus in the middle part. Endoscopic ultrasound and fine needle aspiration were performed. The anatomopathological examination of the biopsy reveals elements of chronic inflammation with neutrophils and lymphocytes, and granulomas with areas of necrosis, highly suggestive for tuberculosis. Conclusions. Dysphagia is a rare manifestation of tuberculosis, most commonly caused by an extrinsic compression mechanism due to mediastinal adenopathies. The particularity of this case is related to the contradicting imaging studies, that suggested either an esophageal or a pulmonary tumor, with mediastinal adenopathies, and the importance of endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration in determining the benign or malignant nature of injuries that are hardly accessible to non-invasive diagnostic methods.

  8. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Press, O.W.

    1992-01-01

    This research project proposes to develop novel new approaches of improving the radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of malignancies by augmenting retention of radioimmunoconjugates by tumor cells. The approaches shown to be effective in these laboratory experiments will subsequently be incorporated into out ongoing clinical trials in patients. Specific project objectives include: to study the rates of endocytosis, intracellular routing, and metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens on human leukemia and lymphoma cells; To examine the effects of lysosomotropic amines (e.g. chloroquine, amantadine), carboxylic ionophores (monensin, nigericin), and thioamides (propylthiouracil), on the retention of radiolabeled MoAbs by tumor cells; to examine the impact of newer radioiodination techniques (tyramine cellobiose, paraiodobenzoyl) on the metabolic degradation of radioiodinated antibodies; to compare the endocytosis, intracellular routing, and degradation of radioimmunoconjugates prepared with different radionuclides ( 131 Iodine, 111 Indium, 90 Yttrium, 99m Technetium, 186 Rhenium); and to examine the utility of radioimmunoconjugates targeting oncogene products for the radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoscintigraphy of cancer

  9. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, O.W.

    1992-03-24

    This research project proposes to develop novel new approaches of improving the radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of malignancies by augmenting retention of radioimmunoconjugates by tumor cells. The approaches shown to be effective in these laboratory experiments will subsequently be incorporated into out ongoing clinical trials in patients. Specific project objectives include: to study the rates of endocytosis, intracellular routing, and metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens on human leukemia and lymphoma cells; To examine the effects of lysosomotropic amines (e.g. chloroquine, amantadine), carboxylic ionophores (monensin, nigericin), and thioamides (propylthiouracil), on the retention of radiolabeled MoAbs by tumor cells; to examine the impact of newer radioiodination techniques (tyramine cellobiose, paraiodobenzoyl) on the metabolic degradation of radioiodinated antibodies; to compare the endocytosis, intracellular routing, and degradation of radioimmunoconjugates prepared with different radionuclides ({sup 131}Iodine, {sup 111}Indium, {sup 90}Yttrium, {sup 99m}Technetium, {sup 186}Rhenium); and to examine the utility of radioimmunoconjugates targeting oncogene products for the radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoscintigraphy of cancer.

  10. RENAL DAMAGE WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Kolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between renal damage and malignant neoplasms is one of the most actual problems of the medicine of internal diseases. Very often, exactly availability of renal damage determines the forecast of cancer patients. The range of renal pathologies associated with tumors is unusually wide: from the mechanical effect of the tumor or metastases on the kidneys and/or the urinary tract and paraneoplastic manifestations in the form of nephritis or amyloidosis to nephropathies induced with drugs or tumor lysis, etc. Thrombotic complications that develop as a result of exposure to tumor effects, side effects of certain drugs or irradiation also play an important role in the development of the kidney damage. The most frequent variants of renal damage observed in the practice of medical internists (therapists, urologists, surgeons, etc., as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches are described in the article. Timely and successful prevention and treatment of tumor-associated nephropathies give hope for retaining renal functions, therefore, a higher life standard after completion of anti-tumor therapy. Even a shortterm episode of acute renal damage suffered by a cancer patient must be accompanied with relevant examination and treatment. In the caseof transformation of acute renal damage into the chronic kidney disease, such patients need systematic and weighted renoprotective therapy and correct dosing of nephrotoxic drugs.

  11. Myeloid derived suppressor cells as therapeutic target in hematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim eDe Veirman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that accumulate during pathological conditions such as cancer and are associated with a poor clinical outcome. MDSC expansion hampers the host anti-tumor immune response by inhibition of T cell proliferation, cytokine secretion and recruitment of regulatory T cells. In addition, MDSC exert non-immunological functions including the promotion of angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis. Recent years, MDSC are considered as a potential target in solid tumors and hematological malignancies to enhance the effects of currently used immune modulating agents. This review focuses on the characteristics, distribution, functions, cell-cell interactions and targeting of MDSC in hematological malignancies including multiple myeloma, lymphoma and leukemia.

  12. Recurrent malignant variant of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor with oncogenic osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogose, A.; Hotta, Tetsuo; Hatano, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoto; Emura, Iwao; Umezu, Hajime; Inoue, Yoshiya

    2001-01-01

    Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor is a rare neoplasm which causes osteomalacia or rickets. The tumor typically follows a benign clinical course. Even in the rare malignant cases, local recurrence and distant metastasis are uncommon. We report on an example of a malignant phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor which recurred several times over 16 years concurrently causing hypophosphatemia, bone pain, and osteomalacia. Following each surgery, symptoms and hypophosphatemia improved. The patient died of disease 17 years after the first surgery. Histologically, the initial tumor was composed of small spindle cells with clusters of giant cells, prominent blood vessels, poorly formed cartilaginous areas, and crystalline material. Cytological atypia was minimal. Following multiple recurrences, the tumor demonstrated areas of high-grade sarcoma exhibiting marked pleomorphism, numerous mitotic figures, and p53 overexpression. This case illustrates the potential lethality of incompletely removed phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors. (orig.)

  13. Recurrent malignant variant of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor with oncogenic osteomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogose, A.; Hotta, Tetsuo; Hatano, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoto [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Niigata University School of Medicine, Asahimachi, Niigata (Japan); Emura, Iwao; Umezu, Hajime [Dept. of Pathology, Niigata University School of Medicine, Niigata (Japan); Inoue, Yoshiya [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital, Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor is a rare neoplasm which causes osteomalacia or rickets. The tumor typically follows a benign clinical course. Even in the rare malignant cases, local recurrence and distant metastasis are uncommon. We report on an example of a malignant phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor which recurred several times over 16 years concurrently causing hypophosphatemia, bone pain, and osteomalacia. Following each surgery, symptoms and hypophosphatemia improved. The patient died of disease 17 years after the first surgery. Histologically, the initial tumor was composed of small spindle cells with clusters of giant cells, prominent blood vessels, poorly formed cartilaginous areas, and crystalline material. Cytological atypia was minimal. Following multiple recurrences, the tumor demonstrated areas of high-grade sarcoma exhibiting marked pleomorphism, numerous mitotic figures, and p53 overexpression. This case illustrates the potential lethality of incompletely removed phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors. (orig.)

  14. Biosimilars for Haematologic Malignancies: The Path to Sustainable Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cornes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this symposium were to review the value of biosimilars in sustainable treatment for haematologic malignancies and to recognise the developmental differences between biosimilars and their reference products. The meeting also aimed to evaluate the data on monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of haematologic malignancies and the role of biosimilars to address gaps in healthcare. Dr Cornes highlighted recent innovations in cancer treatment and presented biosimilars as economic tools that can address the financial issues that hamper progress. Prof Vulto discussed the need for healthcare professionals to be well informed about the principles of biosimilarity and aware of current and emerging therapies. Prof Jurczak presented the case for rituximab (and its biosimilars as the standard of care for first-line B cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL and its potential as maintenance treatment for indolent NHL (iNHL.

  15. Immunotherapy in Melanoma, Gastrointestinal (GI, and Pulmonary Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Dillon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Oncologic immunotherapy involves stimulating the immune system to more effectively identify and eradicate tumor cells that have successfully adapted to survive the body's natural immune defenses. Immunotherapy has shown great promise thus far by prolonging the lives of patients with a variety of malignancies, and has added a crucial new set of tools to the oncologists' armamentarium. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of immunotherapy treatment options that are currently available and under active research for melanoma, gastrointestinal (esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, and colorectal, and pulmonary malignancies. Potential biomarkers that may predict favorable responses to immunotherapies are discussed where applicable, as are future avenues of research in this rapidly evolving field.

  16. Immunotherapy Approaches for Malignant Glioma From 2007 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant glioma is a deadly disease for which there have been few therapeutic advances over the past century. Although previous treatments were largely unsuccessful, glioma may be an ideal target for immune-based therapy. Recently, translational research led to several clinical trials based on tumor immunotherapy to treat patients with malignant glioma. Here we review 17 recent glioma immunotherapy clinical trials, published over the past 3 years. Various approaches were used, including passive transfer of naked and radiolabeled antibodies, tumor antigen-specific peptide immunization, and the use of patient tumor cells with or without dendritic cells as vaccines. We compare and discuss the current state of the art of clinical immunotherapy treatment, as well as its limited successes, pitfalls, and future potential. PMID:20424975

  17. Half body irradiation of malignant diseases in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocheva, L.

    2000-01-01

    The possibilities of modern medicine make the prognosis of children with malignant diseases more optimistic, compared to adult patients. At the present stage the favourable outcome of pediatric oncological diseases varies within the limits of 50 - 80 %. Despite the good treatment results after optimal complex treatment, the rest of the ill children represent a serious therapeutical problem. The achieved good local tumor control after performed radiotherapy represents a potential for its application as a systemic therapy in patients with advanced or resistant to chemotherapy tumours. The radiobiological bases of the half body irradiation as a systemic therapy in pediatric oncology and as one of the main forms of large field irradiation are considered. The important clinical investigations have been discussed. Half body irradiation can be considered as a valuable alternative of chemotherapy and as a complementary systemic treatment in the case of advanced malignant diseases in children's age. (author)

  18. miRNAs in Normal and Malignant Hematopoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Kotaki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lineage specification is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level and lineage-specific transcription factors determine cell fates. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are 18–24 nucleotide-long non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally decrease the translation of target mRNAs and are essential for many cellular functions. miRNAs also regulate lineage specification during hematopoiesis. This review highlights the roles of miRNAs in B-cell development and malignancies, and discusses how miRNA expression profiles correlate with disease prognoses and phenotypes. We also discuss the potential for miRNAs as therapeutic targets and diagnostic tools for B-cell malignancies.

  19. Photoacoustic spectroscopic differences between normal and malignant thyroid tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xie, Wengming; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    The thyroid is one of the main endocrine glands of human body, which plays a crucial role in the body's metabolism. Thyroid cancer mortality ranks only second to ovarian cancer in endocrine cancer. Routine diagnostic methods of thyroid diseases in present clinic exist misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis to varying degrees. Those lead to miss the best period of cancer treatment--early. Photoacoustic spectroscopy technology is a new tool, which provides an effective and noninvasive way for biomedical materials research, being highly sensitive and without sample pretreatment. In this paper, we use photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) to detect the absorption spectrum between normal and malignant thyroid tissues. The result shows that the photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) could differentiate malignant thyroid tissue from normal thyroid tissue very well. This technique combined with routine diagnostic methods has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy in clinical thyroid cancer diagnosis.

  20. Overexpression of NIMA-related kinase 2 is associated with poor prognoses in malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huajie; Liu, Bin; Hou, Xianzeng; Pang, Bo; Guo, Pengbo; Jiang, Wanli; Ding, Qian; Zhang, Rui; Xin, Tao; Guo, Hua; Xu, Shangchen; Pang, Qi

    2017-05-01

    Eleated expression of NIMA-related kinase 2 (NEK2) was frequently observed in a variety of malignant cancers, and it appears to be involved in the initiation, maintenance, progression, metastasis of cancer and is positively associated with poor prognosis. We sought to investigate NEK2 expression and its predictive roles in malignant gliomas, and study the correlation of NEK2 protein expression with proliferation, clinical parameters, overall survival and some other parameters. We investigate NEK2 protein expression in 99 samples of malignant gliomas, including 35 WHO grade II, 22 grade III, and 42 grade IV gliomas, by immunohistochemistry and western blot (n = 50). We then made correlative analysis of protein overexpression using the Kaplan-Meier method, Log rank test, and Cox proportional-hazards model analysis. NEK2 protein was overexpressed in malignant gliomas, but not in normal brain tissues. Overexpression of NEK2 correlated with malignancy, proliferation and adverse overall survival in gliomas. Moreover, chemotherapy, resection extent and WHO grade also correlate with overall survival in gliomas. However, within WHO grade II glioma subgroup, NEK2 overexpression showed no impact on overall survival. The present study firstly reveals that NEK2 protein is widely overexpressed in gliomas. NEK2 overexpression correlates significantly with malignancy (WHO grades), proliferation (Ki-67) and prognosis in malignant gliomas. NEK2 is a potential gene therapy target and prognostic indicator.

  1. Automated objective determination of percentage of malignant nuclei for mutation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viray, Hollis; Coulter, Madeline; Li, Kevin; Lane, Kristin; Madan, Aruna; Mitchell, Kisha; Schalper, Kurt; Hoyt, Clifford; Rimm, David L

    2014-01-01

    Detection of DNA mutations in tumor tissue can be a critical companion diagnostic test before prescription of a targeted therapy. Each method for detection of these mutations is associated with an analytic sensitivity that is a function of the percentage of tumor cells present in the specimen. Currently, tumor cell percentage is visually estimated resulting in an ordinal and highly variant result for a biologically continuous variable. We proposed that this aspect of DNA mutation testing could be standardized by developing a computer algorithm capable of accurately determining the percentage of malignant nuclei in an image of a hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue. Using inForm software, we developed an algorithm, to calculate the percentage of malignant cells in histologic specimens of colon adenocarcinoma. A criterion standard was established by manually counting malignant and benign nuclei. Three pathologists also estimated the percentage of malignant nuclei in each image. Algorithm #9 had a median deviation from the criterion standard of 5.4% on the training set and 6.2% on the validation set. Compared with pathologist estimation, Algorithm #9 showed a similar ability to determine percentage of malignant nuclei. This method represents a potential future tool to assist in determining the percent of malignant nuclei present in a tissue section. Further validation of this algorithm or an improved algorithm may have value to more accurately assess percentage of malignant cells for companion diagnostic mutation testing.

  2. A case of intracranial malignant fibrous histiocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Sarrami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of intracranial malignant fibrous histiocytoma which had infiltrated pons, cerebellum and basal surface of left temporal lobe without any visible mass. The patient presented with a sudden loss of consciousness and vomiting. Clinical findings, laboratory tests, imaging and examination of the cerebrospinal fluid tended to establish the diagnosis of an infectious condition than a malignancy. Without any response to the antibiotics and with a progressive deterioration of neurologic and mental condition, the patient died after 20 days. In the autopsy, histological and immunohistochemical study of the brain revealed the diagnosis of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH.

  3. Radiation sensitivity of human malignant lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshadri, R.; Matthews, C.; Morley, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and rapid in vitro technique to assess the sensitivity of human malignant lymphocytes to roentgen irradiation is described. A variety of established malignant lymphocyte cell lines were cloned in microwells and clone survival was used as the end-point. The survival of the clonogenic malignant lymphocyte down to a fraction of approximately 0.001 could be measured accurately. Except for a T-cell line, the radiation sensitivities of the cell lines were similar to that of normal T-lymphocytes. (orig.)

  4. Malignant acanthosis nigricans: an early diagnostic clue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, M.; Shah, A.A.; Bari, A.U.

    2010-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is characterized by velvety, hyper pigmented, verrucosus, symmetric and occasionally pruritic plaques along with papillomatous lesions which have a special predilection for neck, axillae, groin, umbilicu and mucosal regions. Rarely, it presents as a para neoplastic syndrome and prompts a thorough search for an internal malignancy. We present here a case of malignant acanthosis nigricans seen in an elderly patient who was found to have underlying adenocarcinoma of the lower end of esophagus. After diagnosing associated malignancy, he was referred for further evaluation and subsequent surgical resection of tumour. (author)

  5. Management of intestinal obstruction in advanced malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry John Murray Ferguson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with incurable, advanced abdominal or pelvic malignancy often present to acute surgical departments with symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction. It is rare for bowel strangulation to occur in these presentations, and spontaneous resolution often occurs, so the luxury of time should be afforded while decisions are made regarding surgery. Cross-sectional imaging is valuable in determining the underlying mechanism and pathology. The majority of these patients will not be suitable for an operation, and will be best managed in conjunction with a palliative medicine team. Surgeons require a good working knowledge of the mechanisms of action of anti-emetics, anti-secretories and analgesics to tailor early management to individual patients, while decisions regarding potential surgery are made. Deciding if and when to perform operative intervention in this group is complex, and fraught with both technical and emotional challenges. Surgery in this group is highly morbid, with no current evidence available concerning quality of life following surgery. The limited evidence concerning operative strategy suggests that resection and primary anastomosis results in improved survival, over bypass or stoma formation. Realistic prognostication and involvement of the patient, care-givers and the multidisciplinary team in treatment decisions is mandatory if optimum outcomes are to be achieved.

  6. Upper abdominal malignancies (not including esophagus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, Tyvin A.

    1996-01-01

    combined with chemotherapy in patients with unresectable disease, and that radiation therapy and chemotherapy is of value as an adjuvant therapy in patients who have had a potentially curative surgical resection. There is relatively little information on the treatment of cancers of the biliary tract with radiation therapy. However, the existing data on recurrence patterns and therapy will be reviewed. The use of brachytherapy for patients with biliary obstruction will be discussed. In most tumors of the GI tract, the combination of radiation therapy with 5-FU chemotherapy seems to be more effective than radiation therapy alone. Newer information suggests that modulators of 5-FU effect such as leucovorin, or altered modes of administration such as continuous infusion, may be beneficial. These issues will be discussed as they relate to the upper abdominal malignancies

  7. Malignant transformation of oral lichen planus by a chronic inflammatory process. Use of topical corticosteroids to prevent this progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Rey, Eva Maria; Suarez-Alen, Fatima; Peñamaria-Mallon, Manuel; Lopez-Lopez, Jose; Blanco-Carrion, Andres

    2014-11-01

    Oral lichen planus is a potentially malignant disorder with a capacity, although low, for malignant transformation. Of all the factors related to the process of malignant transformation, it is believed that the chronic inflammatory process plays a key role in the development of oral cancer. This inflammatory process is capable of providing a microenvironment based on different inflammatory cells and molecules that affect cellular growth, proliferation and differentiation. The objectives of our study are: to review the available evidence about the possible relationship between the chronic inflammatory process present in oral lichen planus and its malignant transformation, to discuss the potential therapeutic implications derived from this relationship and to study the role that topical corticosteroids play in the control of oral lichen planus inflammation and its possible progression to malignant transformation. The maintenance of a minimum dose of topical corticosteroids could prevent the inflammatory progression of oral lichen planus to oral cancer.

  8. Malignant renal tumors in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, C.; Torterolo, J.; Irigoyen, B.; Bel, M.; Elias, E.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Professionals who work in pediatric oncology, we see childhood cancer as a common disease, but in fact constitutes about 2% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide. Wilms tumor accounts for 6% of all childhood tumors and presentation bilateral accounts for 4-6% of all Wilms tumors diagnosed. Theoretical Framework: In the period between the year 1994-2003 period were attended in the Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Center, a total of 29 cases of malignant renal tumors, corresponding to 86% (25 cases) to Wilms tumor or nephroblastoma tumor. The Wilms is of embryonic origin, capable of metastatic spread, (85% lungs 15% liver). Very sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which confers high cure rates (85%); having a multidisciplinary treatment model, combining surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The role of nursing in comprehensive cancer care child is essential in the prevention and early detection of side effects or complications. Case report: S.D. currently 10 years old. In 10/1994, at 8 months of age, was diagnosed with bilateral Wilms tumor. On admission her weight was 8200gr with abdominal circumference 50cm. Conducted pre-operative MDT and 02/1995 nephrectomy of the left kidney and right kidney lumpectomy (tumor nodule 420gr. and a 250gr.). MDT begins in 03/1995 01/1996 ending. 09/2003 with abdominal pain and vomiting, and kidney failure. 10/2003 lumpectomy biopsy (sclerotic nodule associated with maturation nephroblastoma). Currently severe renal insufficiency plan enters dialysis. Nursing process: Objectives: 1) To prepare the child and family to the side effects and possible complications of chemotherapy and / or radiotherapy 2) Prevent and minimize related complications tumor and / or treatment. Care Plan comprises four stages: A) rating and customer income. B) Implement care chemotherapy C) post-operative Care D) Implement radiation care

  9. Malignant thymona with symptoms of myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miarzynska, M.; Szlezak, L.; Fibak, J.; Wolski, M.; Lis-Podrzycka, E.; Miarzynski, K.

    1994-01-01

    The rare case of malignant tumor of thymus - Thymoma malignum was described. The initial diagnosis was difficult, because of the irregular symptoms of myasthenia gravis. The diagnostic difficulties, treatment and clinical features of this neoplasm were also discussed. (author)

  10. Recent cases of radium-induced malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brues, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Five cases of malignant disease attributed to radium in patients with measured body burdens have been discovered since 1974, including three bone sarcomas and two mastoid carcinomas. Pertinent findings in these cases are summarized here

  11. Adult high-grade malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fable Zustovich

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS malignant gliomas are relatively rare diseases. Prognosis is poor but has improved over recent years due to the improvement in the multi-disciplinary treatment: surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy...

  12. Recent cases of radium-induced malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    Three cases of malignant disease attributed to radium in patients with measured body burdens have been observed since 1978 - one paranasal sinus carcinoma, one mastoid carcinoma, and one fibrosarcoma of bone. These cases are summarized here. 4 references

  13. CT findings of diffuse malignant leptomeningeal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Katsuro; Sahashi, Ko; Takahashi, Akira; Nakagawa, Hiroshi [Aichi Medical Univ., Aichi (Japan); Sumi, Yasuhiko

    1982-04-01

    This was a case of malignant melanoma which spreaded diffusely in the meninges. The diagnosis was established by cytology of the cerebrospinal fluid. The CT images, cerebral angiographic findings and pathological findings by autopsy were presented.

  14. Malignant mesothelioma: biology, diagnosis and therapeutic approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomasetti, M.; Amati, M.; Santarelli, L.; Alleva, R.; Neužil, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2009), s. 190-206 ISSN 1874-4672 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : malignant mesothelioma * biology * diagnosis and therapeutic approaches Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  15. Isolated malignant melanoma metastasis to the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne K; Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field....

  16. Malignant melanoma. Current status; Malignes Melanom. Aktueller Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J.K.; Buder-Bakhaya, K.; Enk, A.; Hassel, J.C. [Universitaetshautklinik, Nationales Centrum fuer Tumorerkrankungen, Heidelberg (Germany); Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Klinische Kooperationseinheit Nuklearmedizin, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    The incidence of malignant melanoma is continuously increasing. The prognosis of metastatic disease is still limited. Until a few years ago palliative chemotherapy with a limited response rate was the standard treatment for metastatic melanoma. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy provide new treatment options. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have significantly improved the prognosis. Regional lymph node sonography, computed tomography (CT) of the neck, chest and abdomen and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used. As an alternative to CT scans 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may be used. Immunotherapy provides the chance of long-term disease control in metastatic melanoma. Ipilimumab may provide long-term tumor control in approximately 20% of patients. Median overall survival of approximately 2 years is achieved during therapy with anti-programmed cell death (PD) 1 antibodies. For combined therapy of ipilimumab and nivolumab a response rate of almost 60% is achieved and 2-year survival is also approximately 60%. The range of immune-mediated side effects demands particular consideration. For response evaluation immune-related response criteria were defined. Furthermore, immunotherapeutic approaches, such as talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), which is a modified herpes virus can be used for intralesional injection. An individual definition of the appropriate therapy for each patient is of particular importance. In the context of modern therapy regimens close patient monitoring is crucial. (orig.) [German] Die Inzidenz des Melanoms steigt stetig an. Die Prognose bei metastasierter Erkrankung ist weiterhin limitiert. Bis vor wenigen Jahren war eine palliative Chemotherapie mit begrenzten Ansprechraten Standardtherapie des metastasierten Melanoms. Immuntherapie und zielgerichtete Therapien stellen neue Behandlungsoptionen dar. Insbesondere Immuncheckpointinhibitoren haben die Prognose verbessert. Routinemaessig werden die

  17. Malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia: a retrospective cohort study of 218 Chinese patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Hai-Wei; Shi, Peng; Zhou, Zeng-Tong; Tang, Guo-Yao

    2010-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia (OL) is the best-known potentially malignant disorder. A new binary system to grade dysplasia was proposed by WHO, but the biological significance in predicting malignant transformation risk is unknown. The objective of this study is to estimate the rate of malignant transformation in a long-term follow-up cohort, explore the usefulness of the new binary system of grading dysplasia and identify significant risk factors of OL malignant transformation in China. A total of 218 patients with clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of OL were retrospectively reviewed. They were selected among all archived files at the Department of Oral Mucosal Diseases, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. The mean follow-up period was 5.3 years. Among 218 cases, 39 (17.9%) OL patients developed oral cancer, with a mean duration of 5.2 years. Cox regression analysis revealed that dysplasia was an independent risk factor for OL malignant transformation, but age, gender, lesion site, diet habit, smoking and ethanol intake were not risk factors. High-risk dysplastic OL was associated with a 4.57-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.36-8.84; P < 0.001) increased risk of malignant transformation, compared with low-risk dysplasia. Consistent with this result, high-risk dysplastic OL had signicantly higher malignant incidence than low-risk dysplasia, particularly during the first 2-3 years of follow-up, by Kaplan-Meier analysis (Log-rank test, P < 0.001). The new binary system's function in predicting OL malignant transformation risk was investigated in this survey. The utilization of high-risk dysplasia as a significant indicator for evaluating malignant transformation risk in patients with OL was suggested, which may be helpful to guide treatment selection in clinical practice

  18. Malignant transformation of Taiwanese patients with oral leukoplakia: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tung-Yuan; Chiu, Yu-Wei; Chen, Yi-Tzu; Wang, Yu-Hsun; Yu, Hui-Chieh; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2018-05-01

    Oral leukoplakia (OL) is one of the clinically diagnosed oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) with an increased risk of oral cancer development. In this study, we investigated the malignant transformation of OL in Taiwanese population. A retrospective cohort study was analyzed from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was randomly frequency-matched with the OL cohort according to age, sex, and index year. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and oral lichen planus (OLP) were further stratified to evaluate the possible synergistic effects for OL-associated malignant transformation. In this cohort, 102 (5.374%) of 1898 OL patients were observed to transform into oral cancer. The malignant transformation rate was 26.40-fold in the OL cohort than in the comparison cohort after adjustment (95% confidence intervals 18.46-37.77). To further stratify with OSF and OLP, OL with OSF (58.38; 95% confidence intervals 34.61-98.50) and OL with OLP (36.88; 95% confidence intervals 8.90-152.78) had higher risk of malignant transformation rate than OL alone (27.01; 95% confidence intervals 18.91-38.59). The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed the free of malignant transformation rate was significant over the 13 years follow-up period (log-rank test, p < 0.001). OL patients exhibited a significantly higher risk of malignant transformation than those without OL. In addition, both OSF and OLP could enhance malignant transformation in patients with OL. However, further studies are required to identify the histopathological and clinical parameters in the pathogenesis of malignant transformation among OPMDs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Management of Septated Malignant Pleural Effusions

    OpenAIRE

    Banka, Radhika; Terrington, Dayle; Mishra, Eleanor K.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of Review: We review recent studies of patients with septated malignant pleural effusions, to understand what the clinical implications for patients are and what evidence-based methods should be used to manage these effusions. Recent Findings: Fibrinolytics improve effusion size assessed radiologically in patients with a chest drain inserted for septated malignant pleural effusions but this does not translate into an improvement in breathlessness relief or pleurodesis success. Fibrino...

  20. Multiple cutaneous malignancies in xeroderma pigmentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty Prasenjeet

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of xeroderma pigmentosum with multiple cutaneous malignancies is being reported. The case presented with freckles, letigens, and keratosis, a non-tender ulcerated nodular lesion on the nose, a nodular ulcerated lesion on the right outer canthus of the conjunctiva, and a nodular growth which developed on the right cheek which on histopathology was found to be squamous cell cercinoma, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma respectively.

  1. [Multiple conjunctival malignant melanomas (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, R

    1979-04-01

    5 1/2 years after excision of pigmented malignant melanoma which apparently arose in a nevus of the paralimbal bulbar conjunctiva, this 42-year-old male presented himself with a nonpigmented mass of the lid margin which also proved to be a malignant melanoma. "Acquired melanosis sine pigmento" was considered as a site of origin, but histopathologically there is more evidence that this melanoma arose in a non-pigmented compound nevus.

  2. Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Esophagus

    OpenAIRE

    Oya Yonal; Duygu Ibrisim; Yıldıran Songur; Yılmaz Cakaloglu; Koray Tuncer; Hale Kırımlıoglu; Sadakat Ozdil

    2013-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus (PMME) comprises only 0.1?0.2% of all malignant esophageal tumors. PMME tumors are highly aggressive and metastasize early via hematogenic and lymphatic pathways. Treatment outcome is poor because the cancer has often advanced at the time of diagnosis. Inoperability, unsuccessful treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy in advanced tumors and metastases have contributed to its poor prognosis. Here, we present the endoscopic features, endoscopic ...

  3. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma presenting with respiratory symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daskalogiannaki, M.; Prassopoulos, P.; Raissaki, M.; Gourtsoyiannis, N. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital of Heraklion (Greece); Tsardi, M. [Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital of Heraklion (Greece)

    2000-05-01

    Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare disease associated with mild, nonspecific abdominal symptoms and a wide spectrum of imaging findings, with thickened mesentery and peritoneum being the most common ones. A case of a malignant peritoneal mesothelioma presenting with manifestations of pulmonary disease is reported. Imaging evaluation revealed pleural, lung and pericardial involvement together with retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, little ascites and extensive omental, but only subtle, mesenteric thickening. (orig.)

  4. Prognostic value of long noncoding RNA MALAT1 in digestive system malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hui; Li, Xiao-Mei; Maimaiti, Ailifeire; Chen, Qing-Jie; Liao, Wu; Lai, Hong-Mei; Liu, Fen; Yang, Yi-Ning

    2015-01-01

    MALAT1, a newly discovered long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), has been reported to be highly expressed in many types of cancers. This meta-analysis summarizes its potential prognostic value in digestive system malignancies. A quantitative meta-analysis was performed through a systematic search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for eligible papers on the prognostic impact of MALAT1 in digestive system malignancies from inception to Apr. 25, 2015. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to summarize the effect. Five studies were included in the study, with a total of 527 patients. A significant association was observed between MALAT1 abundance and poor overall survival (OS) of patients with digestive system malignancies, with pooled hazard ratio (HR) of 7.68 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.32-13.66, Pdigestive system malignancies.

  5. Bcl-2 antisense therapy in B-cell malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanan-Khan, Asher

    2005-07-01

    Bcl-2 is an apoptosis regulating protein, overexpression of which is associated with chemotherapy resistant disease, aggressive clinical course, and poor survival in patients with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Overexpression of Bcl-2 protein results in an aberrant intrinsic apoptotic pathway that confers a protective effect on malignant cells against a death signal (e.g., chemotherapy or radiotherapy). Downregulation of this oncoprotein, thus, represents a possible new way to target clinically aggressive disease. Preclinical studies have shown that this oncoprotein can be effectively decreased by Bcl-2 antisense in malignant lymphoid cells and can reverse chemotherapy resistance, as well as enhance the anti-apoptotic potential of both chemotherapeutic and biologic agents. Ongoing clinical trials are exploring the role of Bcl-2 downregulation with oblimersen (Bcl-2 antisense) in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma. Early results from these studies are promising and support the proof of the principle. As these studies are completed and mature data emerges, the role of Bcl-2 antisense therapy in the treatment of B-cell malignancies will become clearer.

  6. The Glycome of Normal and Malignant Plasma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hose, Dirk; Andrulis, Mindaugas; Moreaux, Jèrôme; Hielscher, Thomas; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Merling, Anette; Bertsch, Uta; Jauch, Anna; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Klein, Bernard; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    The glycome, i.e. the cellular repertoire of glycan structures, contributes to important functions such as adhesion and intercellular communication. Enzymes regulating cellular glycosylation processes are related to the pathogenesis of cancer including multiple myeloma. Here we analyze the transcriptional differences in the glycome of normal (n = 10) and two cohorts of 332 and 345 malignant plasma-cell samples, association with known multiple myeloma subentities as defined by presence of chromosomal aberrations, potential therapeutic targets, and its prognostic impact. We found i) malignant vs. normal plasma cells to show a characteristic glycome-signature. They can ii) be delineated by a lasso-based predictor from normal plasma cells based on this signature. iii) Cytogenetic aberrations lead to distinct glycan-gene expression patterns for t(11;14), t(4;14), hyperdiploidy, 1q21-gain and deletion of 13q14. iv) A 38-gene glycome-signature significantly delineates patients with adverse survival in two independent cohorts of 545 patients treated with high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation. v) As single gene, expression of the phosphatidyl-inositol-glycan protein M as part of the targetable glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchor-biosynthesis pathway is associated with adverse survival. The prognostically relevant glycome deviation in malignant cells invites novel strategies of therapy for multiple myeloma. PMID:24386263

  7. The glycome of normal and malignant plasma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M Moehler

    Full Text Available The glycome, i.e. the cellular repertoire of glycan structures, contributes to important functions such as adhesion and intercellular communication. Enzymes regulating cellular glycosylation processes are related to the pathogenesis of cancer including multiple myeloma. Here we analyze the transcriptional differences in the glycome of normal (n = 10 and two cohorts of 332 and 345 malignant plasma-cell samples, association with known multiple myeloma subentities as defined by presence of chromosomal aberrations, potential therapeutic targets, and its prognostic impact. We found i malignant vs. normal plasma cells to show a characteristic glycome-signature. They can ii be delineated by a lasso-based predictor from normal plasma cells based on this signature. iii Cytogenetic aberrations lead to distinct glycan-gene expression patterns for t(11;14, t(4;14, hyperdiploidy, 1q21-gain and deletion of 13q14. iv A 38-gene glycome-signature significantly delineates patients with adverse survival in two independent cohorts of 545 patients treated with high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation. v As single gene, expression of the phosphatidyl-inositol-glycan protein M as part of the targetable glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchor-biosynthesis pathway is associated with adverse survival. The prognostically relevant glycome deviation in malignant cells invites novel strategies of therapy for multiple myeloma.

  8. Febrile neutropenia in haematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fever is the principle sign of infection in neutropenic patient and frequently may be the only evidence of infection. The pattern of fever in neutropenia is non-specific and not pathognomonic of any type of infections or non-infectious process and can be suppressed by the antipyretic effects of drugs such as corticosteroids. Neutropenia, resulting from cytotoxic chemotherapy is the most common risk factor for severe infections in hematological malignancies. The duration of neutropenia also contributes significantly to the risk of serious infections. This risk is significantly greater a lower neutrophil counts, such that 100% patients with ANC < 100 cells/µl lasting 3 weeks or more develop documented infections. The prompt initiation of empirical antibiotics in febrile neutropenia has been the most important advance in the management of the immunocompromised host. The initial empirical antibiotic regimen started at presentation of the febrile episode frequently requires modifications especially in high-risk febrile neutropenia. Neutropenic patients who remain febrile despite 4-7 days of broad spectrum antibacterial therapy are at a high risk of invasive fungal infection. Empirical antifungal therapy with Amphotericin B in persistently febrile neutropenic patients and other high risk patients has shown to reduce the risk of invasive fungal infection by 50-80% and the risk of fungal infection related mortality by 23-45% in 1980′s. The IDSA has recommended that amphotericin B at 0.5-0.7 mg/kg/day be administered till marrow recovery. This approach is limited however by the adverse effects caused by drug infusion (fever, chills, myalgias, nausea, hypotension and bronchospasm. Lipid formulations which improve the therapeutic ratio of the traditional formulation are available. The safety and efficacy of these formulations is well established. These formulations have comparable efficacy and are less nephrotoxic than conventional amphotericin B

  9. MYOSITIS ASSOCIATED WITH MALIGNANT TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Antelava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM are a heterogeneous group of acquired systemic diseases mainly involving skeletal muscles. The main representatives of IIM are polymyositis (PM and dermatomyositis (DM. Epidemiological surveys demonstrate that there is a relationship between PM/DM and malignant neoplasms (MNs, the detection risk of which is higher than that in the population of respective age groups. The rate of MNs in PM/DM ranges from 9 to 50%. The relationship to MNs is described in each subtype of IIM; however, these are most common in DM. The patients suffering from PM/DM associated with MNs have a worse prognosis than those without MNs. The early detection of MNs could improve the prognosis in these patients. The investigations published identify demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors increasing MN detection risks in patients with PM/DM. Just the same, they all cover small patient groups; the findings are heterogeneous and not well convincing, which calls for a further larger-scale study of this problem.Objective: to reveal and identify the specific features of paraneoplastic myositis (PnM.Subjects and methods. The investigation included 320 patients with a valid diagnosis of IIM, who had been followed up in the period of 1996 to 2016. The patients underwent laboratory tests, manual proximal muscle strength testing using a 10-point scale and electromyographic examination with needle electrodes.Results and discussion. PnM was detected in 32 (10% of the 320 patients with IIM. Among the patients with PnM, there were 6 (19% men and 26 (81% women. The mean age at the onset of PnM was 55.4 years. PnM manifested with characteristic musculocutaneous syndrome in 19 (59% patients; 18 (41% of them were found to have MNs within the first year after disease onset. The manifestation of MNs was preliminary to the picture of PM/DM in 13 (41% patients. The most commonly detected conditions were ovarian cancer (37.5%, MNs of the lung and breast

  10. Development of venetoclax for therapy of lymphoid malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu H

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Huayuan Zhu,1,2 Alexandru Almasan1 1Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Province Hospital, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2 family dysfunction and impairment of apoptosis are common in most B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Venetoclax (Venclexta™, formerly ABT-199, GDC-0199 is a highly selective BCL-2 inhibitor, which mimics its BCL-2 homology 3-domain to induce apoptosis. It was approved for treatment of previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL patients with 17p deletion early in 2016. It has also been in clinical trials for other B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Unlike the other recently approved targeted agents idelalisib and ibrutinib, so far there has been no relapse reported in some patients. Also, unlike the other targeted agents, it is effective against tumor cells that reside in the blood marrow. Despite its promising outcome in CLL, preclinical data have already uncovered mechanistic insights underlying venetoclax resistance, such as upregulation of MCL-1 or BCL-xL expression and protective signaling from the microenvironment. In this review, we describe the role of the BCL-2 family in the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphoid malignancies, the development of venetoclax, and its current clinical outcome in CLL and other B-cell malignancies. We also discuss the resistance mechanisms that develop following venetoclax therapy, potential strategies to overcome them, and how this knowledge can be translated into clinical applications. Keywords: BCL-2, BCL-xL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, MCL-1, venetoclax

  11. CT triage for lung malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Martin Weber; Karstoft, Jens; Mussmann, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Generation of multiplanar reformation (MPR) images has become automatic on most modern computed tomography (CT) scanners, potentially increasing the workload of the reporting radiologists. It is not always clear if this increases diagnostic performance in all clinical tasks. Purpose...

  12. Genital tract malign ancies in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khursheed, F.; Jatoi, N.; Das, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The most common malignancy in women is breast carcinoma. The next common cancer is genital tract malignancies which constitute 14% of cancers in women. Objective of this study was to determine the type and frequency of genital tract malignancy in postmenopausal women and to find the age distribution of genital tract malignancies. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics ad Gynaecology Unit-II at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro. All postmenopausal women, admitted in the unit due to various pathologies (abdominal masses, bleeding P/V etc.) from January 2005 to December 2007 were included in the study. Clinical evaluation and investigations were done on all patients. Those women who had benign diseases were excluded from the study. Malignancy was confirmed from histopathology report of biopsy specimen. These women were divided into 3 age groups: group I 70 years. Results: Out of 265 postmenopausal women admitted in ward during the study period, malignancy was confirmed in 68 cases (25.66%). The type of malignancy was cervical carcinoma (41, 60.28%), ovarian carcinoma (11, 16.17%), endometrial carcinoma (8, 11.76%), vulval carcinoma (5, 7.35%) vaginal carcinoma (2, 2.94%), and leiomyosarcoma of uterus (1, 1.47%). Increased frequency of cervical and endometrial carcinomas were seen in Group-I cases, while vulval carcinoma was seen more commonly in Group-II cases ( p =0.004). Conclusion: A very high frequency of cervical carcinoma was seen in our patients. There is need for more public awareness to integrate routine Gynae-Pap screening. (author)

  13. Zebularine exerts its antiproliferative activity through S phase delay and cell death in human malignant mesothelioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Yukitoshi; Satoh, Motohiko; Hatanaka, Kenichi; Kubota, Shunichiro

    2018-04-24

    Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos-related aggressive tumor and current therapy remains ineffective. Zebularine as a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor has an anti-tumor effect in several human cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether zebularine could induce antiproliferative effect in human malignant mesothelioma cells. Zebularine induced cell growth inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, zebularine dose-dependently decreased expression of DNMT1 in all malignant mesothelioma cells tested. Cell cycle analysis indicated that zebularine induced S phase delay. Zebularine also induced cell death in malignant mesothelioma cells. In contrast, zebularine did not induce cell growth inhibition and cell death in human normal fibroblast cells. These results suggest that zebularine has a potential for the treatment of malignant mesothelioma by inhibiting cell growth and inducing cell death.

  14. Computed tomography in intracranial malignant lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, S; Odake, G; Fujimoto, M; Yamaki, T; Mizukawa, N [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1978-09-01

    Malignant lymphoma of the central nervous system has been found more and more often in recent years, partly because of the increased use of radiation and such drugs as steroids and antibiotics. However, the definite diagnosis of this disease is difficult until histological verification has been done by operation or autopsy. Since the revolutionary development of computed tomography, however, several reports have been presented, on the computed tomography of malignant lymphoma of the thorax and abdomen. Nevertheless, only a few cases of intracranial malignant lymphoma have been reported. The purpose of this paper, using four patients, is to emphasize the value of computed tomography in the diagnosis of intracranial malignant lymphoma. The characteristic CT findings of intracranial malignant lymphoma may be summarized follows: (1) the tumors are demonstrated to be well-defined, nodular-shaped, and homogenous isodensity - or slightly high-density - lesions in plain scans, and the tumors homogenously increase in density upon contrast enhancement; (2) the disease always has multifocal intracranial lesions, which are shown simultaneously or one after another, and (3) perifocal edema is prominent around the tumors in the cerebral hemisphere.

  15. Resection for secondary malignancy of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Hsia; Wang, Shin-E; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chen, Tien-Hua; Wu, Chew-Wun

    2012-01-01

    This study tried to clarify the role of pancreatic resection in the treatment of secondary malignancy with metastasis or local invasion to the pancreas in terms of surgical risk and survival benefit. Data of secondary malignancy of the pancreas from our 19 patients and cases reported in the English literature were pooled together for analysis. There were 329 cases of resected secondary malignancy of the pancreas, including 241 cases of metastasis and 88 cases of local invasion. The most common primary tumor metastatic to the pancreas and amenable to resection was renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (73.9%). More than half (52.3%) of the primary cancers with local invasion to the pancreas were colon cancer, and nearly half (40.9%) were stomach cancer. The median metastatic interval was 84 months (7 years) for overall primary tumors and 108 months (9 years) for RCC. The 5-year survival for secondary malignancy of the pancreas after resection was 61.1% for metastasis and 58.9% for local invasion, with 72.8% for RCC metastasis, 69.0% for colon cancer, and 43.8% for stomach cancer with local invasion to the pancreas. Pancreatic resection should not be precluded for secondary malignancy of the pancreas because long-term survival could be achieved with acceptable surgical risk in selected patients.

  16. Acute psychosis followed by fever: Malignant neuroleptic syndrome or viral encephalitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zvezdana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is rare, but potentially fatal idiosyncratic reaction to antipsychotic medications. It is sometimes difficult to diagnose some clinical cases as neuroleptic malignant syndrome and differentiate it from the acute viral encephalitis. Case report. We reported a patient diagnosed with acute psychotic reaction which appeared for the first time. The treatment started with typical antipsychotic, which led to febrility. The clinical presentation of the patient was characterised by the signs and symptoms that might have indicated the neuroleptic malignant syndrome as well as central nervous system viral disease. In order to make a detailed diagnosis additional procedures were performed: electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging of the head, lumbar puncture and a serological test of the cerebrospinal fluid. Considering that after the tests viral encephalitis was ruled out and the diagnosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome made, antipsychotic therapy was immediately stopped. The patient was initially treated with symptomatic therapy and after that with atypical antipsychotic and electroconvulsive therapy, which led to complete recovery. Conclusion. We present the difficulties of early diagnosis at the first episode of acute psychotic disorder associated with acute febrile condition. Concerning the differential diagnosis it is necessary to consider both neuroleptic malignant syndrome and viral encephalitis, i.e. it is necessary to make the neuroradiological diagnosis and conduct cerebrospinal fluid analysis and blood test. In neuroleptic malignant syndrome treatment a combined use of electroconvulsive therapy and low doses of atypical antipsychotic are confirmed to be successful.

  17. Proton density fat fraction (PDFF) MRI for differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeel, Frederic Carsten; Luetkens, Julian Alexander; Wagenhäuser, Peter Johannes; Meier-Schroers, Michael; Kuetting, Daniel Lloyd; Feißt, Andreas; Gieseke, Jürgen; Schmeel, Leonard Christopher; Träber, Frank; Schild, Hans Heinz; Kukuk, Guido Matthias

    2018-06-01

    To investigate whether proton density fat fraction (PDFF) measurements using a six-echo modified Dixon sequence can help to differentiate between benign and malignant vertebral bone marrow lesions. Sixty-six patients were prospectively enrolled in our study. In addition to conventional MRI at 3.0-Tesla including at least sagittal T2-weighted/spectral attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted sequences, all patients underwent a sagittal six-echo modified Dixon sequence of the spine. The mean PDFF was calculated using regions of interest and compared between vertebral lesions. A cut-off value of 6.40% in PDFF was determined by receiver operating characteristic curves and used to differentiate between malignant (benign and malignant vertebral lesions with a high diagnostic accuracy. • Establishing a diagnosis of indeterminate vertebral lesions is a common clinical problem • Benign bone marrow processes may mimic the signal alterations observed in malignancy • PDFF differentiates between benign and malignant lesions with a high diagnostic accuracy • PDFF of non-neoplastic vertebral lesions is significantly higher than that of malignancy • PDFF from six-echo modified Dixon may help avoid potentially harmful bone biopsy.

  18. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermoolen, M A; Kwee, T C; Nievelstein, R A J

    2012-08-01

    To systematically review the value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. A systematic search of the Medline/Pubmed and Embase databases revealed 109 relevant studies. Quality of these articles was assessed using the Quality Assessment of the Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy Included in Systematic Reviews (QUADAS) criteria. Reported ADC values of benign and malignant lesions were compared per organ. The mean quality score of the reviewed articles was 50%. Comparison of ADC values showed marked variation among studies and between benign and malignant lesions in various organs. In several organs, such as breast, liver, and uterus, ADC values discriminated well between benign and malignant lesions. In other organs, such as the salivary glands, thyroid, and pancreas, ADCs were not significantly different between benign and malignant lesions. The potential utility of ADC measurement for the characterisation of tumours differs per organ. Future well-designed studies are required before ADC measurements can be recommended for the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions. These future studies should use standardised acquisition protocols and provide complete reporting of study methods, to facilitate comparison of results and clinical implementation of ADC measurement for tumour characterisation.

  19. Differentiation of malignant and benign pulmonary nodules with first-pass dual-input perfusion CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Xiaodong; Quan, Changbin; Cao, Jianxia; Ao, Guokun; Tian, Yuan; Li, Hong; Zhang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    To assess diagnostic performance of dual-input CT perfusion for distinguishing malignant from benign solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). Fifty-six consecutive subjects with SPNs underwent contrast-enhanced 320-row multidetector dynamic volume CT. The dual-input maximum slope CT perfusion analysis was employed to calculate the pulmonary flow (PF), bronchial flow (BF), and perfusion index (PI,=PF/(PF+BF)). Differences in perfusion parameters between malignant and benign tumours were assessed with histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard. Diagnostic value of the perfusion parameters was calculated using the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Amongst 56 SPNs, statistically significant differences in all three perfusion parameters were revealed between malignant and benign tumours. The PI demonstrated the biggest difference between malignancy and benignancy: 0.30 ± 0.07 vs. 0.51 ± 0.13, P < 0.001. The area under the PI ROC curve was 0.92, the largest of the three perfusion parameters, producing a sensitivity of 0.95, specificity of 0.83, positive likelihood ratio (+LR) of 5.59, and negative likelihood ratio (-LR) of 0.06 in identifying malignancy. The PI derived from the dual-input maximum slope CT perfusion analysis is a valuable biomarker for identifying malignancy in SPNs. PI may be potentially useful for lung cancer treatment planning and forecasting the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy treatment. (orig.)

  20. Identifying Malignant Pleural Effusion by A Cancer Ratio (Serum LDH: Pleural Fluid ADA Ratio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akash; Abisheganaden, John; Light, R W

    2016-02-01

    We studied the diagnostic potential of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in malignant pleural effusion. Retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized with exudative pleural effusion in 2013. Serum LDH and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio was significantly higher in cancer patients presenting with exudative pleural effusion. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, pleural fluid ADA was negatively correlated 0.62 (0.45-0.85, p = 0.003) with malignancy, whereas serum LDH 1.02 (1.0-1.03, p = 0.004) and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio 0.94 (0.99-1.0, p = 0.04) was correlated positively with malignant pleural effusion. For serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio, a cut-off level of >20 showed sensitivity, specificity of 0.98 (95 % CI 0.92-0.99) and 0.94 (95 % CI 0.83-0.98), respectively. The positive likelihood ratio was 32.6 (95 % CI 10.7-99.6), while the negative likelihood ratio at this cut-off was 0.03 (95 % CI 0.01-0.15). Higher serum LDH and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio in patients presenting with exudative pleural effusion can distinguish between malignant and non-malignant effusion on the first day of hospitalization. The cut-off level for serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio of >20 is highly predictive of malignancy in patients with exudative pleural effusion (whether lymphocytic or neutrophilic) with high sensitivity and specificity.

  1. An update on studies on etiological factors, disease progression, and malignant transformation in oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiha Bari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide estimates of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF show a confinement to Indians and Southeast Asians. In India, the prevalence of OSMF has increased over the past four decades from 0.03% to 6.42%. The condition is well recognized for its malignant potential rate of 7-30%. The condition has a multifactorial etiology and may remain either stationary or become severe, leaving an individual physically challenged both physically and psychologically. Hence, the study aims at reviewing studies done on various etiological factors leading to its onset. Their analysis may serve as an adjunct in defining the broad spectrum of the causation of this potentially malignant disorder.

  2. Nutritional management of gastrointestinal malignancies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evidence connecting food and gastrointestinal cancers from epidemiological studies, case-control studies, and prospective observational studies, indicates that determining the independent effects of specific nutrients is extremely diffi cult, given the many potential environmental factors to consider. The nutritional ...

  3. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in human malignant and non-malignant thyroid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J A; Neelamohan, R; Suthagar, E; Vengatesh, G; Jayakumar, J; Chandrasekaran, M; Banu, S K; Aruldhas, M M

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid epithelial cells produce moderate amounts of reactive oxygen species that are physiologically required for thyroid hormone synthesis. Nevertheless, when they are produced in excessive amounts, they may become toxic. The present study is aimed to compare the lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and non-protein thiols (reduced glutathione (GSH)) in human thyroid tissues with malignant and non-malignant disorders. The study used human thyroid tissues and blood samples from 157 women (147 diseased and 10 normal). Thyroid hormones, oxidative stress markers and antioxidants were estimated by standard methods. LPO significantly increased in most of the papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC: 82.9%) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA: 72.9%) tissues, whilst in a majority of nodular goitre (69.2%) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT: 73.7%) thyroid tissues, it remained unaltered. GSH increased in PTC (55.3%), remained unaltered in FTA (97.3%) and all other goiter samples studied. SOD increased in PTC (51.1%) and all other malignant thyroid tissues studied. CAT remained unaltered in PTC (95.7%), FTA (97.3%) and all other non-malignant samples (HT, MNG, TMNG) studied. GPx increased in PTC (63.8%), all other malignant thyroid tissues and remained unaltered in many of the FTA (91.9%) tissues and all other non-malignant samples (HT, MNG, TMNG) studied. In the case of non-malignant thyroid tumours, the oxidant-antioxidant balance was undisturbed, whilst in malignant tumours the balance was altered, and the change in r value observed in the LPO and SOD pairs between normal and PTC tissues and also in many pairs with multi-nodular goitre (MNG)/toxic MNG tissues may be used as a marker to differentiate/detect different malignant/non-malignant thyroid tumours. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Targeted therapy in the treatment of malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimas V Lukas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Rimas V Lukas1, Adrienne Boire2, M Kelly Nicholas1,2 1Department of Neurology; 2Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Malignant gliomas are invasive tumors with the potential to progress through current available therapies. These tumors are characterized by a number of abnormalities in molecular signaling that play roles in tumorigenesis, spread, and survival. These pathways are being actively investigated in both the pre-clinical and clinical settings as potential targets in the treatment of malignant gliomas. We will review many of the therapies that target the cancer cell, including the epidermal growth factor receptor, mammalian target of rapamycin, histone deacetylase, and farnesyl transferase. In addition, we will discuss strategies that target the extracellular matrix in which these cells reside as well as angiogenesis, a process emerging as central to tumor development and growth. Finally, we will briefly touch on the role of neural stem cells as both potential targets as well as delivery vectors for other therapies. Interdependence between these varied pathways, both in maintaining health and in causing disease, is clear. Thus, attempts to easily classify some targeted therapies are problematic.Keywords: glioma, EGFR, mTOR, HDAC, Ras, angiogenesis

  5. Malignant transformation of oral submucous fibrosis in Taiwan: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Po-Yu; Chen, Yi-Tzu; Wang, Yu-Hsun; Su, Ni-Yu; Yu, Hui-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2017-11-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is one of the well-recognized oral potentially malignant disorders. In this study, we investigated the malignant transformation of OSF in a Taiwanese population. A retrospective cohort study was analyzed from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was randomly frequency-matched with the OSF cohort according to age, sex, and index year. Oral leukoplakia (OL) was further stratified to evaluate for the possible synergistic effects of OSF-associated malignant transformation. In this cohort, 71 (9.13%) of 778 cases of OSF were observed to transform into oral cancer. The malignant transformation rate was 29.26-fold in the OSF cohort than in the comparison cohort after adjustment (95% confidence intervals 20.55-41.67). To further stratify with OL, OSF with OL (52.46%; 95% confidence intervals 34.88-78.91) had higher risk of malignant transformation rate than OSF alone (29.84%; 95% confidence intervals 20.99-42.42). The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed the rate free of malignant transformation was significant over the 13-year follow-up period (log-rank test, Ptransformation was 5.1, 2.7, and 2.2 years for non-OSF, OSF alone, and OSF with OL, respectively. Oral submucous fibrosis patients exhibited a significantly higher risk of malignant transformation than those without OSF. OL could enhance malignant transformation in patients with OSF. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor: analysis of malignancies across the rheumatoid arthritis clinical development programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; Lee, Eun Bong; Kaplan, Irina V; Kwok, Kenneth; Geier, Jamie; Benda, Birgitta; Soma, Koshika; Wang, Lisy; Riese, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To further assess the potential role of Janus kinase inhibition in the development of malignancies, we performed an integrated analysis of data from the tofacitinib RA clinical development programme. Malignancy data (up to 10 April 2013) were pooled from six phase II, six Phase III and two long-term extension (LTE) studies involving tofacitinib. In the phase II and III studies, patients with moderate-to-severe RA were randomised to various tofacitinib doses as monotherapy or with background non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), mainly methotrexate. The LTE studies (tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily) enrolled patients from qualifying prior phase I, II and III index studies. Of 5671 tofacitinib-treated patients, 107 developed malignancies (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC)). The most common malignancy was lung cancer (n=24) followed by breast cancer (n=19), lymphoma (n=10) and gastric cancer (n=6). The rate of malignancies by 6-month intervals of tofacitinib exposure indicates rates remained stable over time. Standardised incidence ratios (comparison with Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) for all malignancies (excluding NMSC) and selected malignancies (lung, breast, lymphoma, NMSC) were within the expected range of patients with moderate-to-severe RA. The overall rates and types of malignancies observed in the tofacitinib clinical programme remained stable over time with increasing tofacitinib exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Managing malignant pleural effusion with an indwelling pleural catheter: factors associated with spontaneous pleurodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, W M; Tam, T Cc; Wong, M Ky; Lui, M Ms; Ip, M Sm; Lam, D Cl

    2016-08-01

    Malignant pleural effusion can be recurrent despite active anti-cancer treatment. Significant malignant pleural effusion leads to debilitating dyspnoea and worsening quality of life in patients with advanced cancer. An indwelling pleural catheter offers a novel means to manage recurrent malignant pleural effusion and may remove the need for repeated thoracocentesis. Spontaneous pleurodesis is another unique advantage of indwelling pleural catheter placement but the factors associated with its occurrence are not clearly established. The aims of this study were to explore the safety of an indwelling pleural catheter in the management of symptomatic recurrent malignant pleural effusion, and to identify the factors associated with spontaneous pleurodesis. This case series with internal comparisons was conducted in the Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. All patients who underwent insertion of an indwelling pleural catheter from the initiation of such service from January 2010 to December 2014 were included for data analysis. Patients were monitored until December 2014, with the last catheter inserted in July 2014. Between 2010 and 2014, a total of 23 indwelling pleural catheters were inserted in 22 consecutive patients with malignant pleural effusion, including 15 (65.2%) cases with malignant pleural effusion as a result of metastatic lung cancer. Ten (43.5%) cases achieved minimal output according to defined criteria, in five of whom the pleural catheter was removed without subsequent re-accumulation of effusion (ie spontaneous pleurodesis). Factors associated with minimal output were the absence of trapped lung (P=0.036), shorter time from first appearance of malignant pleural effusion to catheter insertion (P=0.017), and longer time from catheter insertion till patient's death or end of study (P=0.007). An indwelling pleural catheter provides a safe means to manage symptomatic malignant pleural effusion

  8. Malignant histiocytosis in childhood: morphologic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurco, S; Starling, K; Hawkins, E P

    1983-12-01

    Eight cases diagnosed over a ten-year period as malignant histiocytosis (MH; histiocytic medullary reticulosis) were reviewed to clarify diagnostic criteria for the childhood disease and to identify sources of diagnostic confusion. Five of the eight cases met the authors' criteria for diagnosis; i.e., they were characterized by loose mixed infiltrates composed of three cell types--well-differentiated histiocytes, prohistiocytes, and malignant histiocytes--and they had no leukemic phase. Three cases did not share these features and were reclassified. The liver was found to be the organ most useful in premortem diagnosis, and immunoperoxidase staining for immunoglobulins and lysozyme was also helpful. The clinical and morphologic features of the five cases confirm the authors' view that diagnoses of MH should be limited to cases in which there is a loose pleomorphic population of all three types of histiocytes and that cases with monomorphous populations of aggregated malignant cells should be classified as lymphomas.

  9. Advances in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan D. Yan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive neoplasm. The incidence of malignant mesothelioma is increasing worldwide. Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM represents one-fourth of all mesotheliomas. Association of asbestos exposure with DMPM has been observed, especially in males. A great majority of patients present with abdominal pain and distension, caused by accumulation of tumors and ascitic fluid. In the past, DMPM was considered a pre-terminal condition; therefore attracted little attention. Patients invariably died from their disease within a year. Recently, several prospective trials have demonstrated median survival of 40 to 90 months and 5-year survival of 30% to 60% after the combined treatment using cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This improvement in survival has prompted new searches into the medical science related to DMPM, a disease previously ignored as uninteresting. This review article focuses on the key advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatments and prognosis of DMPM that have occurred in the past decade.

  10. Coronary artery with aberrant origin malignant right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, E.; Bozlar, U.; Demirkol, S.; Saglam, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries is a major cause of sudden death, especially in young patients. Objectives and tasks: In this study we aim to present a young patient with chest pain who had malignant right coronary artery (RCA) with aberrant origin. Materials and methods: 24-year-old man who applied cardiology clinic for chest pain and palpitations especially after exercise, was referred to our clinic for coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography to evaluate coronary artery anomalies. Results: In CT angiography; we detected aberrant RCA with origin of tubularly part of ascendant aorta with a malignant course between aorta and pulmonary artery. Left main coronary artery, left anterior descending and circumflex artery had normal origin and course. Conclusion: Coronary artery with malignant course may cause sudden death especially after exercise. Coronary CT angiography has an important role in diagnosis of congenital coronary artery anomalies, with high resolution multiplanner reformatted images

  11. Novel targets for ATM-deficient malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Johannes; Hofmann, Kay; Chen, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    Conventional chemo- and radiotherapies for the treatment of cancer target rapidly dividing cells in both tumor and non-tumor tissues and can exhibit severe cytotoxicity in normal tissue and impair the patient's immune system. Novel targeted strategies aim for higher efficacy and tumor specificity. The role of ATM protein in the DNA damage response is well known and ATM deficiency frequently plays a role in tumorigenesis and development of malignancy. In addition to contributing to disease development, ATM deficiency also renders malignant cells heavily dependent on other pathways that cooperate with the ATM-mediated DNA damage response to ensure tumor cell survival. Disturbing those cooperative pathways by inhibiting critical protein components allows specific targeting of tumors while sparing healthy cells with normal ATM status. We review druggable candidate targets for the treatment of ATM-deficient malignancies and the mechanisms underlying such targeted therapies. PMID:27308314

  12. Minimal-change nephropathy and malignant thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsano, S; Bruderman, I; Bernheim, J L; Rathaus, M; Griffel, B

    1980-05-01

    A 56-year-old man had fever, precordial pain, and a mediastinal mass. The mass disappeared two months later and the patient remained asymptomatic for 2 1/2 years. At that time a full-blown nephrotic syndrome developed, with minimal-change glomerulopathy. The chest x-ray film showed the reappearance of a giant mediastinal mass. On biopsy of the mass, malignant thymoma was diagnosed. Association between minimal-change disease and Hodgkin's disease is well known, while the association with malignant thymoma has not been previously reported. The relationship between malignant thymoma and minimal-change disease is discussed, and a possible pathogenic mechanism involving cell-mediated immunity is proposed.

  13. Podocalyxin expression in malignant astrocytic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayatsu, Norihito; Kaneko, Mika Kato; Mishima, Kazuhiko; Nishikawa, Ryo; Matsutani, Masao; Price, Janet E.; Kato, Yukinari

    2008-01-01

    Podocalyxin is an anti-adhesive mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein that has been implicated in the development of aggressive forms of cancer. Podocalyxin is also known as keratan sulfate (KS) proteoglycan. Recently, we revealed that highly sulfated KS or another mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein podoplanin/aggrus is upregulated in malignant astrocytic tumors. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between podocalyxin expression and malignant progression of astrocytic tumors. In this study, 51 astrocytic tumors were investigated for podocalyxin expression using immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry detected podocalyxin on the surface of tumor cells in six of 14 anaplastic astrocytomas (42.9%) and in 17 of 31 glioblastomas (54.8%), especially around proliferating endothelial cells. In diffuse astrocytoma, podocalyxin expression was observed only in vascular endothelial cells. Podocalyxin might be associated with the malignant progression of astrocytic tumors, and be a useful prognostic marker for astrocytic tumors

  14. Malignant lymphoma in african lions (panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, T M; McKnight, C A; Sikarskie, J G; Kitchell, B E; Garner, M M; Raymond, J T; Fitzgerald, S D; Valli, V E; Agnew, D; Kiupel, M

    2010-09-01

    Malignant lymphoma has become an increasingly recognized problem in African lions (Panthera leo). Eleven African lions (9 male and 2 female) with clinical signs and gross and microscopic lesions of malignant lymphoma were evaluated in this study. All animals were older adults, ranging in age from 14 to 19 years. Immunohistochemically, 10 of the 11 lions had T-cell lymphomas (CD3(+), CD79a(-)), and 1 lion was diagnosed with a B-cell lymphoma (CD3(-), CD79a(+)). The spleen appeared to be the primary site of neoplastic growth in all T-cell lymphomas, with involvement of the liver (6/11) and regional lymph nodes (5/11) also commonly observed. The B-cell lymphoma affected the peripheral lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. According to the current veterinary and human World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic neoplasms, T-cell lymphoma subtypes included peripheral T-cell lymphoma (4/11), precursor (acute) T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (2/11), chronic T-cell lymphocytic lymphoma/leukemia (3/11), and T-zone lymphoma (1/11). The single B-cell lymphoma subtype was consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) testing by immunohistochemistry on sections of malignant lymphoma was negative for all 11 lions. One lion was seropositive for FeLV. In contrast to domestic and exotic cats, in which B-cell lymphomas are more common than T-cell lymphomas, African lions in this study had malignant lymphomas that were primarily of T-cell origin. Neither FeLV nor FIV, important causes of malignant lymphoma in domestic cats, seems to be significant in the pathogenesis of malignant lymphoma in African lions.

  15. [Molecular heterogeneity of malignant pleural mesotheliomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchant, Robin; Montagne, François; Jaurand, Marie-Claude; Jean, Didier

    2018-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is predominantly an occupational cancer, most often linked to asbestos exposure. Malignant pleural mesothelioma prognosis is poor with a short survival median, due to the aggressiveness of tumor cells and the weak efficiency of conventional anti-cancer therapies. Clinical, histological, and molecular data suggest tumor heterogeneity between patients as it was also shown for other cancer types. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop new therapies that take into account this heterogeneity and the molecular characteristics of malignant pleural mesothelioma, in particular by identifying new anti-cancer drugs targeting the molecular specificities of each malignant pleural mesothelioma. Malignant pleural mesothelioma is characterized by numerous molecular alterations at the chromosomal, genetic and epigenetic levels. Molecular classification based on gene expression profile has firstly defined two tumor groups, C1 and C2, and more recently, four groups. By integrating genetic and transcriptomic analysis, a C2 LN tumor subgroup of the C2 group has been identified and characterized. In addition to tumor heterogeneity between patients, intra-tumor heterogeneity is supported by several evidences. Most therapeutic strategies that take into account the tumor molecular characteristics have focused on targeted therapies based on mutated genes. A more appropriate strategy would be to consider better-defined tumor groups on the basis of several molecular alterations types as it has been proposed for the C2 LN subgroup. A robust definition of homogeneous tumor groups sharing common molecular characteristics is necessary for the development of effective precision medicine for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Benign clavicular lesions that may mimic malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerscovich, E.G.; Greenspan, A.; Szabo, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Nontraumatic lesions of the clavicle are infrequent. Of these, malignant tumors are more common than benign lesions. From January 1988 to January 1990, we examined 17 patients with benign lesions of the clavicle; in 8, the morphologic appearance of the lesion raised the possibility of malignancy in the differential diagnosis. The radiologic findings in these patients are presented. We propose that the unique shape and embryologic development of the clavicle may contribute to the atypical, aggressive presentation of some benign lesions in that bone. (orig.)

  17. Deregulation of Interferon Signaling in Malignant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas C. Platanias

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Interferons (IFNs are a family of cytokines with potent antiproliferative, antiviral, and immunomodulatory properties. Much has been learned about IFNs and IFN-activated signaling cascades over the last 50 years. Due to their potent antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo, recombinant IFNs have been used extensively over the years, alone or in combination with other drugs, for the treatment of various malignancies. This review summarizes the current knowledge on IFN signaling components and pathways that are deregulated in human malignancies. The relevance of deregulation of IFN signaling pathways in defective innate immune surveillance and tumorigenesis are discussed.

  18. Renal malignancies with normal excretory urograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kass, D.A.; Hricak, H.; Davidson, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Four patients with malignant renal masses showed no abnormality of excretory urograms with tomography. Of the four lesions, two were primary renal cell carcinomas, one was a metastatic focus from a contralateral renal cell carcinoma, and one was a metastatic lesion from rectal adenocarcinoma. A normal excretory urogram should not be considered sufficient to exclude a clinically suspected malignant renal mass. In such an instance, diagnostic evaluation should be pursued using a method capable of topographic anatomic display, such as computed tomography or sonography

  19. Cranial CT and MRI in malignant phenylketonuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudinchet, F.; Maeder, P.; Meuli, R.A. (CHUV, Lausanne (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiology); Deonna, T.; Mathieu, J.M. (CHUV, Lausanne (Switzerland). Dept. of Pediatrics)

    1992-06-01

    Malignant phenylketonuria is a rare disease caused by a deficiency in dihydropteridine-reductase which induce a hyperphenylalaninemia and a defiency of neurotransmitters such as 3,4, dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and 5 hydroxytriphtophan. The case of a patient with malignant phenylketonuria (PKU) who underwent both CT and MR Imaging is reported. CT demonstrated the characteristic calcifications of the basal ganglia. MRI demonstrated areas of hypersignal on T1 and images in the basal ganglia, subcortical frontal and occipital white matter and cortex probably corresponding to clacifications. The MR findings are not specific but could be useful in monitoring the diet and neurotransmitter substitution therapy. (orig.).

  20. Cranial CT and MRI in malignant phenylketonuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudinchet, F.; Maeder, P.; Meuli, R.A.; Deonna, T.; Mathieu, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Malignant phenylketonuria is a rare disease caused by a deficiency in dihydropteridine-reductase which induce a hyperphenylalaninemia and a defiency of neurotransmitters such as 3,4, dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and 5 hydroxytriphtophan. The case of a patient with malignant phenylketonuria (PKU) who underwent both CT and MR Imaging is reported. CT demonstrated the characteristic calcifications of the basal ganglia. MRI demonstrated areas of hypersignal on T1 and images in the basal ganglia, subcortical frontal and occipital white matter and cortex probably corresponding to clacifications. The MR findings are not specific but could be useful in monitoring the diet and neurotransmitter substitution therapy. (orig.)

  1. Malignant ectomesenchymoma of the posterior mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. H.; Iqbal, R.; Hafeez-UR-Rehman; Yaqub, N.; Anwar-ul-Haq

    2001-01-01

    The surgical management of a four years old female child, presented at the Islamic International Medical Complex (IIMC), Islamabad, with three months history of recurrent chest infections and failure to thrive, is discussed. Posterior mediastinal tumor was diagnosed radiologically. Tumor had flimsy attachments with pericardium and thoracic aorta but was densely adherent with lower lobe of left lung. The tumor was completely removed along with a segment of lung. The postoperative recovery was uneventful. The diagnosis of malignant ectomesenchymoma was made on histopathology. The patients is well in follow-up. This is the first reported case of malignant ectomesenchymoma arising within posterior mediastinum. (author)

  2. Giant metastasizing malignant hidradenoma in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Bajaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old girl presented with a scalp swelling. The swelling was recurrent, reappearing everytime after local excision. She underwent surgery and the histopathologic diagnosis was malignant hidradenoma. This very rare and aggressive tumor is known to occur in elderly population and is histopathologically distinct from its commonly occuring benign counterpart. Malignant hidradenoma is resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We empahsize that being cognizant of the possibility of this rare tumor would assist in timely action in the form of wide resection, with possible reduction in morbidity and mortality.

  3. A Hormonally Active Malignant Struma Ovarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Struma ovarii is a rare monodermal variant of ovarian teratoma that contains at least 50% thyroid tissue. Less than 8% of struma ovarii cases present with clinical and biochemical evidence of thyrotoxicosis due to ectopic production of thyroid hormone and only 5% undergo malignant transformation into a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Only isolated cases of hormonally active papillary thyroid carcinoma developing within a struma ovarii have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism as well as a left adnexal mass, which proved to be a thyroid hormone-producing, malignant struma ovarii.

  4. BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, T.; Mizobuchi, Y.; Nagahiro, S.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kumada, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    BSH-based intra-operative BNCT as an initial treatment underwent in 4 children with malignant brain tumors since 1998. There were 2 glioblastomas, one primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) and one anaplastic ependymoma patient. They included two children under 3-year-old. All GBM patients were died of CSF dissemination without tumor regrowth in the primary site. Another PNET and anaplastic ependymoma patients are still alive without tumor recurrence. We can consider BNCT is optimal treatment modality for malignant brain tumor in children. (author)

  5. Malignant Mesothelioma after Household Exposure to Asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raya Saba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma (MM is an aggressive cancer that has been closely linked to asbestos exposure. Initially recognized as an occupational cancer in male workers, MM was later found to occur in their family members as well. We report the case of an 89-year-old female who presented with abdominal distention, pain, and findings consistent with malignant ascites. Family history was significant for fatal mesothelioma in her husband of 40 years, who was a worker at a tile factory. The diagnosis of MM was confirmed on pathologic examination of the omental core biopsy.

  6. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Mimicking Ischemic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuusuke Mitsuka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is extremely poor with a mean survival time of 12 months. The initial symptoms are poor and atypical. Because of its rare entity and little knowledge of its treatments, there are few reports of long-term survival. We encountered a very unique case with strong impression on radiological findings of malignant peritoneal methothelioma. We had misdiagnosed it because of the findings and because the time course was similar to that of ischemic colitis. The radiological findings on CT and enema disappeared within one week after antibiotic therapy.

  7. Duodenal Metastasis of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Chi Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic malignant mesothelioma of the pleura is uncommon at the time of initial diagnosis. The gastrointestinal lumen is rarely found at autopsy in patients with widespread disease. Here, we describe an extremely rare case of isolated duodenal metastasis of sarcomatoid mesothelioma of the pleura in a 73-year-old man, without memory of any direct exposure to asbestos. The possibility of gastrointestinal tract metastasis should be considered in the presence of anemia or positive occult blood test in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  8. Cholestatic jaundice by malignant lesions: pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Anna, Tatiana Kelly Brasileiro de; Santana, Alex Menezes; Rizzuto, Mauricio Soares; Chagas, Alessandro Rosa Rodrigues; Zuppani, Aguinaldo Cunha; Rezende, Marcelo Bruno; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo

    2009-01-01

    Malignant obstructive jaundice is most commonly caused by cancer of pancreatic head, papilla tumor, cholangiocarcinoma and biliary obstruction induced by secondary lesions of the liver or lymph nodes. Patients usually present with weight loss, abdominal pain, jaundice and progressive increase of direct bilirubin, being essential the evaluation by imaging methods for the proper diagnosis, staging and therapeutic planning. This essay illustrates the imaging aspects of ultrasound and computed tomography - and in specific situations magnetic resonance cholangiography - of the major malignancies that lead to cholestatic jaundice. (author)

  9. Targeting Malignant Brain Tumors with Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Razpotnik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies have been shown to be a potent therapeutic tool. However, their use for targeting brain diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancers, has been limited, particularly because the blood–brain barrier (BBB makes brain tissue hard to access by conventional antibody-targeting strategies. In this review, we summarize new antibody therapeutic approaches to target brain tumors, especially malignant gliomas, as well as their potential drawbacks. Many different brain delivery platforms for antibodies have been studied such as liposomes, nanoparticle-based systems, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs, and cell-based approaches. We have already shown the successful delivery of single-chain fragment variable (scFv with CPP as a linker between two variable domains in the brain. Antibodies normally face poor penetration through the BBB, with some variants sufficiently passing the barrier on their own. A “Trojan horse” method allows passage of biomolecules, such as antibodies, through the BBB by receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT. Such examples of therapeutic antibodies are the bispecific antibodies where one binding specificity recognizes and binds a BBB receptor, enabling RMT and where a second binding specificity recognizes an antigen as a therapeutic target. On the other hand, cell-based systems such as stem cells (SCs are a promising delivery system because of their tumor tropism and ability to cross the BBB. Genetically engineered SCs can be used in gene therapy, where they express anti-tumor drugs, including antibodies. Different types and sources of SCs have been studied for the delivery of therapeutics to the brain; both mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and neural stem cells (NSCs show great potential. Following the success in treatment of leukemias and lymphomas, the adoptive T-cell therapies, especially the chimeric antigen receptor-T cells (CAR-Ts, are making their way into glioma treatment as another type of cell

  10. miR-155 as a Biomarker in B-Cell Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Due

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have the potential to be useful biomarkers in the development of individualized treatment since they are easy to detect, are relatively stable during sample handling, and are important determinants of cellular processes controlling pathogenesis, progression, and response to treatment of several types of cancers including B-cell malignancies. miR-155 is an oncomiR with a crucial role in tumor initiation and development of several B-cell malignancies. The present review elucidates the potential of miR-155 as a diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive biomarker in B-cell malignancies using a systematic search strategy to identify relevant literature. miR-155 was upregulated in several malignancies compared to nonmalignant controls and overexpression of miR-155 was further associated with poor prognosis. Elevated expression of miR-155 shows potential as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo studies suggest miR-155 as an efficient therapeutic target, supporting its oncogenic function. The use of inhibiting anti-miR structures indicates promising potential as novel anticancer therapeutics. Reports from 53 studies prove that miR-155 has the potential to be a molecular tool in personalized medicine.

  11. Molecular and therapeutic advances in the diagnosis and management of malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lowery, Aoife J

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting tumors derived from chromaffin cells originating in the neural crest. These tumors represent a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge because the diagnosis of malignancy is frequently made in retrospect by the development of metastatic or recurrent disease. Complete surgical resection offers the only potential for cure; however, recurrence can occur even after apparently successful resection of the primary tumor. The prognosis for malignant disease is poor because traditional treatment modalities have been limited. The last decade has witnessed exciting discoveries in the study of PCCs and PGLs; advances in molecular genetics have uncovered hereditary and germline mutations of at least 10 genes that contribute to the development of these tumors, and increasing knowledge of genotype-phenotype interactions has facilitated more accurate determination of malignant potential. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms responsible for malignant transformation in these tumors has opened avenues of investigation into targeted therapeutics that show promising results. There have also been significant advances in functional and radiological imaging and in the surgical approach to adrenalectomy, which remains the mainstay of treatment for PCC. In this review, we discuss the currently available diagnostic and therapeutic options for patients with malignant PCCs and PGLs and detail the molecular rationale and clinical evidence for novel and emerging diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  12. Loss of heterozygosity of TRIM3 in malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulay, Jean-Louis; Stiefel, Urs; Taylor, Elisabeth; Dolder, Béatrice; Merlo, Adrian; Hirth, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are frequent primary brain tumors associated with poor prognosis and very limited response to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies. Besides sharing common growth features with other types of solid tumors, gliomas are highly invasive into adjacent brain tissue, which renders them particularly aggressive and their surgical resection inefficient. Therefore, insights into glioma formation are of fundamental interest in order to provide novel molecular targets for diagnostic purposes and potential anti-cancer drugs. Human Tripartite motif protein 3 (TRIM3) encodes a structural homolog of Drosophila brain tumor (brat) implicated in progenitor cell proliferation control and cancer stem cell suppression. TRIM3 is located within the loss of allelic heterozygosity (LOH) hotspot of chromosome segment 11p15.5, indicating a potential role in tumor suppression. ... Here we analyze 70 primary human gliomas of all types and grades and report somatic deletion mapping as well as single nucleotide polymorphism analysis together with quantitative real-time PCR of chromosome segment 11p15.5. Our analysis identifies LOH in 17 cases (24%) of primary human glioma which defines a common 130 kb-wide interval within the TRIM3 locus as a minimal area of loss. We further detect altered genomic dosage of TRIM3 in two glioma cases with LOH at 11p15.5, indicating homozygous deletions of TRIM3. Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome segment 11p15.5 in malignant gliomas suggests TRIM3 as a candidate brain tumor suppressor gene

  13. Fibrocartilaginous mesenchymoma with low-grade malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlin, D.C.; Bertoni, F.; Beabout, J.W.; Campanacci, M.

    1984-01-01

    In a review of cases of fibrous cartilaginous dysplasia of bone, five of fibrocartilaginous lesions were found to be different in clinical behavior and radiographic and morphologic features from the others. We have named these previously undescribed tumors ''fibrocartilaginous mesenchymomas with low-grade malignancy in the fibrous elements.'' (orig.)

  14. THERAPY-RELATED MYELOID MALIGNANCIES IN MYELOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenofon Papanikolaou

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Therapy related myeloid malignancies are an increasingly recognized treatment complication in patients undergoing therapy for multiple myeloma. The main predisposing factors are the alkylating agents, topoisomerase II inhibitors and radiotherapy, but recently questions have been raised regarding the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide. Little is known about the new antimyeloma agents in the context of therapy related myeloid malignanices. The duration of treatment and the time from diagnosis are the main contributing factors in alkylating induced myeloid malignancies which occur 5-10 years after treatment, chromosome 5 and 7 abnormalities being the characteristic finding. High dose therapy (HDT does not seem to be a major contributing factor per se in multiple myeloma. In a number of large published series, all the factors related with therapy-induced myelodysplasia were defined prior to HDT. Topoisomerase II inhibitors induce mainly acute leukemias which invariably correlate with dysregulation of the MLL gene. Radiotherapy causes therapy related myelodysplasia if applied in bone marrow producing areas, especially if combined with chemotherapy. Therapy related myeloid malignancies generally herald a poor prognosis. Karyotypic abnormalities seem to be the main prognostic factor. In all cases the risk for therapy related myeloid malignancies drops sharply by 10 years after the treatment.

  15. THERAPY-RELATED MYELOID MALIGNANCIES IN MYELOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Barlogie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Therapy related myeloid malignancies are an increasingly recognized treatment complication in patients undergoing therapy for multiple myeloma. The main predisposing factors are the alkylating agents, topoisomerase II inhibitors and radiotherapy, but recently questions have been raised regarding the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide. Little is known about the new antimyeloma agents in the context of therapy related myeloid malignanices. The duration of treatment and the time from diagnosis are the main contributing factors in alkylating induced myeloid malignancies which occur 5-10 years after treatment, chromosome 5 and 7 abnormalities being the characteristic finding. High dose therapy (HDT does not seem to be a major contributing factor per se in multiple myeloma. In a number of large published series, all the factors related with therapy-induced myelodysplasia were defined prior to HDT. Topoisomerase II inhibitors induce mainly acute leukemias which invariably correlate with dysregulation of the MLL gene. Radiotherapy causes therapy related myelodysplasia if applied in bone marrow producing areas, especially if combined with chemotherapy. Therapy related myeloid malignancies generally herald a poor prognosis. Karyotypic abnormalities seem to be the main prognostic factor. In all cases the risk for therapy related myeloid malignancies drops sharply by 10 years after the treatment.

  16. Malignant Lesions as Mammographically Appearing Intramammary Ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Miraveta, P.; Pons, M. J.; Pina, L. J.; Zornoza, G.

    2004-01-01

    Intramammary ganglia are frequent mammographic findings of no pathological importance. We present two cases of malignant breast lesions whose mammographic appearance could resemble that of intramammary ganglia. Although the mammographic appearance of a lesion is similar to that of intramammary ganglia, it should be carefully studied, especially if it presents a poorly defined border or is palpable. (Author)

  17. MRI of intracranial meningeal malignant fibrous histiocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, A.; Ochi, M.; Hayashi, K.; Hirata, K.; Hayashi, T.; Yasunaga, A.; Shibata, S.

    1996-01-01

    We describe the CT and MRI findings in a patient with primary intracranial meningeal malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). CT delineated the anatomical relations and MRI aided in tissue characterisation. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the MRI findings in primary intracranial meningeal MFH. (orig.). With 1 fig

  18. Ocular malignant lymphoma. A clinical pathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda A

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven histologically proved cases of ocular malignant lymphoma diagnosed and managed during the year 1974-81 are reported. The follow-up period ranges from 2-7 years. The difficulties in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are discussed.

  19. Preoperative diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia | Brand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Preoperative diagnosis of malignant ...

  20. Electrical Signs predictors of malignant ventricular arrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleman Fernandez, Ailema Amelia; Dorantes Sanchez, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Recurrence of malignant ventricular arrhythmia is frequent in cardioverter-defibrillators related patients. The risk stratification is difficult, there are numerous electrocardiographic predictors but his sensibility and specificity are not absolute. The limit between normal and pathological is not defined, besides the complexity of ventricular arrhythmias. We expose different electrocardiographic predictors that can help to better individual risk stratification

  1. Risk factors associated with oesophageal malignancy among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors associated with oesophageal malignancy among Ethiopian patients: a case control study. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...

  2. Malignant astrocytoma following radiotherapy for craniopharyngioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maat-Schieman, M.L.C.; Bots, G.T.A.M.; Thomeer, T.W.M.; Vielvoye, G.J. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Hospital)

    1985-05-01

    The case report describes a boy with a malignant astrocytoma in the mid-line of the cerebellum 14 years after X-ray therapy for craniopharyngioma. In Leiden University Hospital this is the first case of a suspected radiation-induced brain tumour in 66 patients treated for cranial lesions by radiotherapy between 1969 and 1979 who have survived more than 5 years.

  3. Second malignancies in children: the usual suspects?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moppett, John; Oakhill, Anthony E-mail: anthony.oakhill@nildram.co.uk; Duncan, Andrew W

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an up to date review of second malignant neoplasms (SMN's) following treatment for childhood cancer, referring to their incidence, the role of genetic factors, and how the primary malignancy and treatment received influence the type, site and prognosis of SMN's. The role of genetic factors will be discussed as far as they impact upon a predisposition to later development of SMN's. The primary malignancies that have important associations with SMN's will then be discussed, in particular Hodgkin's disease, retinoblastoma and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The important second malignancies will be highlighted, including tumours of the CNS and thyroid, osteosarcoma, secondary acute myeloid leukaemia and melanoma. Emphasis will be put upon identifying which patients are most likely to suffer from these tumours. An important part of the article are case histories. These are provided in combination with illustrations as a useful adjunct to the text, with a particular emphasis on radiological features, diagnosis and screening. Finally, the important but different roles of causal agents, in particular chemotherapy and radiotherapy are highlighted.

  4. Hyperparathyroidism After Irradiation for Childhood Malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullen, Todd; Bodie, Greg; Gill, Anthony; Ihre-Lundgren, Catharina; Shun, Albert; Bergin, Mary; Stevens, Graham; Delbridge, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the occurrence of hyperparathyroidism in a cohort of patients undergoing combined parathyroid and thyroid surgery after previous head-and-neck irradiation for childhood malignancy. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective cohort study for the years 1996 to 2007. The study group comprised patients undergoing surgery in University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit who had received previous head-and-neck irradiation in childhood and who were identified as having pathologic thyroid and parathyroid characteristics. Results: A total of 53 patients were identified in whom head-and-neck irradiation for the treatment of childhood malignancy had been documented. In each of the cases, thyroid disease was the primary reason for referral for surgery. Five of these patients (10%) were found to exhibit coexisting hyperparathyroidism. The latency period for hyperparathyroidism was less than 20 years in 4 of the 5 cases. There were four conventional parathyroid adenomas and one parathyroid lipoadenoma. All patients exhibited a significant decrease in postoperative calcium levels after surgery. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the significant risk of hyperparathyroidism after radiation exposure for childhood malignancy. The timeframe for development of disease is much shorter than that published for individuals who have undergone irradiation for benign diseases. High doses of therapeutic radiation at a young age make childhood survivors of malignancy at especially high risk for developing hyperparathyroidism

  5. Malignant Appendage Tumours in Zaria | Samaila | Sudanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Eccrine sweat gland origin. Conclusion: Malignant appendage tumours showed a higher frequency in middle aged men in this review. A good knowledge and understanding of the pathology, high index of suspicion and immunohistochemical studies should help in making diagnosis. Surgical intervention with wide margin ...

  6. Hyperparathyroidism after irradiation for childhood malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Todd; Bodie, Greg; Gill, Anthony; Ihre-Lundgren, Catharina; Shun, Albert; Bergin, Mary; Stevens, Graham; Delbridge, Leigh

    2009-03-15

    To examine the occurrence of hyperparathyroidism in a cohort of patients undergoing combined parathyroid and thyroid surgery after previous head-and-neck irradiation for childhood malignancy. This is a retrospective cohort study for the years 1996 to 2007. The study group comprised patients undergoing surgery in the University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit who had received previous head-and-neck irradiation in childhood and who were identified as having pathologic thyroid and parathyroid characteristics. A total of 53 patients were identified in whom head-and-neck irradiation for the treatment of childhood malignancy had been documented. In each of the cases, thyroid disease was the primary reason for referral for surgery. Five of these patients (10%) were found to exhibit coexisting hyperparathyroidism. The latency period for hyperparathyroidism was less than 20 years in 4 of the 5 cases. There were four conventional parathyroid adenomas and one parathyroid lipoadenoma. All patients exhibited a significant decrease in postoperative calcium levels after surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the significant risk of hyperparathyroidism after radiation exposure for childhood malignancy. The timeframe for development of disease is much shorter than that published for individuals who have undergone irradiation for benign diseases. High doses of therapeutic radiation at a young age make childhood survivors of malignancy at especially high risk for developing hyperparathyroidism.

  7. Bacteremia and candidemia in hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, D; Skinhøj, P; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    1988-01-01

    171 episodes of bacteremia and candidemia in 142 patients were recorded during the period 1981-1985 in patients with hematological malignancies. Overall mortality, within 1 week of onset of bacteremia, was 20%. Increased mortality was found in patients with poor disease-prognosis (39%), with gran...

  8. PRIMARY MALIGNANT MELANOMA OF ARYEPIGLOTTIC FOLD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... commonly in larynx, tongue, and tonsil.2 Primary mel- anoma of the larynx and trachea are very rare among the group of non-cutaneous melanomas. In primary melanoma of the larynx, the least common site is the subglottic mucosa.3 Here we present a case of primary malignant melanoma of aryepiglottic ...

  9. Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX and Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    provide a unique microenvironment supporting the accumulation of more platelets and the elaboration of a fibrin - rich network produced by coagulation...process and can initiate the formation of a platelet - rich thrombus by tethering the platelet to a thrombogenic surface. Several ligands binding to GP Ib... Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX and Malignancy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jerry Ware, Ph.D

  10. Acute cardiac failure in neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sparrow, Patrick

    2012-02-03

    We present a case of rapid onset acute cardiac failure developing as part of neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a 35-year-old woman following treatment with thioridazine and lithium. Post mortem histology of cardiac and skeletal muscle showed similar changes of focal cellular necrosis and vacuolation suggesting a common disease process.

  11. Survival From Childhood Hematological Malignancies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Friederike; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to diverse findings as to the role of family factors for childhood cancer survival even within Europe, we explored a nationwide, register-based cohort of Danish children with hematological malignancies. METHODS: All children born between 1973 and 2006 and diagnosed with a hematolo...

  12. Malignancy in Noonan syndrome and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smpokou, P; Zand, D J; Rosenbaum, K N; Summar, M L

    2015-12-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) and related disorders, such as NS with multiple lentigines (formerly called LEOPARD syndrome), cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, and Costello syndrome, constitute an important group of developmental malformation syndromes with variable clinical and molecular features. Their underlying pathophysiologic mechanism involves dysregulation of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, an essential mediator of developmental and growth processes in the prenatal and postnatal setting. Malignant tumor development is an important complication encountered in other RASopathies, such as neurofibromatosis type 1, but the neoplastic risks and incidence of malignant tumors are less clearly defined in NS and related disorders of the Noonan spectrum. Malignant tumor development remains an important complication variably seen in the RASopathies and, thus, a clear understanding of the underlying risks is essential for appropriate clinical care in this patient population. This review discusses previously published reports of malignancies in individuals with RASopathies of the Noonan spectrum. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. MR imaging of malignant ovarian tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kang, Heoung Keun; Moon, Woong Jae; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kim, Jae Kyu; Choi, Ho Sun

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate MRI findings of malignant ovarian tumors. MRI findings were retrospectively reviewed in 25 patients with surgically confirmed 30 malignant ovarian tumors(common epithelial tumor; 23, sex cord stromal tumor; 2, endo dermal sinus tumor; 1, metastatic tumor; 4). The findings evaluated were the lesion size, solid and/or cystic component, wall thickness, septal thickness, necrosis, invasion of adjacent organ, ascites, and adenopathy. MRI findings of the malignant ovarian tumors were as follow: Size of lesion was 5-35cm(mean 14cm); solid component was present in 80%(24/30); wall thickness was more than 3mm in 90%(27/30); septal thickness was more than 3mm in 70%(21/30); tumor necrosis was present in 40%(12/30%); invasion of adjacent organ was present in 76%(19/25); ascites was present in 56%(14/25); lymphadenopathy was present in 24% (6/25). MRI findings of absence of solid component(6/6), even wall and septal thickness(7/7, 19/19) were found only in epithelial tumors. Uneven septal thickness more than 3mm(7/11) was a predominant MRI findings of non-epithelial tumors. Well-defined cystic lesion within solid component was seen in Krukenberg tumors. Evaluation of the lesion size, internal architecture, invasion of adjacent organ, ascites, and lymphadenopathy in MRI would enable diagnosis of malignant ovarian tumors and could lead to possible differential diagnosis of epithelial tumors from non-epithelial tumors

  14. Delirium followed by neuroleptic malignant syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delirium and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) are two uncommon syndromes that are often unrecognized or misdiagnosed by the primary physicians as functional psychiatric disorders. The infrequency and the heterogeneity of clinical manifestation, progression and outcome with which those diagnoses are ...

  15. Human malignant melanomas in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlas, S.W.; Braffman, B.H.; Lo Brutto, R.; Elder, D.E.; Herlyn, D.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate signal intensities and relaxation times on MR images in malignant melanomas with histopathologic features and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra. Cell lines from human malignant melanomas in tissue culture were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. MR imaging was performed in vivo at 1.9 T to assess 12 separate lesions in ten mice using spin-echo and inversion-recovery techniques. T1,T2, and N(H) were calculated in all cases. Histopathologic examination was performed on specimens resected immediately after imaging, using hematoxylin and eosin, Prussian blue, and Fontan stains to assess for tumor necrosis, iron, and melanin content. EPR spectra were also obtained on four resected specimens. The authors' results indicate that the relaxation behavior of nonhemorrhagic malignant melanomas cannot be explained solely by the presence of necrosis, water content, or iron content. The degree of melanin within these tumors did correlate with T1 relaxation enhancement. T2 relaxation times did not correlate with the sole presence of either iron, melanin, or necrosis. Although the unique relaxation behavior of nonhemorrhagic malignant melanoma seems to have many causes, their data suggest that, contrary to previous investigations, it is influenced by the presence of melanin rather than iron

  16. Oesphageal Stenting for palliation of malignant mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahamim Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dyspahgia in patients with malignant mesothelioma is usually due to direct infiltration of the eosophagus by the tumour. It can be distressing for the patient and challenging for the physician to treat. We describe three cases in which this condition has been successfully palliated with self expanding esophageal stents.

  17. A conditional mouse model for malignant mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, Johan; van Montfort, Erwin; Vooijs, Marc; Zevenhoven, John; Krimpenfort, Paul; van der Valk, Martin; van de Vijver, Marc; Berns, Anton

    2008-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a devastating disease that has been associated with loss of Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and genetic lesions affecting RB and P53 pathways. We introduced similar lesions in the mesothelial lining of the thoracic cavity of mice. Mesothelioma developed at high incidence in

  18. Clinical diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Hideyuki; Washio, Kazuhiro; Mano, Masayuki

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated clinical and thoracoscopic findings of cases that underwent thoracoscopic biopsy for the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma. We reviewed 32 cases suspected of having malignant pleural mesothelioma from 2003 to 2006. We made a diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma via thoracoscopic biopsy (19 cases). The cut-off level of hyaluronic acid in malignant effusions, selected on the basis of the best diagnostic efficacy, was 100 μg/ml. We can decrease the incidence of false negative cases by the combination of CT findings and the presence of hyaluronic acid in pleural effusion. In the pleural thickening type of thoracoscopic appearance, the parietal pleurae were thickened, and small nodules were rare. As for this type, tumor cells were histologically absent or confined to the submesothelial tissue. We considered that determinations of specific sites were difficult. Adequate tissue samples obtained via video-assisted thoracoscopy were necessary for diagnosis. We can decrease the incidence of false negative cases by the combination of the presence of hyaluronic acid in pleural effusion and thoracoscopic biopsy. (author)

  19. Biomarkers and Prognosis in Malignant Lymphomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenbeek, Anton; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Dreyling, Martin; Kluin, Philip; Engert, Andreas; Salles, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 100 hematologists and pathologists from Europe, the United States, and Canada participated in the workshop Biomarkers and Prognosis in Malignant Lymphomas, held in Mandelieu, France,April 11-13, 2008, under the leadership of Anton Hagenbeek, Randy Gascoyne, and Gilles Salles.

  20. Malignant renal cysts: Diagnostic performance and strong predictors at MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Yoon; Kim, Jeong Kon; Cho, Kyoung-Sik; Min, Gyeong-Eun; Ahn, Han-Jong

    2010-01-01

    Background: Utilization of multidetector-row CT (MDCT) is anticipated to improve the diagnostic accuracy and reliability for determining malignant cysts. Purpose: To assess the diagnostic accuracy, interobserver agreement, benefit of consensus reading, and strong predictors of malignancy in determining malignant cystic renal masses at MDCT. Material and Methods: Two radiologists independently rated the probability of malignancy at MDCT in 72 benign and 53 malignant cysts. The accuracy and interobserver agreement for determining malignant cysts were evaluated. The strong predictors of malignancy were determined, and in patients with interobserver disagreement for determining malignant cysts, consensus readings were performed. Results: Az value of the two readers was 0.905-0.936 and the sensitivity and specificity were 85-89% and 83-93%, respectively. The overall interobserver agreement for determining the malignant cyst was good as the κ value was 0.696 (% agreement, 61% (76/125)). Thickened irregular wall, thickened irregular septa, and enhancing soft tissue component were strong predictors for malignancy with both readers. In the 17 patients with interobserver disagreement for determining malignant cysts, the sensitivity was improved from 38-63% to 89% by the consensus reading. Conclusion: At MDCT, some false negative decisions for determining malignant cysts can be corrected by consensus reading, and thickened irregular septa, thickened irregular wall, and enhancing soft tissue component are the strong predictors of malignant cysts

  1. Integrin inhibitor (Cilengitide) as radiosensitization strategy for malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Felipe Henrique de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Radiotherapy is effective in tumor control, but several tumors have molecular characteristics that lead to radioresistance and possible posttreatment recurrence. Many tumors have overexpression of integrin receptors. Integrins play a central role in growth, motility, regulation of adhesion and survival, leading to increased proliferation, invasion and metastasis of tumors, making these receptors excellent targets for the development of new therapies. Studies have shown that inhibiting the interaction of matrix proteins with integrin receptors may increase the cytotoxic effect of ionizing radiation by demonstrating the radiosensitizing potential of combination therapy in tumoral lines. Cilengitide an inhibitor of integrins receptors α Vβ3 and αVβ5 stands out for its great antitumor potential against gliomas. Thus, the combination of ionizing radiation with cilengitide is an alternative therapeutic strategy. However, the effect of this combination is little studied in Glioblastomas (U87 and T98) and not studied in melanoma (UACC). The objective of this study was to evaluate the radiosensitising potential of the RGD molecule cilengitida by means of the combined treatment with gamma radiation in different tumor lines, as well as to compare the effect of this combination therapy with cisplatin, a molecule already used in clinical practice. Our panel of tumor cell lines was composed of U87 (wild-type p53 malignant glioblastoma) T98 (malignant glioblastoma mutant p53), MCF7 (mammary carcinoma) and UACC (melanoma). The radiosensitizer effect of cilengitide was evaluated by the quantification of metabolic cell viability through the MTT assay. Inhibition of colony formation was investigated in clonogenicity assays. The flow cytometer was used to investigate cell cycle distribution and the type of cell death induced. We observed that in all cell lines examined, cilengitida promoted detachment, metabolic alterations and reduction of proliferation, as well as alteration of

  2. A comparison of CA125, HE4, risk ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA, and risk malignancy index (RMI for the classification of ovarian masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Differentiation between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms is essential for creating a system for patient referrals. Therefore, the contributions of the tumor markers CA125 and human epididymis protein 4 (HE4 as well as the risk ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA and risk malignancy index (RMI values were considered individually and in combination to evaluate their utility for establishing this type of patient referral system. METHODS: Patients who had been diagnosed with ovarian masses through imaging analyses (n = 128 were assessed for their expression of the tumor markers CA125 and HE4. The ROMA and RMI values were also determined. The sensitivity and specificity of each parameter were calculated using receiver operating characteristic curves according to the area under the curve (AUC for each method. RESULTS: The sensitivities associated with the ability of CA125, HE4, ROMA, or RMI to distinguish between malignant versus benign ovarian masses were 70.4%, 79.6%, 74.1%, and 63%, respectively. Among carcinomas, the sensitivities of CA125, HE4, ROMA (pre-and post-menopausal, and RMI were 93.5%, 87.1%, 80%, 95.2%, and 87.1%, respectively. The most accurate numerical values were obtained with RMI, although the four parameters were shown to be statistically equivalent. CONCLUSION: There were no differences in accuracy between CA125, HE4, ROMA, and RMI for differentiating between types of ovarian masses. RMI had the lowest sensitivity but was the most numerically accurate method. HE4 demonstrated the best overall sensitivity for the evaluation of malignant ovarian tumors and the differential diagnosis of endometriosis. All of the parameters demonstrated increased sensitivity when tumors with low malignancy potential were considered low-risk, which may be used as an acceptable assessment method for referring patients to reference centers.

  3. Lee waves, benign and malignant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtele, M. G.; Datta, A.

    1992-01-01

    The flow of an incompressible, stratified fluid over an obstacle will produce an oscillation in which buoyancy is the restoring force, called a gravity wave. For disturbances of this scale, the atmosphere may be treated as incompressible; and even the linear approximation will explain many of the phenomena observed in the lee of mountains. However, nonlinearities arise in two ways: (1) through the large (scaled) size of the mountain, and (2) from dynamically singular levels in the fluid field. These produce a complicated array of phenomena that present hazards to aircraft and to lee surface areas. If there is no dynamic barrier, these waves can penetrate vertically into the middle atmosphere (30-100 km attitude), where recent observations show them to be of a length scale that must involve the Coriolis force in any modeling. At these altitudes, the amplitude of the waves is very large, and the waves are studied with a view to their potential impact on the projected National Aerospace Plane. This paper presents the results of analyses and state-of-the-art numerical simulations, validated where possible by observational data.

  4. Malignant mesothelioma after radiation treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Burgers, Jacobus A; Baas, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a relatively uncommon malignancy. Although the pathogenesis is primarily related to asbestos, the disease may be associated with radiation exposure. Recently, increased risks for second primary mesothelioma after radiation for lymphoma have been reported. Because these f...

  5. The clinical features and meningeal histochemistry of meningeal malignant melanosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xue-wu; CHI Zhao-fu; ZHAO Xiu-he; WU Wei

    2008-01-01

    @@ Meningeal malignant melanosis is a meninges tumor that can produce melanin.Primary intracranial neurocutaneous melanosis is rare.It grows fast with a high degree of malignancy and is associated with earlier intracranial hypertension and meningeal irritation.

  6. Circulating Microparticles in Patients with Benign and Malignant Ovarian Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rank, A.; Liebhardt, S.; Zwirner, J.; Burges, A.; Nieuwland, R.; Toth, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Microparticles are known to be increased in various malignancies. In this prospective study, microparticle levels were evaluated in patients with benign and malignant ovarian lesions. Patients and Methods: Microparticles from platelets/megakaryocytes, activated platelets and endothelial

  7. Malignant skin lesions in Oshogbo, Nigeria | Oseni | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: ninety- eight patients presented with skin cancers out of which 60 ... Malignant melanoma affects male more than female and it commonly affects lower ... Conclusion: skin malignancies pose a burden to the economy of the country.

  8. VARIED MALIGNANT PRESENTATIONS IN A SINGLE CASE OF XERODERMA PIGMENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Shetty

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum is a autosomal recessive genetic disorder in which cutaneous malignancies are very common. We report a rare case where four different varieties of cutaneous malignancies were seen in the same patient..

  9. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma in two pediatric patients: MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haliloglu, M.; Hoffer, F.A.; Fletcher, B.D.

    2000-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a rare tumor in childhood. We present two cases of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma in which contrast-enhanced, fat-saturated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used advantageously to detect peritoneal tumor involvement. (orig.)

  10. Malignant mesothelioma after radiation treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Marie L.; Burgers, Jacobus A.; Baas, Paul; van 't Veer, Mars B.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Louwman, Marieke W. J.; Zijlstra, Josée M.; van den Berg, Hendrik; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2009-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a relatively uncommon malignancy. Although the pathogenesis is primarily related to asbestos, the disease may be associated with radiation exposure. Recently, increased risks for second primary mesothelioma after radiation for lymphoma have been reported. Because these

  11. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma in two pediatric patients: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haliloglu, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, St. Memphis, TN (United States); Hoffer, F.A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, St. Memphis, TN (United States); Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States); Fletcher, B.D. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, St. Memphis, TN (United States); Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States); Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a rare tumor in childhood. We present two cases of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma in which contrast-enhanced, fat-saturated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used advantageously to detect peritoneal tumor involvement. (orig.)

  12. Ultraflex precision colonic stent placement as a bridge to surgery in patients with malignant colon obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fregonese, D.; Naspetti, R.; Ferrer, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Emergency surgery for malignant colon obstruction entails relatively high morbidity and mortality rates and typically necessitates a 2-step resection. These problems might be potentially mitigated by placement of a self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) as a bridge to surgery. A nitinol co...

  13. Disseminated Cryptococcosis With Brain Involvement in Patients With Chronic Lymphoid Malignancies on Ibrutinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Julia A; Maziarz, Eileen K; Spec, Andrej; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Perfect, John R

    2017-01-01

    We report 2 cases of disseminated cryptococcosis with central nervous system involvement in patients with chronic lymphoid malignancies occurring within 1 month of starting on ibrutinib. Characteristically, in both cases, no inflammation was seen in the cerebrospinal fluid. Central nervous system mycoses should be considered as a potential complication of ibrutinib.

  14. Disseminated Cryptococcosis With Brain Involvement in Patients With Chronic Lymphoid Malignancies on Ibrutinib

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Julia A.; Maziarz, Eileen K.; Spec, Andrej; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Perfect, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We report 2 cases of disseminated cryptococcosis with central nervous system involvement in patients with chronic lymphoid malignancies occurring within 1 month of starting on ibrutinib. Characteristically, in both cases, no inflammation was seen in the cerebrospinal fluid. Central nervous system mycoses should be considered as a potential complication of ibrutinib.

  15. Clinical experiences with optical coherence tomography in epithelial (pre)malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, R.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to differentiate between normal tissue and (pre)malignant tissue in epithelial cancers. It can be divided in research performed in the genital area and the field of melanoma. Chapter 2 describes the principles of the

  16. Radiosensitization effects of nicotinamide on malignant and normal mouse tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, G.G.; Kjellen, E.; Pero, R.W.; Cameron, R.

    1985-01-01

    Inhibitors of the chromatin-associated enzyme adenosine diphosphate ribosyltransferase have been found to inhibit DNA strand rejoining and to potentiate lethality of DNA-damaging agents both in vivo and in vitro. The authors have in this work examined the radiosensitizing potential of one such inhibitor, nicotinamide, on tumor tissue by using transplanted C3H mouse mammary adenocarcinomas and on normal tissue in a tail-stunting experiment using BALB/cA mice. The data indicate a radiosensitizing effect of nicotinamide on tumor cells as well as on normal tissue. The data indicate a possible role of adenosine diphosphate ribosyltransferase inhibitors as a sensitizing agent in the radiotherapy of malignant tumors

  17. Lee waves: Benign and malignant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtele, M. G.; Datta, A.; Sharman, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    The flow of an incompressible fluid over an obstacle will produce an oscillation in which buoyancy is the restoring force, called a gravity wave. For disturbances of this scale, the atmosphere may be treated as dynamically incompressible, even though there exists a mean static upward density gradient. Even in the linear approximation - i.e., for small disturbances - this model explains a great many of the flow phenomena observed in the lee of mountains. However, nonlinearities do arise importantly, in three ways: (1) through amplification due to the decrease of mean density with height; (2) through the large (scaled) size of the obstacle, such as a mountain range; and (3) from dynamically singular levels in the fluid field. These effects produce a complicated array of phenomena - large departure of the streamlines from their equilibrium levels, high winds, generation of small scales, turbulence, etc. - that present hazards to aircraft and to lee surface areas. The nonlinear disturbances also interact with the larger-scale flow in such a manner as to impact global weather forecasts and the climatological momentum balance. If there is no dynamic barrier, these waves can penetrate vertically into the middle atmosphere (30-100 km), where recent observations show them to be of a length scale that must involve the coriolis force in any modeling. At these altitudes, the amplitude of the waves is very large, and the phenomena associated with these wave dynamics are being studied with a view to their potential impact on high performance aircraft, including the projected National Aerospace Plane (NASP). The presentation shows the results of analysis and of state-of-the-art numerical simulations, validated where possible by observational data, and illustrated with photographs from nature.

  18. Feasibility of Intravoxel Incoherent Motion for Differentiating Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Yi Ling; Liu, Jin Huan; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Chang Sheng; Huang, Dongjie

    2018-06-13

    This study aimed to preliminarily investigate the feasibility of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) theory in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Forty-five patients with 56 confirmed thyroid nodules underwent preoperative routine magnetic resonance imaging and IVIM diffusion-weighted imaging. The histopathologic diagnosis was confirmed by surgery. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), perfusion fraction f, diffusivity D, and pseudo-diffusivity D* were quantified. Independent samples t test of IVIM-derived metrics were conducted between benign and malignant nodules. Receiver-operating characteristic analyses were performed to determine the optimal thresholds as well as the sensitivity and specificity for differentiating. Significant intergroup difference was observed in ADC, D, D*, and f (p < 0.001). Malignant tumors featured significantly lower ADC, D and D* values and a higher f value than that of benign nodules. The ADC, D, and D* could distinguish the benign from malignant thyroid nodules, and parameter f differentiate the malignant tumors from benign nodules. The values of the area under the curve for parameter ADC, D, and D* were 0.784 (p = 0.001), 0.795 (p = 0.001), and 0.850 (p < 0.001), separately, of which the area under the curve of f value was the maximum for identifying the malignant from benign nodules, which was 0.841 (p < 0.001). This study suggested that ADC and IVIM-derived metrics, including D, D*, and f, could potentially serve as noninvasive predictors for the preoperative differentiating of thyroid nodules, and f value performed best in identifying the malignant from benign nodules among these parameters. Copyright © 2018 Academic Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Skull infarction in a patient with malignant fibrous histiocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, C E; Morayati, S J; LeDuc, M A

    1987-09-01

    The authors describe a case of a skull infarction initially suspected to be an isolated, remote metastasis in a patient diagnosed with soft tissue malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Osseous malignant fibrous histiocytoma has been reported to occur within a bone infarction but the presence of a benign bone infarction remote from a soft tissue malignant fibrous histiocytoma has not been reported previously. Bone infarctions and malignant fibrous histiocytomas are briefly reviewed.

  20. Computer-aided tomographic diagnosis of lymphadenopathies in malignant nonhodgkin's lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheremisin, V.M.; Mazurov, V.K.; Anosov, N.A.; Savello, V.E.; Belov, A.F.; Novikov, A.A.; Mel'nichenko, V.Ya.; Nikolaevich, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The potentialities of computer-aided tomography (CAT) in the diagnosis of lymphomas were studied. A total of 223 patients with disseminated lymphadenopathy were examined (78 with malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 48 with Hodgkin'sn disease, 54 with metastatic involvement of the lymph nodes, 18 with HIV infection, and 25 with reactive and inflammatory lymphadenopathy). CAT helped precisely assess the dissemination of the pathological process and disease stage in patients with malignant lymphomas, permitted follow up the time course of the disease, and facilitated differentiation of the condition from other diseases manifesting by disseminated lymphadenopathies

  1. Giant melanocytic nevus with malignant melanoma: a rare disorder in a black African child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katibi, Oludolapo Sherifat; Ogunbiyi, Adebola; Brown, Biobele Jotham; Adeyemi, Oyedeji Oladele

    2014-10-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevus (GCMN) is rare in babies of African descent. Unfortunately, it has an increased potential for malignant transformation. A 3-year-old female child presented with a 6-month history of multiple nodules on an existing giant congenital melanocytic nevus and swelling in the right axilla of four weeks duration. Skin biopsy of the nodular skin lesions was in keeping with a metastatic malignant melanoma (Clark stage 4). She completed a full course of chemotherapy but subsequently died four months after presentation. Patients with large GCMN should be counseled and followed up appropriately to improve and prolong life. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Approach to Malign Melanoma in Anorectal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Pulat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Anorectal malign melanoma comprise 0.2-1 % of all malign melanoma. They are extremely aggressive. Most patients are lost beacuse of incurable systemic illness. In our study, we aim to evaluate the results of surgical and oncological follow-up of our patients that we operated because of anorectal malign melanoma. Material and Method: Our 4 patients operated because of anorectal malign melanoma between October 2008 and April 2013 were analysed. The patients were analysed in terms of demographic datas, complaint and its time, physical examination and imaging findings, treatment procedure, local recurrence or presence of metastasis and follow-up results.Results: Our study group comprised 4 people (2 men and 2 women with the mean age of 64,2 years. The main complaint was rectal bleeding. The avarage complaint duration was 7.5 months. In all patients, anorectal mass was detected after physical examination and imaging studies. Biopsies of the mass were reported to be consistent with malign melanoma. With the further studies, one patient was detected to have metastasis in liver. Abdominoperineal resection was applied to one patient after wide local excision and to three patients during the first aplication. The avarage follow-up time was 19,25 months. The avarage diameter of tumor was 3,9 cm. One patient was applied lymph node dissection because of recurrence in iliac region. The avarage stay time at hospital of the patients who had no postoperative problems was 9,7 days. During follow-up time, three of the patients died because of common metastasis. A patient followed regularly is still continuing his life without illness in his postoperative 22nd month. Discussion: Anorectal malign melanoma is a rare, with a bad prognosis and a late diagnosed entity as it has a similarity with benign illnesses which are mostly seen in anorectal area in terms of clinical symptoma. To correct the prognosis of the illness, the suitable surgery and adjuvant treatment

  3. Morphological patterns of malignant cercival lessons in Warri, Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of this, 77 cases (43.7%) were malignant and 99 cases (56.3%) were either benign neoplasm, pseudoneoplastic and inflammatory lesions. The patients' age range for all malignant cervical lesions was 30-87 years. The peak age and mean age incidence for all malignant cervical tumours were 40-49 years and 49.6±8.4 ...

  4. Primary Malignant Bone Tumours at the University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Primary malignant bone tumours include malignancies arising primarily from bone tissue. This is opposed to secondary bone tumours in which case the neoplastic elements arise primarily from other sites within the body and secondarily spread to bone. Primary malignant bone tumours are generally ...

  5. Malignant insulinoma: The problems of tumour localization and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant insulinomas of the pancreas are rare tumours, accounting for 10% of ... Histological examination showed a R-cell malignant tumour of the pancreas with ... Associated vaso-. SA MEDICAL JOURNAL VOLUME 63 23 APRIL 1983 ... 52 cases of pancreatic endocrine malignant tumours, which have similar behaviour.

  6. Xeroderma Pigmentosum With Early And Rapid Development Of Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Arghyaprasum

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of xeroderma pigmentosum in a 9 year old developing multiple tumours over a short period of 6 months is reported. The tumours showed two different types of malignancies-squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Two other siblings exhibited cutaneous lesions of xeroderma pigmentosum without any malignant change.

  7. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A levels in discriminating malignant from non-malignant pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Mohamed Shalaby Samaha

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Measurement of SAA and CRP levels in pleural fluid has good diagnostic utility in differentiation between malignant and non-malignant pleural effusion and pleural SAA has a better diagnostic performance than CRP.

  8. Expression patterns of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase and nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase in human malignant lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Uffe Høgh; Hastrup, Nina; Sehested, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine in human malignant lymphomas the expression patterns of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT), the primary, rate-limiting enzymes in the synthesis of NAD+. NAMPT is a potential biomarker...... for sensitivity to NAMPT inhibitors and NAPRT is a biomarker for the use of nicotinic acid as a chemoprotectant in treatment with NAMPT inhibitors. The NAMPT inhibitor, APO866, is currently in clinical phase II trials in lymphomas. The expression of NAMPT and NAPRT was investigated in 53 samples of malignant.......0024). In conclusion, FL are a promising target for NAMPT inhibitors whereas substantial subsets of malignant lymphomas especially in Hodgkin lymphoma may be suitable for a combination treatment with nicotinic acid and NAMPT inhibitors....

  9. Whole-genome sequencing of a malignant granular cell tumor with metabolic response to pazopanib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lei; Liu, Song; Conroy, Jeffrey; Wang, Jianmin; Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; Glenn, Sean T.; Murakami, Mitsuko; Liu, Lu; Hu, Qiang; Conroy, Jacob; Miles, Kiersten Marie; Nowak, David E.; Liu, Biao; Qin, Maochun; Bshara, Wiam; Omilian, Angela R.; Head, Karen; Bianchi, Michael; Burgher, Blake; Darlak, Christopher; Kane, John; Merzianu, Mihai; Cheney, Richard; Fabiano, Andrew; Salerno, Kilian; Talati, Chetasi; Khushalani, Nikhil I.; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.; Morrison, Carl D.

    2015-01-01

    Granular cell tumors are an uncommon soft tissue neoplasm. Malignant granular cell tumors comprise T transitions, particularly when immediately preceded by a 5′ G. A loss-of-function mutation was detected in a newly recognized tumor suppressor candidate, BRD7. No mutations were found in known targets of pazopanib. However, we identified a receptor tyrosine kinase pathway mutation in GFRA2 that warrants further evaluation. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of a malignant granular cell tumor exhibiting a response to pazopanib, and the first whole-genome sequencing of this uncommon tumor type. The findings provide insight into the genetic basis of malignant granular cell tumors and identify potential targets for further investigation. PMID:27148567

  10. Downregulation of the expression of HDGF attenuates malignant biological behaviors of hilar cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Sun, Jingxian; Yang, Guangyun; Liu, Zhaojian; Guo, Sen; Zhao, Rui; Xu, Kesen; Wu, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Zhaoyang

    2015-09-01

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) has been reported to be a potential predictive and prognostic marker for several types of cancer and important in malignant biological behaviors. However, its role in human hilar cholangiocarcinoma remains to be elucidated. Our previous study demonstrated that high expression levels of HDGF in hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues correlates with tumor progression and patient outcome. The present study aimed to elucidate the detailed functions of the HDGF protein. This was performed by downregulating the protein expression of HDGF in the FRH0201 hilar cholangiocarcinoma cell line by RNA interference (RNAi) in vitro, and revealed that downregulation of the HDGF protein significantly inhibited the malignant biological behavior of the FRH0201 cells. In addition, further investigation revealed that downregulation of the protein expression of HDGF significantly decreased the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor, which may be the mechanism partially responsible for the inhibition of malignant biological behaviors. These findings demonstrated that HDGF is important in promoting malignant biological behaviors, including proliferation, migration and invasion of hilar cholangiocarcinoma FRH0201 cells. Inhibition of the expression of HDGF downregulated the malignant biological behaviors, suggesting that downregulation of the protein expression of HDGF by RNAi may be a novel therapeutic approach to inhibit the progression of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  11. Association of malignancy with rapid growth in early lesions induced by irradiation of rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Epithelial lesions induced by irradiation of rat skin were studied to determine (a) the relationship of malignancy to dose, (b) the types of lesions and circumstances leading to overt malignancy, and (c) the growth rates of lesions progressing to malignancy versus those of lesions remaining benign. High doses of radiation were shown to be associated with the production of epidermal cancers, the maximum yield being obtained at 6,400 rads. Conversely, a peak yield of noncancerous lesions was obtained at 1,600 rads. This association between malignancy and high dose was consistent for cancers evolving from warts, cysts, and chronic ulcers. Although the proportion of warts among the induced lesions was much higher than that of the cysts or chronic ulcers (76, 14, and 10%, respectively), the likelihood of warts becoming cancerous was substantially lower (14, 23, and 21%). The combined data for all doses showed that the latency period of the epidermal cancers was significantly (P = 0.015) shorter than that of the benign tumors. Rapid growth rates were observed for warts, cysts, and chronic ulcers progressing to overt cancer, and these did not overlap at any point on the growth scale with rates for benign tumors. This finding suggested that the potential for malignant development had been established early in the carcinogenic process, very likely at induction

  12. Comparison of metabolic ratios of urinary estrogens between benign and malignant thyroid tumors in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Estrogen metabolism may be associated with the pathophysiological development of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods To evaluate the differential estrogen metabolism between benign and malignant PTCs, estrogen profiling by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was applied to urine samples from postmenopausal patients with 9 benign tumors and 18 malignant stage I and III/IV PTCs. Results The urinary concentration of 2-methoxyestradiol was significantly lower in the stage I malignant patients (3.5-fold; P 3.5-fold difference; P < 0.002). In particular, the estriol/16α-OH-estrone ratio differentiated between the benign and early-stage malignant patients (P < 0.01). Conclusions Increased 16α-hydroxylation and/or a decreased 2-/16α-ratio, as well increased reductive 17β-HSD, with regard to estrogen metabolism could provide potential biomarkers. The devised profiles could be useful for differentiating malignant thyroid carcinomas from benign adenomas in postmenopausal women. PMID:24156385

  13. Specific Inhibition of SRC Kinase Impairs Malignant Glioma Growth In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Stedt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant glioma is a severe cancer with a poor prognosis. Local occurrence and rare metastases of malignant glioma make it a suitable target for gene therapy. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of Src kinase in different cancers. However, these studies have focused mainly on Src-deficient mice or pharmacological inhibitors of Src. In this study we have used Src small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs in a lentiviral backbone to mimic a long-term stable treatment and determined the role of Src in tumor tissues. Efficacy of Src shRNAs was confirmed in vitro demonstrating up to 90% target gene inhibition. In a mouse malignant glioma model, Src shRNA tumors were almost 50-fold smaller in comparison to control tumors and had significantly reduced vascularity. In a syngenic rat intracranial glioma model, Src shRNA-transduced tumors were smaller and these rats had a survival benefit over the control rats. In vivo treatment was enhanced by chemotherapy and histone deacetylase inhibition. Our results emphasise the importance of Src in tumorigenesis and demonstrate that it can be efficiently inhibited in vitro and in vivo in two independent malignant glioma models. In conclusion, Src is a potential target for RNA interference-mediated treatment of malignant glioma.

  14. Retroperitoneal extension via the retrocrural space of malignant thymoma and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Retrospective evaluation by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkawara, Kiyoshi; Furuse, Makoto; Mizutani, Yoshihide; Ohsawa, Tadashi; Fujii, Takeshi [Jichi Medical School, Minamikawachi, Tochigi (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed CT findings of 31 patients with malignant thymoma and one patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma in our institution. Transdiaphragmatic extension into the retroperitoneum via the retrocrural space was observed in 10% of malignant thymomas. In the same way, this spread from chest to abdomen was demonstrated in the case of malignant pleural mesothelioma. CT is especially useful in assessing extent of these tumors and determining the optimal treatment plan. (author).

  15. Retroperitoneal extension via the retrocrural space of malignant thymoma and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Retrospective evaluation by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawara, Kiyoshi; Furuse, Makoto; Mizutani, Yoshihide; Ohsawa, Tadashi; Fujii, Takeshi

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed CT findings of 31 patients with malignant thymoma and one patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma in our institution. Transdiaphragmatic extension into the retroperitoneum via the retrocrural space was observed in 10% of malignant thymomas. In the same way, this spread from chest to abdomen was demonstrated in the case of malignant pleural mesothelioma. CT is especially useful in assessing extent of these tumors and determining the optimal treatment plan. (author)

  16. Romidepsin targets multiple survival signaling pathways in malignant T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, B C; Brammer, J E; Li, Y; Murray, D; Liu, Y; Hosing, C; Nieto, Y; Champlin, R E; Andersson, B S

    2015-01-01

    Romidepsin is a cyclic molecule that inhibits histone deacetylases. It is Food and Drug Administration-approved for treatment of cutaneous and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, but its precise mechanism of action against malignant T cells is unknown. To better understand the biological effects of romidepsin in these cells, we exposed PEER and SUPT1 T-cell lines, and a primary sample from T-cell lymphoma patient (Patient J) to romidepsin. We then examined the consequences in some key oncogenic signaling pathways. Romidepsin displayed IC 50 values of 10.8, 7.9 and 7.0 nm in PEER, SUPT1 and Patient J cells, respectively. Strong inhibition of histone deacetylases and demethylases, increased production of reactive oxygen species and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential were observed, which may contribute to the observed DNA-damage response and apoptosis. The stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway and unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum were activated, whereas the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) and β-catenin pro-survival pathways were inhibited. The decreased level of β-catenin correlated with the upregulation of its inhibitor SFRP1 through romidepsin-mediated hypomethylation of its gene promoter. Our results provide new insights into how romidepsin invokes malignant T-cell killing, show evidence of its associated DNA hypomethylating activity and offer a rationale for the development of romidepsin-containing combination therapies

  17. Nanotechnology applications in hematological malignancies (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samir, Ahmed; Elgamal, Basma M; Gabr, Hala; Sabaawy, Hatem E

    2015-09-01

    A major limitation to current cancer therapies is the development of therapy-related side-effects and dose limiting complications. Moreover, a better understanding of the biology of cancer cells and the mechanisms of resistance to therapy is rapidly developing. The translation of advanced knowledge and discoveries achieved at the molecular level must be supported by advanced diagnostic, therapeutic and delivery technologies to translate these discoveries into useful tools that are essential in achieving progress in the war against cancer. Nanotechnology can play an essential role in this aspect providing a transforming technology that can translate the basic and clinical findings into novel diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive tools useful in different types of cancer. Hematological malignancies represent a specific class of cancer, which attracts special attention in the applications of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment. The aim of the present review is to elucidate the emerging applications of nanotechnology in cancer management and describe the potentials of nanotechnology in changing the key fundamental aspects of hematological malignancy diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

  18. Training stem cells for treatment of malignant brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengwen; Calvin; Li; Mustafa; H; Kabeer; Long; T; Vu; Vic; Keschrumrus; Hong; Zhen; Yin; Brent; A; Dethlefs; Jiang; F; Zhong; John; H; Weiss; William; G; Loudon

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of malignant brain tumors remains a challenge. Stem cell technology has been applied in the treatment of brain tumors largely because of the ability of some stem cells to infiltrate into regions within the brain where tumor cells migrate as shown in preclinical studies. However, not all of these efforts can translate in the effective treatment that improves the quality of life for pa-tients. Here, we perform a literature review to identify the problems in the field. Given the lack of efficacy of most stem cell-based agents used in the treatment of malignant brain tumors, we found that stem cell distribution(i.e., only a fraction of stem cells applied capable of targeting tumors) are among the limiting factors. We provide guidelines for potential improvements in stem cell distribution. Specifically, we use an engineered tissue graft platform that replicates the in vivo microenvironment, and provide our data to validate that this culture platform is viable for producing stem cells that have better stem cell distribution than with the Petri dish culture system.

  19. EVALUATION OF CYTOKINE GENE POLYMORPHISM IN B CELL LYMPHOID MALIGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nazarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies with some solid tumors has shown that polymorphisms of certain cytokine genes may be used as predictors of clinical outcome in the patients. It seemed important to evaluate potential correlations between production of certain pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and co-receptor molecules, and promoter polymorphism of the cytokine genes involved into regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism and blood clotting in the patients with hematological malignancies. The article contains our results concerning associations between of IL-1β, -2, -4, -10, -17, TNFα, and allelic polymorphisms of their genes in 62 patients with B cell lymphoid malignancies in an ethnically homogenous group (self-identified as Russians. We have shown that the GА and AA genotypes of the G-308A polymorphism in TNFα gene are significantly associated with increased production of this cytokine, being more common in aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas, more rare in multiple myeloma and in indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

  20. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jed Brendan Scharf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is an aggressive malignancy that occurs extremely rarely in the pediatric population. It carries a dismal prognosis. Adult studies are often used to guide therapy in the pediatric population, as a limited number of case reports form the body of pediatric literature. Herein, we document the course and treatment of an 8-year old male diagnosed with MPM. The diagnosis came after he presented to his family physician with dyspnea and was found to have a large right-sided chest mass on subsequent imaging. Through an initial right pneumonectomy and subsequent chest wall excision, followed by chemotherapy with Pemetrexed and Cisplatin he remains virtually disease free today, almost 2 years following surgery.