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Sample records for chestnuts

  1. Modelling chestnut biogeography for American chestnut restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Songlin; Liang, Liang; Paillet, Frederick L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Chestnuts (Castanea spp.) are ecologically and economically important species. We studied the general biology, distribution and climatic limits of seven chestnut species from around the world. We provided climatic matching of Asiatic species to North America to assist the range-wide restoration...... of American chestnut [C. dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.] by incorporating blight-resistant genes from Asiatic species. Location North America, Europe and East Asia. Methods General chestnut biology was reviewed on the basis of published literature and field observations. Chestnut distributions were established using...... Maxent modelling to predict corresponding suitable climate zones for those species in North America. Results Chestnuts are primarily distributed in the warm-temperate and subtropical zones in the northern hemisphere. PCA results revealed that thermal gradient was the primary control of chestnut...

  2. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  3. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHESTNUTS

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    Dida Iserliyska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chestnuts originating either from Bulgarian (Karlovo and Rozino or international cultivars (Buffalo Queen, Lucent, Red Spanish и Skookuma poses specific nutritional composition differentiating with high level of sugar, considerably high level of protein especially gluten, considerably low level of lipids and relatively high content of ascorbinic acid, Ca and Mg.

  4. XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

  5. Effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Lina; Li, Qian; Xie, Shuangshuang; Hu, Jiaqi; Wu, Yanwen; Ouyang, Jie

    2016-10-20

    The present study focused on the effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel. After thermal processing, the total starch content in both boiled and roasted chestnuts decreased significantly (Pchestnut increased and that of roasted chestnut remained stable. The granular microstructure of the starch in cooked chestnut was gradually destroyed during the thermal processing. The starch in cooked chestnut still exhibited C-type X-ray diffraction patterns, but the intensity of diffraction peaks and the crystallinity were obviously declined compared with those of fresh chestnut. Textural profile analysis of chestnut starch gel and chestnut kernel showed that the main textural characterizations of roasted chestnut were higher than those of boiled chestnuts. These results are helpful for better understanding the texture change in fresh, boiled and roasted chestnuts, which indicated that roasting is an alternative industrial thermal processing method for chestnut kernel.

  6. Variations in Disease Resistance of Chestnut Cultivars against Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Sanghyun; KIM Kyunghee; PIAO Chungen; MOON Byungju

    2006-01-01

    Chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica is one of the major chestnut diseases occurred on stems and branches. Oriental chestnut has more resistance than American one. Twenty-five cultivars of chestnut tree including various cultivars such as Tsukuba, Okkwang, Rihei, Ginyose, Eunsan, etc. Were tested with a rapid, simple and reliable method. The cultivar Banseki is one of the most resistant cultivars tested and has the necrotic area of 0.40 cm2. However, the necrotic areas of the cultivars of American chestnut, Eunsan, Kwangjujoyul and Eaton, ranges from 3.35 to 2.61 cm2 and these cultivars are relatively susceptible to this pathogen. Many pycnidia of this pathogen were observed on the inner and outer bark tissues after incubating for 3 weeks.

  7. Interactions between chestnut gall wasp and blight: a new criticality for chestnut

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    Turchetti T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast spread of Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus represents a new constraint factor for chestnut stands and orchards in Italy. So far, the favourable effect of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica-Castanea sativa patho-system allowed the development of chestnut cultivation. This situation could be modified by the progressive weakening of the trees caused by intensive attacks of the new parasite. During recent surveys worrying blight damage recurrences were observed in different Italian chestnut areas (in Piemonte, Trentino and Toscana regions which were highly infested by the Chinese wasp. While biological control treatments against the parasite are carried out, it is necessary to set up integrated protocols for the management of chestnut orchards to allow the survival of trees and their productivity.

  8. Cost-benefit Analysis of Chestnut Production in Xingtai County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuji; JIN

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of market demand survey of chestnut,this article carries out cost-benefit analysis of the chestnut production in Xingtai County,to understand the profitability and payback period of local chestnut production.It points out that chestnut production has a high rate of return on investment,and chestnut can be promoted on a large scale in Xingtai County.However,there are still some problems in the production and marketing of chestnut in Xingtai County,such as low level of technology,extensive management,low level of organization,market imperfections and weak brand consciousness.Based on these problems,corresponding recommendations are put forth.

  9. Comparison of the transcriptomes of American chestnut (Castanea dentata and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima in response to the chestnut blight infection

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    Wheeler Nicholas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background1471-2229-9-51 American chestnut (Castanea dentata was devastated by an exotic pathogen in the beginning of the twentieth century. This chestnut blight is caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, a fungus that infects stem tissues and kills the trees by girdling them. Because of the great economic and ecological value of this species, significant efforts have been made over the century to combat this disease, but it wasn't until recently that a focused genomics approach was initiated. Prior to the Genomic Tool Development for the Fagaceae project, genomic resources available in public databases for this species were limited to a few hundred ESTs. To identify genes involved in resistance to C. parasitica, we have sequenced the transcriptome from fungal infected and healthy stem tissues collected from blight-sensitive American chestnut and blight-resistant Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima trees using ultra high throughput pyrosequencing. Results We produced over a million 454 reads, totaling over 250 million bp, from which we generated 40,039 and 28,890 unigenes in total from C. mollissima and C. dentata respectively. The functions of the unigenes, from GO annotation, cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. In silico expression analyses showed that many of the stress response unigenes were expressed more in canker tissues versus healthy stem tissues in both American and Chinese chestnut. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either American or Chinese chestnut canker tissues. Conclusion Our study resulted in the identification of a large set of cDNA unigenes from American chestnut and Chinese chestnut. The ESTs and unigenes from this study constitute an important

  10. Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

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    M. G. Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i a simulation model (R2-value = 87% based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63% with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.

  11. Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gouveia, C.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Magalhães, M.

    2011-10-01

    Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i) a simulation model (R2-value = 87%) based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii) a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63%) with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.

  12. TRAPA NATANS (WATER CHESTNUT: AN OVERVIEW

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    Bhatiwal Shalabh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Trapa natans (water chestnut, commonly known as singhara in India, belonging to family Trapaceae, is a free-floating plant which grows in shallow water fields, ponds or swampy land. The water chestnut is native to Europe, Asia and Africa where it is well kept in check by native insect parasites. It favours nutrient-rich water with a pH range of 6.7 to 8.2 and an alkalinity of 12 to 128 mg/l of calcium carbonate. The kernels are delicious to eat and contain carbohydrates, proteins and essential minerals and are reported to be used in many ayurvedic preparations as diuretic, aphrodisiac, nutrient, appetizer, astringent, coolant, antidiarrhoeal & tonic. They are also useful in lumbago, sore throat, bilious affections, bronchitis, fatigues & inflammation. The fruits are a good source of nutrition having 16% starch and 2% protein. Stem is used in eye disorders in the form of juice. The plant Trapa natans has also been evaluated for various activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial. The literature reveals the use of kernels as diuretic, aphrodisiac, nutrient, appetizer, astringent, coolant, antidiarrhoeal & tonic, fruits as good source of nutrition having 16% starch and 2% protein, plant as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial and stem in form of juice in eye disorders. The present study will give comprehensive information on the chemical constituents and mainly pharmacological activities of this plant.

  13. Effect of chestnut extract and chestnut fiber on viability of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains under gastrointestinal tract conditions.

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    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; La Gatta, Barbara; Di Capua, Marika; Di Luccia, Aldo; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The main challenge to probiotics, during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract, are the acidic gastric secretions of the stomach, and the bile salts released into the duodenum. The survival of the strains, in this phase, is strongly influenced by the food used for their delivery. This work is part of a project studying the development of novel food processes, based on the use of chestnuts from cultivar "Castagna di Montella". In detail, the effect of indigestible chestnut fiber and of chestnut extract on the viability of selected lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated. Among 28 cultures, twelve strains were selected, on the basis of tolerance to low pH values and bile salts, and submitted to exposition to simulated gastric or bile juice in presence of chestnut extract with or without immobilization in chestnut fiber. The presence of chestnut extract proved to play a significant role on the gastric tolerance improvement of lactobacilli. The recorded protective effect could not be simply related to the starch or reducing sugars content. RP-HPLC demonstrated that in the chestnut flour, there are one or more hydrophobic peptides or oligopeptides, which specifically offer a marked resistance to simulated gastric juice, albeit present at low concentration. These beneficial effects proved to be dependent by the cultivar used to produce the flour.

  14. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut

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    Qin, Jing; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby) is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.). To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb) and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC), central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC) and southwestern China (SWC) based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900–126,500 years ago. PMID:27459279

  15. Feasibility study of effect of ultrasound on water chestnuts.

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    Wu, Junru; Wu, Meiyin

    2006-04-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa natans L.), an annual aquatic plant with floating leaves was first introduced into North America in 1874. Since then, wild populations have quickly become established in many locations within Northeastern USA. Due to its detrimental effects on the overall health of aquatic ecosystems, millions of dollars have been spent to control the water chestnut infestations in the North America through mechanical harvesting and manual removal, with limited success. The potential for continued expansion of the infestations demonstrates an urgent need for an effective control method. This study examined the potential of ultrasound application as an alternative control strategy for water chestnut management. Various frequencies and amplitudes of ultrasound generated by submerged transducers were applied directly to water chestnuts harvested from Lake Champlain. Substantial damages on water chestnut cells as well as penetrated petitoles were observed at the following tested frequencies of ultrasound, 20 kHz, 187 kHz, 469 kHz, 519 kHz and 2.34 MHz. Among them, 20 kHz ultrasound of 1.9 MPa acoustic pressure amplitude demonstrated the most significant damages within 10 s of ultrasound exposure. The treated plants started to die within 72 h and the mortality rate of water chestnut plants treated with the ultrasound application was 100%.

  16. Chestnut extract induces apoptosis in AGS human gastric cancer cells.

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    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2011-06-01

    In Korea, chestnut production is increasing each year, but consumption is far below production. We investigated the effect of chestnut extracts on antioxidant activity and anticancer effects. Ethanol extracts of raw chestnut (RCE) or chestnut powder (CPE) had dose-dependent superoxide scavenging activity. Viable numbers of MDA-MD-231 human breast cancer cells, DU145 human prostate cancer cells, and AGS human gastric cancer cells decreased by 18, 31, and 69%, respectively, following treatment with 200 µg/mL CPE for 24 hr. CPE at various concentrations (0-200 µg/mL) markedly decreased AGS cell viability and increased apoptotic cell death dose and time dependently. CPE increased the levels of cleaved caspase-8, -7, -3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose-dependent manner but not cleaved caspase-9. CPE exerted no effects on Bcl-2 and Bax levels. The level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein decreased within a narrow range following CPE treatment. The levels of Trail, DR4, and Fas-L increased dose-dependently in CPE-treated AGS cells. These results show that CPE decreases growth and induces apoptosis in AGS gastric cancer cells and that activation of the death receptor pathway contributes to CPE-induced apoptosis in AGS cells. In conclusion, CPE had more of an effect on gastric cancer cells than breast or prostate cancer cells, suggesting that chestnuts would have a positive effect against gastric cancer.

  17. Production of fermented chestnut purees by lactic acid bacteria.

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    Blaiotta, G; Di Capua, M; Coppola, R; Aponte, M

    2012-09-03

    The objective of this study was to develop a new chestnut-based puree, in order to seasonally adjust the offer and use the surplus of undersized production, providing, at the same time, a response to the growing demand for healthy and environmentally friendly products. Broken dried chestnuts have been employed to prepare purees to be fermented with six different strains of Lactobacillus (Lb.) rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei. The fermented purees were characterized by a technological and sensorial point of view, while the employed strains were tested for their probiotic potential. Conventional in vitro tests have indicated the six lactobacilli strains as promising probiotic candidates; moreover, being the strains able to grow and to survive in chestnut puree at a population level higher than 8 log₁₀ CFU/mL along 40 days of storage at 4 °C, the bases for the production of a new food, lactose-free and with reduced fat content, have been laid.

  18. Quantification of minerals and tocopherols isomers in chestnuts approach chemometrics

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    Nilson Evelazio de Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The levels of the ?, ?, and (?+?-tocopherol isomers and the amounts of the minerals Se, Zn, Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Mg, and Cu were analyzed in chestnuts. High contents of Zn (>65% relative to the recommended dietary intake (RDI were found in all chestnuts except macadamia nuts (25% of the RDI. All samples had Se contents higher than the RDI: Brazil nuts > macadamia nuts, cashew nuts > pecans > almonds > pistachio nuts > hazelnuts > European nuts. A greater concentration of ?-tocopherol was found in almonds (30% of RDI. All samples, except for hazelnuts, almonds, and macadamia nuts, had (?+?- tocopherols, with the largest amount found in pistachios. Only pecan nuts and European nuts had ?-tocopherol and only in low amounts. Multivariate analysis allowed for better characterization and distinction of the chestnuts

  19. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana; De Sio, Antonio; Boniglia, Concetta; Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro

    2009-07-01

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [ European Parliament and Council Directive, 1999/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of "Montella" chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  20. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangiacotti, Michele [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Foggia (Italy)], E-mail: izsfgchimica@infinito.it; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Foggia (Italy); De Sio, Antonio [La Dolce Irpinia Srl - Montella (AV) (Italy); Boniglia, Concetta [Department of Public Veterinary Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro [Department of Technology and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of 'Montella' chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  1. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill) starch for industrial utilization

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g), lipid (5.39 g/100g), crude fiber (2.34 g/100g) and ash (2.14 g/100g). Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A TECHNOLOGY FOR LOW IN GLUTEN CHESTNUT PUREE

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    Pavlina Paraskova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the scientific research related to technologies for processing and implementation of chestnut products are aimed to establish the regimes of preliminary treatment of the nuts, such as devitalization, hydrotherapy, thermo-hydro therapy, refrigeration and freezing with the scope of long term storage of the raw material in disguise of peeled, unpeeled, cooled, chilled and etc. chestnut. Additionally added value products can be designed to designate some specific target group like consumers with food allergies, obese people as well as pupils’ nutrition

  3. Biotic and abiotic stress can induce cystatin expression in chestnut.

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    Pernas, M; Sánchez-Monge, R; Salcedo, G

    2000-02-11

    A cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) from chestnut (Castanea sativa) seeds, designated CsC, has been previously characterized. Its antifungal, acaricide and inhibitory activities have allowed to involve CsC in defence mechanisms. The CsC transcription levels decreased during seed maturation and increased throughout germination, an opposite behavior to that shown by most phytocystatins. No inhibition of endogenous proteinase activity by purified CsC was found during the seed maturation or germination processes. CsC message accumulation was induced in chestnut leaves after fungal infection, as well as by wounding and jasmonic acid treatment. Induction in roots was also observed by the last two treatments. Furthermore, CsC transcript levels strongly raised, both in roots and leaves, when chestnut plantlets were subjected to cold- and saline-shocks, and also in roots by heat stress. All together, these data suggest that chestnut cystatin is not only involved in defence responses to pests and pathogen invasion, but also in those related to abiotic stress.

  4. Dynamics of Cryphonectria hypovirus infection in chestnut blight cankers.

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    Bryner, Sarah Franziska; Prospero, Simone; Rigling, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica cause lethal bark cankers on chestnut trees. Infection of C. parasitica with Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in Europe biologically controls this disease, leading to nonlethal and inactive cankers. Unexpectedly, virus-free C. parasitica strains have been isolated from inactive cankers. In this study, we compared the virulence of virus-infected and virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from either inactive or active cankers on chestnut seedlings and sprouts. In the seedling experiment, we assessed canker growth and seedling mortality. In the sprout experiment, we also assessed canker growth and made fungal reisolations to determine virus infection and immigration of foreign vegetative compatibility (vc) types over a period of 13 years in a coppice forest. Overall, the virulence of virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from inactive versus active cankers did not differ. Significant differences were only attributed to virus infection. Virus infection and fungal strain composition in cankers changed over time. Foreign vc types immigrated into cankers and virus-free cankers became virus-infected within a few years. Most of the cankers were callused over time and became inactive. However, we observed that the virus did not always persist in these cankers. This study demonstrates that virus spread occurs effectively in European chestnut forests and that this biocontrol system is highly dynamic.

  5. Betaines and related ammonium compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Cautela, Domenico; Paolucci, Marina; Siano, Francesco; Volpe, Maria Grazia; Castaldo, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Chestnut fruits, being poor of simple sugars and consisting mainly of fibers and starch, are among the constituents of Mediterranean diet. While numerous studies report on content of proteins and amino acids in chestnut, no one has appeared so far on betaines, an important class of nitrogen compounds ubiquitous in plants for their protective action in response to abiotic stress. In this study, we analyzed by HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry, in fruits and flours of varieties of chestnut cultivated in Italy, the composition of betaines and ammonium compounds intermediates of their biosynthesis. Besides the parent amino acids, the compounds quantified were choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, glycine betaine, N-methylproline, proline betaine (stachydrine), β-alanine betaine, 4-guanidinobutyric acid, trigonelline, N,N,N-trimethyllysine. Interestingly, some uncommon derivatives of pipecolic acid, such as N-methylpipecolic acid, 4-hydroxypipecolic acid and 4-hydroxy-N-methylpipecolic acid were identified for the first time in chestnut samples and characterized by MS(n) tandem mass spectrometry.

  6. Nondestructive detection of infested chestnuts based on NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect feeding is a significant postharvest problem for processors of Chestnuts (Castanea sativa, Miller). In most cases, damage from insects is 'hidden', i.e. not visually detectable on the fruit surface. Consequently, traditional sorting techniques, including manual sorting, are generally inadequa...

  7. Effect of cooking methods on nutritional quality and volatile compounds of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Shi, Xianhe; Zhao, Qiaojiao; Cui, Yahui; Ouyang, Jie; Xu, Fang

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods on the content of important nutrients and volatiles in the fruit of Chinese chestnut. The nutritional compounds, including starch, water-soluble protein, free amino acids, reducing sugar, sucrose, organic acids and total flavonoids, of boiled, roasted and fried chestnuts were significantly (Pchestnuts after cooking, while the amylose, fat, crude protein and total polyphenol content varied slightly (P>0.05). L-Aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and L-arginine were found to be the main reduced free amino acids in cooked chestnuts. The main aromatic compositions in fresh chestnuts were aldehydes and esters, while ketones, furfural and furan were formed in cooked chestnuts due to the Maillard reaction and degradation of saccharides, amino acids and lipids. Principle component analysis demonstrated that roasting and frying had a similar effect on the nutritional composition of chestnuts, which differed from that of the boiling process.

  8. Determinants of chestnuts demanded quantities : an empirical estimation using panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Mourão, Paulo; Mourão, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we studied the economic determinants of chestnuts demanded quantities. It concludes by stating that chestnuts are only demanded in countries with the tradition of their presence in people’s diets, receiving strong challenges from the globalisation process. We also have found a significant dependence on real income per capita of chestnuts demanded quantities. Price effects were concluded as not influencing CDQ in the panel estimations.

  9. Removal of water turbidity by natural coagulants obtained from chestnut and acorn.

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    Sćiban, Marina; Klasnja, Mile; Antov, Mirjana; Skrbić, Biljana

    2009-12-01

    The ability of seed extracts of several species of chestnut and acorn to act as natural coagulants was tested using a synthetic turbid water. Active components were extracted from ground seeds of Horse chestnut and acorns of some species of family Fagaceae: Common oak, Turkey oak, Northern red oak and European chestnut. All investigated extracts had coagulation capabilities and their amounts depended on pH values and initial turbidities. The seed extracts from European chestnut and Common oak acorn were the most efficient expressing the highest coagulation activities, about 80% and 70%, respectively, in both low and medium investigated water turbidities at the lowest coagulant dose 0.5 ml/L.

  10. Property Comparison of Chestnut Starch and Modified Chestnut Starch%板栗淀粉与板栗变性淀粉性质的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建兰; 刘秀凤; 李志博; 马宏峰; 蔡金星; 常学东

    2011-01-01

    比较了板栗淀粉,板栗氧化淀粉,板栗羟丙基淀粉,板栗磷酸酯淀粉的主要物理性质并测定了板栗淀粉及其3种变性淀粉的冻融稳定性、透光率、溶解性和膨胀度、糊化特性等性质.结果表明:板栗淀粉经过变性后,3种变性淀粉的冻融稳定性和透光率上升,溶解度变大;氧化淀粉和羟丙基淀粉的膨胀度小于板栗淀粉,磷酸酯淀粉的膨胀度大于板栗淀粉;板栗淀粉糊的糊化温度,峰值黏度、95℃的黏度与50℃的黏度以及在二者温度保温1 h的黏度值均低于板栗淀粉;板栗变性淀粉糊的热黏度稳定性和冷黏度稳定性与板栗淀粉相比变化较大;板栗变性淀粉的凝胶性和凝沉性均低于板栗淀粉,抗老化能力强于板栗淀粉.%The properties of chestnut starch, oxidized chestnut starch, and hydroxypropylated chestnut starch were compared and the physical properties such as freeze -melt stability, light transmissivity, solubility, expansibility,and gelatinization were studied.Results: The freeze - melt stability and light transmissivity of chestnut starch rise and solubility is enhanced after the modification.The expansibilities of oxidized chestnut starch and hydroxypropyl chestnut starch are lower than chestnut starch, while those of carboxymethyl chestnut starch are higher.The pasting temperature,peak viscosity,95 ℃ viscosity,50 ℃ viscosity and their final viscosity of the modified chestnut starch are lower than chestnut starch.Differences are found in thermal -viscosity and cool paste viscosity between modified chestnut starch paste and chestnut starch paste.The gelatin and sink stability of the modified starch are lower than chestnut starch and the anti -aging ability of the modified starch is strengthened.

  11. A study on the production of chestnut powder in the inner shell(endo carp) of a chestnut from its treatment plant. A basic study on the recycling process design of wasted inner shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, B.G. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    In this study, recycling the chestnut inner shell out of the agricultural wastes in a chestnut treatment factory was investigated. 50% of the inner shell consisted of chestnut body and the rest was made of pure shell; therefore, the elementary study separating chestnut body from the inner shell was carried out. Also, the physical and chemical properties of chestnut powders from the inner shell was studied in order to design the separation process. It was found that we can separate the chestnut powders from the chestnut shell through drying, coarse grinding, wind separating and fine grinding processes; therefore, it is possible to make bakeries, cakes and powder foods using the chestnut powders because the powders are good in terms of water holding capacity, swelling potential etc.. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Biochemical analysis of two varieties of water chestnuts (Trapa sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruk, M Omar; Amin, M Ziaul; Sana, Niranjan Kumar; Shaha, Ranajit Kumar; Biswas, Kamal Krishna

    2012-11-01

    In this study, two varieties (Green and red) of water chestnuts (Trapa sp.) have been selected for their biochemical analysis as well as nutrient composition using standard methods. The proximate composition of green water chestnuts revealed moisture 62.5, ash 1.04, crude fiber 2.13%, total soluble sugar 0.92%, reducing sugar 0.33%, non-reducing sugar 0.59%, starch 8.7%, lipid 0.84%. One hundred gram of green variety contained water soluble protein 0.275 mg, beta-Carotene 60 microg, vitamin-C 1.1 mg and total phenol 0.5 mg. The minerals contents of green variety were potassium 5.22%, sodium 0.64%, calcium 0.25%, phosphorus 6.77%, sulpher 0.38%, and iron, copper, manganese and zinc 200, 430, 90 and 600 ppm, respectively. The red variety contained moisture 62.7%, ash 1.30%, crude fiber 2.27%, total soluble sugar 0.90%, reducing sugar 0.30%, non-reducing sugar 0.60%, starch 8.2%, lipid 0.83%. The red variety contained water soluble protein 0.251 mg, beta-Carotene 92 microg, vitamin-C 0.9 mg and total phenol 0.60 mg per 100 g. The red variety contained potassium 5.32%, sodium 0.59%, calcium 0.26% phosphorus 6.77%, sulpher 0.32%, Iron 200 ppm, copper 450 ppm, manganese 110 ppm and zinc 650 ppm. The free amino acids, glutamic acid, tryptophan, tyrosine, alanine, lysine and leucine were commonly found in both varieties. In addition, green and red variety contained cysteine, arginine and proline and glutamine and asparagines, respectively. Thus, the present study sheds light on the nutrient contents of the two varieties of water chestnuts and suggests that water chestnuts may play a crucial role in human nutrition.

  13. Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. α-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

  14. Interaction between two invasive organisms on the European chestnut: does the chestnut blight fungus benefit from the presence of the gall wasp?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joana B; Gallien, Laure; Prospero, Simone

    2015-11-01

    The impact of invasive fungal pathogens and pests on trees is often studied individually, thereby omitting possible interactions. In this study the ecological interaction between the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus was investigated. We determined if abandoned galls could be colonized by C. parasitica and thereby act as an entry point and a source of pathogen inoculum. Moreover we assessed the identity and diversity of other gall-colonizing fungal species. A total of 1973 galls were randomly sampled from 200 chestnut trees in eight Swiss stands. In a stand C. parasitica was isolated from 0.4-19.2% of the galls. The incidence of C. parasitica on the galls and the fungal diversity significantly increased with the residence time of D. kuriphilus in a stand. All but one C. parasitica cultures were virulent. The predominant fungus isolated from galls was Gnomoniopsis castanea whose abundance influenced negatively that of C. parasitica. This study shows that D. kuriphilus galls can be colonized by virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus C. parasitica. This can have effects on the chestnut blight incidence even in chestnut stands where the disease is successfully controlled by hypovirulence. The gall wasp presence influences also the fungal species composition on chestnut trees.

  15. Effects of Temporal Dynamics, Nut Weight and Nut Size on Growth of American Chestnut, Chinese Chestnut and Backcross Generations in a Commercial Nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia C. Pinchot

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata may soon be commercially available, but few studies have tested methods to produce high quality seedlings that will be competitive after planting. This study evaluated the performance of one American, one Chinese (C. mollissima, one second-generation backcross (BC3F2, and 10 third-generation backcross chestnut families (BC3F3. We examine growth over one year in a commercial tree nursery in east Tennessee. We examined relationships among nut size and weight and seedling growth, between germination timing and seedling survival, and between germination percentage and growth. Across the population tested, a 1 g increase in nut weight corresponded to a 6 cm increase in seedling height, a 0.5 mm increase in root collar diameter and one additional first order lateral root, but models had low predictive power. BC3F3 chestnuts grew similarly to American chestnuts, with substantial differences in growth among chestnut families within generation. Nuts that germinated by 23 April had greater than 1955 odds of surviving the first growing season than nuts that germinated in late May. American and backcross chestnut growth slowed in late June, presumably due to exhaustion of their cotyledons before leaf expansion. These results will help nursery managers refine cultural practices to maximize growth of backcross chestnuts.

  16. Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses.

  17. Ecology and pathology of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the deciduous forests of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridnya, M.V.; Cherpakov, V.V.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    1996-01-01

    Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected by several other fungal and bacterial parasites and the joint infection of blight and bacteria may be especially dangerous for chestnut trees. Chestnut-dominated forests comprise only a few percent of total forest cover in the Caucasus Biosphere Preserve, and usually occur in mountain valleys or coves with deep brown soil. The age structure and reproductive status of chestnut in the Caucasus was investigated on six study plots in the Caucasus Biosphere Forest Preserve near the upper altitudinal limit of chestnut. Although chestnut is at least 70 percent of the overstory on these sites, there are very few trees less than 50 years old, and very few recent seedlings on any of the plots. Most large chestnut trees appear to have originated as basal spouts from previously established stems. Although chestnut seed production appears adequate, we suspect that competition with shrubs and other tree seedlings, and predation by herbivores and rodents, now prevent the establishment and survival of chestnut seedlings in the Biosphere Preserve.

  18. Detection of mold-damaged chestnuts by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold infection is a significant postharvest problem for processors of chestnuts (Castanea sativa, Miller).Fungal disease causes direct loss of product or reduced value due to the lower-quality grade of the chest-nut lot. In most cases, fungal infection is not detectable using traditional sorting tec...

  19. 板栗丰产栽培技术%High-yield Cultivation Technology of Chestnuts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明杰; 于海洋; 孙少娟; 吴岩

    2011-01-01

    In view of the biological characteristics of chestnuts, several key technical points of high-yield cultivation of chestnuts are presented.%针对板栗的生物学特性,对栗树的丰产栽培提出几项技术要点。

  20. Application of software for the optimization of the surface shape of nets for chestnut harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Formato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research conveyance nets for the chestnuts harvest have been considered and the optimization of the surface shape of the chestnuts harvest nets has been performed. Indeed, a steep zone with chestnut trees has been considered, with maximum length of 90 m and maximum width of 60 m and the geometric model of the considered zone has been obtained, by mean GIS system and “Archicad 14” program code, obtaining also the soil local slope distribution. The chestnuts fallen have been simulated by mean a “rain device” available in “Sitetopo” program code. This program has allowed to evaluate the rain draining in function of the considered surface slope. Further, the zone with lower quote, for the considered surface, is the zone in that the chestnuts have to be convoyed, “basin zone”. Indeed, by mean “Sitetopo” program code, it has been possible to evaluate the rain draining contour-plot, and the conveyance effect, that is, where the rain flow is convoyed. This has been obtained by changing of the net surface slope on that, the rain (simulating the chestnuts fallen. Indeed the nets have been located following the determined optimal surface. In such way all the fallen chestnuts have been convoyed and picked in a determined zone, “basin zone”, and subsequently they have been loaded on the truck for the following workmanships. The evaluated losses have been of around 6-8 % due to chestnuts entangle or little branches obstacle.

  1. Composition of European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and association with health effects: fresh and processed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vasconcelos, Maria C B M; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira-Cardoso, Jorge V

    2010-08-15

    Chestnut fruits are highly regarded and widely consumed throughout Europe, America and Asia. Various commercial forms are available, e.g. fresh and industrially processed. There have been various reviews on the composition of chestnut fruits but there has not been a comprehensive review of the different health benefits that this fruit can provide. This review is focused on the composition and associated health effects of European fresh chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and their home-processed and industrial products, e.g. boiled, roasted, frozen, and 'marron glacées'. We also expand the knowledge of chestnut uses by presenting data for other chestnut materials that have potential applications as new foods, as sources of antioxidants, and as sources of other useful bioactives. There is considerable literature data on nutrients in fresh chestnut fruits but less information on bioactive non-nutrients such as phenolics. Chestnuts are mostly consumed as processed forms, and the different types of processing clearly affect the nutrient and non-nutrient composition of the fruits. The benefits that this fruit can provide for human and animal health are numerous, but it is clear that improvements can be made for both production and quality of chestnut products, e.g. genetic selection and optimizing industrial processing.

  2. Vitamin E profile as a reliable authenticity discrimination factor between chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C M; Alves, Rita C; Casal, Susana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Pereira, José Alberto

    2009-06-24

    In this study, the profile of tocopherols and tocotrienols in chestnut ( Castanea sativa Mill.) kernel oil was evaluated. Four Portuguese chestnut varieties were selected: Aveleira, Boaventura, Judia, and Longal. The vitamin E determination had already been applied to similar matrices, but, to the authors' knowledge, it is the first time that chestnut kernel oil has been evaluated. The prevalent vitamer was gamma-tocopherol, often present in trace amounts in other natural products. Due to the high commercial value of chestnut, a statistical analysis of the obtained results was also conducted to define the tocopherol and tocotrienol profile as a reliable indicator of a specific chestnut variety. To achieve this objective, an analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the method as well as the uniformity of results for each variety. A discriminant analysis was also carried out revealing quite satisfactory results. Four varieties were clustered in four individual groups through the definition of two discriminant analysis dimensions.

  3. Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manetti MC

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement? This paper aims at evaluating the role of standards in chestnut coppices from a biological and functional perspective. In addition to a detailed analysis of Italian regulations on the issue, the technical definition of the term is analysed: (i as for the functional role of standards; (ii to assess whether the required functions are technically necessary and are being actually performed. In this contex, the results of an experimental trial are reported. The goal of the trial were to assess the shoots’ parameters, the stand productivity, the dynamics of canopy cover in coppices with or without standards. In 2001, at harvesting operations in a coppice aged 30 with standards managed by the local community, two experimental plots 2500 m2 each were established. The two theses being compared were: simple coppice and coppixce with standards (100 standards per hectare. The released standards were qualified immediately after final harvesting. Sprouting ability, growth pattern and stool vitality were surveyed in March 2004 (at age 2, in May 2008 (at age 6 and in April 2010 (at age 8. First results highlighted the evidence of statistically significant differences between the two thesis. The high number of standards effected negatively both vitality and growth pattern of the stools. Simple coppice recorded a lower shoot mortality, a higher diametrical growth and canopy cover degree as well; the heigth growth was, on the opposite, significantly lower. These results, although referred to a limited lifespan (1/3 of the rotation time and to one site only, underline productive, ecological and environmental benefits and as a consequence suggest the widening of the experimental network and the development of new, more relevant and consistent rules, making acceptable the simple coppice as a possible silvicultural choice to be applied to chestnut coppices.

  4. Transgenic American chestnuts show enhanced blight resistance and transmit the trait to T1 progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Polin-McGuigan, Linda D; Baier, Kathleen A; Valletta, Kristia E R; Rottmann, William H; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2014-11-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is a classic example of a native keystone species that was nearly eradicated by an introduced fungal pathogen. This report describes progress made toward producing a fully American chestnut tree with enhanced resistance to the blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica). The transgenic American chestnut 'Darling4,' produced through an Agrobacterium co-transformation procedure to express a wheat oxalate oxidase gene driven by the VspB vascular promoter, shows enhanced blight resistance at a level intermediate between susceptible American chestnut and resistant Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima). Enhanced resistance was identified first with a leaf-inoculation assay using young chestnuts grown indoors, and confirmed with traditional stem inoculations on 3- and 4-year-old field-grown trees. Pollen from 'Darling4' and other events was used to produce transgenic T1 seedlings, which also expressed the enhanced resistance trait in leaf assays. Outcrossed transgenic seedlings have several advantages over tissue-cultured plantlets, including increased genetic diversity and faster initial growth. This represents a major step toward the restoration of the majestic American chestnut.

  5. Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot®

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E allele produces black or bay coat horses. Because black or bay colored coats are considered as the purebred phenotype for most of the breeds from this region, it is important to have a fast and reliable method to detect alleles causing chestnut coat color in horses. Findings In order to assess coat color genotype in reproductive animals with a view to avoiding those bearing chestnut alleles, we have developed a reliable, fast and cost-effective screening device which involves Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) detection based on SNaPshot® (Applied Biosystems) methodology. We have applied this method to four native breeds from the Iberian Cantabrian Coast: Pottoka and Jaca Navarra pony breeds, in which only black or bay coats are acceptable, and Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia and Burguete heavy breeds, in which chestnut coats are acceptable. The frequency of the chestnut alleles ranged between f = 0.156-0.322 in pony breeds and between f = 0.604-0.716 in heavy breeds. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of the DNA methodology reported herein as a device for identifying chestnut alleles; the methodology constitutes a valuable tool for breeders to decrease the incidence of chestnut animals among Cantabrian Coast pony breeds. PMID:20015355

  6. Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estonba Andone

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E allele produces black or bay coat horses. Because black or bay colored coats are considered as the purebred phenotype for most of the breeds from this region, it is important to have a fast and reliable method to detect alleles causing chestnut coat color in horses. Findings In order to assess coat color genotype in reproductive animals with a view to avoiding those bearing chestnut alleles, we have developed a reliable, fast and cost-effective screening device which involves Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP detection based on SNaPshot® (Applied Biosystems methodology. We have applied this method to four native breeds from the Iberian Cantabrian Coast: Pottoka and Jaca Navarra pony breeds, in which only black or bay coats are acceptable, and Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia and Burguete heavy breeds, in which chestnut coats are acceptable. The frequency of the chestnut alleles ranged between f = 0.156-0.322 in pony breeds and between f = 0.604-0.716 in heavy breeds. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of the DNA methodology reported herein as a device for identifying chestnut alleles; the methodology constitutes a valuable tool for breeders to decrease the incidence of chestnut animals among Cantabrian Coast pony breeds.

  7. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill starch for industrial utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g, lipid (5.39 g/100g, crude fiber (2.34 g/100g and ash (2.14 g/100g. Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and corn. This fraction showed more lipids and proteins than the other starches. Chestnut starch granules showed peculiar shape, smaller than the control starches and low amount of damaged units. Chemical composition concerning amylose : amylopectin ratio was intermediate to that presented by cassava and corn starch granules. Water absorption at different temperatures as well as solubility were also intermediate but closer to that presented by cassava granules. The same behavior was observed in the interaction with dimethyl-sulfoxide. Native starch granules and those submitted to enzymatic treatment with commercial alpha-amylase and also with enzymes from germinated wheat were observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Water suspensions of chestnut starch granules were heated to form pastes that were studied comparatively to those obtained with cassava and corn starches. Viscographic pattern of chestnut starch pastes showed a characteristic profile with high initial viscosity but peak absence, high resistance to mechanical stirring under hot conditions and high final viscosity. There was no way to compare it with the paste viscographic profiles obtained with the control starches. Chestnut starch pastes were stable down to pH 4 but unstable at pH 3. The water losses observed in the chestnut starch pastes after freeze-thaw cycles showed more similarity to the pattern observed in corn starch pastes as well as clarity and strength of the gel. In general the results

  8. STUDIES ON CONTINUOUS GRINDING PROCESS FOR DRIED WATER CHESTNUT KERNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. GARG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Grinding is a unit operation to break big solid material into smaller pieces. As far as process of grinding is concerned, power consumption, specific energy consumption and particle size distribution and mill capacity are main considerations from engineering point of view. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of speed of mill, sieve size, feed rate and time of grinding on power consumption and average particle diameter of water chestnut in continuous grinding process. Power consumption was measured for a constant feed rate of 1 and 2 kg/h at different speed of the mill varied from 800 to 1200 rpm for the sieve openings of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm. For all the sieve sizes and feed rates, it was observed that as the speed of the mill increases, there is an increase in power consumption and found significantly low for higher sieve size and lower feed rate. The size distribution of the water chestnut kernel for different speeds and sieve sizes at constant feed rate were obtained by sieve analysis. The milling speed has no significant effect on particle size distribution of ground product and mass fraction was minimum at lower feed rate and higher sieve size. Harris model was found best suitable to describe the size distribution in continuous grinding process. Fineness modulus decreases with increase of milling speed for experimental sieve size and feed rate.

  9. A study on the carbonization of grapeseed and chestnut shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezcimen, Didem; Ersoy-Mericboyu, Ayseguel [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical-Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Department of Chemical Engineering, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-15

    Carbonization experiments of grapeseed and chestnut shell samples having the average particle size of 0.657 mm and 0.377 mm, respectively, were performed to determine the effect of temperature, sweep gas flow rate and heating rate on the biochar yield. A statistical design technique was applied by the use of a two-level factorial design matrix to interpret experimental results. Carbonization conditions were selected according to a two-level factorial design matrix considering the following variables: temperature (723 K and 823 K), nitrogen gas flow rate (0 and 1000 cm{sup 3}/min) and heating rate (5 and 20 K/min). Empirical relations between the biochar yield and the carbonization conditions were developed. To comment on the effect of parameters between the superior and inferior levels and to prove the accuracy of design equations from statistical design technique, biochar yields obtained at different conditions were also presented in the graphical way. It was found that temperature has the strongest effect on the biochar yields in comparison with nitrogen gas flow rate and heating rate. Biochar yields of grapeseed and chestnut shell were decreased with the increasing temperature, heating rate and sweep gas flow rate. A comparison between the fuel properties of waste materials and biochar products was also done. (author)

  10. Short communication. Inheritance of cotyledon storage proteins in European sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M. A.; Alvarez, J. B.; Gutierrez, J. C.; Martin, L. M.

    2012-11-01

    A first approximation to the inheritance of cotyledon storage proteins was studied in European sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) by evaluating the offspring of a controlled cross between two local chestnut varieties (Corriente and Pilonga) from southern Spain. The analysis was carried out in 15 polymorphic bands corresponding to the albumin fraction of the storage proteins. The relationship between bands displayed one case of allelism and four of linkage. These results should be considered as the baseline of the genetics of these proteins and suggest that they could be useful for the evaluation of the genetic variability in chestnut. (Author) 13 refs.

  11. Cataract surgery training using pig eyes filled with chestnuts of various hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekada, A; Nakajima, J; Nakamura, J; Hirata, H; Kishi, T; Kani, K

    1999-05-01

    This method uses pig eyes filled with cooked chestnuts serving as pseudonuclei with the goal of teaching dividing techniques of phacoemulsification and aspiration. The pseudonuclei simulate the various degrees of human lens nuclear sclerosis. The chestnuts are trimmed to lens size. After lens extraction through a self-sealing straight incision from the pig eyes, the chestnuts are inserted in the capsular bag through the incision, which is then sutured. These preparatory procedures were initially performed by experienced surgeons but after practicing phacoemulsification technique several times, inexperienced surgeons were able to complete the entire procedure, allowing them to practice phaco chop, divide and conquer, and nondividing phacoemulsification.

  12. Sourdough fermentation and chestnut flour in gluten-free bread: A shelf-life evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2017-06-01

    The effect of sourdough fermentation combined with chestnut flour was investigated for improving technological and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread during 5day shelf life by means of chemico-physical and nutritional properties. Sourdough fermentation by itself and with chestnut flour reduced volume of loaves and heterogeneity in crumb grain. Sourdough technology allowed increasing crumb moisture content with no significant variations during shelf-life. Chestnut flour darkened crumb and crust while no effects on colour were observed for sourdough. Sourdough and/or chestnut flour addition caused a significant increase in crumb hardness at time 0 while a significant reduction of staling was observed only at 5days, even if a decrease in amylopectin fusion enthalpy was observed. The percentage of hydrolysed starch during in vitro digestion was significantly reduced by sourdough fermentation with a presumable lower glycaemic index.

  13. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songlin Fei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaTScan and ClusterSeer and a nonspatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moderate level of conformity and revealed similar chestnut oak regeneration site affinity. Chestnut oak regeneration hotspots were positively associated with the abundance of chestnut oak trees in the overstory and a moderate cover of heather species (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia spp. but were negatively associated with the abundance of hayscented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula and mountain laurel (Kalmia latiforia. In general, hotspot detection is a viable tool for assisting natural resource managers with identifying areas possessing significantly high or low tree regeneration.

  14. Morphogenesis of Chinese Water Chestnut Pistil and Pollen Tube during Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kunpeng OU; Fanglian HE; Yan WANG; Wen JIANG; Meiping GAO; Zhiqiang BI; Lijuan CHEN; Weiqing DONG; Jie GUI

    2016-01-01

    With the forms of pistil stigma of " Guiti 2" Chinese water chestnut cultivar during the pollination as the object of observation,we reveal the pollination process of Chinese water chestnut from the microscopic point of view,to provide reference for Chinese water chestnut crossbreeding. The results show that the Chinese water chestnut pistil has 2- 4 stigmas which present white filament and vascular bundle forms,and the vessels on epidermis are thick with long translucent branched hairs; after pollination,pollen grains are tightly bound on branched hairs,and after identification,the pollen tube can penetrate branched hairs,continue to grow,and transfer the genetic material in pollen to vascular bundle.

  15. Starch characterization in seven raw, boiled and roasted chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A P; Oliveira, I; Silva, M E; Guedes, C M; Borges, O; Magalhães, B; Gonçalves, B

    2016-01-01

    Changes occurring in seven chestnut (Castanea sativa sp.) cultivars, caused by boiling and roasting, on starch content, cell and starch granules dimension were evaluated, and morphological changes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Three clear patterns of variation were detected after processing, namely: i) decrease of starch content with processing; ii) starch increase with the applied treatments; iii) increase of starch with boiling and decrease with roasting. Starch granules of raw chestnuts presented round, oval or elliptical form, external smooth surface and eccentric hilum, with rather ellipsoid-shaped growth rings. Processing resulted in modifications of the granules, with fusion of individual granules, and gelatinization taking place with the formation of elongated clusters. The present results indicate that boiling and roasting, besides changing the starch content of chestnut, causes important modifications in the starch granules, which can affect the sensory, rheological and chemical characteristics of chestnuts.

  16. Trials to identify irradiated chestnut (Castanea bungena) with different analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.-W. E-mail: chunghw@kfda.go.kr; Delincee, Henry; Han, S.-B.; Hong, J.-H.; Kim, H.-Y.; Kim, M.-C.; Byun, M.-W.; Kwon, J.-H

    2004-10-01

    Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) measurement, DNA comet assay, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and thermoluminescence (TL) measurement were applied to identify irradiated chestnut. Samples were irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays at 0-0.5 kGy. The PSL photon counts for irradiated chestnuts were too low to be distinguished from those of the non-irradiated sample. There was no difference in DNA comets between non-irradiated and irradiated chestnuts. ESR spectroscopy did not show any radiation-induced specific signals but a symmetric singlet. However, using TL, the shape of the glow curve (Glow 1) made it possible to identify the irradiated chestnuts. In addition, the TL glow ratio (Glow 1/Glow 2) obtained by normalization was less than 0.01 for the non-irradiated sample and {>=}0.10 for irradiated ones, respectively.

  17. Native and introduced parasitoids attacking the invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The globally invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus was recently reported in Italy and threatens European chestnut orchards and native forests. Of Chinese origin, this species has invaded Japan, Korea, the USA, Nepal and Europe and in each region it has been attacked by parasitoids exploiting oak gall wasps. Classical biological control using the parasitoid Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) successfully reduced infestation in Japan. Subsequent work in Japan and Korea showed...

  18. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Du

    Full Text Available Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng, we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant

  19. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis) on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yanli; Zhang, Jiaxin; Yan, Zengguang; Ma, Yongqiang; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Minzhao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qin, Ling; Cao, Qingqin

    2016-01-01

    Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng), we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant-volatile-mediated host

  20. Grafting Seedling Techniques of Chestnut%板栗嫁接育苗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国举

    2014-01-01

    Grafting seedling techniques of chestnut were summarized from rootstock breeding,scion collecting and processing,grafting etc.,so as to provide reference for seedling of chestnut growers.%从砧木培育、接穗采集及处理、嫁接等方面总结了板栗嫁接育苗技术,以期为板栗种植者育苗提供参考。

  1. Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahamadou E.GOUNGA; Shi-ying XU; Zhang WANG

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption.Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample's protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal.

  2. Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounga, Mahamadou E; Xu, Shi-ying; Wang, Zhang

    2008-09-01

    In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption. Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample's protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal.

  3. Non-target effects of transgenic blight-resistant American chestnut (Fagales: Fagaceae) on insect herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, K H; Parry, D

    2011-08-01

    American chestnut [Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkhausen], a canopy dominant species across wide swaths of eastern North America, was reduced to an understory shrub after introduction of the blight fungus [Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr] in the early 1900s. Restoration of American chestnut by using biotechnology is promising, but the imprecise nature of transgenesis may inadvertently alter tree phenotype, thus potentially impacting ecologically dependent organisms. We quantified effects of genetic engineering and fungal inoculation of trees on insect herbivores by using transgenic American chestnuts expressing an oxalate oxidase gene and wild-type American and Chinese (C. mollissima Blume) chestnuts. Of three generalist folivores bioassayed, only gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] was affected by genetic modification, exhibiting faster growth on transgenic than on wild-type chestnuts, whereas growth of polyphemus moth [Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer)] differed between wild-type species, and fall webworm [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)] performed equally on all trees. Inoculation of chestnuts with blight fungus had no effect on the growth of two herbivores assayed (polyphemus moth and fall webworm). Enhanced fitness of gypsy moth on genetically modified trees may hinder restoration efforts if this invasive herbivore's growth is improved because of transgene expression.

  4. Horse chestnut – efficacy and safety in chronic venous insufficiency: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Dudek-Makuch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe extract from horse chestnut seeds (Aesculus hippocastanumL., Sapindaceae, standardised for the content of aescin, is used as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-oedematous properties and indicates a positive effect on the venous tone, rheological properties, and blood coagulability. The mechanism of horse chestnut seed extract/aescin activity was proposed on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies, and its effectiveness was documented with numerous randomised clinical trials. The results of the studies have proven that horse chestnut seed extract not only significantly improves subjective symptoms in patients with chronic venous insufficiency like calf spasm, leg pain, pruritus, fatigue, but it also reduced leg volume, the ankle and calf circumference. The preparations containing horse chestnut seed extract are very popular and they have similar effectiveness as compression therapy and a preparation with O-(β-hydroxyethyl-rutosides. Moreover, horse chestnut seed extract has been proven to be safe and very well tolerated. The study was to present the results of the studies that have been conducted so far and that have confirmed the effectiveness of use of horse chestnut seed extract or aescin as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency.

  5. Chestnut Lodge and the psychoanalytic approach to psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, John S

    2011-02-01

    The study of psychosis has a long history in psychoanalysis, as does the debate over the suitability of psychoanalysis for treating schizophrenia. For decades, Chestnut Lodge was not only a hospital but also a clinical research and educational institution. A unique patient-staff ratio--about twenty analytic therapists for a hundred patients--made possible prolonged and intense clinical work with schizophrenic and other severely disturbed patients. Interstaff discussions were encouraged and facilitated. This quasi-academic approach to in-depth individual case studies led to clinical findings and theoretical formulations that had a significant impact on developments in psychoanalysis, both here and abroad. Many of these findings and theoretical formulations are relevant to current studies and treatments of psychotic and nonpsychotic patients.

  6. Toxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates from weevil-damaged chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J M; Payne, J A

    1975-10-01

    Aspergillus and Penicillium were among the most common genera of fungi isolated on malt-salt agar from weevil-damaged Chinese chestnut kernels (16.8 and 40.7% occurrence, respectively). Chloroform extracts of 21 of 50 Aspergillus isolates and 18 of 50 representative Penicillium isolates, grown for 4 weeks at 21.1 C on artificial medium, were toxic to day-old cockerels. Tweleve of the toxic Aspergillus isolates were identified as A. wentii, eight as A. flavus, and one as A. flavus var. columnaris. Nine of the toxic Penicillium isolates were identified as P. terrestre, three as P. steckii, two each as P. citrinum and P. funiculosum, and one each as P. herquei (Series) and P. roqueforti (Series). Acute diarrhea was associated with the toxicity of A. wentii and muscular tremors with the toxicity of P. terrestre, one isolate of P. steckii, and one of P. funiculosum.

  7. Purification of castamollin, a novel antifungal protein from Chinese chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2003-11-01

    A novel antifungal protein, designated castamollin, was isolated from Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollisima) seeds with a procedure involving ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 75. Castamollin possessed a novel N-terminal sequence demonstrating little similarity to N-terminal sequences of Castanea sativa chitinase. Castamollin exhibited a molecular mass of 37kDa in gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. It inhibited the activity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 7microM and translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC(50) of 2.7microM. Castamollin displayed antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Physalospora piricola, and Coprinus comatus but was devoid of lectin activity.

  8. Effect of cooking on total vitamin C contents and antioxidant activity of sweet chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ana I R N A; Nunes, Fernando M; Gonçalves, Berta; Bennett, Richard N; Silva, Ana Paula

    2011-09-01

    In this work the total vitamin C contents (ascorbic acid+dehydroascorbic acid) and antioxidant activity of raw and cooked chestnuts was evaluated. The vitamin C contents of raw chestnuts varied significantly between the different cultivars (cv) studied and it varied from 400mg/kg dry weight (cv Lada) to 693mg/kg dry weight (cv Martaínha). The different cultivars behave differently during the cooking process concerning the loss of vitamin C. A significant decrease in the vitamin C content of the chestnuts was observed, 25-54% for the boiling process and 2-77% for the roasting process. Boiled and roasted chestnuts can be good sources of vitamin C since it may represent 22.4%, 16.2%, 26.8% and 19.4%, respectively, of the recommended dietary intake for an adult man and woman. The cooking process significantly changed the antioxidant activity of the chestnuts. A difference was observed between the cultivars during the cooking processes, concerning the antioxidant activity. For the raw chestnuts the variation in vitamin C content of the chestnuts explains 99% of the antioxidant activity variation but for the roasted and boiled chestnuts this percentage significantly decreases to 51% and 88%, respectively. Although a high antioxidant activity is still present in the cooked chestnuts, the cause for this antioxidant activity is less dependent on the vitamin C content of the chestnuts, probably due to the conversion of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. The increase in gallic acid during the cooking process, presumably transferred from the peels to the fruit, also contributes to the high antioxidant activity observed for the cooked chestnuts.

  9. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

  10. Enhancing chestnut coppices: silvicultural management and socio-economic context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Manetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available  Castanea sativa is one of the most important species for timber production in Italy but, both management system, ownership type and wood chain structure, aren’t able to  enhance enough the market value of wood assortments. Although the high demand of quality timber, the internal production is heavily  reduced, mainly as far as timber quality is concerned and because of the lack of suitable timber sizes. In this context, experimental trials  have been approached to identify and verify which silvicultural methods are best suited to reach high yields depending to the investments  needed and the local socio-economical condition. Two technical approaches were evaluated: stand silviculture and single-tree oriented silviculture. As for the socio-economical aspects, a few demographic indexes have been examined and the first-phase processing enterprises  acting in the concerned area were analyzed. The goals of this paper are to evaluate the biological response to the applied silviculture, to  analyze the problems arisen and to estimate the applicability of the proposed methods in relation to the different socio-economic contexts. The research has been carried out in Tuscany in two important forest areas - Monte Amiata and Colline Metallifere - in young chestnut  coppices characterized by an homogeneous stand density and a good site index. The two examined districts showed some similarities  but they have mainly highlighted important differences about the social structure and concerns and enterprises characteristics. The area of Monte Amiata is typified by a higher residents density then the Colline Metallifere but only 1/3 of the population is employed in the agro-forest sector. In addition, in the Monte Amiata district most concerns are sized less than 2 hectares and chestnut is the main forest  species. On the contrary, in the Colline Metallifere the agro-forest sector (57% of workers is one of the main sources of income for the  local

  11. Necessity of screening water chestnuts for microcystins after cyanobacterial blooms break out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fu-Gang; Zhao, Xiao-Lian; Tang, Jian; Gu, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Niu, Wei-Min

    2009-08-01

    Water chestnut is one of the most popular vegetables in Asian countries that grows in shallow water. Eighteen water chestnut samples were collected from Lake Tai and six samples were bought at markets in Wuxi, China, in October 2007. Extraction solution of water chestnut was cleaned up with a solid phase extraction column and immunoaffinity chromatography cartridges, then the microcystin (MC) level was detected by indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results of ELISA showed that there were six samples collected from Lake Tai which contained MCs; the highest level of total MCs was 7.02 ng/g. The results of LC-MS confirmed that MC-LR and MC-RR were present in five samples. The highest level of MC-LR was 1.02 ng/g and that of MC-RR was 4.44 ng/g. Heavy cyanobacterial blooms had occurred, and MCs were detected in water at the points in Lake Tai where MCs occurred in water chestnuts collected in 2007. MCs were not detected in the six samples bought at Wuxi markets. The results suggest that MCs can accumulate in water chestnuts, which is a potential hazard for human health.

  12. Sensitization from chestnuts and bananas in patients with urticaria and anaphylaxis from contact with latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Corres, L; Moneo, I; Muñoz, D; Bernaola, G; Fernández, E; Audicana, M; Urrutia, I

    1993-01-01

    We present eight patients allergic to latex and fruit (chestnut and banana), seven of whom are women, and aged 17 to 42 years (mean 25 years). Four had family and five personal atopic histories. The total IgE varied from 41 to 520 Ku/L (mean 263). The symptoms followed ingestion of fruit (anaphylaxis) in four patients and contact with rubber (contact urticaria and anaphylaxis) in the other four. Skin prick test (SPT) with latex and radioallergosorbent test to latex were positive in all the patients. Histamine release (HR) to latex was carried out on six patients and was positive in three. In the six patients with symptoms after having eaten chestnuts the SPT was positive and specific IgE was detected in five of them. Histamine release to chestnuts was positive in three of the six patients tested and one of them (-SPT and + IgE) tolerated the fruit. Two out of five patients with symptomatic banana allergy had negative SPT with banana while the test was positive in one patient who tolerated this fruit, this being the only case with specific IgE to banana. Histamine release with banana was only positive in one case. The important correlation between SPT, RAST, and HR results to latex and chestnut together with the total inhibition of the chestnut RAST with a serum pool by preincubation with latex suggests cross-reactivity among these allergens.

  13. Competitiveness of gamma irradiation with fumigation for chestnuts associated with quarantine and quality security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kwon, Yong-Jung; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2004-09-01

    Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and methyl bromide (MeBr) fumigation were determined for fresh chestnut on mortality of pests and quality stability. Chestnut was exposed to both irradiation at 0-10 kGy and MeBr fumigation in commercial conditions, and then subjected to the corresponding study during storage at 5°C for 6 months. Pests with quarantine importance for chestnut were found Curculio sikkimensis Heller and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee, which showed 100% mortality by MeBr at the 3rd day after fumigation and by irradiation at 0.5 kGy in about 4 weeks. Sprouting was controlled for 6 months with treatments of 0.25 kGy or more and of MeBr, but rotting rate dramatically increased from 2 months after fumigation. Irradiation over 1 kGy as well as fumigation significantly caused changes in the color of stored chestnut. Considering the cumulative mortality of chestnut pests, irradiation at the range of 0.5 kGy is recommendable as one of alternatives to MeBr fumigation for both quarantine and sprout control purposes.

  14. Competitiveness of gamma irradiation with fumigation for chestnuts associated with quarantine and quality security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, J.-H. E-mail: jhkwon@knu.ac.kr; Kwon, Y.-J.; Byun, M.-W.; Kim, K.-S

    2004-10-01

    Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and methyl bromide (MeBr) fumigation were determined for fresh chestnut on mortality of pests and quality stability. Chestnut was exposed to both irradiation at 0-10 kGy and MeBr fumigation in commercial conditions, and then subjected to the corresponding study during storage at 5 deg. C for 6 months. Pests with quarantine importance for chestnut were found Curculio sikkimensis Heller and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee, which showed 100% mortality by MeBr at the 3rd day after fumigation and by irradiation at 0.5 kGy in about 4 weeks. Sprouting was controlled for 6 months with treatments of 0.25 kGy or more and of MeBr, but rotting rate dramatically increased from 2 months after fumigation. Irradiation over 1 kGy as well as fumigation significantly caused changes in the color of stored chestnut. Considering the cumulative mortality of chestnut pests, irradiation at the range of 0.5 kGy is recommendable as one of alternatives to MeBr fumigation for both quarantine and sprout control purposes.

  15. Research Progress on Development of Chinese Chestnut Beverage%板栗饮料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董翠

    2016-01-01

    板栗是我国有名的传统农副产品,风味独特,营养丰富。板栗饮料不仅集合了板栗的优点,更解决了板栗不能长时间贮藏的问题。简述了板栗汁、板栗复合饮料、板栗发酵乳工艺流程与配方方面的研究进展,并对板栗饮料的发展前景进行展望。%Chinese chestnut is a famous traditional agricultural and sideline product with unique flavor and rich nutrition. The Chinese chestnut beverage not only has the advantages of Chinese chestnut, but also solves the problem that the Chinese chestnut cannot be stored for a long time. This paper briefly introduces the research progress on technological process and formulation of Chinese chestnut juice, Chinese chestnut compound beverage and Chinese chestnut fermented milk, and also prospects the development of Chinese chestnut beverage.

  16. 75 FR 59258 - Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC's application for market-based...

  17. 78 FR 36769 - Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  18. Salicylic acid inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) by competitively inhibiting polyphenol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Li, Lin; Wu, Yanwen; Fan, Junfeng; Ouyang, Jie

    2015-03-15

    The inhibitory effect and associated mechanisms of salicylic acid (SA) on the browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut were investigated. Shelled and sliced chestnuts were immersed in different concentrations of an SA solution, and the browning of the chestnut surface and interior were inhibited. The activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) extracted from chestnuts were measured in the presence and absence of SA. SA at concentrations higher than 0.3g/L delayed chestnut browning by significantly inhibiting the PPO activity (P0.05). The binding and inhibition modes of SA with PPO and POD, determined by AUTODOCK 4.2 and Lineweaver-Burk plots, respectively, established SA as a competitive inhibitor of PPO.

  19. Assessing the effects of gamma irradiation and storage time in energetic value and in major individual nutrients of chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Angela; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is an important food resource all over the world. In the present study, it is intended to evaluate if the application of gamma irradiation doses ≤ 3 kGy maintain chestnuts chemical and nutritional profiles unaffected. Furthermore, possible interactions among irradiation dose and storage time were accessed using linear discriminate analysis (LDA). The nutritional composition was evaluated through determination of proteins, fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. The chemical composition was focused in the main nutrients found in chestnuts: sugars - sucrose, fatty acids - palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, tocopherols - γ-tocopherol. The obtained results seem to indicate that the irradiation treatment did not affect the nutritional and chemical quality of chestnut fruits. Otherwise, storage time exerted more evident influence in those parameters. The application of gamma irradiation emerges as a promising technology for chestnuts chemical quality, but food safety issues have to be evaluated in order to recommend its application as a useful conservation alternative.

  20. Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Melanin Fractions from Chestnut Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Yu Yao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut shell melanin can be used as a colorant and antioxidant, and fractionated into three fractions (Fr. 1, Fr. 2, and Fr. 3 with different physicochemical properties. Antioxidant activities of the fractions were comparatively evaluated for the first time. The fractions exhibited different antioxidative potential in different evaluation systems. Fr. 1, which is only soluble in alkaline water, had the strongest peroxidation inhibition and superoxide anion scavenging activity; Fr. 2, which is soluble in alkaline water and hydrophilic organic solvents but insoluble in neutral and acidic water, had the greatest power to chelate ferrous ions; and Fr. 3, which is soluble both in hydrophilic organic solvents and in water at any pH conditions, had the greatest hydroxyl (·OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH· radicals scavenging abilities, reducing power, and phenolic content. The pigment fractions were superior to butylated hydroxytolune (BHT in ·OH and DPPH· scavenging and to ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA in the Fe2+–chelation. They were inferior to BHT in peroxidation inhibition and O2·− scavenging and reducing power. However, BHT is a synthetic antioxidant and cannot play the colorant role. The melanin fractions might be used as effective biological antioxidant colorants.

  1. Does management improve the state of chestnut (Castanea sativa L. on Belasitsa Mountain, southwest Bulgaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanov T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut forests in the Belasitsa Mountain region of southwest Bulgaria were traditionally intensively managed as orchard-like stands for nut production. More recently, management intensity has been sharply reduced as a result of rural abandonment, which combined with the effects of chestnut blight has led to marked structural changes in these forests. The focus of this paper is on the seed-based regeneration potential and seedling survival of chestnut in mixed stands managed over the past 15 years. Results suggest that management of stands under a high-forest system is appropriate, and regeneration from seed has advantages over coppicing if competing species can be controlled. An investigation into “sanitation cutting” performed since the 1990s shows that this had not a successful response to blight infestations.

  2. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the biosorption of Cu(II) onto chestnut shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Z.-Y., E-mail: zengyuyao@126.com [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning 110016 (China); Qi, J.-H. [College of Life Sciences, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Wang, L.-H. [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning 110016 (China)

    2010-02-15

    The biosorption of Cu(II) onto chestnut shell, a residue of the food processing industry, in a batch adsorber has been studied. Equilibrium isotherms, kinetic data, and thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated. Equilibrium data agreed well with Langmuir isotherm and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. The adsorption capacity of chestnut shell for Cu(II) was determined with the Langmuir model and was found to be 12.56 mg g{sup -1} at 293 K. The kinetic data were found to follow the pseudo-second-order model. Intra-particle diffusion is not the sole rate-controlling factor. Gibbs free energy was spontaneous for all interactions, and the adsorption process exhibited exothermic enthalpy values. Chestnut shell was shown to be a promising biosorbent for Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions.

  3. Volatile Flavor Compounds of Chestnuts and Puffed Chestnut Products%板栗及其膨化制品的挥发性香气成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文艳; 刘凌; 吴娜; 张晓磊

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取结合气相色谱-质谱联用技术对生板栗粉、煮板栗和3种膨化板栗制品的挥发性香气成分进行分离鉴定。共鉴定出68种挥发性物质,初步认定吡嗪类物质中的甲基吡嗪、2,3-二甲基吡嗪、2.乙基-6-甲基吡嗪、2,6-二-甲基吡嗪;呋喃类物质中的2-戊基呋喃、γ-丁内酯、2-糠醇、2,5-二氢-3,5-二甲基-2-呋喃酮和1-辛内酯及芳香族类物质中的苯甲醛是板栗的特征风味物质。煮制可提升板栗的香气。膨化板栗片的膨化加工方式对其香气成分影响显著,挤压膨化板栗片的香气物质组成和煮板栗比较相似,微波膨化板栗片中易产生具有枯焦气息的2,4-二叔丁基苯酚,油炸膨化板栗片的挥发性成分最复杂,醛类物质较多。%The volatile flavor compounds of chestnut powder, boiled chestnut and three puffed chestnut products were determined by HS-SPME-GC/MS. Sixty eight kinds of volatile flavor compounds were identified. Four kinds of pyrazine (methylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethyl pyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine, 2,6 - dimethyl pyrazine) , five kinds of furans (2-pentyl furan, γ-Butyrolactone, 2-furfuryl alcohol, 2,5-dihydro-3,5-dimethyl-2-furanone, 2 ( 3 H )-Fura-none, 5-butyldihydro-) as well as one kind of aromatic substances ( Benzaldehyde ) were initially identified as impor-tant aroma impact compounds. Chestnut aroma enhanced after cooking. Different puffing significantly influence aroma compositions of puffed chestnuts crisps. The aroma substance composition of extruded chestnut crisps and boiled chestnut are quite similar. A lot of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, which has paste flavor was generated in microwave puffing chestnut crisps. Volatile components of fried puffed chestnut crisps were the most complex which contained more alde-hydes substances.

  4. Post-cultural stand dynamics in an abandoned chestnut coppice at its ecological border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the be­ginning of the last century, chestnut has played an important role as staple food and primary wood source. In many cases it was cultivated at the border of its ecological limits where it was planted by man in place of the original and more site-adapted tree species. However, with the abandonment of the rural activities, ma­nagement of chestnut forests was progressively left starting from more marginal areas, usually occupied by coppice stands. After the interruption of the traditional coppice management system (usual rotation periods of 10-25 years, natural intra- and interspecific competition dynamics have become the driving force of the stand evolution. This may lead to dramatic changes in both structure and species composition of the stands. The aim of this study is to analyse the post-cultural evolution of an abandoned chestnut coppice in the Pesio Valley (Piedmont, Italy in order to highlight the competition among different "basic silvi­cultural components" of the forest using a dendroecological approach. The "basic silvicultural components" are intended as the elements defined as groups of trees of the stand that have similar features such as silvi­culturally relevant attributes: species (chestnut, beech, fir, origin (seed, sprout and cultural age and function (standard/reserve, maiden, shoot, regeneration, dead tree. The mean growth curves of the compo­nents show the different fitness of each category. From a general point of view, the beech and fir components show a better competitive potential in comparison with chestnut. Among chestnut components, maidens from seeds reveal a better growth trend compared to coppice shoots and standards.

  5. Allergens from birch pollen and pollen of the European chestnut share common epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschwehr, R; Jäger, S; Horak, F; Ferreira, F; Valenta, R; Ebner, C; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O

    1993-09-01

    Type I allergy to pollen of the European chestnut (Castanea sativa) represents a major cause of pollinosis in (sub) Mediterranean areas. Using sera from 14 patients with established allergy to pollen of the European chestnut, 13/14 sera (92%) showed IgE-binding to a 22 kD protein, 2/14 (14%) displayed additional binding to a 14 kD protein and 1/14 (7%) bound only to the 14 kD protein of European chestnut pollen extract. Two monoclonal mouse antibodies, BIP 1 and BIP 4, directed against different epitopes of Bet v I (the major birch pollen allergen), and a rabbit antibody to recombinant birch profilin (rBet v II) were used to characterize the proteins of the European chestnut pollen. The recombinant birch pollen allergens, rBet v I and rBet v II (profilin) were employed to show common allergenic structures on proteins from both birch and European chestnut pollen by IgE-inhibition experiments. Despite the fact that the 22 kD protein displayed a higher molecular weight in comparison to the 17 kD major birch pollen allergen, Bet v I, we could demonstrate reactivity of both monoclonal antibodies, BIP 1 and BIP 4, with this protein. A complete inhibiton of IgE-binding to this 22 kD protein was shown by pre-incubating sera with purified recombinant Bet v I. In addition, the 14 kD protein could be identified by IgE-inhibition studies with recombinant Bet v II and by using a rabbit anti-profilin antibody as the profilin from pollen of the European chestnut.

  6. Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its contractor Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., has constructed a storage facility, the Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile (CRBAWP), for mercury-contaminated soil excavated from the Oak Ridge Civic Center properties and the Oak Ridge Sewer Line Beltway. Excavation of the soil from the Civic Center began in September 1984 and was completed in early 1985. Similar soils from other areas of the city were added to the pile until 1987. Approximately 3000 yd{sup 3} are stored at the present time. An Interim Status RCRA permit was initially sought for this facility. Samples from the waste pile passed the Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test (EP Tox). The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (now the Tennessee Department of Conservation-TDC) denied the permit based on their conclusion that the waste was not a RCRA-regulated waste. On September 25, 1990 the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) superseded the EP Tox test. TCLP tests are not proposed to satisfy a request by TDC and to make a final determination of the nature of the soils in order to close the CRBAWP as a solid waste disposal facility under Tennessee State rule 1200-1-7-.04. The objectives of this work are to summarize existing site information and detail actions necessary to sample and characterize soils from the waste pile as hazardous or nonhazardous per the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Within the scope of this plan, a site investigation will be discussed; a field sampling plan will be described in terms of sampling locations, procedures, and quality assurance; and ancillary activities such as waste management, data management, and health and safety will be outlines. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Ectomycorrhizal inoculum potential of northeastern US forest soils for American chestnut restoration: results from field and laboratory bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulmer, Kristopher M; Leduc, Stephen D; Horton, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once a dominant overstory tree in eastern USA but was decimated by chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica). Blight-resistant chestnut is being developed as part of a concerted restoration effort to bring this heritage tree back. Here, we evaluate the potential of field soils in the northern portion of the chestnut's former range to provide ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungus inoculum for American chestnut. In our first study, chestnut seedlings were grown in a growth chamber using soil collected from three sites dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra) as inoculum and harvested after 5 months. Of the 14 EM fungi recovered on these seedlings, four species dominated in soils from all three sites: Laccaria laccata, a Tuber sp., Cenococcum geophilum, and a thelephoroid type. Seedlings grown in the nonsterilized soils were smaller than those growing in sterilized soils. In the second study, chestnut seedlings were grown from seed planted directly into soils at the same three sites. Seedlings with intermingling roots of established trees of various species were harvested after 5 months. Seventy-one EM fungi were found on the root tips of the hosts, with 38 occurring on chestnut seedlings. Multiple versus single host EM fungi were significantly more abundant and frequently encountered. The fungi observed dominating on seedlings in the laboratory bioassay were not frequently encountered in the field bioassay, suggesting that they may not have been active in mycelial networks in the field setting but were in the soils as resistant propagules that became active in the bioassay. These results show that soil from red oak stands can be used to inoculate American chestnut with locally adapted ectomycorrhizal fungi prior to outplanting, a relatively cost effective approach for restoration efforts.

  8. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  9. Thyreophagus corticalis as a vector of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica in chestnut stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Sauro; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Turchetti, Tullio; Bouneb, Mabrouk

    2014-03-01

    The natural spread of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. occurs in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) stands and orchards in Italy and other European countries, leading to spontaneous recovery of the diseased trees. Little is known about how hypovirulence spreads in chestnut stands but various corticolous mite species frequently detected on chestnut cankers could be one of the many factors playing a role in the spread. Artificial virulent cankers created in inoculation field tests and treated with Thyreophagus corticalis (Acari, Sarcoptiformes, Acaridae) raised on hypovirulent cultures showed similar growth to those treated with mycelia of the hypovirulent strain over 18 months of inoculation. Cultures re-isolated from virulent cankers treated with mites were found to contain hypovirus like those derived from pairings of virulent and hypovirulent strains. Viral dsRNA could be carried externally and/or ingested by mites from the hypovirulent mycelia and then transmitted to the mycelia of virulent strains, causing their conversion. In a laboratory study, all fecal pellets collected from mites reared on hypovirulent and virulent strains grown on semi-selective media gave rise to colonies of C. parasitica with similar morphological characters and virulence to the original cultures. Field inoculation of stump sprouts with the resulting colonies revealed that mite digestive tract passage did not alter the virulence of the studied strains. These results are of interest for the biological control of chestnut blight.

  10. Sexually mature transgenic American chestnut trees via embryogenic suspension-based transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Gisele M; Nairn, Campbell J; Le, Huong T; Merkle, Scott A

    2009-09-01

    The availability of a system for direct transfer of anti-fungal candidate genes into American chestnut (Castanea dentata), devastated by a fungal blight in the last century, would offer an alternative or supplemental approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees resistant to the blight fungus and other pathogens. By taking advantage of the strong ability of embryogenic American chestnut cultures to proliferate in suspension, a high-throughput Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into the tree was established. Proembryogenic masses (PEMs) were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 harboring the plasmid pCAMBIA 2301, followed by stringent selection with 50 or 100 mg/l Geneticin. A protocol employing size-fractionation to enrich for small PEMs to use as target material and selection in suspension culture was applied to rapidly produce transgenic events with an average efficiency of four independent transformation events per 50 mg of target tissue and minimal escapes. Mature somatic embryos, representing 18 transgenic events and derived from multiple American chestnut target genotypes, were germinated and over 100 transgenic somatic seedlings were produced and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Multiple vigorous transgenic somatic seedlings produced functional staminate flowers within 3 years following regeneration.

  11. Investigation on natural durability and sorption properties of Italian Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) from coppice stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Militz, H.; Busetto, D.; Hapla, F.

    2003-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill. from coppice stands in Italy were evaluated. Fungi trials with different white rot, brown rot and soft rot fungi showed, that the heartwood of chestnut can be classified following EN 350 in durability class 2 as ¿durable¿. However, the durability within the tested material (bet

  12. Effect of γ-radiation in the survival of Aspergillus parasiticus in chestnuts

    OpenAIRE

    Calado, Thalita; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Rodrigues, Paula; Venâncio, Armando

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the use of rays as an inactivation agent agains one of the most ubiquous and mycotoxigenic fungus - Aspergillus parasiticus - was studied. Chestnuts were previous incoulated with a spore suspension of one strain of A. parasiticus. After irradiation the growth of colonies were observed during 4 days. In general, the higher level of radiation the lower survival rate.

  13. [Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) used nasally as snuff - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    There are only few reports in the medical literature about side effects and toxicity of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum). We report a 15-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital because of symptoms including: vomiting, dyspnea, burning in the nose and throat, and syncope, after intranasal snuff of powdered horse chestnut seeds. Laboratory tests showed no abnormalities. After 2 days of hospitalization the female was discharged home with subjective and objective improvement. Preparation and use of snuff is related to the tradition of the kashubian region. The powder formed from horse chestnuts, which is white in color, effects after about 5-10 minutes, and causes severe irritation of the nasal mucous membranes, which results in sneezing. Responsible for side effects is mainly aescin. The most frequently observed aescin intoxication symptoms were gastrointestinal irritation and allergic reactions. Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut used nasally as snuff may lead, as it was in our case, to sudden and self-limiting clinical symptoms. Supportive therapy and a short hospital observation seems to be sufficient in such cases.

  14. Influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Amilcar L; Fernandes, Angela; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-01

    As seasonal products chestnuts have to be post-harvest treated to increase their shelf-life. The most common preservation method for chestnuts is the chemical fumigation with methyl bromide, a toxic agent that is under strictly Montreal Protocol due to its adverse effects on human health and environment. Food irradiation is a possible feasible alternative to substitute the traditional quarantine chemical fumigation treatment. This preliminary study evaluated the influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnut fruits and skins, through several chemical and biochemical parameters. The bioactive compounds (phenolics and flavonoids) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching capacity were determined. The obtained results seem to indicate that the storage favoured chestnuts antioxidant potential. Furthermore, the application of gamma irradiation also seems to be advantageous for antioxidant activity, independently of the dose used (0.27 ± 0.04 kGy or 0.54 ± 0.04 kGy).

  15. Novel insights into the emergence of pathogens: the case of chestnut blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünwald, Niklaus J

    2012-08-01

    Exotic, invasive pathogens have emerged repeatedly and continue to emerge to threaten the world's forests. Ecosystem structure and function can be permanently changed when keystone tree species such as the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) are eliminated from a whole range by disease. The fungal ascomycete pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica is responsible for causing chestnut blight. Once the pathogen was introduced into the Eastern US, where chestnuts were predominant, chestnuts were all but eliminated. This pathogen is currently causing extensive damage in Europe. A study in this issue of Molecular Ecology sheds new light on the pattern and process of emergence of this devastating plant pathogen (Dutech et al. 2012). The authors used microsatellite markers to investigate the evolutionary history of C. parasitica populations introduced into North America and Europe. To infer sources of migrants and the migration events, the authors included putative source populations endemic to China and Japan, inferred potentially unsampled populations and conducted a multivariate population genetic and complex ABC analysis. Cryphonectria parasitica emerges as an example of an introduced pathogen with limited genotypic diversity and some admixture in the invaded ranges, yet repeated invasions into different areas of Europe and the United States. This work sheds new light on the emergence of C. parasitica providing compelling evidence that this pathogen emerged by repeated migration and occasional admixture.

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHESTNUT CASTANEA SATIVA FROM THE AREA OF UNA-SANA CANTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim MUJIĆ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Una-Sana Canton (USC has a large forest areas where chestnut Castanea sativa Mill. grows as a self-sprout tree. The aim of this paper was to determine the morphological characteristics of chestnut fruits from four self-sprout locations (Bužim, Bosanska Krupa, Cazin and Velika Kladuša, and plantation where the domestic tree is grafted with Italian Marroni. Number of fruits/kg, the useless fruit, the percentage of kernel, diameter, width, height and weight of fruits were determined. The number of fruit/kg ranged from 160-222.5, percentage of useless fruit varied between 0.88-6.7%. Percentage of kernel ranged from 78.5 to 87.3%. According to the diameter classification, width, height and weight of fruits, chestnuts fruit from USC enters the category of the smallest fruits of the Mediterranean area. Statistical significant differences (p≤0.01 in the number of fruits/kg and weight of fruits was found between locations, as well in the width of the fruit (p≤0.05, while there is no difference in the diameter and height of the fruit. For grafted chestnut, all the characteristics provided better quality.

  17. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE ROASTING CHESTNUTS PROCESS BY SUPERHEATED STEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematic modeling for chestnuts roasting process by superheated steam is conducted. Diffusion and thermal diffusion coefficients are used for process description. Initial conditions and boundary conditions of the third kind for thermal conductivity and mass transfer equations are set.

  18. Extraction and determination of ellagic acid contentin chestnut bark and fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekiari, S A; Gordon, M H; García-Macías, P; Labrinea, H

    2008-10-15

    Chestnuts are an important economic resource in the chestnut growing regions, not only for the fruit, but also for the wood. The content of ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring inhibitor of carcinogenesis, was determined in chestnut fruits and bark. EA was extracted with methanol and free ellagic acid was determined by HPLC with UV detection, both in the crude extract and after hydrolysis. The concentration of EA was generally increased after hydrolysis due to the presence of ellagitannins in the crude extract. The concentration varied between 0.71 and 21.6mgg(-1) (d.w.) in un-hydrolyzed samples, and between 2.83 and 18.4mgg(-1) (d.w.) in hydrolyzed samples. In chestnut fruits, traces of EA were present in the seed, with higher concentrations in the pellicle and pericarp. However, all fruit tissues had lower concentrations of EA than had the bark. The concentration of EA in the hydrolyzed samples showed a non-linear correlation with the concentration in the unhydrolyzed extracts.

  19. Practices to manage chestnut orchards infested by the Chinese gall wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchetti T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of the Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in Italian chestnut growing areas is causing new criticisms. In this context, in addition to a clear plant suffering due to the wasp infestation, the dangerous recurrence of chestnut blight and the sudden spread of Gnomoniopsis sp., a coloniser of galls but also the etiological agent of nut brown rot, must be considered. Therefore, it is very important to increase the plants’ vigour and prevent their decline. Preliminary experiments were carried out in different Italian regions between 2010 and 2011. Organic plant fertilizers were applied to plants showing middle or high defoliation levels caused by the wasp attacks. The observations carried out during the growing season indicate a good vegetative restart in the treated plants compared to the untreated controls, in all the situations and independently of the fertilizers applied. Most of the treated plants (between the 75% and the 100% showed an evident improvement in the canopy vegetation, while the untreated controls were always classified in the worse classes of crown condition. These preliminary results highlight the efficacy of this kind of treatments for infested chestnut stands. This strategy, which is based on the preliminary evaluation of the plant vigour (following the proposed scale of attack severity and lack of foliage, consists in a manuring treatment at vegetative restart, which can be repeated in the following years in dependence on the results obtained. Moreover, pruning may be suggested only to manage the development of plants showing a definite recovery. The gall wasp pullulation requires new management strategies aimed at preserving the chestnut orchards, in order to avoid the chestnut cultivation to be marginalized or abandoned.

  20. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  1. Effects of electron-beam radiation on nutritional parameters of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Bento, Albino; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-08-08

    Chestnuts are a widely consumed fruit around the world, with Portugal being the fourth biggest producer in Europe. Storage of these nuts is an important step during processing, and the most widely used fumigant was banned in the European Union under the Montreal Protocol because of its toxicity. Recently, radiation has been introduced as a cheap and clean conservation method. Previous studies of our research group proved that γ radiation had no negative effect on the nutritional value of chestnuts; in fact, storage time had a much bigger influence on the chestnut quality. In the present study, we report the effect of a less ionizing radiation, electron beam, with doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 3, and 6 kGy in the nutritional value of chestnuts (ash, energy, fatty acids, sugars, and tocopherols), previously stored at 4 °C for 0, 30, and 60 days. The storage time seemed to reduce fat and energetic values but reported a tendency for higher values of dry matter. With regard to fatty acids, there was a higher detected quantity of C20:2 in non-irradiated samples and four fatty acids were only detected in trace quantities (C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, and C12:0). γ-Tocopherol decreased during storage time but did not alter its quantity for all of the radiation doses (as like α-, β-, and δ-tocopherol); in fact, these compounds were present in higher concentrations in the irradiated samples. Sucrose and total sugars were lower in non-irradiated samples, and raffinose was only detected in irradiated samples. Electron-beam irradiation seems to be a suitable methodology, because the effects on chemical and nutritional composition are very low, while storage time seems to be quite important in chestnut deterioration.

  2. The Development and Utilization of the Chinese Chestnut in Xinyang%信阳板栗的开发利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏明奎; 魏宗烽; 邵颖; 叶建成

    2014-01-01

    对板栗的营养价值、信阳气候特点、信阳板栗产业现状及板栗深加工产品现状进行了综述,以期推动信阳地区板栗种植业良性发展,加快板栗深加工产品的商业化。%The nutrition value of Chinese chestnut , Xinyang’ s climate characteristics, the current situation of the industry and the deep processing of Chinese chestnut were reviewed, in order to promote Chinese chestnut planting to the benign development in Xinyang area and to speed up the commercialization of the Chinese chestnut deep processing products.

  3. Development Trends and Progress of Chestnut Products in China%板栗制品开发现状及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐同成; 王文亮; 刘洁; 杜方岭

    2011-01-01

    介绍了板栗的营养价值、板栗系列产品的开发现状,并对板栗产业的发展趋势进行了探讨。%This paper systematically introduced the nutrition value of chestnut and the development status of chestnut products, and discussed the development trends of chestnut industry.

  4. Relationships between silvicultural system, forest type and floristic diversity in chestnut coppices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scoppola A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut stands are among the main forest formations in Italy. The aim of this work is to assess the floristic diversity of chestnut coppice stands of Sabatini Mts. (central Italy, highlighting the relationships between the silvicultural system and the ecological processes. In the management of these coppices almost exclusive importance has been given to the wood production, rating the stands on the basis of the rotation that maximizes the production of the most valuable assortments. The assessment carried out is based on floristic and dendrometric surveys within permanent circular plots (10 meters radius randomly selected within three chronological strata. Surveys have been realized on a total of 15 plots, 5 for each stratum. Indices of floristic richness and diversity have been elaborated to point out variations of forest types and to suggest possible alternatives to the current management to mitigate its impact on biodiversity.

  5. EFFECT of hydrocolloids on the quality evaluation of flour based noodles from Horse Chestnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiq Syed Insha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused to investigate the effects of hydrocolloids (guar gum and xanthan gum at additional levels (1%, 2% and 3% on the noodle characteristics prepared from horse chestnut flour. The qualities of noodles prepared from horse chestnut flour were compared with wheat flour based noodles in terms of cooking characteristics, textural and sensory properties. The hydrocolloid addition in noodles resulted in improvement of cooking and textural qualities in consistent to control sample. The incorporation of 3% gum significantly increased cooking properties and the firmness of cooked noodles. The results of the sensory evaluation based on a nine point hedonic scale revealed that apart from the control, noodles with 3% gum were acceptable to the panellists.

  6. Insolubilization of Chestnut Shell Pigment for Cu(II Adsorption from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Yu Yao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut shell pigment (CSP is melanin from an agricultural waste. It has potential as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment but cannot be used in its original state because of its solubility in water. We developed a new method to convert CSP to insolubilized chestnut shell pigment (ICSP by heating, and the Cu(II adsorption performance of ICSP was evaluated. The conversion was characterized, and the thermal treatment caused dehydration and loss of carboxyl groups and aliphatic structures in CSP. The kinetic adsorption behavior obeyed the pseudo-second-order rate law, and the equilibrium adsorption data were well described with both the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. ICSP can be used as a renewable, readily-available, easily-producible, environmentally-friendly, inexpensive and effective adsorbent to remove heavy-metal from aquatic environments.

  7. Growth and yield models, assortment type and analysis of deadwood in chestnut coppice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziliano PA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut (Castanea sativa MILL. is one of the most important forest tree species in Europe, and it is considered a symbol of the natural vegetation in southern Europe. In Calabria (southern Italy chestnut forest covers an area of approximately 87000 hectares, most of which (about 80% managed as coppice. In this study a growth and yield table has been elaborated. Thurthermore, assortment type and quantity of deadwood have been evaluated according to age of coppice and forest fire prevention, respectively. The study site is located in the “Presila of Catanzaro” and the research was carried out in 15 plots; the age of the examined stands ranged from 2 to 50 years old. More than 30000 shoots per hectare were recorded in the first two years after coppicing. As opposed, about 2300 and 1000 shoots per hectare were observed 15 and 50 years after coppicing, respectively. The culmination of the mean annual increment of the forest standing volume (16 m3 ha-1 year-1 was highlighted 25 years after coppicing, while the current annual increment culmination (21 m3 ha-1 year-1 was observed at 15 years. Fifteen years after coppicing, most of the wood production was constituted by small dimension assortments. Twenty five years after coppicing small and large poles were the prevailing assortments while telegraph poles and timber beams increased after 50 years. The amount of deadwood in forest ranged between 11.9 and 68.7 m3 ha-1. The largest component was represented by standing dead shoots. The results show that coppice management can be adopted even if the main purpose of the chestnut stand is the production of large size assortments. In chestnut coppice, highly vulnerable to fire, the reduction of stand density with silvicultural practices (thinning and displacement is the main way to promote the efficiency of forest and a higher strength and resiliency against forest fire.

  8. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CHESTNUT (Castanea sativa Mill. WOOD OBTAINED FROM MAÇKA-ÇATAK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgül Ay

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physical properties of chestnut were investigated. 8 trees used for experiments were obtained fromTrabzon-Maçka- Çatak region. Samples were prepared according to the related standarts. Oven-dried and air-dried density, volume weight, the amount of shrinkage, the ratio of cell walls, air cavities, the moisture content of wood at green condition, and the fiber saturation point as physical properties were determined.

  9. Use of molecular identification techniques for the study of parasitoids of the chestnut gall wasp

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) is considered as a major pest of Castanea species worldwide. A three-year monitoring of the indigenous parasitoids of this pest was performed by collecting specimens inside the galls. Each specimen was processed by molecular analysis. DNA was analysed by amplification and sequencing of the COI gene, coding for cytochrome c oxydase subunit 1. Each sequence was compared with reference sequences from adults sampled i...

  10. A chestnut seed cystatin differentially effective against cysteine proteinases from closely related pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernas, M; Sánchez-Monge, R; Gómez, L; Salcedo, G

    1998-12-01

    Cystatin CsC, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from chestnut (Castanea sativa) seeds, has been purified and characterized. Its full-length cDNA clone was isolated from an immature chestnut cotyledon library. The inhibitor was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from bacterial extracts. Identity of both seed and recombinant cystatin was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis, two-dimensional electrophoresis and N-terminal sequencing. CsC has a molecular mass of 11,275 Da and pI of 6.9. Its amino acid sequence includes all three motifs that are thought to be essential for inhibitory activity, and shows significant identity to other phytocystatins, especially that of cowpea (70%). Recombinant CsC inhibited papain (Ki 29 nM), ficin (Ki 65 nM), chymopapain (Ki 366 nM), and cathepsin B (Ki 473 nM). By contrast with most cystatins, it was also effective towards trypsin (Ki 3489 nM). CsC is active against digestive proteinases from the insect Tribolium castaneum and the mite Dermatophagoides farinae, two important agricultural pests. Its effects on the cysteine proteinase activity of two closely related mite species revealed the high specificity of the chestnut cystatin.

  11. Determination of timber assortments obtainable from coppice chestnut stands (Susa Valley, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosenzo A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut (Castanea sativa L. coppice stands currently cover about 195.000 ha of Piedmont (North-Western Italy surface, corresponding to 22.4 % of the overall forested area in the region. Most of these forest stands are usually older than the typical rotation period. As a consequence from these stands timber assortments with a higher value could be obtained. The purpose of this study is to assess the amount of timber assortments and to propose a sorting methodology based on measurements on standing trees within these chestnut stands.Five study areas were selected in the Susa Valley, where forest measurements were realized within sampling plots. Timber assortments obtainable from each coppice shoot were then determined by means of the Bitterlich’s relascope. More than 1.000 timber logs were measured. The data elaboration allowed to assess the timber assortment production of the investigated stands. The proposed methodology makes it possible to better exploit timber assortments. In fact, while usually the whole production from chestnut coppices is directly destined to secondary products, the subdivision into assortments could result in a 20 % of products with higher commercial value. It is important to notice that within these stands no tending operation is currently realized. The definition of qualitative features to classify timber assortments can provide useful suggestions on the main yield targets that could be reached through silvicultural management.

  12. Preparation and characterisation of the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnut polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Jun; Yu, Lin

    2015-08-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a strong oxidant that cleaves glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides. In this study, the oligosaccharides were prepared by removing the starch from Chinese water chestnuts through hydrolysis using α-amylase and then hydrolysing the remaining polysaccharides with H2O2, during which the oligosaccharide yield was monitored. The yield of oligosaccharide was affected by reaction time, temperature, and H2O2 concentration. Extended reaction times, high temperatures, and high H2O2 concentrations decreased oligosaccharide yield. Under optimum conditions (i.e., reaction time of 4h, reaction temperature of 80°C, and 2.5% H2O2 concentration), the maximum oligosaccharide yield was 3.91%. The oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides exhibited strong hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity when applied at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The results indicate that the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides possessed good antioxidant properties and can be developed as a new dietary supplement and functional food.

  13. Phylogeography of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) in the Japanese Archipelago based on chloroplast DNA haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Kanako; Kaneko, Yuko; Ito, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Sakio, Hitoshi; Hoshizaki, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Wajiro; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata: Hippocastanaceae) is one of the typical woody plants that grow in temperate riparian forests in the Japanese Archipelago. To analyze the phylogeography of this plant in the Japanese Archipelago, we determined cpDNA haplotypes for 337 samples from 55 populations covering the entire distribution range. Based on 1,313 bp of two spacers, we determined ten haplotypes that are distinguished from adjacent haplotypes by one or two steps. Most of the populations had a single haplotype, suggesting low diversity. Spatial analysis of molecular variance suggested three obvious phylogeographic structures in western Japan, where Japanese horse chestnut is scattered and isolated in mountainous areas. Conversely, no clear phylogeographic structure was observed from the northern to the southern limit of this species, including eastern Japan, where this plant is more common. Rare and private haplotypes were also found in southwestern Japan, where Japanese horse chestnuts are distributed sparsely. These findings imply that western Japan might have maintained a relatively large habitat for A. turbinata during the Quaternary climatic oscillations, while northerly regions could not.

  14. Hydrolyzable Tannins from Sweet Chestnut Fractions Obtained by a Sustainable and Eco-friendly Industrial Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Margherita; Pinelli, Patrizia; Romani, Annalisa

    2016-03-01

    Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood extracts, rich in Hydrolyzable Tannins (HTs), are traditionally used in the tanning and textile industries, but recent studies suggest additional uses. The aim of this work is the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS characterization of Sweet Chestnut aqueous extracts and fractions obtained through a membrane separation technology system without using other solvents, and the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiradical activities. Total tannins range between 2.7 and 138.4 mM; gallic acid ranges between 6% and 100%; castalagin and vescalagin range between 0% and 40%. Gallic Acid Equivalents, measured with the Folin-Ciocalteu test, range between 0.067 and 56.99 g/100 g extract weight; ORAC test results for the marketed fractions are 450.4 and 3050 µmol/g Trolox Equivalents/extract weight. EC₅₀ values, measured with the DPPH test, range between 0.444 and 2.399 µM. These results suggest a new ecofriendly and economically sustainable method for obtaining chestnut fractions with differentiated, stable and reproducible chemical compositions. Such fractions can be marketed for innovative uses in several sectors.

  15. 栗叶栗果与土壤中微量营养元素形态关系的研究%Studies on the Relationships among the Trace Nutrient Element Fractions in Chestnut Forest Soils and Chestnut Leaves and Chestnuts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐兆宏; 刘霞; 刘树庆; 孙志梅

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to study the relationships among the trace nutrient element fractions in chestnut forest soils and chestnut leaves and chestnuts. [Method] The Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu concentration in 0 -20 cm and 20 -40 cm soil layers of chestnut forest in Yan mountain area were determined by the available form and BCR (the Community Bureau of Reference) three-step sequential chemical extraction experiment. The bio-absorption coefficient and the correlations between elements in chestnut leaves and nuts and their fractions in soil were analyzed. [ Result ] The BAC of Mn in chestnut leaves was higher than those of the other elements, while the BAC of Zn in chestnut nuts was relatively large. The element speciation in soils could better reveal the bio-geochemical characteristics of nutrient elements in chestnut forest soils. The Fe, Zn and Mn nutrient status of chestnut leaves could be estimated by the acetic acid extractable fraction of Fe and Zn in 20 -40 cm soil layer and the acetic acid extractable fraction of Mn in 0 - 20 cm soil layer. The contents of Mn, Cu and Zn in chestnut nuts were affected the interactions among element fractions in chestnut forest soils. [ Conclusion ] The research provides theoretical basis for the growth of chestnut, reasonable fertilization, improving the yield and quality of chestnut and maintaining the eoo-enviromnent of chestnut forest.%[目的]研究栗叶栗果与土壤中微量营养元素形态的关系.[方法]同时采用有效态和欧共体BCR三步提取法对燕山山区板栗土壤0~20和20~40 cm土层中Fe、Mn、Zn、Cu的各形态含量进行了测定,并分析了板栗的生物吸收系数以及土壤中微量营养元素形态与栗叶和栗果中矿质营养的关系.[结果]栗叶对Mn的生物吸收系数高于其他元素,栗果对Zn的生物吸收系数较大.运用营养元素赋存形态能更好地揭示板栗土壤中元素的生物地球化学特征,可用0~20 cm土层弱酸提取态Mn以及20~40

  16. Comparisons of ectomycorrhizal colonization of transgenic american chestnut with those of the wild type, a conventionally bred hybrid, and related fagaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Katherine M; Horton, Thomas R; Maynard, Charles A; Stehman, Stephen V; Oakes, Allison D; Powell, William A

    2015-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) dominated the eastern forests of North America, serving as a keystone species both ecologically and economically until the introduction of the chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica, functionally eradicated the species. Restoration efforts include genetic transformation utilizing genes such as oxalate oxidase to produce potentially blight-resistant chestnut trees that could be released back into the native range. However, before such a release can be undertaken, it is necessary to assess nontarget impacts. Since oxalate oxidase is meant to combat a fungal pathogen, we are particularly interested in potential impacts of this transgene on beneficial fungi. This study compares ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization on a transgenic American chestnut clone expressing enhanced blight resistance to a wild-type American chestnut, a conventionally bred American-Chinese hybrid chestnut, and other Fagaceae species. A greenhouse bioassay used soil from two field sites with different soil types and land use histories. The number of colonized root tips was counted, and fungal species were identified using morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and DNA sequencing. Results showed that total ectomycorrhizal colonization varied more by soil type than by tree species. Individual fungal species varied in their colonization rates, but there were no significant differences between colonization on transgenic and wild-type chestnuts. This study shows that the oxalate oxidase gene can increase resistance against Cryphonectria parasitica without changing the colonization rate for ectomycorrhizal species. These findings will be crucial for a potential deregulation of blight-resistant American chestnuts containing the oxalate oxidase gene.

  17. Physico-chemical, morphological and pasting properties of starches extracted from water Chestnuts (Trapa natans from three Lakes of Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Gani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on physicochemical, morphology and pasting properties of starches extracted from water chestnuts of three Lakes of Kashmir valley (Wular, Anchar and Dal Lakes were conducted to determine their application in different food products. The water chestnut starch from Dal Lake had more oval shaped granules than water chestnut starches from the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.The unique feature of the water chestnut starches were shape of starch granules which looked like horn(s protruding from the surface which did not appear in other starches already studied. Proximate analysis of water chestnut starches showed that average protein content were 0.4%, amylose 29.5 % and ash 0.007 on dry weight basis. Increase in water binding capacity, swelling power and solubility was found over a temperature range of 50-90ºC. Water chestnut starches showed an increase in syneresis during freeze thaw cycles and decline in paste clarity upon storage. Starch extracted from the water chestnuts of the Dal Lake showed higher water binding capacity, swelling, solubility, past clarity, freeze thaw stability, peak viscosity, final viscosity and lower protein content, amylose content, pasting temperature and gel firmness than starches extracted from water chestnuts of the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.

  18. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry.

  19. Nutrient Components and Processing Adaptability of Chinese Chestnut%板栗的营养成分及加工特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 汪浩明; 张丛兰; 李皓; 李庆; 马小建; 杨芳

    2013-01-01

    以湖北麻城的油栗、广东阳山的油栗和风栗为研究对象,对其主要营养成分和加工适应性以及板栗淀粉物理特性进行了分析.结果表明:三种板栗在—般营养成分上差异不大,麻城油栗含水量59.5%,适于制浆加工;阳山油栗单粒重16.53 g、颗粒大,麻城油栗、阳山风栗板栗单重小,可食率高.板栗品种对淀粉组成影响不大,产地上有差异;三种板栗淀粉在95℃时,溶解度接近50%,膨润力在30%左右,实验温度下阳山油栗仁淀粉溶解度和膨润力较大.在透明度方面,阳山风栗仁淀粉较高;各种板栗淀粉都有较强的冻融稳定性.%In order to study the nutrients components and the processing adaptability of different varieties Chinese chenstnut, there chestnut samples (oil chestnut from Macheng in Hubei province,oil chestnut and wind chestnut from Yangshan in Guangdong province) were analyzed. The results showed that the three kinds of chestnut had little difference in nutrient components. Macheng oil chestnut with 59.5% water content was suitable for pulping. Yangshan oil chestnut had large grain with weight value of 16.53g. Macheng oil chestnut and Yangshan wind chestnut had higher edible rate. Small difference was observed in characters of chestnut starch from different sources. The solubility and swelling power of the tested chestnut starch were closer to 50% and about 30% at 95 °C. The starch of Yangshan oil chestnut had higher solubility and swelling power than that of the others. Considering the transparence of the starch, Yanshan oil chestnut was better than the others. All tested chestnut showed high freeze-thaw stability.

  20. Carcass and meat quality traits of Celta heavy pigs. Effect of the inclusion of chestnuts in the finishing diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Temperan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcass and meat quality traits were studied in 36 Celta pigs (a breed native from NW of Spain reared for 16 months in an extensive regime and slaughtered at a live weight of around 170 kg. The effect of partially or totally replacing commercial compound feed with chestnuts in the finishing diet was also investigated. Celta heavy pigs were characterised by high killing out, subcutaneous fat thickness, and ham length values, and by low ham perimeter, and Longissimus lumborum muscle area values. Meat showed high myoglobin contents and a* values, and very high hardness. By increasing the proportion of chestnuts in the finishing diet the quantity of back fat increased and the pH of the meat decreased. However, neither these effects, nor any of those on the other traits studied were statistically significant. The absence of significant effects may be due to the fact that pigs fed with chestnuts were not subjected to feed restrictions.

  1. The effect of feed moisture and temperature on tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extruded chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiang-Obounou, Brice Wilfried; Ryu, Gi Hyung

    2013-12-15

    This study focuses on the effect of extrusion processing on tannin reduction, phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant and anitimicrobial activity. Extrusion temperature (120 and 140 °C) and feed moisture (25% and 28%) were used on the tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Extrusion cooking reduced tannin content up to 78%, and improved antioxidant activity from 12.89% to 21.17% in a concentration dependant manner without affecting its antimicrobial activity that varied from 250 to 500 mg. The time-kill assay confirmed the ability of extruded chestnut to reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa count below detectable limit that reduced the original inoculum by 3log10 CFU/mL. Overall, the results showed that extrusion cooking might serve as a tool for tannin reduction and could improve the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of chestnut, which might be helpful for chestnut related products in the food industry.

  2. Changes in leaf tissues of common horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. colonised by the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ochridella Deschka and Dimić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study, conducted during the period 2010- 2011, involved morphological observations and anatomical investigations of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. leaves with symptoms of damage caused by feeding of larvae of the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić. Leaves were collected from trees growing in the city of Lublin (Poland. Microscopic slides were prepared from fresh and fixed plant material. Leaf anatomical features were examined by light microscopy in order to determine the mechanical barrier for feeding pests. Changes were also observed during the progressive damage of the leaf tissues caused by the larvae. Selected developmental stages of the pest are presented in the paper. It has been shown that very thin blades of the mesomorphic leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum produce a poorly developed mechanical barrier in which the following elements can be included: the presence of collenchyma and idioblasts with druses of calcium oxalate, few non-glandular trichomes found close to the leaf veins as well as relatively thin outer walls of the epidermal cells. The cells containing tannins and the oil cells found in the mesophyll may form a physiological barrier. However, foraging leaf miner larvae feed only on the palisade and spongy parenchyma cells, leaving undamaged the cells with tannins as well as the idioblasts with calcium oxalate crystals and oils. The feeding of the pest in the leaf mesophyll leads to the death of the epidermis on both sides of the lamina and to drying of the parts of the leaves in the area of the mines.

  3. Chestnut: from coppice to structural timber. The case study of "Uso Fiume" beams sampled in Liguria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Togni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently Agriculture Department of Liguria Region had supported studies and researches on the timber quality of living trees in local coppice chestnut forests, with the prospect to produce also timber for structural use. Under some ad-hoc funds a 30 years old coppice forest in the high Bormida Valley, never thinned after the last utilization, has been chosen for sampling. 18 selected trunks were felled and the assortment called “Uso Fiume” (UF was chosen, getting 49 beams (cross-section from 12¥12 to 24¥24 cm, by way of saw-mill operations The UF-beam is a structural element, derived from Italian tradition. Such elements are used in Italian buildings over the time, in substitution to structural sawn timber, principally for roofing. The UF-beam is a square edged log with wane; more precisely it is a full log, edged on four sides, maintaining boxed heart and an approximately central pith. Today the features of such a beam is established according to the specific Italian standard UNI 11035-3 for spruce and fir and to the CUAP (Common Understanding of Assessment Procedure n. 03.24/22 for chestnut and conifers. The beams were visually graded according to the Visual Strength Grading procedure and the physical and mechanical properties (density, modulus of elasticity-MOE and modulus of rupture- MOR were determined according to the standard requirements (EN 408, EN 384, ISO 3131, disregarding the moisture content: the mechanical tests were performed with wood in green state (moisture content M.C.>30% because it is the actual condition of use in building, due to the very low permeability of the chestnut heartwood which entails long seasoning time of large cross section beams. The study showed very high yields considering the stems-to-beams volume ratio, close to 70%. Characteristics values of the sample resulted: char. density kg/m³, char. modulus of elasticity E0,mean 10,3 GPa and char. bending strength fm,k 28,5 MPa. These results can be

  4. THE PESTS OF HORSE CHESTNUT TREE – AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    PERJU, T.; I OLTEAN; OPREAN, I.; ECOBICI, Monica

    2005-01-01

    In 1998 the presence of the horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka-Dimic was reported in Cluj- Napoca. During 2000 – 2003 research concerning the extent, biology, ecology at this micro-lepidopteron, a new pest in our country, was performed. Signaled for the fi rst time in Western area of our country (1998), then in Central (1998), Southern (1999), and Eastern (2003) part of the country, the spread year by year conquering new territories. In the clime conditions of our country,...

  5. Determination of timber assortments obtainable from coppice chestnut stands (Susa Valley, Northern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Nosenzo A

    2007-01-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) coppice stands currently cover about 195.000 ha of Piedmont (North-Western Italy) surface, corresponding to 22.4 % of the overall forested area in the region. Most of these forest stands are usually older than the typical rotation period. As a consequence from these stands timber assortments with a higher value could be obtained. The purpose of this study is to assess the amount of timber assortments and to propose a sorting methodology based on measurements on s...

  6. Chestnut optimization of process parameters of shelling in the microwave cut%板栗微波去壳切口工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房贵磊; 罗仓学; 胡兵; 张冬梅

    2012-01-01

    主要研究切口板栗的相关工艺条件,以期获得较好的爆壳效果。按照板栗背部中轴位置,对板栗进行纵向切口,且切口长度为全长,切口深度不伤及栗仁和切口数为1道时为宜;经切口的物料在微波功率700W、处理时间60s的条件下,板栗爆壳率达90%。%According to previous research of microwave on chestnut shelling shows that chestnut shells can get a higher rate of explosive if the clothes are cut, and is conducive to maintaining the integrity of chestnut. This paper studies the relevant process conditions of chestnut incision in order to obtain a better shell burst effect. In accordance with the chestnut back axis position, vertical incision on the chestnut, and the incision length is full-length, the depth of the incision and incision does not hurt chestnut number of 1 is appropriate. Shell burst rate reached 90%.

  7. Soluble material secreted from Penicillium chrysogenum isolate exhibits antifungal activity against Cryphonectria parasitica- the causative agent of the American Chestnut Blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florjanczyk, Aleksandr; Barnes, Rebecca; Kenney, Adam; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once the dominant canopy tree along the eastern region of the United States. Cryphonectria parasitica, the causative agent of chestnut blight, was introduced from Asia in the early 1900's, and obliterated the chestnut population within 50 years. We sought to identify environmental microbes capable of producing factors that were fungicidal or inhibited growth of C. parasitica in the hopes developing a biological control of chestnut blight. We isolated a filamentous fungus that significantly inhibited the growth of C. parasitica upon co-cultivation. Extracellular fractions of this fungal isolate prevented C. parasitica growth, indicating that a potential fungicide was produced by the novel isolate. Sequence analysis of 18S rRNA identified this inhibitory fungus as Penicillium chrysogenum. Furthermore, these extracellular fractions were tested as treatments for blight in vivo using chestnut saplings. Scarred saplings that were treated with the P. chrysogenum extracellular fractions healed subjectively better than those without treatment when inoculated with C. parasitica. These data suggest that material secreted by P. chrysogenum could be used as a treatment for the American chestnut blight. This work may assist the reclamation of the American chestnut in association with breeding programs and blight attenuation. Specifically, treatment of small groves under the right conditions may allow them to remain blight free. Future work will explore the mechanism of action and specific target of the extracellular fraction. PMID:27274909

  8. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies.

  9. Pyrosequencing of environmental soil samples reveals biodiversity of the Phytophthora resident community in chestnut forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Andrea; Bruni, Natalia; Tomassini, Alessia; Franceschini, Selma; Vettraino, Anna Maria

    2013-09-01

    Pyrosequencing analysis was performed on soils from Italian chestnut groves to evaluate the diversity of the resident Phytophthora community. Sequences analysed with a custom database discriminated 15 pathogenic Phytophthoras including species common to chestnut soils, while a total of nine species were detected with baiting. The two sites studied differed in Phytophthora diversity and the presence of specific taxa responded to specific ecological traits of the sites. Furthermore, some species not previously recorded were represented by a discrete number of reads; among these species, Phytophthora ramorum was detected at both sites. Pyrosequencing was demonstrated to be a very sensitive technique to describe the Phytophthora community in soil and was able to detect species not easy to be isolated from soil with standard baiting techniques. In particular, pyrosequencing is an highly efficient tool for investigating the colonization of new environments by alien species, and for ecological and adaptive studies coupled with biological detection methods. This study represents the first application of pyrosequencing for describing Phytophthoras in environmental soil samples.

  10. A Morphological and Histological Characterization of Male Flower in Chestnut (Castanea Cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume. is a widely distributed fruit tree and well known for its ecological and economic value. In order to evaluate obstacles to male reproductive in the C. mollissima, a morphological and histological characterization of male flower of chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ were examined by paraffin section technique and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that male catkins with floral primordia were formed in the buds of one-year olds shoots in later April. Later, a protoderm, ground meristem and a procambium had differentiated in young anthers. Each young anther soon developed to four microsporangia. The anther wall layers developed completely by mid-May and consisted of one-cell-layered epidermis, one-cell-layered endothecium, two or three middle layers and one-cell-layered tapetum. The tapetum was of glandular type. Microspore mother cells underwent meiosis through simultaneous cytokinesis in later May and gave rise to tetrads of microspores, which were tetrahedrally arranged. Mature pollens contained two cells with three germ pores. Anthers were dehiscent and pollen grains shed by early June. Based our results, we did not find the abnormal male flower in the C. molissma cv ‘yanshanzaofeng’, indicating that male gametes were fertile and thus was considered as pollenizers.

  11. Quick detection of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in chestnut dormant buds by nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, C; Marinoni, D Torello; Quacchia, A; Botta, R

    2012-06-01

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) develops in chestnut buds that remain asymptomatic from oviposition (June-July) until budburst; it is, thus, easily spread by plant material used in propagation. Therefore, it is particularly interesting to identify infested plant batches before their movement. Unfortunately, a non-destructive method for checking buds has not yet been developed, and the only technique available is the screening of a bud sample. The visual investigation is long and requires highly skilled and trained staff. The purpose of this work was to set up an effective and fast method able to identify the presence of first instar larvae of D. kuriphilus in a large number of chestnut buds by PCR. Four primer pairs were designed on nuclear and mitochondrial sequences of a set of seven gall wasp taxa and tested on five different cynipid's DNA. Nested diagnostic PCR was carried out on DNA extracted from samples of 2 g buds simulating four levels of infestation (larvae were added to uninfested buds); 320 bp amplicon of 28S sequence was chosen as a marker to detect one larva out of 2 g buds. The method showed a potential efficiency of 5000 to 15,000 buds per week, depending on bud size.

  12. PHYSICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF CHESTNUT BLIGHT DISEASED CASTANEA SATIVA MILL. WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Gunduz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some of the physical and anatomical properties of Chestnut Blight Diseased (CBD wood were investigated, and the study also included observations using Raman spectroscopy. The objective of these investigations was to determine the extent of the damage that is done to the wood of the diseased chestnut trees, which must be removed from the forest and used in the manufacture of industrial products. It was indicated that most of the adverse effects of the disease were in the vascular cambium. There was a clear indication of deterioration of the wood in the last growth ring next to vascular cambium. In the diseased secondary xylem region next to vascular cambium; vessel diameter, vessel frequency and vessel element length had a decrease, and vessel and other cells were irregular compared to healthy wood. Spores were detected and identified as Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill. Annual ring properties (annual growth ring width, latewood percentage, etc. were similar in diseased wood compared to healthy wood. The Raman spectroscopy results showed no significant changes in the structure of the cell wall or its components. After removing the diseased parts, unlimited usage of formerly wood is possible. Heat treatment of the wood is suggested before use in the interest of sanitation and dimensional stability.

  13. Phenols, lignans and antioxidant properties of legume and sweet chestnut flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Turfani, Valeria; Azzini, Elena; Maiani, Giuseppe; Carcea, Marina

    2013-10-15

    Total phenols (TPC) and antioxidant properties were determined in chick-pea, green and red lentils and sweet chestnut flours, in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues, by the Folin Ciocalteau method and by the FRAP assay, respectively. Plant lignans were quantified in flours by means of HPLC. In addition, the FRAP of plant lignans (secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol, matairesinol), their mixture and enterolignans (enterodiol and enterolactone) were determined. In all flours, the highest TPC values were found in the residue. Specific and varietal significant differences were observed in all parameters. The highest TPC (737.32 and 1492.93mg/100gd.w.) and FRAP (140.32 and 101.25μmol/gd.w.) values were reached by green lentils in both aqueous-organic extract and residue, respectively. Sweet chestnuts had the highest total lignans (980.03μg/100gd.w.). It was also found that the plant lignans standards have a higher antioxidant activity than enterolignans standards and that matairesinol has the highest activity.

  14. Male sterility in chestnuts. A tentative plan for the seed propagation of fruit trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya (Fruit Tree Research Station, Yatabe, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    A tentative plan was proposed for chestnuts based on their pollination system, male sterility and restoration. The studies on the male sterility of 1,063 cultivars and clones suggested that there were three types of male sterility. The first type (S-1) was characterized by antherless florets. In the second type (S-2), the catkins fell before anthesis, and the third type (S-3) appeared to develop normally in gross floral morphology, but the pollen grains were abnormal in shape and did not have germinating power. In an interspecific hybrid clone CS which belonged to S-1, fertility was restored in an open pollinated progeny. The use of CS and CSO-3 with its restored fertility, permitted the planning of breeding the chestnut hybrid cultivars propagated by seeds. The inbred clones with either male sterility or restorer genes are first bred mainly by back crossing with parents with favorable pollen. The clones are selected individually for early bearing, wasp and disease resistance, and restoration. Then, the hybrid seedling lines between male sterile and restorer inbreds are evaluated for homogenity in nut characters and tree habits. Next, the hybrid seedling lines selected will be examined for crop yield, vigor and cross compatibility. The superior seedling lines are finally selected, and the parental inbreds are grafted to be propagated for seed production orchards.

  15. Chestnut shell as heavy metal adsorbent: Optimization study of lead, copper and zinc cations removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Gonzalo, E-mail: gonzalo.vazquez@usc.es [School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Calvo, Marcos, E-mail: norrisnoia@hotmail.com [School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sonia Freire, M., E-mail: mariasonia.freire@usc.es [School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gonzalez-Alvarez, Julia, E-mail: julia.gonzalez@usc.es [School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Antorrena, Gervasio, E-mail: gervasio.antorrena@usc.es [School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2009-12-30

    The influence of initial cation concentration, temperature and pH was investigated to optimize Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} removal from aqueous solutions using acid formaldehyde pre-treated chestnut shell as adsorbent. Experiments were planned according to an incomplete 3{sup 3} factorial experimental design. Under the optimal conditions selected, the metal ion adsorption equilibrium was satisfactorily described by the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum pre-treated chestnut shell adsorption capacity was obtained for Pb{sup 2+} ions, 8.5 mg g{sup -1}, and the order of cation affinity was Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+}. A model that considered the effect of axial dispersion was successfully used to describe the fixed-bed adsorption behaviour of Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} ions at the flow rates essayed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies showed that the functional groups involved in metal ions binding included carboxyl, hydroxyl, ether, alcoholic and amino groups.

  16. Species-specific duplications of NBS-encoding genes in Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yan; Li, Yingjun; Huang, Kaihui; Cheng, Zong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The disease resistance (R) genes play an important role in protecting plants from infection by diverse pathogens in the environment. The nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) class of genes is one of the largest R gene families. Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is resistant to Chestnut Blight Disease, but relatively little is known about the resistance mechanism. We identified 519 NBS-encoding genes, including 374 NBS-LRR genes and 145 NBS-only genes. The majority of Ka/Ks were less than 1, suggesting the purifying selection operated during the evolutionary history of NBS-encoding genes. A minority (4/34) of Ka/Ks in non-TIR gene families were greater than 1, showing that some genes were under positive selection pressure. Furthermore, Ks peaked at a range of 0.4 to 0.5, indicating that ancient duplications arose during the evolution. The relationship between Ka/Ks and Ks indicated greater selective pressure on the newer and older genes with the critical value of Ks = 0.4–0.5. Notably, species-specific duplications were detected in NBS-encoding genes. In addition, the group of RPW8-NBS-encoding genes clustered together as an independent clade located at a relatively basal position in the phylogenetic tree. Many cis-acting elements related to plant defense responses were detected in promoters of NBS-encoding genes. PMID:26559332

  17. [Micrococcus sp.--the pathogen of leaf necrosis of horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.) in Kiev].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, L M; Makhinia, L V; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2013-01-01

    A group of phytopathogenic bacteria was isolated from patterns of drying horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.), which grow in Kyiv. The properties of slowly growing, highly aggressive microorganisms have been described in the paper. They grow up on the 8-10th day after sowing. The investigated microorganisms form very small (0.5-1 mm in diameter) colonies on the potato agar. Bacteria are protuberant, shining, smooth with flat edges, they are pale yellow, yellow, or pink. The bacteria are Gram-positive, spherical, are disposed in smears singly, in pairs, as accumulations, or netting. They are aerobes, do not form spores, are not mobile. They are inert in respect of different sources of carbon. They reduce nitrates, do not dilute gelatin, do not hydrolyze starch, do not release hydrogen sulphide and indole. The bacteria are catalase-positive, oxidase-negative. They do not cause potato and carrot rot. They lose quickly their viability under the laboratory conditions. The saturated acids C 14:0; C 15:0; C16:0; C18:0 have been revealed in the composition of cellular fatty acids. Microorganisms are identified as Micrococcus sp. Under artificial inoculation this highly aggressive pathogen causes drying of the horse-chestnut buds and necrosis, which occupies 1/3-1/2 of the leaf plate. A wide zone of chlorosis, surrounding necrosis, may occupy the whole leaf surface. The infected leaves use to twist up from the top (apex) or along a midrib and to dry.

  18. Effects of Different Pollination Treatments on Nutrition Changes of the Ovary in Chinese Chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume has noteworthy ecological, economic and cultural importance in the Northern Hemisphere. The low yield of chestnut often affect the economic efficiency. Ovary development is an important step in nut production. Changes in nutrient contents during ovary development in chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ and ‘Dabanhong’ were used as material. About 50~100 pollinated female inflorescences were picked every five days (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 days to determine N, P, K, fat, total soluble sugar, crude protein and starch contents. The results indicated that the contents of total soluble sugar, starch and fat increased constantly in ovaries after self-and cross-pollination, but protein, N and K contents first increased in 20 DAP (day after pollination and after that decreased in the stage of young fruit development. The changes of P has two peak values, one was in 40 DAP and the other was in 50 DAP. P and crude protein were not significantly after pollination treatments. However, N, sugar, starch, fat and K were significantly higher in cross-pollination treatment it seems that these nutrient has a decisive role during ovary development in chestnut. The characteristics of these nutrition changes provide a basis information for spraying N, P, K etc during ovary development and may have the potential to improve nut yield.

  19. The Effects of Cultivar Type on the Quality Characteristics of Chinese Chestnuts (Castanea mollissima Canned in Sugar Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Wen Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the single grain weight, the carbohydrate composition (starch, amylose, total sugar, reducing sugar, pectin, fibre and moisture, protein, fat and ash contents of four Chinese chestnut cultivars (Banhong, Yankui, Yanlong and Zaofeng from the Yan mountain range of China. Results showed that the tannin content of the pellicle of the chestnuts and the rate of its loss during the canning heat treatment had a significant effect on pellicle removal (p<0.05. Analysis of the canned chestnuts after storage at room temperature (25±2°C suggested that Banhong was most preferred with a sensory score of 6.15 after 7 days and 5.79 after 180 days of storage. No significant quality differences were observed between the Zaofeng and Banhong cultivars, while the quality of the Yanlong and Yankui cultivars was significantly lower (p<0.05. We have obtained some dependence between the chestnuts’ physicochemical components and the overall acceptability of the canned chestnuts.

  20. Silvicultural and phytosanitary researches in thinned chestnut coppices at different elevations in Sila (Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Avolio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of mensurational and phytosanitary researches ten years after thinning trials in chestnut coppices (Castanea sativa Miller in Sila, are reported.. Eight experimental areas, four located at an average elevation of 1200 m a.s.l. aged 20 yrs and four located on average at 1050 m a.s.l. aged 13 yrs, were compared. Three sub-plots were installed in each area and mensurational and phytosanitary surveys were carried out in 1997 (before and after thinning trials and ten years later (2007 on 30 stools per sub-plot to assess bio-ecological, structural and compositional status of the standing crops. At each elevation, the experimental protocol included the following theses: thesis T (control: release of the standing crop and removal of dried up stems on the ground, only; thesis A (light thinning: removal of the dominated storey, on average 30% of coppice shoots, poorly shaped, both withered and green; thesis B (moderate thinning: removal from the dominated up to the dominant storey = 43% of the shoots, both dried up and green; thesis C (heavy thinning: removal = 62% of coppice shoots, both withered and green. Results highlighted the significance of thinnings in the cultivation of chestnut coppices. As for silviculture and growth pattern, the surveying ten years later showed the following outcomes: reduction of shoots mortality, according to the thinning intensity from A to C (by comparing the number of dried up coppice shoots surveyed in the control theses; a higher number of coppice shoots in the commercial category “average stems” in the thinned plots; the higher percentage increment in dbh, basal area and volume in the sub-plots undergoing thinning A and C at the elevation of 1050 m and, in general, with thesis C at both elevations; the complete recovery of canopy cover even in the sub-plots heavily thinned. As for the phytosanitary aspects, the research has been oriented on the chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, due to

  1. 荸荠营养成分及保健价值的研究%Study on nutritional ingredients and health care value of Chinese water chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡; 胡月珍; 李小根

    2013-01-01

    Chinese water chestnut has abundant nutritions which are essential to the health of human beings.Modern medical research has found that Chinese water chestnut with a variety of health care value. The paper summarized the nutritional ingredients and health care value of Chinese water chestnut.The study provides a reliable basis for the processing of Chinese water chestnut.%  荸荠富含人体需要的多种营养成分,现代医学研究发现,荸荠含有多种保健价值。本文论述了荸荠的营养成分及保健价值,为荸荠的开发利用开辟了一条途径。

  2. Studies on Lactic Acid Bacteria Beverage of Chestnut and Red Date%板栗红枣乳酸菌饮料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰; 李岩; 刘伟

    2011-01-01

    本文将板栗浆与脱脂乳混合进行发酵制成板栗酸牛奶,再以板栗酸牛奶为基料添加红枣汁制成风味独特、清凉爽口的乳酸菌饮料,并确定其最佳配方为:板栗发酵乳添加量为35%,红枣汁添加量为4%,调整pH值为4.0.%A study on the chestnut yogurt fermentation with liquid of chestnut and skim milk. Made lactic acid bacteria beverage with chestnut yogurt of fundamental material adds juice of red dates, it has flavour of special, refreshing and cool tasty. The best result of the former is chestnut yogurt: 35%, juice of red dates: 4%, pH:4.0.

  3. Primary and secondary metabolite composition of kernels from three cultivars of Portuguese chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) at different stages of industrial transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Carmo Barbosa Mendes De Vasconcelos, Maria; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira Cardoso, Jorge Ventura

    2007-05-02

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa) is an important basic food in rural diets and a major starch crop used in a similar way to potatoes. Chestnuts are a fundamental economic resource in the "chestnut regions" not only for the fruit but also for the chestnut wood. Chestnuts have become increasingly important with respect to human health, for example, as an alternative gluten-free flour source. Chestnuts are also a rich source of other beneficial compounds, but there have been few studies on the composition during processing. In this study, we analyzed the chemical composition of three Portuguese cultivars at different stages of industrial processing. The chestnut cultivars were Longal, Judia, and Martaínha. All three cultivars had high moisture contents but were low in ash, crude fat, and crude protein contents, with high starch and low fiber contents. The free amino acid contents, including various essential amino acids, varied depending on the cultivar. All three cultivars also had a significant content of polyphenolics with gallic acid; ellagic acid was predominant among hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Many of these compounds are known to exert significant positive effects on human health. The one-way analysis of variance for fresh chestnut shows significant differences among the three cultivars for most of the studied parameters. The same statistical analysis applied to each one of the two cultivars (Judia and Longal) sampled for the four processing steps analyzed indicates a significant effect of this factor in practically all of the constituents. On the other hand, the two-way analysis of variance shows that, besides the residual, the processing step and the interaction cultivar x processing step were the factors that more contributed for the total variation observed in the constituents analyzed, while the contribution of cultivar was much less significant.

  4. The Standard Cultivation Techniques for Chestnut in Xinyang City%信阳市板栗标准化栽培技术要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵师成

    2012-01-01

    信阳市板栗产业近年来急剧衰退,市场严重萎缩;为适应市场需求,重振信阳市板栗产业,结合当地实际,必须强调板栗栽培各个管理环节的技术标准化,如科学规划建园、良好的土肥水管理与花果管理、合理的整形修剪、因地制宜的病虫防治技术等,大力普及推广板栗的标准化栽培技术,让板栗产业真正成为促进信阳市农业增效、农民增收的重要产业.%Xinyang chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) industry had been decline rapidly in recent years as the market had been seriously shrinking. To meet the demand of market and refresh Xinyang chestnut industry, the standardization management technology during chestnut cultivation, such as scientific planning and construction of chestnut orchard, suitable fertilizer and water management and flower and fruit management, reasonable pruning, pest control technology suitable to local conditions should be emphasized based on practical. The standardized cultivation technology of chestnut should be vigorously promoted so that chestnut industry could promote the efficiency of agricultural and income of farmer in Xinyang city.

  5. In vitro morphogenetic competence of basal sprouts and crown branches of mature chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M C; Vieitez, A M

    1991-01-01

    Basal shoots of five clones of mature chestnut tree (Castanea sativa Mill. and C. sativa x C. crenata Siebold & Zucc.) had a greater capacity for in vitro establishment, multiplication and rooting than crown branches of the same trees. Cultures from basal shoots were more responsive than crown-derived cultures in terms of in vitro reactivity (proportion of the explants with shoot development), the mean number of shoots formed per explant, the length of the tallest shoot in each culture, and the multiplication coefficient (defined as the product of the reactivity and the mean number of shoots per explant). Multiplication coefficients were greatest between subcultures 6 and 12, but subculturing failed to increase the rooting potential of shoots of crown origin. Multiplication and rooting rates were also determined for clones derived from seeds of mature trees. Genotype influenced the in vitro performance of clones of both adult and seedling origins.

  6. The effect of chestnut coppice forests abandon on slope stability: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Chiara; Bassanelli, Chiara; Rossi, Lorenzo; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Battista Bischetti, Gian

    2013-04-01

    Sweet chestnut has been fundamental for Italian mountainous economies for many centuries. This kind of forest was traditionally managed by coppicing in shortly rotation (15-20 years) to rapidly produce wood biomass until half of XX century. In the last decades these forests were in large part abandoned due to change in economy which made coppiced forest management unprofitable, especially in steeper slopes and where forest viability is scarce. As a consequence most of them are over aged and very dense, leading to an observed increasing in localized slope instability, primary because of the uprooting of stools (Vogt et al., 2006). In this work the effect of the abandon of chestnut coppice on slope stability was analyzed, focusing on shallow landslides triggering. The mechanical contribution to soil shear strength of differently managed chestnut stand was estimated and compared in terms of additional root cohesion. The study area is located in the Valcuvia Valley (Lombardy Prealps - Northern Italy) at an elevation about 600 m a.s.l., where two different stands, one managed and the other abandoned (over 40 year aged), were chosen. The two sampling stands are on cohesionless slopes (quaternary moraine deposits) and are homogeneous with regard to the substrate, exposure and elevation. Slope steepness influences heavily forestry practices and steeper stands are more frequently abandoned than stands on gentler terrain: in fact in the abandoned coppice the slope was higher (35 degrees against 13 in the managed stand) and no stands completely homogeneous can be found. In each site the main characteristics of the stand were surveyed and a trench in each stand was excavated to analyze root diameter and number distribution with depth; root specimens were also collected for the tensile force determination through laboratory tensile tests. Root distribution and force were then used to estimate root cohesion values through a Fiber Boundle Model (Pollen and Simon, 2005). Results

  7. Effect of chestnut tannin in the diet of lactating ewes on milk and cheese quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Buccioni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A commercial product consisting of pure soluble tannins extracted from chestnut wood was introduced into the diet of lactating ewes at pasture, at the level of 20 g / head / day in the concentrate mixed feed. The supplementation with tannins did not exert any influence on milk yield and on lactose and fat content of milk, but induced an increase in milk protein yield, apparently in heat coagulable proteins. This is maybe due to an increase of the rumen undegradable fraction of dietary proteins. The somatic cells count and the bacterial load of milk were not affected as well. Further studies are needed to confirm these important results, in order to optimize the nitrogen metabolic balance of ruminant animals, among the other advantages.

  8. Feasibility assessment of anaerobic digestion of European water chestnuts (Trapa natans L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besha, J.A.; Countryman, W.D.

    1980-07-01

    The project determined the technical and economic feasibility of anaerobic digestion of Trapa natans L. or European water chestnuts, to produce methane. Trapa natans is a nuisance aquatic plant presently found in the northeastern United States. The field data collection phase included color aerial photogrammetry and manual sampling. Yields of 9.08 kg per square meter of raw material with a corresponding dry weight of 1.53 kg/sq meter were determined. Bacterial digestion resulting in gas production of 69% methane and 31% carbon dioxide was shown in laboratory-scale digestion experiments. Mass spectrographic analysis indicated no contaminants in the gas stream. Conceptual technical design of a 400 kW methane-fueled electric generation facility indicated economic feasibility of this facility either as an independent or a hybrid process in conjunction with a small hydroelectric facility. Substantial economic and environmental benefits may accure from the control of Trapa natans by this means.

  9. Emodin, a toxic metabolite of Aspergillus wentii isolated from weevil-damaged chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J M; Cole, R J; Kirksey, J W

    1975-07-01

    A diarrheagenic toxin from culture extracts of Aspergillus wentii Wehmer isolated from weevil-damaged Chinese chestnuts was identified as emodin (2-methyl-4,5,7-trihydroxyanthraquinone). The orange-red, crystalline toxin (mp 255 to 257 C) showed ultraviolet absorption maxima in ethyl alcohol at 223, 250, 267, 290, and 442 nm, and infrared absorption maxima at 3,400 cm-1 (OH), 1,635, and 1,625 CM-1. Chemical shifts and coupling constants of the proton magnetic resonance spectra of the A. wentii toxin and of authentic emodin agreed. Mean lethal dose of emodin orally administered to 1-day-old DeKalb cockerels was 3.7 mg/kg.

  10. Wolbachia infections and mitochondrial diversity of two chestnut feeding Cydia species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios N Avtzis

    Full Text Available Cydia splendana and C. fagiglandana are two closely related chestnut feeding lepidopteran moth species. In this study, we surveyed the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia in these two species. Infection rates were 31% in C. splendana and 77% in C. fagiglandana. MLST analysis showed that these two species are infected with two quite diverse Wolbachia strains. C. splendana with Sequence Type (ST 409 from the A-supergroup and C. fagiglandana with ST 150 from the B-supergroup. One individual of C. splendana was infected with ST 150, indicating horizontal transfer between these sister species. The mitochondrial DNA of the two Cydia species showed a significantly different mtDNA diversity, which was inversely proportional to their infection rates.

  11. Structure of Oxalacetate Acetylhydrolase, a Virulence Factor of the Chestnut Blight Fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen; Sun, Qihong; Narayanan, Buvaneswari; Nuss, Donald L.; Herzberg, Osnat (UMBI)

    2010-11-15

    Oxalacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily, catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalic acid and acetate. This study shows that knock-out of the oah gene in Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, reduces the ability of the fungus to form cankers on chestnut trees, suggesting that OAH plays a key role in virulence. OAH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and its catalytic rates were determined. Oxalacetate is the main OAH substrate, but the enzyme also acts as a lyase of (2R,3S)-dimethyl malate with {approx}1000-fold lower efficacy. The crystal structure of OAH was determined alone, in complex with a mechanism-based inhibitor, 3,3-difluorooxalacetate (DFOA), and in complex with the reaction product, oxalate, to a resolution limit of 1.30, 1.55, and 1.65 {angstrom}, respectively. OAH assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit exhibiting an ({alpha}/{beta})8 barrel fold and each pair swapping the 8th {alpha}-helix. An active site 'gating loop' exhibits conformational disorder in the ligand-free structure. To obtain the structures of the OAH {center_dot} ligand complexes, the ligand-free OAH crystals were soaked briefly with DFOA or oxalacetate. DFOA binding leads to ordering of the gating loop in a conformation that sequesters the ligand from the solvent. DFOA binds in a gem-diol form analogous to the oxalacetate intermediate/transition state. Oxalate binds in a planar conformation, but the gating loop is largely disordered. Comparison between the OAH structure and that of the closely related enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, suggests potential determinants of substrate preference.

  12. [Peculiar "chestnuts in burrs" formation in MGIT cultures of pulmonary Mycobacterium xenopi cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keiko; Yamazato, Masaya; Ohtani, Sumire; Shinozawa, Youko; Nakamura, Haruki; Miura, Takao; Hasegawa, Naoki; Hara, Masamichi

    2007-12-01

    We report 3 patients whose sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cultures for acid fast bacteria in MGIT liquid media grew colonies of Mycobacterium xenopi (M. xenopi) with a characteristic chestnut burr like appearance. Patients I, II, and III were a 74-year-old man, 47-year-old woman, and 62-year-old woman, respectively. Chest X ray showed a pulmonary cavity in each case. Patient I had a history of pulmonary and renal tuberculosis. The past medical history of patient II was unremarkable. Patient III had a history of lung cancer. Eight sputum samples and 4 BALF samples from patient I, 3 sputum samples and 1 BALF sample from patient II, and 4 sputum samples from patient III were positive for acid fast bacteria, and the organism was identified as M. xenopi in 9 samples. Smears of these MGIT-positive cultures were stained by the Ziehl Neelsen method, and examined under a microscope. Large and small, spherical shaped, 15-100 microm clusters of thin, elongated bacteria, with a chestnut burr-like or spherical moss like and partly budding appearance, were scattered throughout the smear preparation. Although only 34 cases of M. xenopi infection were reported in Japan between 1984 and 2005, the number of reported cases has been on the increase in recent years. Since no report from Japan, Europe, or the United States have noted the characteristic appearance of M. xenopi in cultures, we consider that the feature described in this communication is useful to presumptively identify M. xenopi.

  13. Physicochemical, pasting, rheological, thermal and morphological properties of horse chestnut starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Syed Insha; Jan, Kulsum; Singh, Sukhcharn; Saxena, D C

    2015-09-01

    Indian Horse chestnuts contain high content of starch which can be explored to be used in various applications in food industry as encapsulating agent, stabilizer, binder, thickener, gelling agents and many more. Horse chest nut is locally available and can be a boon for food industry if the inherent properties are explored. Hence, horse chest nut starch can be a better option for the replacement of conventional starches to meet the industrial demand of starch. Physicochemical, pasting, rheological, thermal and morphological properties of starch isolated from Indian Horse chestnut (HCN) were determined. Amylose content was found to be 26.10 %. Peak viscosity obtained from RVA profile was 4110 cP. Hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness and gumminess were determined by Texture Profile Analyser. Particle size analysis showed a typical Uni modal size distribution profile with particle distribution ranging from 7.52 to 27.44 μm. The shape of starch granules varied from round, irregular, oval, and elliptical with smooth surface. X- ray diffraction revealed that HCN starch showed a typical C-type pattern with characteristic peaks at 5.7, 15.0, 17.3 and 22.3°. The transition temperatures (To, Tp, and Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) values were 53.35, 58.81, 63.57 °C and 8.76 J/g, respectively. The rheological properties were determined in terms of variation of storage modulus (G (/)), loss modulus (G (//)) and loss factor (tan δ) at different temperatures. Peak G (/), peak G (//) and peak tan δ values were observed as 10,400 Pa, 1,710 Pa, and 0.164, respectively.

  14. Phenolic compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) heartwood. Effect of toasting at cooperage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Castanea sativa Mill., before and after toasting in cooperage, were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS, and some low molecular weight phenolic compounds and hydrolyzable tannins were found. The low molecular weight phenolic compounds were lignin constituents as the acids gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, ferulic, and ellagic, the aldehydes protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, coniferylic, and sinapic, and the coumarin scopoletin. Their patterns were somewhat different those of oak because oak does not contain compounds such protocatechuic acid and aldehyde and is composed of much lower amounts of gallic acid than chestnut. Vescalagin and castalagin were the main ellagitannins, and acutissimin was tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. Moreover, some gallotannins were tentatively identified, including different isomers of di, tri, tetra, and pentagalloyl glucopyranose, and di and trigalloyl-hexahydroxydiphenoyl glucopyranose, comprising 20 different compounds, as well as some ellagic derivatives such as ellagic acid deoxyhexose, ellagic acid dimer dehydrated, and valoneic acid dilactone. These ellagic derivatives as well as some galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl derivatives were tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. The profile of tannins was therefore different from that of oak wood because oak only contains tannins of the ellagitannins type. Seasoned and toasted chestnut wood showed a very different balance between lignin derivatives and tannins because toasting resulted in the degradation of tannins and the formation of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignin degradation. Moreover, the different toasting levels provoked different balances between tannins and lignin constituents because the intensity of lignin and tannin degradation was in relation to the intensity of toasting.

  15. Research on Processing Characteristics and Quality Assessment on Chestnut of Different Species about Sugar Frying Chestnut%不同板栗品种的糖炒板栗加工特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周家华; 常虹; 谢敏

    2012-01-01

    通过模糊数学法对16种糖炒板栗进行综合评价,确定各评价指标的权重分别为:单粒重(X)、栗仁颜色(X4)、滋味(X6)均为0.25,单粒重标准差(X2)为0.125,外观(X3)、香气(X5)、反生程度(X7)、硬度(X8)、出品率(X9)、均为0.025。根据平均隶属度的排序结果,得到最适宜加工成糖炒板栗的品种前五名分别为:怀黄、达1—3、早丰、燕奎和红栗。%16 different species of chestnut canned comprehensively were assessed by using the method of fuzzy mathematics. Assure the weight of all assessment standards were: the appearance (X1), the color of chestnut (X2) and the taste (X4) were all 0.25, the browning degree (X6) was 0.125, the aroma (X3), the light transmittance rate (X5), the soluble solids (X77) and the hardness (X8) were all 0.025. According to the ordering result of the average degree of membership, 5 species were concluded which suitable most for processing to be chestnut canned: Huaihuang, Dal-3, Zaofeng, Yankui and red chestnut.

  16. 板栗加工工艺对挥发性香气成分的影响%Effect of Processing Technology on Volatile Components of Chinese Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亚辉; 徐芳; 王丰俊; 王建中; 欧阳杰

    2012-01-01

    Chinese chestnut forms different flavors by different processing technology. An automatic thermal de-sorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (ATD-GC-MS) system was applied to analyze the volatile composition of raw chestnut, boiled chestnut, fried chestnut and roasted chestnut. Herbaceous aroma such as ethyl acetate, hex-anal, butyl acetate, 1-butanol-3-methyl-acetate, alpha-pinene and benzaldehyde were found in raw chestnut; fried chestnut and roasted chestnut were found to have characteristic volatiles such as 2-pentyl-furan, 3-carene, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-ketone; and in boiled chestnut, spiro [2,4] hepta-4,6-diene was found first time. The results will provide a reference for the further research and development of Chinese chestnut products.%板栗经过不同的加工工艺熟化后会产生不同的风味.文中分别对生板栗,以及煮制、炒制和烤制加工后的板栗进行ATD热脱附以及GC-MS分析,得出不同加工工艺条件下的板栗挥发性香气成分.其中生板栗主要有板栗本身的草本清香香气成分,如乙酸乙酯、己醛、乙酸丁酯、3-甲基-1-丁醇乙酸酯、α-蒎烯和苯甲醛等;炒板栗和烤板栗的特征性挥发物有2-戊基呋喃、3-蒈烯、4-羟基-2-丁酮和2-甲基-四氢呋喃-3-酮;煮板栗中发现了之前未在板栗香气研究中报道过的香气成分螺[2,4]庚-4.6-二烯.

  17. Horse Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    60036 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/horsechestnut ... us ... 60036 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/horsechestnut ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/Specifics ... us ... 60036 ... https:// ...

  18. Application of a new purification method of West-Kazakhstan chestnut soil microbiota DNA for metagenomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergaliev, N. Kh.; Kakishev, M. G.; Zhiengaliev, A. T.; Volodin, M. A.; Andronov, E. E.; Pinaev, A. G.

    2015-04-01

    A method for the extraction of soil microbial DNA has been tested on chestnut soils (Kastanozems) of the West Kazakhstan region. The taxonomic analysis of soil microbiome libraries has shown that the phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria constitute the largest part of microbial communities in the analyzed soils. The Archaea form an appreciable part of the microbiome in the studied samples. In the underdeveloped dark chestnut soil, their portion is higher than 11%. This is of interest, as the proportion of Archaea in the soil communities of virgin lands usually does not exceed 5%. In addition to the phyla mentioned above, there are representatives of the phyla Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadales, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia, which are all fairly common in soil communities.

  19. Research on Liquefaction Technology of Chestnut Shells%板栗苞液化技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丽珍; 牛俊玲; 兰彦平; 王杰

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]This paper aimed at studying the liquefaction technology of chestnut shells [Method]Effects on chestnut shells liquefaction of six catalysts were studied,which were sodium hydroxide,sodium carbonate,acetic acid(99.5%),phosphoric acid(85%),hydrochloric acid(37%),sulfuric acid(98%).The research had analyzed the liquefaction effects of chestnut shells in presence of phenol and at liquefaction temperatures of 130,150 and 170 ℃,in which the proportion of added quantities of concentrated sulfuric acid,phosphoric acid,concentrated hydrochloric acid to phenol were 1%-6%.Properties of phenolic resin made from formaldehyde and phenol-liquefied products of chestnut shells catalyzed by concentrated sulfuric acid with an added amount of 4% at 150 ℃(WPF)were analyzed and compared with traditional phenolic formaldehyde resin(PF).[Result]Acid catalysts were better than alkaline ones in the phenol-liquefaction of chestnut shells,and the liquefaction ratio increased with the increasing of acidic intensity.The liquefaction ratio had attained the maximum as 92.11 % when catalyzed by concentrated sulfuric acid with an added amount of 4% at 150 ℃.The phenolic resin made from the liquefied products of chestnut shells was basically in accordance with the standard of GB/T 14732-93 when the mass ratio of chestnut shells powders to phenol was 1∶3.[Conclusion]It was possible to produce phenolic resin with liquefied chestnut shells.%[目的]对板栗苞液化技术进行研究。[方法]对氢氧化钠、碳酸钠、醋酸(99.5%)、磷酸(85%)、盐酸(37%)和硫酸(98%)6种催化剂对板栗苞液化的影响进行研究,并分析在130、150和170℃液化反应温度下,浓硫酸、磷酸和浓盐酸加入量与苯酚的百分比为1~6%时,对板栗苞苯酚液化效果的影响。对150℃时,以加入量为4%的浓硫酸催化板栗苞苯酚液化产物与甲醛制成的树脂和传统酚醛树脂的性能进行分析。[结

  20. Design of Automatic Chestnut Shelling Machine%自动板栗脱壳机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文斌

    2015-01-01

    针对目前板栗脱壳过程中主要依靠手工剥壳,手指极易被板栗刺壳上坚硬的刺刺伤,以及劳动强度大、生产效率低的问题,设计了一种新型的自动板栗脱壳机。该机采用胶皮与螺纹钢揉挤的方式将板栗刺与板栗米分开,同时采用鼓风机搭配输送带的方式进行分离。实际测试结果表明,该机采用的脱壳方式和分离方式新颖,能最大限度地将板栗米与板栗刺剥离,且能实现两者的自动分离,对于减轻栗农劳动强度,缩短栗子从采摘到上市的时间发挥了极大作用,值得进一步推广普及。%At present, chestnut is basically using hand to strip off, people’ s finger is inevitably scratched.Focusing on the current problem of high labor cost and low working efficiency, a new automatic chestnut shelling machine is designed. This machine combines rubber and deformed steel bars to separate the chestnut and its capillus.At the same time, the fan and conveyer belt are combined to realize their separation.The practical testing results show that this machine could separate the chestnut and its capillus to a great degree by using the novel shelling and separating way, it will reduce working hard and shorten time from picking to go to the market, it has great value to popularize.

  1. Chestnut wood in compression perpendicular to the grain : non-destructive correlations for test results in new and old wood

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Paulo B.; Feio, A. O.; Machado, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the evaluation of the compressive properties of chestnut wood under compression perpendicular to the grain, using destructive and non-destructive methods. Three non-destructive methods (ultrasonic testing, Resistograph and Pilodyn) are proposed and the possibility of their application is discussed based on the application of simple linear regression models. Timber specimens were tested up to failure, divided in two different groups for assessing a possible load h...

  2. Antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein haplotypes and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein (CN) haplotypes (αs1-, β-, κ-CN) and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys. The CN haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, whereas antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. The results showed that chestnut honey presented the highest phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, which are closely associated with its high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of fortified yogurt samples was affected both by different CN haplotypes and by type of honey added. Yogurts fortified with chestnut honey showed higher antioxidant activity than those fortified with sulla honey. The different behavior observed among the fortified yogurts led us to hypothesize that the effects of protein-polyphenol complex on antioxidant activity are interactive. The results suggest that milk proteins polymorphism and polyphenols play different roles in affecting the bioavailability and the antioxidant activity of yogurt.

  3. New gall wasp species attacking chestnut trees: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new gall wasp species, Dryocosmus zhuili Liu et Zhu, is herein described from the southeastern Fujian province of China. The new species induces galls on trees of Henry's chestnut, Castanea henryi, which is also a native host for the notorious Oriental chestnut gall wasp (OCGW, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu). D. zhuili overlaps with OCGW in emergence time and induces galls morphologically similar to that of OCGW on similar plant parts. In a previous study, we reported considerable divergence between mtDNA CO1 (mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences of these wasps and the true OCGW wasps and suggested the existence of a cryptic species. Herein, we confirm the identity of the new species based on morphological and biological differences and provide a formal description. Although the new species is relatively easily separated from OCGW on basis of morphology, field identification involving the two species can still be problematic because of their small body size, highly similar gall morphology, and other life history traits. We further discussed the potential of the new species to be a pest for the chestnut industry and the consequences of accidental introduction of this species into nonnative areas, especially with regard to the bisexual reproduction mode of the new species in contrast to the parthenogenetic reproduction mode of OCGW.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF TANNIN AND THERMAL TREATMENT ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LAMINATED CHESTNUT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Gunduz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tannin and thermal treatment on physical properties such as dimensional stability and moisture content (%, as well as mechanical properties such as bending strength, modulus of elasticity, and compression strength of laminated chestnut wood composites, which are used commonly for shipboard construction in Turkey. The chestnut wood used in boat construction is usually exposed to several treatments in order to achieve better bonding performance and to remove excessive tannins. According to the results obtained, physical properties of laminated chestnut wood without tannin were better compared to samples with tannin. Oven-dry density and air-dry density were found to be higher in samples containing tannins and not exposed to thermal treatment. Moreover, the lowest value of density was observed in samples containing no tannin and exposed to thermal treatment. In terms of mechanical properties, the highest bending strength and modulus of elasticity were obtained from samples containing tannins and not exposed to heat treatment. The lowest values were found in samples without tannin exposed to heat treatment. Regarding compression strength, the maximum and minimum values were found in samples containing tannins and not exposed to heat treatment and samples without tannin and exposed to heat treatment, respectively.

  5. Analysis of organic acids in electron beam irradiated chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.): Effects of radiation dose and storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-05-01

    Since 2010, methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant was banned from the European Union under the Montreal Protocol guidelines, due to its deleterious effects on health and risk to the environment. Since then, many alternatives for chestnut conservation have been studied (hot water dip treatment being the most common), among them, electron beam irradiation has been proposed as being a safe, clean and cheap alternative. Herein, the effects of this radiation at different doses up to 6kGy and over storage up to 60days in the amounts and profile of nutritionally important organic acids were evaluated. Chestnuts contained important organic acids with quinic and citric acids as main compounds. Storage time, which is traditionally well accepted by consumers, caused a slight decrease on quinic (13-9mg/g), ascorbic (1.2-0.8mg/g), malic (5-4mg/g), fumaric (0.4-0.3mg/g) and total organic (33-26mg/g) acids content. Otherwise, irradiation dose did not cause appreciable changes, either individually or in total (28-27mg/g) organic acid contents. Electron beam irradiation might constitute a valuable alternative for chestnut conservation.

  6. Effects of gamma radiation on the biological, physico-chemical, nutritional and antioxidant parameters of chestnuts - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Amilcar L; Carocho, Márcio; Bento, Albino; Quintana, Begoña; Luisa Botelho, M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-09-01

    Gamma radiation has been used as a post-harvest food preservation process for many years. Chestnuts are a seasonal product consumed fresh or processed, and gamma irradiation emerged recently as a possible alternative technology for their post-harvest processing, to fulfil the requirements of international phytosanitary trade laws. After harvest and storage, several problems may occur, such as the presence of infestations and development of microorganisms, namely rotting and fungi. These diminish the quality and safety of the product, decreasing the yield along the production chain. In fruits, gamma irradiation treatment is for two main purposes: conservation (ripening delay) and insect disinfestation (phytosanitary treatment). In this review, the application of gamma irradiation to chestnuts is discussed, including production data, the irradiated species and the effects on biological (sprouting, rotting, respiration rate, insects, worms and fungi), physico-chemical (color, texture, and drying rate), nutritional (energetic value, proteins, sugars and fatty acids) and antioxidant (tocopherols, ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) parameters. These changes are the basis for detecting if the food product has been irradiated or not. The validation of standards used for detection of food irradiation, as applied to chestnuts, is also discussed.

  7. New Gall Wasp Species Attacking Chestnut Trees: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new gall wasp species, Dryocosmus zhuili Liu et Zhu, is herein described from the southeastern Fujian province of China. The new species induces galls on trees of Henry’s chestnut, Castanea henryi, which is also a native host for the notorious Oriental chestnut gall wasp (OCGW, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu). D. zhuili overlaps with OCGW in emergence time and induces galls morphologically similar to that of OCGW on similar plant parts. In a previous study, we reported considerable divergence between mtDNA CO1 (mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences of these wasps and the true OCGW wasps and suggested the existence of a cryptic species. Herein, we confirm the identity of the new species based on morphological and biological differences and provide a formal description. Although the new species is relatively easily separated from OCGW on basis of morphology, field identification involving the two species can still be problematic because of their small body size, highly similar gall morphology, and other life history traits. We further discussed the potential of the new species to be a pest for the chestnut industry and the consequences of accidental introduction of this species into nonnative areas, especially with regard to the bisexual reproduction mode of the new species in contrast to the parthenogenetic reproduction mode of OCGW. PMID:26516167

  8. Developing a formula for Tuanfeng water chestnut cakes%团风荸荠糕的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王知龙; 吴鹏

    2016-01-01

    In this paper ,Tuanfeng water chestnut flour and glutinous rice flour are used as raw materials to make cakes which are aroma‐scented ,moderately sweet ,tasty ,nutritious and healthy .Single factor and orthogonal experiments are conducted to develop a processing technology for making water chestnut cakes .Based on an evaluation of the look and taste of the cakes ,an optimal formula is obtained .The optimal formula requires of a proportion of water chestnut and glu‐tionous rice flours of 1∶2 ,and the contents of water and sugar of 20 mL and 3 g respectively .%以团风荸荠粉和糯米粉为原料研制出香气浓郁、甜度适中,口感优良、具有营养保健作用的荸荠糕。通过单因素实验和正交实验对荸荠糕的加工工艺进行研究,以感官品质评定为依据,得到生产荸荠糕的最优工艺配方,即荸荠粉与糯米粉比例为1∶2,加水量为20mL,加糖量为3g。

  9. Effect of chestnuts level in the formulation of the commercial feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Celta pig breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesús, C. De; Domínguez, R.; Cantalapiedra, J.; Iglesias, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality from 24 castrated males Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of 15% of chestnut (CH15) improved (p<0.01) the carcass (118 vs. about 104 kg) and live weights (149 vs. 133-139 kg). Killing out percentage was also better for chestnuts groups than for control group. With regards the morphometric parameters, there were no statistically significant (p>0.05) differences except for the carcass length and ham length, for which the CH15 group proved to be the group with the longest sizes. The diet did not affect the physicochemical properties (colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force) of longissimus dorsi muscle. The composition of some fatty acids of the longissimus dorsi muscle was affected by diet. The total saturated (35-38%) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (8-10%) did not present differences. However, the increase of chestnut in the diet increased (p<0.05) the monounsaturated fatty acids in intramuscular fat (57% in CH25 vs. 53% in control and CH15). Within monounsaturated fatty acids, the C18:1n9 was the most influenced of the diet. Therefore, the lower content of protein and the higher amounts of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 in the chestnut could be explaining the greater content of C18:1n9 in muscle of chestnut-fed animals. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet would allow reduce production costs with no effect or even improving carcass measurements and meat quality. (Author)

  10. Effect of the Inclusion of Chestnut in the Finishing Diet on Volatile Compounds of Dry-Cured Ham from Celta Pig Breed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jos M. Lorenzo; Javier Carballo; Daniel Franco

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the inclusion of chestnut in pigs ifnishing diet on volatile compounds of dry-cured Celta ham was studied. Twelve hams of each type (from three different pigs ifnishing diets:concentrate (CO), mixed (MI) and chestnut (CH)) were used. Volatiles were extracted using a purge-and-trap method and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty-nine volatile compounds were identified in dry-cured Celta ham samples. Most abundant volatiles in ham samples were aldehydes, which represented respectively, 53% (CO), 51% (MI) and 46% (CH) of the total volatile composition. With the exception of 2-butenal, 2-methyl, all aldehydes were affected by feeding system. On the other hand, hydrocarbons n-alkanes were the second major group in the volatile proifle of dry-cured Celta hams and represented 28.9, 35.7 and 32.4%of the total volatile composition for CO, MI and CH groups, respectively. Ham samples from chestnut group showed a higher content of alcohols and this result could be related with the inclusion of chestnut in the ifnishing diet of pigs. Principal component analysis showed a good separation among groups. The discriminant analysis selected eight variables (butanoic acid, hexanal, octanal, nonenal (E), decenal (E), tetradecane, decane trimethyl and pyridine 2-methyl) and calculated two discriminating functions to predict if chestnut has been included in the ifnishing diet. Thus, it was possible to discriminate between groups fed with ifnishing diets containing chestnuts in their composition (mixed and chestnut group).

  11. 马蹄的贮藏保鲜与加工利用研究进展%Progress Research on Storage and Processing Utilization of Water Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兵; 段振华

    2016-01-01

    马蹄营养丰富,皮嫩汁多,属季节性食品,货架期较短。鲜切后的马蹄易于变色和失水腐败,影响外观品质、风味和营养价值等,产品附加值低;在加工中产生的马蹄皮含有较多活性物质,如处理不当易造成资源浪费和环境的污染。本文主要综述了马蹄贮藏保鲜处理的技术,主要有涂膜保鲜、热处理保鲜、氮气处理保鲜、乙醛熏蒸处理保鲜及护色剂保鲜等;以及马蹄果肉和马蹄皮加工利用的方法,包括马蹄果肉饮料的加工,马蹄皮果酒、果醋加工及棕色素、黄酮和多酚类等物质的提取。%Water chestnut is rich in nutrition, skin tender and juicy, which belongs to the seasonal food and shelf life is short. After the fresh cut, the water chestnut is easy to change the color and the loss of water, which affects the appearance quality, flavor and nutritional value, and the low added value of the product. Water chestnut peel contains many active substances produce in the process, easily lead to waste of resources and en-vironmental pollution if handled properly. This paper mainly summarizes the technology of storage and preserva-tion of water chestnut, mainly coating preservation, heat preservation, processing nitrogen preservation, ac-etaldehyde fumigation treatment and color preservation agent, etc.. The processes and utilization methods of Water chestnut pulp and peel of Eleocharis tuberosa, including water chestnut pulp beverage processing, water chestnut peel fruit wine vinegar processing and extracting brown pigment, flavonoids and polyphenols sub-stances. The utilization rate and economic value of water chestnut were greatly improved by storage and pro-cessing, which provided a reference for the further research of horse's hoof. Which greatly improves the utiliza-tion rate and economic value of water chestnut.

  12. Roe deer browsing effects on growth development of Turkey oak and chestnut coppices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cutini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Over the last three decades wild ungulates populations in Italy increased to values ranging from 300% to 600%. As a consequence, in Italy as well as in other European countries, situations with high ungulate density and, then, negative effects on the stability and dynamics of ecosystems, are increasing frequently. Starting from these evidences we investigated the effects of roe deer population on the vegetative regeneration of two different broadleaved tree species: Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. coppice stands. In Alpe di Catenaia (Apennines – Central Italy, after coppicing in 2002, we chose six experimental areas where fenced (P and non-fenced (NP plots were established. Measurements were performed at the beginning of the study period and in winter 2008 in both P and NP plots. Diameter and    height of all sprouts were measured. Results showed a different impact of roe deer on the two species. After seven years chestnut did not show any significant browsing-related damage, while in Turkey oak heavy differences between protected and non-protected areas are present: in NP plots roe deer browsing has produced a significant reduction in basal area (58% and volume (57% compared to P plots. The results agree with previous studies and confirm: (a a selective browsing pressure on Turkey oak; (b the lasting effect of the early impact after clear cutting, visible even seven years after. Based on the findings, we discussed the need for an integrated management of forest vegetation and forest fauna which should define the density of ungulates not only according to the theoretical carrying capacity    of ecosystems, but also considering (i the preservation of the ecosystem overall functionality, (ii the forest structure development and (iii the forest management type. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso

  13. 板栗在贮藏中的微观形态变化%Changes of Microcosmic Morpha during the Storage of Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭正林

    2009-01-01

    After comparison with the micrographs of chestnut between the fresh chestnut and the stored chestnut, the results showed that the cell membrane of the fresh chestnut was complete and smooth, endoplasm was homogeneous. The cell membrane of the blet chestnut was not complete, the limit of cell was not obviously, mitoehondrion membrane became vague and its erista was blurry after 90 days storage. But the nucleolus was unchanged.%对贮藏前后的板栗进行光学显微镜和电子显微镜观察,结果表明贮藏前的板栗细胞排列紧密,淀粉粒清晰可见,细胞膜较完整、光滑、内质均匀;腐烂板栗的细胞膜不完整,细胞与细胞的界限不明显,淀粉粒不清晰,线粒体膜不清晰,嵴模糊.但是贮藏前后板栗的细胞核没有发生明显的变化.

  14. 油板栗的营养成分及加工适应性研究%Study on Nutrient Components and Processing Adaptability of Oil Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 张美; 张丛兰; 刘觉天; 周露; 杨芳

    2011-01-01

    以罗田油板栗为实验材料,对其营养成分和部分加工适应性进行了分析.结果表明,油板栗含水量在5o%以上,蛋白质含量丰富,脂肪含量低,抗氧化成分Vc含量高;油板栗单粒重偏小但可食率高、可溶性糖含量高,营养全面,适合制蓉和炒制.%The nutrient components and the processing adaptability of oil chestnut from Luotian in Hubei province were analyzed. The results showed that the water content of oil chestnut was more than 50 % and it was abundant in protein. Oil chestnut was high in the vitamin C content but low in the fatty oil content. The weight of single fruit was relatively less,but the edible rate of oil chestnut was high,and its total soluble sugar content was high as well, so oil chestnut was characterized by fully nutritious and suitable for making paste and stir-frying.

  15. 我国新型板栗制品研发现状与思考%Status and Consideration of Research and Development of New Chestnut Product in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彬合; 李霞

    2015-01-01

    The chestnut resources are rich in China, with the yield accounting for 70%of total yield of chestnut in the world. This paper introduces the current situation of production and processing of chestnuts in China, as well as the status of research and development of new chestnut products, and put forwards some countermeasures and ideas for the processing industry of chestnuts.%我国板栗资源丰富,产量占世界板栗总量的70%以上。本文介绍了我国板栗的生产与加工现状,并阐述了新型板栗制品的研发现状,为板栗加工业的发展提出了一些对策和思路。

  16. Cryopreservation of zygotic embryo axes and somatic embryos of European chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; San-José, M Carmen; Ballester, Antonio; Vieitez, Ana M

    2004-01-01

    This work describes experiments demonstrating the feasibility of long-term conservation of Castanea sativa germplasm through cryopreservation of embryonic axes or somatic embryo clumps. Between 93 % and 100 % of excised embryonic axes of recalcitrant chestnut seeds survived storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) following desiccation in a laminar flow cabinet to moisture contents of 20-24 % (on a fresh weight basis), and some 63 % subsequently developed as whole plants. Desiccation to moisture contents less than 19 % produced damage resulting in loss of organized plant development after cryostorage, allowing only root growth. When 6-8 mg clumps of globular or heart-shaped somatic embryos were precultured for 7 days on high-sucrose medium and then desiccated to a moisture content of 25 % before storage in LN, the embryogenesis resumption level after thawing was 33 %. When the embryo clumps were precultured for 3 days on high-sucrose medium followed by 60 min application of PVS2 vitrification solution before cryostorage, the post-storage embryogenesis resumption level was 68 %.

  17. Cryopreservation of zygotic embryonic axes and somatic embryos of European chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieitez, Ana M; San-José, M Carmen; Corredoira, Elena

    2011-01-01

    For Castanea sativa (European chestnut), a species with recalcitrant seeds that is not easily propagated vegetatively, cryopreservation is one of the most promising techniques for maintaining genetic resource diversity and for conservation of selected germplasms. Long-term conservation of selected seeds and valuable embryogenic lines can be achieved through the cryopreservation of zygotic embryonic axes and somatic embryos, respectively. This chapter describes methods for the desiccation-based cryostorage of zygotic embryonic axes, and the vitrification-based cryopreservation of somatic embryos. For zygotic embryonic axes, the highest post-thaw survival and plantlet recovery rates are obtained by desiccation in a laminar flow hood to 20-25% moisture content, followed by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. For somatic embryos, embryogenesis resumption rates of over 60% are achieved by preculture of embryo clumps for 3 days on solid medium containing 0.3 M sucrose, incubation in PVS2 vitrification solution for 60 min at 0°C, and direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Plantlet recovery from cryostored embryogenic lines requires proliferation of the thawed embryos and subsequent maturation before germination and conversion into plantlets.

  18. THE PESTS OF HORSE CHESTNUT TREE – AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T PERJU

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1998 the presence of the horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka-Dimic was reported in Cluj- Napoca. During 2000 – 2003 research concerning the extent, biology, ecology at this micro-lepidopteron, a new pest in our country, was performed. Signaled for the fi rst time in Western area of our country (1998, then in Central (1998, Southern (1999, and Eastern (2003 part of the country, the spread year by year conquering new territories. In the clime conditions of our country, the insect had 4 generations in 2000, and 3 during 2001 – 2003, remaining in hiemal diapauses during pupae stage, inside of the silk cocoons from the galleries of larvae feeding. The fl ight of the butterfl ies from the IIIrd generation (hiemal is recorded in the beginning of May. The Ist generation has a developmental stage during 15 May – 30 June, the IInd during 1 July – 15 August, and the IIIrd during 15 August – 15 May.

  19. Chestnut shell as unexploited source of fermentable sugars: effect of different pretreatment methods on enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurelli, Luisa; Ionata, Elena; La Cara, Francesco; Morana, Alessandra

    2013-07-01

    Chestnut shell (CS) is an agronomic residue mainly used for extraction of antioxidants or as adsorbent of metal ions. It also contains some polysaccharide that has not been considered as potential source of fermentable sugars for biofuel production until now. In this study, the effect of different pretreatment methods on CS was evaluated in order to obtain the greatest conversion of cellulose and xylan into fermentable sugars. Hot acid impregnation, steam explosion (acid-catalysed or not), and aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) were selected as pretreatments. The pretreated biomass was subjected to saccharification with two enzyme cocktails prepared from commercial preparations, and evaluation of the best pretreatment and enzyme cocktail was based on the yield of fermentable sugars produced. As AAS provided the best result after preliminary experiments, enhancement of sugar production was attempted by changing the concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, enzymes, and CS. The optimal pretreatment condition was 10 % ammonium hydroxide, 70 °C, 22 h with CS at 5 % solid loading. After saccharification of the pretreated CS for 72 h at 50 °C and pH 5.0 with a cocktail containing cellulase (Accellerase 1500), beta-glucosidase (Accellerase BG), and xylanase (Accellerase XY), glucose and xylose yields were 67.8 and 92.7 %, respectively.

  20. Use of natural extract of chestnut (Silvafeed ENC® in broiler feeding: effect on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zoccarato

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of addition of natural extract of chestnut (Castanea sativa Silvafeed ENC® in commercial feed on the growth of broilers. Two hundred and four broiler chicks (Cobb 508 14 d old male, were randomly assigned to 12 floor pens and fed commercial diet supplemented with 0% (CE0, 0.15% (CE15, 0.20% (CE20 and 0.25% (CE25 of ENC. The ENC addition showed a beneficial effect on weight increases daily feed intake (DFI and average daily gain (ADG from 14 to 35 days of age. In the second half of trial the effects were less evident and concluding with a detrimental effect in CE25 group. Feed conversion rate (FCR appears to be statistically different in the second and fifth weeks of feeding. The inclusion of ENC at 0.20%, (CE20 had significant influences on final weight, DFI and ADG and a favourable influence on FCR in comparison with the other three groups. In conclusion, ENC has been shown to be beneficial at concentrations between 0.15% and 0.20%.

  1. Behavioral plasticity is not signiifcantly associated withhead volume ina wild Chestnut Thrush (Turdus rubrocanus) population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingshan Zhao; Yuehua Sun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The drivers of intraspeciifc variation in behavioral plasticity are poorly known. A widely held hypothesis is that brain size is positively correlated with behavioral plasticity. Methods: A total of 71 Chestnut Thrushes (Turdus rubrocanus) were caught in the wild population. We quantiifed behavior plasticity of activity of individuals measured in the same cage across two contexts (common and with a novel object stimulation), using a random regression analysis. We then investigated whether head volume (a proxy for brain size) was associated with behavioral plasticity in activity level using Spearman rank-order correlation. Results: We found no signiifcant evidence that activity plasticity was associated with relative head volume. There was no sex difference in head volume or in variance in head volume. Conclusions: We speculate that the absence of an association between brain volume and activity behavior plasticity may result from the inaccuracy of using external skull measurements to estimate brain size, or from a particular part of the brain being responsible for plasticity in activity level.

  2. Sample preparation for metalloprotein analysis: A case study using horse chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhães, Cristiana Schmidt; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2007-03-30

    In the present work, 11 different procedures for protein and metalloprotein extraction from horse chestnuts (Aescullus hippocastanum L.) in natura were tested. After each extraction, total protein was determined and, after protein separation through sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), those metals belonging to the protein structure were mapped by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF). After mapping the elements (Cr, Fe and Mn) in the protein bands (ca. 33 and 23.7kDa), their concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS). Good results were obtained for protein extraction using a combination of grinding and sonication. However, this strategy was not suitable to preserve metal ions in the protein structure. In fact, there was 42% decrease on Mn concentration using this procedure, compared to that performed with sample agitation in water (taken as reference). On the other hand, when grinding and agitation with an extracting buffer was used, there was a 530% increase of Mn concentration, when compared to the reference procedure. These results indicate agreement between metal identification and determination in proteins as well as the great influence of the extraction procedure (i.e., the sample preparation step) for preserving metals in the protein structures.

  3. Pilot project to investigate the anaerobic digestion of the European water chestnut. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    A pilot project was undertaken by the City of Watervliet, New York, funded by the US Department of Energy, Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program, to verify the feasibility of producing methane gas through the anaerobic digestion of the European Water Chestnut Trapa natans L. Previous laboratory scale experiments confirmed the hypothesis that Trapa natans L. was susceptible to digestion by anaerobic bacteria. The experiment described herein confirmed those results in a ''real-world'' environment. Furthermore, it was shown that Trapa natans L. could be harvested, held in storage, and digested without employing unusual technologies. Energy for the digestion reaction was obtained from solar radiation, not fossil fuels, limiting the energy-debt to the construction and harvesting aspects of the project. Phase One of this project took place during the months of June through November, 1982. The digester failed to produce gas due to high oxygen levels. It was hypothesized that the buoyancy cells of the uncrushed plants were the source of this oxygen. Phase Two took place during the months of June through September, 1983. At that time, the Trapa natans L. plants were manually crushed and shredded before introduction to the digester. Gas production was 51% methane and 46% carbon dioxide for the second digester run. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Changes of Endogenous Hormone Levels during Ovary Growth and Development after Self-and Cross-pollination of Chestnut (Castanea Cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut trees spread all over the world produce nut and chestnuts that have considerable economical value. Ovary development is an important step in nut production. Normal ovary development probably requires the coordinated action of plant hormones. Endogenous hormone status of chestnut tree, particularly IAA, IBA, GA3 and ZT, influences chestnut ovary development as well as nut yield. Changes in endogenous hormones during ovary development in chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ and ‘Dabanhong’ were used as materials. About 50~100 pollinated female inflorescences were picked every five days (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 days, respectively to determine the IAA, ABA, GA3 and ZT levels by HPLC. The results showed that there were differences between self-and cross-pollination endogenous hormone change rules during the development of ovary. The IAA and GA3 contents in ovary of self-pollination were significantly higher than cross-pollination during pollination and fertilization period, which suggested that lower IAA and GA3 acts as a positive regulator of fertilization. In the first 40 DAP, ZT level in ovaries of self-and cross-pollination almost have the same change rule, but changed dramatically in the last 10 DAP, which suggested that ZT serves as a positive regulator for young fruit. ABA level in ovary of self-pollination was significantly higher than cross-pollination in the first 30 DAP. It seems that high ABA level was probably related with self-incompatibility in chestnut. The findings of this study could lay the scientific basis for spraying GA3, IAA and ZT during ovary development and may have the potential to improve nut yield.

  5. Effect of chestnuts level in the formulation of the commercial feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Celta pig breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen De Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality from 24 castrated males Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of 15% of chestnut (CH15 improved (p0.05 differences except for the carcass length and ham length, for which the CH15 group proved to be the group with the longest sizes. The diet did not affect the physicochemical properties (colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force of longissimus dorsi muscle. The composition of some fatty acids of the longissimus dorsi muscle was affected by diet. The total saturated (35-38% and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (8-10% did not present differences. However, the increase of chestnut in the diet increased (p<0.05 the monounsaturated fatty acids in intramuscular fat (57% in CH25 vs. 53% in control and CH15. Within monounsaturated fatty acids, the C18:1n9 was the most influenced by the diet. The expression of the enzyme that synthesizes C18:1n9 depend on the composition of the diet. Therefore, the lower content of protein and the higher amounts of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 in the chestnut could be explaining the greater content of C18:1n9 in muscle of chestnut-fed animals. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet would allow reduce production costs with no effect or even improving carcass measurements and meat quality.

  6. Study on the production process of Chinese chestnut milk%栗子奶制造技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张齐军; 韦丽

    2012-01-01

    The production process of Chinese chestnut milk, a kind of drink made from chestnut and milk with unique flavor was introduced.Firstly, the chestnuts were well-baked and grinded into serum, appropriately enzyme hydrolyzed by adding some malt,and finally mixed with milk.To ensure the product quality and flavor,the baking and hydrolysis processes, as well as ingredients ratio were optimized ,which showed that the optimal conditions for sugar-soaking and baking of chestnut were 2tO~C for 30 minutes,while that for enzymatic hydrolysis were 65℃ for 65 minutes with 2.0% malt ratio at pH 6.5, and the ideal DE value was about 15 of enzymatic hydrolysate.The optimal ingredients of Chinese chestnut milk were 10.0% chestnut kernel,2.0% malt, ].2% milk powder and 6.0% sugar,etc.The product was a kind of slight-yellow colored milk of good taste and high quality as well as the functions of nourishing the stomach and the kidney, promoting blood circulation and delaying ageing.%板栗经精心烘制处理,果仁磨浆后选用优质麦芽为酶解剂适度酶解,配以奶粉等用科学方法制成具有养胃健脾、补肾强筋、活血、养颜益寿、风味独特的健康功能饮料。对影响产品品质与风味的烘制工艺、麦芽酶解工艺及成分配比进行优化选择,结果表明:板栗浸糖烘烤的最佳条件为210%,30min;麦芽酶解栗仁浆的最优条件是麦芽用量2.0%,温度65%,pH6.5,时间65min,酶解液DE值的理想值在15左右;栗子奶最佳配方则为板栗仁10.0%、麦芽2.0%、奶粉1.2%、蔗糖6.0%。制得的产品色泽微黄、气味香甜略带淡雅奶香.风味、滋味俱佳.品盾上乘。

  7. Effect of the amount of chestnuts in the diet of Celta pigs on the fatty acid profile of dry-cured lacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jesús, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed (0, 15 and 25% chestnut on the fatty acids of dry-cured lacon from Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of chestnuts decreases the saturated fatty acid content (SFA and the monounsaturated fatty acid content (MUFA. With regards to the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, the lacon from animals fed with chestnuts presented higher values of total PUFA, n6 PUFAs and n3 PUFAs. This is related to the fact that chestnut diets had the highest amounts of essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3, therefore the lacon from chestnut-fed animals also presented higher amounts of these fatty acids. According to nutritional ratios, lacon obtained from chestnut-fed pigs was healthier than the one obtained from pigs fed on commercial feed. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet allows us to obtain healthier dry-cured meat products.Se estudió el efecto de la inclusión de la castaña en la formulación del pienso (0, 15 y 25% de castaña sobre el perfil de ácidos grasos del lacón curado de cerdo Celta. La inclusión de castañas produjo una disminución del contenido de ácidos grasos saturados (SFA y monoinsaturados (MUFA. Con respecto a los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA los lacones de animales alimentados por castaña presentaron valores más altos de PUFA totales, PUFA n6 y PUFA n3. Esto está relacionado con que las castañas tienen una mayor cantidad de ácidos grasos esenciales (C18:2n6 y C18:3n3, por tanto los lacones de cerdos alimentados con castaña también presentan mayores contenidos de estos ácidos grasos. De acuerdo con los índices nutricionales, los lacones obtenidos de cerdos alimentados con mayor proporción de castañas fueron más saludables. La inclusión de castañas en la dieta nos permite obtener productos cárnicos curados más saludables.

  8. Study of Investigation and Irulence Differentiation for Chestnut Blight%板栗疫病的调查和致病力分化研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆荣

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence law of chestnut blight was introduced, the investigation method was elaborated. The pathogenesis of chestnut blight was studied with two dimensional gel electrophore method. From the perspective of proteomics, irulence differentiation was studied%介绍了板栗疫病的发生规律,论述了板栗疫病的调查方法,探讨了双向凝胶电泳法研究板栗疫病菌的致病机理,并从蛋白质组学角度介绍了板栗疫病菌致病力分化的研究.

  9. Case study of a new method for the classification and analysis of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu damage to young chestnut sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tani A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dryocosmus kuriphilus is a new chestnut pest that is causing a serious problem worldwide. This gall wasp causes severe infestations of Italian Castanea sativa stands, which lowers their productivity. The most effective method for controlling gall wasp infestations is to introduce the parasitoid, Torymus sinensis, although experience shows that it can be 6-18 years before it is effective in reducing the infestation to acceptable levels. From a silvicultural point of view, it is important to reduce the damage as rapidly as possible to maintain plant vigour and fruit production, thereby avoiding chestnut stand degradation and abandonment before biological control is effective. This study analyzed the damage caused by Dryocosmus kuriphilus during normal plant development and detected differences in plant susceptibility, irrespective of genetic factors. Data were collected from a young Castanea sativa coppice stand in Tuscany (Italy where damage was evaluated during the 2010 growing season. The study consisted of two phases: (1 classification of the damages caused by galls; and (2 studying the galls and damage distribution effects on different vigour chestnut sprouts to determine whether there were preferred oviposition sites or different degrees of susceptibility to gall wasp attack depending on a plant’s physiological state. The D. kuriphilus damage classification scale was based on two factors: damage position (the vegetative organ attacked and damage effect (abnormal organ development caused by galls. This classification included damage types that had not been previously described in literature. The statistical analysis identified differences in damage susceptibility in terms of: axis (stem or branches, plant organs (shoots, leaves, or buds, position of the attacked node (high or low region of the axis, and sprout vigour. Information on the D. kuriphilus damage distribution and its effect on plants with different levels vigour can be used to

  10. Morphological Characterization and Chemical Composition
of Fruits of the Traditional Croatian Chestnut Variety
‘Lovran Marron’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Igor; Vahčić, Nada; Gačić, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Summary ‘Lovran Marron’ is the only known traditional Croatian variety of the sweet chestnut. The objective of this study is to specify qualitative and quantitative morphological characteristics and to analyze the chemical composition of the ‘Lovran Marron’ fruits as well as to compare them to Marušnjak fruits (trees from the ‘Lovran Marron’ seed) and fruits from the local natural sweet chestnut population. Seven morphological characteristics were measured: fruit mass, height, width and thickness, scar length and width, and the length of the longest intrusion of the seed coat into the kernel. Eight qualitative characteristics were estimated: embryony, degree of penetration of the seed coat into the kernel, fruit shape, glossiness and colour, kernel colour, hairiness towards the top of the fruit and the existence of longitudinal stripes. ‘Lovran Marron’ has desirable qualitative and quantitative fruit characteristics. The Marušnjak trees mostly have intermediate morphological traits of fruits in comparison with ‘Lovran Marron’ and trees from the natural population. ‘Lovran Marron’ had the smallest mass fractions on average of: K, Mg, Ca, Na, Mn, Cu and Fe. The highest mass fractions on average of these macro- and microelements were characteristic of the trees from the natural population. The highest average content of carbohydrates was recorded in the ‘Lovran Marron’ and the lowest in the fruits from the natural population. The Marušnjak fruits had intermediate water, protein, ash, carbohydrates, and macro- and microelement content. The content of Cd and Pb was lower in all samples than the maximum allowed amounts in the sweet chestnut fruits. PMID:27904409

  11. Impact of fertilization on chestnut growth, N and P concentrations in runoff water on degraded slope land in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Shu-cai; CHEN Bei-guang; JIANG Cheng-ai; WU Qi-tang

    2007-01-01

    Growing fruit trees on the slopes of rolling hills in South China is causing serious environmental problems because of heavy application of chemical fertilizers and soil erosion. Suitable sources of fertilizers and proper rates of applications are of key importance to both crop yields and environmental protection. In this article, the impact of four fertilizers, i.e., inorganic compound fertilizer, organic compound fertilizer, pig manure compost, and peanut cake (peanut oil pressing residue), on chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) growth on a slope in South China, and on the total N and total P concentrations in runoff waters have been investigated during two years of study, with an orthogonal experimental design. Results show that the organic compound fertilizer and peanut cake promote the heights of young chestnut trees when compared to the control. In addition, peanut cake increases single-fruit weights and organic compound fertilizer raises single-seed weights. All the fertilizers increase the concentrations of total N and total P in runoff waters, except for organic compound fertilizer, in the first year experiment. The observed mean concentrations of total N varied from 1.6 mg/L to 3.2 mg/L and P from 0.12 mg/L to 0.22 mg/L, which are increased with the amount of fertilizer applications, with no pattern of direct proportion. On the basis of these experiment results, organic compound fertilizer at 2 kg/tree and peanut cake at 1 kg/tree are recommended to maximize chestnut growth and minimize water pollution.

  12. Morphological and pheno logical description of 38 sweet chestnut cultivars (Castanea sativa Miller) in a contemporary collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furones-Perez, P.; Fernandez-Lopez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Thirty eight traditional chestnut cultivars, from a contemporary collection, were described using nine characteristics, seven of which are included in the guidelines for carrying out tests of distinctness, homogeneity and stability of chestnut established by the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV). The nine variables were chosen from among 13 characteristics evaluated in the collection with regard to the criteria for distinctness, uniformity and stability. The evaluations were carried out over the years 2003, 2004 and 2005, in two plantations, situated in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Each mean value obtained for each cultivar, plantation and year were assigned a state and numerical number using the UPOV system or proposed new descriptors. No cultivar showed a very late time of leaf bud burst nor a very late time for the start of male and female flowering, nor a strong penetration of the seed coat into embryo. In five variables there was no or few differences among years and between plantations. Consequently they can be evaluated at one site in one year. These characters were: filament length of male flowers, percent of chestnuts with a split pericarp, the degree of penetration of the seed coat into the embryo, fruit shape and the ratio of hilum length to hilum width. Of the remaining four variables, three were phonologic (time of leaf bud burst, time of beginning of male and female flowering) and one related to fruit size (size of fruit hilum). They varied among years and between plantations and consequently need to be evaluated under contrasting site conditions for a minimum number of years. Additional key words: cultivated varieties, descriptor, genetic resources, UPOV. (Author) 27 refs.

  13. Diversity and infection prevalence of endosymbionts in natural populations of the chestnut weevil: relevance of local climate and host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2011-02-01

    Many insects are ubiquitously associated with multiple endosymbionts, whose infection patterns often exhibit spatial and temporal variations. How such endosymbiont variations are relevant to local adaptation of the host organisms is of ecological interest. Here, we report a comprehensive survey of endosymbionts in natural populations of the chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis, whose larvae are notorious pests of cultivated chestnuts and also infest acorns of various wild oaks. From 968 insects representing 55 localities across the Japanese Archipelago and originating from 10 host plant species, we identified six distinct endosymbiont lineages, namely Curculioniphilus, Sodalis, Serratia, Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Spiroplasma, at different infection frequencies (96.7%, 12.8%, 82.3%, 82.5%, 28.2% and 6.8%, respectively) and with different geographical distribution patterns. Multiple endosymbiont infections were very common; 3.18±0.61 (ranging from 1.74 to 5.50) endosymbionts per insect on average in each of the local populations. Five pairs of endosymbionts (Curculioniphilus-Serratia, Curculioniphilus-Wolbachia, Sodalis-Rickettsia, Wolbachia-Rickettsia and Rickettsia-Spiroplasma) co-infected the same host individuals more frequently than expected, while infections with Serratia and Wolbachia were negatively correlated to each other. Infection frequencies of the endosymbionts were significantly correlated with climatic and ecological factors: for example, higher Sodalis, Wolbachia and Rickettsia infections at localities of higher temperature; lower Wolbachia and Rickettsia infections at localities of greater snowfall; and higher Curculioniphilus, Sodalis, Serratia, Wolbachia and Rickettsia infections on acorns than on chestnuts. These patterns are discussed in relation to potential host-endosymbiont co-evolution via local adaptation across geographical populations.

  14. Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

  15. Effect of pasture in oak and chestnut groves on chemical and sensorial traits of cured lard of Cinta Senese pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreste Franci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pasture in oak and chestnut groves on the chemical and sensorial traits of cured lard. Thirty Cinta Senese barrows (124kg of l.w. on average were allotted to three groups: one group (CONC was reared outdoors in a confined area and fed commercial feedstuff. The other two groups were raised under free-range conditions on acorns (AC or chestnuts (CH. At slaughtering (148kg of LW the backfat was seasoned for 60 days to obtained cured lard. Results demonstrated that the lard of CH and AC respect to CONC group was the richest in MUFA (46.9 and 47.76 vs 44.78% respectively because of the higher content of oleic acid (44.2 and 44.91 vs 42.05%, P<0.05, respectively. CH showed a higher percentage of PUFA-n3 than AC and CONC (1.18 vs 1.06 and 1.03%, P<0.05, respectively, a lower content of α-tocopherol (9.77 vs 14.46 and 13.31μ/g, P<0.05 respectively and a higher content of γ-tocopherol (13.73 vs 6.02 and 4.32μ/g, P<0.05, respectively. As regards sensorial traits, the lard of CH and AC groups exhibited a lower value of pinkness than CONC (29.3 and 32.4 vs 49.2, P<0.05, respectively and higher scores of yellowness (31.4 and 28.6 vs 18.6, P<0.05, respectively and oiliness (37.0 and 33.7 vs 24.0, P<0.05, respectively. The pasture in the acorn and chestnut groves affected the chemical traits of lard, prevalently the composition of fatty acids . The consumption of acorns or chestnuts led to a higher content of oleic acid with respect to concentrate, affecting some sensorial traits of lard.

  16. Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhl, J.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania and the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task in this project is to establish, through several distinct epidemiologic approaches, health data to be used to test hypotheses about relations of air pollution exposures to morbidity and mortality rates in this region. This project affords a cost-effective opportunity for state-of-the-art techniques to be used in both costly areas of air pollution and health effects data collection. The closely spaced network of monitors, plus the dispersion modeling capabilities, allow for the investigation of health impacts of various pollutant gradients in neighboring geographic areas, thus minimizing the confounding effects of social, ethnic, and economic factors. The pollutants that are monitored in this network include total gaseous sulfur, sulfates, total suspended particulates, NOx, NO, ozone/oxidants, and coefficient of haze. In addition to enabling the simulation of exposure profiles between monitors, the air quality modeling, along with extensive source and background inventories, will allow for upgrading the quality of the monitored data as well as simulating the exposure levels for about 25 additional air pollutants. Another important goal of this project is to collect and test the many available models for associating health effects with air pollution, to determine their predictive validity and their usefulness in the choice and siting of future energy facilities.

  17. Micromorphology of the floral nectary of red horse chestnut (Aesculus ×carnea Hayne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Europe Aesculus ×carnea Hayne is planted in cities as an avenue tree. Compared to A. hippocastanum L., it is more drought resistant, but less resistant to low temperatures. A. ×carnea is a lower tree than A. hippocastanum and develops a smaller corolla. It produces dark green, shiny and crinkled leaves. Its flowers have different colours, from bright pink to carmine red. The nectary glands secrete nectar abundantly. Due to the long corolla tube, nectar is difficult to reach for bees. The aim of this study was to investigate the topography and micromorphology of the nectaries of A. ×carnea using scanning electron microscopy. The study shows that the nectary gland of red horse chestnut forms an incomplete ring around the base of the staminal filaments, surrounding only four stamens out of the seven that occur in the flower. Three stamens are outside the nectary. In its widest place, the nectary diameter reaches 2.7 mm. Three expanded portions of the gland can bee seen in the marginal part of the nectary, adjoining the petals. The part of the nectary adjacent to the filaments forms a convex protrusion with a wavy appearance (shape, which results from the vicinity of the filaments. Nectar is secreted through numerous stomata located beneath the convex part of the nectary. The stoma length is 21.7 μm, while the width 23.3 μm. In the material examined, most stomata had open pores. Secretion was observed in many places. The stomata were surrounded by 6-7 guard cells; this allows them to be classified as the cyclocytic type. The cells of the stomatal complex were raised above the surface of the other epidermal cells. The walls of the guard cells and of the adjacent epidermal cells were covered by a cuticle with irregular striation.

  18. Effects of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb from horse chestnuts on gastric emptying in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, H; Li, Y; Murakami, T; Yamahara, J; Yoshikawa, M

    1999-03-05

    Inhibitory effects of the saponin fraction and its principal constituents, escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb, from horse chestnuts on gastric emptying were investigated in mice loaded with a non-nutrient or nutrient meal. The saponin fraction and escins Ia-IIb inhibited gastric emptying of a 1.5% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC-Na) meal by 11.1-54.2% (12.5-200 mg/kg). Escins Ia-IIb (50 mg/kg) also inhibited gastric emptying of a 40% glucose meal by 21.1-23.5% except for escin Ia, a milk meal by 18.4-33.1%, and a 30% ethanol meal by 13.5-15.9%. The effects of escins Ia-IIb on gastric emptying of the CMC-Na meal were attenuated by pretreatment with streptozotocin (100 mg/kg, i.v.), capsaicin (75 mg/kg in total, s.c.), or insulin (1 U/kg, s.c.). The effect of insulin was reduced by glucose (2 g/kg, i.v.) which can directly nourish the brain, but not by fructose (2 g/kg, i.v.) which cannot be utilized by the brain. The effects of escins Ia-IIb (50 mg/kg) were overridden in 60% ethanol-loaded mice, in which the central nervous system was suppressed by ethanol. These results suggest that capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves and central nervous system partly participate in the effects of escins Ia-IIb.

  19. Plant growth-promoting and antifungal activity of yeasts from dark chestnut soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Lyudmila V; Brazhnikova, Yelena V; Berzhanova, Ramza Z; Mukasheva, Togzhan D

    2015-06-01

    538 yeast strains were isolated from dark chestnut soil collected from under the plants of the legume family (Fabaceae). The greatest number of microorganisms is found at soil depth 10-20 cm. Among the 538 strains of yeast 77 (14.3%) strains demonstrated the ability to synthesize IAA. 15 strains were attributed to high IAA-producing yeasts (above 10 μg/ml). The most active strains were YA05 with 51.7 ± 2.1 μg/ml of IAA and YR07 with 45.3 ± 1.5 μg/ml. In the study of effect of incubation time on IAA production the maximum accumulation of IAA coincided with maximum rates of biomass: at 120 h for YR07 and at 144 h for strain YA05. IAA production increased when medium was supplemented with the L-tryptophan. 400 μg/ml of L-tryptophan showed maximum IAA production. 10 strains demonstrated the ability to inhibit the growth and development of phytopathogenic fungi. YA05 and YR07 strains formed the largest zones of inhibition compared to the other strains--from 21.6 ± 0.3 to 30.6 ± 0.5 mm. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed for YA05 against Phytophtora infestans and YR07 strains against Fusarium graminearum. YA05 and YR07 strains were identified as Aureobasidium pullulans YA05 (GenBank accession No JF160955) and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa YR07 (GenBank accession No JF160956).

  20. 板栗生产与流通价值链研究--以罗田板栗的价格为例%Research on the Value chain of Chestnut Production and Circulation---Take the prices of Chestnut in Luotian base as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴玲; 陈琳; 涂慧娇; 陶君成

    2015-01-01

    板栗产业是能创造极高经济效益的特色农业。通过对湖北省罗田县板栗实地调研,发现罗田板栗供不应求时价格却未显著提高的现象,进而分析该现象与生产规模、贮藏保鲜、加工技术、营销策略密切相关,并从板栗数量和差异化两方面提出提升罗田板栗价值,提高其竞争力的建议。%Chestnut industry is the characteristic agriculture to create high economic benefit.Based on spot investigation about chestnut in Luotian county of Hubei province,Luotian chestnut in short supply did not improve the price,closely related to the scale of production,fresh-keeping,processing technology and marketing strategy.Then Put forward to the suggestions about how to strengthen the competitive power of Luotian chestnut and improve their value from the quantity of Luotian chestnut and differentiation.

  1. Comparison of quantitative trait loci for adaptive traits between oak and chestnut based on an expressed sequence tag consensus map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasoli, Manuela; Derory, Jeremy; Morera-Dutrey, Caroline; Brendel, Oliver; Porth, Ilga; Guehl, Jean-Marc; Villani, Fiorella; Kremer, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    A comparative genetic and QTL mapping was performed between Quercus robur L. and Castanea sativa Mill., two major forest tree species belonging to the Fagaceae family. Oak EST-derived markers (STSs) were used to align the 12 linkage groups of the two species. Fifty-one and 45 STSs were mapped in oak and chestnut, respectively. These STSs, added to SSR markers previously mapped in both species, provided a total number of 55 orthologous molecular markers for comparative mapping within the Fagaceae family. Homeologous genomic regions identified between oak and chestnut allowed us to compare QTL positions for three important adaptive traits. Colocation of the QTL controlling the timing of bud burst was significant between the two species. However, conservation of QTL for height growth was not supported by statistical tests. No QTL for carbon isotope discrimination was conserved between the two species. Putative candidate genes for bud burst can be identified on the basis of colocations between EST-derived markers and QTL.

  2. Effect of diet chestnut tannin supplementation on meat quality, fatty acid profile and lipid stability in broiler rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chestnut tannins on meat quality in broiler rabbits. 72 commercial hybrid rabbits (mean body weight 740 g, 32 days old were fed for 49 days with three diets containing 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% of a commercial chestnut wood extract (ENC®, Sil- vachimica srl, respectively. Eight rabbits per group were slaughtered at 12 weeks of age and at 24h post-mortem pH and colour were measured on the carcass. Moreover, both sides of m. longis- simus thoracis (LT were dissected. Left side was used for cooking losses whereas the other side was used for the determination of fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. No differences were found in pH, colour and cooking losses, as well as the fatty acid profile of LT muscle and its relative health indexes. Concerning the antioxidant effect, the ENC shows a positive and significant effect at the inclusion level of 0.5%. In conclusion, the ENC has not undesirable side effects on the meat quality of rabbits, although further studies will be necessary to find the optimal diet inclusion level of ENC to elicit a stronger antioxidant effect in the rabbit meat.

  3. Comparative effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the antioxidant potential of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barros, Lillian; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-10-01

    Chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been recently studied for their antioxidant potential. The present study reports the effect of e-beam and gamma radiation (doses of 0, 0.5, 1 and 3 kGy) on the antioxidant potential of Portuguese chestnuts. Irradiation might be an alternative preservation method, since Methyl Bromide, a widely used fumigant, was banished by the European Union in 2010 due to its toxicity. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay, reducing power by the Ferricyanide/Prussian blue assay, and lipid peroxidation inhibition by β-carotene/linoleate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays. The analysis of total phenolics and flavonoids was performed by spectrophotometric assays. Irradiated samples preserved total phenolics content (but not flavonoids) and revealed higher antioxidant activity (lower EC50 values) than the control samples. The most indicated doses to maintain antioxidants content, and to increase antioxidant activity were 1 and 3 kGy for electron beam and gamma radiation, respectively.

  4. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Ashley E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; Clark, Stacy L.; Schlarbaum, Scott E.; Reynolds, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests. PMID:27001964

  5. SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CHESTNUT (Castanea sativa Mill. WOOD OBTAINED FROM MAÇKA-ÇATAK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgül Ay

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some mechanical properties of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. wood were investigated. 8 trees used for experiments were obtained from Maçka-Çatak region and samples were then prepared in accordance with the related standarts. As mechanical properties of chestnut wood, compression strength parallel to the grain, static bending strength, shear strength and values of Brinell-hardness were determined. As a result, a compression strength parallel to grain of 581.91 kp/cm2, static bending strength of 790 kp/cm2, shear strength of 56.36 kp/cm2, Brinell-hardness value in the cross-section of 4.25 kp/mm2 , Brinellhardness value in the radial-section of 1.74 kp/mm2 and Brinell-hardness value in tangential-section of 1.69 kp/mm2 were obtained. Using compression strength parallel to grain and specific gravity values, specific and static quality values were calculated to be 19.9 km ve 10.7 km, respectively. The results were compared with the other studies carried out on the relevant species which have the same or a similar anatomical structure.

  6. Production comparisons of Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch] functional corms grown in hydroponics versus flooded sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch.] corms are used as a canned or raw vegetable worldwide and may have potential use as a functional vegetable for human health uses. The accessions in the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit do not produce very many...

  7. Risk assessment of the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus for the EU territory and identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Panel on Plant Health was requested by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on the risk posed by the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus to the EU territory and to identify and evaluate risk management options. Additional analyses were conducted by the Panel ...

  8. The Occurrence of Charcoal Disease Caused by Biscogniauxia mediterranea on Chestnut-Leaved Oak (Quercus castaneifolia) in the Golestan Forests of Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirabolfathy, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    The chestnut-leaved oak (Quercus castaneifolia) is native to the Alborz Mountains, including the Golestan Forests, in northern Iran. Trees grow up to 35 (-50) m tall with a trunk up to 2.5 (-3.5) m in diameter. During 2010, we received reports of a decline of oak trees in the Ghorogh Region of the G

  9. Best management practices plan for the Chestnut Ridge-Filled Coal Ash Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP) Project has been established to satisfy Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2. FCAP is on Chestnut Ridge, approximately 0.5 miles south of the Y-12 Plant. A 62-foot high earthen dam across Upper McCoy Branch was constructed in 1955 to create a pond to serve as a settling basin for fly and bottom ashes generated by burning coal at the Y-12 Steam Plant. Ash from the steam was mixed with water to form a slurry and then pumped to the crest of Chestnut Ridge and released through a large pipe to flow across the Sluice Channel area and into the pond. The ash slurry eventually overtopped the dam and flowed along Upper McCoy Branch to Rogers Quarry. The purpose of this document is to provide a site-specific Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan for construction associated with environmental restoration activities at the FCAP Site.

  10. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, de J.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Ketelaar, T.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phl

  11. Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report For The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.B.

    1998-02-01

    This report contains the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1997 in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). In July 1997, the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved modifications to several of the permit conditions that address RCRA pow-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and RCIU4 post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin) and Kerr Hollow Quarry. This report has been prepared in accordance with these modified permit requirements. Also included in this report are the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 1997 for the purposes ofi (1) detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste disposal facilities (SWDFS) in accordance with operating permits and applicable regulations, (2) monitoring in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Recove~ Act Records of Decision (now pefiormed under the Integrated Water Quality Program for the Oak Ridge Reservation), and (3) monitoring needed to comply with U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.1.

  12. Study on enzymatic browning and blanching methods of chestnut%板栗的酶促褐变特性及灭酶预处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾婷婷; 张立彦; 芮汉明

    2011-01-01

    The activity and thermal stability of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in frozed chestnut were studied. The blanching methods and their effects on candying processing of chestnut were also investigated. Results showed that the thermal stability of PPO was higher than POD,the optimum temperature and pH of PPQ were 20℃,6.5 respectively, When the relative activity of PPO was decreased to less than 8%,the enzymes causing browning in chestnut were estimated to be inactivated enough, Compared with the way of hot water and steam blanching, enzymatic browning in chestnut was inhibited efficiently by microwave blanching ,and the sugar impregnation into chestnut was enhanced too in the processing of low-sugar candied chestnut, The optimal treatment of microwave blanching was that chestnut was heated at 4W/g power indensity for 6min.%对冻藏板栗中多酚氧化酶(PPO)的活力及热稳定性进行了比较,研究低糖板栗果脯灭酶顸处理及其对后续渗糖过程的影响。结果表明:板栗中影响褐变的酶主要有PPO和POD,其中PPO较POD热稳定性略高。冻藏后的板栗中PPO最适温度及pH分别为20℃和6.5。板栗加工中应以板栗PPO活力降至8%以下作为是否灭酶充分的标准。通过与热水烫漂灭酶、蒸汽灭酶比较发现,微波热烫处理可抑制低糖板粟果脯加工过程中的褐变,并有助于提高渗糖效率。微波炎酶的最佳条件是:功率密度4W/g,处理6min。

  13. Genetic transformation of European chestnut somatic embryos with a native thaumatin-like protein (CsTL1) gene isolated from Castanea sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Allona, Isabel; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    The availability of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) would offer an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. For the first time, a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1), isolated from chestnut cotyledons, has been overexpressed in three chestnut somatic embryogenic lines. Transformation experiments have been performed using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens Smith and Townsend vector harboring the neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) selectable and the green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter genes. The transformation efficiency, determined on the basis of the fluorescence of surviving explants, was clearly genotype dependent and ranged from 32.5% in the CI-9 line to 7.1% in the CI-3 line. A total of 126 independent transformed lines were obtained. The presence and integration of chestnut CsTL1 in genomic DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CsTL1 expression was up to 13.5-fold higher in a transgenic line compared with its corresponding untransformed line. In only one of the 11 transformed lines tested, expression of the CsTL1 was lower than the control. The remaining 115 transformed lines were successfully subjected to cryopreservation. Embryo proliferation was achieved in all of the transgenic lines regenerated and the transformed lines showed a higher mean number of cotyledonary stage embryos and total number of embryos per embryo clump than their corresponding untransformed lines. Transgenic plants were regenerated after maturation and germination of transformed somatic embryos. Furthermore, due to the low plantlet conversion achieved, axillary shoot proliferation cultures were established from partially germinated embryos (only shoot development), which were multiplied and rooted according to procedures already

  14. 不同板栗-农间作模式对土壤理化性质的影响%Effects of different Chinese chestnut-crop intercropping patterns on soil physical and chemical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦宏民; 何斌; 梁运; 韦智卫; 韦雅玲; 黄承标; 刘红英

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand change status of soil physical and chemical properties in chestnut-crop intercropping, density, porosity, water-holding capacity, pH value and nutrient content of soil were studied and compared under four patterns of chestnut-crop intercropping (chestnut-maize, chestnut-peanut, chestnut-soybean and pure chestnut stand) in Donglan County of Guangxi. The results show that soil physical and chemical properties have differences among four patterns of chestnut-crop intercropping. The density of surface soil (0-20 cm) under intercropping patterns of chestnut-peanut, chestnut-maize, chestnut-soybean and pure chestnut stand are 1.11, 1.13, 1.08, 1.21 g/cm3, respectively;non-capillary porosities are 13.60%, 11.36%, 10.35%, 9.62%, respectively; total porosities are 54.04%, 52.68%, 53.73%, 50.42%, respectively. Based on contents of total N, hydrolyzable N, available P and available K in soil from high to low, the order of the four chestnut-crop intercropping pattern is chestnut-peanut, chestnut-soybean, chestnut-maize, pure chestnut stand. Therefore, chestnut-crop intercropping is beneifcial for improving soil structure and increasing effective nutrient contents in soil.%为了了解板栗-农作物间作的土壤理化性质变化状况,对广西东兰县4种板栗-农间作模式(板栗-玉米、板栗-花生、板栗-黄豆和板栗纯林)土壤密度、孔隙度、持水量、pH值和养分含量进行分析比较。研究结果表明,不同板栗-农间作模式土壤理化性质存在一定差异,其中板栗-花生、板栗-玉米、板栗-黄豆和板栗纯林表层土壤(0~20 cm)密度分别为1.11、1.13、1.08和1.21 g/cm3,非毛管隙度分别为13.60%、11.36%、10.35%和9.62%,总孔隙度分别为54.04%、52.68%、53.73和50.42%;不同板栗-农间作模式按照土壤全N、水解N、速效P和速效K含量由高到低排列依次大致为板栗-花生、板栗-黄豆、板栗-玉米、板栗纯林。因此,板栗

  15. Development Actualities of and Strategies for Chestnut Industry in Shucheng County%舒城县板栗产业现状及发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶明福

    2015-01-01

    通过对舒城县板栗资源、产业加工、生产现状进行专题调研,指出了板栗产业发展存在的主要问题,并从加强栗园科学管理,提高板栗产量;改造低产园,建立示范点;政府购买社会组织服务,统一防治病虫害;引导企业(大户)承包栗园,实行规模经营;狠抓储藏、加工环节,提高产业效益;加大财政支持力度,加快产业发展等方面提出对策和建议。%In this paper a special field research was made on the chestnut resources, industrial processing and production actualities in Shucheng County and the main existing problems in the development of chestnut industry were pointed out. Some strategies and suggestions were put forward including strengthening management of chestnut plantations, increasing chestnut yields, improving low-yield plantations, establishing demonstration sites, buying services from social organization by the government, unified pest and disease control, leading enterprises to contract manage chestnut plantations, scale management, paying much attention to links of storage and processing, improving the industrial efficiency, strengthening financial support and speeding up its industrial development.

  16. Extraction of Chinese Chestnut Protein and Preparation of the Ploypeptides%板栗蛋白质的提取及多肽的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帅; 张培宜; 冯翠萍

    2011-01-01

    Protein was extracted from Chinese chestnut, and the Chinese chestnut polypeptide was obtained by hydrolysis, with a substance to provide a scientific basis for the development and use of Chinese chestnut protein polypeptide.Molecular weight of the protein was determined through SDS-PAGE. The albumen hydrolysis special-purpose enzyme was selected to determine the optimum hydrolysis conditions about Chinese chestnut polypeptide, using three factors three levels orthogonal experimental design. The isoelectronic point of the protein is 4. 5 , and molecular weight is about 25000 Da; The best hydrolysis condition of albumen hydrolysis special-purpose enzyme is : Substrate concentration 2. 5 g ·L-1 , enzyme capacity 0. 3 % , pH 8. 5 , the degree of hydrolysis 20. 13 %. The protein and polypeptides of Chinese chestnut were preparated.%以板栗为原料,提取蛋白质并水解制备多肽.通过SDS-PAGE测定板栗蛋白质的分子量,以植物蛋白水解专用酶采用三因素三水平的正交试验筛选制备板栗多肽的最佳水解条件,旨在为板栗的开发,利用提供理论依据.板栗蛋白质的等电点为4.5;分子量约为25 000 Da;植物蛋白水解专用酶最佳的水解条件:底物浓度2.5 g·L-1,酶添加量0.3%,pH 8.5,水解度是20.13%.得到板栗蛋白并制备出板栗多肽.

  17. Effect of chitosan on clarification water chestnut juice%壳聚糖对马蹄汁澄清效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢树文

    2011-01-01

    研究壳聚糖澄清马蹄汁的工艺条件,以马蹄汁透光率为指标,重点探讨壳聚糖添加量、处理温度及澄清时间等工艺参数对马蹄汁澄清效果的影响.结果表明,壳聚糖澄清马蹄原汁的最佳工艺条件是:壳聚糖用量0.8 g/L.温度40℃,pH值5.0(自然pH值),澄清时间45 min.澄清后的马蹄汁透光率可达93.9%,与原汁相比,其Vc含量、可溶性固形物及总糖含量无明显变化,果胶含量去除80%以上.%With water chestnut juice light transmittance as index, mainly discussed the optimum technological conditions of amount to chitosan, temperature, PH value and clarify time etc. for water chestnut juice clarification by using chitosan. The results of orthogonal test :indicates that the optimum technological conditions for water chestnut juice clarification by using chitosan were 0.8 g/L,40 ℃ ,pH 5.0 and time is 45 min. compared with water chestnut juice, water chestnut juice luminousness can reach 93.9%, and the Vc content、 the amount of soluble solid content and sugar content was remained almost unchangeable, pectin content remove more than 80%.

  18. Assessment of the Empirical Management Method of Coppice Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. Forests Practiced by the Monks and its Effect on the Availability of Forest Soil Resources in Mount Athos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios PAPAIOANNOU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, chestnut forests (Castanea sativa Mill. occupy more than 30,000 ha of forest land. The species is one of the most significant of the Balkans. It is mainly cultivated for its high quality wood. Concerning cultivation and harvesting, the monks in Mount Athos peninsula in northern Greece practice a special empirical management method for local coppice chestnut forests. Data collected from 9 sampling surfaces, comprising of coppice chestnut stands of three different ages (10, 20 and 40 years old, were analyzed to study the effect of this particular empirical management method on specific soil parameters. Results indicated that, there is a general trend for increased organic matter and nutrient concentrations in the soil of 10 and 40 years old chestnut stands in comparison to those of 20 years of age. Cultivation treatments cause intense alterations on soil properties, leading to severe degradation of nutrient resources.

  19. Ecogeochemical dosing model and adaptability regionalization of Jingdong chestnut%京东板栗生态地球化学环境比配模型与适应性区划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李随民; 栾文楼; 宋泽峰; 崔邢涛

    2011-01-01

    京东板栗是河北省优势农产品之一,由于板栗生长环境的地质地球化学方面的研究较少,致使目前板栗的种植、规划等缺乏理论依据.本文以河北迁西优质板栗产区75件样品为例,分析探讨了温度、地形地貌、岩石土壤类型和部分地球化学元素对优质板栗种植区的控制作用和影响程度,在此基础上建立了上述生态地质地球化学环境因素与板栗之间的比配模型,划分了板栗种植的优质区、适宜区和非适宜区域,为当地板栗种植和规划提供了理论依据和参考.%Jingdong chestnut is one of the advantageous agricultural products in Hebei Province; nevertheless, chestnut planting and planning lack theoretical foundation due to insufficient research on geological-geochemical environment for chestnut growth. Based on 75 samples collected from the high -quality production area of chestnut, this paper systematically discusses the temperature, topography, rock soil type and some factors controlling and affecting the high-quality chestnut. On such a basis, the authors established the ecogeochemical dosing model of Jingdong chestnut and classified chestnut planting areas into three kinds, I.e., qualified areas, suitable areas and unsuitable areas. The results obtained will provide theoretical basis and reference for local chestnut planting and planning.

  20. [Effects of biological organic fertilizer on microbial community's metabolic activity in a soil planted with chestnut (Castanea mollissima)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Gu, Jie; Hu, Ting; Gao, Hua; Chen, Zhi-Xue; Qin, Qing-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted in Zhashui County of Shaanxi Province, Northwest China in 2011 to study the effects of biological organic fertilizer on the microbial community's metabolic activity in a soil planted with chestnut (Castanea mollissima). Three treatments were installed, i. e., control, compound fertilizer, and biological organic fertilizer. Soil samples were collected at harvest, and the metabolic activity was tested by Biolog method. In the treatment of biological organic fertilizer, the average well color development, Shannon evenness, richness, and McIntosh indices of microbial community were all significantly higher than the other two treatments. As compared with the control, applying biological organic fertilizer improved the ability of soil microbes in utilizing the carbon sources of carbohydrates and polymers, while applying compound fertilizer was in opposite. The principal component analysis demonstrated that there was an obvious difference in the soil microbial community among different treatments, mainly depending on the species of carbohydrates and amino acids.

  1. Rupture and Modulus of Elasticity of Heat Treated Anatolian Chestnut (Castanea Sativa Wood by Fuzzy Logic Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Yapıcı

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, test samples prepared from Anatolian chestnut (Castanea sativa wood were first exposed to heat treatment at 130, 145, 160, 175, 190 and 205 ºC for 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours. Then the values of the samples of the modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE were determined and evaluated by multiple variance analysis. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of heat treatment on the MOR and MOE values of wood samples by using fuzzy logic classifier. Secondly, input and output values and rule base of the fuzzy logic classifier model were built by using the results obtained from the experiment. The developed fuzzy classifier model could predict the MOR and MOE values of test samples at the accuracy levels of 92.64 % and 90.35 %, respectively. The model could be especially employed in manufacturing stages of timber industry.

  2. Effect of sucrose, stevia and xylitol on rheological properties of gels from blends of chestnut and rice flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Raymundo, A; Sousa, I

    2013-10-15

    The development of high quality gluten-free products requires the understanding of the phenomena that dictate the ingredient interactions commonly used in foodstuff. In this work, the main objective was to develop alternative gluten-free gelled desserts from blends of chestnut flour (Cf) and whole (Rw), Agulha (Ra) or Carolino (Rc) rice flours. The impact of sucrose, stevia and xylitol on textural, rheological and structural properties of selected gels was investigated. Texture results indicated that studied gels in the presence of sucrose and xylitol decreased significantly the firmness. Rheological outcomes showed that the temperature ramps on heating of Cf/Rw gels were similar to those obtained for Cf/Ra, whereas Cf/Rc gels presented a particular pattern. The presence of sucrose resulted in a significant decrease in the values of storage and loss moduli. Confocal microscopic images showed that the sugar addition leads to a less aggregated structure with fracture lines well marked.

  3. Ecological Meaning and Consideration of Economic Forest Carbon Sinks in China----Take Yan-Shan Chestnut for Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Li, H.; Zhang, W. W.; Liu, S. R.

    Along with our country scientific researchers' study on native forest carbon sinks as well as the summary of the increasing amount of China's forest carbon, With the deepening of our scientists on the study of the national forest carbon sinks, forest carbon sinks has become a favorable support for climate diplomacy. Currently, a lot of work has focused on the carbon cycle, the level of carbon sinks of forest ecosystems, but the characteristics of economic forest carbon sinks are in a blank state. Beijing chestnut is one of the national food strategic security stockpiles, and estimate the potential of economic forest carbon sinks has important scientific significance to the establishment of carbon sink function area, and expansion of sustainable economic and social development of response measures.

  4. 13C MAS NMR studies of the effects of hydration on the cell walls of potatoes and Chinese water chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H; Belton, P S; Ng, A; Ryden, P

    1999-02-01

    13C NMR with magic angle spinning (MAS) has been employed to investigate the cell walls of potatoes and Chinese water chestnuts over a range of hydration levels. Both single-pulse excitation (SPEMAS) and cross-polarization (CPMAS) experiments were carried out. Hydration led to a substantial increase in signal intensities of galactan and galacturonan in the SPEMAS spectra and a decrease in line width, implying mobilization in the backbone and side chains of pectin. In CPMAS spectra of both samples, noncellulose components showed signal loss as hydration increased. However, the signals of some galacturonan in the 3(1) helix configuration remained in the spectra even when the water content was as high as 110%. Cellulose was unaffected. It is concluded that the pectic polysaccharides experience a distribution of molecular conformations and mobility, whereas cellulose remained as typical rigid solid.

  5. Proximate analysis and physico-chemical properties of flour from the seeds of the China chestnut, Sterculia monosperma Ventenat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noitang, S; Sooksai, S A; Foophow, T; Petsom, A

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional composition of China chestnut seeds, Sterculia monosperma Vent. and analyze the physico-chemical properties of flour from the seeds. The results obtained on proximate analysis of China chestnut seeds, S. monosperma, revealed that they contained mostly carbohydrate (73.7% dm), followed by fat (12.0% dm), protein (7.8% dm), fiber (5.5% dm) and ash (1.0% dm). They have a relatively high content of potassium (12.3 mg g(-1) dm) following by phosphorus (2.30 mg g(-1) dm), magnesium (1.87 mg g(-1) dm), sulfur (0.88 mg g(-1) dm) and calcium (0.14 mg g(-1) dm). The fatty acids profile was found to be composed of mainly palmitic (42%) and oleic acids (34%), with general long-chain fatty acids the other significant component by mass (13%). Glutamic acid (17.4%), aspartic acid (12.5%) and arginine (12.5%) were the three major amino acid constituents. The purified seed starch was investigated for its morphological, starch content and physico-chemical properties, such as amylose content, swelling power, solubility and pasting properties. The starch granules were quite round, about 10-15 micron diameter and composed of more than 35% (w/w) of amylose. The pasting properties of flour from the seeds of S. monosperma revealed that gelatinization began at 72.6-73.2 degrees C and the maximum viscosity in the holding period at 95 degrees C was 633 BU. Interestingly and potentially of use, was that the viscosity at the cooling period was more than two-fold higher than that in the holding period.

  6. Extraction of high quality of RNA and construction of a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library from chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Wen, Xiaopeng; Tao, Nengguo; Hu, Zhiyong; Yue, Hailin; Deng, Xiuxin

    2006-04-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a rare fruit crop of promising economical importance in fruit and ornamental exploitation in China. Isolation of high quality RNA from chestnut rose is difficult due to its high levels of polyphenols, polysaccharides and other compounds, but a modified CTAB extraction procedure without phenol gave satisfactory results. High concentrations of PVP (2%, w/v), CTAB (2%, w/v) and beta-mercaptoethanol (4%, v/v) were used in the extraction buffer to improve RNA quality. The average yield was about 200 microg RNA g(-1) fresh leaves. The isolated RNA was of sufficient quality for construction of suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) library, which allowed the isolation of several pathogen-induced defense genes.

  7. Assessment of electron beam-induced DNA damage in larvae of chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoriki, Setsuko [Radiation and Information Technology Laboratory, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)]. E-mail: setsuko@nfri.affrc.go.jp; Hasan, Mahbub [Laboratory for Stored Product Protection, Department of Zoology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Miyanoshita, Akihiro [Radiation and Information Technology Laboratory, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Imamura, Taro [Radiation and Information Technology Laboratory, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Hayashi, Toru [Radiation and Information Technology Laboratory, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)

    2006-02-15

    Effect of electron beam treatment on DNA damage in mature larvae of chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) was assessed using single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet assay). Electrons at acceleration voltages of 0 (control), 300, 750, 1000, and 1500 kV at radiation doses of 1 and 4 kGy were used. Electron beam-treated chestnut larvae showed typical DNA fragmentation, compared with cells from non-treated ones which showed a more intact DNA. Investigations using the comet assay showed that the parameters including tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment as well as the quota of DNA damage at both the doses were significantly larger than the control batch larvae. Thus, this technique could contribute to analytical identification of an effective disinfestation and quarantine treatment.

  8. Assessment of electron beam-induced DNA damage in larvae of chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hasan, Mahbub; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro; Hayashi, Toru

    2006-02-01

    Effect of electron beam treatment on DNA damage in mature larvae of chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) was assessed using single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet assay). Electrons at acceleration voltages of 0 (control), 300, 750, 1000, and 1500 kV at radiation doses of 1 and 4 kGy were used. Electron beam-treated chestnut larvae showed typical DNA fragmentation, compared with cells from non-treated ones which showed a more intact DNA. Investigations using the comet assay showed that the parameters including tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment as well as the quota of DNA damage at both the doses were significantly larger than the control batch larvae. Thus, this technique could contribute to analytical identification of an effective disinfestation and quarantine treatment.

  9. Vacuum freeze-drying process of chestnut kernel%真空冷冻干燥板栗仁加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏飞; 周家华; 常虹; 马良; 张宇昊

    2011-01-01

    With fresh chestnut as raw materials,we studied the vacuum freeze-drying chestnut kernel processing technology.Results show that the color protection liquid composition for 0.2% ascorbic acid,0.3 % citric acid,0.1% ethylenediamine tetraacetate(EDTA) and 0.1% sodium chloride.Best temperature is 40 ℃.The best vacuum freeze-drying conditions is the material quantity 4.85 kg/m2,45 ℃ with 12 hours.Processed chestnut kernel water content is about 3%,taste sweet and crisp,chestnut original color,fragrance,taste to maintain good.%以新鲜板栗为原料,研究了真空冷冻干燥板栗仁的加工工艺。结果表明:板栗仁护色液组成为0.2%抗坏血酸、0.3%柠檬酸、0.1%乙二胺四乙酸(EDTA)和0.1%氯化钠;护色温度为40℃。最佳真空冷冻干燥条件是单位面积的物料量4.85kg/m2、隔板温度45℃、冻干时间为12h,制得的冷冻干燥板栗仁含水量为3%,口感香甜松脆,板栗原有色、香、味保持良好。

  10. The transfer of radiocesium from the bark to the stemflow of chestnut trees (Castanea crenata) contaminated by radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yoshito; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Ishii, Yasuo; Niizato, Tadafumi

    2016-09-01

    We report on the behavior of radiocesium in tree bark and its transfer into the stemflows of chestnut trees in a forest in the Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. In stems that were present at the time of the accident, the radiocesium concentration of the bark was found to be approximately 10 times that of the wood. The average (137)Cs concentration of the dissolved fraction (0.45 μm) of the stemflow were strongly adsorbed radiocesium.

  11. 1-MCP对板栗采后生理的影响%Effects of 1-MCP on Postharvest Physiological Responses of Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费斐; 薛风照

    2016-01-01

    以采自河南信阳的板栗为试材,进行1-MCP(1-甲基环丙烯)处理,于0℃低温下贮藏,通过测定失重率、腐烂率和VC等指标,旨在研究其对板栗采后生理的影响。得到试验结果:1.0μL/L 1-MCP处理可有效抑制板栗失重、VC和还原糖含量的下降,推迟果实的后熟与衰老。0℃贮藏75 d以后,好果率达86.6%,且外观色泽饱满,风味正常。%Chestnut collected from Henan Xinyang were treated with 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), then stored at 0℃. Through the determination of weight loss rate, decay rate, VC and other indicators, aims to study the influence on chestnut postharvest physiology.The results showed that chestnut treated with 1.0 μL/L effec-tively inhibiting its weight loss, vitamin C and delaying the declining of sugar content ;delay the ripening and senescence of Xinyang. Chestnut fruits, the rate of good fruit was 86.6%when stored at 0℃for 75 d, then look fresh and full flavor normal.

  12. Local spread of an exotic invader: using remote sensing and spatial analysis to document proliferation of the invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziosi I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and spatial analysis represent useful tools for modeling species’ dispersal, characterizing the spread of invasions and the invasability of a region, and thus allowing more accurate predictions for developing mitigation strategies. American chestnut, Castanea dentata, was historically a dominant forest species in North America, but occurs only sporadically today after its functional elimination by an exotic fungal pathogen in the early 1900’s. In recent decades Castanea resources have increased due to restoration efforts, commercial chestnut plantations, and horticultural uses. This resurgence is threatened by an additional exotic species, the globally invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus. The gall wasp was first discovered in Lexington, Kentucky (USA in 2010. We used remotely sensed data and Geographic Information Systems to describe the local distribution of the Castanea hosts, and the occurrence and dispersal of the gall wasp. We tested the hypotheses that geomorphology, Castanea occurrence, and prevailing winds influence local proliferation. We found that gall wasp spread may be attributable to host plant distribution and to the effects of prevailing winds occurring during a brief period of adult insect emergence, and is influenced by topography. Our results suggest that weather data and topographic features can be used to delineate currently infested areas and predict future gall wasp infestations.

  13. Development of Lactic Acid Bacteroa Fermentation Water Chestnut Yoghurt%乳酸菌发酵荸荠酸乳的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 杨跃寰; 张锐毅; 王凤娇; 王侠

    2011-01-01

    Taking milk as main raw materials and adding water chestnut to develop water chestnut yoghurt through the fermentation lactic acid bacteroa,the optimum technology parameter was determined by sensory evaluation.The results of tests showed that the water chestnut adding of 20% and homogenization pressure of 20MPa,the fermentation conditions were fermentation temperature of 42 ℃,sugar adding of 3%,inoculation amount of 4% and fermentation time of 5h,the stabilizer combination was xanthan gum 0.08%,agar 0.09% and CMC-Na 0.04%.%以牛奶为主要原料,添加荸荠,经乳酸菌发酵研制荸荠酸乳。通过感官综合评定确定最佳工艺参数。实验结果表明:荸荠添加量为20%;均质压力为20 MPa;发酵条件为:发酵温度42℃,加糖量3%,接种量4%(均为质量分数),发酵时间5 h;稳定剂组合为:黄原胶0.08%,琼脂0.09%,羧甲基纤维素钠0.04%(均为质量分数)。

  14. Purification, characterization and N-terminal amino acid sequence of a new major allergen from European chestnut pollen--Cas s 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, T; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Ferreira, F; Hirschwehr, R; Ahorn, H; Horak, F; Jager, S; Sperr, W; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O

    1993-11-15

    Pollens from trees of the order Fagales (e.g. birch, alder, hazel, and hornbeam) all contain one major allergen--the main cause for tree pollen allergy. So far the major allergens from birch (Bet v 1), alder (Aln g 1), hazel (Cor a 1), and hornbeam (Car b 1) have been characterized, showing high sequence similarity with each other (1-4). We present the molecular and immunologic characterization of Cas s 1, the major allergen from the European chestnut (Castanea sativa). From aqueous pollen extracts from European chestnut a protein was purified to homogeneity and was subjected to further investigation. The protein revealed a Mr of 22 kDa and was shown to represent the major allergen of the European chestnut (immunoblotting, histamine release) and designated Cas s 1. Despite a marked difference in Mr, Cas s 1 shows significant amino acid sequence similarity at the N-terminus and is antigenically closely related to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 (17 kDa), as shown by binding to the anti-Bet v 1 monoclonal antibody BIP-1 and by IgE-inhibition tests using recombinant Bet v 1.

  15. Hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 nanoneedles grown on nickel foam as binder-free electrode for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kwun Nam; Hui, Kwan San; Tang, Zikang; Jadhav, V. V.; Xia, Qi Xun

    2016-10-01

    Hierarchical chestnut-like manganese cobalt oxide (MnCo2O4) nanoneedles (NNs) are successfully grown on nickel foam using a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal method. High resolution TEM image further verifies that the chestnut-like MnCo2O4 structure is assembled by numerous 1D MnCo2O4 nanoneedles, which are formed by numerous interconnected MnCo2O4 nanoparticles with grain diameter of ∼10 nm. The MnCo2O4 electrode exhibits high specific capacitance of 1535 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and good rate capability (950 F g-1 at 10 A g-1) in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. An asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using MnCo2O4 NNs on Ni foam (MnCo2O4 NNs/NF) as the positive electrode and graphene/NF as the negative electrode. The device shows an operation voltage of 1.5 V and delivers a high energy density of ∼60.4 Wh kg-1 at a power density of ∼375 W kg-1. Moreover, the device exhibits an excellent cycling stability of 94.3% capacitance retention after 12000 cycles at 30 A g-1. This work demonstrates that hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 NNs could be a promising electrode for the high performance energy storage devices.

  16. 水杨酸对冷藏板栗贮藏效果的影响%Storage effects of salicylic acid on post-harvest chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶利民; 徐芬芬

    2011-01-01

    Effects of physiological and biochemical changes of the post-harvest chestnut fruit were studied with different concentrations of salicylic acid to dipping fruit at different times during storage. Main results were as follows: salicylic acid treatment could inhibit respiration rate of the chestnut during storage,delay the arrival of climacteric. Salicylic acid could inhibit the decreasing of the vitamin C content and the starch content. In addition, salicylic acid treatment decreased chestnut rot rate and weight loss rate.The best treatment condition by salicylic acid was O. 5 g/L for 10 min.%以不同浓度水杨酸、不同浸果时间研究水杨酸对板栗果实冷藏效果的影响.结果表明:水杨酸可抑制贮藏期间栗果呼吸强度,推迟呼吸跃变的到来;还可抑制VC含量和淀粉含量;水杨酸处理后栗果腐烂率和质量损失率均降低.最佳处理方式为0.5 g/L水杨酸浸果10 min.

  17. 野生板栗资源开发利用技术探讨%TECHNICAL STUDIES ON DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF WILD CHINESE CHESTNUT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马朝阳; 胡继周; 车明轩

    2001-01-01

    In order to explore the wild Chinese chestnut in mountainous areas in Chengxian county, the Chengxian Planning Committee assigned a project of “Technical Demonstration of high-level grafting with well-bred species on Wild Chinese Chestnut” to achieve the goal of development with means of well-bred species, intensive management and industrialization of Chinese chestnut production. With co-operation of relevant organizations and the project grop in three years, three demonstration bases of high-level grafting and low-yield-garden improvement of Chinese chestnut have been build. Tests on some technical aspects necessary to the project were done.%为了开发利用甘肃省成县山区的野生板栗资源,实现板栗生产的良种化、集约化和产业化发展目标,经3年的研究,进行野生板栗高接、换优实验技术与生产示范。

  18. Analyse of Browning Factors during the Process of Chinese Chestnut%板栗加工过程中褐变因素的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建暖

    2014-01-01

    The browning and factors including different peeling methods,heating time,heating temperature,pH of water and storage time during the process of Chinese chestnut were studied. The results showed that the peeling and heating were the main factors of browning chestnut. Chestnut browning could be controlled by reducing the heating temperature,shortening the heating time and changing pH of the water.%试验研究了板栗(Castanea mollissima)加工过程中的褐变及不同去皮方法、加热时间、温度和水的pH及贮藏时间等影响因素。结果表明,加工中的去皮、加热是影响褐变的主要因素,可通过降低加热温度、缩短加热时间及调整水的pH抑制褐变的发生。

  19. 全自动栗子高速划口机设计%Design on Automatic High-speed Shell-cutting Machine for Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张聪

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type automatic high-speed shell-cutting machine for chestnut by o-riginal design. The machine is consisted of load plates, pressing mechanism, cutting mechanism and transmission system etc. When the machine is running, chestnuts are positioned conveyor, pressing clamp and continuous cutting. Chestnut shell-cutting is evenly, with adjustable depth. The machine design and test speed of up to 12500 - 15000A/ h ( single channel ).%介绍一套原创性设计的新型全自动栗子高速划口机.机器主要由载料模板、压合机构、切割机构及传动系统等组成,使栗子实现定位输送、压合夹持、连续切割,确保栗子表皮划口均匀、深度可调.机器设计及试验速度可达12500~ 15000个/h(单通道).

  20. Factors Affecting Browning of Cooked Chestnut Kernel%影响熟化板栗褐变的因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    綦菁华; 王芳; 庞美霞; 黄漫青; 赵琛琛

    2009-01-01

    板栗在熟化加工过程中易产生非酶褐变,本文针对板栗自身原料有关成分及部分加工条件对板栗熟化后褐变的影响进行了研究,探讨影响熟化板栗褐变的因素.研究结果表明:板栗非酶褐变前后蛋白质平均减少了30.34%、还原糖平均减少了38.44%、维生素C平均减少了85.81%;表明美拉德反应和抗坏血酸氧化是板栗熟化过程发生非酶褐变的主要原因.另外,在pH,NaCl,蔗糖三个加工条件研究中,pH对板栗褐变影响较大,pH为3.0、4.0、5.0的溶液对熟化板栗有较好的抑制褐变的效果,而NaCl,蔗糖的抑制作用不显著.%Non - enzymatic browning often occurs in the processing of cooked chestnut kernel. Chemical components of chestnut kernel before and after the processing and factors related to the processing conditions have been studied in this work in order to control the browning. Results; After the non - enzymatic browning in processing the protein content of the cooked chestnut kernel decreases by 30.34% , reduced sugar content decreases by 38.44% and Vitamin C content decreases by 85.81%. Therefore, Maillard reaction and Vitamin C oxidation are the main reactions resulting in the browning of cooked chestnut kernel. In addition, among three processing condition factors, i. e. , pH value, sucrose, and sodium chlorine, the influence of pH to the browning is significant, while sucrose and sodium chlorine have no effects. Solution with pH of 3, 4, or 5 displays rather good effects of inhibiting the browning of cooked chestnut kernel.

  1. Study on the Technology for Flaky Pastry Processed by Chestnut and Beandregs%板栗豆渣酥饼的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗松明

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the technology concluding the preprocession for chestnut and the usage of bean dregs in the crust or stuffing was studied, for good sensory quality of flaky pastry processed by chestnut and beandregs. The result shows that chestnut roasted with sugar in heated sand would keep inherent flavors more than chestnut cooked in water. If the ratio of the addition of wheat flour and bean dregs in the water-You-Pi dough is 10∶1.5, the ratio of the addition of chestnut and bean dregs in the stuffing of the flaky pastry is 7∶3, the ratio of the crust and the stuffing is 3∶7, the flaky pastry would have a good quality and high nutritional value with more dietary fiber and protein content than the common flaky pastry.%以板栗、豆渣、调和油为主要原料,探讨了板栗作为饼馅的处理方法,豆渣在酥饼饼皮和饼馅中的用量等因素对板栗豆渣酥饼的感官品质的影响。试验结果表明,糖炒板栗的方法比水煮熟化的方法更能体现板栗固有风味;在饼皮的水油皮面团的小麦粉和豆渣的用量比例为10∶1.5,饼馅中的板栗和豆渣的用量比例为7∶3,酥饼的皮馅比为3∶7条件下生产的酥饼质量较好;其膳食纤维和蛋白质的含量比普通酥饼要高些,具有较高的营养价值。

  2. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  3. Consequences of Shifts in Abundance and Distribution of American Chestnut for Restoration of a Foundation Forest Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmony J. Dalgleish

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of foundation species, such as the American chestnut (Castanea dentata that was devastated by an introduced fungus, can restore ecosystem function. Understanding both the current distribution as well as biogeographic patterns is important for restoration planning. We used United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis data to quantify the current density and distribution of C. dentata. We then review the literature concerning biogeographic patterns in C. dentata. Currently, 431 ± 30.2 million stems remain. The vast majority (360 ± 22 million are sprouts <2.5 cm dbh. Although this number is approximately 10% of the estimated pre-blight population, blight has caused a major shift in the size structure. The current-day population has a larger range, particularly west and north, likely due to human translocation. While climate change could facilitate northward expansion, limited seed reproduction makes this unlikely without assisted migration. Previous research demonstrates that the current, smaller population contains slightly higher genetic diversity than expected, although little information exists on biogeographic patterns in the genetics of adaptive traits. Our research provides a baseline characterization of the contemporary population of C. dentata, to enable monitoring stem densities and range limits to support restoration efforts.

  4. An oxidative burst of superoxide in embryonic axes of recalcitrant sweet chestnut seeds as induced by excision and desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Thomas; Ivanova, Mariyana; Beckett, Richard P; Minibayeva, Farida V; Green, Ian; Pritchard, Hugh W; Kranner, Ilse

    2008-06-01

    Recalcitrant seeds are intolerant of desiccation and cannot be stored in conventional seed banks. Cryopreservation allows storage of the germplasm of some recalcitrant seeded species, but application to a wide range of plant diversity is still limited. The present work aimed at understanding the stresses that accompany the first steps in cryopreservation protocols, wounding and desiccation, both of which are likely to lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Extracellular ROS production was studied in isolated embryonic axes of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa). Axis excision was accompanied by a burst of superoxide (O(2)(*-)), demonstrated by a colorimetric assay using epinephrine, electron spin resonance and staining with nitroblue tetrazolium. Superoxide was immediately produced on the cut surface after isolation of the axis from the seed, with an initial 'burst' in the first 5 min. Isolated axes subjected to variable levels of desiccation stress showed a decrease in viability and vigour and increased electrolyte leakage, indicative of impaired membrane integrity. The pattern of O(2)(*-) production showed a typical Gaussian pattern in response to increasing desiccation stress. The results indicate a complex interaction between excision and subsequent drying and are discussed with a view of manipulating ROS production for optimisation of cryopreservation protocols.

  5. Purification and in vitro chaperone activity of a class I small heat-shock protein abundant in recalcitrant chestnut seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collada, C; Gomez, L; Casado, R; Aragoncillo, C

    1997-09-01

    A 20-kD protein has been purified from cotyledons of recalcitrant (desiccation-sensitive) chestnut (Castanea sativa) seeds, where it accumulates at levels comparable to those of major seed storage proteins. This protein, termed Cs smHSP 1, forms homododecameric complexes under nondenaturing conditions and appears to be homologous to cytosolic class I small heat-shock proteins (smHSPs) from plant sources. In vitro evidence has been obtained that the isolated protein can function as a molecular chaperone; it increases, at stoichiometric levels, the renaturation yields of chemically denatured citrate synthase and also prevents the irreversible thermal inactivation of this enzyme. Although a role in desiccation tolerance has been hypothesized for seed smHSPs, this does not seem to be the case for Cs smHSP 1. We have investigated the presence of immunologically related proteins in orthodox and recalcitrant seeds of 13 woody species. Our results indicate that the presence of Cs smHSP 1-like proteins, even at high levels, is not enough to confer desiccation tolerance, and that the amount of these proteins does not furnish a reliable criterion to identify desiccation-sensitive seeds. Additional proteins or mechanisms appear necessary to keep the viability of orthodox seeds upon shedding.

  6. The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskella, Britt; Parr, Nicole

    2015-08-19

    Insight to the spatial and temporal scales of coevolution is key to predicting the outcome of host-parasite interactions and spread of disease. For bacteria infecting long-lived hosts, selection to overcome host defences is just one factor shaping the course of evolution; populations will also be competing with other microbial species and will themselves be facing infection by bacteriophage viruses. Here, we examine the temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial adaptation against natural phage populations from within leaves of horse chestnut trees. Using a time-shift experiment with both sympatric and allopatric phages from either contemporary or earlier points in the season, we demonstrate that bacterial resistance is higher against phages from the past, regardless of spatial sympatry or how much earlier in the season phages were collected. Similarly, we show that future bacterial hosts are more resistant to both sympatric and allopatric phages than contemporary bacterial hosts. Together, our results suggest the evolution of relatively general bacterial resistance against phages in nature and are contrasting to previously observed patterns of phage adaptation to bacteria from the same tree hosts over the same time frame, indicating a potential asymmetry in coevolutionary dynamics.

  7. Soil DNA pyrosequencing and fruitbody surveys reveal contrasting diversity for various fungal ecological guilds in chestnut orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Paula; Reis, Francisca; Pereira, Eric; Tavares, Rui M; Santos, Pedro M; Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André; Lino-Neto, Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Fungal diversity in Mediterranean forest soils is poorly documented, particularly when considering saprobic and pathogenic organisms. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods applied to soil fungi provide the opportunity to unveil the most inconspicuous functional guilds (e.g. saprobes) and life forms (e.g. Corticiaceae) of this tremendous diversity. We used fruitbody surveys over 2 years and soil 454 metabarcoding in Castanea sativa orchards to evaluate respectively the reproductive (fruitbodies) and vegetative (mycelia) parts of fungal communities in three 100-year-old stands. Analysis of 839 fruitbodies and 210 291 ITS1 reads revealed high fungal diversity, mainly shown by belowground analysis, with high (dominant) abundance of mycorrhizal fruitbodies and reads. Both methods displayed contrasted composition and structure of fungal communities, with Basidio- and Ascomycetes dominating above- and belowground, respectively. For the two dominant fungal guilds (i.e. ectomycorrhizal and saprobic), diversity above- and belowground overlapped weakly. This study is the first assessment of the complementarity of fruitbody surveys and NGS for analysing fungal diversity in Mediterranean ecosystems and shows that belowground methods still need to be completed by fruiting diversity to provide a comprehensive overview of the different fungal guilds. The results shed light on chestnut soil biodiversity and question the spatial distribution and synergies among fungal guilds.

  8. Influence of Na+, K+ and Ca2+ on mechanical and structural properties of gels from chestnut and rice flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Raymundo, A; Sousa, I

    2014-02-15

    The addition of salts to foodstuffs to improve the mechanical characteristics and thereby increasing sample strength has been widely studied in gels of model systems, however has been investigated to a lesser extent in complex systems, such as gluten-free flour gels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of cation concentration and ion valence of chloride salts (NaCl, KCl or CaCl2, 0-2%, w/w) on textural, rheological and microstructural properties of selected gluten-free flour gels from blends of chestnut flour and whole, Agulha or Carolino rice flours. Firmness increased in the presence of CaCl2. Storage and loss moduli increased slightly with the monovalent salts concentration, whereas a more pronounced rise was observed with the divalent salt addition. It was found that K(+) was more effective in modifying the rheology of studied gels than Na(+). Confocal microscopic images of gels revealed a microstructure consistent with the observed mechanical properties.

  9. Effects of chestnut tannins on the meat quality, welfare, and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huawei; Li, Ke; Mingbin, Lv; Zhao, Jinshan; Xiong, Benhai

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) on the meat quality, welfare and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs. Lambs in one group were raised at 20°C and fed a basal diet (N), and three other groups (32°C) were fed a basal diet with 0 (CT0), 5 (CT5), and 10 g (CT10) of CT/kg. Addition of CT increased the b* and L* values of meat and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in the serum and liver of heat-stressed lambs. The malondialdehyde concentration in meat, serum, and liver of heat-stressed lambs was decreased by dietary CT supplementation. Lambs in the CT0 group had higher cortisol, T3, and T4 levels, creatine kinase activity, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and a lower lymphocyte count than that in the N and CT10 groups. In conclusion, the addition of CT improved meat quality, certain stress parameters, and the antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs.

  10. A tangled tale of two teal: Population history of the grey Anas gracilis and chestnut teal a. castanea of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, L.; Adcock, G.J.; Linde, C.; Omland, K.E.; Heinsohn, R.; Terry, Chesser R.; Roshier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two Australian species of teal (Anseriformes: Anatidae: Anas), the grey teal Anas gracilis and the chestnut teal A. castanea, are remarkable for the zero or near-zero divergence recorded between them in earlier surveys of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. We confirmed this result through wider geographical and population sampling as well as nucleotide sampling in the more rapidly evolving mtDNA control region. Any data set where two species share polymorphism as is the case here can be explained by a model of gene flow through hybridization on one hand or by incomplete lineage sorting on the other hand. Ideally, analysis of such shared polymorphism would simultaneously estimate the likelihood of both phenomena. To do this, we used the underlying principle of the IMa package to explore ramifications to understanding population histories of A. gracilis and A. castanea. We cannot reject that hybridization occurs between the two species but an equally or more plausible finding for their nearly zero divergence is incomplete sorting following very recent divergence between the two, probably in the mid-late Pleistocene. Our data add to studies that explore intermediate stages in the evolution of reciprocal monophyly and paraphyletic or polyphyletic relationships in mtDNA diversity among widespread Australian birds. ?? 2009 J. Avian Biol.

  11. Pathway Analysis and Metabolites Identification by Metabolomics of Etiolation Substrate from Fresh-Cut Chinese Water Chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xiao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fresh-cut Chinese water chestnuts (CWC turn yellow after being peeled, reducing their shelf life and commercial value. Metabolomics, the systematic study of the full complement of small molecular metabolites, was useful for clarifying the mechanism of fresh-cut CWC etiolation and developing methods to inhibit yellowing. In this study, metabolic alterations associated with etiolation at different growth stages (0 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days from fresh-cut CWC were investigated using LC–MS and analyzed by pattern recognition methods (principal component analysis (PCA, partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. The metabolic pathways of the etiolation molecules were elucidated. The main metabolic pathway appears to be the conversion of phenylalanine to p-coumaroyl-CoA, followed by conversion to naringenin chalcone, to naringenin, and naringenin then following different pathways. Firstly, it can transform into apigenin and its derivatives; secondly, it can produce eriodictyol and its derivatives; and thirdly it can produce dihydrokaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. The eriodictyol can be further transformed to luteolin, cyanidin, dihydroquercetin, dihydrotricetin, and others. This is the first reported use of metabolomics to study the metabolic pathways of the etiolation of fresh-cut CWC.

  12. Pathway Analysis and Metabolites Identification by Metabolomics of Etiolation Substrate from Fresh-Cut Chinese Water Chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Xiao; Pan, Yong-Gui; He, Feng-Ping; Yuan, Meng-Qi; Li, Shang-Bin

    2016-12-01

    Fresh-cut Chinese water chestnuts (CWC) turn yellow after being peeled, reducing their shelf life and commercial value. Metabolomics, the systematic study of the full complement of small molecular metabolites, was useful for clarifying the mechanism of fresh-cut CWC etiolation and developing methods to inhibit yellowing. In this study, metabolic alterations associated with etiolation at different growth stages (0 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days) from fresh-cut CWC were investigated using LC-MS and analyzed by pattern recognition methods (principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA)). The metabolic pathways of the etiolation molecules were elucidated. The main metabolic pathway appears to be the conversion of phenylalanine to p-coumaroyl-CoA, followed by conversion to naringenin chalcone, to naringenin, and naringenin then following different pathways. Firstly, it can transform into apigenin and its derivatives; secondly, it can produce eriodictyol and its derivatives; and thirdly it can produce dihydrokaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. The eriodictyol can be further transformed to luteolin, cyanidin, dihydroquercetin, dihydrotricetin, and others. This is the first reported use of metabolomics to study the metabolic pathways of the etiolation of fresh-cut CWC.

  13. Optimization of water curing for the preservation of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) and evaluation of microbial dynamics during process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Di Capua, Marika; Romano, Annalisa; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Chestnuts are very perishable fruits, whose quality may be compromised during postharvest handling. Damage can be caused both by insects and fungi. Water curing, a commonly used postharvest method, is based on soaking fruits in water typically for about one week. Factors that affect effectiveness of water curing have only been explained partially. A decrease in pH, likely imputable to a light fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria, may inhibit the growth of moulds. In this study a Lactobacillus pentosus strain was selected for its ability to inhibit fungi, and used as a starter culture during water curing. As second goal, a reduction of the environmental impact of the process was evaluated by using water that had been re-cycled from a previous curing treatment. Experiments were performed on pilot as well as on farm scale. In all trials, microbial dynamics were evaluated by means of a polyphasic approach including conventional and molecular-based analyses. According to results, the employment of an adjunct culture appears as a very promising opportunity. Even if no reduction in the duration of the process was achieved, waters exhibited a minor microbial complexity and fruits did not lose the natural lustre after the process.

  14. Rational therapy of chronic venous insufficiency – chances and limits of the therapeutic use of horse-chestnut seeds extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greeske Karin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods We report two clinical studies, one already published, performed in patients with early and advanced chronic venous insufficiency (CVI. In both, compression therapy and oral therapy with horse-chestnut seeds extracts (HCSE were compared to placebo. Results The published study in early CVI (Grade I showed HCSE and compression to be superior to placebo and to be equivalent to each other in reducing lower leg volume, a measure for oedema. In the study, in advanced CVI (Grade II and IIIa, compression appeared to be superior to placebo, whereas HCSE was not. HCSE fared better in Grade II than in Grade IIIa patients. These results are discussed in the light of data from an in vitro model, where HCSE has been able to close the intercellular gaps in the venular endothelium. Not fully specified factors lead to an opening of these gaps, resulting in oedema as well as in local coagulation and thrombosis. The subsequent inflammation keeps these gaps open and initiates and maintains a chronic disease process, which may be the starting point of CVI. Conclusion Due to its ability to close the venular endothelial gaps, HCSE seems to be a suitable and protecting therapy during the early stages of CVI. In later more severe stages compression therapy is indicated. Taking into account the observed negative impact of compression on quality of life, pharmacological CVI therapy should start early to avoid progress and to spare patients compression therapy.

  15. Biological Characters and Occurrence Conditions of a New Pest Tegra novaehollandiae viridinotata on Chestnut%板栗新害虫深褐拟叶螽生物学特性及发生条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练飞; 佘德松; 冯福娟

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to explore the occurrence conditions of Tegra novaehollandiae viridinotata on chestnut. [Method] Life history was observed by the combination of indoor-rearing and field observation, as well as the relationship between occurrence and surroundings in field. [Result] T.novaehollandiae viridinotata has one generation each year in Yunhe County, Zhejiang Province, and overwinters by laying eggs in chestnut trunk with diameter of 5.0 cm. Adults and the nymphs feed on Glochidion puberum leaves, adults damage trunks of young chestnut by oviposition. Nymphs hatch in early April, adults moult in last June and lay eggs in middle July. [Conclusion] T.novaehollandiae viridinotata could be controlled by eliminating shrubs such asGlochidion puberum., cutting the eggs in dormancy by an knife, spraying pesticides in middle April or June and July, coating stem in winter etc.

  16. 我国出口板栗的比较优势及其影响因素探讨%Analysis on Comparative Advantages and Influencing Factorsof Chinese Chestnuts Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆博; 刘俊昌

    2012-01-01

    本文在分析我国板果贸易格局的基础上,从价格、质量指数、国际市场占有率、贸易竞争指数和显示性对称比较优势指数等五个指标对我国出口板栗的比较优势进行评价,并运用引力模型对影响我国板栗比较优势的主要因素进行了实证分析。结果表明,我国出口板栗具有较强的比较优势,但是在质量水平上不具备竞争力;出口对象国的GDP、我国人口数、汇率和出口价格是板栗出口的主要影响因素。最后,就提高板栗的质量水平提出了相应的建议。%Based on the trade pattern of Chinese chestnuts, this paper analyz- es the comparative advantages of Chinese chestnuts from the price, quality index, international market share, trade competitiveness index and Revealed Symmetric comparative advantage index. Using gravity model, the paper analyzes the influ- encing factors of the comparative advantages of Chinese chestnuts. It finds that Chinese chestnuts export has strong comparative advantages, but the quality does not have international competitiveness; and GDP of export objects, the population of China, exchange rate, export price are the main factors influencing the export of Chinese chestnuts. Finally, the study puts forward corresponding suggestions to improve the quality of Chinese chestnuts.

  17. 超声生物显微镜在巩膜栗刺异物诊断中的应用%The application of ultrasound biomicroscopy on the early diagnosis of occult chestnut thorn foreign bodies in sclera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse the significance to the application of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in the early diagnosis of occult chestnut thorn foreign bodies in sclera.Methods Thirty-five eyes of 30 patients who were diagnosed as occult scleral chestnut thorn foreign bodies were retrospectively studied.UBM were used to diagnose suspicious scleral foreign bodies.Results Sixty foreign bodies were confirmed by UBM,58 chestnut thorn foreign bodies were removed by surgical operation,and the false positive rate was 3.5%.One patient with negnative-UBM developed conjuctival redness,and one chestnut thorn foreign bodies was removed by surgical operation,and the false negative rate was 1.8%.Conclusion Ultrasound biomicroscopy is helpful to early detection of occult scleral chestnut thorn foreign bodies,confirming the quantity of chestnut thorns,and is conductive to the intraoperative localization.%目的 分析超声生物显微镜(UBM)在隐匿性巩膜栗刺异物早期诊断中应用的意义.方法 回顾性分析本院2012年9月至2014年10月经UBM检查早期诊断隐匿性巩膜栗刺异物30例(35眼).结果 UBM检查发现异物60枚(35眼),手术摘出栗刺58枚(33眼),假阳性率3.5%.另有1眼UBM未见异物,但2周后出现红肿,手术探查摘出1枚异物,假阴性率1.8%.结论 UBM有助于早期发现隐匿性巩膜栗刺异物,明确栗刺数量,并有利于术中定位.

  18. 板栗种子淀粉体发育的扫描电镜观察%Observation of amyloplast development in chestnut seed by scanning electron microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘帅; 陈良珂; 房克凤; 杨瑞; 邢宇; 曹庆芹; 秦岭

    2015-01-01

    In order to get the growth law of the Chinese chestnut seed amyloid, the chestnut seeds at different development stages were used as the experiment materials. The size, shape and development condition of amyloid features were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Results show that the aleurone layer cells have no amyloid and accumulation of starch. The amyloid mainly concentrates in the cotyledons. The chestnut seeds contain two kinds of amyliod:the large are pebble and the small are round. The large amyloid is the main kind, and its spatial arrangement is close. In addition, the amyliod has other forms in chestnut seeds, such as polyhedral, spherical, kidney, and complex form. The volume of large amyloid changes obviously in the prophase and metaphase stages in chestnut seeds. The small amyloplast proliferation mainly occurres in middle and late stages of seed growth, and distributes in clearance of large amyloid. As the chestnut seed develops, the volume of amyloid gradually increases, and the growth change of long axis and short axis shows “S” type in the growing curves.%为了探明板栗种子淀粉体生长的规律,以不同发育时期的板栗种子为试验材料,对淀粉体的大小、形态和发育情况等特性进行扫描电镜观察。结果表明:板栗糊粉层细胞中无淀粉体,不积累淀粉,淀粉体主要集中在子叶中;板栗种子有大、小两种淀粉体,大淀粉体呈鹅卵石形,小淀粉体呈圆球形;板栗种子以大淀粉体为主,空间排布较为紧密,此外,板栗淀粉体具有多面体形、球形、肾形、复合形等形态;板栗大淀粉体在种子发育前期和中期体积变化比较明显,而小淀粉体分布于大淀粉体的间隙中,增殖主要发生在种子发育中期和后期;淀粉体体积随发育天数的增加逐渐增大,长轴和短轴增长的变化呈“S”型生长曲线。

  19. Effect of brine preservation on volatile profiles of chestnut flowers%盐水保存对板栗花挥发性香气成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宾; 崔亚辉; 徐芳; 欧阳杰

    2014-01-01

    板栗花是板栗的雄性花序,香味柔和,含有多种芳香性成分,但由于板栗的雌雄花比例悬殊,大部分雄花被废弃。为了实现对板栗花的深度开发利用,以河北迁西4个品种(早丰、燕龙、紫珀和燕魁)的板栗雄花为原料,采用同时蒸馏萃取-气质联用法( SDE-GC/MS)提取了鲜花以及用盐水保存6个月的板栗花中的挥发油,并对其香气成分进行定性分析。结果表明,鲜板栗花挥发油中含有35种挥发性成分,盐水保存的板栗花挥发油中含有20种挥发性成分,但是两者中主要挥发性香气物质均为α-甲基苯甲醇丙酸酯、壬醛、苯乙酮、芳樟醇,其相对百分含量相差较小,表明盐水保存对板栗花挥发性香气成分影响较小。%Chestnut flower is the male inflorescence of chestnut, which has sweet smell and contains a variety of fragrant compounds. Most of male flowers were discarded since the proportion of male to female flower was very high. In order to exploit chestnut flowers, the volatile aromatic components of four varieties of Chinese chestnut flower ( Zaofeng, Yanlong, Zipo and Yankui) , which were fresh or brine preserved for six months,were qualitatively identified by modified SDE-GC/MS. The results showed that the essential oil obtained from fresh chestnut flower contained 35 kinds of volatile components and the brine preserved one contained 20 kinds. However, the highest contents of volatiles in four varieties of fresh and brine preserved chestnut flowers were alpha-methyl-benzenemethanol, nonanal, acetophenone and linalool. The method of brine preservation had little effect on volatile profile of chestnut flower. The results provide foundation for further research and development of essential oil in chestnut flowers.

  20. 镇安县栗炭疽病发生规律及综合防治技术研究%Chestnut Anthracnose Occurrence and Control in Zhen'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解诗和

    2012-01-01

    栗炭疽病是陕西镇安栗树的主要病害之一。试验研究表明,根据该病发生规律,在抓好农业防治的基础上,采用农业防治与药剂防治相结合的综合防治技术,防治效果显著。%Chestnut anthracnose is one of the major diseases infecting chestnut trees in Zhen'an.The experiment showed the occurrence rules,based on which integrating agricultural measures with chemical control produced significant effect.

  1. 基于土壤液化原理的荸荠采收船的研究%Studies on Harvesting Ship of Water Chestnuts Based on Soil Liquefaction Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海峰§; 张士玺§; 闫一野; 陈号; 谢强

    2013-01-01

      荸荠的生长环境特殊,收获仍旧采用传统手工挖掘,劳动效率低,劳动强度大,难以挖净,而薯类收获机械又难以适应水田荸荠的收获,通过对荸荠生长地的土壤成分分析,基于土壤液化原理,搭建了小型实验平台,对荸荠挖掘机理进行了试验模拟。提出了一套适用于水田作物荸荠机械挖掘、筛分的流程,并对挖掘原理进行了实验探究。根据实验数据分析,获得了影响荸荠收获的主要因素。研究表明利用土壤液化原理可以使砂壤土液化,为该原理用于荸荠采收提供依据,为荸荠挖掘机样机的试制提供设计参考。%Water chestnut grows in a special environment,and its harvest still relies on the traditional manual mining. The labor efficiency is low, and labor intensity is big. It is difficult to dig net. When as, it is difficult for potato harvest machinery to adapt to the rice field to harvest water chestnut. By analyzing the composition of soil where water chestnut grows in, a small experimental platform was built to carry out a test simulation of the mechanism of water chestnut digging according to the principle of soil liquefaction. A set of process suitable for rice paddy crop water chestnut mechanical mining and screening was put forward, and the theory of digging was explored. According to the analysis of experimental data, the main factors affecting water chestnut harvest have been obtained. The research showed that sandy loam can be liquefied by using the principle of soil liquefaction. The study provided a basis for the principle used for water chestnut harvest and provided design reference for water chestnut excavator prototype trial.

  2. Effects of Tea Polyphenol on Calcification and Reactive Oxygen Metabolism of Chestnuts%茶多酚对板栗"石灰化"及活性氧代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖豪; 顾采琴; 张倩; 朱冬雪; 郑志茂; 邱浩纯

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨抗氧化剂茶多酚对板栗"石灰化"及活性氧代谢的影响.[方法]以新鲜板栗为试材,经2%、4%、6%茶多酚溶液处理后进行常温贮藏,测定贮藏过程中"石灰化"指数、超氧阴离子(O2)产生速率、过氧化氢(H202)含量、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性的变化以及膜脂过氧化产物(丙二醛,MDA)含量的变化.[结果]经2%茶多酚溶液处理的板栗"石灰化"指数受到显著抑制.进一步研究表明,2%茶多酚溶液处理能使板栗的SOD和CAT活性高于对照,而O2产生速率和H202积累量低于对照,减少MDA积累,从而抑制板栗过氧化作用.[结论]适宜浓度的茶多酚处理可降低板栗贮藏过程中的活性氧产生,抑制"石灰化"发生.%[Objective] The effects of antioxidant tea polyphenol on calcification and reactive oxygen species of fresh chestnuts were investigated. [Method] Fresh chestnuts treated with 2%, 4%, or 6% tea polyphenol solutions were stored under room temperature, and then calcification indexes, O2- production rate, H2O2 content, SOD and CAT activities and content of MDA(malondialdehyde) (a membrane lipid peroxidation product of chestnuts) during storage were detected. [Result] The calcification indexes of chestnuts were significantly inhibited the calcification index of chestnuts. Furthermore, SOD and CAT activities of chestnuts treated with 2% tea polyphenol were higher, while O2- production rate and H2O2 accumulation were lower as compared with chestnuts of control, indicating an inhibition of peroxidation with a lower MDA accumulation. [Conclusion]Treatment with tea polyphenol solution at a suitable concentration reduced active oxygen production and thus inhibited the calcification occurrence of chestnuts during storage.

  3. Effect of the supplementation linseed oil, inulin and horse chestnut into a high fat diet on the fatty acid profile of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Brestenský

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In the present study it was evaluated the effect of the addition of linseed oil, inulin and horse chestnut added to a high fat (HF diet on the content of fatty acids (FAs in musculuss longissimus dorsi (MLD of pigs. A 5d with adaptation period was followed by a 70 d experimental period, during which the pigs were fed with a HF basal diet. The HF basal diet which served as a control (group CG was supplemented either with linseed oil (group LG or with inulin and horse chestnut (group IG. All of the pigs were slaughtered at the end of the experiment and samples of MLD were taken for FA analysis. The concentration of α-linolenic acid in MLD of the LG group was 58 % and 61 % higher (P˂0.05 compared to CG and IG groups, respectively. The content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA was 0.03 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 0.07 in LG treatment. These FAs were not detected in CG and IG. The ratio of MUFA and PUFA n-6/n-3 in the MLD was the lowest (P˂0.05 in the LG (8.84 compared to CG (14.07 or IG (14.74 groups, representing a difference of 31.2%. The n-3/saturated FA ratio was highest (P˂0.05 in LG group (0.04 when compared to CG and IG groups (0.02. The supplementation of linseed oil, into the HF diet resulted in a higher concentration of α-linolenic acid, EPA, DHA and lower ratio of n-6/n-3 FA in MLD. Inulin and horse chestnut had no effect on FA profile of MLD.

  4. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

  5. [Determination the Change of Main Trace Elements in the Ovary with Self- and Cross-Pollination of Chinese Chestnut by ICP-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Feng; Guo, Su-Juan; Wang, Jing; Peng, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Na; Peng, Ya-Qin

    2015-10-01

    Castanea mollissima Blume has potential as an non-wood forest trees that have been cultivated for thousands of years in China. In order to elucidate the trace elements of chestnut ovary, the major trace elements of self- and cross-pollination chestnut ovary were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that self- and cross-pollination 5-50 d, six trace elements trends showed fluctuations. After cross-pollination 20 d, the content of Ca was up to 6.50 mg x g(-1), while the self-pollination 10 d, the content of Ca reached up to 7.77 mg x g(-1). After cross- and self-pollination pollination 30 d, the content of Mg were highest, 4.19 and 4.69 mg x g(-1), respectively. After cross-pollination 5 d, the content of Zn reached the highest, 0.038 7 mg x g(-1), while self-pollination 10d the content of Zn was 0.039 9 mg x g(-1). After self- and cross-pollination 35 d, the content of Fe were 0.022, 0.019 mg x g(-1), respectively. After cross- and self-pollination 20 d, the content of Cu were 0.056, 0.045 mg x g(-1), respectively. After self-pollination 40d, the content of Mn reaching the highest was 1.204 mg x g(-1), while cross-pollination 30 d, the content of Mn reached its maximum 0.845 mg x g(-1). The results can provide a reference for spraying fertilizer on the ovary development, thereby improving chestnut production.

  6. [Effects of compound fertilizer of (NH2)2CO and KH2PO4 on the chestnut photosynthesis characteristics, growth and fruiting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shou-le; Sun, Xiao-li; Shen, Guang-ning; Xu, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Compound fertilizer can improve the fertilizer use efficiency and tree nutrition status to ensure balanced fertilization. Taking 7 year-old chestnut trees as test material, with (NH2)2CO and KH2PO4 being mixed at the different ratios, the effects of different compound fertilizers on the photosynthesis characteristics as well as the growth and fruiting of chestnut were studied quantitatively by trunk injection method. Results showed that compound fertilizer of (NH2)2CO and KH2PO4 induced positive synergistic effects to enhance photosynthetic capacity, yield and quality of chestnut obviously. The content of chlorophyll was decreased by (NH2)2CO and increased by KH2PO4, but increased obviously by the compound fertilizer. The contents of N, P, K of leaf and branch rose under the four compounded fertilization treatments, among which 0.3%(NH2)2CO+0.3%KH2PO4 was the best. All fertilizer treatments could advance the photosynthetic parameters, while the compound fertilizer performed better. 0.3% (NH2)2CO + 0.3% KH2PO4 treatment significantly increased the photosynthetic rate, the maximum net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, carboxylation efficiency, instantaneous water use efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency. Compound fertilizer could promote the growth of branch in diameter and length synchronously, and increase the number of mixed buds, while (NH2)2CO only promoted the growth of branch in length, and did little in the number of mixed buds. The compound fertilizer did better in advancing nuts yield and quality than single fertilization of N or P. The nuts yield, mass and total sugar were increased by 68.2%, 25.5% and 14.9% respectively under 0.3% (NH2)2CO+0.3%KH2PO4 treatment compared with the control.

  7. Low dose γ-irradiation as a suitable solution for chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) conservation: effects on sugars, fatty acids, and tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-28

    Along with dehydration, the development of insects and microorganisms is the major drawback in chestnut conservation. Irradiation has been regaining interest as an alternative technology to increase food product shelf life. In the present work, the effects of low dose gamma irradiation on the sugar, fatty acid, and tocopherol composition of chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different storage periods (0, 30, and 60 days) was evaluated. The irradiations were performed in a 60Co experimental equipment, for 1 h (0.27±0.04 kGy) and 2 h (0.54±0.04 kGy). Changes in sugars and tocopherols were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index and fluorescence detections, respectively, while changes in fatty acids were analyzed by gas-chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection. Regarding sugar composition, storage time proved to have a higher effect than irradiation treatment. Fructose and glucose increased after storage, with the corresponding decrease of sucrose. Otherwise, the tocopherol content was lower in nonirradiated samples, without a significant influence of storage. Saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected, either by storage or irradiation. Nevertheless, some individual fatty acid concentrations were influenced by one of two factors, such as the increase of palmitic acid in irradiated samples or the decrease of oleic acid after 60 days of storage. Overall, the assayed irradiation doses seem to be a promising alternative treatment to increase chestnut shelf life, without affecting the profile and composition in important nutrients.

  8. 食品加工剩余物板栗壳的利用研究进展%Review on Utilization of Chestnut Shell Residue from Food Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚建华; 姚增玉; 王力华; 夏金虎

    2012-01-01

    为了更好地对食品加工剩余物板栗壳进行开发利用,促进节能减排,综述了国内外最近20年在板栗壳资源化利用方面的研究进展,发现现有研究涉及将板栗壳作为生物吸附剂用于重金属污水处理、作为基质用于食用菌栽培和作为原料用于活性炭制备,以及从中提取天然色素用于食品着色和纺织品印染等方面,但这些研究并不系统,今后还需对板栗壳色素进行安全性评价,补充其毒理学和代谢方面的数据.板栗壳对重金属的吸附量偏低,有待于进一步通过理化改性提高其吸附性能,提取过色素的板栗壳残渣可进一步作为原料用于制备活性炭,以达到循环利用.%In order to better exploit chestnut shells which are residues from food processing, and to promote energy conservation and pollution reduction, the domestic and foreign research progress on the utilization of chestnut shell resource in the last 20 years was reviewed. The informed researches involved employing the shells as biosorbents for heavy metal removal from waste water, as substrates for mushroom cultivation, and as a material for activated carbon preparation, as well as for natural pigment production to color foods and dye textiles. However, these studies were lack of systematicness and some further researches should be conducted in future studies. The information on the toxicology and metabolism of the chestnut shell pigments should be given to evaluate their safety. The sorption capacities towards heavy metals of chestnut shell were low, and chemical modifications were needed to improve their sorption performance. The residue after pigment extraction could be further used as a raw material for the activated carbon preparation in order to achieve recycling.

  9. 板栗苞中栲胶提取工艺的研究%Study on tannin extract from chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽卫; 孙健; 王岩; 赵兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective To obtain the optimum extraction parameters of tannin extract from chestnut shell. Methods Based on single-factor test, uniform experimental design with 4-factor and 3-level was adopted to study the effects ofparticle size, concentration of acetone solution, solid-liquid ratio and ultrasonic power on the extraction rate of tannin extract. Using partial least squares regression analysis, the optimal extraction parameters were obtained. Component of tannin extract was also analyzed by hide powder method.Results The optimum conditions of tannin extract from chestnut shell were as follows: particle size was 100 meshes, 50% acetone solution, solid-liquid ratio was 1:18 and ultrasonic power was 400 W. Under this condition, the extraction rate of tannin extract was 31.28%, the content of tannin was 63.68%, the pH value was 3.81 and the total color value was 22.Conclusion The tannin extract from chestnut shell has reached the standard of cold-soluble valonea extraction, which illustrated the feasibility of using chestnut shell as a kind of material for tannin extract.%目的:以板栗苞为原料,研究板栗苞提取栲胶的最佳工艺。方法在粉碎粒度、丙酮溶液浓度、料液比和超声功率单因素实验基础上,以栲胶提取率为响应值,设计4因素3水平的均匀实验,通过均匀设计偏最小二乘回归建模分析,得出最优指标时各个因素组合参数,并采用铬皮粉法对最优条件下提取的栲胶进行分析。结果板栗苞中栲胶提取的最佳工艺为:粉碎粒度100目,50%丙酮溶液,料液比1:18,超声功率400 W,在此条件下,栲胶提取率为31.28%,单宁含量为63.68%, pH值为3.81,总色值为22。结论以板栗苞为原料提椀取的栲胶达到了橡栲胶冷溶合格品的指标,说明板栗苞提取栲胶的工艺可行性。

  10. Groundwater quality assessment for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste- management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR), which is one of the three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division of the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP).

  11. Life-threatening rupture of a renal angiomyolipoma in a patient taking over-the-counter horse chestnut seed extract.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Snow, Aisling

    2011-02-09

    BACKGROUND: Alternative medical therapies are increasingly being prescribed due to their good safety profile and perceived limited side effects. They are often unregulated and prescribed over the counter. One such medication is horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE), which is used for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and is known to affect blood coagulation. Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign fat-containing mesenchymal tumor of the kidney. It is often found incidentally and in most cases can be managed conservatively. Rupture of the kidney with hemorrhage is a well-known complication that may be serious and life-threatening. Known risk factors for hemorrhage include anticoagulation as well as pregnancy, increased size of the lesion, high lesion vascularity, and aneurysm formation within the tumor. OBJECTIVES: The aim is to raise awareness of potential HCSE-induced anticoagulation, including, as in the case presented, acute renal AML hemorrhage. CASE REPORT: The case of a patient taking HCSE for venous insufficiency is presented. The patient suffered a life-threatening rupture of the kidney in the presence of known renal AML. She underwent emergency embolization with a successful outcome. Because HCSE-containing products are thought to be generally safe in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, it is important to be mindful of their potential anticoagulant properties and, therefore, their relative contraindication both in patients taking other anticoagulants and those with known renal AML. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate a potentially life-threatening association between HSCE-containing products and renal AML, highlighting the risk associated with HSCE-induced anticoagulation.

  12. Effects of chestnut tannins and coconut oil on growth performance, methane emission, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Vaddella, V; Zhou, D

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) and coconut oil (CO) on growth performance, methane (CH₄) emission, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations in sheep. A total of 48 Rideau Arcott sheep (average body weight 31.5±1.97 kg, 16 wk old) were randomly assigned into 6 treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial design, with CT and CO as the main effects (8 sheep per group). The treatments were control diet (CTR), 10 or 30 g of CT/kg of diet (CT10 and CT30), 25 g of CO/kg of concentrate (CO25), and 10 or 30 g of CT/kg of diet+25 g of CO/kg of concentrate (CT10CO25 and CT30CO25). After the feeding trial (60 d), all sheep were moved to respiratory chambers to measure CH₄ emission. After CH₄ emission measurements, all sheep were slaughtered to obtain rumen fluid samples. Results showed that the addition of CT, CO, and CT+CO had no significant effects on growth performance of sheep but reduced CH₄ emission. Addition of CT reduced the NH₃-N concentration in rumen fluid in CT30. Addition of CO decreased the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in rumen fluid. No significant differences were observed in pH and molar proportion of volatile fatty acids among treatments. Addition of CT, CO, and CT+CO significantly decreased methanogen and protozoa populations. Moreover, CO decreased counts of Fibrobacter succinogenes. No significant differences were observed in populations of fungi, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, or Ruminococcus albus among treatments. In conclusion, supplementation of CT and CO seemed to be a feasible means of decreasing emissions of CH₄ from sheep by reduction of methanogen and protozoa populations with no negative effect on growth performance.

  13. Evaluation of Meat and Egg Traits of Beijing-you Chickens Rotationally Grazing on Chicory Pasture in a Chestnut Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Meng

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Barn and cage-fed chickens have presented several problems, such as high rates of infectious disease and consequent antibiotic abuse, poorer chicken health and welfare, and often poorer meat and egg quality compared with free-range chickens. The poultry agroforestry system is becoming increasingly popular in many poultry farms nowadays. In this study, to evaluate the contribution of poultry agroforestry system to enhance some meat and egg traits of Beijing-you chickens, some indexes of meat and egg qualities, some indexes of slaughter traits, and the feed conversion efficiency were investigated in rotational grazing Beijing-you chickens on chicory (Cichorium intybus L. pasture (CGRG group and only free-ranging chickens on bare land without forage (control group in chestnut forest. Results showed that the live body weight, the dressing weight, the thigh muscle weight, and the breast muscle weight were increased (p<0.05 based on the decrease of 15% feed concentration in the CGRG group relative to the control. Furthermore, compared with the control, the crude ash, the essential amino acid content, and the inosinic acid content were increased (p<0.05, and the crude fat contents were decreased (p<0.05 in the thigh and breast muscles, while the yolk cholesterol and the feed conversion ratio were significantly decreased (p<0.05 in the CGRG group. This study would provide a scientific basis and technological support for the large-scale demonstration and application of rotational grazing chickens on the artificial pasture in forest.

  14. Detection of a hypersensitive reaction in the chestnut hybrid 'Bouche de Bétizac' infested by Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Francesca; Sartor, Chiara; Botta, Roberto

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the study was the identification of the mechanisms of resistance to Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in the hybrid-resistant cultivar 'Bouche de Bétizac' (Castanea sativa × Castanea crenata). Larvae and eggs of the insect are found in the buds of this cultivar at the end of winter, but there is no gall development after budburst. The hypothesis of the presence of a hypersensitive reaction (HR) in the buds was tested using diaminobenzidine (DAB) to detect H(2)O(2) and by Real Time PCR (RT-PCR) to evaluate the expression of a germin-like protein gene. HR in plants is elicited by the production of reactive oxygen compounds, such as H(2)O(2), and results in the programmed cell death. The DAB test was applied to buds of 'Bouche de Bétizac' and of the susceptible cultivar 'Madonna' (C. sativa) at different stages of budburst. The DAB staining produced brown areas in the swelling buds of 'Bouche de Bétizac', indicating the presence of H(2)O(2). On the contrary, all uninfested buds, as well as the infested buds of 'Madonna', appeared whitish. Papers report that germin and germin-like proteins (GLP) with oxalate oxidase activity are discrete markers of stress-responsive gene products. A strong expression of the chestnut GLP gene was detected by RT-PCR at bud swelling in infested 'Bouche de Bétizac' buds but not in 'Madonna' ones. The results support the hypothesis of the occurrence of an HR in 'Bouche de Bétizac' as response to the cynipid infestation, resulting in cell and larvae death.

  15. Effects of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb from horse chestnuts on gastrointestinal transit and ileus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, H; Li, Y; Yoshikawa, M

    1999-08-01

    The effects of saponin fraction and its principal constituents escins Ia (1), Ib (2), IIa (3), and IIb (4) from horse chestnuts on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) and ileus were investigated in mice. Ileus was induced by acetic acid peritoneal irritation or by laparotomy with manipulation. One hour after the oral administration, the saponin fraction (12.5-100 mg/kg) and 14 (12.5-50 mg/ kg, except for 3 at 12.5 mg/kg) dose-dependently accelerated GIT. The optimal effects of the saponin fraction (25 mg/kg) occurred 5-240 min (applied intervals between the fraction and the charcoal meal) after the oral administration. The fraction (12.5-100 mg/ kg) and 1-4 (12.5-50 mg/kg, except for 1 and 2 at 12.5 mg/kg) dose-dependently prevented the inhibition of GIT induced by the acetic acid peritoneal irritation. They (12.5-100mg/kg) also dose-dependently prevented the inhibition of GIT induced by the laparotomy with manipulation. Desacylescins I (5) and II (6) (50 mg/kg) showed no such effects. These results demonstrated that the saponin fraction and 1-4 accelerated GIT and prevented the experimental ileus, and indicate that the 21, 22-acyl groups are essential for the accelerative effects of 1-4. The accelerations of GIT by 1-4 were completely abolished by the pretreatment with streptozotocin (100 mg/kg, iv), but not by the pretreatment with capsaicin (75 mg/kg in total, sc) or atropine (10 mg/kg, sc). These results imply that the sympathetic nervous system may be, but neither capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves nor the cholinergic mechanism, involved in the accelerations of GIT by escins 1-4.

  16. Antiamnesic effects of ethyl acetate fraction from chestnut (Castanea crenata var. dulcis) inner skin on Aβ(25-35)-induced cognitive deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hee-Rok; Jo, Yu Na; Jeong, Ji Hee; Jin, Dong Eun; Song, Byung Gi; Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Heo, Ho Jin

    2012-12-01

    To investigate neuronal cell protective effects of an ethyl acetate fraction from chestnut inner skin, in vitro assays, including 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were performed. Intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species resulting from hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) treatment of PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were present in the medium compared to PC12 cells treated with H(2)O(2) only. In a cell viability assay using MTT, the ethyl acetate fraction protected against H(2)O(2)-induced neurotoxicity, and inhibited LDH release into the medium. In addition, the ethyl acetate fraction improved in vivo cognitive ability against amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)-induced neuronal deficit. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses showed that gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin were predominant phenolics in the ethyl acetate fraction. Consequently, the results suggest that chestnut inner skin, including above phenolics, could ameliorate Aβ-induced learning and memory deficiency, and be utilized as effective substances for neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Identification of a homolog of Arabidopsis DSP4 (SEX4) in chestnut: its induction and accumulation in stem amyloplasts during winter or in response to the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Ibañez, Cristian; Acebo, Paloma; Ramos, Alberto; Perez-Solis, Estefania; Collada, Carmen; Casado, Rosa; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Allona, Isabel

    2011-10-01

    Oligosaccharide synthesis is an important cryoprotection strategy used by woody plants during winter dormancy. At the onset of autumn, starch stored in the stem and buds is broken down in response to the shorter days and lower temperatures resulting in the buildup of oligosaccharides. Given that the enzyme DSP4 is necessary for diurnal starch degradation in Arabidopsis leaves, this study was designed to address the role of DSP4 in this seasonal process in Castanea sativa Mill. The expression pattern of the CsDSP4 gene in cells of the chestnut stem was found to parallel starch catabolism. In this organ, DSP4 protein levels started to rise at the start of autumn and elevated levels persisted until the onset of spring. In addition, exposure of chestnut plantlets to 4 °C induced the expression of the CsDSP4 gene. In dormant trees or cold-stressed plantlets, the CsDSP4 protein was immunolocalized both in the amyloplast stroma and nucleus of stem cells, whereas in the conditions of vegetative growth, immunofluorescence was only detected in the nucleus. The studies indicate a potential role for DSP4 in starch degradation and cold acclimation following low temperature exposure during activity-dormancy transition.

  18. Castanea sativa (European Chestnut Leaf Extracts Rich in Ursene and Oleanene Derivatives Block Staphylococcus aureus Virulence and Pathogenesis without Detectable Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L Quave

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is home to a rich history of medical traditions that have developed under the influence of diverse cultures over millennia. Today, many such traditions are still alive in the folk medical practices of local people. Investigation of botanical folk medicines used in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections led us to study Castanea sativa (European Chestnut for its potential antibacterial activity. Here, we report the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of refined and chemically characterized European Chestnut leaf extracts, rich in oleanene and ursene derivatives (pentacyclic triterpenes, against all Staphylococcus aureus accessory gene regulator (agr alleles. We present layers of evidence of agr blocking activity (IC50 1.56-25 μg mL-1, as measured in toxin outputs, reporter assays hemolytic activity, cytotoxicity studies, and an in vivo abscess model. We demonstrate the extract's lack of cytotoxicity to human keratinocytes and murine skin, as well as lack of growth inhibitory activity against S. aureus and a panel of skin commensals. Lastly, we demonstrate that serial passaging of the extract does not result in acquisition of resistance to the quorum quenching composition. In conclusion, through disruption of quorum sensing in the absence of growth inhibition, this study provides insight into the role that non-biocide inhibitors of virulence may play in future antibiotic therapies.

  19. Castanea sativa (European Chestnut) Leaf Extracts Rich in Ursene and Oleanene Derivatives Block Staphylococcus aureus Virulence and Pathogenesis without Detectable Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Lyles, James T.; Kavanaugh, Jeffery S.; Nelson, Kate; Parlet, Corey P.; Crosby, Heidi A.; Heilmann, Kristopher P.; Horswill, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean is home to a rich history of medical traditions that have developed under the influence of diverse cultures over millennia. Today, many such traditions are still alive in the folk medical practices of local people. Investigation of botanical folk medicines used in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections led us to study Castanea sativa (European Chestnut) for its potential antibacterial activity. Here, we report the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of refined and chemically characterized European Chestnut leaf extracts, rich in oleanene and ursene derivatives (pentacyclic triterpenes), against all Staphylococcus aureus accessory gene regulator (agr) alleles. We present layers of evidence of agr blocking activity (IC50 1.56–25 μg mL-1), as measured in toxin outputs, reporter assays hemolytic activity, cytotoxicity studies, and an in vivo abscess model. We demonstrate the extract’s lack of cytotoxicity to human keratinocytes and murine skin, as well as lack of growth inhibitory activity against S. aureus and a panel of skin commensals. Lastly, we demonstrate that serial passaging of the extract does not result in acquisition of resistance to the quorum quenching composition. In conclusion, through disruption of quorum sensing in the absence of growth inhibition, this study provides insight into the role that non-biocide inhibitors of virulence may play in future antibiotic therapies. PMID:26295163

  20. 热风干燥温度对马蹄产品品质的影响%Effect of Temperature on the Product Quality of Hot Air Drying for Water Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭婷; 黎润凤; 陈振林; 张志; 梁璇; 莫玉菲

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the temperature on the quality of water chestnut slice by hot air drying,the col-or,rehydration capacity,hardness,porosity and sensory value of the water chestnut slice were compared. Results showed that hot air drying temperature had a significantly influence on the color parameters and porosity of water chestnut (P<0.05). With the drying temperature rising,the dry basis moisture content decreased faster,the dry-ing time shortened. The water chestnut slice hardness prepared at hot air drying temperature 65℃was small,the porosity and color was good.%为探究热风干燥温度对马蹄品质的影响,比较不同干燥温度对马蹄色泽、复水性、硬度、多孔性、及感官等的影响。结果表明:热风干燥温度对马蹄的色泽和多孔性含量有显著影响(P<0.05);随着干燥温度升高,失水速率增加,干燥时间缩短,干燥温度为65℃时,马蹄片的硬度小,多孔性好,呈现出较好色泽。

  1. Effects of substituting a concentrated diet for chestnuts on the lipid traits of muscle and adipose tissues in corsican and corsican × large white pigs reared in a sylvo-pastoral system in corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutron-Gambotti, C; Gandemer, G; Casabianca, F

    1998-10-01

    In the sylvo-pastoral extensive system in Corsica, pigs are fattened with chestnuts. The decrease in chestnut resource forces the farmers to use more and more concentrated diets for feeding the pigs but so far they have disregarded the consequences of this on meat quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of substituting a concentrated diet for chestnuts during the fattening period on the lipid composition of adipose and muscle tissues of ham in Corsican and Corsican × Large-White pigs. The results showed that the Corsican × Large-White pigs had heavier carcasses (125kg versus 106kg) and hams (12·5kg versus 10·2kg) but the genotype affected neither the carcass fatness nor the lipid composition of the adipose and muscle tissues. In addition, compared to chestnuts, the concentrated diet used did not affect live-weight, carcass and ham weights, or the carcass fatness of the pigs at slaughter. However, pigs fattened with a concentrated diet had adipose tissue lipids, intramuscular triglycerides and phospholipids with a lower proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (8·1% versus 6·2%, 5·8% versus 4·5%, and 47·7% versus 37·1%, respectively).

  2. Effects of Different Transplanting Dates on Growth and Yield of Water Chestnut%不同移栽期对荸荠生长和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖昌健; 廖首发; 周达平; 邓廷禧

    2013-01-01

      以桂蹄1号荸荠组培苗为试材,研究不同移栽期对荸荠生长和产量的影响。试验结果表明,从7月中旬到8月中旬,荸荠移栽越早,生长越快,8月移栽对荸荠生长和产量形成较为不利,荸荠球茎产量形成的最佳移栽期为7月下旬。%In the paper, we studied the effects of different transplanting dates on the growth and yield of water chestnut by taking plantlets of Guiti No.1 as experimental material. The results showed that from middle July to middle August, the earlier the transplanting date was, the faster the water chestnut grew, and August was the worse transplanting period for the growth and yield formation of water chestnut, while late July was the best transplanting period for corm yield formation of water chestnut.

  3. 唐宋时期湖州平原菱的种植与湿地农业开发%The Planting of Water Chestnut and Wetland Agriculture Development in the Huzhou Plain in the Tang-Song Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晴

    2012-01-01

    The water chestnut was planted popularly in the Huzhou Plain in the Tang-Song Dynasties. There was a broad stretch of wetland in the late Tang and early Song Dynasties, at the same time Form. Trapa spp. was banded in some of the shallow lakes and meres. After history came to the period of Southern Song Dy- nasty, many meres were enclosed, the land were changed to farmland instead. Meanwhile water chestnut was planted in the specialized ponls. The planting area of water chestnuts were expanded in the Huzhou Plain, and many cultivated species were selected. People used water chestnut to fish and to protect the embankments. In brief, the wetland exploitation in the Huzhou Plain was always connected with the planting of water chestnuts.%唐宋时期江南地区湖州平原区中存在着大面积的湖沼湿地,菱是这个区域中典型水生植被之一。唐末至宋初人类活动对本地区湖沼湿地的干扰较少,湿地生境中存在着大面积菱的野生植物群落,宋以后随着太湖地区水体资源的开发与集约化利用程度的加强,湖州平原中人工栽培菱的面积扩大,出现了众多的栽培菱品种。南宋时期人们利用许多技术措施对菱进行了广泛的栽培,湖州平原湿地农业开发进程中始终伴随着水生植物菱的种植。

  4. Effects of long-term supplementation of chestnut and valonea extracts on methane release, digestibility and nitrogen excretion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischer, G; Greiling, A M; Boguhn, J; Steingass, H; Schollenberger, M; Hartung, K; Rodehutscord, M

    2014-06-01

    The long-term effects of adding chestnut (CHE; Castanea sativa) and valonea (VAL; Quercus valonea) tannin-rich extracts to sheep feed were investigated. In Experiment 1, sheep (65 kg BW) were fed 842 g/day of a ryegrass-based hay. The control-treated animals (CON) received 464 g/day of concentrate, and tannin-treated animals received the same amount of concentrate additionally containing 20 g of the respective tannin-rich extract. Hay and concentrates were offered together in one meal. After the onset of treatment, methane release was measured in respiration chambers for 23.5-h intervals (nine times) in a 190-days period. Faeces and urine were collected three times (including once before the onset of the tannin treatment) to assess digestibility and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Based on the results obtained from Experiment 1, a second experiment (Experiment 2) was initiated, in which the daily tannin dosage was almost doubled (from 0.9 (Experiment 1) to 1.7 g/kg BW0.75). With the exception of the dosage and duration of the treatment (85 days), Experiment 2 followed the same design as Experiment 1, with the same measurements. In an attempt to compare in vitro and in vivo effects of tannin supplementation, the same substrates and tannin treatments were examined in the Hohenheim gas test. In vitro methane production was not significantly different between treatments. None of the tannin-rich extract doses induced a reduction in methane in the sheep experiments. On the 1st day of tannin feeding in both experiments, tannin inclusion tended to decrease methane release, but this trend disappeared by day 14 in both experiments. In balance period 3 of Experiment 1, lower dry matter and organic matter digestibility was noted for tannin treatments. The digestibility of CP, but not NDF or ADF, was reduced in both experiments. A significant shift in N excretion from urine to faeces was observed for both tannin-rich extracts in both experiments, particularly in

  5. 矮化板栗表型特征及早期鉴定%Phenotypic characteristics and early identification of dwarf chestnut cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏振国; 刘维国; 宋庆桃

    2001-01-01

    Four factors i. e. the rate of cortex/wood, taper index, length of internode and annual growth of developmental branches of 2 dwarf and 6 standard chestnut cultivars were measured. It was found that there existed significant correlation among tree height, rate of cortex/wood, taprter index, and annual growth. It was further verified that the critical parameters of dwarf chestnut had been established when the rate of corter/wood amounted to 19% and taper index to 55%.Statistic regression Y=458. 4538-11.7191X1-1.0156X2 was established, where Y was height of four-year old tree,X1 being rate of cortex/wood, and X2 taper index. It would be used to early identify dwarf types of chestnut cultivars.%通过对2个矮化型和6个乔化型板栗品种发育枝的枝皮率、尖削指数、节间长度、年生长量4个因子的调查分析,发现发育枝枝皮率,尖削指数、年生长量3个因子与树高存在显著相关性,即枝皮率≥19%,尖削指数≥55%时为矮化型,反之为乔化型。通过验证,确定了枝皮率19%、尖削指数55%为板栗矮化型与乔化型的临界参数。并建立Y=458.4538-11.7191X1-1.0156X2,4年生树高(Y)与嫁接当年发育枝枝皮率(X1)、尖削指数(X2)相关的多元回归方程,可用该方程对矮化型板栗品种进行早期鉴定。

  6. Analysis on Models of Intercropping with Chestnut in Returning Farmland to Forestry%退耕还林板栗园林农间作模式初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国伟; 王国宏; 侯方

    2012-01-01

    according to requirements of returning farmland to forest,intercropping chestnut in the middle of forestry is a three-dimensional model of growing both crops and forestry.This article states the impacts on growing chestnut by intercropping with forestry,and mainly analyzes the benefits,planting techniques,key problems of two intercropping models.One is chestnut + pepper+ pea,the other is chestnut+ tobacco(vegetables)+ green manure.The results show: the implementation of intercropping with forestry is one of the most important ways to improve the utilization of land and economic benefits of per unit area;promote the growth of plants mutually by fertilization and watering;reasonable intercropping plays an positive role in many aspects such as ecology,economy,and social benefits.%退耕还林板栗园林农间作是在退耕还林造林地块中间作套种具有农作物的林业立体种植模式。论述了农林间作对板栗生长的影响,重点通过对"板栗+辣椒+豌豆"和"板栗+烟草(蔬菜)+绿肥"间作模式的分析,分别从效益、种植技术、注意的问题等方面进行研究。结果表明:实施林农间作是提高土地利用率,提高单位面积经济效益的重要手段;通过农林间作,给作物施肥、浇水,同时也给林木补充了肥料和水,相互促进加速了树木的生长;合理间种在增加经济效益的同时,充分发挥了栗园的生态、经济、社会效益。

  7. 脱脂、脱蛋白处理对板栗粉膨胀势的影响%Effect of De-Fat and De-Protein Treatments on Swelling Power of Chinese Chestnut (C.mollissima Bl.) Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丽松; 林顺顺; 张柏林; 王贵禧

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The experiments were conducted to compare the swelling power of chestnut native powder of 24 cultivars of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) from different cultivar groups, and investigate the effect of de-fat and/or de-protein on swelling power of different cultivars of Chinese chestnut power. [Method] The contents of protein, fat and starch were determined by Kjeldahl method, Soxhlet extraction method and Anthracene ketone colorimetric method, respectively. The native power, de-fat power and de-protein power of chestnut were obtained by freeze-drying, SoxhLet extraction and alkali liquor precipitation, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 11.0. [ Result ] Differences of swelling power of chestnut native powder were found among different cultivars and different cultivar groups. Native powder of chestnut from North Cultivar Groups (NCG) had the lowest swelling power compared with other two cultivar groups. De-fat treatment had less influence on swelling power of chestnut powder. However, de-protein treatment increased significantly the swelling power of all cultivars chestnut. There were obvious differences in swelling power and the changes of swelling among cultivars after de-protein, but no differences among different cultivar groups were found. The combination of de-fat and de-protein resulted in significant increases in swelling power and there existed differences among the cultivars. The swelling power of de-protein powder of chestnut followed the sequence: North Cultivar Groups (NCG) > Mid-type Cultivar Groups (MCG) > South Cultivar Groups (SCG). There was a significant difference between NCG and SVG. The differences of content of starch, protein and fat occurred in different cultivar chestnuts, and apparent correlation between starch content and swelling power of chestnut powder were conformed in the meanwhile. [Conclusion] Starch was the main factor influencing swelling power of chestnut powder. Protein

  8. The chestnut blight fungus for studies on virus/host and virus/virus interactions: from a natural to a model host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio-Cope, Ana; Sun, Liying; Tanaka, Toru; Chiba, Sotaro; Kasahara, Shin; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2015-03-01

    The chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, is an important plant pathogenic ascomycete. The fungus hosts a wide range of viruses and now has been established as a model filamentous fungus for studying virus/host and virus/virus interactions. This is based on the development of methods for artificial virus introduction and elimination, host genome manipulability, available host genome sequence with annotations, host mutant strains, and molecular tools. Molecular tools include sub-cellular distribution markers, gene expression reporters, and vectors with regulatable promoters that have been long available for unicellular organisms, cultured cells, individuals of animals and plants, and certain filamentous fungi. A comparison with other filamentous fungi such as Neurospora crassa has been made to establish clear advantages and disadvantages of C. parasitica as a virus host. In addition, a few recent studies on RNA silencing vs. viruses in this fungus are introduced.

  9. Breeding research on hybrid chestnut variety“Gaojiangan”%中日杂交栗“高见甘”选育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑瑞杰

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of introduction,selection and breeding,hybrid chestnut variety“Gaojiangan”was bred and selected by variet-ies comparison and regional test.The new variety was examined and approved by the Tree Variety Appraisal Value Committee of Lia-oning Province in 2013.The varieties on the one hand had the characteristics of Japanese chestnut such as high and stable yield and large fruit,on the other hand has Chinese chestnut characteristics i.e.high quality and endocarp of nut easy to strip.After 3~4 years of grafting,the average yield of individual tree was 5.27 kg,single nut mean weight was 20.57 g,each chestnut bud contained 2.1 nuts. The flesh was yellow,sticky,fragrant and sweet.The endocarp of nut was easy to strip,and was even easier to peal after stewing. In Dalian,the fruit matured in middle to late September.“Gaojiangan”was a strain hybridized by Chinese variety and Japanese variety, with low selectivity to stock and stronger grafting affinity.Besides,“Gaojiangan”had properties such as high resistance and tolerance to Dryocosmus kuriphilus,poor soil and cold weather and so on.This variety is suitable to plant in regions south of central Kuandian, Liaoning Province and with the average annual temperature above 8℃.%在前期引种、选种、育种基础上,通过品种比较和区域试验进行良种筛选,选育出栗树中日杂交种高见甘,2013年通过辽宁省林木品种审定委员会认定。该品种一方面具有日本栗丰产稳产、果个大的特点,另一方面具有中国板栗品质优、涩皮易剥离的特点。嫁接3~4年生高见甘平均株产5.27 kg,平均单果重20.57 g,每苞平均含坚果2.1粒,果肉淡黄色,质地细腻,风味香甜,涩皮易剥离,经蒸煮后涩皮极易剥离。在辽宁大连地区9月中下旬果实成熟。高见甘为中日杂交种,对砧木选择性不强,嫁接亲和能力强。另外具有抗栗瘿蜂、耐瘠薄、抗寒性较强等特点,适

  10. Study on Current Status and Promotion Strategy of International Competitiveness of Chinese Chestnut Industry%中国板栗产业国际竞争力现状及其提升策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴永务; 刘伟平

    2012-01-01

    利用UNcomtrade在线数据库中1995-2010年的板栗贸易数据,对中国板栗产业国际竞争力的现状进行评价与国际比较;并依据波特的钻石模型对中国板栗产业国际竞争力影响因素进行深入分析.结果表明:中国板栗产业具有较强的国际竞争力,国际竞争优势主要来源于低廉的劳动力成本和庞大的内需市场,但受劳动力成本上升和科技创新能力低的影响,所具有的传统低价竞争优势正在逐渐丧失.据此提出强化种植户培训力度、增强技术创新能力、发展板栗加工业和实施品牌战略等提升我国板栗产业国际竟争力的策略.%The paper evaluates quantitatively and contrasts internationally the international competitiveness of Chinese chestnut industry, and then analyzed deeply the factors of the international competitiveness of Chinese chestnut industry on the basis of Porter's diamond model, based on the data about chestnut trade from UNcomtrade online database in the period of 1992-2009. The result shows that Chinese chestnut industry has a strong international competitiveness from low labor costs and huge domestic market, but the traditional low-cost competitive advantage is gradually lost by the impact of rising labor casts and low scientific and technological innovation capability. Based on the conclusion, this article put forward some strategies to promote the international competitiveness of Chinese chestnut industry, including fanners training efforts to strengthen and enhancing the ability of technological innovation, the development of chestnut processing industry and the implementation of brand strategy.

  11. 不同抑菌杀菌剂对新鲜板栗仁抑菌效果的研究%Study on the Antibacterial Effect of Disinfectant in Rresh Chestnut Kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德静; 胡燕

    2014-01-01

    板栗不仅营养价值高,而且有一定的保健功效。但是板栗因易腐烂变质而不易保藏。新鲜板栗仁因表面保护组织的破坏而更不易保藏。以广水板栗为试材,研究了几种不同的抑菌剂对新鲜板栗仁的抑菌效果。结果显示,0.10%次氯酸钠和0.10%脱氢醋酸钠在新鲜板栗仁中的抑菌效果较好。用次氯酸钠和脱氢醋酸钠处理过的板栗仁中细菌和真菌的生长都受到了极大的抑制。特别是次氯酸钠不仅有抑菌作用,还能降低呼吸作用的强度,能显著的延长新鲜板栗仁的保鲜期。%Chestnut is not only a high nutritional food, but also have certain health care function. But it is not easily stored for it is highly perishable and the fresh chestnut kernel is not easily stored too for the damage of the surface protection tissue. With Guangshui chestnut as the material, the antibacterial effect of different disinfectant in fresh chestnut kernel was studied. The result shows that the antibacterial effect of 0.10%sodium hypochlorite and 0.10%sodium dehydro acetate are better in fresh chestnut kernel.The grows of the bacteria and fungus are inhibited after treated with sodium hypochlorite and sodium dehydroacetate. Especially sodium hypochlorite which has an antibacterial effect, but also can reduce the respiration intensity so it can ignificantly extend the shelf-life of fresh chestnut kernel.

  12. Study on in vitro Free-radicals Scavenging Activity of the Coarse Polysaccharide from the Hull of Water Chestnut%菱角壳粗多糖体外清除自由基活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志国; 赵文亚

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究菱角壳粗多糖体外清除自由基的活性.[方法]采用水提醇沉法从菱角壳中提取粗多糖,并对菱角壳粗多糖在体外清除羟自由基(·OH)、1,1- 二苯基苦基苯肼(DPPH·)和超氧阴离子(O2-·)的能力进行了研究.[结果]随着浓度的增加,菱角壳粗多糖对3种自由基的清除能力均呈现增强的趋势,在多糖浓度为2.5 mg/ml时,菱角壳粗多糖对羟自由基、DPPH和超氧阴离子的清除率分别为70.6%、66.2%和48.6%.[结论]菱角壳粗多糖具有较强的清除自由基的能力.%[Objective ] The aim was to study the in vitro free-radicals scavenging activity of the coarse polysaccharide from the hull of water chestnut. [Method] The coarse polysaccharide from the hull of water chestnut was extracted by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. The abilities of the coarse polysaccharide from the hull of water chestnut to scavenge ? OH, DPPH ? and O2-? were evaluated. [Results]The scavenging rate of the coarse polysaccharide from the hull of water chestnut on ? OH, DPPH ? and O2-? was enhanced with the increment of polysaccharide concentration. When the polysaccharide concentration was 2. 5 mg/ml, the scavenging rate of the coarse polysaccharide from the hull of water chestnut on ?OH, DPPH? and O2-? were 70. 6% , 66. 2% and 48.6% . [Conclusion] The coarse polysaccharide from the hull of water chestnut had significant scavenging activity on free radicals.

  13. Study on Freeze-drying of Water Chestnut%马蹄真空冷冻干燥实验的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学玲; 何建军; 关健; 梅新; 程薇; 熊光权; 叶丽秀; 陈玉霞

    2011-01-01

    利用真空冷冻干燥技术对马蹄进行保鲜加工研究.利用电阻法测量了马蹄的共晶点和共熔点,采用L12(35)正交试验方法,研究了影响冻干产品质量和设备生产能力的主要参数,评定了冻干产品的含水量、外观、复水性等特性.实验结果表明,马蹄冻干的最佳工艺为:速冻温度-36℃,速冻时间20h,干燥升华时仓压(120±10)Pa;干燥解析时仓压(40±10)Pa,解析时的搁板温度50℃,干燥时间14h.%Water Chestnut were stored and processed by Freeze-drying.Eutectic point and consolute point were measured by resistivity method.The main factors affecting the properties of freeze-drying product and production capacity of the equipment were studied using L12(35) orthogonal experiments.Water content of product,product form,rehydration character were evaluated.The optimal technics for freeze-drying Water Chestnut were following:deep freeze temperature-36℃,deep freeze time 20h,pressure of drying room while vacuum sublimation drying(120±10)Pa,pressure of drying room while vaccum resolution drying(40±10)Pa,shelf temperature while vacuum resolution drying 50℃,drying time 14h.

  14. The success of the horse-chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK revealed with hypothesis-led citizen science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J O Pocock

    Full Text Available Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the 'Conker Tree Science' project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1 the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2 the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging

  15. Protein cryoprotective activity of a cytosolic small heat shock protein that accumulates constitutively in chestnut stems and is up-regulated by low and high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Matas, Maria-Angeles; Nuñez, Paulina; Soto, Alvaro; Allona, Isabel; Casado, Rosa; Collada, Carmen; Guevara, Maria-Angeles; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Gomez, Luis

    2004-04-01

    Heat shock, and other stresses that cause protein misfolding and aggregation, trigger the accumulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in virtually all organisms. Among the HSPs of higher plants, those belonging to the small HSP (sHSP) family remain the least characterized in functional terms. We analyzed the occurrence of sHSPs in vegetative organs of Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut), a temperate woody species that exhibits remarkable freezing tolerance. A constitutive sHSP subject to seasonal periodic changes of abundance was immunodetected in stems. This protein was identified by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and internal peptide sequencing as CsHSP17.5, a cytosolic class I sHSP previously described in cotyledons. Expression of the corresponding gene in stems was confirmed through cDNA cloning and reverse transcription-PCR. Stem protein and mRNA profiles indicated that CsHSP17.5 is significantly up-regulated in spring and fall, reaching maximal levels in late summer and, especially, in winter. In addition, cold exposure was found to quickly activate shsp gene expression in both stems and roots of chestnut seedlings kept in growth chambers. Our main finding is that purified CsHSP17.5 is very effective in protecting the cold-labile enzyme lactate dehydrogenase from freeze-induced inactivation (on a molar basis, CsHSP17.5 is about 400 times more effective as cryoprotectant than hen egg-white lysozyme). Consistent with these observations, repeated freezing/thawing did not affect appreciably the chaperone activity of diluted CsHSP17.5 nor its ability to form dodecameric complexes in vitro. Taken together, these results substantiate the hypothesis that sHSPs can play relevant roles in the acquisition of freezing tolerance.

  16. Study on Methods of Total RNA Extraction from Cotyledon of Chinese Chestnut%板栗子叶总RNA提取方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王滨蔚; 车鹏燕; 何承忠; 王猛; 石卓功

    2012-01-01

    为了获得板栗子叶总RNA提取的理想方法,为后续的分子生物学研究打下基础,以板栗幼果子叶为材料,采用改良CTAB法、硼砂-CTAB法、酚-SDS法、皂土法和2种植物总RNA提取试剂盒共6种方法提取板栗子叶总RNA.结果表明,除硼砂-CTAB法外,其他5种方法均能获得板栗子叶总RNA.但是,与酚-SDS法、皂土法和2种植物总RNA提取试剂盒相比较,改良CTAB法提取的板栗子叶总RNA完整性好,纯度高,且无DNA污染,能够满足cDNA-AFLP等分子生物学研究的要求.%In order to obtain an ideal total RNA extraction method of cotyledon in Chinese chestnuts for providing foundation for molecular biology research, total RNA of cotyledon excised from young fruit of Chinese chestnut were extracted with 6 methods, including improved CTAB method, borax-CTAB method, phenol-SDS method, bentonite method and 2 RNA extraction kits. The results showed that total RNA was obtained with 5 methods but borax-CTAB method. However, the improved CTAB method was better than phenol-SDS method, bentonite method and two RNA extraction kits. The total RNA extracted with improved CTAB method had high integrity, high purity and no DNA pollution, and would be suitable for related molecular researches, such as cDNA-AFLP markers.

  17. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers reveal a Balkan origin for the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, R; Kenis, M; Hernandez-Lopez, A; Augustin, S; Mari Mena, N; Magnoux, E; Rougerie, R; Lakatos, F; Roques, A; Lopez-Vaamonde, C

    2009-08-01

    Biological invasions usually start with a small number of founder individuals. These founders are likely to represent a small fraction of the total genetic diversity found in the source population. Our study set out to trace genetically the geographical origin of the horse-chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella, an invasive microlepidopteran whose area of origin is still unkown. Since its discovery in Macedonia 25 years ago, this insect has experienced an explosive westward range expansion, progressively colonizing all of Central and Western Europe. We used cytochrome oxidase I sequences (DNA barcode fragment) and a set of six polymorphic microsatellites to assess the genetic variability of C. ohridella populations, and to test the hypothesis that C. ohridella derives from the southern Balkans (Albania, Macedonia and Greece). Analysis of mtDNA of 486 individuals from 88 localities allowed us to identify 25 geographically structured haplotypes. In addition, 480 individuals from 16 populations from Europe and the southern Balkans were genotyped for 6 polymorphic microsatellite loci. High haplotype diversity and low measures of nucleotide diversities including a significantly negative Tajima's D indicate that C. ohridella has experienced rapid population expansion during its dispersal across Europe. Both mtDNA and microsatellites show a reduction in genetic diversity of C. ohridella populations sampled from artificial habitats (e.g. planted trees in public parks, gardens, along roads in urban or sub-urban areas) across Europe compared with C. ohridella sampled in natural stands of horse-chestnuts in the southern Balkans. These findings suggest that European populations of C. ohridella may indeed derive from the southern Balkans.

  18. Research on Methods for Pollen Viability Determinationof Water Chestnut%菱花粉生活力测定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双梅; 柯卫东; 彭静; 李峰; 钟兰; 孙亚林

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore suitable methods for pollen viability determination of water chestnut, the pollen viability of cultivar Xiaoganhongling was determined by using the methods of inorganic salt culture, MTT staining and TTC staining. The results showed that the medium supplemented with low concentrations of sucrose and boric acid could promote the germination of pollen, and the optimum medium for pollen germination was 10% sucrose+0.005% boric acid, with the germination rate of 65.9%. The MTT staining and TTC staining methods were not ideal for pollen viability determination of water chestnut, because their dyeing rates were merely 36.9%and 27.1%.%为了探索菱花粉生活力的最佳测定方法,以孝感红菱花粉为试材,利用无机盐培养法、MTT(四甲基噻唑蓝)染色法和TTC(氯化三苯基四氮唑)染色法对花粉生活力进行测定。研究结果表明,培养基中添加低浓度的蔗糖和硼酸对菱花粉的萌发有促进作用,菱花粉萌发的最适培养基为10%蔗糖+0.005%硼酸,萌发率达65.9%;用MTT染色法和TTC染色法测定菱花粉生活力,染色率仅为36.9%和27.1%,效果不理想。

  19. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeological Regime, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number for the Y-12 Plant is TN.

  20. Effects of Low-pressure Treatment on Physical and Chemical Properties of Chestnut Starch%低压处理对板栗淀粉理化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白丽; 周裔彬; 陈俊芳; 宋岑; 张健; 杨彬

    2011-01-01

    With Dahongpao chestnut starch from Anhui as raw material, the changes of apparent form and crystal feature of the said chestnut were analyzed by a field scanning electron microscope and a light microscopy at different pressures and material - water ratio. The results showed that chestnut starch granules easily swelled and broke a-long the increase of the pressure under the same time. Some starch granules ruptured when the pressure reached 0. 05 Mpa. Chestnut starch granules were much easier for rupture with the increases of water content, and some starch granules ruptured when the material -water ratio reached 1 =1 and the pressure was only 0.05 Mpa. In the solubility test, after being treated under different pressure and water content, the solubility of chestnut starch increased when the pressure increased; the solubility became higher when the pressure was constant and the water content was higher. And after being treated under different pressures and water contents, the chestnut starch presented the following crystal features: the pressure did not change the crystal type of the chestnut starch; when the pressure increased, the water content in the starch increased and the treatment time was prolonged, the crystal area of the chestnut starch reduced and the crystal content decreased.%摘要以安徽大红袍板栗为原料,采用场扫描电镜和光学显微镜分析板栗淀粉在不同压力和料液比条件下表观形态和晶体特性的变化.结果表明:在相同的时间条件下,随着压力增大,板栗淀粉颗粒越易膨胀破裂,当压力为0.05 MPa时,淀粉颗粒表面出现泡状凸起;随着淀粉体系中水分含量的升高,板栗淀粉颗粒越易膨胀破裂,料液比达到1∶1,压力为0.05 MPa时,大部分淀粉颗粒破碎崩溃.溶解度试验中,不同压力、水分处理后,压力增大,板栗淀粉溶解度随之增大;压力一定,水分含量越高,溶解度越大.不同压力、水分处理后的板

  1. 舒城县板栗病虫害特征特性及防治技术%Characteristics and Diseases and Pest Control Technologies of Chestnuts in Shucheng County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松林

    2014-01-01

    Characteristics of diseases and pest of chestnuts were summarized,including Endothia parasitica(Murr.) P. J. et H. W. Anders.,Dryocosnms kuriphilus Yasumatsu,Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi),Coniella castaneicola etc.,and control technologies were proposed,so as to provide reference for the high-yield cultivation of chestnuts in Shucheng County.%总结了板栗疫病、栗瘿蜂、栗树红蜘蛛、板栗炭疽病等板栗病虫害的特征特性,并提出了防治技术,以期为舒城县板栗的高产栽培参考。

  2. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant`s remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data.

  3. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This annual groundwater report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

  4. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 2000 Groundwater Monitoring Data Evaluation Report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 2000 from sampling locations in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure A.1). Prepared by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), this monitoring data evaluation report addresses applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1 -- General Environmental Protection Program -- that require: (1) an evaluation of the quantity and quality of groundwater in areas that are, or could be, impacted by Y-12 operations, (2) an evaluation of the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants from Y-12 facilities are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) an evaluation of long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1 (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). Illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  5. 新型板栗脱壳机及其技术经济分析%New Machine of Cutting Chestnut's Shell off and Its Technologi es Economical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑传祥

    2001-01-01

    Cutting chestnut's shell off is an important process in ch estnut producing.There are several me-thods of cutting chestnut's shell off .But t hese methods are not very suitable to Chinese market for some reasons.The paper compared structure and economic of those methods,and gave out a new method of cu tting chestnut's shell off .It has good economic and simple operation.%我国板栗也像其他农产品一样曾出现相对过剩 。解决过量板栗的出路在于开发各种各样的深加工新产品,而首先要解决的是板栗的脱壳去 红衣问题。目前脱壳设备国内外有多种,然而能大量适用于中国市场到目前为止还没有。本 文将对各种脱壳设备的结构、技术经济进行比较,并提供一种适用于我国国情的低价高效板 栗脱壳机。

  6. Correlation analysis of dynamic moisture change in soil and chestnut trees%板栗树体水分与土壤水分动态变化的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯立群; 杜振宇; 张日盈; 王玉山

    2001-01-01

    通过观测板栗的根、枝、叶及栗园土壤水分含量的动态变化发现:根、枝、叶组织水分含量的变化随着栗园土壤含水量的变化而变化;30cm土层为板栗根系的主要吸水层;北方山地栗园,春季每15~20天需要进行一次灌水,以满足板栗树体生长发育对水分的需求。%It was found after observation and measurement that the moisture content in the root, stem and leaf of chestnut dynamically changed with the change of moisture content in the orchard soil. The 30cm soil layer is the main water-absorbing zone. In spring, irrigation is needed every 15-20 days in chestnut orchards in north mountains for growth and development of chestnut trees.

  7. 角膜板栗刺异物伤15例的临床观察%Clinical observation of 15 cases of corneal foreign body injuries caused by chestnut thorns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许小兰; 蔡苏博; 周龙芳; 姚珂珺; 黄小雨; 王平; 张虹; 李贵刚

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨目前角膜板栗刺异物伤有效治疗方法及影响病情进展的因素。方法:回顾性分析2014-07/2015-10武汉市同济医院眼科病房收治的角膜板栗刺异物伤患者15例15眼的临床资料,入院时未并发真菌性角膜炎的患者在剔除角膜板栗刺异物的同时均积极给予以那他霉素为主的抗真菌治疗,而对入院时已并发真菌性角膜炎的患者予以氟康唑溶液前房冲洗和角膜基质层注药,必要时予以羊膜移植术或角膜移植术,总结上述治疗方法的有效性及影响病情进展的因素。结果:入院时未并发角膜溃疡病例11例,入院时平均病程为1~7(2.42±2.15)d,入院时已并发真菌性角膜溃疡病例4例,入院时病程为3~30(18.25±4.35)d。其中并发角膜溃疡病例板栗刺数量平均为4.5根,并均有板栗刺穿透角膜进入前房;未发生角膜溃疡病例板栗刺数量平均为3.5根,而只有28.5%病例有板栗刺穿透角膜进入前房。经抗真菌治疗和相应手术治疗后,所有病例均被判定为治疗有效。结论:影响角膜板栗刺异物伤病情进展的因素可能有板栗刺的数量、板栗刺是否穿透角膜进入前房、就诊时病程的长短、是否积极进行抗真菌治疗等。对已并发真菌性角膜炎的病例积极予以抗真菌药物能有效控制真菌性角膜炎的进展,为进一步行羊膜移植或角膜移植术创造有利条件。%Abstract?AIM:To investigate the effective treatment methods of corneal injury caused by chestnut thorns and the factors affecting the disease progression.?METHODS: From Jul.2014 to Oct.2015, the clinical data of 15 patients(15 eyes) with corneal injury caused by chestnut thorns in Ophthalmology Inpatient Department of Wuhan Tongji Hospital was retrospective analyzed. The patients without fungal keratitis were treated with the surgery of removing chestnut thorn from cornea and

  8. 基于欠成熟的板栗脱蒲机设计与试验%Design and Test of Chestnut Husker Based on the Seven or Eight Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕海军; 曹成茂; 周敏; 范雅魁

    2017-01-01

    采摘的新鲜板栗需要及时脱蒲,然后将栗果送人冷藏室保鲜储藏,否则容易发生霉烂、生虫、发芽,从而失去其应有的经济价值。为此,针对目前市场上板栗脱蒲机存在损伤率、未脱率高等问题,设计了一款基于欠成熟的板栗脱蒲和往复运动筛分的板栗脱蒲机。文中介绍了基于 Pro/E 方法的柔性挤压脱蒲装置、往复筛分部件及传动机构的三维建模和三维设计,详细给出了该板栗脱蒲机的具体生产工艺过程。该板栗脱蒲机结构简单、传动效率高,通过栅栏与可调式螺栓,对不同大小的的板栗刺球脱蒲适应性好。通过对不同成熟度、含水率的板栗刺球进行试验验证和用户使用,证明该机对板栗脱蒲的损伤率、未脱率低,分离清洁度、作业效率高。%Picked fresh chestnut need to be timely removed Po and sent to refrigerator to preserve , otherwise they easily get mildew , vermin , germination , and thus lose their economic value .In this paper , to solve the high damage rate and fail to remove Po in current chestnt po off market ,we designed a chestnut po machine based on less mature chestnut po off and reciprocation sieved off po chestnut machine .The paper introduced flexible squeezing po off based on Proe , recipro-cating screening unit and three-dimensional modeling and three-dimensional design of the transmission gear ,we detailly gave the process of production .The structure of the chestnut po is simple , transmission efficiency is high .The machine is adaptive for different size of chestnut by using fences and adjustable bolt .By comparing the experimental results and verification of users for different mature and rate of containing water , we proved the chestnut po off has low damage rate , fail to po off rate , and high seperation cleanliness , high operating efficiency .

  9. Milk fatty acid composition, rumen microbial population, and animal performances in response to diets rich in linoleic acid supplemented with chestnut or quebracho tannins in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccioni, A; Pauselli, M; Viti, C; Minieri, S; Pallara, G; Roscini, V; Rapaccini, S; Marinucci, M Trabalza; Lupi, P; Conte, G; Mele, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate milk fatty acid (FA) profile, animal performance, and rumen microbial population in response to diets containing soybean oil supplemented or not with chestnut and quebracho tannins in dairy ewes. Eighteen Comisana ewes at 122±6 d in milking were allotted into 3 experimental groups. Diets were characterized by chopped grass hay administered ad libitum and by 800 g/head and day of 3 experimental concentrates containing 84.5 g of soybean oil/kg of dry matter (DM) and 52.8 g/kg of DM of bentonite (control diet), chestnut tannin extract (CHT diet), or quebracho tannin extract (QUE diet). The trial lasted 4 wk. Milk yield was recorded daily, and milk composition and blood parameters were analyzed weekly. At the end of the experiment, samples of rumen fluid were collected to analyze pH, volatile fatty acid profile, and the relative proportions of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus in the rumen microbial population. Hepatic functionality, milk yield, and gross composition were not affected by tannin extracts, whereas milk FA composition was characterized by significant changes in the concentration of linoleic acid (CHT +2.77% and QUE +9.23%), vaccenic acid (CHT +7.07% and QUE +13.88%), rumenic acid (CHT -1.88% and QUE +24.24%), stearic acid (CHT + 8.71% and QUE -11.45%), and saturated fatty acids (CHT -0.47% and QUE -3.38%). These differences were probably due to the ability of condensed versus hydrolyzable tannins to interfere with rumen microbial metabolism, as indirectly confirmed by changes in the relative proportions of B. fibrisolvens and B. proteoclasticus populations and by changes in the molar proportions of volatile fatty acids. The effect of the CHT diet on the milk FA profile and microbial species considered in this trial was intermediate between that of QUE and the control diet, suggesting a differential effect of condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on rumen microbes. Compared with control animals

  10. Produção de castanha e de folhada e concentração de nutrientes nas folhas de soutos submetidos a diferentes sistemas de mobilização do solo Chestnut and litterfall production and leaf nutrient concentration in chestnut groves submitted to different soil tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Raimundo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de vários sistemas de preparação do solo na produção das componentes caducas da biomassa (folhas, ouriços, castanhas e inflorescências e no teor de nutrientes nas folhas, num souto com árvores de 50 anos de idade média localizado no Nordeste de Portugal. O sistema experimental foi instalado no início de 1996 e incluiu os seguintes tratamentos: mobilização tradicional com escarificador a uma profundidade média de 15 cm (MT, mobilização com grade de discos até 7 cm de profundidade (GD, pastagem semeada plurianual de sequeiro (PS e não-mobilização com vegetação herbácea espontânea (NM. A produção média da biomassa caduca (folhas, ouriços, castanhas e inflorescências, durante o período de 1999 a 2004, expressa por m² de área de projecção vertical da copa, foi máxima no tratamento NM (755 g m-2, seguida do PS (729 g m-2, do GD (708 g m-2 e por último do MT (627 g m-2, não se observando diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Durante o período de estudo, os ouriços (36,7% foram a componente mais importante do total da biomassa caduca, seguidos pelas folhas (32,5%, castanhas (24,7% e inflorescências (6,1%. A produção de castanhas, também para aquele período, no tratamento MT (133 g m-2 foi significativamente inferior à observada nos tratamentos NM (193 g m-2 e PS (191 g m². O teor de N, P e Mg das folhas, em 2003 e 2004, foi significativamente menor no tratamento MT do que nos restantes; o teor de K, por seu turno, foi significativamente menor nos tratamentos MT e PS do que no GD; o teor de Ca nos tratamentos GD e PS foi significativamente maior do que no tratamento MT. As alternativas de gestão à mobilização tradicional revelaram-se mais promissoras para a produtividade dos soutos e para a redução dos custos de produção.The effects of several soil management systems on litterfall production (leaves, burs, chestnuts and inflorescences and leaf nutrient concentration were

  11. Resilience of Sweet Chestnut and Truffle Holm-Oak Rural Forests in Languedoc-Roussillon, France: Roles of Social-Ecological Legacies, Domestication, and Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Aumeeruddy-Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cévennes sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. forest-orchards and the holm-oak (Quercus ilex L. black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad. associations of the garrigue in Languedoc-Roussillon have suffered a century of decline because of great reductions of rural populations and lack of understanding of the ecological and social dimensions of these rural forests by sectorial public agencies. Levels of tree and forest domestication alternated during historical periods in parallel with statuses of disorganization and reorganization of local social groups. Social-ecological legacies intrinsically linked to trees, forests, and landscape domestication, as well as knowledge, social, and technical practices have been mobilized and provided a basis for knowledge innovations, new domestications, uses, and new institutional networks related to changes in social set-ups. Collective actions emerging from local needs to revive territories in a modern context, cross-scale and reciprocal exchanges of rural and scientific knowledge, as well as institutional changes are interrelated variables that have enabled innovations and have increased resilience of these rural forests. This paper opens new avenues for future research on the interplay between the effects of social-ecological legacies and innovations on the resilience of social-ecological systems.

  12. Valorization of solid wastes from chestnut industry processing: Extraction and optimization of polyphenols, tannins and ellagitannins and its potential for adhesives, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Alfredo; Carvalho, Rosa; Saavedra, Maria José

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential of chestnut peels to produce pomaces enhanced with tannins to be used in the formulations of wood adhesives, leather tanning or as natural antioxidants in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. An analytical procedure was planned as 2 factorial design to analyze the influence of solvent (water, Na2SO3 and NaOH at different concentrations of 1, 2, 4, and 8% in water) and extraction time (30, 60, and 120, 240, 480 and 960min) on extraction yield, pH, Stiasny index, and tannins. HPLC-diode array detector equipped with an ionization mass spectrophotometer was used to assess the polyphenol composition. Our results showed that both extraction properties and phytochemicals were significantly affected (P<0.001) by all independent factors. The main tannins identified were the hydrolyzable gallic acid, vescalagin castalagin and ellagic acid, and the condensed epigallocatechin, catechin and epicatechin. The solvent 1% Na2SO3 was more effective to extract the condensed tannins whilst hydrolyzable tannins were extracted efficiently by 1% NaOH. The multivariable analysis and the Pearson's correlation coefficients showed a direct association between Stiasny number and the average levels of condensed tannins.

  13. [Comparison of the bioavailability of beta-aescin after single oral administration of two different drug formulations containing an extract of horse-chestnut seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, E; Schwankl, W; Sieder, C; Christoffel, V

    1995-09-01

    The relative oral bioavailability of beta-escine (CAS 11072-93-8) from a sugar-coated tablet formulation was compared to a reference preparation available in capsule form in 18 healthy, male volunteers over a 48 h period. The study design was randomized, single-blind and cross-over. Both the test and the reference preparation contained 50 mg standardized horse chestnut seed extract; beta-escine was taken as the reference substance. By means of a newly developed, validated radioimmunosorbent assay (RIA), beta-escine in plasma was determined (blind samples) after oral intake of a single dose of each drug formulation. The confidence limits calculated for the AUC, Cmax and Tmax of the test preparation exceed the upper limit of the specified equivalence range of 80%--125%, but do never fall below the lower limit. Therefore, bioin-equivalence cannot be rejected statistically. All the bioavailability data for the test preparation--measured with the newly developed RIA--exceed the corresponding values for the reference preparation. As the rate of absorption of aesculetinic triterpene glycosides is low, the higher bioavailability of the test preparation is desirable from a therapeutical point of view. Since the reference preparation is classified as being clinically effective, the test preparation must also be estimated as being clinically effective. Adverse drug effects were not observed with either the test preparation or the reference preparation.

  14. Winter starch reserves of white oak as a predictor of attack by the twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Weber) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J P; Kimmerer, T W; Potter, D A

    1987-12-01

    The twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Weber) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), attacks oaks (Quercus spp.) and is associated with extensive mortality of trees in the eastern deciduous forests of North America. We tested the hypothesis that winter starch reserves of oak roots are an indicator of tree vigor and that only trees low in stored starch would be attacked by A. bilineatus. We measured the levels of stored starch in the roots of 200 non-infested healthy white oaks during the dormant season and determined their correlation with A. bilineatus attacks the following spring. There was a significant increase in A. bilineatus captures on sticky traps with a decrease in winter starch reserves. Trees low in stored starch that were also stressed by phloem-girdling attracted 3.7 times as many beetles as did non-girdled trees that were low in starch. However, non-girdled trees that had low winter starch reserves were also attacked. Only oaks that had had extremely low winter root starch reserves (5 mg/g dry wt died. These results indicate that winter starch reserves are a good predictor of A. bilineatus attack.

  15. Ecological factors affecting the adrenocortical response to stress in chestnut-collared and McCown's longspurs (Calcarius ornatus, Calcarius mccownii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sharon E; Hunt, Kathleen E; Wingfield, John C

    2003-01-01

    Secretion of the steroid hormone corticosterone (CORT) in response to perturbations results in behavior patterns that can maximize survival. Three commonly cited hypotheses suggest that during breeding, there are advantages associated with suppressed (CORT) secretion in (1) the sex that is most important for parental care, (2) individuals in good body condition, and (3) species with a short breeding season and limited renesting opportunities. We addressed these hypotheses in two midlatitude breeders, chestnut-collared and McCown's longspurs, by assessing CORT secretion over a 1-h period of handling. These species have congeners that are exclusively arctic breeders, and this provides a unique opportunity to assess adrenocortical responsiveness both within a phylogenetic framework and across environmental variables. In both species, males and females showed similar CORT secretion patterns in response to handling, and body condition was unrelated to CORT secretion. Additionally, although these midlatitude breeders have more opportunities to attempt a renest than their arctic congeners, their hormonal response to stress was similar to that reported for their arctic congeners. We suggest that an attenuated stress response may relate to the severity of the breeding environment and a low likelihood of successful renesting, since these variables are common to both arctic and grassland habitats.

  16. Annual report of 1995 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) and the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) are inactive waste management sites located at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The KHQ and CRSDB are regulated as treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facilities were granted interim status in calendar year (CY) 1986 under Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Hazardous Waste Management Rule 1200-1-11-.05. Historical environmental monitoring data and baseline characterization under interim status indicated that releases of contaminants to groundwater had not occurred; thus, the detection monitoring was implemented at the sites until either clean closure was completed or post-closure permits were issued. The CRSDB was closed in Cy 1989 under a TDEC-approved RCRA closure plan. A revised RCRA PCPA for the CRSDB was submitted by DOE personnel to TDEC staff in September 1994. A final post-closure permit was issued by the TDEC on September 18, 1995. Closure activities at KHQ under RCRA were completed in October 1993. The Record of Decision will also incorporate requirements of the RCRA post-closure permit once it is issued by the TDEC.

  17. [KINETICS OF PHOTO-INDUCED FREE RADICALS IN THE HUMAN HAIR CHESTNUT COLOR AFTER SHORT PERIODS OF RED, GREEN, BLUE AND WHITE LIGHT EXPOSURE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskhvediani, N; Chikvaidze, E; Tsibadze, A; Kvachadze, I; Gogoladze, T; Katsitadze, A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals in the human hair chestnut color with short-term exposure to visible light in different frequency ranges. Studies carried out on human volunteers aged 17-21 years (n=37). Hairs of volunteers of the study were not treated with dyes and other active cosmetic preparations. Hairs bundled in a bun had a length - 1.5 cm, weight - 40 mg. At the beginning background EPR-spectrum of a sample was measured and then hairs were irradiated with visible light (blue, green, red and white) of different wavelength subsequently; exposure duration - 60 minutes; after the exposure the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals was measured within 60 minutes. The radiation source was selected LED array of the four crystals that provides a nearly monochromatic radiation spectrum having no parasitic infrared and ultraviolet radiations. The studies give a reason to assume that the impact on hairs by visible electromagnetic rays a leading factor is their frequency characteristics: on the one hand - the proximity of the blue light to ultraviolet radiation, and on the other - the red light to the infrared range.

  18. Treatment of occult sclera chestnut thorns combined with sclera erosion guided by ultrasound biomicroscopy%超声生物显微镜引导下治疗隐匿性巩膜栗子刺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏飞

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨超声生物显微镜引导下治疗隐匿性巩膜栗子刺疗效及漏诊相关因素分析.方法 总结了2005年10月到2014年12月在唐山眼科医院治疗的伴巩膜糜烂的隐匿性巩膜栗子刺患者77例(77只眼),进行回顾性分析.术前常规眼科检查、彩色多普勒超声、超声生物显微镜、眼眶CT检查.在超声生物显微镜确诊并定位引导下手术摘出栗子刺.术中反复探查糜烂区组织,如未探查到栗子刺,术后再次超声生物显微镜扫描,有栗子刺回声存在予以定位,再次手术摘出栗子刺.结果 77例(77只眼)在超声生物显微镜扫查引导下手术摘出栗子刺,其中巩膜多发栗子刺58例(58只眼),20例20只眼巩膜糜烂变薄,3例3只眼因巩膜过薄穿孔自体巩膜板层移植修补术.10例(10只眼)一期手术后复查UBM仍有部分栗子刺残存,漏诊率12.99% (10/77).结论 在超声生物显微镜引导下治疗隐匿性巩膜栗子刺具有可行性和重要临床价值,提高了检出率,减少了漏诊率,弥补了常规临床检查和影像学检查的不足.为减少漏诊,需多方位、多角度、多切面、连续全面扫查.%Objective To investigate curative effect and the analysis of missed diagnosis related factors for treatment of occult scleral chestnut thorns combined with scleral erosion guided by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM).Methods Retrospective study of 77 cases (77 eyes) which were diagnosed as occult scleral chestnut thorns combined with scleral erosion from October 2005 to December 2014.Seventy-seven cases (77 eyes) were diagnosed and occult scleral chestnut thoms positions were located by ultrasound biomicroscopy,then probe into chestnut thorns repeatedly,if not to probe into them,postoperative scan the eyes by UBM once again,probe into chestnut thorns echo,and located them,picked out the chestnut thorns once more by surgical operation.Preoperative routine ophthalmologic examination was performed including

  19. Proposed modifications to the RCRA post-closure permit for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report presents proposed modifications to several conditions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR) (permit number TNHW-088, EPA ID No. TN3 89 009 0001). These permit conditions define the requirements for RCRA post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) and Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ), and RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSPs). Modification of these PCP conditions is requested to: (1) clarify the planned integration of RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the CRSPs with the monitoring program to be established in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) record of decision (ROD), (2) revise several of the current technical requirements for groundwater monitoring based on implementation of the RCRA monitoring programs during 1996, (3) replace several of the technical procedures included in the PCP with updated versions recently issued by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), and (4) correct inaccurate regulatory citations and references to permit conditions and permit attachments. With these modifications, the Y- 12 Plant will continue to meet the full intent of all regulatory obligations for post-closure care of these facilities. Section 2 provides the technical justification for each proposed permit modification. Section 3.0 contains proposed changes to Section II of the PCP. Modifications to site-specific permit conditions are presented in Section 4.0 (CRSDB), Section 5.0 (CRSPs), and Section 6.0 (KHQ). Sections 7.0 and 8.0 reference updated and revised procedures for groundwater sampling, and monitoring well plugging and abandonment, respectively. Appendix A includes all proposed revisions to the permit attachments.

  20. 湖北省罗田县板栗害虫种类调查%Investigation on the species of insect pests infesting on the chestnut plant (Castanea mollissima Blume)in Luotian County,Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖云丽; 汪玉平; 孙康; 徐向阳; 晏绍良; 钟玉林

    2015-01-01

    The species of insect pests infesting on chestnut plant Castanea mollissima Blume were systematically in-vestigated from 2013 to 2014 in Luotian County,Hubei Province.One hundred and ninety-two chestnut pest spe-cies in 61 families under 5 orders were recorded from Luotian County,among them,62 branch and trunk pests species in 23 families,1 53 leaf,bud and flower pests species in 49 families,1 5 fruit pests species in 8 families. Eighty-one named species in 37 families under 4 orders were firstly reported feeding on chestnut plants,including 24 branch and trunk pests species in 13 families,60 leaf,bud and flower pests species in 28 families,and 7 fruit pests species in 4 families.Cyllorhynchites cumulatus (Voss),Curculio davidi Fairmaire,Niphades castanes Chao,Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée),Synanthedon kunmingensis Yang & Wang,Synanthedon menglaensis Yang & Wang,Lachnus tropicalis (van der Goot),Phalera assimilis (Bremer & Grey),and Dryocosmus kuriphi-lus Yasumatsu caused serious damage in the chestnut production.%2013-2014年度系统调查了湖北省罗田县板栗害虫种类,经分类整理与鉴定,罗田县板栗害虫共计5目61科192种,其中枝干害虫23科62种,叶芽花序害虫49科153种、果实害虫8科15种;板栗新纪录害虫4目37科81种(已命名种),其中枝干害虫13科24种,叶芽花序害虫28科60种,果实害虫4科7种。对板栗生产造成严重危害的主要有:果实害虫板栗剪枝象[Cyllorhynchites cumulatus (Voss)]、栗实象(Curculio davidi Fairmaire)、栗雪片象(Niphades castanes Chao)和桃多斑野螟[Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée)];枝干害虫昆明兴透翅蛾(Synanthedon kunmingensis Yang & Wang)、勐腊兴透翅蛾(Synanthedon menglaensis Yang & Wang)和板栗大蚜[Lachnus tropicalis (van der Goot)];叶芽害虫栎掌舟蛾[Phalera assimilis (Bremer & Grey)]和板栗瘿蜂(Dryo-cosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu)。

  1. Effect of pasture on chestnut or acorn on fatty acid composition and aromatic profile of fat of Cinta Senese dry-cured ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci, Oreste

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pasture on oak and chestnut grove on chemical and aromatic traits of Cinta Senese cured ham. Fifteen Cinta Senese barrows (124 kg of l.w. on average were allotted to three groups: one group (MI was reared outdoors in confined area and fed commercial feedstuff. The other two groups were raised under free-range conditions on acorn (AC or chestnut (CH woods. At slaughtering (148 kg of l.w. the right thighs were seasoned for 360 days, on average, to obtained cured hams. Results demonstrated that subcutaneous fat of ham of CH and AC groups, respect to CONC group, was the richest in MUFA (51.3 and 53.9 vs 49.5% respectively, because of the higher content of oleic acid (48.4 and 50.8 vs 46.2%, respectively. AC showed a lower percentage of PUFA than CH and CONC (13.8 vs 15.4 and 16.3%, respectively. As regard volatile compounds, AC, respect to CH and MI groups, showed the highest value of aldehydes (44.1 vs 30.3 and 33.5% respectively and ethers (4.04 vs 1.15 and 1.71% respectively.El objetivo de este estudio fue la evaluación de la composición de los ácidos grasos y de los compuestos volátiles del jamón curado Toscano obtenido de cerdos Cinta Senese alimentados con bellota, castaña o pienso. Quince cerdos de raza Cinta Senese fueron criados en extensivo: 5 fueron criados en bosque de bellota (AC, 5 en bosque de castaña (CH y 5 en un cercado y alimentados con pienso (MI. El día posterior al sacrificio se curaron los jamones. La composición de los ácidos grasos fue estadísticamente diferente entre los tipos de alimentación. La grasa de AC presentó el mayor porcentaje de AGMI total en comparación con CH y MI (51.3 y 53.9 vs 49.5% respectivamente gracias al mayor porcentaje de ácido oleico (48.4 y 50.8 vs 46.2%, respectivamente, y la menor de AGPI total (13.8 vs 15.4 y 16.3%, respectivamente. En relación a los compuestos volátiles, la grasa de AC, en comparación con CH y MI

  2. The role of host tree condition in attack of white oaks by the twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Weber) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James P; Kimmerer, Thomas W; Nordin, Gerald L

    1986-11-01

    The twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Weber) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), attacks stressed oaks (Quercus spp.) and is associated with extensive mortality of trees in the eastern deciduous forests of North America. We examined host location by the insect and subsequent host mortality in experimentally stressed trees. A. bilineatus adults were able to rapidly and specifically locate stressed oak trees. Up to 160 beetles per week were captured on sticky band traps on the trunks of stressed trees, while beetles rarely landed on unstressed control trees. This suggests that adult borers have an acute perception of host tree "quality", and that this perception is from a distance. One mechanism of host location may be detection of volatile compounds produced by stressed trees.The condition of the host tree appears to regulate both beetle attraction and successful colonization. Mortally wounded (xylem-girdled) trees attracted beetles only until the cambium died. Xylem-girdled trees were attacked early in the beetle flight season, but larvae did not survive to emerge as adults from these trees. In contrast, phloemgirdled trees continued to attract beetles throughout the flight period. Phloem-girdled trees which were heavily attacked by A. bilineatus died late in the season in which they were attacked. Lightly attacked trees survived until the following growing season, and were then heavily attacked and killed. In one stand, phloem-girdled trees were not attacked, healed over the girdling wounds and were still alive three years after girdling. These results indicate that oak trees are only attractive to A. bilineatus within a narrow range of physiological conditions following stress but prior to mortality. A. bilineatus appears to be a proximate agent of mortality in stressed oaks in eastern North America.

  3. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A M

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39 °C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens.

  4. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen de Keijzer

    Full Text Available Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39 °C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens.

  5. Determination of Four Major Saponins in Skin and Endosperm of Seeds of Horse Chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum L.) Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Positive Confirmation by Thin Layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudayeh, Zead Helmi Mahmoud; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Naddaf, Ahmad; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna; Kislichenko, Viktoria Sergeevna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To separate and quantify four major saponins in the extracts of the skin and the endosperm of seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) using ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) with positive confirmation by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Methods: The saponins: escin Ia, escin Ib, isoescin Ia and isoescin Ib were extracted using ultrasonic extraction method. The optimized extraction conditions were: 70% methanol as extraction solvent, 80 °C as extraction temperature, and the extraction time was achieved in 4 hours. The HPLC conditions used: Zorbax SB-ODS-(150 mm × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) column, acetonitrile and 0.10% phosphoric acid solution (39:61 v/v) as mobile phase, flow rate was 0.5 mL min−1 at 210 nm and 230 nm detection. The injection volume was 10 μL, and the separation was carried out isothermally at 30 °C in a heated chamber. Results: The results indicated that the developed HPLC method is simple, sensitive and reliable. Moreover, the content of escins in seeds decreased by more than 30% in endosperm and by more than 40% in skin upon storage for two years. Conclusion: This assay can be readily utilized as a quality control method for horse chestnut and other related medicinal plants. PMID:26819933

  6. 生态敏感区有机板栗生态补偿标准及其估算∗--以北京市密云水库库区为例%ECOLOGICAL COMPENSATION STANDARD ASSESSMENT FOR ORGANIC CHESTNUT PRODUCTION IN ECOLOGICALLY SENSITIVE AREAS*---A CASE STUDY ON MIYUN RESERVOIR AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂慎; 李彩恋; 彭澎; 冯丹阳; 梁龙

    2016-01-01

    ecological compensation standard for organic chestnuts in Miyun Reservoir areas,which takes the extra costs of organic agriculture,value of ecosystem services and the envi-ronmental costs into account. The results show that compared with conventional chestnuts production,the extra costs of organic chestnuts in Miyun Reservoir areas is 6000. 00yuan/hm2 ,which mainly caused by more labor force input in organic chestnuts production. The ecosystem services value of organic chestnuts increases by 4434. 50 yuan/hm2 which is 31. 40%higher than that of conventional chestnuts. Compared with conventional chestnuts, the values of regulating,supporting and provisioning respectively increase by 83. 26%, 166. 77%and 57. 70%. According to the results of field investigation and related research parameters,this paper uses the life cycle assessment method to cal-culate the value of harm to human body health in the process of organic and conventional chestnuts production in the Miyun reservoir,and convert harm into the environmental cost with human capital method. The life cycle of organic chestnuts produces fewer pollutants,mainly refers to N2 o and Zn,Cd,Pb came from the farming process,which were caused by the application of fertilizer and heavy metal residues by organic fertilizer respectively. Compared with the conventional chestnuts,LCEc of organic chestnuts decrease by 209. 20 yuan/hm2 with decreasing rate of 38. 27%. Overall,organic chestnuts production is cleaner than conventional chestnuts in Miyun reservoir areas. The final eco-logical compensation standard of organic chestnuts in Miyun Reservoir areas, determined by the sum of the three variations above,is 10643. 70 yuan/hm2 . The major difficulty for development of organic agriculture in Miyun Reser-voir areas is the high extra costs which runs up to 56. 37%,occupied the largest portion of ecological compensation standard for organic chestnuts. The higher ecosystem services value and lower environmental cost of organic chest-nuts

  7. Optimization of the Extraction and Separation of Phenolic Antioxidants from Chestnut Shells%板栗壳中酚性抗氧化成分的提取分离工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张京芳; 袁杰

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the ultrasonic extraction of polyphenols from chestnut shells. In order to establish a method for the separation of phenolic antioxidants from crude polyphenol extract, the static adsorption and desorption of phenolics on macro adsorption resin were kinetically studied and the optimum conditions for static adsorption and desorption were explored. Besides, polyphenols obtained from chestnut shells by different methods were tested for DPPH radical scavenging capacity and Fe3+ reducing power. Ethanol concentration and ultrasonic power were identified as main factors that influence extraction efficiency. The optimum conditions for the ultrasonic extraction of polyphenols from chestnut shells were found to be three extraction cycles with 43% ethanol at a solid-to-solvent ratio of 1:18.5 (g/mL) for 17.5 min with an ultrasonic power of 305 W. Under these conditions, the extraction efficiency of polyphenols was 2.86 g/100 g. LX-17 resin was found to be the best resin for the purification of phenolics from chestnut shells and the optimum purification conditions were determined as adsorption at 25 ℃ for 1.5 h followed by desorption with 50% ethanol at 20 ℃ for 4 h. Phenolics with stronger DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power from chestnut shells were obtained using ultrasonic extraction than reflux extraction. The antioxidant activity of crude polypbenol extract was improved after macroporous resin purification.%采用响应面法优化超声提取板栗壳多酚的工艺条件,研究大孔树脂对板栗壳多酚的静态吸附解吸动力学和最适静态吸附解吸工艺条件,评价不同方法得到的板栗壳多酚对DPPH自由基的清除能力及对Fe3+ 的还原能力。结果表明,乙醇体积分数及超声功率是影响板栗壳酚类物质提取效果的主要因素;超声提取板栗壳多酚的最佳条件为:乙醇体积分数43%,料液比1:18.5

  8. Effects of Nano-SiOx/Chitosan Complex (NSCC) on the Shelf Life and Quality of Fresh-cut Chinese Water Chestnut%纳米SiOx/壳聚糖复合物对鲜切荸荠品质和生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庭巧; 罗自生; 解静

    2011-01-01

    为了探讨纳米SiOx/壳聚糖复合物(NSCC)涂膜处理对鲜切荸荠的保鲜效果,研究10℃条件下1%NSCC涂膜处理对鲜切荸荠品质和生理的影响.结果表明:NSCC可以有效延缓荸荠在贮藏过程中失水率的增加和L值的下降,对硬度和可溶性固形物含量则无显著影响,但可抑制PAL、PPO、POD的活性,延缓总酚含量和褐变指数的增加,延长鲜切荸荠的货架期.这表明1% NSCC能有效保持鲜切荸荠的品质,延缓鲜切荸荠的生理变化,显示其在鲜切荸荠保鲜上有潜在的应用价值.%In order to determine the effectiveness of nano-SiOx/chitosan complex (NSCC) coating on fresh cut Chinese water chestnut stored at 10 ℃ for 5 days, and the effect of 1% NSCC coating on quality and physiology of fresh cut Chinese water chestnut were investigated. The results indicated the weight loss and L value of fresh cut Chinese water chestnut treated by 1% NSCC coating was inhibited, while the effect on firmness and total soluble solid content were not significant. It also inhibited the phenylalanine ammonia lyase(PAL), polyphenol oxidase(PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities, maintained lower level of BI and total phenolic content and prolonged shelf-life. The present findings suggested that NSCC treatment can maintain quality and inhibit physiology of fresh cut Chinese water chestnut, and could be used commercially to preservation in fresh cut Chinese water chestnut during storage.

  9. The effect of α-tocopherol, sweet chestnut wood extract and their combination on oxidative stress in vivo and the oxidative stability of meat in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voljč, M; Levart, A; Zgur, S; Salobir, J

    2013-01-01

    1. This study examined the effect of α-tocopherol (α-T), sweet chestnut wood extract (SCW) and their combination on oxidative stress in vivo and oxidative stability of meat in broilers given diets rich in PUFA. 2. A total of 60 male broilers were individually caged and divided into 6 groups of 10. The C-PALM group received a diet with 7·5% palm fat and the other 5 groups with 7·5% linseed oil. The linseed oil groups were either un-supplemented (C-LIN) or supplemented with α-T or/and SCW as follows: αT-85 (C-LIN diet + 68 IU vit E as all-rac-α-T/kg), αT-200 (C-LIN diet + 183 IU vit E as all-rac-α-T/kg), SCW (C-LIN diet + 3 g SCW/kg) and αT-SCW (C-LIN diet + 68 IU vit E as all-rac-α-T/kg + 3 g SCW/kg). Different parameters of oxidative stress were measured. 3. Linseed oil induced DNA fragmentation and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, while α-T reduced both parameters, and SCW reduced the DNA damage. A combination (αT-SCW) also reduced plasma MDA. Larger antioxidant capacity of lipid soluble compounds were recorded in groups αT-85, αT-200 and αT-SCW than in the controls but there were no differences between these groups in antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant status. A combination (αT-SCW) increased tocopherol concentrations in breast muscle and in comparison to the C-LIN group MDA concentrations were reduced in groups αT-85, αT-200 and αT-SCW. 4. It can be concluded that neither of the α-T concentrations were able to prevent all the negative effects of lipid oxidation in vivo and only high concentrations of α-T improved the stability of meat. With the exception of DNA damage, SCW had no impact on in vivo and in vitro measured markers of oxidative stress but may have a sparing or regenerating effect on α-T.

  10. 荸荠提取物对乙醇脱氢酶活性的影响%Effect of Extraction from Chinese Water Chestnut(Eleocharis tuberose) on the Activity of Alcohol Dehydrogenase(ADH)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小红; 葛建

    2016-01-01

    To study the impact of the extract from Chinese water chestnuts on the alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH) activity. With the active target of ADH, the improved Valle&Hoch method was used to detect the influence of various extract from water chestnuts on ADH activity in vitro. Male mice were randomly divided into five groups, which was used to study the influence of extract from water chestnuts on alcohol concentration and ADH activity in blood and liver of mice after oral administration of alcohol. And the alcohol concentrations in mice were deter-mined by the method of GC-FID. Compared with normal saline, water extract of Chinese water chestnuts have significantly increased the ADH activity. And the value of ADH activity was 45.2 % at the concentration of 0.5 g/mL. However, the ethanol extracts of water chestnuts could obviously inhibit the ADH activity. After oral administration of aqueous extract from Chinese Water Chestnut, the ADH active in mice blood rose to the peak value in the period of 0.5 h-1.5 h in the model group. At the same time, the ADH activity in mice liver rose to peak value during 0.5 h-2.5 h. Although the changing trend of ADH activity in model group was similar with the trend in extract group, the ADH activity in model group were lower than in extract group. Besides, the alcohol concentration in blood rose to the maximum value during 0.5 h-12 h in the model group, which was similar about the changing trend in the two group. By the usage of pharmacokinetics formula, the elimination half-life was 7.41, 5.63, 3.02 and 2.56 h in the model group and different extract groups, respectively. The results showed that the aqueous extract of Chinese water chestnut could reduce the alcohol concentration by activating ADH in vitro. Fur-thermore, the persistent activation of ADH was exhibited by the aqueous extract.%探讨荸荠提取物对乙醇脱氢酶(ADH)活性的影响及其对小鼠急性酒精中毒的改善作用。以乙醇脱氢酶为作用靶点,

  11. MALT BARLEY PRODUCTION ON THE CHESTNUT SOILS AREA OF VOLGOGRAD REGION Производство ячменя, пригодного для пивоварения в зоне каштановых почв Волгоградской области

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna E. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a short review of malt barley cultivation and its improvement ways on chestnut soils in Volgograd region. It includes the results of home brewing with the use of the experimental crop

  12. Influence of manganese on growth, physiological effects of chestnut seedlings%锰对板栗实生苗生长及生理效应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭素娟; 李产会; 吕文君; 熊欢

    2012-01-01

    采用短期培养模拟研究法,在5个Mn^2+浓度(0、0.905、1.810、2.715、3.620mg/L)处理下,通过测定板栗实生苗木的光合特性、叶绿素含量、苗高、根颚直径、根系、生物量与叶片矿质元素等指标,研究了Mn^2+对其生长及生理效应的影响。结果表明,1)在Mn^2+浓度为0-3.620mg/L范围内,随Mn^2+浓度增大,板栗实生苗净光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率、叶绿素含量、苗高、根颚直径、根重和生物量呈先增加后降低的趋势,其中以Mn^2+浓度1.810和2.715mg/L处理的效果最好,且两处理间差异不显著(P〉0.05);2)与CK相比,Mn^2+增加了苗木对锰的吸收,但抑制了对钙、铁、铜的吸收,随Mn^2+浓度增大,叶片磷、硼含量呈先升高后降低趋势,钾含量变化趋势相反;3)相关分析显示,叶片锰含量与钙、铁、铜含量呈显著性负相关(P〈0.05),与磷、钾、硼含量的相关性均不显著(P〉0.05)。综上,当Mn^2+浓度为1.810和2.715mg/L时均能显著促进板栗苗木的光合及生长;但Mn^2+浓度不宜过高,大于2.715mg/L则抑制其生长,不利于矿质元素的均衡吸收。%A short-term cultivation simulation experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of manganese on growth, physiological effects of chestnut seedlings. The responses of photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, seedling height, diameter, root, biomass and contents of mineral elements in leaves to different Mn^2+ concentrations (0, 0. 905, 1. 810, 2. 715 and 3. 620 mg/L) were studied. The results show that in the range of Mn^2+ 0-2. 715 rag/L, the Pn, Gs, Tr, chlorophyll content, seedling height, diameter, root weight and biomass of chestnut seedlings are enhanced significantly ( P 〈 0.05 ) with the increase of the concentration, however when Mn2. concentration is over 2. 715 mg/L, the above indexes are

  13. Morfologia de frutos, sementes e plântulas de castanheira (Terminalia catappa L. - COMBRETACEAE Morphology of the fruit, the seed and the seedlings of chestnut tree (Terminalia catappa L. - COMBRETACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Azevedo Ivani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de descrever morfologicamente os frutos, sementes e plântulas de castanheira. Foi feita a biometria dos frutos e das sementes e sua caracterização quanto à forma, por meio de mensurações com paquímetro e observações realizadas em estereomicroscópio com câmara clara. Os frutos de castanheira são carnosos, indeiscentes, do tipo nucóide, glabros, de coloração verde a vinácea, projeção das nervuras carpelares externamente evidentes, com epicarpo delgado, mesocarpo carnoso e esponjoso de coloração vinácea, com feixes vasculares conspícuos em corte transversal. Geralmente, cada fruto contém apenas uma semente. As sementes são exalbuminosas, de formas alongadas e cilíndricas, recobertas por endocarpo rígido de coloração marrom; possuem cerca de 2,5cm, 0,7cm e 0,7cm, de comprimento, largura e espessura, respectivamente. A germinação das sementes de castanheira é epígea, e a plantula é fanerocotiledonar.The work was carried out with the objective of describing morphologically the fruits, seeds and seedlings of chestnut tree. It was made the biometry of the fruits and seeds with a digital pachymeter and its characterization in relation to the shape, in stereomicroscope with clear chamber. It can be evidenced that the chestnut tree fruits are fleshly, indehiscent, nucoid, glabrous, from green to purple coloration, with evident projection of the carpel ribbings, with a fleshly and spongy epicarp and mesocarp, of purple color, with conspicuous vascular bundle in transversal cut. Generally, it has a seed per fruit. The seeds are unalbuminous, of prolongated and cylindrical shape and recovered with a rigid endocarp of brown coloration. The seeds possess about 2,5; 0,7 and 0,7 cm, of length, width and thickness, respectively. The germination of the seeds of chestnut tree is epigeal and the seedling is fanerocotyledonary.

  14. 水蒸气蒸馏法制备板栗花精油及其抑菌活性%Extraction Technology of the Essential Oil from Chestnut Flower and Its Antibacterial Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文越; 王雪青; 邵明辉; 宋文军; 赵国强; 付庆伟

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil of Chestnut flower has many biological functions such as insecticidal activity and antibacterial proterties, and it can be used as a natural preservative and repellents. In this article, the optimum extraction technology of the essential oil from Chestnut flower extracted by steam distillation and its antibacterial activity were studied by the methods of single-factor and orthogonal experiment. The results showed that the optimum extraction technology was when 1 cm segment of flowers in 40 g/L sodium chloride at the ratio of material to solvent 1∶10 (g/mL), distilling 3 h, the highest essential oil was gotten with (0.621 ±0.008)%. And the antibacterial activity of essential oil against E. coli, Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also investigated by the method of inhibition zone. The results displayed that the essential oil has antibacterial activity , and the order of inhibitory effects was Saccharomyces cerevisiae > Bacillus subtilis > E.coli. This study can provide technical support for the utilization and development of Chestnut flower.%板栗花精油具有抑菌性和杀虫活性等生物学功能,可作为天然防腐剂和驱避剂。采用单因素和正交试验研究水蒸气蒸馏提取板栗花精油的最佳提取条件以及其体外抑菌活性。实验结果表明:板栗花精油的最佳提取工艺为,板栗花1 cm短段与质量浓度为40 g/L氯化钠的蒸馏液按料液比1∶10(g/mL)的比例混合,蒸馏3 h,精油得率最高,为(0.621±0.008)%。采用抑菌圈法研究了板栗花精油对大肠杆菌、枯草芽孢杆菌和啤酒酵母的抑菌活性,结果显示,板栗花精油具有一定的抑菌活性,抑菌作用大小依次为啤酒酵母>枯草芽孢杆菌>大肠杆菌。本研究可为板栗花的综合利用和开发提供技术支持。

  15. 栗疫菌营养体亲和型多样性比较及野生栗栗疫菌交配型的分子检测%Comparison of Vegetative Compatibility Diversity of Cryphonectria parasitica from Wild and Cultivated Chestnut and Molecular Detection of Mating-type of the Pathogens from Wild Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘琪; 张国珍; 贺伟; 费松林; 陈余朝; 张海旺

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica in the regions of Beijing, Hubei and Shaanxi was investigated and the pathogen strains collected from these regions were used to detect their vegetative compatibility groups ( VCGs) . The results showed that the incidence of chestnut blight in Beijing and Shaanxi, varying according to different site conditions, was higher than that in Hubei. The Shannon-Wiener's diversity indexes of the VCGs of strains collected from Hubei and Shaanxi were statistically higher than that of strains from Beijing, whereas no statistical difference between the indexes of Shaanxi and Hubei. In addition, the mating-types of the representative strains selected randomly from Shaanxi and Hubei populations were detected by means of primary and nested PCR with specific primers. The results showed that both populations had two mating-types. Meanwhile, the strains with two mating-types in a single strain were detected as well, showing higher proportion in Shaanxi population than in Hubei population.%在北京周边县区、湖北大老岭山区以及陕西安康地区分别调查栗疫病发生情况,采集病原栗疫菌(Cryphonectria parasitica)菌株并进行营养体亲和性试验.结果表明:北京板栗栽培区和陕西安康地区野生栗栗疫病发病率较高,局部地区危害严重;湖北大老岭山区栗疫病发病率低,危害轻微.北京地区菌株群体营养体亲和型多样性指数(Shannon-Wiener's diversity index)极显著低于湖北菌株群体和陕西菌株群体,而陕西与湖北菌株群体营养体亲和型多样性指数差异不显著.随机选取湖北、陕西野生栗栗疫菌部分菌株,利用特异性引物,通过普通PCR和巢氏PCR,对其交配型进行测定,发现陕西与湖北野生栗菌株群体中均存在MAT-1与MAT-2两种交配型的菌株.通过PCR扩增,在两地的野生菌株群体里均发现同时具有两种交配型基因的菌株,其中,陕西

  16. 影响贮藏期荸荠腐烂病流行的因子研究%Affecting Factors on Epidemic of Corm Rot of Chinese Water Chestnut in Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖传雅; 廖旺姣; 袁高庆; 韦继光; 黄超福; 玉小迷; 韦宗便

    2013-01-01

    The corm rotting pathogen found in Chinese water chestnut during storage and the systematic factors related to the disease prevalence were studied in this research. Results showed that the Water chestnut storage temperature was the main deciding factor for advantageous pathogens; when the temperature was 10-20℃, Penicillium sp. and Fusarium oxysporum were rated as advantageous pathogens. However, when the storage temperatures were 25℃and room temperature (16.4 -30.0℃) , Trichoderma asperellum was rated as the advantageous pathogen. The corm rot incidence in Chinese water chestnut was lower under 20-25℃and room temperature, and higher under 10 - 15℃. When the corm pile reached the height of 50 - 70 cm, the rotting rates were not obviously differentiated. The rotting rates were also not obviously differentiated between conns with or without red-leaf disease during the growth period in the fields. The epidemic infection incidence was fast-growing during early storage period, but then decreased as the storage duration prolonged. Based on the systematic investigation data obtained from the conn rotting of Chinese water chestnut in storage farmhouse, the relevant forecasting models were established.%对贮藏期荸荠球茎腐烂病病原菌组成、影响病害流行的相关因素进行较为系统的研究探讨.结果表明,荸荠贮藏期的温度决定优势病原菌种类,10~20℃时,青霉(Penicillium sp.)、尖孢镰孢霉(Fusarium oxysporum)等为优势菌;25℃和室温(16.4~30.0℃)下贮藏,棘孢木霉(Trichoderma asperellum)为优势菌.荸荠发病率即腐烂率在20~25℃和室温下时较低,而在10~ 15℃时则较高;贮堆高度在50 ~70cm范围,发病率虽有差异但不显著;田间严重发生的生理性红叶病对球茎贮藏期腐烂病轻重无明显影响.荸荠贮藏病害发病速率在入贮前期较快,此后随贮藏时间延长而减缓.据模拟农舍贮藏荸荠病害的系统调查数据,建立了相应的预测模型.

  17. Dietary effects of a mix derived from oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil and sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood extract on pig performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, D; Beghelli, D; Trabalza-Marinucci, M; Branciari, R; Forte, C; Olivieri, O; Badillo Pazmay, G V; Cavallucci, C; Acuti, G

    2015-02-01

    The effects of a pre-formulated commercial plant extract mix, composed of equal parts of oregano essential oil and sweet chestnut wood extract, on performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits were evaluated. In two 155-d studies, 60 pigs (mean liveweight: 42.9 kg) were assigned to either a control diet (CTR) or an identical diet supplemented (0.2%) with the plant extract mix (OC). No differences in the growth rate were observed. Glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the OC muscles (Longissimus lumborum) were higher than in CTR muscles. The lipid oxidation of meat was lower in the OC group. In the cooked meat samples, OC animals had the lowest L* and H° values and the highest a* values. The OC meat received higher scores for colour, taste and overall liking in both the blind and the labelled consumer tests.

  18. 中国板栗生长状况对柱头形态的影响%Effect of Different Growth State on Stigmatic Morphology in the Chinese Chestnut(Castanea mollissima Blume)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石卓功; 夏立

    2008-01-01

    通过扫描电子显微镜观察研究中国板栗柱头形态.板栗为典型的针状形柱头,在其顶端有一个很小的开孔,直径约为50μm.在云南4月底到5月初柱头的先端可见有分泌物溢出,一个星期后分泌物迅速增加,并可把整个开孔全部覆盖."生长健壮树"的柱头开孔要比"生长衰弱树"的大,后者柱头开也又比"空苞树"大.而且,"生长健壮树"的柱头分泌物最多,其次是"生长衰弱树","空苞树"的柱头分泌物最少.%The stigmatic morphology of Chinese chestnut was studied by using scanning electron microscopy.The stigma of Chinese chestnut is typically needle-shaped with,and there is a small aperture of around 50 μm in diameter on its top.At the end of April and early in May secretion was spilt over on top of the stigma in Yunnan Province.One week later secretion increased quickly and covered completely the aperture of the stigma.At the same time aperture of stigma of the tree"robust growth state"was bigger than that of the tree"weak growth state",the latter bigger than"the empty cupulae tree".Likwise,quantity of secretion of the specimen"robust growth state"was much more than that of the specimen"weak growth state"and"the empty eupulae tree".

  19. Process Research on Bitter Gourd,Water Chestnut and Grapes Compound Beverage%苦瓜、荸荠、葡萄复合饮料的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丹; 卢成特; 张盼盼; 杨柳芳; 梁光月; 周正

    2016-01-01

    该文以苦瓜、葡萄、荸荠为主要原料,研究复合饮料的加工工艺和配方。通过正交试验结果表明,苦瓜、荸荠、葡萄复合饮料最佳配方为:苦瓜汁71.4%,荸荠汁14.3%,葡萄汁14.3%,白砂糖添加量1.6%,柠檬酸添加量0.02%,复合稳定剂最佳组成为黄原胶0.06%,海藻酸钠0.08%,果胶0.06%。该工艺所得复合果蔬饮料的口感清爽,风味独特,品质稳定。%With bitter gourd,water chestnut and grapes as the main raw material,the processing technology and for⁃mula of compound beverage were studied. Through orthogonal test results show that,the optimum formula of the bev⁃erage were as follows,bitter gourd juice 71.4%,water chestnut juice 14.3%and grape juice 14.3%,sugar content of 1.6%,tric acid content of 0.02%. The optimal composition of the composite stabilizer was xanthan gum of 0.06%,al⁃ginate sodium of 0.08%,and pectin of 0.06%.Under these conditions,the product obtained fresh and good taste, unique flavor and excellent stability.

  20. 鳕鱼、板栗复合饼生产新工艺及其配方的研究%Study on technology and formula of cod-chestnut composite bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖玫; 郭彤; 李毅念

    2012-01-01

    The processing technology and formula of cod-chestnut composite bread were studied. The salted cod-meat formula was 500g cod with onion and ginger 25g,white pepper 10g,a little cooking wine and monosodium glutanate by orthogonal experiment,and cod-meat was cut into grain and salted for 20min. The best formula by fuzzy mathematical comprehensive evaluation for cod bread was 250g flour with Chinese chestnut 30g,eggs 45g and salted cod-meat 40g and toasted in fire burger system for 15min with the induction cooker at the temperature of 160℃. In this way,the cod bread was nutritive,flaky,with unique cod-flavor.%对鳕鱼、板栗复合饼的生产工艺及其配方进行了研究。通过正交实验得到腌制鳕鱼肉馅配方为每500g鳕用葱姜25g、白胡椒lOg、料酒和味精少许、把鳕鱼肉切成颗粒、腌制20min:通过模糊数学综合评判法得到鳕鱼饼的最佳配方为每250g面粉添加板30g、鸡蛋45g、腌制鳕鱼肉40g,在160℃下用电磁炉烤制15min。采用该配方和工艺生产出的鳕鱼饼营养丰富,口感酥松,具有独特的鳕鱼风味。

  1. Information Files for Old Chestnuts and Chestnut Nags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetros, John G.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of an up-to-date information file is discussed, using the quest for the name of Paul Revere's horse as an example. A list of Famous Riders and Their Horses'' is included as an indication of the type material to be included in an information file. (SM)

  2. 洪泽湖野生红莲子、芡实、菱角中淀粉的理化性质研究%Properties of starch from lotus seed, gordon euryale and water chestnut seed in Hongze lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓明; 朱鼎程

    2012-01-01

    Some physical-chemical properties of starch from lotus seed, gordon euryale seed and water chestnut in Hongze lake were investigated,including granule microphotograph, granule size, crystalline structure, thermal properties, solubility, swelling volume, pasting behaviour, and molecular structure. The results showed that: the average particle size of starch volume of wild lotus seed, gorgon fruit, and water chestnut was 11.77μm, 2-15μm and 25. 76μm, respectively. And the particle size was uniform. The crystalline configuration of these three kinds of starch was all A-type. The crystal degree of lotus seed " gorgon fruit , and water chestnut starch crystal was 27. 1 % , 23, 7% and 25.7%, respectively! the gelatinization peak temperature was 76. 04 V , 72. 37 ,C and 75. 88℃, respectively; gelatinization enthalpy values were 8. 46J/g, 5. 58J/g and 4. 63J/g, respectively. The freeze-thaw stability of the three starch paste was poor, which was easy to form a local micro beam and retrogradation. As a result, all three were not suitable for frozen foods. The transparency of three starch pastes was between potato starch and corn starch. Thermal paste stability of three starch was fine, which may be due to the association and crosslinking between the starch molecules. Therefore all three were suitable for the production of high temperature food.%以洪泽湖野生的红莲子、芡实、菱角为原料,采用浸泡法制备3种淀粉,并对3种淀粉的颗粒形貌、大小、结晶结构、热学性质、溶解度、膨胀度、糊化特性、分子大小与分布进行研究.结果表明:野生莲子、芡实和菱角淀粉体积平均粒径分别为11.77,2.15,25.76 μm,且颗粒大小均匀.3种淀粉均为A型结晶构型,莲子、芡实和菱角淀粉的晶体度分别为27.1%,23.7%,25.7%.糊化峰值温度分别为76.04,72.37,75.88℃,糊化焓值分别为8.46,5.58,4.63 J/g.3种淀粉糊的冻融稳定性较差,易形成局部的微晶束,易凝沉、易回

  3. 不同节水灌溉方式对干旱山地板栗生长结实的影响%Effects of different water-saving irrigation modes on chestnut growth and fruiting in drought hilly land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田寿乐; 沈广宁; 许林; 孙晓莉

    2012-01-01

    在山东省泰安市半干旱、半湿润气候区的山地果园,以板栗为试材,研究了陶罐贮水、蓄水穴和畦灌覆盖3种节水灌溉方式下栗园土壤水分特征及对板栗根系、树体生长和结实的影响.结果表明:与畦灌(对照)相比,3种节水灌溉方式均能延长果园土壤保湿时间,其中陶罐贮水处理效果最明显,保湿时间长达32 d,较对照延长13 d.节水处理下,板栗结果枝长度和数量、叶片面积和质量、果前梢混合芽数量等均较对照明显增加,陶罐贮水和蓄水穴处理能对深层土壤根系进行灌溉并诱导深层根系生长,降低了浅层干旱对根系的胁迫.3种节水灌溉均能大幅度提高板栗果实产量,陶罐贮水、蓄水穴和畦灌覆盖处理的产量分别较对照提高18.8%、16.5%和14.2%.%Taking the chestnut trees in a serai-arid and semi-humid hilly orchard of Tai' an, Shandong Province of East China as test objects, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different water-saving irrigation modes (pottery jar storing water, small hole storing water, and border irrigation with covering) on the soil moisture characteristics and the growth, fruiting, and development of chestnut roots. Comparing with the control (border irrigation) , all the three water-saving irrigation modes could prolong the period of soil keeping moist, and the best effect came from pottery jar treatment, with the soil keeping moist for 32 days, 13 days longer than the control. Under water-saving irrigations, the bearing branches length and number, leaf area and mass, and shoot mixed buds all increased obviously. Both pottery jar storing water and small hole storing water could irrigate deeper roots and induce root growth in deeper soil layers, and thus, relieve the drought stress on superficial roots. The three water-saving irrigation modes could increase chestnut yield markedly, with an increment of 18.8% , 16.5% , and 14.2% , respectively, as

  4. 菱角壳色素的提取及其对真丝染色的工艺研究%Extraction of natural dye from water chestnut and its dyeing on silk fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱莉娜; 张梅

    2016-01-01

    The influences of extraction temperature, time and solid to liquid ratio on extraction effect of natural dye from water chestnut were discussed by orthogonal test. The effects of dyeing temperature, time and liquor ratio on silk fabric dyeing were investigated. The extraction conditions of natural dye from water chestnut and its dyeing conditions with the extract on silk fabric were optimized. Three dyeing methods, pre- mordant, meta- mordant and post- mordant dyeing were compared. The optimum conditions for the ex⁃traction were: extracting at 60 ℃ for 60 min, 1∶20 of solid to liquid ratio. The optimum dyeing conditions were:dyeing at 80℃for 30 min, 1∶45 of liquor ratio, and pre- mordant dyeing was the best method.%通过正交试验讨论了提取温度、提取时间、固液比对菱角壳色素提取效果的影响;研究了菱角染液染色温度、染色时间、浴比对丝绸染色效果的影响,优化了菱角壳染料色素提取的条件及菱角壳染料染色丝绸的条件。采用天然染料菱角壳对丝绸直接染色,与预媒染、同浴媒染和后媒染3种媒染方式进行比较。天然植物染料优化提取方案为:温度60℃、时间60 min、固液比1∶20。菱角染液对真丝绸直接染色的优化方案为:温度80℃、时间30 min、浴比1∶45。媒染方式以预媒染色为最佳。

  5. 响应面法优化板栗花总黄酮微波提取工艺%Application of Response Surface Method to the Optimization of Technology of Microwave Assisted Extraction of Total Flavonoids in Chestnut Flower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建旺; 杜彬; 王同坤; 杨越冬

    2012-01-01

    The technological conditions for microwave assisted extraction of total flavonoids in chestnut flower with ethanol were optimized by applying the method of response surface. Contents of total flavonoids in the extracts were determined photometrically at the wavelength of 510 nm (using rutin as reference standard) to decide which of the conditions is better or worse. The optimum conditions found for the extraction were as follws: ① power of microwave 700 W;②time of extraction 80 s; ③ concentration of the extractant (ehanol) C4 H2OH-H2O (40 ± 60) ④ mass ratio of the raw material (chestnut flower) to extractant (ethanol) 1 : 100. Rate of extraction obtained under the optimum conditions attained to (3. 47 ± 0. 14) g/100 g, which is very close to the theoratical value (3.49 g/100 g).%应用响应面法优化了乙醇微波提取板栗花中总黄酮的工艺条件。用光度法在波长510 nm处测定提取液中总黄酮的含量(以芦丁为标准),从而判断提取条件的优劣。经试验确定最优提取条件为:①微波功率700 W;②提取时间80 s;③提取溶剂乙醇与水的体积比为40比60;④板栗花料与提取溶剂的比值为1比100。在此选定条件下板栗花总黄酮的提取率达到(3.47±0.14)g/100 g,与理论值(3.49 g/100 g)很接近。

  6. 板栗壳色素对真丝针织物的染色性能研究%The Dyeing Performance Study of Chestnut Shell Pigment on Silk Knitted Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾科; 高梅; 殷珉扬; 吴露; 王祥荣

    2014-01-01

    通过探讨板栗壳色素上染真丝针织物的pH值、染色温度、氯化钠用量、色素用量等因素对真丝针织物染色性能的影响,研究了板栗壳色素在真丝针织物上的直接染色工艺和先媒后染工艺,测试并比较了直接染色和先媒后染工艺染色后织物的颜色特征、染色牢度以及防紫外线性能。结果表明,板栗壳色素直接上染真丝针织物的最优工艺为:pH值3.0~3.6,温度95℃,时间60 min;板栗壳色素对真丝针织物具有较好的提升性能;媒染后染色织物的皂洗牢度和日晒牢度稍有提高;直接染色和先媒后染工艺染色后织物均具有优良的防紫外线性能。%The effects of pH value, dyeing temperature, dosage of sodium chloride and pigment on the dyeing performance of silk knitted fabric dyed by chestrut shell pigment were discussed. The direct dyeing and mordant dyeing first and then dyed by chestnut shell pigment was studied. And the color feature, color fastness and UV-re-sistance performance of fabrics by direct dyeing was compared with those of fabrics which were dyed by mordant a-gent first. The results show that the optimal process of silk knitted fabric is pH 3~3.6 , temperature 95 ℃, 60 minutes; Chestnut shell pigment improves the performance of silk knitted fabrics; the soaping fastness and sunlight-fastness improves slightly after mordant dyeing. Fabrics have good UV-resistance performance after direct dyeing and mordant dyeing.

  7. 雪莲果马蹄蜂蜜保健果冻的工艺研究%Application of Health Care Jelly of Yacon, Chinese Water Chestnut and Honey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 邓桂容; 余中美

    2013-01-01

      以雪莲果、马蹄、蜂蜜为主要原料,以果冻粉为主要胶体,通过正交试验对雪莲果果汁的护色、果冻的生产工艺及配方进行了研究。结果表明,最佳工艺参数为复合果汁(雪莲果汁∶马蹄汁为2∶1)20%,果冻粉1.0%,蜂蜜10%,柠檬酸0.10%。%With fresh yacon juice,Chinese water chestnut juice,honey as the main raw material, and jelly powder as the main colloidal substances, using orthogonal test, the color protection of yacon juice,the optimum formula and production process of jelly were studied.The results showed that the optimum process parameter were compound fruit juice 20%, jelly powder 1.0%, honey 10%, critic acid 0.10%.

  8. Modal and Harmonic Analysis of Digging Device of Water Chestnut Harvesting Ship%荸荠采收船挖掘器的模态及谐响应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张功学; 李松锋; 张可欣

    2015-01-01

    介绍了荸荠采收船的工作原理,利用SolidWorks 建立了挖掘器的实体模型,导入 Workbench 中进行模态分析,得到了挖掘器的前6阶固有频率和振型。最后,对挖掘器进行谐响应分析,根据分析结果重新确定了挖掘器的工作频率为70.53Hz,并对偏心块重新进行了设计。%The working principle of water chestnut harvesting ship is introduced .By Solidworks ,the solid model of dig-ging device is built , then imported to Workbench ,where its modal analysis is conducted ,the first six order natural fre-quency and mode shape are obtained , the harmonic analysis is conducted , based on the the analysis result , the working frequency of digging device is redefined ,which is 70.53Hz,and the eccentric block is redesigned .

  9. 栗钙土硬度的协变性与空间秩序稳定性%THE RANK STABILITY AND RATIO VARIATION OF THE PENETRATION RESISTANCE OF CHESTNUT SOILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈有君

    2006-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of soil is an important consideration when measuring or predicting soil properties. The purpose of this study was to describe the spatial pattern and its varying rule of penetration resistance (PR). The PR was measured for fields with and without intense grazing on Chestnut soils (CS) on Inner Mongolia Plateau for Typic Chestnut Soil (TCS), Dark Chestnut Soil (DCS), and Sandy Chestnut Soil (SCS) by soil hardness tester of Fuji Wara. Also PR was measured on DCS and SCS fields for post grazing. The varying rule of soil PR was inferred by the law of statistics based on the relation of Standard Deviation (SD) and the Mean (M) of PR and the relationship of PR of different fields. There were large differences between the average PR of different fields of a soil but small variations in coefficient of variation (CV). The PR of a field has changed for the change of grazed situation, its extreme value, middle value, the distributed range of the measured PR and SD are all changed the same ratio as that of M. Pooled across fields, the within-field Ms were extremely significantly correlated with SD. The autocorrelation length for both conventional and compacted TCS was around 2.3 m in the north-south direction, and was around 1 m for conventional SCS and 2 m for compacted SCS. There was no significant autocorrelation length for the other fields. And the distribution pattern of PR is normal distribution and it did not change with the PR. Based on these results and the law of expected value and variance we can concluded that the SD has changed almost the same time as that of M and the PR difference between two points will vary the same ratio as their M after being disturbed. This was caused by the features of ratio variation and co-ratio variation of PR of different point. The co-ratio variation is the determining factor for the rank (order) stability and spatial distribution pattern.%土壤的时空变异是土壤特性的测定及建模过程中需要

  10. MAE 在线 GPC -GC -MS/MS 法测定板栗中20种有机磷农药残留%Determination of 20 organophosphorous pesticide residues in chestnut by on-line GPC-GC-MS/MS using MAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席慧; 杨振兴; 张帆

    2015-01-01

    先以乙腈为提取溶剂,采用微波辅助萃取技术(MAE)对板栗样品中20种有机磷农药进行萃取(前处理),然后将提取液经分散固相萃取净化,除去样品中大部分的脂肪和甾醇等干扰基质,再经在线 GPC /GC —MS —MS 在多反应监测模式(MRM)下进行检测和确证,建立了板栗中20种有机磷农药残留量的在线 GPC—GC—MS /MS 快速测定方法。测定结果表明:20种有机磷农药在0.01~0.20 mg/kg 范围内的加标平均回收率为71.5%(104.0%,相对标准偏差为3.4%~9.4%。该方法准确、快速、净化效果好。%In this study,an analytical method has been developed for the determination of 20 organophosphorous pesti-cides in chestnut.Chestnut were extracted with acetonitrile using microwave-assisted extraction technique (MAE)and cleaned up using dispersive solid phase extraction (DSPE)to remove most fats and sterols in samples,after cleaned using online gel permeation chromatography (GPC),the 20 target organophosphorous pesticides were rapidly detected by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS /MS).The average recoveries of 20 target pesticides in spiked chestnut (from 0.01 to 0.20 mg/kg)ranged from 71.5% to 104.0% with the relative standard deviation ranged from 3.4 % to 9.4 %.The developed method is accurate,quick,and with high purifying efficiency,it provided technical ref-erence for the quality and export of the chestnut.

  11. 提取方式对板栗雄花序总黄酮抗氧化活性的影响研究%Research of influence of extraction method to antioxidant activity of chestnut male flowers's total flavonoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利燕; 常虹; 赵丽芹; 周家华

    2013-01-01

    分别采用醇浸提法、微波法、超声波及酶法提取板栗雄花序中的黄酮类化合物,以紫外分光光度法测定了不同提取方式所提得的板栗雄花序总黄酮总还原力、清除羟自由基(·OH)和DPPH自由基能力的差异.结果表明,各种提取方式所提得的板栗雄花序总黄酮都具有较强的抗氧化活性. 不同提取方式提得的板栗雄花序总黄酮清除DPPH自由基、羟自由基(·OH)的能力大小依次为:醇浸提法>微波法>超声波法>酶法;总还原力从强到弱的顺序为:微波法>醇浸提法>超声波法>酶法.%Flavonoids was extracted from the chestnut male flowers with alcohol extracted method,microwave extracted method,ultrasonic wave and enzymatic extracted method,and the difference of total flavonoids was measured by different extraction method obtaining total reduction capacity,scavenging ability to DPPH and hydroxyl free radical by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The results showed that total flavonoids by different extraction method obtaining had strong antioxidant activity. Total flavonoids by different extraction method obtaining scavenging ability to DPPH and hydroxyl free radical was alcohol extracted method >microwave extracted method>ultrasonic wave extracted method>enzymatic extracted method. The order of total reduction capacity was microwave extracted method > alcohol extracted method > ultrasonic wave extracted method> enzymatic extracted method.

  12. 栗钙土钙积层扰动对土壤物理性质和作物产量的影响%Effect of Disturbing Calcic Horizon of Chestnut Soil on Soil Physical Properties and Crop Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段玉; 胡景辉; 张君; 姚俊卿; 郭瑞丽

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to explore the effect of disturbing (deep tillage and deep loosening) the calcic horizon on soil water and physical properties and crop yield on chestnut soil.The results showed that the soil became soft and soil hardness decreased for the hard calcic horizon was broke by deep loosening.The soil bulk density was reduced by 0.03g/cm 3 in 0~ 80cm soil layer after deep loosening,then the rainfall infiltration rate and soil water storage capacity was increased,so the crop yield and rainfall use efficiency was increased.%通过田间试验方法,研究探索人工扰动(深耕深松)干旱栗钙土钙积层对土壤水分、物理性状和作物产量的影响,试验结果表明,深松可破除坚硬的钙积层,使土壤变松软,土壤硬度减小,可降低土壤容重,深松后0~80cm土层的土壤容重减小0.03g/cm3,可使下层土壤疏松、降水渗入率增高,提高土壤水分的保蓄能力,从而增加作物产量和降水利用效率。

  13. 噻虫啉防治板栗主要害虫技术研究%Research on Technology of Using Thiacloprid MSP to Control the Main Insect Pests of Chinese Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐同冰

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,researches were made on using 2% thiacloprid MSP to control the five main Chinese chestnut pests,including Dryocosmus kuriphilus,Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee,Curculio davidi Fairmaire,Characoma ruficirra Hampson and Cryllorhynobites ursulus Roelots.They belonged to the three kinds of pests,which were leaf pests,seed pests and branch tip pests.Using the method of spraying MSP among the mountains could achieve a lot of advantages,such as a lasting efficacy,reducing pesticide times,preventing many kinds of insects,low cost,and good effect.In these tests,different doses of 1.5 kg,3.0 kg and 4.5 kg per hectare were adopted and their average control effect ranged between 60.69% and 94.71%.%2%噻虫啉微胶囊粉剂防治叶部害虫、种实害虫和枝梢害虫3个类群中的栗瘿蜂、桃蛀螟、栗实象、栗皮夜蛾和剪枝象甲等5种板栗主要害虫,采取山间雾化喷粉的施药方法,药效持续期长,减少施药次数,一药兼防多虫,成本低效果好。试验采用每公顷1.5 kg、3.0 kg和4.5 kg不同剂量配方施药,平均防治效果在60.69%~94.71%之间。

  14. Association of Polymorphism in MC1R Gene at Site 248 with Chestnut Coat Color in Three Chinese Horse Breeds%黑色素皮质激素受体1基因248位点多态性与中国马品种毛色的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党珍; 王嘉福; 赵星艳; 黄勇; 田松军; 王荣明; 冉雪琴

    2012-01-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at site 248 of melanocortin receptor 1 gene (MC1R) is known from European horse breeds, in which the homozygous genotype (ee) is related with the chestnut coat color of European horse individuals. To confirm the polymorphism of site 248 of MCliR gene in Chinese horse, three horse breeds of Guizhou pony, Southwest horse and I1ii horse were chosen as samples with coat color of three monochromatic (chestnut, black, bay) and three kinds of complex coat color. Two pairs specific primers were designed. Two fragments, 124 and 481 bp, were amplificated by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) method. The polymorphism of site 248 in MClR gene was further approved by cloning and sequencing of the DNA fragments. The results showed that genotypes of all samples with coat color of chestnut were heterozygous genotype (Ee). However, the genotypes of other samples were Ee either, in which the coat colors included bay, black, grey, spotted but not chestnut. It suggested that the SNP at site 248 of MC1R gene might be unrelated with the chestnut coat color in native Chinese horse breeds.%在欧洲马品种中,黑色素皮质激素受体1(melanocortin receptor1,MC1R)基因第248位碱基有C/T多态性,纯合的T248位点决定欧洲马的栗毛色.针对MC1R基因的248位点设计了2对特异性引物,采用等位基因特异性PCR技术,研究3个中国马品种MC1R基因型与栗色毛之间的关系.经扩增获得两种DNA片段,克隆测序后证明,扩增片段确为MC1R基因,两种DNA片段序列在基因的248位点的确星现C/T多态性,但检测126份贵州矮马、西南马和新疆伊犁马血液样本,全部为杂合基因型(Ee),其中包括栗毛、黑毛、骝毛3种单毛色及3种复毛色.这些研究结果提示,MC1R基因中248位点的多态性与国内3个马品种的栗色毛之间没有直接的相关性.

  15. 在板栗疫病菌线粒体中检出低毒病毒编码蛋白p29%Detection of Hypovirus Protein p29 from Mitochondria of the Chestnut Blight Fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王方贞; 全睿; 陈本勇; 王金子; 商巾杰; 陈保善

    2012-01-01

    p29 is a papain-like protease encoded by hypovirus CHV1-EP713. Previous studies have revealed that expression of p29 in its host, the chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica), results in reduced virulence and suppression of pigment production and asexual sporulation. Except for co-separation with membrane structures originated from the Golgi apparatus, little was known about the subcellular localization of p29 in the cell. With the success in generating antibody specific to p29 and isolation of high quality mitochondria, p29 was detected from the mitochondria of hypovirus-infected C. Parasitica by Western Blot analysis. This finding implies that p29 may be involved in perturbation of mitochondrial function of the host fungus.%p29蛋白是低毒病毒基因组编码的一个木瓜蛋白酶样蛋白.前人研究发现,在宿主板栗疫病菌(Cryphonectria parasitica)体内表达p29,会引起真菌毒力降低,色素产生减少,丧失产生无性孢子的能力.除已知p29与源于高尔基体的膜结构共分离之外,p29在细胞内的其它分布形式未明.本研究在成功制备p29特异抗体和高效分离板栗疫病菌线粒体的基础上,尝试用p29抗体检测线粒体中是否存在p29蛋白.Western印迹结果表明,受CHV1-EP713感染的EP713菌株线粒体中存在与p29抗体特异作用的病毒蛋白.本研究结果暗示,低毒病毒蛋白p29可能参与调控宿主线粒体功能.

  16. Study on the extraction of brown pigment from chestnut shell and its related properties%板栗壳棕色素的提取及其相关性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2009-01-01

    以乙醇作溶剂,用一次浸提法从板栗壳中提取天然棕色素.正交试验结果表明:提取时间2.5 h、浸提温度75℃、乙醇浓度40%、固液比1:20(g:mL)时,棕色素的提取率较高,为5.52%.对相关性质进行测定表明:所得棕色素溶于水、乙醇、甲醇,不溶于苯、丙酮、乙酸乙酯等溶液;PH值对棕色素影响不明显;棕色素水溶液有较好的耐光性耐热性及较好的抗氧化性抗还原性;金属离子Ca2+、Mg2+、Zn2+、Ba2+、Na+、K+对色素的颜色无明显影响,但金属离子Fe3+、Pb2+、Cu2+会与色素反应生成沉淀并褪色.%The extraction of natural brown pigment from chestnut shell by ethanol was studied. The optimal conditions through the orthogonal test were found as follows: the extraction time 2.5 h, extraction temperature 75℃, the ethanol concentration 40%, solidliquid ratio 1 : 20. The extraction rate of brown pigment was 5.52%. In addition, the result of the study of its related properties showed: brown pigment was soluble in water, ethanol, methanol and insoluble in benzene, acetone, ethyl acetate, etc; brown pigment in aqueous solution was good at light and heat resistance, anti-oxidation and anti-reducibility; metal ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Ba2+, Na+, K+ didn't affect the pigment color significantly. However, Fe3+, Pb2+, Cu2+ could react with the pigment with sedimentation and decolored appeared.

  17. Optimization of Submerged Cultivation Medium Components for Lentinan Production by Chestnut Mushroom Using Response Surface Methodology%响应面法对栗蘑多糖液体发酵培养基的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建英; 贺莹

    2016-01-01

    该文采用统计学方法对栗蘑虹灰1号菌株进行液体发酵配方优化,以得到适合栗蘑多糖发酵的最佳培养基配比。以栗蘑多糖含量为指标,首先采用前期单因素实验得出的6个因素,再进行Plackett-Bumrman设计筛选出影响栗蘑多糖含量的关键因素,通过响应面法确定关键因素的最佳用量和配比。结果表明:栗蘑菌株虹灰1号液体发酵培养基的最佳配方为:黄豆粉15g/L、玉米粉17.25g/L、葡萄糖20g/L、磷酸二氢钾2.237g/L、硫酸镁2g/L、蛋白胨5.88g/L,并在pH自然、25℃、140r/min条件下培养,比优化前产量提高了76.03%。%The objective of the present study was the optimization of liquid fermentation medium for producing poly⁃saccharide by Chestnut mushroom by the single factor tests and response surface methodology. Overall research was preceded by rational design. Technological condition parameters were determined according to regression analysis by Design-Expert 7.1.6. The RSM is feasible for optimum extraction process and this will improve the liquid fermenta⁃tion medium for producing polysaccharide . The optimum condition was as follows:soybean powder 15g/L,corn flour 17.25g/L,glucose 20g/L ,KH2PO4 2.237g/L,MgSO4 2g/L and peptone 5.88g/L,pH7.0,25℃,140r/min,production increased by 76.03%than before optimization.

  18. THEORETICALLY POSSIBLE AND PRACTICALLY RELIZABLE PRODUCTIVITY OF THE LIGHT-CHESTNUT SOILS OF THE NORTHERN WEST PRECASPIAN REGION ACORDING TO THE MOISTURE AND SOLINITY (ON EXAMPLE OF KOCHUBEY BIOSPHERE STATION OF PIBR DNC RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Hasanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The article presents the productivity data, the species composition and utilization rates phytocenoses FAR depending on theintegrals of dryness and moisture climate volatility, coefficient of moisture and dynamics of harmful salts in the soil according to years and seasons of the year.Methods.The studies were conducted on light-chestnut carbonate saline soil of Kochubey biosphere stations on the territory of the Terek- Kuma Lowland Precaspianregion in 2011–2013. The calculation of the use of FAR was conducted using the formula A.A. Nichiporovich to determine the theoretically possible yield of plants. Klimatogrammy during these years has been compiled by the method Walter. Stocks above and below ground plant matter into account by the method of A.A.Titlyanova.The names of species given by S.K. Cherepanov.Results. According to the results of our observations, the most important for achieving high productivity ephemeral synusia under these conditions include precipitation for April and May. Between the amount of rainfall in April and May and the productivity of abovegroundphytomass ofephemera direct correlation exists, which in 2011 had a strong, and in the next two years-the average severity. In 2012 the volatility increased, KU fell in 5 times. Such weather conditions contributed to the rise of water-soluble salts to the upper soil horizons and substantial change in species composition phytocenoses. The content Cl- in the layer 0–20 cm over the same period 2011 increased in 3.9 times, SO4--- 1.7 in times. If in 2011 the stepen soil salinity in the layer 0–35 cm characterized as weak, in 2012 the average at the same chloride- sulphate type of salinity. Obviously , an increase in the content of Cl- - ions and its relationship to the S04-- contributed to a dramatic increase in productivity and thistle herbs in 2012. Luxuriant growth of Salsola iberica Sennen et Pau particularly stood.Thus, the formation of a biomass

  19. Scientifically advanced solutions for chestnut ink disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choupina, Altino Branco; Estevinho, Letícia; Martins, Ivone M

    2014-05-01

    On the north regions of Portugal and Spain, the Castanea sativa Mill. culture is extremely important. The biggest productivity and yield break occurs due to the ink disease, the causal agent being the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi. This oomycete is also responsible for the decline of many other plant species in Europe and worldwide. P. cinnamomi and Phytophthora cambivora are considered, by the generality of the authors, as the C. sativa ink disease causal agents. Most Phytophthora species secrete large amounts of elicitins, a group of unique highly conserved proteins that are able to induce hypersensitive response (HR) and enhances plant defense responses in a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) manner against infection by different pathogens. Some other proteins involved in mechanisms of infection by P. cinnamomi were identified by our group: endo-1,3-beta-glucanase (complete cds); exo-glucanase (partial cds) responsible by adhesion, penetration, and colonization of host tissues; glucanase inhibitor protein (GIP) (complete cds) responsible by the suppression of host defense responses; necrosis-inducing Phytophthora protein 1 (NPP1) (partial cds); and transglutaminase (partial cds) which inducts defense responses and disease-like symptoms. In this mini-review, we present some scientifically advanced solutions that can contribute to the resolution of ink disease.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS BASIC PROCESSING METHODS ON CONTENT OF NUTRITION ELEMENTS AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CHESTNUT SOILS Влияние различных способов основной обработки на содержание элементов питания и физические свойства каштановых почв

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzkhovrebov V. S.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the arid zone of chestnut soils in Stavropol territory, sunflower was cultivated, using different types of primary treatment: plowing, scuffling and moldboardless processing in the depth of 10-12 and 20-22 cm. It was found out, that different treatment methods do not affect the content of nutrients. The density and porosity of the soil was relatively favorable, as in the treated and untreated soils

  1. Spoilage fungi and their mycotoxins in commercially marketed chestnuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overy, David Patrick; Seifert, K.A.; Savard, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    A nationwide survey was carried out to assess mould spoilage of Castanea sativa nuts sold in Canadian grocery stores in 1998-99. Morphological and cultural characters, along with secondary metabolite profiles derived from thin-layer chromatography, were used to sort and identify fungi cultured fr...

  2. Stroke rehabilitation 2009: old chestnuts and new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Lalit

    2010-02-01

    The past year has continued to see growth in stroke rehabilitation literature, ranging from important insights into the basic science of stroke recovery to broader multidisciplinary aspects aimed at improving global quality of life in stroke survivors. The areas that particularly stand out include 1) new evidence on old treatment strategies in clinical rehabilitation; 2) developments in the treatment of "neglected" impairments, such as hemianopia and sensory loss; 3) evaluation of the use of technology in stroke rehabilitation; and 4) advances in neurorestorative treatments after stroke.

  3. Spoilage fungi and their mycotoxins in commercially marketed chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, David P; Seifert, Keith A; Savard, Marc E; Frisvad, Jens C

    2003-11-15

    A nationwide survey was carried out to assess mould spoilage of Castanea sativa nuts sold in Canadian grocery stores in 1998-99. Morphological and cultural characters, along with secondary metabolite profiles derived from thin-layer chromatography, were used to sort and identify fungi cultured from nut tissue. Three mycotoxigenic fungi dominated (Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium glabrum/spinulosum and Penicillium discolor) and were isolated at frequencies of 67.1%, 18.6% and 17.7%, respectively, from a total sample size of 350 nuts. Another mycotoxin producer, Aspergillus ochraceus was also isolated, but at a much lower frequency. HPLC and diode array detection were used to confirm the suspected presence of the mycotoxins penitrem A, chaetoglobosin A and C, emodin and ochratoxin A in extracts prepared from naturally infected nut tissue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time emodin has been found in a naturally contaminated food source.

  4. 耕作方式对冀西北栗钙土土壤物理性状及莜麦生长的影响%Effects of tillage mode on chestnut soil’s physical characters and naked oats growth in Northwest Hebei province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩; 刘玉华; 张立峰; 窦铁岭

    2014-01-01

    为了探索不同耕作方式对冀西北栗钙土农田土壤物理性状及莜麦生长的影响,以河北省张北县10 a栗钙土长期定位试验莜麦田为研究对象,研究了免耕、松耕和翻耕对莜麦田土壤容重、土壤含水率、土壤硬度及莜麦生长的影响。结果表明:松耕和翻耕可以显著降低莜麦播种期到拔节期土壤容重,播种期免耕土壤容重1.49 g/cm3,松耕和翻耕分别为1.31和1.30 g/cm3;不同耕作方式对土壤含水率影响不大;免耕显著提高土壤硬度,拔节期免耕土壤硬度58.51kg/cm2,为松耕1.74倍(P<0.05),为翻耕2.53倍(P<0.01);栗钙土土壤硬度与土壤容重、土壤含水率关系模型表明高土壤容重条件下土壤硬度对土壤含水率更敏感,低土壤含水率条件下土壤硬度对土壤容重更敏感;免耕莜麦株高和叶面积生长受到抑制,穗数和穗粒数显著降低,经济产量413.79 kg/hm2,分别为松耕和翻耕的62.27%和51.64%。栗钙土莜麦田免耕与松耕、翻耕相比土壤容重大,土壤硬度高,莜麦产量显著降低;3种耕作方式中,松耕是兼顾生态与经济效益的耕作措施。%Taking a ten-year naked oats field experiment site in Zhangbei county of Hebei province as the test object, this paper studied the effects of different tillage modes (no tillage, subsoiling tillage, and conventional tillage) on the soil physical characteristics and naked oats growth in chestnut soil. The no tillage treatment soil was undisturbed from last year’s harvesting to sowing, with 15-22 cm stubbles; broad-spectrum herbicide was used in soil treatment before planting and sprayed in seedling. The subsoiling tillage treatment plowed the soil after the previous year’s harvest, used the self-developed‘Parallel rod without wall subsoiling plow’ (Patent No.:2011202468728) with a plowed depth of 15-22 cm, and was sowed and fertilized in the same manner as the no tillage

  5. Experimental analysis of bonding in steel bars glued into chestnut and tali timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero Chans, D.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the results of an extensive experiment designed to determine the effect of geometric and mechanical parameters on the axial strength of the bonds formed when threaded steel bars are glued into sawn hardwood timber. The studies conducted to date on glued wood joints have focused primarily on softwood glued laminated timber or glulam. In the present study, specimens made from two hardwood species with very different physical and mechanical properties were used to evaluate the effect of wood characteristics on the axial strength of such bonds. Several geometries were tested by loading a total of 190 specimens to failure. The ultimate load values found for the specimens were compared to the design values proposed in the final draft version of Eurocode 5 (prEN 1995-1-1(2001.

    En el presente artículo se resumen los resultados de una amplia campaña experimental encaminada a evaluar la influencia de los distintos parámetros geométricos y mecánicos en la capacidad resistente de uniones realizadas con barras roscadas de acero encoladas en madera aserrada de frondosa. Los estudios existentes en el campo de las uniones encoladas en madera se han centrado fundamentalmente en el análisis de uniones realizadas en madera laminada de especies coníferas. Con objeto de evaluar la influencia de las características de la madera en la capacidad resistente de la unión se ensayaron probetas realizadas con dos especies de madera frondosa de características físicas y mecánicas muy diferentes. Se utilizaron diversas configuraciones geométricas. Un total de 190 probetas han sido ensayadas hasta rotura. Los valores de carga de rotura alcanzados por las probetas se han comparado además con los valores de cálculo propuestos por el Eurocódigo 5, en su versión de borrador final prEN 1995-1-1(2001.

  6. Chemical cues for host location by the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinara, Giacinto S; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus is one of the most damaging pests of Castanea spp. Behavioral, chemical, and electrophysiological investigations were employed to examine the role of plant volatiles for host location by this thelytokuos cynipid. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays showed that adult wasps are significantly attracted by C. sativa twigs with at least 1-hr-old mechanical damage. Odors of undamaged host seedlings, intact twigs, and twigs with a fresh mechanical damage were not attractive. Wasps were repelled by plant materials of the non-host Prunus laurocerasus. Fourteen compounds, mainly general green leaf volatiles, were identified in the head-space of attractive host plant twigs by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. All compounds elicited dose-dependent antennal responses in adult wasps. A synthetic blend comprising all identified compounds in the same ratio as in the attractive host source induced significant positive responses in Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. The study gives a basis for future identification of host plant attractants that could contribute to semiochemical-based monitoring and management practices of this pest.

  7. Teaching the West in the Early American Republic: Old Chestnuts and the Fruits of New Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, John Lauritz

    2000-01-01

    Contends that the literature on westward expansion during the early republic does not provide a platform for assisting teachers in the development of a coherent story on the rise of the west. Provides suggestions for recovering the truth about westward expansion using the available literature, both current and old. (CMK)

  8. Chestnuts and spring chickens: conflict and change in farmers market ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oths, Kathryn S; Groves, Katy M

    2012-01-01

    The taxonomy of farmers markets requires an update to encompass the expanding range of available options. Also absent from the literature is an appreciation of the connection between market types, ideological stances, social characteristics, and conflict-necessary for understanding the social processes, motivations, and expectations that create a farmers market. Our study of a long-standing farmers market on the verge of municipal revamping aims to unite these interests, with a focus on the diverse demographics and values of the social groups involved. We propose a synthetic two-dimensional scheme to classify U.S. farmers markets. Bourdieu's theory of distinction is instrumental in making sense of the diversity encountered.

  9. An Old Chestnut Revisited: Teachers' Opinions and Attitudes toward Grading within a Competency Based Training Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' opinions with regard to the value and process of grading within a competency based training (CBT) framework, following the introduction of a formalised grading system at a specialist Technical and Further Education centre for hospitality and tourism training The data were gathered using a 16-item…

  10. Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Fruit Composition & Quality - Effects of Industrial Processing on Nutrients & Secondary Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Maria do Carmo Barbosa Mendes de

    2010-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências Agrárias e Florestais O castanheiro é cultivado um pouco por toda a Europa do Sul (principalmente Itália, Portugal, França e Espanha), Turquia, América do Norte, América do Sul (Chile e Bolívia), Ásia(China, Japão e Coreia), Austrália e Nova Zelândia, onde os seus frutos são consumidos em larga escala. Face ao seu conteúdo em amido, açúcares livres, fibra, proteínas, lípidos, vitaminas e sais minerais, bem como em outros compostos biologicamente activ...

  11. 48 CFR 25.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Chalk, English. Chestnuts. Chicle. Chrome ore or chromite. Cinchona bark. Cobalt, in cathodes, rondelles..., blocks, and pigs. Triprolidine hydrochloride. Tungsten. Vanilla beans. Venom, cobra. Water chestnuts....

  12. The spatial distribution of chestnut gall wasp and its sampling techniques in the chestnut plantation%粟瘿蜂在板栗林的分布及抽样技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李奕震; 易叶华; 郑柱龙; 谢治芳

    2004-01-01

    对板栗Castanea mollissima林的系统调查结果表明:栗瘿蜂Dryocosmus kuriphilus虫口密度随板栗林龄的递增而逐渐上升.间种了农作物的板栗林的栗瘿蜂虫口密度较低.在任何虫口密度下,栗瘿蜂在林间均为聚集分布,分布的基本成分是个体群,其聚集度随着种群密度的升高而增大.栗瘿蜂虫口密度在单株树树冠的东南西北4个方向之间无显著差异,而在内外层或上下层之间存在极显著差异.双对角线、单对角线、平行线和简单随机抽样方法均可作为栗瘿蜂虫口数量的调查方法.采用Iwao方法求出了最适抽样数和列出了序贯抽样表.

  13. In vivo skin irritation potential of a Castanea sativa (Chestnut) leaf extract, a putative natural antioxidant for topical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Isabel F; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Pereira, Teresa M; Amaral, M Helena; Costa, Paulo C; Bahia, M Fernanda

    2008-11-01

    Topical application of natural antioxidants has proven to be effective in protecting the skin against ultraviolet-mediated oxidative damage and provides a straightforward way to strengthen the endogenous protection system. However, natural products can provoke skin adverse effects, such as allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. Skin irritation potential of Castanea sativa leaf ethanol:water (7:3) extract was investigated by performing an in vivo patch test in 20 volunteers. Before performing the irritation test, the selection of the solvent and extraction method was guided by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging test and polyphenols extraction (measured by the Folin Ciocalteu assay). Iron-chelating activity and the phenolic composition (high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection) were evaluated for the extract obtained under optimized conditions. The extraction method adopted consisted in 5 short extractions (10 min.) with ethanol:water (7:3), performed at 40 degrees. The IC(50) found for the iron chelation and DPPH scavenging assays were 132.94 +/- 9.72 and 12.58 +/- 0.54 microg/ml (mean +/- S.E.M.), respectively. The total phenolic content was found to be 283.8 +/- 8.74 mg GAE/g extract (mean +/- S.E.M.). Five phenolic compounds were identified in the extract, namely, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin and hyperoside. The patch test carried out showed that, with respect to irritant effects, this extract can be regarded as safe for topical application.

  14. 板栗膨化食品的开发展望%Expectation of Extruded Food about Chinese Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于东; 王煜; 王嘉君

    2007-01-01

    板栗具有较高的营养及保健价值,深受消费者青睐.膨化食品有即食方便、口感松软自然和酥脆可口等特点,深受人们喜爱.本文对板栗的营养成分进行了评价,并对传统膨化食品存在的问题进行了分析.介绍了目前板栗食品的现状,提出开发板栗新产品的必要性,并对板栗膨化进行了可行性分析.

  15. 速溶板栗粉的制备研究%Study on a kind of fast soluble chestnut flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏生; 郑家丰; 王海清; 陈钊

    2007-01-01

    分别研究α-淀粉酶和麦芽淀粉酶水解板栗粉的工艺条件及烘干法和喷雾干燥法对板栗粉质量的影响,得出产物中还原糖含量在14%~18%时,产品具有良好的速溶性,同时保留了板栗的风味.

  16. The uptake of uranium by Eleocharis dulcis (Chinese water chestnut) in the Ranger Uranium Mine constructed wetland filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overall, Robyn A.; Parry, David L

    2004-11-01

    Eleocharis dulcis has proliferated in a constructed wetland used to treat uranium mine runoff water, where it rapidly accumulates significant quantities of uranium (U) in its roots and relatively little in its stems. We investigated the mechanism of U uptake and accumulation by E. dulcis using field-sampling techniques and microcosm test work. Results from the microcosm trials and outcomes from statistical tests of field sampled macrophyte, water and sediment indicate that the primary source of U for E. dulcis is the water column. Basipetal translocation of U to the plant's roots was indicated by significant correlations between the U content of stems, taproots and rhizomes and XPS detection of U inside root segments. U sequestering from sediment interstitial water by Fe hydroxides on root surfaces was also evident. No basipetal translocation was evident following the 28-day duration of the microcosm experiments, indicating that it is a longer-term process.

  17. 75 FR 76453 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EG10-65-000; EG10-66-000; EG10-67-000; EG10-68-000; EG10- 69-000; EG10-70-000; EG10-71-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC;...

  18. Ion association in water solution of soil and vadose zone of chestnut saline solonetz as a driver of terrestrial carbon sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdul-Malik A.; Endovitsky, Anatoly P.; Andreev, Andrey G.; Kalinichenko, Valery P.; Minkina, Tatiana M.; Dikaev, Zaurbek S.; Mandzhieva, Saglara S.; Sushkova, Svetlana N.

    2016-03-01

    The assessment of soil and vadose zone as the drains for carbon sink and proper modeling of the effects and extremes of biogeochemical cycles in the terrestrial biosphere are the key components to understanding the carbon cycle, global climate system, and aquatic and terrestrial system uncertainties. Calcium carbonate equilibrium causes saturation of solution with CaCO3, and it determines its material composition, migration and accumulation of salts. In a solution electrically neutral ion pairs are formed: CaCO30, CaSO40, MgCO30, and MgSO40, as well as charged ion pairs CaHCO3+, MgHCO3+, NaCO3-, NaSO4-, CaOH+, and MgOH+. The calcium carbonate equilibrium algorithm, mathematical model and original software to calculate the real equilibrium forms of ions and to determine the nature of calcium carbonate balance in a solution were developed. This approach conducts the quantitative assessment of real ion forms of solution in solonetz soil and vadose zone of dry steppe taking into account the ion association at high ionic strength of saline soil solution. The concentrations of free and associated ion form were calculated according to analytical ion concentration in real solution. In the iteration procedure, the equations were used to find the following: ion material balance, a linear interpolation of equilibrium constants, a method of ionic pairs, the laws of initial concentration preservation, operating masses of equilibrium system, and the concentration constants of ion pair dissociation. The coefficient of ion association γe was determined as the ratio of ions free form to analytical content of ion γe = Cass/Can. Depending on soil and vadose zone layer, concentration and composition of solution in the ionic pair's form are 11-52 % Ca2+; 22.2-54.6 % Mg2+; 1.1-10.5 % Na+; 3.7-23.8 HCO3-, 23.3-61.6 % SO42-, and up to 85.7 % CO32-. The carbonate system of soil and vadose zone water solution helps to explain the evolution of salted soils, vadose and saturation zones, and landscape. It also helps to improve the soil maintenance, plant nutrition and irrigation. The association of ions in soil solutions is one of the drivers promoting transformation of solution, excessive fluxes of carbon in the soil, and loss of carbon from soil through vadose zone.

  19. Research on processing of chestnut-Kefir fermented milk%开菲尔板栗发酵乳的工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蒙佳; 周强; 林葛群; 黄丽清; 林丽玲; 杨文宽

    2014-01-01

    利用传统酸牛乳酒的发酵剂——开菲尔粒(Kefir-grains)制作的发酵剂,对板栗乳与牛乳的混合原料进行发酵,采用L9(34)正交试验设计筛选制备开菲尔板栗乳的最佳发酵条件.结果表明,当板栗乳添加量为15%,接种量为8%,发酵温度25℃,发酵时间19 h,所得产品的酸度为86.98°T,乙醇体积分数为0.21%,所得产品口感细腻、酸度适中、风味柔和.

  20. Qualidade de amostras comerciais preparadas com Aesculus hippocastanum L. (castanha-da-Índia) Quality of commercial samples of horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum)

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Lopez de Prado Martins; Maria das Graças Lins Brandão

    2006-01-01

    As sementes de castanha-da-Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae) são utilizadas na medicina tradicional em várias partes do mundo no tratamento de varizes. Muitos estudos, inclusive clínicos, comprovaram as atividades antiedematosa, anti-inflamatória e venotônica do extrato padronizado da planta. O componente ativo é uma mistura de saponinas, denominada aescina. Foram analisadas amostras de droga vegetal rasurada e em pó, extrato seco, cápsulas contendo pó vegetal e extrato e co...

  1. National Dam Safety Program. Alcyon Lake Dam (NJ 00427) Delaware River Basin, Chestnut Branch-Mantua Creek, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Phase 1 Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    froma small concreto , platform which extends out from the- culvert fas Ci,). The qate is divided into two section, and is mounted on a steel frame...se(ver al concreto fILurneS that0 e xiend fromn the, nrmcurhli me andI drain baick into the, reiser vo ir . AlIl were o-r i qi n a Iv e% qu i pped( wi

  2. Identification of a homolog of Arabidopsis DSP4 (SEX4) in chestnut: its induction and accumulation in stem amyloplasts during winter or in response to the cold_

    OpenAIRE

    Berrocal Lobo, Marta; Ibáñez, Cristian; Acebo Pais, Paloma; Ramos Aranguren, Alberto; Pérez Solís, Estefanía; Collada Collada, Maria Carmen; Casado García, Rosa; Aragoncillo Ballesteros, Cipriano; Allona Alberich, Isabel Marta

    2011-01-01

    Oligosaccharide synthesis is an important cryoprotection strategy used by woody plants during winter dormancy. At the onset of autumn, starch stored in the stem and buds is broken down in response to the shorter days and lower temperatures resulting in the buildup of oligosaccharides. Given that the enzyme DSP4 is necessary for diurnal starch degradation in Arabidopsis leaves, this study was designed to address the role of DSP4 in this seasonal process in Castanea sativa Mill. The expression ...

  3. 利用美拉德反应生产板栗咖啡的工艺研究%Chestnut coffee production by use of Maillard reaction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷; 徐秀忠; 宋广磊; 巫建民; 楼珉

    2010-01-01

    研究了板栗的护色工艺,并对4种护色方法进行了比较,采用0.25%柠檬酸+0.20%Vc+0.25%壳聚糖+0.35%NaCl护色剂进行护色获得的板栗质量较好.在板栗护色的基础上,采用正交实验设计,研究了利用板栗生产板栗"咖啡"的工艺,结果显示采用加热时间30 min、甘氨酸1.2%、葡萄糖6%、料水比25%时获得的板栗"咖啡"风味、色泽、质感等最佳,效果最好.

  4. Enrichment of extruded snack products with coproducts from chestnut mushroom (Agrocybe aegerita) production: interactions between dietary fiber, physicochemical characteristics, and glycemic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Brennan, Charles S

    2012-05-02

    Mushrooms are a common vegetable product that have also been linked to pharmaceutical and medicinal uses. However, the production of the fruiting bodies of mushrooms results in a large quantity of food waste in the form of spent compost. Hyphae and the base of fruit bodies from Agrocybe aegerita were retrieved from spent mushroom compost and refined as a freeze-dried powder. This fiber-rich ingredient was used in the manufacture of ready-to-eat extruded cereal snack products. Inclusions rates were 0, 5, 10, and 15% w/w replacement levels for wheat flour from a control recipe. Inclusion of mushroom coproduct material (MCM) was significantly correlated to increased product expansion (r = 0.848) and density (r = 0.949) but negatively correlated to water absorption index (WAI; r = -0.928) and water solubility index (WSI; r = -0.729). Fiber content could not be correlated to differences in pasting properties of extruded snacks even though snack products with MCM showed significantly lower final viscosity values compared to the control. The potential glycemic response of foods was significantly lowered by including MCM (p fiber content and overall AUC following a standardized in vitro digestion method (r = -0.910). Starch content, WAI, and WSI were positively correlated to AUC of extruded snacks (r = 0.916, 0.851, and 0.878. respectively). The results illustrate a reduction in the potential glycemic response from including 5% (w/w) of MCM in extruded snacks exceeds 20%. Thus, the incorporation of MCM in ready-to-eat snack foods may be of considerable interest to the food industry in trying to regulate the glycemic response of foods.

  5. Study on starch hydrolysis by enzymes during processing chestnut beverage%板栗饮料工艺中淀粉的酶转化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟德华; 康明丽; 李艳; 周蕾; 赵巍

    2002-01-01

    介绍了以板栗为原料,经过酶解而得到板栗饮料的方法.主要是采用耐高温液化酶和糖化酶来进行转化.同时应用正交实验确定了以液化酶和糖化酶为酶源水解板栗淀粉的最适工艺条件.

  6. 栗瘿蜂发生与防治的研究进展%Study progresses of occurrence and control to chestnut gall wasp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋任贤

    2009-01-01

    栗瘿蜂(Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu)属于膜翅目(Hymenoptera)瘿蜂科(Cynipidae)栗瘿蜂属,主要危害板栗(Castanea mollissima),也危害茅栗(C.sequinii)和锥栗(C.henryi),是影响栗树生长和结实的主要害虫之一。该虫先危害栗芽,同时分泌刺激性物质。在虫瘿形成过程中消耗树体大量营养,受害树树势衰弱,

  7. Chemical control of imago period chestnut gall wasp%栗瘿蜂成虫期药剂防治试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁少杰; 王信德; 杨清彦; 孙琳; 李冲

    2009-01-01

    栗瘿蜂(Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu)属于膜翅目瘿蜂科。该虫主要以幼虫为害栗芽、嫩梢和叶片,受害后形成虫瘿。使栗树不能正常抽出新梢和开花结果,不仅影响当年的产量。而且若干年内产量不易恢复。目前在我省各栗产区普遍发生,危害程度居高不下。严重威胁着板栗生产的发展。

  8. Controlling spider mites on chestnut with pesticides of plant origin%生物源农药防治板栗红蜘蛛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹淑艳; 张曰盈; 李波; 郭涛; 赵玉强

    2006-01-01

    生物农药防治板栗红蜘蛛的确的防治时期可以通过观察板栗红蜘蛛越冬卵的孵化进度加以确定.在盛末期喷施5%噻螨酮EC 33mg/L比在麦收前后防治效果提高了8.8%,平均失绿指数降低.1.8%阿维菌素EC 3~3.6mg/L、20%吡虫啉EC 66.7~100mg/L防治板栗红蜘蛛效果较好.

  9. Evaluation of effective dose in consequence of Para chestnut ingestion; Avaliacao da dose efetiva em consequencia da ingestao de castanha do Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellintani, Sandra A.; Oliveira, Joselens de; Carvalho, Jurandyr S. de; Hiromoto, Goro [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Commercial samples of Brazil nut tree seed (Bertholletia excelsa) were analysed for the presence or uranium and thorium series of natural radionuclides. The samples were analysed for the content of {sup 238} U, {sup 226} Ra, {sup 210} Pb, {sup 232} Th, {sup 228} Th. Mean values 1.4 {+-} 0.4 Bq/kg for {sup 238} U, 26.3{+-}4.1 Bq/kG for {sup 226} Ra, 4.7{sup {+-}}1.8 Bq/kg for {sup 210} Pb, 16.5{+-}4.3 Bq/kg for {sup 232} Th, 31.3{+-}6.4 Bq/Kg for {sup 228} Ra and 12.3{+-}5.1 Bq/kg for {sup 228} Th. The effective dose due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides contained in the Brazil nuts, is 2.6 x 10{sup -2} mSv/kg ingested per year. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab.

  10. 板栗苞壳周年栽培食用菌试验%Year-round Cultivation of Edible Fungus with the Chestnut Spiny Involucre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃宝山; 吴康董; 黄春凤

    2015-01-01

    以板栗(Castanea mollissima)苞壳为主要原料,进行灵芝(Ganoderma lucidum)、秀珍菇(Pleurotus geesteranus)和平菇(Pleurotus ostreatus)周年栽培试验.结果表明,3种食用菌的菌丝体长势良好,生物学效率、总产值和毛利率均较高;灵芝—秀珍菇—平菇是食用菌周年化栽培比较理想的品种搭配模式.

  11. 板栗粉气流喷雾干燥工艺优化%The optimization of technological condition of chestnut powder spray drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常学东; 康维民; 朱京涛; 李建娜

    2003-01-01

    试验研究了板栗粉的气流喷雾干燥工艺.结果表明,当料液浓度为12%,进料温度为50℃,热空气进口温度为125℃左右,出口温度80℃左右,进料流量控制在10ml/min时,热利用效率高,干燥产品水分含量低,适于贮藏.

  12. Updated Subsurface Data Base For Bear Creek Valley, Chestnut Ridge, And Parts Of Bethel Valley On The U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    This document represents a compilation of location, construction, and hydrologic information relating to boreholes, groundwater monitoring wells, and surface water locations that have been installed/established at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) through August 2013. To date, a total of 1422 boreholes and wells have been installed in and around the Y-12 area. Of those, 835 existing boreholes and wells continue to be utilized for groundwater monitoring programs, research, remedial investigations, plume characterization and delineation studies, and various other hydrogeologic endeavors. In addition, 215 surface water locations, such as rivers, streams, seeps, springs, lakes, ponds, and building sumps are included in this database. General data about boreholes and wells included in the database are survey coordinates, survey system, elevations, alternative names and well status. Surface water location information (Appendix I) includes name, alias, functional area, northing and easting coordinates, survey system, map number and sampling history. Tabulated construction data include total depth, completion method, borehole diameter, casing and screen materials, casing and screen diameters, casing and screen depths, filter pack depths, open-hole intervals, and open-hole diameters. Hydrogeological data summarized in this document include the aquifer monitored by the completion interval, depth to weathered and fresh bedrock, formations penetrated, well sampling history, and whether rock core and geophysical logs were obtained. This document (which is the sixth revision to Y/TS–881 and the ninth overall update of a previous compilation) is published on a regular basis by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which serves as custodian of drilling records and well construction data for the network of wells and other groundwater monitoring stations at Y-12. The tabulations in this database are arranged in appendices of like information. An example application of the data compiled in this document would be the evaluation of the suitability of wells for continued use in groundwater investigations and monitoring studies. Other uses may include: the siting of hydrogeological characterization activities, background evaluations of sites prior to initiation of new drilling activities, and hydrogeological review of selected sites prior to the initiation of remedial actions or new construction activity. Existing boreholes, wells, and surface water locations are presented on a series of maps (Appendix K). Boreholes and wells that have been plugged and abandoned, destroyed, could not be located, or otherwise are of unknown status/condition appear on a second series of maps of identical coverage (Appendix L).

  13. Determination of Polyphenol in Water Chestnut Peel by Folin-Ciocalteu Method%Folin-Ciocalteu法测定马蹄皮中多酚的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗杨合

    2009-01-01

    根据GB/T8313-2008(茶叶中茶多酚的检测方法),使用Folin-Ciocalteu(FC)试剂和没食子酸标准品,采用分光光度法测定了马蹄皮中多酚的含量.从测定波长、试剂用量、稳定性、线性关系、重现性等方面,对GB/T8313-2008方法进行了调整.标准曲线的回归方程为y=0.012x-0.001(r=9994),最佳测定条件为:0.20 mL 1 mol·L-1 FC试剂,0.15 mL 10%的 Na2CO3,25℃反应80 min后于765 nm处测吸光值.使用调整后的方法测得马蹄皮多酚含量为4.86%,RSD为1.03%(n=6),平均回收率99.5%(RSD=0.269%,n=6).该方法简便、快速、准确,是测定马蹄皮中多酚含量的可靠方法.

  14. 板栗深加工产品的研究现状及前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宗烽; 邵颖; 魏明奎

    2014-01-01

    The status of our production and processing chestnut are reviewed. The several types of chestnut processing are introduced including low-sugar preserved chestnut, chestnut bread, chestnut wine, chestnut drink, and chestnut slices, and processing of the key technical problems are analyzed, in order to play a guiding role for market products processing of chestnut.%对我国板栗深加工产品的研究现状进行综述,介绍低糖板栗果脯、板栗面包、板栗酒、板栗饮料、板栗片等深加工技术,并对加工过程中的关键技术问题进行分析,以期为板栗的深加工产品的市场化发挥指导作用。

  15. 7 CFR 226.20 - Requirements for meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... available nutritional data. Acorns, chestnuts, and coconuts shall not be used as meat alternates due to... or other meat alternates based on available nutritional data. Acorns, chestnuts, and coconuts...

  16. Tree Nut Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Almond Artificial nuts Brazil nut Beechnut Butternut Cashew Chestnut Chinquapin nut *Coconut Filbert/hazelnut Gianduja (a chocolate- ... safe. The following are not nuts: nutmeg, water chestnuts and butternut squash. Argan oil is derived from ...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-7 - Territorial applicability and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., gingerroot, horseradish, kale, kudzu, leek, lettuce, onions, Portuguese cabbage, turnip, udo, water chestnut... § 319.56-11 do not apply to chestnuts and acorns imported into Guam, which are enterable into Guam without permit or other restriction under this subpart. If chestnuts or acorns imported under...

  18. Antioxidant properties of three different Castanea sativa Portuguese varieties submitted to gamma irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M. Luísa; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    The Northeast of Portugal is responsible for 82% of the nation's total production of chestnuts. Since 2010, European legislation has banned the use of Methyl Bromide in chestnut disinfestation due to environment concerns and health related issues. This fumigant was widely applied over chestnuts and other fruits to kill insects and other contaminating agents, and, although dangerous, it was the most efficient treatment available, since other heat treatments still pose relevant d...

  19. 植物生长调节剂对板栗生长、性别分化和结蓬的影响%Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Growth,Sex Differentiation and Fructification of Chinese Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕守芳; 闫爱玲; 王贵禧

    2003-01-01

    @@ 板栗(Castanea mollissima Blume)原产我国,是重要的经济林树种.板栗普遍雄花多、雌花少,雌雄花比例常为1∶2 000~4 000,这是造成产量低的主要原因[1],因此,促进雌花分化,减少雄花数量对提高板栗产量具有重要意义.板栗花芽分化的特点与苹果(Malus spp.)、梨(Pyrus spp.)不同,板栗在芽内只进行雄花序原基的分化,而雌花簇和所有花器官分化形成都是在芽外完成的.李中涛等[2]认为在母枝大芽内形成雏梢(即是来年新梢),并分化形成全部雄花序原基,而其上的两性花序要在来年春季发芽后形成.板栗混合花芽的分化具有可塑性,易受外源激素和外界条件等的影响[3].板栗花芽分化的这种特异性和可塑性吸引着研究者不断地探索,本文探讨了5种植物生长调节剂对板栗生长、花芽性别分化和结实的影响,目的在于增加雌花、减少雄花和提高板栗的产量.

  20. Discussion about Status of Produce and Sale of Chestnut,Prospects and Countermeasures in Anhui Province%安徽板栗产销状况及发展前景与对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周根土; 张均

    2003-01-01

    安徽省是全国板栗的主产区之一,近十多年来,我省板栗在面积和产量上有了大幅度的提高,产销两旺.但要做到未雨绸缪,控制规模,提高现有板栗林的单位面积产量和效益,必须加快推广先进技术,加快良种推广步伐,调整品种结构,大力发展贮藏和深加工,积极创建品牌,建立营销体系,开拓市场销路,提高我省板栗在国内、国际市场上的竞争力,提高经济效益.

  1. First Exploration on the Predictable Model of the Number of the Chinese Chestnut Scale Insect%关于板栗栗绛蚧虫口数量预测模型初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张尉庭

    2003-01-01

    本文运用数量化理论Ⅰ之方法,对板栗栗绛蚧虫口数量建立予测模型.并且对模型予测精度、各项目的贡献大小作出分析,为实际工作中予测、防治栗绛蚧危害起一定的参考作用.

  2. Supervising and analysis of country rock's displacement of chestnut wood road's tunnel%栗木坳公路隧道围岩位移监测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建湘

    2007-01-01

    以正在修建的公路隧道为例,介绍了其位移监测的基本方法,并根据监测的结果对隧道的施工及时反馈了相关的信息,其结论对本隧道的施工与设计具有重要的指导意义.

  3. 板栗加工废液生产栗汁酸乳工艺的研究%Study on technics of producing yoghourt made from depose plasm of Chinese chestnut vino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖月娟; 郑立红; 李润丰; 李荣花; 高来

    2008-01-01

    研究以板栗酒加工废液为主要配料生产活性酸乳加工工艺.试验表明,板栗酒加工废液与鲜牛乳按一定比例配合,经过乳酸菌发酵,可制成品质良好、成本低廉的活性栗汁酸乳.通过L9(34)正交试验优化,确定了栗汁酸乳工艺,即板栗酒加工废液与鲜牛乳体积比为1:5,蔗糖添加量5.5%,乳酸菌接种量2.0%.发酵(42 ℃)3 h.

  4. 碳化-酸溶消解石墨炉光谱法测定板栗中铅、镉的研究%Detection of lead and cadmium in Chinese chestnut by acieration -acid dissolving stove spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑶庆; 孟昭荣

    2007-01-01

    目的:建立碳化-酸溶消解法测定板栗中的铅、镉含量的方法.方法:先用硝酸消解板栗果肉及果皮中易溶解的部分,蒸干,然后在约400℃碳化使大分子裂解,形成小分子或碳残渣,再用硝酸,双氧水消解成透明溶液.用石墨炉光谱法测定板栗中铅、镉的含量.结果:铅、镉的平均回收率为98.9%、103.5%;RSD<5.3%.结论:该方法简便、快速、安全,消化完全且干扰小,测定结果可靠.

  5. 重庆地区栗瘿蜂生物生态学习性的研究%STUDY ON BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHESTNUT GALL WASP (DRYOCOSMUS KURIPHILUS YASUMATSU) IN CHONGQING REGION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任爽; 邓新平

    2003-01-01

    在2001年至2002年,对栗瘿蜂在重庆地区的生物学、生态学习性进行了研究.结果表明栗瘿蜂1年发生1代,在芽组织内形成的小室中以初龄幼虫越冬,次年2月中旬幼虫开始活动取食,并于2月下旬开始形成虫瘿.3月下旬开始化蛹,4月下旬进入化蛹盛期,5月上旬开始羽化,6月上旬进入羽化盛期.羽化后出瘿营孤雌生殖,产卵于寄主芽内,幼虫孵化后在芽内越冬.栗瘿蜂的发生期与板栗物候期之间关系密切:越冬幼虫随栗树萌芽开始活动取食,随着栗叶的展开瘿瘤逐渐形成,板栗雄花初花期是栗瘿蜂化蛹盛期,末花期达到羽化盛期.

  6. 栗树芽内酚类物质含量与抗栗瘿蜂的关系%Relationship Between the Concentration of Phenols in the Chestnut Bud and the Resistance to Dryocosmus kuriphilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李奕震; 易叶华; 谢治芳

    2003-01-01

    栗树芽内酚类物质含量与抗栗瘿蜂性状有极显著的相关性. 在所测的7个栗树品种中,阳山油栗芽内酚类物质含量最高,其栗瘿蜂虫瘿百分率为最低. 而日本栗芽内酚类物质含量最低,其栗瘿蜂虫瘿百分率也就最高.

  7. Studies on the Occurring Characteristics and Control Methods of Chestnut Gall Midge in Pinggu County%平谷县栗瘿蜂发生特点及防治方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永旺; 丁建云; 马淑英; 王永祥; 龚禹峰

    2001-01-01

    @@ 栗瘿蜂(Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatus)又名栗瘤蜂,属膜翅目瘿蜂科,是板栗生产上的主要害虫之一.曾于20世纪70年代末80年代初在北京地区暴发成灾.1999~2000年平谷县又有约3 333 hm2板栗发生栗瘿蜂为害.1999年调查,6~10年生树被害株率达96%,10年生以上的树达100%,6年生以下的树受害较轻.为害严重的栗树几乎绝产,大部分栗树上果枝受害达70%以上,受害较轻的栗树达30%左右.并且随着树龄的增长,受害程度也越重.

  8. 核桃青皮萃取物防治板栗叶螨试验%Trials of controlling spider mite on Chinese chestnut by extracts of walnut green peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫东; 李建飞; 吴桂军

    2009-01-01

    从核桃青皮中萃取天然活性物质防治板栗叶螨的研究结果表明:用99.7%乙醇200 mL萃取200 g核桃青皮的天然活性成分,将萃取液稀释10倍、30倍,12 h校正死亡率分别为76.0%、43.5%.对上述溶液进行浓缩风干,干物质浓度为0.0169 g/mL.将干物质用水溶解(加入少量催化剂和乳化剂)稀释300倍,室内、外防治效果分别达到73.0%和93.8%.

  9. CLIMATES OF LEARNING AND THE INNOVATIVE PROCESS, WORKSHOP CONFERENCES TO FOSTER INNOVATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION (4TH, SHIMER COLLEGE, MT. CARROLL, ILLINOIS, AND CHESTNUT MOUNTAIN LODGE, GALENA, ILLINOIS, APRIL 26-29, 1967).

    Science.gov (United States)

    PORTER, LAWRENCE C.

    SPEAKERS AT THE CONFERENCE DISCUSSED (1) "INCLUSIVE" INNOVATION, WHICH MUST PROVIDE FOR BOTH THE ESSENTIALIST AND THE EXISTENTIALIST, (2) MEANS BY WHICH, IN THE CLIMATE OF URBANIZATION AND DEMOCRATIZATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND OF A NATIONAL (AS OPPOSED TO REGIONAL OR SECULAR) CULTURE, FACULTIES BECOME MORE CONSERVATIVE AND STUDENTS LESS…

  10. Taking the Fear Away from Learning: Observations of Contemporary Fiction Taught by Carol Johnson at the Chestnut Hill School in a City in New York. Report Series 2.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Ann

    One of a series of six portraits of high school literature classrooms, this paper gives a detailed, evocative characterization of how one "master teacher" introduced, undertook, and guided the study of literature, focusing in particular on how the teacher interacted with students in the context of discussion of a literary work in class.…

  11. 火焰原子吸收光谱法测定南湖菱中矿质元素%FAAS DETERMINATION OF MINERAL ELEMENTS IN WATER CHESTNUTS OF SOUTH LAKE IN JIAXING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 陈晔

    2003-01-01

    用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定嘉兴南湖菱中钾、钠、钙、镁、铁、铜、锌、锰、镉、铅金属元素的含量.结果表明,南湖菱中有较高的矿物质营养价值,有害元素的含量低于国家食品允许标准.

  12. Establishing American Chestnut Test Orchards on two TNARNG Installations: Contributing to the Efforts to Restore an Ecological and Cultural Giant to the Forest Ecosystems of the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    has saturated soils which allowed the corner post to shift and lean. To alleviate this problem, poles from the previously harvested timber were...rows of 47-inch tall woven wire. Ten-foot galvanized steel t- posts were placed every 10-12 feet between brace posts and driven 2 feet into the...December 2008. The prescribed fire also served to suppress some of the woody shrubs and vines found in the orchard site such as sericea lespedeza

  13. 韩国栗疫病抗病品种的遗传变异分析%Genetic variation of chestnut cultivars for resistance to Cryphonectria parasitica in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴春根; Kim Kyung-hee; Lee Sang-hyun; Lee Seung-kyu

    2007-01-01

    为了分析韩国栗疫病的抗病品种和感病品种的遗传变异和抗病性的筛选,利用抗病性的快速检测法和RAPD(random amplified polymorphic DNA)方法对13个栗树品种进行了抗病性检测和RAPD标记分析.抗病性的快速检测选出了5个抗病品种、5个感病品种和3个中度抗病(或中度感病)品种,并且这一结果与该品种的田间表现相一致.利用筛选的12个随机引物,扩增了100个多态性RAPD片段,但未发现与抗病性或感病性相关的特异RAPD片段.聚类分析结果表明,12个品种大致分为抗病、感病和中度抗病(或中度感病)等3个大组,并与抗病性的快速检测结果基本一致.抗病品种"MANSEKI"表现出了相对于12个品种较远的亲缘关系.

  14. 罗田栗实致腐真菌的分离鉴定及拮抗菌筛选%Isolation, Identification and Screening of Antagonistic Bacteria of the Pathogenic Fungi in Chinese Chestnut from Luotian County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华娟; 李淋玲; 程华; 程水源

    2013-01-01

    为了探索生物防治板栗腐烂病的方法,采用组织分离法从罗田栗实中分离纯化致腐真菌并对其进行形态学观察,通过rDNA ITS序列同源性比对及聚类分析对病原菌进行分子鉴定,并利用平板对峙法筛选抗板栗腐烂病的拮抗菌.结果表明:分离的真菌经鉴定分属11个种,其中4种菌在霉变栗实上占优势,分别是匍枝根霉(Rhizopus stolonifer)、栗疫菌(Cryphonectria parasitica)、扩展青霉(Penicillium expansum)、黑曲霉(Aspergillus niger),且栗疫菌(Cryphonectria parasitica)和扩展青霉(Peniillium expansum)的分离率最高,供筛的拮抗细菌中有3株对板栗优势致腐真菌有抑制作用,其中荧光假单孢杆菌对板栗优势致腐真菌中的栗疫菌和青霉菌的抑制图直径超过10mm.

  15. Fat Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Chinese Chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) Kernels%板栗种仁脂肪含量及其脂肪酸组成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丽松; 李如华; 王贵禧; 张柏林

    2013-01-01

    以中国3个主要品种群中不同产区的24个板栗品种为试材,研究板栗种仁中的脂肪含量及脂肪酸组成特性,探讨不同品种以及品种群板栗种仁中脂肪含量及脂肪酸构成的差异.结果表明:1)板栗种仁中的脂肪含量在1.15~4.48g/100g(以干质量计)之间;2)板栗种仁中主要包含了从C14~C20碳链长度的饱和脂肪酸(SFA)和不饱和脂肪酸(UFA),其中C16和C18是最主要的两类脂肪酸,它们在脂肪酸组成中所占比例分别在7.35%~25.81%和64.51%~91.83%范围内;3)C16/C18在0.08~0.37之间,且C16脂肪酸中以饱和态的C16:0为主,C18脂肪酸中以不饱和态的C18∶1、C18∶2为主;4)板栗种仁中的SFA所占比例(9.64%~29.22%)远远低于UFA所占比例(70.78%~90.36%),SFA/UFA构成比例在0.11~0.41之间.结果表明,板栗种仁脂肪含量及脂肪酸组成在不同品种之间存在显著差异,但在品种群之间没有表现出明显差异.

  16. Determination of Total Polyphenols in Chestnut Shell by Folin-Ciocalteu Method%Folin-Ciocalteu比色法测定板栗总苞提取液中总多酚的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田桂芝; 李绍明; 王大超; 侯立白

    2015-01-01

    [目的]探索一种简单、科学、准确的分析多酚的方法,使富含多酚的板栗总苞废弃物得到充分的再利用.[方法]采用Folin-Cio-calteu比色法测定板栗总苞中多酚含量,并对碳酸钠、Folin-Ciocalteu试剂用量及显色温度、显色时间进行优化.[结果]该测定方法的最佳条件为:取0.50 ml板栗总苞提取液,加入3.0ml福林-酚试剂、6.0ml 15%的Na2C03溶液,在40℃务件下反应70 min,测定最佳波长为760 nm.吸光度与多酚含量在0~9 μg/ml范围内有良好的线性关系(y=0.135 1x +0.019 0,R =0.999 3).该方法的平均加标回收率为99.5%,相对标准偏差为1.2%(n=5).[结论]该方法具有精密度高、稳定性好、操作简单、快速、结果准确等优点,可用于板栗总苞多酚含量的测定.

  17. Environ: E00812 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00812 Horse chestnut Conker tree Medicinal herb Aescin [CPD:C08921] [DR:D07912], E...um [TAX:43364] Hippocastanaceae Horse chestnut seed (or bark and leaves) Major component: Aescin [CPD:C08921] [DR:D07912] Medicina

  18. Determining the Index of Refraction of an Unknown Object using Passive Polarimetric Imagery Degraded by Atmospheric Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 39(2):356–367, February 2001. ISSN 0196-2892. [99] Palik , Edward D. Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids. Academic...Press, Chestnut Hill, MA, 1998. [100] Palik , Edward D. Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II. Academic Press, Chestnut Hill, MA, 1998. [101

  19. Tree Diversity Limits the Impact of an Invasive Forest Pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Virginie; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Vialatte, Aude; Deconchat, Marc; Selvi, Federico; Bussotti, Filippo; Jactel, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    The impact of invasive herbivore species may be lower in more diverse plant communities due to mechanisms of associational resistance. According to the "resource concentration hypothesis" the amount and accessibility of host plants is reduced in diverse plant communities, thus limiting the exploitation of resources by consumers. In addition, the "natural enemy hypothesis" suggests that richer plant assemblages provide natural enemies with more complementary resources and habitats, thus promoting top down regulation of herbivores. We tested these two hypotheses by comparing crown damage by the invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) on chestnut trees (Castanea sativa) in pure and mixed stands in Italy. We estimated the defoliation on 70 chestnut trees in 15 mature stands sampled in the same region along a gradient of tree species richness ranging from one species (chestnut monocultures) to four species (mixtures of chestnut and three broadleaved species). Chestnut defoliation was significantly lower in stands with higher tree diversity. Damage on individual chestnut trees decreased with increasing height of neighboring, heterospecific trees. These results suggest that conservation biological control method based on tree species mixtures might help to reduce the impact of the Asian chestnut gall.

  20. Tree Diversity Limits the Impact of an Invasive Forest Pest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Guyot

    Full Text Available The impact of invasive herbivore species may be lower in more diverse plant communities due to mechanisms of associational resistance. According to the "resource concentration hypothesis" the amount and accessibility of host plants is reduced in diverse plant communities, thus limiting the exploitation of resources by consumers. In addition, the "natural enemy hypothesis" suggests that richer plant assemblages provide natural enemies with more complementary resources and habitats, thus promoting top down regulation of herbivores. We tested these two hypotheses by comparing crown damage by the invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus on chestnut trees (Castanea sativa in pure and mixed stands in Italy. We estimated the defoliation on 70 chestnut trees in 15 mature stands sampled in the same region along a gradient of tree species richness ranging from one species (chestnut monocultures to four species (mixtures of chestnut and three broadleaved species. Chestnut defoliation was significantly lower in stands with higher tree diversity. Damage on individual chestnut trees decreased with increasing height of neighboring, heterospecific trees. These results suggest that conservation biological control method based on tree species mixtures might help to reduce the impact of the Asian chestnut gall.

  1. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants which house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). ...

  2. Chicken Breast Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 150 grams of egg white, ham, cucumber and water chestnuts, 50 grams of starch, 50 grams of oil, salt and MSG. Directions: 1. Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnuts. Mix with egg white and starch into chicken breast paste. 2. Heat the oil for a moment and then place chicken paste in pot.

  3. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Main ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 200 grams of gray sea cucumbers Supplementary ingredients: 100 grams of water chestnut, the whites of four eggs, MSG, salt, wine, meat soup, starch, sugar, scallions, ginger, soy sauce Directions: Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnut into small

  4. Deng Lu邓露

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RACHEL QIU

    2008-01-01

    @@ Chestnut Vendor,Jin Li Sheng How long have you been selling chestnuts for,and what are your working hours like? I have been working here for almost three years and work sixdays a week.Our store opens at 8:30am and closes at 9:30pm.

  5. Evaluating the Use of Tree Shelters for Direct Seeding of Castanea on a Surface Mine in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Barton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available American chestnut (Castanea dentata, once a primary constituent of the eastern hardwood forest ecosystem, was nearly extirpated from the forest canopy by the accidental introduction of chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica. An intensive breeding program has sought to breed blight resistance from Chinese chestnut into American chestnuts, while maintaining as much of the desirable American chestnut phenotypes as possible. Previous studies suggest that these blight resistant American chestnuts, termed “restoration chestnuts”, are capable of thriving on reclaimed surface mines. We direct seeded pure Chinese, pure American, and three backcross lines into brown sandstone minesoil on a mine site in Pike County, KY. To investigate the effects of tree sheltering on survival and growth, we installed tree shelters on half the plots, and left the rest of the plots unsheltered. Results indicated that shelters were highly effective at reducing initial mortality. In addition, while pure Chinese chestnut survival was highest, the three backcross lines have also survived well on this site. Our study demonstrates that American, Chinese, and backcrossed chestnuts can survive through five growing seasons on reclaimed surface mines with the use of tree shelters.

  6. Castanea sativa by-products: a review on added value and sustainable application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Nair; Rodrigues, Francisca; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill. is a species of the family Fagaceae abundant in south Europe and Asia. The fruits (chestnut) are an added value resource in producing countries. Chestnut economic value is increasing not only for nutritional qualities but also for the beneficial health effects related with its consumption. During chestnut processing, a large amount of waste material is generated namely inner shell, outer shell and leaves. Studies on chestnut by-products revealed a good profile of bioactive compounds with antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective properties. These agro-industrial wastes, after valorisation, can be used by other industries, such as pharmaceutical, food or cosmetics, generating more profits, reducing pollution costs and improving social, economic and environmental sustainability. The purpose of this review is to provide knowledge about the type of chestnut by-products produced, the studies concerning its chemical composition and biological activity, and also to discuss other possible applications of these materials.

  7. 安徽省金寨县板栗生产现状与发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢锋

    2014-01-01

    针对安徽省金寨县板栗生产现状,分析了制约该县板栗产业发展的原因,并从提高板栗品质、实行复合经营及开展板栗深加工项目等方面提出了促进安徽省金寨县板栗生产发展的对策。%Aiming at production situation of chestnut in Jinzhai County of Anhui Province, the restricting reasons of chestnut industrial development in this county were analyzed. Moreover, the development strategies of chestnut in Jinzhai County were put forward from the following aspects, including improving chestnut quality, implementing compound management, conducting chestnut deep processing projects and others.

  8. A new pyrrole alkaloid from seeds of Castanea sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiermann, Alois; Kedwani, Samir; Schramm, Hans Wolfgang; Seger, Christoph

    2002-02-01

    A new pyrrole alkaloid, methyl-(5-formyl-1H-pyrrole-2-yl)-4-hydroxybutyrate (1), was isolated from sweet chestnut seeds and its structure elucidated on the basis of data from NMR spectroscopy and by comparison with synthetic analogues.

  9. 76 FR 72442 - Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Werke AG, Petuelring 130, D-80788, Munich, Germany; BMW of North America, LLC, 300 Chestnut Ridge Rd., Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677; BMW Manufacturing Co., LLC, 1400 Hwy. 101 S., Greer, SC 29651-6731; Chrysler...

  10. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available The prostate gland is located underneath the bladder and is about the size of a chestnut. In this cut ... part of the urethra is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically ...

  11. 77 FR 12621 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Mylan Pharmaceuticals... FR 81978, Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 781 Chestnut Ridge Road, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, made...), and determined that the registration of Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. to import the basic classes...

  12. 78 FR 19016 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Mylan Pharmaceuticals... FR 72409, Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 781 Chestnut Ridge Road, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, made... Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. to import the basic classes of controlled substances is consistent with...

  13. 77 FR 30326 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice Of Registration; Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice Of Registration; Mylan Pharmaceuticals... 12620, Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 781 Chestnut Ridge Road, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, made... registration of Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. to import the basic classes of controlled substances is...

  14. 77 FR 12620 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Mylan Pharmaceuticals... Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 781 Chestnut Ridge Road, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, made application by letter to...

  15. 78 FR 69447 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Mylan Pharmaceuticals..., 2013, Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 781 Chestnut Ridge Road, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505,...

  16. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and is about the size of a chestnut. In this cut section, you can see that part ... As a man ages, the prostate typically enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which ...

  17. The NHS should take the blame for credibility gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guellard, Katherine

    2010-03-03

    Much space is devoted to what is wrong with nurse education (editorial, news, analysis and letters February 17). But the issues of student attrition and the credibility of educators are two old chestnuts that have been knocking around for decades.

  18. Managing latex allergies at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proteins that are in latex. These foods include: Bananas Avocado Chestnuts Other foods that are less strongly ... Asthma and Immunology. Latex Cross-reactive Foods Fact Sheet. Updated October 8, 2015. latexallergyresources.org/latex-cross- ...

  19. Latex allergies - for hospital patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proteins that are in latex. These foods include bananas, avocado, and chestnuts. Foods that are less strongly ... Asthma and Immunology. Latex Cross-reactive Foods Fact Sheet. Updated October 8, 2015. latexallergyresources.org/latex-cross- ...

  20. Pau D'arco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cold. Flu. Diarrhea. Bladder and prostate infections. Intestinal worms. Cancer. Diabetes. Ulcers. Stomach problems. Liver problems. Asthma. ... herbs include alfalfa, angelica, clove, danshen, horse chestnut, red clover, turmeric, and others.

  1. Oregano

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fighting against some bacteria, viruses, fungi, intestinal worms, and other parasites. ... danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, horse chestnut, red clover, turmeric, and others.IronOregano might interfere with ...

  2. Mechanical durability and combustion characteristics of pellets from biomass blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, M.V.; Oulego, P.; Casal, M.D.; Pevida, C.; Pis, J.J.; Rubiera, F. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Biofuel pellets were prepared from biomass (pine, chestnut and eucalyptus sawdust, cellulose residue, coffee husks and grape waste) and from blends of biomass with two coals (bituminous and semianthracite). Their mechanical properties and combustion behaviour were studied by means of an abrasion index and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively, in order to select the best raw materials available in the area of study for pellet production. Chestnut and pine sawdust pellets exhibited the highest durability, whereas grape waste and coffee husks pellets were the least durable. Blends of pine sawdust with 10-30% chestnut sawdust were the best for pellet production. Blends of cellulose residue and coals (<20%) with chestnut and pine sawdusts did not decrease pellet durability. The biomass/biomass blends presented combustion profiles similar to those of the individual raw materials. The addition of coal to the biomass in low amounts did not affect the thermal characteristics of the blends.

  3. Torymus sinensis: a viable management option for the biological control of Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus is a global pest of chestnut (Castanea spp). Established as a pest in the mid-twentieth century in Japan, Korea and North America, this species was first reported in Europe in 2002. Following the successful release of a biological control agent Torymus sinensis in Japan, this parasitoid species has been released in Italy since 2005. Here we discuss the potential of T. sinensis as a viable management option for the biological control of D. kuriphil...

  4. 板栗花芽分化和花序生长过程中的内源激素含量变化%Changes in Endogenous Hormone Contents during Flower Bud Differentiation and Inflorescence Growth of Chestnut (Castanea mollissima BI.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季志平; 魏安智; 吕平会; 何佳林; 管丽娟

    2007-01-01

    在板栗花芽分化期间,易于形成雌花的上部芽含有较高的ZT、GA和较低的ABA;下部芽则基本相反.在前2个分化期,上部芽的IAA含量均比下部芽的低,但进入第三分化期,尤其是随着萌芽期的到来,上部芽的IAA含量迅速急剧上升,远远超过下部芽.在花序生长期,1、2花序基部保持较高的ZT和GA水平,1、2花序顶部和5、6花序则保持较高的IAA和ABA水平.

  5. 改良RACE技术克隆板栗短雄花序26S核糖体基因片段%Cloning of 26S Ribosomal Gene from Short Catkins Sport of Chinese Chestnut by the Advanced RACE Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宁; 朱晓琴; 冯永庆; 秦岭

    2008-01-01

    RACE(rapid amplification of cDNA ends)技术是以RT-PCR为基础,根据部分已知基因序列(如EST),通过cDNA的3'端和5'端快速扩增获取全长cDNA的一种有效方法.本文作者以板栗芽变品种短雄花序为材料,利用改良SMART RACE的技术克隆了板栗(Castanea mollissima Blume)26S基因5'端未知序列,所得到的cDNA的5'末端共有1 204 bp.序列比对分析显示,该检测的核糖体基因与已知其他物种中的核糖体基因高度同源,它与已克隆到的同源基因橡树和八角枫之间的同源性分别为98%和97%.

  6. The Effect of Water-stress on the Betaine Content in Leaves,Stalks and Roots of Peach, Strawberry, Chinese Chestnut and Malus hupehensis Rehd%水分胁迫对桃、草莓、板栗和平邑甜茶叶片、茎及根中甜菜碱含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马双艳; 姜远茂; 彭福田; 孙建义

    2003-01-01

    以桃、草莓、板栗和平邑甜茶4个树种为试材,对水分胁迫下其叶片、茎以及根中甜菜碱含量的变化进行了初步探讨,结果表明:在正常供水条件下,各树种的叶片、茎和根中都有一定量的甜菜碱,不同树种、同一树种的不同器官甜菜碱的含量均不同;板栗的甜菜碱含量最高,平邑甜茶的含量最低;叶片的甜菜碱含量最高,根部的含量最低.水分胁迫下,各树种的甜菜碱含量都显著增加,不同树种变化幅度不一.胁迫程度不同,甜菜碱含量的变化趋势也不同.轻度水分胁迫下,平邑甜茶增幅最大,其次是桃和草莓,板栗增幅最小;中度水分胁迫下,平邑甜茶的增幅最大,其次是板栗、桃、草莓.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of the mtDNA COI gene suggests cryptic Dryocosmus kuriphilus associated with certain populations of Chinese chestnuts (Castanea spp.)%基于mtDNA COI基因的系统分析表明栗属植物上隐藏瘿蜂种的存在

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆鹏飞; 朱道弘; 杨筱慧; LIUZhi-Wei

    2012-01-01

    本研究利用mtDNA CO I基因的部分序列对11种群不同寄主的栗瘿蜂Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu 遗传多态性进行了分析.在获得的660 bp的序列中,变异位点(v)80个,包括简约信息位点(Pi) 15个和自裔位点(Si) 65个.T、A、C、G平均含量分别为30.6%、43.3%、13.7%和12.4%,A+T平均值为73.9%,远高于G+C的26.1%,表现出明显的A+T偏向性.为害锥栗的六步溪、大围山种群与茅栗、板栗的不同地理种群,以及为害欧洲栗的意大利Piedmont种群之间,基因序列完全一致或者遗传距离在0.3%以内,无论是NJ系统树还是UPGMA系统树均聚合在同一分支内,亲缘关系较近.而为害锥栗的采自福建省建瓯市水源镇的水源种群、福建省周宁县纯池镇的纯池种群,与其它各栗瘿蜂种群的基因序列差异较大,遗传距离均大于2%,在NJ和UPGMA系统树中水源种群和纯池种群均聚合为一单独的分支,与其它种群形成的分支互为姊妹分支.据此我们认为水源种群和纯池种群很有可能属于不同的物种,有进一步研究的必要.%The phylogenetic relationships between 11 populations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu attacking different Castanea species from different areas was analyzed based on partial CO I gene sequences. The results revealed a total of 80 variable sites in the resultant 660 bp DNA fragment, including 15 parsimony - informative sites and 65 singletons. The average content of T, A, C and G was 30.6%, 43.3%, 13.7% and 12.4 % , respectively. The average content of A + T (73. 9 % ) was much higher than that of G + C (26. 1 % ) , displaying a distinct A + T bias. Overall, the sequenced CO I gene region showed very limited variation among 8 populations on C. mollissima, C. seguinii or C. henryi hosts from China, and one population on C. sativa hosts from Italy, with between population genetic distances of less than 0. 3 %. Phylogenetic reconstruction using Neighbor - joining and UPGMA methods supported a monophyletic clade comprised of two Fujian populations associated with C. henryi hosts in Shuiyuan (Jianou, Fujian) and Chunchi ( Zhouning, Fujian). Sequences of individuals sampled from C. henryi populations from Shuiyuan and Chunchi were quite different from those of the other samples, with genetic distances greater than 2 % . These populations form a basal sister clade to all other populations investigated. It is highly likely that these two populations represent a cryptic species and deserve further investigation.

  8. Simultaneous determination of carbamate pesticides in chestnut and pine nut by high performance liquid chromatography with post-column fluorescence derivatization%高效液相色谱柱后衍生法测定栗子和松籽中氨基甲酸酯娄农药残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨民乐; 薛园园; 宋欢; 林勤保

    2010-01-01

    研究了用高效液相色谱柱后衍生化荧光检测测定栗子和松籽中氨基甲酸酯类农药残留量的方法.本文同时测定了栗子和松籽中11种氨基甲酸酯类农药的残留量.样品用乙腈均质法提取,凝胶渗透色谱(GPC)净化.时样品进行添加回收率实验,分别添加0.02、0.05、0.1mg/kg,回收率在72.56%~96.25%之间,RSD为1.30%~6.57%,检测限为0.22~0.40μg/kg,适合栗子和松籽中氨基甲酸酯类农残的检测需要.

  9. Microsatellite-based characterization of the Castanea sativa cultivar heritage of southern Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbin, Davide; Hohl, Leandro; Conza, Lisa; Jermini, Mauro; Gessler, Cesare; Conedera, Marco

    2007-12-01

    Southern Switzerland has a long tradition of chestnut cultivation as a staple food. Local inhabitants constantly selected varieties according to the ripening period, the type of use, and the adaptability to the territory. As a result, the panorama of chestnut varieties is very complex, as reflected by more than 120 different variety names in an area of 26,000 ha. Since 1994, 47 varieties have been conserved in the chestnut germplasm of southern Switzerland (CSS), including Marroni, Euro-Japanese, and French varieties. A selection of 164 individuals from the CSS was analysed by 8 SSR markers (4 of which were developed in this study). Microsatellite analysis indicated that the CSS was accurately established, as 86% of the individuals grafted were correctly labeled. The identification of 98 genotypes, 10 clonal chestnut groups, 4 synonym groups, and 12 homonym groups reflected the complex ethnogeographical structure of the chestnut distribution. The 17 Marroni individuals considered clustered in 2 differentiated genetic groups instead of only 1 as expected. The fundamental problem of the frequent cases of homonymy and synonymy is discussed, as is the need for criteria for discriminating between polyclonal varieties and distinct homonymous varieties.

  10. by Pinus virginiana in Mine Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenise M. Bauman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of planting sites on the establishment and ectomycorrhizal (ECM colonization of American chestnut (Castanea denetata (Marsh. Borkh. on an abandoned coal mine in an Appalachian region of the United States. Root morphotyping and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS region were used to identify the ECM species associated with the chestnut seedlings. Germination, survival, ECM root colonization, and growth were assessed in three habitats: forest edge, center (plots without vegetation, and pine plots (a 10-year-old planting of Pinus virginiana. Seedlings in pine plots had higher survival (38% than the other plot types (center 9% and forest edge 5%; P=0.007. Chestnuts found colonized by ECM within the pine plots were larger (P=0.02, contributed by a larger root system (P=0.03. Forest edge and pine plots had more ECM roots than seedlings in center plots (P=0.04. ITS fungal sequences and morphotypes found among chestnut and pine matched Scleroderma, Thelephora, and Pisolithus suggesting these two plant species shared ECM symbionts. Results indicated that the presence of P. virginiana had a greater facilitative effect on growth and survival of chestnut seedlings.

  11. Honey as an apitherapic product: its inhibitory effect on urease and xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate new natural inhibitor sources for the enzymes urease and xanthine oxidase (XO). Chestnut, oak and polyfloral honey extracts were used to determine inhibition effects of both enzymes. In addition to investigate inhibition, the antioxidant capacities of these honeys were determined using total phenolic content (TPC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH radical scavenging activity assays. Due to their high phenolic content, chestnut and oak honeys are found to be a powerful source for inhibition of both enzymes. Especially, oak honeys were efficient for urease inhibition with 0.012-0.021 g/mL IC50 values, and also chestnut honeys were powerful for XO inhibition with 0.028-0.039 g/mL IC50 values. Regular daily consumption of these honeys can prevent gastric ulcers deriving from Helicobacter pylori and pathological disorders mediated by reactive oxygen species.

  12. Development of methodology for identification the nature of the polyphenolic extracts by FTIR associated with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasel, Fábio dos Santos; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Wolf, Carlos Rodolfo

    2016-01-15

    Tannins are polyphenolic compounds of complex structures formed by secondary metabolism in several plants. These polyphenolic compounds have different applications, such as drugs, anti-corrosion agents, flocculants, and tanning agents. This study analyses six different type of polyphenolic extracts by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with multivariate analysis. Through both principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), we observed well-defined separation between condensed (quebracho and black wattle) and hydrolysable (valonea, chestnut, myrobalan, and tara) tannins. For hydrolysable tannins, it was also possible to observe the formation of two different subgroups between samples of chestnut and valonea and between samples of tara and myrobalan. Among all samples analysed, the chestnut and valonea showed the greatest similarity, indicating that these extracts contain equivalent chemical compositions and structure and, therefore, similar properties.

  13. Profile analysis of microbiomes in soils of solonetz complex in the Caspian Lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, T. I.; Lebedeva, M. P.; Tkhakakhova, A. K.; Kutovaya, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    The taxonomic structure of the microbiota in two associated soils—solonetz on a microhigh and meadow-chestnut soil in a microlow—was studied in the semidesert of the Caspian Lowland. A highthroughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used for the soil samples from genetic horizons. A considerable reduction in the bacterial diversity was found in the lower horizons of the solonetz and compact solonetzic horizon with a high content of exchangeable sodium. In the meadow-chestnut soil, the microbial diversity little decreased with the depth. In both soils, a portion of archaea from the Thaumarchaeota group also decreased in the deeper horizons. In the soil horizons with the lower total bacterial diversity, a share of proteobacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Sphingomonadaceae families became higher. The difference between the structure of the microbial population in the solonetz and meadow- chestnut soil can be first explained by the different water regimes and soil consistence.

  14. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1998 by the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 was performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), and the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV), and the Chestnut Ridge Regime which is located south of the Y-12 Plant.

  15. Effect of tannins on the in vitro growth of Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo, Ana M; Mercado, Elsa C; Rabinovitz, Bettina C; Fernandez-Miyakawa, Mariano E

    2010-10-26

    Vegetable tannins are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds of varying molecular weights that occur abundantly in nature. The diet of many free-ranging wild animals contains significant amounts of tannins. Also, commercial tannins are used in animal industry as food additives to improve animal performance. In order to further determine the capacity of tannins to inhibit the development of intestinal diseases produced by Clostridium pefringens, we evaluated here the effect of tannins from quebracho, chestnut or combinations of both on C. perfringens and their toxins. The C. perfringens (types A, B, C, D and E) growth obtained from the intestine of healthy and diseased animals was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of quebracho tannins, chestnut tannins, combinations of both or a commercial formula based in these tannins. Although the minimal inhibitory concentration of both tannins varied between isolates, no statistically significant differences were observed between isolates from healthy or sick animals. Comparative analysis showed that the concentrations of quebracho tannin inhibiting the growth of C. perfringens were higher than chestnut tannin. In fact, antibacterial effect of quebracho tannin was increased up to 20 times with the addition of 25% of chestnut tannin and 85 times with 75% of chestnut tannin. Antibacterial activity of the commercial product was up to ~50 times higher than quebracho tannin alone. Quebracho tannin showed partial bactericidal activity, whereas chestnut tannin activity was stronger. Both tannins were able to reduce the alpha toxin lecithinase activity and epsilon toxin cytotoxicity in MDCK cells. These results suggest that tannin-supplemented diet could be useful to prevent some clostridial diseases.

  16. Comparison of dynamic changes in endogenous hormones and sugars between abnormal and normal Castanea mollissima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Liu; Yunqian Hu; Xiaoxian Li

    2008-01-01

    To elucidate the possible functions of endogenous hormones in the flowering of chestnut, concentrations of four endogenous hormones [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), zeatin riboside (ZR)) and the soluble sugars content were measured in both normal and developmentally abnormal Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) during flowering and fruiting stages. Our results showed that the contents of ZR, ABA, and GA exhibited a significant different pattern in normal trees from that in abnormal trees, while the contents of IAA and soluble sugars showed a similar change pattern between them. These results suggest that quantitative changes in endogenous hormones may correspond to different flowering and fruiting mechanisms.

  17. [Relationship between occurrence of Dryocosmus kuriphilus and development of cecidum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuzhou; Bi, Shoudong; Fang, Guofei; He, Lin

    2004-01-01

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus is one of the most important pests on chestnut in China, and cecidum is the jeopardized result of Dryocosmus kuriphilus. Under natural condition, the growth status of different cecidum of Dryocosmus kuriphilus was differed, and the weight of individual cecidum was submitted to normal distribution. The zooecium number was positively related to cecidum quality and volume. For three different varieties of chestnut, their resistance to Dryocosmus kuriphilus were different, and the order was Chushuhong > Mifengqiu > Ershuizao. Torymus sinensis Kamijo was the dominant natural enemy. The cecidum-parasitized ratio was 72.7%, and the zooecium-parasitized ratio was 24.06%.

  18. Pepper and Sesame Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 250 grams of chicken breast, 50 grams of water chestnut, thick pieces of white bread or steamed bun. Supplementary Ingredients: Sesame, lard, MSG, salt, whites of three eggs, starch. Directions: Chop up the chicken breast into mash, cut the water chestnuts into small pieces and put them in a bowl. Mix in the supplementary ingredients. Spread the mixed mash onto the bread pieces and roll them in sesame. Heat 250 grams of oil. When hot, put in the pieces one by one. When the pieces turn

  19. Characterization of biochar and bio-oil samples obtained from carbonization of various biomass materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezcimen, Didem; Ersoy-Mericboyu, Ayseguel [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical-Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Department of Chemical Engineering, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-06-15

    Apricot stone, hazelnut shell, grapeseed and chestnut shell are important biomass residues obtained from the food processing industry in Turkey and they have a great importance as being a source of energy. In this study, the characteristics of bio-oil and biochar samples obtained from the carbonization of apricot stone, hazelnut shell, grapeseed and chestnut shell were investigated. It was found that the biochar products can be characterized as carbon rich, high heating value and relatively pollution-free potential solid biofuels. The bio-oil products were also presented as environmentally friendly green biofuel candidates. (author)

  20. EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF CONDENSED TANNINS IN CASTANEA SATIVA MILL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Živković

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins are widespread in woody plants, but are also found in certain forages. Castanea sativa Mill. are exploited for various purposes, but a little is known about potential of this species and possible application in diet and therapy. The parts of chestnut such as: seed, peeled seed, brown seed shell, red internal seed shell, leaves, catkin, spiny bur, as well as the new and old chestnut bark were extracted with 50% ethanol as an extragents. Contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids were measured by application of the standard colorimetric assay. The total condensed tannins content estimated was highest in red internal seed shell 15.29%CE (vanillin assay and 3.12%CT (acid butanol assay. Also high content of total phenolic compounds and condensed tannins had extracts of catkin, brown seed shell of chestnut and new chestnut bark. Extracts of C. sativa Mill. can be a potential resource of natural tannins with possible application in diet and therapy.

  1. 7 CFR 301.81-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... White/Cumberland County line and U.S. Highway 70; then east on U.S. Highway 70 to Market Street (in Crab Orchard); then north on Market Street to Main Street; then west on Main Street to Chestnut Hill Road; then... northeast on Fairview Road to Tennessee Highway 8; then southeast on Tennessee Highway 8 to Dark Hollow...

  2. 77 FR 3759 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Docket Nos. Agua Caliente Solar, LLC EG12-1-000 Windpower Partners 1993, L.P EG12-2-000 South Chestnut LLC...

  3. Brown rot on nuts of Castanea sativa Mill: an emerging disease and its causal agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maresi G

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality and quantity of nut production are fundamental to the economic viability of chestnut cultivation, yet recent reports indicate that severe damage due to moulds represents a significant problem for growers. We carried out an investigation of the agents of chestnut rot and internal fruit damage in three orchards in Italy. Black and brown rot, as well as insect damage, were found in all the areas examined. Brown rot appeared to be the main cause of damage, affecting 8% to 49% and 2% to 24% of nuts collected from the ground and from burrs, respectively. With respect to morphology and DNA sequencing analyses, fungal isolates obtained from brown rot were homologous with Gnomoniopsis sp. obtained from Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Yasumatsu galls and with Gnomoniopsis castanea and Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi described on chestnut in Italy and Australia, respectively. The same fungus was also isolated from the bark of one- and two-years-old healthy shoots at each site, supporting the endophytic behaviour of this rot agent. Brown rot symptoms on nuts associated with Gnomoniopsis sp. corresponded with those previously described by several authors and referred to as Phoma or Phomopsis endogena, suggesting a relationship between these fungi and Gnomoniopsis sp. It is to notice that the escalation of brown rot damage in Italy followed several periods of drought and probably the recent invasion of D. kuriphilus, both stress factors for chestnut trees.

  4. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY SUPPOSITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Chahirova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study for the development of dual-layer suppositories with the oil extract of mountain ash and liquid extract of a horse chestnut. The technology of suppositories is based on extracts prepared from the test materials. 

  5. 42 CFR 85.3 - Procedures for requesting health hazard evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... industry. Environmental Investigations Branch, Division of Respiratory Disease Studies, NIOSH, 944 Chestnut... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES REQUESTS FOR HEALTH HAZARD EVALUATIONS § 85.3... addressed to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health as follows: (1) Requests from...

  6. 76 FR 52968 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ..., Memorial Hospital, 822-824 E. Chestnut St., Coatesville City, 11000642 Clearfield County Schrot, Joseph F...), Hyde, 11000643 Dauphin County Allerman, Conrad and Margaret, House, 1412 Farmhouse Ln. (Lower Swatara... St., Steelton Borough, 11000645 Indiana County Clark, Sen. Joseph O., House, 247 1st Ave.,...

  7. A Key for the Identification of Eighteen Common Timbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Dichotomous key for 18 woods in common domestic and architectural use in Britain is provided. It is based upon structures visible with the naked eye and a hand-lens. Descriptions of the necessary anatomy and terminology are given. Timbers include yew, pine, spruce, oak, sweet chestnut, elm, ash, teak, cherry, walnut, mahogany, box, beech,…

  8. Four new species and a new genus of Longicorn Coleoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1881-01-01

    Length 30 mm., breadth at the shoulders 7,5 mm. — Dark chestnut-brown, approaching to black on the thorax; the elytra testaceous-brown, becoming paler towards the end, narrowly bordered with dark brown; each of them has laterally a dark brown harpoon-shaped figure, which extends from the base down t

  9. 76 FR 51040 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    .... ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Philadelphia District Office..., Philadelphia District, 900 U.S. Customhouse, Second & Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, PA 19106, 215-597-4390... Continuing Education Credits for SoCRA CE and Nurse CNE. SOCRA designates this live activity for a maximum...

  10. 7 CFR 225.16 - Meal service requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 and up may be served larger portions based on the greater food needs of older boys and girls. (1... other meat alternates based on available nutritional data. Acorns, chestnuts, and coconuts shall not be... pattern requirements contained in the Child and Adult Care Food Program regulations (7 CFR part 226)....

  11. Defense Industrial Base Capabilities Study: Battlespace Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Eastman Kodak 1880 Rochester, NY 70,000 13 www.kodak.com Hyperspectral Imager Ebara Solar, Inc. 1993 Belle Vernon , PA 87 5 www.ebarasolar.com Active...Hyperspectral Imager LeCroy Corp. 1963 Chestnut Ridge, NY 424 112 www.lecroy.com Ground Penetrating Radar Light Age, Inc. 1989 Somerset , NJ 30 8

  12. 75 FR 81832 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Area and Regulated Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... wounds and sawdust accumulation at tree bases. They feed on, and over-winter in, the interiors of trees... native to China, Japan, Korea, and the Isle of Hainan, is a destructive pest of hardwood trees. It attacks many healthy hardwood trees, including maple, horse chestnut, birch, poplar, willow, and elm....

  13. VARIETY FEATURES OF SEED AND OIL EFFICIENCY OF PUMPKIN Сортовые особенности семенной и масличной продуктивности тыквы

    OpenAIRE

    Erin I. V.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of pumpkin variety on the increase of seed productivity on dark-chestnut soils of Rostov region has been revealed. A number of varieties of pumpkin, using of which will allow to increase the output of oil per hc, is offered.

  14. A native and an introduced parasitoid utilize an exotic gall-maker host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) is non-native to North America and induces formation of galls on petioles and leaves of all chestnut (Castanea spp., Fagales: Fagaceae). We investigated the interactions between the gall wasp D. kuriphilus, a native parasitoid, Ormyrus labotus (Hymenopt...

  15. Effects of plant tannin extracts supplementation on animal performance and gastrointestinal parasites infestation in steers grazing winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-six stocker cattle (286.1 ± 25.7 kg) were used to quantify the effect of commercial plant tannin extracts (control vs. mimosa and chestnut tannins) on animal performance, gastrointestinal parasites control, and plasma metabolite changes in heifers grazing winter wheat forage (Triticum aestivu...

  16. Powdered hide model for vegetable tanning II. hydrolyzable tannin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetable tannages employ both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins. As part of our exploration of tanning mechanisms, we reported last year on interactions of the condensed tannin, quebracho, with powdered hide. In this study, the interactions of chestnut extract, a hydrolyzable tannin, with powdere...

  17. Fish in Mutton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Ingredients:500 grams mutton and 750 grams live fish Condiments:Salt for taste, ginger, scallion, soup, water chestnut powder, gourmet powder Method: 1.Quick-boil the clean mutton. then put scallion, ginger, salt, gourmet powder and pepper powder into it and cook until

  18. Reliability based Robustness of Timber Structures through NDT Data Updating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Hélder S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    testing, Resistograph® and Pilodyn® conducted on chestnut wood specimens were used, as well as correlations between those results and compression strength parallel to the grain tests’ results. The resistant characteristics are also updated assuming deterioration models applied to specific key elements...

  19. Effects of shading on Vallisneria natans (Lour.) H. Hara growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Meng, F; Shen, X

    2013-01-01

    , but dry weight fruit production was significantly reduced at 90% shading. We conclude that above 50% surface shading, V. natans plants suffer reductions in accumulated biomass and investment in sexual reproduction. We contend that recent expansions in the extent of the native floating water chestnut Trapa...

  20. The Natural Evolutionary Potential of Tree Populations to Cope with Newly Introduced Pests and Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budde, Katharina Birgit; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Ravn, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    and the heritability of resistance traits varies substantially among the cases. While chestnut blight wilt combined with ink disease has virtually eliminated mature Castanea dentata trees from North America, other severe emerging diseases, such as the ash dieback, have left many surviving trees and genetic variation...

  1. Avocado hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, C; Carrillo, T; Castillo, R; Quiralte, J; Cuevas, M

    1994-07-01

    The avocado (Av) is a fruit that belongs to the Lauraceae family. We report 17 patients with immediate hypersensitivity to avocado. Clinical manifestations in relation to avocado ingestion were as follows: systemic anaphylaxis in seven patients, angioedema/urticaria in six, vomiting in two, bronchial asthma in one, and rhinoconjunctivitis in one. Skin prick test (SPT) with fresh avocado was positive in all patients with the Strong avocado variety (SAv) and in 14 patients with the Hass avocado variety (HAv). Our patient-associated sensitizations were as follows: 10 to latex, eight to chestnut, eight to banana, four to kiwi, and four to walnut. Avocado-sensitized patients with latex allergy were typically middle-aged women, professionally exposed to latex, who also exhibited frequent associated sensitizations to chestnut, banana, and other fruits. Specific IgE against avocado was demonstrated in 11 of our patients, by both commercial CAP and RAST with avocado extract coupled to nitrocellulose disks. Despite its lower protein content, SAv seems to be more allergenic than HAv, both in vivo and in vitro. On incubating a pool of sera from our patients with avocado, latex, chestnut, and banana extracts, a progressive RAST inhibition was obtained, with SAv- and chestnut-marked disks. This suggests the existence of common antigenic determinants among these allergens.

  2. Cancer related gene expression in the human prostate zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Heul-Nieuwenhuijsen (Leonie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe normal prostate: The prostate is the largest accessory gland of the male reproductive system. (Figure 1) The healthy adult prostate is about the size of a chestnut and conical in shape. In general, it measures 20 ml in volume, though it can become five or six time that size with incr

  3. Genetic Analysis of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.J.G. van Alewijk (Dirk)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The human prostate has the size of a chestnut and envelops the urethra as it exits the bladder, below the bladder neck. It is the largest of the male accessory sex glands, which also include the seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral gland. The prostate is composed of glan

  4. Spotted phenotypes in horses lost attractiveness in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wutke, Saskia; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson

    2016-01-01

    were influenced by humans. Our results from genotype analyses show a significant increase in spotted coats in early domestic horses (Copper Age to Iron Age). In contrast, medieval horses carried significantly fewer alleles for these phenotypes, whereas solid phenotypes (i.e., chestnut) became dominant...

  5. Toward a Multidimensional Framework for the Analysis of Social Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Martin O.; Peters, B. Guy

    1977-01-01

    Pleads for a more complex conceptualization of the policy process that considers the factors of time, policy areas, level of government, and nation. Available from The American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104; $15.00 annually. (Author/IRT)

  6. [Environmental geochemical baseline of heavy metals in soils of the Ili river basin and pollution evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Ru; Nasier, Telajin; Cheng, Yong-Yi; Zhan, Jiang-Yu; Yang, Jian-Hong

    2014-06-01

    Environmental geochemical baseline models of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Hg were established by standardized method in the ehernozem, chestnut soil, sierozem and saline soil from the Ili river valley region. The theoretical baseline values were calculated. Baseline factor pollution index evaluation method, environmental background value evaluation method and heavy metal cleanliness evaluation method were used to compare soil pollution degrees. The baseline factor pollution index evaluation showed that As pollution was the most prominent among the four typical types of soils within the river basin, with 7.14%, 9.76%, 7.50% of sampling points in chernozem, chestnut soil and sierozem reached the heavy pollution, respectively. 7.32% of sampling points of chestnut soil reached the permitted heavy metal Pb pollution index in the chestnut soil. The variation extent of As and Pb was the largest, indicating large human disturbance. Environmental background value evaluation showed that As was the main pollution element, followed by Cu, Zn and Pb. Heavy metal cleanliness evaluation showed that Cu, Zn and Pb were better than cleanliness level 2 and Hg was the of cleanliness level 1 in all four types of soils. As showed moderate pollution in sierozem, and it was of cleanliness level 2 or better in chernozem, chestnut soil and saline-alkali soil. Comparing the three evaluation systems, the baseline factor pollution index evaluation more comprehensively reflected the geochemical migration characteristics of elements and the soil formation processes, and the pollution assessment could be specific to the sampling points. The environmental background value evaluation neglected the natural migration of heavy metals and the deposition process in the soil since it was established on the regional background values. The main purpose of the heavy metal cleanliness evaluation was to evaluate the safety degree of soil environment.

  7. Multiple shoot-bud formation and plantlet regeneration on Castanea sativa Mill. seeds in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, R

    1982-06-01

    Primordial initiation and development of shoot-buds has been accomplished by using shoots derived from chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) seedlings cultured with added 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Germination of chestnut seeds in the presence of BAP (4 - 40 μM) stimulated varying numbers of shoot-buds in those areas of the main axis that were favorably altered. When excised single shoots from these treated seeds were subcultured on a fresh medium containing BAP (4 - 40 μM) continual shoot production was observed. Bud growth and shoot elongation were stimulated by transferring cultures to a reduced concentration of BAP (2 μM) plus indole-3-butyric acid (IBA 0.4 μM). Plant regeneration occurred in the presence of IBA (0.8 μM) after a preconditioning treatment in which naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA 50 μM) and kinetin (k 2 μM) were applied to the tissue culture shoots for 7 days in light.

  8. Amino Acids Content in Germinating Seeds and Seedlings from Castanea sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmaison, A M; Tixier, M

    1986-06-01

    During germination the chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) var ecotype 33 accumulates a large amount of asparagine in the cotyledons. This compound also accumulates in the growing axis:shoots and roots. In the cotyledons, gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) represents a major amino compound during germination and early seedling growth. In young seedlings, 35 days old, arginine predominates over the other soluble amino acids, particularly in roots. Five enzymic activities involved in arginine and GABA have been measured in the storage organ of the seed: arginase and ornithine carbamyltransferase decrease during germination indicating the slowing down of the urea cycle. In contrast, ornithine aminotransferase increases. Glutamate decarboxylase is particularly active about 21 days after imbibition and GABA aminotransferase activity decreases during germination. These two activities are in good agreement with the likely transport of GABA from cotyledons to growing axis. Asparagine, arginine, and GABA are the three amino compounds obviously involved in the mobilization of nitrogen reserves in the germinating chestnut seeds Castanea sativa.

  9. Effect of artificial ageing using different wood chips on the antioxidant activity, resveratrol and catechin concentration, sensory properties and colour of two Greek red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortzi, Olga; Metaxa, Xenia; Mantanis, George; Lalas, Stavros

    2013-12-01

    Two Greek red wines (Syrah and Cabernet) were artificially aged with different wood chips (white oak, red oak, Turkey oak, chestnut, Bosnian pine, cherry, common juniper, common walnut, white mulberry, black locust and apricot). The influence of each wood species was tested for up to 20 days. The optimum duration for the extraction of total polyphenols was 20 days (Syrah) or 10 days (Cabernet) when chips of white oak, chestnut, cherry, white mulberry, black locust and apricot where used. Resveratrol and catechin concentrations ranged within the limits previously reported in literature. A high antioxidant activity was established after 10 days of artificial ageing. The sensory evaluation showed that the best results were produced by the apricot chips after 5 days (Syrah) or black locust and apricot after 5 days (Cabernet). Colour was seen to increase with both time of ageing and number of wood chips added.

  10. Yersiniosis caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in captive toucans (Ramphastidae) and a Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis) in zoological gardens in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Hayashidani, Hideki; Sotohira, Yukari; Une, Yumi

    2016-02-01

    Two captive Keel-billed toucans and a Chestnut-mandibled toucan in another zoological garden died suddenly without any pre-existing symptoms, and three months later, a Japanese squirrel died of diarrhea. All these animals showed necrotic enteritis and multifocal necrosis in the liver and spleen with Gram negative bacilli. The bacilli showed strong positive immunolabeling for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O4 in the Keel-billed toucans, Y. pseudotuberculosis O2 in the Chestnut-mandibled toucan and Y. pseudotuberculosis O1 in the Japanese squirrel, while Y. pseudotuberculosis 4b, 2b and 1b were respectively isolated from the lesions. To our knowledge, this might be the first reported case of fatal yersiniosis in a Japanese squirrel in the world as well as in toucans in Japan.

  11. Occurrence and transmission of mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 from dejecta of Thyreophagus corticalis (Acari, Acaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouneb, Mabrouk; Turchetti, Tullio; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Paoli, Francesco; Danti, Roberto; Simoni, Sauro

    2016-03-01

    The natural spread of virus-induced hypovirulence is highly involved in the recovery of blighted chestnut stands and orchards in Italy and in Europe. The potential role of corticolous mites as vectors of hypovirulence in blighted chestnut Castanea sativa (Mill.) stands was pointed out in previous reports. Here, by using RT-PCR, mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus (CHV1) was detected in Thyreophagus corticalis mites reared on a hypovirulent strain in monoxenic cultures and in their faecal pellets. Cryphonectria parasitica mycelium derived from mites' dejecta was able to transmit CHV1 to the virulent strain determining its conversion to hypovirulent one. This converted strain induced healing cankers on excised stems, differently from the un-converted virulent strain. Our findings prove the spread of CHV1 by corticolous mites that feed on virus-infected fungus and emphasize their potential role as vectors.

  12. Effet de l'addition des tannins de châtaigniers sur la rétention azotée et la digestibilité chez les ruminants ingérant des produits herbagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriaa, S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Influence of the Addition of Extract of Chestnut Tannin on the Nitrogen Balance and the Digestibility of Fresh Grass in Ruminant. The use of chestnut tannin (CT (hydrolysable Tannins, added at a low concentration (4 g CT/100 g of total nitrogen (TN = 0, 8 g cT/kg of DM distribute to a grass forage for growing sheep, improves the N retention (P <0, 01. The improvement of N retention is explained by the decrease of nitrogen in the urine, indicating a better use of absorbed nitrogen. Moreover, the addition at these low concentrations of CT to fresh grass does not alter neither the digestibility of its constituents (OM, TN, ADF nor the rate of ingestion.

  13. Rangeland Grasshoppers in Relation to Soils in the Qinghai Lake Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Shao-Xiang; WANG Jie-Chen; JIANG Jian-Jun; ZHA Yong

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between rangeland grasshopper density and soil type as well as topsoil moisture content was analyzed with in situ soil data collected in the Qinghai Lake region of China. Grasshoppers were confined mainly to the areas with light chestnut soil or chestnut soil, and very few were found in areas with subalpine meadow soil. Grasshoppers were almost absent from other types of soil, such as aeolian soil. In addition, analysis of 14 soil samples collected in the study area revealed that a soil moisture content between 18 and 32 g kg-1 coincided spatially with a higher density of grasshoppers, with the grasshopper density averaging 15 head m-2. In areas with a soil moisture content above 42 g kg-1 or below 10g kg-1, grasshopper density dropped to less than 5 head m-2. These indicated that for the study area, soils with very high or very low moisture contents were not conducive to the survival of grasshoppers.

  14. Airborne castanea pollen forecasting model for ecological and allergological implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astray, G; Fernández-González, M; Rodríguez-Rajo, F J; López, D; Mejuto, J C

    2016-04-01

    Castanea sativa Miller belongs to the natural vegetation of many European deciduous forests prompting impacts in the forestry, ecology, allergological and chestnut food industry fields. The study of the Castanea flowering represents an important tool for evaluating the ecological conservation of North-Western Spain woodland and the possible changes in the chestnut distribution due to recent climatic change. The Castanea pollen production and dispersal capacity may cause hypersensitivity reactions in the sensitive human population due to the relationship between patients with chestnut pollen allergy and a potential cross reactivity risk with other pollens or plant foods. In addition to Castanea pollen's importance as a pollinosis agent, its study is also essential in North-Western Spain due to the economic impact of the industry around the chestnut tree cultivation and its beekeeping interest. The aim of this research is to develop an Artificial Neural Networks for predict the Castanea pollen concentration in the atmosphere of the North-West Spain area by means a 20years data set. It was detected an increasing trend of the total annual Castanea pollen concentrations in the atmosphere during the study period. The Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) implemented in this study show a great ability to predict Castanea pollen concentration one, two and three days ahead. The model to predict the Castanea pollen concentration one day ahead shows a high linear correlation coefficient of 0.784 (individual ANN) and 0.738 (multiple ANN). The results obtained improved those obtained by the classical methodology used to predict the airborne pollen concentrations such as time series analysis or other models based on the correlation of pollen levels with meteorological variables.

  15. Knee osteoarthrosis secondary to ochronosis – clinical case☆☆☆

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia Maria da Silva Martins Ferreira; Filipe Lima Santos; André Miguel Castro Costa; Bruno Miguel Pereira Barbosa; Rui Miguel Reis Rocha; Joaquim Fernando Fontes Lebre

    2014-01-01

    Alkaptonuria is a rare metabolic disease in which a deficiency of the enzyme homogentisate dioxygenase causes an accumulation of homogentisic acid. Ochronosis consists of excessive deposition of homogentisic acid in the connective tissue and presents as a chestnut brown or black pigmentation. With aging, the accumulation of pigments from homogentisic acid in the joints causes osteoarthrosis. There is no specific treatment for the disease and the approach is symptomatic. Arthroplasty is the so...

  16. The Fractal Nature of Wood Revealed by Drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An experiment on wood drying at different temperatures was conducted to show the fractal nature of the pore space within wood. Cubic blocks made from ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) wood were used. Samples were dried in oven at the temperature of 20, 40, 60 and 100 ℃, respectively. All the drying procedures lasted four hours. The mass was weighed and the dimensions were measured immediately for each sample when every procedure of drying ended. The fractal dimensions of ...

  17. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2000 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant that will be managed by tie Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2000 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant GWPP during CY 2000 will comply with: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (SWDF); and DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring. Some of the data collected for these monitoring drivers also will be used to meet monitoring requirements of the Integrated Water Quality Program, which is managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC. Data from five wells that are monitored for SWDF purposes in the Chestnut Ridge Regime will be used to comply with requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act post closure permit regarding corrective action monitoring. Modifications to the CY 2000 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in regulatory or programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  18. 我国坚果类森林食品的国际竞争力分析%Analysis on the International Competitiveness of Chinese Forestry Nuts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆博; 刘俊昌; 陈文汇

    2013-01-01

    The trade scale of the nuts of forestry foods of China was introduced. International export competitive ability of the nuts (including walnut, chestnut,pine nut, and pistachio) was discussed by analyzing the indices such as international market share,trade competition index,and revealed symmetric comparative advantage index. Export and import price variations of the nuts were predicted. It was found that chestnuts in China possessed the highest international market share, pine nut, walnut and chestnut demonstrated strong competitiveness,pistachio and chestnut exhibited certain price advantages. Suggestions to improve the export competitiveness of Chinese forestry nut products were put forward.%在介绍我国坚果类森林食品贸易规模的基础上,运用国际市场占有率、贸易竞争指数和显示性对称比较优势指数等指标分析了核桃、板栗、松子仁和开心果4类坚果产品的出口竞争力,并进一步分析了其进出口价格的变动情况.结果表明,板栗的国际市场占有率最高,松子仁、核桃和板栗具有较强的竞争力,而开心果和板栗具有一定的价格优势.并就提高我国坚果产品出口竞争力提出了相应的建议.

  19. 77 FR 59120 - Butylate, Clethodim, Dichlorvos, Dicofol, Isopropyl Carbanilate, et al.; Tolerance Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... as India, China, and Argentina, and requested that EPA not revoke the dicofol tolerances on tea but.../16 Chestnut 0.1 10/31/16 Citrus, dried pulp 12.0 10/31/16 Citrus oil 200.0 10/31/16 Cotton, refined oil 0.5 10/31/16 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.1 10/31/16 Fruit, citrus, group 10 6.0 10/31/16 Fruit,...

  20. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide: Mississippi Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    observation well, saline or brackish water withdrawal well, contaminant recovery well, heat pump water supply hole, vertical closed-loop system hole...King Rail Yes Yes Yes Yes 2 Rynchops niger Black Skimmer Yes Yes Yes 2 Scolopax minor American Woodcock Yes Yes Yes Yes 3 Seiurus motacilla...Chestnut Lamprey Yes Yes Yes 2 letiobus niger Black Buffalo Yes Yes Yes 3 Leptolucania ommata Pygmy Killifish Yes Yes 4 Lythrurus fasciolaris