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Sample records for chestnut trees

  1. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies.

  2. Sexually mature transgenic American chestnut trees via embryogenic suspension-based transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Gisele M; Nairn, Campbell J; Le, Huong T; Merkle, Scott A

    2009-09-01

    The availability of a system for direct transfer of anti-fungal candidate genes into American chestnut (Castanea dentata), devastated by a fungal blight in the last century, would offer an alternative or supplemental approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees resistant to the blight fungus and other pathogens. By taking advantage of the strong ability of embryogenic American chestnut cultures to proliferate in suspension, a high-throughput Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into the tree was established. Proembryogenic masses (PEMs) were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 harboring the plasmid pCAMBIA 2301, followed by stringent selection with 50 or 100 mg/l Geneticin. A protocol employing size-fractionation to enrich for small PEMs to use as target material and selection in suspension culture was applied to rapidly produce transgenic events with an average efficiency of four independent transformation events per 50 mg of target tissue and minimal escapes. Mature somatic embryos, representing 18 transgenic events and derived from multiple American chestnut target genotypes, were germinated and over 100 transgenic somatic seedlings were produced and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Multiple vigorous transgenic somatic seedlings produced functional staminate flowers within 3 years following regeneration.

  3. Male sterility in chestnuts. A tentative plan for the seed propagation of fruit trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya (Fruit Tree Research Station, Yatabe, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    A tentative plan was proposed for chestnuts based on their pollination system, male sterility and restoration. The studies on the male sterility of 1,063 cultivars and clones suggested that there were three types of male sterility. The first type (S-1) was characterized by antherless florets. In the second type (S-2), the catkins fell before anthesis, and the third type (S-3) appeared to develop normally in gross floral morphology, but the pollen grains were abnormal in shape and did not have germinating power. In an interspecific hybrid clone CS which belonged to S-1, fertility was restored in an open pollinated progeny. The use of CS and CSO-3 with its restored fertility, permitted the planning of breeding the chestnut hybrid cultivars propagated by seeds. The inbred clones with either male sterility or restorer genes are first bred mainly by back crossing with parents with favorable pollen. The clones are selected individually for early bearing, wasp and disease resistance, and restoration. Then, the hybrid seedling lines between male sterile and restorer inbreds are evaluated for homogenity in nut characters and tree habits. Next, the hybrid seedling lines selected will be examined for crop yield, vigor and cross compatibility. The superior seedling lines are finally selected, and the parental inbreds are grafted to be propagated for seed production orchards.

  4. New gall wasp species attacking chestnut trees: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from southeastern China.

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    Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new gall wasp species, Dryocosmus zhuili Liu et Zhu, is herein described from the southeastern Fujian province of China. The new species induces galls on trees of Henry's chestnut, Castanea henryi, which is also a native host for the notorious Oriental chestnut gall wasp (OCGW, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu). D. zhuili overlaps with OCGW in emergence time and induces galls morphologically similar to that of OCGW on similar plant parts. In a previous study, we reported considerable divergence between mtDNA CO1 (mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences of these wasps and the true OCGW wasps and suggested the existence of a cryptic species. Herein, we confirm the identity of the new species based on morphological and biological differences and provide a formal description. Although the new species is relatively easily separated from OCGW on basis of morphology, field identification involving the two species can still be problematic because of their small body size, highly similar gall morphology, and other life history traits. We further discussed the potential of the new species to be a pest for the chestnut industry and the consequences of accidental introduction of this species into nonnative areas, especially with regard to the bisexual reproduction mode of the new species in contrast to the parthenogenetic reproduction mode of OCGW.

  5. New Gall Wasp Species Attacking Chestnut Trees: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new gall wasp species, Dryocosmus zhuili Liu et Zhu, is herein described from the southeastern Fujian province of China. The new species induces galls on trees of Henry’s chestnut, Castanea henryi, which is also a native host for the notorious Oriental chestnut gall wasp (OCGW, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu). D. zhuili overlaps with OCGW in emergence time and induces galls morphologically similar to that of OCGW on similar plant parts. In a previous study, we reported considerable divergence between mtDNA CO1 (mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences of these wasps and the true OCGW wasps and suggested the existence of a cryptic species. Herein, we confirm the identity of the new species based on morphological and biological differences and provide a formal description. Although the new species is relatively easily separated from OCGW on basis of morphology, field identification involving the two species can still be problematic because of their small body size, highly similar gall morphology, and other life history traits. We further discussed the potential of the new species to be a pest for the chestnut industry and the consequences of accidental introduction of this species into nonnative areas, especially with regard to the bisexual reproduction mode of the new species in contrast to the parthenogenetic reproduction mode of OCGW. PMID:26516167

  6. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  7. The transfer of radiocesium from the bark to the stemflow of chestnut trees (Castanea crenata) contaminated by radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

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    Sasaki, Yoshito; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Ishii, Yasuo; Niizato, Tadafumi

    2016-09-01

    We report on the behavior of radiocesium in tree bark and its transfer into the stemflows of chestnut trees in a forest in the Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. In stems that were present at the time of the accident, the radiocesium concentration of the bark was found to be approximately 10 times that of the wood. The average (137)Cs concentration of the dissolved fraction (0.45 μm) of the stemflow were strongly adsorbed radiocesium.

  8. THE PESTS OF HORSE CHESTNUT TREE – AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    PERJU, T.; I OLTEAN; OPREAN, I.; ECOBICI, Monica

    2005-01-01

    In 1998 the presence of the horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka-Dimic was reported in Cluj- Napoca. During 2000 – 2003 research concerning the extent, biology, ecology at this micro-lepidopteron, a new pest in our country, was performed. Signaled for the fi rst time in Western area of our country (1998), then in Central (1998), Southern (1999), and Eastern (2003) part of the country, the spread year by year conquering new territories. In the clime conditions of our country,...

  9. THE PESTS OF HORSE CHESTNUT TREE – AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. IN ROMANIA

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    T PERJU

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1998 the presence of the horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka-Dimic was reported in Cluj- Napoca. During 2000 – 2003 research concerning the extent, biology, ecology at this micro-lepidopteron, a new pest in our country, was performed. Signaled for the fi rst time in Western area of our country (1998, then in Central (1998, Southern (1999, and Eastern (2003 part of the country, the spread year by year conquering new territories. In the clime conditions of our country, the insect had 4 generations in 2000, and 3 during 2001 – 2003, remaining in hiemal diapauses during pupae stage, inside of the silk cocoons from the galleries of larvae feeding. The fl ight of the butterfl ies from the IIIrd generation (hiemal is recorded in the beginning of May. The Ist generation has a developmental stage during 15 May – 30 June, the IInd during 1 July – 15 August, and the IIIrd during 15 August – 15 May.

  10. The role of host tree condition in attack of white oaks by the twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Weber) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

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    Dunn, James P; Kimmerer, Thomas W; Nordin, Gerald L

    1986-11-01

    The twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Weber) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), attacks stressed oaks (Quercus spp.) and is associated with extensive mortality of trees in the eastern deciduous forests of North America. We examined host location by the insect and subsequent host mortality in experimentally stressed trees. A. bilineatus adults were able to rapidly and specifically locate stressed oak trees. Up to 160 beetles per week were captured on sticky band traps on the trunks of stressed trees, while beetles rarely landed on unstressed control trees. This suggests that adult borers have an acute perception of host tree "quality", and that this perception is from a distance. One mechanism of host location may be detection of volatile compounds produced by stressed trees.The condition of the host tree appears to regulate both beetle attraction and successful colonization. Mortally wounded (xylem-girdled) trees attracted beetles only until the cambium died. Xylem-girdled trees were attacked early in the beetle flight season, but larvae did not survive to emerge as adults from these trees. In contrast, phloemgirdled trees continued to attract beetles throughout the flight period. Phloem-girdled trees which were heavily attacked by A. bilineatus died late in the season in which they were attacked. Lightly attacked trees survived until the following growing season, and were then heavily attacked and killed. In one stand, phloem-girdled trees were not attacked, healed over the girdling wounds and were still alive three years after girdling. These results indicate that oak trees are only attractive to A. bilineatus within a narrow range of physiological conditions following stress but prior to mortality. A. bilineatus appears to be a proximate agent of mortality in stressed oaks in eastern North America.

  11. Modelling chestnut biogeography for American chestnut restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Songlin; Liang, Liang; Paillet, Frederick L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Chestnuts (Castanea spp.) are ecologically and economically important species. We studied the general biology, distribution and climatic limits of seven chestnut species from around the world. We provided climatic matching of Asiatic species to North America to assist the range-wide restoration...... of American chestnut [C. dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.] by incorporating blight-resistant genes from Asiatic species. Location North America, Europe and East Asia. Methods General chestnut biology was reviewed on the basis of published literature and field observations. Chestnut distributions were established using...... Maxent modelling to predict corresponding suitable climate zones for those species in North America. Results Chestnuts are primarily distributed in the warm-temperate and subtropical zones in the northern hemisphere. PCA results revealed that thermal gradient was the primary control of chestnut...

  12. Consequences of Shifts in Abundance and Distribution of American Chestnut for Restoration of a Foundation Forest Tree

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    Harmony J. Dalgleish

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of foundation species, such as the American chestnut (Castanea dentata that was devastated by an introduced fungus, can restore ecosystem function. Understanding both the current distribution as well as biogeographic patterns is important for restoration planning. We used United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis data to quantify the current density and distribution of C. dentata. We then review the literature concerning biogeographic patterns in C. dentata. Currently, 431 ± 30.2 million stems remain. The vast majority (360 ± 22 million are sprouts <2.5 cm dbh. Although this number is approximately 10% of the estimated pre-blight population, blight has caused a major shift in the size structure. The current-day population has a larger range, particularly west and north, likely due to human translocation. While climate change could facilitate northward expansion, limited seed reproduction makes this unlikely without assisted migration. Previous research demonstrates that the current, smaller population contains slightly higher genetic diversity than expected, although little information exists on biogeographic patterns in the genetics of adaptive traits. Our research provides a baseline characterization of the contemporary population of C. dentata, to enable monitoring stem densities and range limits to support restoration efforts.

  13. Variations in Disease Resistance of Chestnut Cultivars against Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Sanghyun; KIM Kyunghee; PIAO Chungen; MOON Byungju

    2006-01-01

    Chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica is one of the major chestnut diseases occurred on stems and branches. Oriental chestnut has more resistance than American one. Twenty-five cultivars of chestnut tree including various cultivars such as Tsukuba, Okkwang, Rihei, Ginyose, Eunsan, etc. Were tested with a rapid, simple and reliable method. The cultivar Banseki is one of the most resistant cultivars tested and has the necrotic area of 0.40 cm2. However, the necrotic areas of the cultivars of American chestnut, Eunsan, Kwangjujoyul and Eaton, ranges from 3.35 to 2.61 cm2 and these cultivars are relatively susceptible to this pathogen. Many pycnidia of this pathogen were observed on the inner and outer bark tissues after incubating for 3 weeks.

  14. Interactions between chestnut gall wasp and blight: a new criticality for chestnut

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    Turchetti T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast spread of Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus represents a new constraint factor for chestnut stands and orchards in Italy. So far, the favourable effect of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica-Castanea sativa patho-system allowed the development of chestnut cultivation. This situation could be modified by the progressive weakening of the trees caused by intensive attacks of the new parasite. During recent surveys worrying blight damage recurrences were observed in different Italian chestnut areas (in Piemonte, Trentino and Toscana regions which were highly infested by the Chinese wasp. While biological control treatments against the parasite are carried out, it is necessary to set up integrated protocols for the management of chestnut orchards to allow the survival of trees and their productivity.

  15. Correlation analysis of dynamic moisture change in soil and chestnut trees%板栗树体水分与土壤水分动态变化的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯立群; 杜振宇; 张日盈; 王玉山

    2001-01-01

    通过观测板栗的根、枝、叶及栗园土壤水分含量的动态变化发现:根、枝、叶组织水分含量的变化随着栗园土壤含水量的变化而变化;30cm土层为板栗根系的主要吸水层;北方山地栗园,春季每15~20天需要进行一次灌水,以满足板栗树体生长发育对水分的需求。%It was found after observation and measurement that the moisture content in the root, stem and leaf of chestnut dynamically changed with the change of moisture content in the orchard soil. The 30cm soil layer is the main water-absorbing zone. In spring, irrigation is needed every 15-20 days in chestnut orchards in north mountains for growth and development of chestnut trees.

  16. Comparison of the transcriptomes of American chestnut (Castanea dentata and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima in response to the chestnut blight infection

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    Wheeler Nicholas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background1471-2229-9-51 American chestnut (Castanea dentata was devastated by an exotic pathogen in the beginning of the twentieth century. This chestnut blight is caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, a fungus that infects stem tissues and kills the trees by girdling them. Because of the great economic and ecological value of this species, significant efforts have been made over the century to combat this disease, but it wasn't until recently that a focused genomics approach was initiated. Prior to the Genomic Tool Development for the Fagaceae project, genomic resources available in public databases for this species were limited to a few hundred ESTs. To identify genes involved in resistance to C. parasitica, we have sequenced the transcriptome from fungal infected and healthy stem tissues collected from blight-sensitive American chestnut and blight-resistant Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima trees using ultra high throughput pyrosequencing. Results We produced over a million 454 reads, totaling over 250 million bp, from which we generated 40,039 and 28,890 unigenes in total from C. mollissima and C. dentata respectively. The functions of the unigenes, from GO annotation, cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. In silico expression analyses showed that many of the stress response unigenes were expressed more in canker tissues versus healthy stem tissues in both American and Chinese chestnut. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either American or Chinese chestnut canker tissues. Conclusion Our study resulted in the identification of a large set of cDNA unigenes from American chestnut and Chinese chestnut. The ESTs and unigenes from this study constitute an important

  17. Ecology and pathology of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the deciduous forests of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia

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    Pridnya, M.V.; Cherpakov, V.V.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    1996-01-01

    Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected by several other fungal and bacterial parasites and the joint infection of blight and bacteria may be especially dangerous for chestnut trees. Chestnut-dominated forests comprise only a few percent of total forest cover in the Caucasus Biosphere Preserve, and usually occur in mountain valleys or coves with deep brown soil. The age structure and reproductive status of chestnut in the Caucasus was investigated on six study plots in the Caucasus Biosphere Forest Preserve near the upper altitudinal limit of chestnut. Although chestnut is at least 70 percent of the overstory on these sites, there are very few trees less than 50 years old, and very few recent seedlings on any of the plots. Most large chestnut trees appear to have originated as basal spouts from previously established stems. Although chestnut seed production appears adequate, we suspect that competition with shrubs and other tree seedlings, and predation by herbivores and rodents, now prevent the establishment and survival of chestnut seedlings in the Biosphere Preserve.

  18. Morfologia de frutos, sementes e plântulas de castanheira (Terminalia catappa L. - COMBRETACEAE Morphology of the fruit, the seed and the seedlings of chestnut tree (Terminalia catappa L. - COMBRETACEAE

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    Silvia de Azevedo Ivani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de descrever morfologicamente os frutos, sementes e plântulas de castanheira. Foi feita a biometria dos frutos e das sementes e sua caracterização quanto à forma, por meio de mensurações com paquímetro e observações realizadas em estereomicroscópio com câmara clara. Os frutos de castanheira são carnosos, indeiscentes, do tipo nucóide, glabros, de coloração verde a vinácea, projeção das nervuras carpelares externamente evidentes, com epicarpo delgado, mesocarpo carnoso e esponjoso de coloração vinácea, com feixes vasculares conspícuos em corte transversal. Geralmente, cada fruto contém apenas uma semente. As sementes são exalbuminosas, de formas alongadas e cilíndricas, recobertas por endocarpo rígido de coloração marrom; possuem cerca de 2,5cm, 0,7cm e 0,7cm, de comprimento, largura e espessura, respectivamente. A germinação das sementes de castanheira é epígea, e a plantula é fanerocotiledonar.The work was carried out with the objective of describing morphologically the fruits, seeds and seedlings of chestnut tree. It was made the biometry of the fruits and seeds with a digital pachymeter and its characterization in relation to the shape, in stereomicroscope with clear chamber. It can be evidenced that the chestnut tree fruits are fleshly, indehiscent, nucoid, glabrous, from green to purple coloration, with evident projection of the carpel ribbings, with a fleshly and spongy epicarp and mesocarp, of purple color, with conspicuous vascular bundle in transversal cut. Generally, it has a seed per fruit. The seeds are unalbuminous, of prolongated and cylindrical shape and recovered with a rigid endocarp of brown coloration. The seeds possess about 2,5; 0,7 and 0,7 cm, of length, width and thickness, respectively. The germination of the seeds of chestnut tree is epigeal and the seedling is fanerocotyledonary.

  19. Interaction between two invasive organisms on the European chestnut: does the chestnut blight fungus benefit from the presence of the gall wasp?

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    Meyer, Joana B; Gallien, Laure; Prospero, Simone

    2015-11-01

    The impact of invasive fungal pathogens and pests on trees is often studied individually, thereby omitting possible interactions. In this study the ecological interaction between the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus was investigated. We determined if abandoned galls could be colonized by C. parasitica and thereby act as an entry point and a source of pathogen inoculum. Moreover we assessed the identity and diversity of other gall-colonizing fungal species. A total of 1973 galls were randomly sampled from 200 chestnut trees in eight Swiss stands. In a stand C. parasitica was isolated from 0.4-19.2% of the galls. The incidence of C. parasitica on the galls and the fungal diversity significantly increased with the residence time of D. kuriphilus in a stand. All but one C. parasitica cultures were virulent. The predominant fungus isolated from galls was Gnomoniopsis castanea whose abundance influenced negatively that of C. parasitica. This study shows that D. kuriphilus galls can be colonized by virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus C. parasitica. This can have effects on the chestnut blight incidence even in chestnut stands where the disease is successfully controlled by hypovirulence. The gall wasp presence influences also the fungal species composition on chestnut trees.

  20. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHESTNUTS

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    Dida Iserliyska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chestnuts originating either from Bulgarian (Karlovo and Rozino or international cultivars (Buffalo Queen, Lucent, Red Spanish и Skookuma poses specific nutritional composition differentiating with high level of sugar, considerably high level of protein especially gluten, considerably low level of lipids and relatively high content of ascorbinic acid, Ca and Mg.

  1. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

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    Songlin Fei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaTScan and ClusterSeer and a nonspatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moderate level of conformity and revealed similar chestnut oak regeneration site affinity. Chestnut oak regeneration hotspots were positively associated with the abundance of chestnut oak trees in the overstory and a moderate cover of heather species (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia spp. but were negatively associated with the abundance of hayscented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula and mountain laurel (Kalmia latiforia. In general, hotspot detection is a viable tool for assisting natural resource managers with identifying areas possessing significantly high or low tree regeneration.

  2. Application of software for the optimization of the surface shape of nets for chestnut harvesting

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    Andrea Formato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research conveyance nets for the chestnuts harvest have been considered and the optimization of the surface shape of the chestnuts harvest nets has been performed. Indeed, a steep zone with chestnut trees has been considered, with maximum length of 90 m and maximum width of 60 m and the geometric model of the considered zone has been obtained, by mean GIS system and “Archicad 14” program code, obtaining also the soil local slope distribution. The chestnuts fallen have been simulated by mean a “rain device” available in “Sitetopo” program code. This program has allowed to evaluate the rain draining in function of the considered surface slope. Further, the zone with lower quote, for the considered surface, is the zone in that the chestnuts have to be convoyed, “basin zone”. Indeed, by mean “Sitetopo” program code, it has been possible to evaluate the rain draining contour-plot, and the conveyance effect, that is, where the rain flow is convoyed. This has been obtained by changing of the net surface slope on that, the rain (simulating the chestnuts fallen. Indeed the nets have been located following the determined optimal surface. In such way all the fallen chestnuts have been convoyed and picked in a determined zone, “basin zone”, and subsequently they have been loaded on the truck for the following workmanships. The evaluated losses have been of around 6-8 % due to chestnuts entangle or little branches obstacle.

  3. Non-target effects of transgenic blight-resistant American chestnut (Fagales: Fagaceae) on insect herbivores.

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    Post, K H; Parry, D

    2011-08-01

    American chestnut [Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkhausen], a canopy dominant species across wide swaths of eastern North America, was reduced to an understory shrub after introduction of the blight fungus [Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr] in the early 1900s. Restoration of American chestnut by using biotechnology is promising, but the imprecise nature of transgenesis may inadvertently alter tree phenotype, thus potentially impacting ecologically dependent organisms. We quantified effects of genetic engineering and fungal inoculation of trees on insect herbivores by using transgenic American chestnuts expressing an oxalate oxidase gene and wild-type American and Chinese (C. mollissima Blume) chestnuts. Of three generalist folivores bioassayed, only gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] was affected by genetic modification, exhibiting faster growth on transgenic than on wild-type chestnuts, whereas growth of polyphemus moth [Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer)] differed between wild-type species, and fall webworm [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)] performed equally on all trees. Inoculation of chestnuts with blight fungus had no effect on the growth of two herbivores assayed (polyphemus moth and fall webworm). Enhanced fitness of gypsy moth on genetically modified trees may hinder restoration efforts if this invasive herbivore's growth is improved because of transgene expression.

  4. Transgenic American chestnuts show enhanced blight resistance and transmit the trait to T1 progeny.

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    Newhouse, Andrew E; Polin-McGuigan, Linda D; Baier, Kathleen A; Valletta, Kristia E R; Rottmann, William H; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2014-11-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is a classic example of a native keystone species that was nearly eradicated by an introduced fungal pathogen. This report describes progress made toward producing a fully American chestnut tree with enhanced resistance to the blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica). The transgenic American chestnut 'Darling4,' produced through an Agrobacterium co-transformation procedure to express a wheat oxalate oxidase gene driven by the VspB vascular promoter, shows enhanced blight resistance at a level intermediate between susceptible American chestnut and resistant Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima). Enhanced resistance was identified first with a leaf-inoculation assay using young chestnuts grown indoors, and confirmed with traditional stem inoculations on 3- and 4-year-old field-grown trees. Pollen from 'Darling4' and other events was used to produce transgenic T1 seedlings, which also expressed the enhanced resistance trait in leaf assays. Outcrossed transgenic seedlings have several advantages over tissue-cultured plantlets, including increased genetic diversity and faster initial growth. This represents a major step toward the restoration of the majestic American chestnut.

  5. Effects of Temporal Dynamics, Nut Weight and Nut Size on Growth of American Chestnut, Chinese Chestnut and Backcross Generations in a Commercial Nursery

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    Cornelia C. Pinchot

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata may soon be commercially available, but few studies have tested methods to produce high quality seedlings that will be competitive after planting. This study evaluated the performance of one American, one Chinese (C. mollissima, one second-generation backcross (BC3F2, and 10 third-generation backcross chestnut families (BC3F3. We examine growth over one year in a commercial tree nursery in east Tennessee. We examined relationships among nut size and weight and seedling growth, between germination timing and seedling survival, and between germination percentage and growth. Across the population tested, a 1 g increase in nut weight corresponded to a 6 cm increase in seedling height, a 0.5 mm increase in root collar diameter and one additional first order lateral root, but models had low predictive power. BC3F3 chestnuts grew similarly to American chestnuts, with substantial differences in growth among chestnut families within generation. Nuts that germinated by 23 April had greater than 1955 odds of surviving the first growing season than nuts that germinated in late May. American and backcross chestnut growth slowed in late June, presumably due to exhaustion of their cotyledons before leaf expansion. These results will help nursery managers refine cultural practices to maximize growth of backcross chestnuts.

  6. Dynamics of Cryphonectria hypovirus infection in chestnut blight cankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, Sarah Franziska; Prospero, Simone; Rigling, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica cause lethal bark cankers on chestnut trees. Infection of C. parasitica with Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in Europe biologically controls this disease, leading to nonlethal and inactive cankers. Unexpectedly, virus-free C. parasitica strains have been isolated from inactive cankers. In this study, we compared the virulence of virus-infected and virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from either inactive or active cankers on chestnut seedlings and sprouts. In the seedling experiment, we assessed canker growth and seedling mortality. In the sprout experiment, we also assessed canker growth and made fungal reisolations to determine virus infection and immigration of foreign vegetative compatibility (vc) types over a period of 13 years in a coppice forest. Overall, the virulence of virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from inactive versus active cankers did not differ. Significant differences were only attributed to virus infection. Virus infection and fungal strain composition in cankers changed over time. Foreign vc types immigrated into cankers and virus-free cankers became virus-infected within a few years. Most of the cankers were callused over time and became inactive. However, we observed that the virus did not always persist in these cankers. This study demonstrates that virus spread occurs effectively in European chestnut forests and that this biocontrol system is highly dynamic.

  7. Ectomycorrhizal inoculum potential of northeastern US forest soils for American chestnut restoration: results from field and laboratory bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulmer, Kristopher M; Leduc, Stephen D; Horton, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once a dominant overstory tree in eastern USA but was decimated by chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica). Blight-resistant chestnut is being developed as part of a concerted restoration effort to bring this heritage tree back. Here, we evaluate the potential of field soils in the northern portion of the chestnut's former range to provide ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungus inoculum for American chestnut. In our first study, chestnut seedlings were grown in a growth chamber using soil collected from three sites dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra) as inoculum and harvested after 5 months. Of the 14 EM fungi recovered on these seedlings, four species dominated in soils from all three sites: Laccaria laccata, a Tuber sp., Cenococcum geophilum, and a thelephoroid type. Seedlings grown in the nonsterilized soils were smaller than those growing in sterilized soils. In the second study, chestnut seedlings were grown from seed planted directly into soils at the same three sites. Seedlings with intermingling roots of established trees of various species were harvested after 5 months. Seventy-one EM fungi were found on the root tips of the hosts, with 38 occurring on chestnut seedlings. Multiple versus single host EM fungi were significantly more abundant and frequently encountered. The fungi observed dominating on seedlings in the laboratory bioassay were not frequently encountered in the field bioassay, suggesting that they may not have been active in mycelial networks in the field setting but were in the soils as resistant propagules that became active in the bioassay. These results show that soil from red oak stands can be used to inoculate American chestnut with locally adapted ectomycorrhizal fungi prior to outplanting, a relatively cost effective approach for restoration efforts.

  8. XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

  9. Effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Lina; Li, Qian; Xie, Shuangshuang; Hu, Jiaqi; Wu, Yanwen; Ouyang, Jie

    2016-10-20

    The present study focused on the effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel. After thermal processing, the total starch content in both boiled and roasted chestnuts decreased significantly (Pchestnut increased and that of roasted chestnut remained stable. The granular microstructure of the starch in cooked chestnut was gradually destroyed during the thermal processing. The starch in cooked chestnut still exhibited C-type X-ray diffraction patterns, but the intensity of diffraction peaks and the crystallinity were obviously declined compared with those of fresh chestnut. Textural profile analysis of chestnut starch gel and chestnut kernel showed that the main textural characterizations of roasted chestnut were higher than those of boiled chestnuts. These results are helpful for better understanding the texture change in fresh, boiled and roasted chestnuts, which indicated that roasting is an alternative industrial thermal processing method for chestnut kernel.

  10. Tree Diversity Limits the Impact of an Invasive Forest Pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Virginie; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Vialatte, Aude; Deconchat, Marc; Selvi, Federico; Bussotti, Filippo; Jactel, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    The impact of invasive herbivore species may be lower in more diverse plant communities due to mechanisms of associational resistance. According to the "resource concentration hypothesis" the amount and accessibility of host plants is reduced in diverse plant communities, thus limiting the exploitation of resources by consumers. In addition, the "natural enemy hypothesis" suggests that richer plant assemblages provide natural enemies with more complementary resources and habitats, thus promoting top down regulation of herbivores. We tested these two hypotheses by comparing crown damage by the invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) on chestnut trees (Castanea sativa) in pure and mixed stands in Italy. We estimated the defoliation on 70 chestnut trees in 15 mature stands sampled in the same region along a gradient of tree species richness ranging from one species (chestnut monocultures) to four species (mixtures of chestnut and three broadleaved species). Chestnut defoliation was significantly lower in stands with higher tree diversity. Damage on individual chestnut trees decreased with increasing height of neighboring, heterospecific trees. These results suggest that conservation biological control method based on tree species mixtures might help to reduce the impact of the Asian chestnut gall.

  11. Tree Diversity Limits the Impact of an Invasive Forest Pest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Guyot

    Full Text Available The impact of invasive herbivore species may be lower in more diverse plant communities due to mechanisms of associational resistance. According to the "resource concentration hypothesis" the amount and accessibility of host plants is reduced in diverse plant communities, thus limiting the exploitation of resources by consumers. In addition, the "natural enemy hypothesis" suggests that richer plant assemblages provide natural enemies with more complementary resources and habitats, thus promoting top down regulation of herbivores. We tested these two hypotheses by comparing crown damage by the invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus on chestnut trees (Castanea sativa in pure and mixed stands in Italy. We estimated the defoliation on 70 chestnut trees in 15 mature stands sampled in the same region along a gradient of tree species richness ranging from one species (chestnut monocultures to four species (mixtures of chestnut and three broadleaved species. Chestnut defoliation was significantly lower in stands with higher tree diversity. Damage on individual chestnut trees decreased with increasing height of neighboring, heterospecific trees. These results suggest that conservation biological control method based on tree species mixtures might help to reduce the impact of the Asian chestnut gall.

  12. Comparisons of ectomycorrhizal colonization of transgenic american chestnut with those of the wild type, a conventionally bred hybrid, and related fagaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Katherine M; Horton, Thomas R; Maynard, Charles A; Stehman, Stephen V; Oakes, Allison D; Powell, William A

    2015-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) dominated the eastern forests of North America, serving as a keystone species both ecologically and economically until the introduction of the chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica, functionally eradicated the species. Restoration efforts include genetic transformation utilizing genes such as oxalate oxidase to produce potentially blight-resistant chestnut trees that could be released back into the native range. However, before such a release can be undertaken, it is necessary to assess nontarget impacts. Since oxalate oxidase is meant to combat a fungal pathogen, we are particularly interested in potential impacts of this transgene on beneficial fungi. This study compares ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization on a transgenic American chestnut clone expressing enhanced blight resistance to a wild-type American chestnut, a conventionally bred American-Chinese hybrid chestnut, and other Fagaceae species. A greenhouse bioassay used soil from two field sites with different soil types and land use histories. The number of colonized root tips was counted, and fungal species were identified using morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and DNA sequencing. Results showed that total ectomycorrhizal colonization varied more by soil type than by tree species. Individual fungal species varied in their colonization rates, but there were no significant differences between colonization on transgenic and wild-type chestnuts. This study shows that the oxalate oxidase gene can increase resistance against Cryphonectria parasitica without changing the colonization rate for ectomycorrhizal species. These findings will be crucial for a potential deregulation of blight-resistant American chestnuts containing the oxalate oxidase gene.

  13. Post-cultural stand dynamics in an abandoned chestnut coppice at its ecological border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the be­ginning of the last century, chestnut has played an important role as staple food and primary wood source. In many cases it was cultivated at the border of its ecological limits where it was planted by man in place of the original and more site-adapted tree species. However, with the abandonment of the rural activities, ma­nagement of chestnut forests was progressively left starting from more marginal areas, usually occupied by coppice stands. After the interruption of the traditional coppice management system (usual rotation periods of 10-25 years, natural intra- and interspecific competition dynamics have become the driving force of the stand evolution. This may lead to dramatic changes in both structure and species composition of the stands. The aim of this study is to analyse the post-cultural evolution of an abandoned chestnut coppice in the Pesio Valley (Piedmont, Italy in order to highlight the competition among different "basic silvi­cultural components" of the forest using a dendroecological approach. The "basic silvicultural components" are intended as the elements defined as groups of trees of the stand that have similar features such as silvi­culturally relevant attributes: species (chestnut, beech, fir, origin (seed, sprout and cultural age and function (standard/reserve, maiden, shoot, regeneration, dead tree. The mean growth curves of the compo­nents show the different fitness of each category. From a general point of view, the beech and fir components show a better competitive potential in comparison with chestnut. Among chestnut components, maidens from seeds reveal a better growth trend compared to coppice shoots and standards.

  14. Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHESTNUT CASTANEA SATIVA FROM THE AREA OF UNA-SANA CANTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim MUJIĆ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Una-Sana Canton (USC has a large forest areas where chestnut Castanea sativa Mill. grows as a self-sprout tree. The aim of this paper was to determine the morphological characteristics of chestnut fruits from four self-sprout locations (Bužim, Bosanska Krupa, Cazin and Velika Kladuša, and plantation where the domestic tree is grafted with Italian Marroni. Number of fruits/kg, the useless fruit, the percentage of kernel, diameter, width, height and weight of fruits were determined. The number of fruit/kg ranged from 160-222.5, percentage of useless fruit varied between 0.88-6.7%. Percentage of kernel ranged from 78.5 to 87.3%. According to the diameter classification, width, height and weight of fruits, chestnuts fruit from USC enters the category of the smallest fruits of the Mediterranean area. Statistical significant differences (p≤0.01 in the number of fruits/kg and weight of fruits was found between locations, as well in the width of the fruit (p≤0.05, while there is no difference in the diameter and height of the fruit. For grafted chestnut, all the characteristics provided better quality.

  16. Soluble material secreted from Penicillium chrysogenum isolate exhibits antifungal activity against Cryphonectria parasitica- the causative agent of the American Chestnut Blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florjanczyk, Aleksandr; Barnes, Rebecca; Kenney, Adam; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once the dominant canopy tree along the eastern region of the United States. Cryphonectria parasitica, the causative agent of chestnut blight, was introduced from Asia in the early 1900's, and obliterated the chestnut population within 50 years. We sought to identify environmental microbes capable of producing factors that were fungicidal or inhibited growth of C. parasitica in the hopes developing a biological control of chestnut blight. We isolated a filamentous fungus that significantly inhibited the growth of C. parasitica upon co-cultivation. Extracellular fractions of this fungal isolate prevented C. parasitica growth, indicating that a potential fungicide was produced by the novel isolate. Sequence analysis of 18S rRNA identified this inhibitory fungus as Penicillium chrysogenum. Furthermore, these extracellular fractions were tested as treatments for blight in vivo using chestnut saplings. Scarred saplings that were treated with the P. chrysogenum extracellular fractions healed subjectively better than those without treatment when inoculated with C. parasitica. These data suggest that material secreted by P. chrysogenum could be used as a treatment for the American chestnut blight. This work may assist the reclamation of the American chestnut in association with breeding programs and blight attenuation. Specifically, treatment of small groves under the right conditions may allow them to remain blight free. Future work will explore the mechanism of action and specific target of the extracellular fraction. PMID:27274909

  17. The Occurrence of Charcoal Disease Caused by Biscogniauxia mediterranea on Chestnut-Leaved Oak (Quercus castaneifolia) in the Golestan Forests of Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirabolfathy, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    The chestnut-leaved oak (Quercus castaneifolia) is native to the Alborz Mountains, including the Golestan Forests, in northern Iran. Trees grow up to 35 (-50) m tall with a trunk up to 2.5 (-3.5) m in diameter. During 2010, we received reports of a decline of oak trees in the Ghorogh Region of the G

  18. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, de J.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Ketelaar, T.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phl

  19. Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Henri Epstein

    2016-01-01

    An algebraic formalism, developed with V. Glaser and R. Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large cate...

  20. Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Henri

    2016-01-01

    An algebraic formalism, developped with V. Glaser and R. Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large cat...

  1. Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Henri

    2016-01-01

    An algebraic formalism, developped with V.~Glaser and R.~Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large category of space-times.

  2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CHESTNUT (Castanea sativa Mill. WOOD OBTAINED FROM MAÇKA-ÇATAK REGION

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    Nurgül Ay

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physical properties of chestnut were investigated. 8 trees used for experiments were obtained fromTrabzon-Maçka- Çatak region. Samples were prepared according to the related standarts. Oven-dried and air-dried density, volume weight, the amount of shrinkage, the ratio of cell walls, air cavities, the moisture content of wood at green condition, and the fiber saturation point as physical properties were determined.

  3. Thyreophagus corticalis as a vector of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica in chestnut stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Sauro; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Turchetti, Tullio; Bouneb, Mabrouk

    2014-03-01

    The natural spread of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. occurs in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) stands and orchards in Italy and other European countries, leading to spontaneous recovery of the diseased trees. Little is known about how hypovirulence spreads in chestnut stands but various corticolous mite species frequently detected on chestnut cankers could be one of the many factors playing a role in the spread. Artificial virulent cankers created in inoculation field tests and treated with Thyreophagus corticalis (Acari, Sarcoptiformes, Acaridae) raised on hypovirulent cultures showed similar growth to those treated with mycelia of the hypovirulent strain over 18 months of inoculation. Cultures re-isolated from virulent cankers treated with mites were found to contain hypovirus like those derived from pairings of virulent and hypovirulent strains. Viral dsRNA could be carried externally and/or ingested by mites from the hypovirulent mycelia and then transmitted to the mycelia of virulent strains, causing their conversion. In a laboratory study, all fecal pellets collected from mites reared on hypovirulent and virulent strains grown on semi-selective media gave rise to colonies of C. parasitica with similar morphological characters and virulence to the original cultures. Field inoculation of stump sprouts with the resulting colonies revealed that mite digestive tract passage did not alter the virulence of the studied strains. These results are of interest for the biological control of chestnut blight.

  4. Novel insights into the emergence of pathogens: the case of chestnut blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünwald, Niklaus J

    2012-08-01

    Exotic, invasive pathogens have emerged repeatedly and continue to emerge to threaten the world's forests. Ecosystem structure and function can be permanently changed when keystone tree species such as the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) are eliminated from a whole range by disease. The fungal ascomycete pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica is responsible for causing chestnut blight. Once the pathogen was introduced into the Eastern US, where chestnuts were predominant, chestnuts were all but eliminated. This pathogen is currently causing extensive damage in Europe. A study in this issue of Molecular Ecology sheds new light on the pattern and process of emergence of this devastating plant pathogen (Dutech et al. 2012). The authors used microsatellite markers to investigate the evolutionary history of C. parasitica populations introduced into North America and Europe. To infer sources of migrants and the migration events, the authors included putative source populations endemic to China and Japan, inferred potentially unsampled populations and conducted a multivariate population genetic and complex ABC analysis. Cryphonectria parasitica emerges as an example of an introduced pathogen with limited genotypic diversity and some admixture in the invaded ranges, yet repeated invasions into different areas of Europe and the United States. This work sheds new light on the emergence of C. parasitica providing compelling evidence that this pathogen emerged by repeated migration and occasional admixture.

  5. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  6. Cost-benefit Analysis of Chestnut Production in Xingtai County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuji; JIN

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of market demand survey of chestnut,this article carries out cost-benefit analysis of the chestnut production in Xingtai County,to understand the profitability and payback period of local chestnut production.It points out that chestnut production has a high rate of return on investment,and chestnut can be promoted on a large scale in Xingtai County.However,there are still some problems in the production and marketing of chestnut in Xingtai County,such as low level of technology,extensive management,low level of organization,market imperfections and weak brand consciousness.Based on these problems,corresponding recommendations are put forth.

  7. Determination of timber assortments obtainable from coppice chestnut stands (Susa Valley, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosenzo A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut (Castanea sativa L. coppice stands currently cover about 195.000 ha of Piedmont (North-Western Italy surface, corresponding to 22.4 % of the overall forested area in the region. Most of these forest stands are usually older than the typical rotation period. As a consequence from these stands timber assortments with a higher value could be obtained. The purpose of this study is to assess the amount of timber assortments and to propose a sorting methodology based on measurements on standing trees within these chestnut stands.Five study areas were selected in the Susa Valley, where forest measurements were realized within sampling plots. Timber assortments obtainable from each coppice shoot were then determined by means of the Bitterlich’s relascope. More than 1.000 timber logs were measured. The data elaboration allowed to assess the timber assortment production of the investigated stands. The proposed methodology makes it possible to better exploit timber assortments. In fact, while usually the whole production from chestnut coppices is directly destined to secondary products, the subdivision into assortments could result in a 20 % of products with higher commercial value. It is important to notice that within these stands no tending operation is currently realized. The definition of qualitative features to classify timber assortments can provide useful suggestions on the main yield targets that could be reached through silvicultural management.

  8. Growth and yield models, assortment type and analysis of deadwood in chestnut coppice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziliano PA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut (Castanea sativa MILL. is one of the most important forest tree species in Europe, and it is considered a symbol of the natural vegetation in southern Europe. In Calabria (southern Italy chestnut forest covers an area of approximately 87000 hectares, most of which (about 80% managed as coppice. In this study a growth and yield table has been elaborated. Thurthermore, assortment type and quantity of deadwood have been evaluated according to age of coppice and forest fire prevention, respectively. The study site is located in the “Presila of Catanzaro” and the research was carried out in 15 plots; the age of the examined stands ranged from 2 to 50 years old. More than 30000 shoots per hectare were recorded in the first two years after coppicing. As opposed, about 2300 and 1000 shoots per hectare were observed 15 and 50 years after coppicing, respectively. The culmination of the mean annual increment of the forest standing volume (16 m3 ha-1 year-1 was highlighted 25 years after coppicing, while the current annual increment culmination (21 m3 ha-1 year-1 was observed at 15 years. Fifteen years after coppicing, most of the wood production was constituted by small dimension assortments. Twenty five years after coppicing small and large poles were the prevailing assortments while telegraph poles and timber beams increased after 50 years. The amount of deadwood in forest ranged between 11.9 and 68.7 m3 ha-1. The largest component was represented by standing dead shoots. The results show that coppice management can be adopted even if the main purpose of the chestnut stand is the production of large size assortments. In chestnut coppice, highly vulnerable to fire, the reduction of stand density with silvicultural practices (thinning and displacement is the main way to promote the efficiency of forest and a higher strength and resiliency against forest fire.

  9. Evaluating the Use of Tree Shelters for Direct Seeding of Castanea on a Surface Mine in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Barton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available American chestnut (Castanea dentata, once a primary constituent of the eastern hardwood forest ecosystem, was nearly extirpated from the forest canopy by the accidental introduction of chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica. An intensive breeding program has sought to breed blight resistance from Chinese chestnut into American chestnuts, while maintaining as much of the desirable American chestnut phenotypes as possible. Previous studies suggest that these blight resistant American chestnuts, termed “restoration chestnuts”, are capable of thriving on reclaimed surface mines. We direct seeded pure Chinese, pure American, and three backcross lines into brown sandstone minesoil on a mine site in Pike County, KY. To investigate the effects of tree sheltering on survival and growth, we installed tree shelters on half the plots, and left the rest of the plots unsheltered. Results indicated that shelters were highly effective at reducing initial mortality. In addition, while pure Chinese chestnut survival was highest, the three backcross lines have also survived well on this site. Our study demonstrates that American, Chinese, and backcrossed chestnuts can survive through five growing seasons on reclaimed surface mines with the use of tree shelters.

  10. In vitro morphogenetic competence of basal sprouts and crown branches of mature chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M C; Vieitez, A M

    1991-01-01

    Basal shoots of five clones of mature chestnut tree (Castanea sativa Mill. and C. sativa x C. crenata Siebold & Zucc.) had a greater capacity for in vitro establishment, multiplication and rooting than crown branches of the same trees. Cultures from basal shoots were more responsive than crown-derived cultures in terms of in vitro reactivity (proportion of the explants with shoot development), the mean number of shoots formed per explant, the length of the tallest shoot in each culture, and the multiplication coefficient (defined as the product of the reactivity and the mean number of shoots per explant). Multiplication coefficients were greatest between subcultures 6 and 12, but subculturing failed to increase the rooting potential of shoots of crown origin. Multiplication and rooting rates were also determined for clones derived from seeds of mature trees. Genotype influenced the in vitro performance of clones of both adult and seedling origins.

  11. Changes of Endogenous Hormone Levels during Ovary Growth and Development after Self-and Cross-pollination of Chestnut (Castanea Cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’

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    Feng Zou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut trees spread all over the world produce nut and chestnuts that have considerable economical value. Ovary development is an important step in nut production. Normal ovary development probably requires the coordinated action of plant hormones. Endogenous hormone status of chestnut tree, particularly IAA, IBA, GA3 and ZT, influences chestnut ovary development as well as nut yield. Changes in endogenous hormones during ovary development in chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ and ‘Dabanhong’ were used as materials. About 50~100 pollinated female inflorescences were picked every five days (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 days, respectively to determine the IAA, ABA, GA3 and ZT levels by HPLC. The results showed that there were differences between self-and cross-pollination endogenous hormone change rules during the development of ovary. The IAA and GA3 contents in ovary of self-pollination were significantly higher than cross-pollination during pollination and fertilization period, which suggested that lower IAA and GA3 acts as a positive regulator of fertilization. In the first 40 DAP, ZT level in ovaries of self-and cross-pollination almost have the same change rule, but changed dramatically in the last 10 DAP, which suggested that ZT serves as a positive regulator for young fruit. ABA level in ovary of self-pollination was significantly higher than cross-pollination in the first 30 DAP. It seems that high ABA level was probably related with self-incompatibility in chestnut. The findings of this study could lay the scientific basis for spraying GA3, IAA and ZT during ovary development and may have the potential to improve nut yield.

  12. Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i a simulation model (R2-value = 87% based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63% with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.

  13. Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gouveia, C.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Magalhães, M.

    2011-10-01

    Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i) a simulation model (R2-value = 87%) based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii) a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63%) with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.

  14. Enhancing chestnut coppices: silvicultural management and socio-economic context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Manetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available  Castanea sativa is one of the most important species for timber production in Italy but, both management system, ownership type and wood chain structure, aren’t able to  enhance enough the market value of wood assortments. Although the high demand of quality timber, the internal production is heavily  reduced, mainly as far as timber quality is concerned and because of the lack of suitable timber sizes. In this context, experimental trials  have been approached to identify and verify which silvicultural methods are best suited to reach high yields depending to the investments  needed and the local socio-economical condition. Two technical approaches were evaluated: stand silviculture and single-tree oriented silviculture. As for the socio-economical aspects, a few demographic indexes have been examined and the first-phase processing enterprises  acting in the concerned area were analyzed. The goals of this paper are to evaluate the biological response to the applied silviculture, to  analyze the problems arisen and to estimate the applicability of the proposed methods in relation to the different socio-economic contexts. The research has been carried out in Tuscany in two important forest areas - Monte Amiata and Colline Metallifere - in young chestnut  coppices characterized by an homogeneous stand density and a good site index. The two examined districts showed some similarities  but they have mainly highlighted important differences about the social structure and concerns and enterprises characteristics. The area of Monte Amiata is typified by a higher residents density then the Colline Metallifere but only 1/3 of the population is employed in the agro-forest sector. In addition, in the Monte Amiata district most concerns are sized less than 2 hectares and chestnut is the main forest  species. On the contrary, in the Colline Metallifere the agro-forest sector (57% of workers is one of the main sources of income for the  local

  15. TRAPA NATANS (WATER CHESTNUT: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatiwal Shalabh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Trapa natans (water chestnut, commonly known as singhara in India, belonging to family Trapaceae, is a free-floating plant which grows in shallow water fields, ponds or swampy land. The water chestnut is native to Europe, Asia and Africa where it is well kept in check by native insect parasites. It favours nutrient-rich water with a pH range of 6.7 to 8.2 and an alkalinity of 12 to 128 mg/l of calcium carbonate. The kernels are delicious to eat and contain carbohydrates, proteins and essential minerals and are reported to be used in many ayurvedic preparations as diuretic, aphrodisiac, nutrient, appetizer, astringent, coolant, antidiarrhoeal & tonic. They are also useful in lumbago, sore throat, bilious affections, bronchitis, fatigues & inflammation. The fruits are a good source of nutrition having 16% starch and 2% protein. Stem is used in eye disorders in the form of juice. The plant Trapa natans has also been evaluated for various activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial. The literature reveals the use of kernels as diuretic, aphrodisiac, nutrient, appetizer, astringent, coolant, antidiarrhoeal & tonic, fruits as good source of nutrition having 16% starch and 2% protein, plant as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial and stem in form of juice in eye disorders. The present study will give comprehensive information on the chemical constituents and mainly pharmacological activities of this plant.

  16. Effect of chestnut extract and chestnut fiber on viability of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains under gastrointestinal tract conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; La Gatta, Barbara; Di Capua, Marika; Di Luccia, Aldo; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The main challenge to probiotics, during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract, are the acidic gastric secretions of the stomach, and the bile salts released into the duodenum. The survival of the strains, in this phase, is strongly influenced by the food used for their delivery. This work is part of a project studying the development of novel food processes, based on the use of chestnuts from cultivar "Castagna di Montella". In detail, the effect of indigestible chestnut fiber and of chestnut extract on the viability of selected lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated. Among 28 cultures, twelve strains were selected, on the basis of tolerance to low pH values and bile salts, and submitted to exposition to simulated gastric or bile juice in presence of chestnut extract with or without immobilization in chestnut fiber. The presence of chestnut extract proved to play a significant role on the gastric tolerance improvement of lactobacilli. The recorded protective effect could not be simply related to the starch or reducing sugars content. RP-HPLC demonstrated that in the chestnut flour, there are one or more hydrophobic peptides or oligopeptides, which specifically offer a marked resistance to simulated gastric juice, albeit present at low concentration. These beneficial effects proved to be dependent by the cultivar used to produce the flour.

  17. Tree nut allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2003-08-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and members of the Bet v 1-related family, represent minor constituents in tree nuts. These allergens are frequently cross-reactive with other food and pollen homologues, and are considered panallergens. Others, such as legumins, vicilins, and 2S albumins, represent major seed storage protein constituents of the nuts. The allergenic tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions such as hazelnut, walnut, cashew, and almond as well as those less frequently associated with allergies including pecan, chestnut, Brazil nut, pine nut, macadamia nut, pistachio, coconut, Nangai nut, and acorn.

  18. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jing; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby) is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.). To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb) and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC), central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC) and southwestern China (SWC) based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900–126,500 years ago. PMID:27459279

  19. Morphological Characterization and Chemical Composition
of Fruits of the Traditional Croatian Chestnut Variety
‘Lovran Marron’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Igor; Vahčić, Nada; Gačić, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Summary ‘Lovran Marron’ is the only known traditional Croatian variety of the sweet chestnut. The objective of this study is to specify qualitative and quantitative morphological characteristics and to analyze the chemical composition of the ‘Lovran Marron’ fruits as well as to compare them to Marušnjak fruits (trees from the ‘Lovran Marron’ seed) and fruits from the local natural sweet chestnut population. Seven morphological characteristics were measured: fruit mass, height, width and thickness, scar length and width, and the length of the longest intrusion of the seed coat into the kernel. Eight qualitative characteristics were estimated: embryony, degree of penetration of the seed coat into the kernel, fruit shape, glossiness and colour, kernel colour, hairiness towards the top of the fruit and the existence of longitudinal stripes. ‘Lovran Marron’ has desirable qualitative and quantitative fruit characteristics. The Marušnjak trees mostly have intermediate morphological traits of fruits in comparison with ‘Lovran Marron’ and trees from the natural population. ‘Lovran Marron’ had the smallest mass fractions on average of: K, Mg, Ca, Na, Mn, Cu and Fe. The highest mass fractions on average of these macro- and microelements were characteristic of the trees from the natural population. The highest average content of carbohydrates was recorded in the ‘Lovran Marron’ and the lowest in the fruits from the natural population. The Marušnjak fruits had intermediate water, protein, ash, carbohydrates, and macro- and microelement content. The content of Cd and Pb was lower in all samples than the maximum allowed amounts in the sweet chestnut fruits. PMID:27904409

  20. Impact of fertilization on chestnut growth, N and P concentrations in runoff water on degraded slope land in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Shu-cai; CHEN Bei-guang; JIANG Cheng-ai; WU Qi-tang

    2007-01-01

    Growing fruit trees on the slopes of rolling hills in South China is causing serious environmental problems because of heavy application of chemical fertilizers and soil erosion. Suitable sources of fertilizers and proper rates of applications are of key importance to both crop yields and environmental protection. In this article, the impact of four fertilizers, i.e., inorganic compound fertilizer, organic compound fertilizer, pig manure compost, and peanut cake (peanut oil pressing residue), on chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) growth on a slope in South China, and on the total N and total P concentrations in runoff waters have been investigated during two years of study, with an orthogonal experimental design. Results show that the organic compound fertilizer and peanut cake promote the heights of young chestnut trees when compared to the control. In addition, peanut cake increases single-fruit weights and organic compound fertilizer raises single-seed weights. All the fertilizers increase the concentrations of total N and total P in runoff waters, except for organic compound fertilizer, in the first year experiment. The observed mean concentrations of total N varied from 1.6 mg/L to 3.2 mg/L and P from 0.12 mg/L to 0.22 mg/L, which are increased with the amount of fertilizer applications, with no pattern of direct proportion. On the basis of these experiment results, organic compound fertilizer at 2 kg/tree and peanut cake at 1 kg/tree are recommended to maximize chestnut growth and minimize water pollution.

  1. Feasibility study of effect of ultrasound on water chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junru; Wu, Meiyin

    2006-04-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa natans L.), an annual aquatic plant with floating leaves was first introduced into North America in 1874. Since then, wild populations have quickly become established in many locations within Northeastern USA. Due to its detrimental effects on the overall health of aquatic ecosystems, millions of dollars have been spent to control the water chestnut infestations in the North America through mechanical harvesting and manual removal, with limited success. The potential for continued expansion of the infestations demonstrates an urgent need for an effective control method. This study examined the potential of ultrasound application as an alternative control strategy for water chestnut management. Various frequencies and amplitudes of ultrasound generated by submerged transducers were applied directly to water chestnuts harvested from Lake Champlain. Substantial damages on water chestnut cells as well as penetrated petitoles were observed at the following tested frequencies of ultrasound, 20 kHz, 187 kHz, 469 kHz, 519 kHz and 2.34 MHz. Among them, 20 kHz ultrasound of 1.9 MPa acoustic pressure amplitude demonstrated the most significant damages within 10 s of ultrasound exposure. The treated plants started to die within 72 h and the mortality rate of water chestnut plants treated with the ultrasound application was 100%.

  2. A Morphological and Histological Characterization of Male Flower in Chestnut (Castanea Cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume. is a widely distributed fruit tree and well known for its ecological and economic value. In order to evaluate obstacles to male reproductive in the C. mollissima, a morphological and histological characterization of male flower of chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ were examined by paraffin section technique and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that male catkins with floral primordia were formed in the buds of one-year olds shoots in later April. Later, a protoderm, ground meristem and a procambium had differentiated in young anthers. Each young anther soon developed to four microsporangia. The anther wall layers developed completely by mid-May and consisted of one-cell-layered epidermis, one-cell-layered endothecium, two or three middle layers and one-cell-layered tapetum. The tapetum was of glandular type. Microspore mother cells underwent meiosis through simultaneous cytokinesis in later May and gave rise to tetrads of microspores, which were tetrahedrally arranged. Mature pollens contained two cells with three germ pores. Anthers were dehiscent and pollen grains shed by early June. Based our results, we did not find the abnormal male flower in the C. molissma cv ‘yanshanzaofeng’, indicating that male gametes were fertile and thus was considered as pollenizers.

  3. PHYSICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF CHESTNUT BLIGHT DISEASED CASTANEA SATIVA MILL. WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Gunduz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some of the physical and anatomical properties of Chestnut Blight Diseased (CBD wood were investigated, and the study also included observations using Raman spectroscopy. The objective of these investigations was to determine the extent of the damage that is done to the wood of the diseased chestnut trees, which must be removed from the forest and used in the manufacture of industrial products. It was indicated that most of the adverse effects of the disease were in the vascular cambium. There was a clear indication of deterioration of the wood in the last growth ring next to vascular cambium. In the diseased secondary xylem region next to vascular cambium; vessel diameter, vessel frequency and vessel element length had a decrease, and vessel and other cells were irregular compared to healthy wood. Spores were detected and identified as Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill. Annual ring properties (annual growth ring width, latewood percentage, etc. were similar in diseased wood compared to healthy wood. The Raman spectroscopy results showed no significant changes in the structure of the cell wall or its components. After removing the diseased parts, unlimited usage of formerly wood is possible. Heat treatment of the wood is suggested before use in the interest of sanitation and dimensional stability.

  4. Species-specific duplications of NBS-encoding genes in Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yan; Li, Yingjun; Huang, Kaihui; Cheng, Zong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The disease resistance (R) genes play an important role in protecting plants from infection by diverse pathogens in the environment. The nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) class of genes is one of the largest R gene families. Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is resistant to Chestnut Blight Disease, but relatively little is known about the resistance mechanism. We identified 519 NBS-encoding genes, including 374 NBS-LRR genes and 145 NBS-only genes. The majority of Ka/Ks were less than 1, suggesting the purifying selection operated during the evolutionary history of NBS-encoding genes. A minority (4/34) of Ka/Ks in non-TIR gene families were greater than 1, showing that some genes were under positive selection pressure. Furthermore, Ks peaked at a range of 0.4 to 0.5, indicating that ancient duplications arose during the evolution. The relationship between Ka/Ks and Ks indicated greater selective pressure on the newer and older genes with the critical value of Ks = 0.4–0.5. Notably, species-specific duplications were detected in NBS-encoding genes. In addition, the group of RPW8-NBS-encoding genes clustered together as an independent clade located at a relatively basal position in the phylogenetic tree. Many cis-acting elements related to plant defense responses were detected in promoters of NBS-encoding genes. PMID:26559332

  5. Chestnut: from coppice to structural timber. The case study of "Uso Fiume" beams sampled in Liguria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Togni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently Agriculture Department of Liguria Region had supported studies and researches on the timber quality of living trees in local coppice chestnut forests, with the prospect to produce also timber for structural use. Under some ad-hoc funds a 30 years old coppice forest in the high Bormida Valley, never thinned after the last utilization, has been chosen for sampling. 18 selected trunks were felled and the assortment called “Uso Fiume” (UF was chosen, getting 49 beams (cross-section from 12¥12 to 24¥24 cm, by way of saw-mill operations The UF-beam is a structural element, derived from Italian tradition. Such elements are used in Italian buildings over the time, in substitution to structural sawn timber, principally for roofing. The UF-beam is a square edged log with wane; more precisely it is a full log, edged on four sides, maintaining boxed heart and an approximately central pith. Today the features of such a beam is established according to the specific Italian standard UNI 11035-3 for spruce and fir and to the CUAP (Common Understanding of Assessment Procedure n. 03.24/22 for chestnut and conifers. The beams were visually graded according to the Visual Strength Grading procedure and the physical and mechanical properties (density, modulus of elasticity-MOE and modulus of rupture- MOR were determined according to the standard requirements (EN 408, EN 384, ISO 3131, disregarding the moisture content: the mechanical tests were performed with wood in green state (moisture content M.C.>30% because it is the actual condition of use in building, due to the very low permeability of the chestnut heartwood which entails long seasoning time of large cross section beams. The study showed very high yields considering the stems-to-beams volume ratio, close to 70%. Characteristics values of the sample resulted: char. density kg/m³, char. modulus of elasticity E0,mean 10,3 GPa and char. bending strength fm,k 28,5 MPa. These results can be

  6. 镇安县栗炭疽病发生规律及综合防治技术研究%Chestnut Anthracnose Occurrence and Control in Zhen'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解诗和

    2012-01-01

    栗炭疽病是陕西镇安栗树的主要病害之一。试验研究表明,根据该病发生规律,在抓好农业防治的基础上,采用农业防治与药剂防治相结合的综合防治技术,防治效果显著。%Chestnut anthracnose is one of the major diseases infecting chestnut trees in Zhen'an.The experiment showed the occurrence rules,based on which integrating agricultural measures with chemical control produced significant effect.

  7. The Natural Evolutionary Potential of Tree Populations to Cope with Newly Introduced Pests and Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budde, Katharina Birgit; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Ravn, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    and the heritability of resistance traits varies substantially among the cases. While chestnut blight wilt combined with ink disease has virtually eliminated mature Castanea dentata trees from North America, other severe emerging diseases, such as the ash dieback, have left many surviving trees and genetic variation...

  8. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Ashley E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; Clark, Stacy L.; Schlarbaum, Scott E.; Reynolds, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests. PMID:27001964

  9. Chestnut extract induces apoptosis in AGS human gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2011-06-01

    In Korea, chestnut production is increasing each year, but consumption is far below production. We investigated the effect of chestnut extracts on antioxidant activity and anticancer effects. Ethanol extracts of raw chestnut (RCE) or chestnut powder (CPE) had dose-dependent superoxide scavenging activity. Viable numbers of MDA-MD-231 human breast cancer cells, DU145 human prostate cancer cells, and AGS human gastric cancer cells decreased by 18, 31, and 69%, respectively, following treatment with 200 µg/mL CPE for 24 hr. CPE at various concentrations (0-200 µg/mL) markedly decreased AGS cell viability and increased apoptotic cell death dose and time dependently. CPE increased the levels of cleaved caspase-8, -7, -3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose-dependent manner but not cleaved caspase-9. CPE exerted no effects on Bcl-2 and Bax levels. The level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein decreased within a narrow range following CPE treatment. The levels of Trail, DR4, and Fas-L increased dose-dependently in CPE-treated AGS cells. These results show that CPE decreases growth and induces apoptosis in AGS gastric cancer cells and that activation of the death receptor pathway contributes to CPE-induced apoptosis in AGS cells. In conclusion, CPE had more of an effect on gastric cancer cells than breast or prostate cancer cells, suggesting that chestnuts would have a positive effect against gastric cancer.

  10. Changes in leaf tissues of common horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. colonised by the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ochridella Deschka and Dimić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study, conducted during the period 2010- 2011, involved morphological observations and anatomical investigations of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. leaves with symptoms of damage caused by feeding of larvae of the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić. Leaves were collected from trees growing in the city of Lublin (Poland. Microscopic slides were prepared from fresh and fixed plant material. Leaf anatomical features were examined by light microscopy in order to determine the mechanical barrier for feeding pests. Changes were also observed during the progressive damage of the leaf tissues caused by the larvae. Selected developmental stages of the pest are presented in the paper. It has been shown that very thin blades of the mesomorphic leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum produce a poorly developed mechanical barrier in which the following elements can be included: the presence of collenchyma and idioblasts with druses of calcium oxalate, few non-glandular trichomes found close to the leaf veins as well as relatively thin outer walls of the epidermal cells. The cells containing tannins and the oil cells found in the mesophyll may form a physiological barrier. However, foraging leaf miner larvae feed only on the palisade and spongy parenchyma cells, leaving undamaged the cells with tannins as well as the idioblasts with calcium oxalate crystals and oils. The feeding of the pest in the leaf mesophyll leads to the death of the epidermis on both sides of the lamina and to drying of the parts of the leaves in the area of the mines.

  11. Production of fermented chestnut purees by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiotta, G; Di Capua, M; Coppola, R; Aponte, M

    2012-09-03

    The objective of this study was to develop a new chestnut-based puree, in order to seasonally adjust the offer and use the surplus of undersized production, providing, at the same time, a response to the growing demand for healthy and environmentally friendly products. Broken dried chestnuts have been employed to prepare purees to be fermented with six different strains of Lactobacillus (Lb.) rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei. The fermented purees were characterized by a technological and sensorial point of view, while the employed strains were tested for their probiotic potential. Conventional in vitro tests have indicated the six lactobacilli strains as promising probiotic candidates; moreover, being the strains able to grow and to survive in chestnut puree at a population level higher than 8 log₁₀ CFU/mL along 40 days of storage at 4 °C, the bases for the production of a new food, lactose-free and with reduced fat content, have been laid.

  12. Quantification of minerals and tocopherols isomers in chestnuts approach chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Evelazio de Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The levels of the ?, ?, and (?+?-tocopherol isomers and the amounts of the minerals Se, Zn, Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Mg, and Cu were analyzed in chestnuts. High contents of Zn (>65% relative to the recommended dietary intake (RDI were found in all chestnuts except macadamia nuts (25% of the RDI. All samples had Se contents higher than the RDI: Brazil nuts > macadamia nuts, cashew nuts > pecans > almonds > pistachio nuts > hazelnuts > European nuts. A greater concentration of ?-tocopherol was found in almonds (30% of RDI. All samples, except for hazelnuts, almonds, and macadamia nuts, had (?+?- tocopherols, with the largest amount found in pistachios. Only pecan nuts and European nuts had ?-tocopherol and only in low amounts. Multivariate analysis allowed for better characterization and distinction of the chestnuts

  13. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana; De Sio, Antonio; Boniglia, Concetta; Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro

    2009-07-01

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [ European Parliament and Council Directive, 1999/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of "Montella" chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  14. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangiacotti, Michele [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Foggia (Italy)], E-mail: izsfgchimica@infinito.it; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Foggia (Italy); De Sio, Antonio [La Dolce Irpinia Srl - Montella (AV) (Italy); Boniglia, Concetta [Department of Public Veterinary Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro [Department of Technology and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of 'Montella' chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  15. Genetic transformation of European chestnut somatic embryos with a native thaumatin-like protein (CsTL1) gene isolated from Castanea sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Allona, Isabel; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    The availability of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) would offer an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. For the first time, a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1), isolated from chestnut cotyledons, has been overexpressed in three chestnut somatic embryogenic lines. Transformation experiments have been performed using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens Smith and Townsend vector harboring the neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) selectable and the green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter genes. The transformation efficiency, determined on the basis of the fluorescence of surviving explants, was clearly genotype dependent and ranged from 32.5% in the CI-9 line to 7.1% in the CI-3 line. A total of 126 independent transformed lines were obtained. The presence and integration of chestnut CsTL1 in genomic DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CsTL1 expression was up to 13.5-fold higher in a transgenic line compared with its corresponding untransformed line. In only one of the 11 transformed lines tested, expression of the CsTL1 was lower than the control. The remaining 115 transformed lines were successfully subjected to cryopreservation. Embryo proliferation was achieved in all of the transgenic lines regenerated and the transformed lines showed a higher mean number of cotyledonary stage embryos and total number of embryos per embryo clump than their corresponding untransformed lines. Transgenic plants were regenerated after maturation and germination of transformed somatic embryos. Furthermore, due to the low plantlet conversion achieved, axillary shoot proliferation cultures were established from partially germinated embryos (only shoot development), which were multiplied and rooted according to procedures already

  16. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill) starch for industrial utilization

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g), lipid (5.39 g/100g), crude fiber (2.34 g/100g) and ash (2.14 g/100g). Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A TECHNOLOGY FOR LOW IN GLUTEN CHESTNUT PUREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlina Paraskova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the scientific research related to technologies for processing and implementation of chestnut products are aimed to establish the regimes of preliminary treatment of the nuts, such as devitalization, hydrotherapy, thermo-hydro therapy, refrigeration and freezing with the scope of long term storage of the raw material in disguise of peeled, unpeeled, cooled, chilled and etc. chestnut. Additionally added value products can be designed to designate some specific target group like consumers with food allergies, obese people as well as pupils’ nutrition

  18. Purification, characterization and N-terminal amino acid sequence of a new major allergen from European chestnut pollen--Cas s 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, T; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Ferreira, F; Hirschwehr, R; Ahorn, H; Horak, F; Jager, S; Sperr, W; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O

    1993-11-15

    Pollens from trees of the order Fagales (e.g. birch, alder, hazel, and hornbeam) all contain one major allergen--the main cause for tree pollen allergy. So far the major allergens from birch (Bet v 1), alder (Aln g 1), hazel (Cor a 1), and hornbeam (Car b 1) have been characterized, showing high sequence similarity with each other (1-4). We present the molecular and immunologic characterization of Cas s 1, the major allergen from the European chestnut (Castanea sativa). From aqueous pollen extracts from European chestnut a protein was purified to homogeneity and was subjected to further investigation. The protein revealed a Mr of 22 kDa and was shown to represent the major allergen of the European chestnut (immunoblotting, histamine release) and designated Cas s 1. Despite a marked difference in Mr, Cas s 1 shows significant amino acid sequence similarity at the N-terminus and is antigenically closely related to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 (17 kDa), as shown by binding to the anti-Bet v 1 monoclonal antibody BIP-1 and by IgE-inhibition tests using recombinant Bet v 1.

  19. Tree Nut Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Almond Artificial nuts Brazil nut Beechnut Butternut Cashew Chestnut Chinquapin nut *Coconut Filbert/hazelnut Gianduja (a chocolate- ... safe. The following are not nuts: nutmeg, water chestnuts and butternut squash. Argan oil is derived from ...

  20. Biotic and abiotic stress can induce cystatin expression in chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernas, M; Sánchez-Monge, R; Salcedo, G

    2000-02-11

    A cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) from chestnut (Castanea sativa) seeds, designated CsC, has been previously characterized. Its antifungal, acaricide and inhibitory activities have allowed to involve CsC in defence mechanisms. The CsC transcription levels decreased during seed maturation and increased throughout germination, an opposite behavior to that shown by most phytocystatins. No inhibition of endogenous proteinase activity by purified CsC was found during the seed maturation or germination processes. CsC message accumulation was induced in chestnut leaves after fungal infection, as well as by wounding and jasmonic acid treatment. Induction in roots was also observed by the last two treatments. Furthermore, CsC transcript levels strongly raised, both in roots and leaves, when chestnut plantlets were subjected to cold- and saline-shocks, and also in roots by heat stress. All together, these data suggest that chestnut cystatin is not only involved in defence responses to pests and pathogen invasion, but also in those related to abiotic stress.

  1. Betaines and related ammonium compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Cautela, Domenico; Paolucci, Marina; Siano, Francesco; Volpe, Maria Grazia; Castaldo, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Chestnut fruits, being poor of simple sugars and consisting mainly of fibers and starch, are among the constituents of Mediterranean diet. While numerous studies report on content of proteins and amino acids in chestnut, no one has appeared so far on betaines, an important class of nitrogen compounds ubiquitous in plants for their protective action in response to abiotic stress. In this study, we analyzed by HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry, in fruits and flours of varieties of chestnut cultivated in Italy, the composition of betaines and ammonium compounds intermediates of their biosynthesis. Besides the parent amino acids, the compounds quantified were choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, glycine betaine, N-methylproline, proline betaine (stachydrine), β-alanine betaine, 4-guanidinobutyric acid, trigonelline, N,N,N-trimethyllysine. Interestingly, some uncommon derivatives of pipecolic acid, such as N-methylpipecolic acid, 4-hydroxypipecolic acid and 4-hydroxy-N-methylpipecolic acid were identified for the first time in chestnut samples and characterized by MS(n) tandem mass spectrometry.

  2. Nondestructive detection of infested chestnuts based on NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect feeding is a significant postharvest problem for processors of Chestnuts (Castanea sativa, Miller). In most cases, damage from insects is 'hidden', i.e. not visually detectable on the fruit surface. Consequently, traditional sorting techniques, including manual sorting, are generally inadequa...

  3. Structure of Oxalacetate Acetylhydrolase, a Virulence Factor of the Chestnut Blight Fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen; Sun, Qihong; Narayanan, Buvaneswari; Nuss, Donald L.; Herzberg, Osnat (UMBI)

    2010-11-15

    Oxalacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily, catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalic acid and acetate. This study shows that knock-out of the oah gene in Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, reduces the ability of the fungus to form cankers on chestnut trees, suggesting that OAH plays a key role in virulence. OAH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and its catalytic rates were determined. Oxalacetate is the main OAH substrate, but the enzyme also acts as a lyase of (2R,3S)-dimethyl malate with {approx}1000-fold lower efficacy. The crystal structure of OAH was determined alone, in complex with a mechanism-based inhibitor, 3,3-difluorooxalacetate (DFOA), and in complex with the reaction product, oxalate, to a resolution limit of 1.30, 1.55, and 1.65 {angstrom}, respectively. OAH assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit exhibiting an ({alpha}/{beta})8 barrel fold and each pair swapping the 8th {alpha}-helix. An active site 'gating loop' exhibits conformational disorder in the ligand-free structure. To obtain the structures of the OAH {center_dot} ligand complexes, the ligand-free OAH crystals were soaked briefly with DFOA or oxalacetate. DFOA binding leads to ordering of the gating loop in a conformation that sequesters the ligand from the solvent. DFOA binds in a gem-diol form analogous to the oxalacetate intermediate/transition state. Oxalate binds in a planar conformation, but the gating loop is largely disordered. Comparison between the OAH structure and that of the closely related enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, suggests potential determinants of substrate preference.

  4. Effect of cooking methods on nutritional quality and volatile compounds of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Shi, Xianhe; Zhao, Qiaojiao; Cui, Yahui; Ouyang, Jie; Xu, Fang

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods on the content of important nutrients and volatiles in the fruit of Chinese chestnut. The nutritional compounds, including starch, water-soluble protein, free amino acids, reducing sugar, sucrose, organic acids and total flavonoids, of boiled, roasted and fried chestnuts were significantly (Pchestnuts after cooking, while the amylose, fat, crude protein and total polyphenol content varied slightly (P>0.05). L-Aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and L-arginine were found to be the main reduced free amino acids in cooked chestnuts. The main aromatic compositions in fresh chestnuts were aldehydes and esters, while ketones, furfural and furan were formed in cooked chestnuts due to the Maillard reaction and degradation of saccharides, amino acids and lipids. Principle component analysis demonstrated that roasting and frying had a similar effect on the nutritional composition of chestnuts, which differed from that of the boiling process.

  5. Determinants of chestnuts demanded quantities : an empirical estimation using panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Mourão, Paulo; Mourão, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we studied the economic determinants of chestnuts demanded quantities. It concludes by stating that chestnuts are only demanded in countries with the tradition of their presence in people’s diets, receiving strong challenges from the globalisation process. We also have found a significant dependence on real income per capita of chestnuts demanded quantities. Price effects were concluded as not influencing CDQ in the panel estimations.

  6. Removal of water turbidity by natural coagulants obtained from chestnut and acorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sćiban, Marina; Klasnja, Mile; Antov, Mirjana; Skrbić, Biljana

    2009-12-01

    The ability of seed extracts of several species of chestnut and acorn to act as natural coagulants was tested using a synthetic turbid water. Active components were extracted from ground seeds of Horse chestnut and acorns of some species of family Fagaceae: Common oak, Turkey oak, Northern red oak and European chestnut. All investigated extracts had coagulation capabilities and their amounts depended on pH values and initial turbidities. The seed extracts from European chestnut and Common oak acorn were the most efficient expressing the highest coagulation activities, about 80% and 70%, respectively, in both low and medium investigated water turbidities at the lowest coagulant dose 0.5 ml/L.

  7. Property Comparison of Chestnut Starch and Modified Chestnut Starch%板栗淀粉与板栗变性淀粉性质的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建兰; 刘秀凤; 李志博; 马宏峰; 蔡金星; 常学东

    2011-01-01

    比较了板栗淀粉,板栗氧化淀粉,板栗羟丙基淀粉,板栗磷酸酯淀粉的主要物理性质并测定了板栗淀粉及其3种变性淀粉的冻融稳定性、透光率、溶解性和膨胀度、糊化特性等性质.结果表明:板栗淀粉经过变性后,3种变性淀粉的冻融稳定性和透光率上升,溶解度变大;氧化淀粉和羟丙基淀粉的膨胀度小于板栗淀粉,磷酸酯淀粉的膨胀度大于板栗淀粉;板栗淀粉糊的糊化温度,峰值黏度、95℃的黏度与50℃的黏度以及在二者温度保温1 h的黏度值均低于板栗淀粉;板栗变性淀粉糊的热黏度稳定性和冷黏度稳定性与板栗淀粉相比变化较大;板栗变性淀粉的凝胶性和凝沉性均低于板栗淀粉,抗老化能力强于板栗淀粉.%The properties of chestnut starch, oxidized chestnut starch, and hydroxypropylated chestnut starch were compared and the physical properties such as freeze -melt stability, light transmissivity, solubility, expansibility,and gelatinization were studied.Results: The freeze - melt stability and light transmissivity of chestnut starch rise and solubility is enhanced after the modification.The expansibilities of oxidized chestnut starch and hydroxypropyl chestnut starch are lower than chestnut starch, while those of carboxymethyl chestnut starch are higher.The pasting temperature,peak viscosity,95 ℃ viscosity,50 ℃ viscosity and their final viscosity of the modified chestnut starch are lower than chestnut starch.Differences are found in thermal -viscosity and cool paste viscosity between modified chestnut starch paste and chestnut starch paste.The gelatin and sink stability of the modified starch are lower than chestnut starch and the anti -aging ability of the modified starch is strengthened.

  8. A study on the production of chestnut powder in the inner shell(endo carp) of a chestnut from its treatment plant. A basic study on the recycling process design of wasted inner shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, B.G. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    In this study, recycling the chestnut inner shell out of the agricultural wastes in a chestnut treatment factory was investigated. 50% of the inner shell consisted of chestnut body and the rest was made of pure shell; therefore, the elementary study separating chestnut body from the inner shell was carried out. Also, the physical and chemical properties of chestnut powders from the inner shell was studied in order to design the separation process. It was found that we can separate the chestnut powders from the chestnut shell through drying, coarse grinding, wind separating and fine grinding processes; therefore, it is possible to make bakeries, cakes and powder foods using the chestnut powders because the powders are good in terms of water holding capacity, swelling potential etc.. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Comparison of quantitative trait loci for adaptive traits between oak and chestnut based on an expressed sequence tag consensus map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasoli, Manuela; Derory, Jeremy; Morera-Dutrey, Caroline; Brendel, Oliver; Porth, Ilga; Guehl, Jean-Marc; Villani, Fiorella; Kremer, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    A comparative genetic and QTL mapping was performed between Quercus robur L. and Castanea sativa Mill., two major forest tree species belonging to the Fagaceae family. Oak EST-derived markers (STSs) were used to align the 12 linkage groups of the two species. Fifty-one and 45 STSs were mapped in oak and chestnut, respectively. These STSs, added to SSR markers previously mapped in both species, provided a total number of 55 orthologous molecular markers for comparative mapping within the Fagaceae family. Homeologous genomic regions identified between oak and chestnut allowed us to compare QTL positions for three important adaptive traits. Colocation of the QTL controlling the timing of bud burst was significant between the two species. However, conservation of QTL for height growth was not supported by statistical tests. No QTL for carbon isotope discrimination was conserved between the two species. Putative candidate genes for bud burst can be identified on the basis of colocations between EST-derived markers and QTL.

  10. SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CHESTNUT (Castanea sativa Mill. WOOD OBTAINED FROM MAÇKA-ÇATAK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgül Ay

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some mechanical properties of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. wood were investigated. 8 trees used for experiments were obtained from Maçka-Çatak region and samples were then prepared in accordance with the related standarts. As mechanical properties of chestnut wood, compression strength parallel to the grain, static bending strength, shear strength and values of Brinell-hardness were determined. As a result, a compression strength parallel to grain of 581.91 kp/cm2, static bending strength of 790 kp/cm2, shear strength of 56.36 kp/cm2, Brinell-hardness value in the cross-section of 4.25 kp/mm2 , Brinellhardness value in the radial-section of 1.74 kp/mm2 and Brinell-hardness value in tangential-section of 1.69 kp/mm2 were obtained. Using compression strength parallel to grain and specific gravity values, specific and static quality values were calculated to be 19.9 km ve 10.7 km, respectively. The results were compared with the other studies carried out on the relevant species which have the same or a similar anatomical structure.

  11. Biochemical analysis of two varieties of water chestnuts (Trapa sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruk, M Omar; Amin, M Ziaul; Sana, Niranjan Kumar; Shaha, Ranajit Kumar; Biswas, Kamal Krishna

    2012-11-01

    In this study, two varieties (Green and red) of water chestnuts (Trapa sp.) have been selected for their biochemical analysis as well as nutrient composition using standard methods. The proximate composition of green water chestnuts revealed moisture 62.5, ash 1.04, crude fiber 2.13%, total soluble sugar 0.92%, reducing sugar 0.33%, non-reducing sugar 0.59%, starch 8.7%, lipid 0.84%. One hundred gram of green variety contained water soluble protein 0.275 mg, beta-Carotene 60 microg, vitamin-C 1.1 mg and total phenol 0.5 mg. The minerals contents of green variety were potassium 5.22%, sodium 0.64%, calcium 0.25%, phosphorus 6.77%, sulpher 0.38%, and iron, copper, manganese and zinc 200, 430, 90 and 600 ppm, respectively. The red variety contained moisture 62.7%, ash 1.30%, crude fiber 2.27%, total soluble sugar 0.90%, reducing sugar 0.30%, non-reducing sugar 0.60%, starch 8.2%, lipid 0.83%. The red variety contained water soluble protein 0.251 mg, beta-Carotene 92 microg, vitamin-C 0.9 mg and total phenol 0.60 mg per 100 g. The red variety contained potassium 5.32%, sodium 0.59%, calcium 0.26% phosphorus 6.77%, sulpher 0.32%, Iron 200 ppm, copper 450 ppm, manganese 110 ppm and zinc 650 ppm. The free amino acids, glutamic acid, tryptophan, tyrosine, alanine, lysine and leucine were commonly found in both varieties. In addition, green and red variety contained cysteine, arginine and proline and glutamine and asparagines, respectively. Thus, the present study sheds light on the nutrient contents of the two varieties of water chestnuts and suggests that water chestnuts may play a crucial role in human nutrition.

  12. Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. α-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

  13. Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses.

  14. Detection of mold-damaged chestnuts by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold infection is a significant postharvest problem for processors of chestnuts (Castanea sativa, Miller).Fungal disease causes direct loss of product or reduced value due to the lower-quality grade of the chest-nut lot. In most cases, fungal infection is not detectable using traditional sorting tec...

  15. 板栗丰产栽培技术%High-yield Cultivation Technology of Chestnuts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明杰; 于海洋; 孙少娟; 吴岩

    2011-01-01

    In view of the biological characteristics of chestnuts, several key technical points of high-yield cultivation of chestnuts are presented.%针对板栗的生物学特性,对栗树的丰产栽培提出几项技术要点。

  16. Composition of European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and association with health effects: fresh and processed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vasconcelos, Maria C B M; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira-Cardoso, Jorge V

    2010-08-15

    Chestnut fruits are highly regarded and widely consumed throughout Europe, America and Asia. Various commercial forms are available, e.g. fresh and industrially processed. There have been various reviews on the composition of chestnut fruits but there has not been a comprehensive review of the different health benefits that this fruit can provide. This review is focused on the composition and associated health effects of European fresh chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and their home-processed and industrial products, e.g. boiled, roasted, frozen, and 'marron glacées'. We also expand the knowledge of chestnut uses by presenting data for other chestnut materials that have potential applications as new foods, as sources of antioxidants, and as sources of other useful bioactives. There is considerable literature data on nutrients in fresh chestnut fruits but less information on bioactive non-nutrients such as phenolics. Chestnuts are mostly consumed as processed forms, and the different types of processing clearly affect the nutrient and non-nutrient composition of the fruits. The benefits that this fruit can provide for human and animal health are numerous, but it is clear that improvements can be made for both production and quality of chestnut products, e.g. genetic selection and optimizing industrial processing.

  17. Vitamin E profile as a reliable authenticity discrimination factor between chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C M; Alves, Rita C; Casal, Susana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Pereira, José Alberto

    2009-06-24

    In this study, the profile of tocopherols and tocotrienols in chestnut ( Castanea sativa Mill.) kernel oil was evaluated. Four Portuguese chestnut varieties were selected: Aveleira, Boaventura, Judia, and Longal. The vitamin E determination had already been applied to similar matrices, but, to the authors' knowledge, it is the first time that chestnut kernel oil has been evaluated. The prevalent vitamer was gamma-tocopherol, often present in trace amounts in other natural products. Due to the high commercial value of chestnut, a statistical analysis of the obtained results was also conducted to define the tocopherol and tocotrienol profile as a reliable indicator of a specific chestnut variety. To achieve this objective, an analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the method as well as the uniformity of results for each variety. A discriminant analysis was also carried out revealing quite satisfactory results. Four varieties were clustered in four individual groups through the definition of two discriminant analysis dimensions.

  18. [Effects of compound fertilizer of (NH2)2CO and KH2PO4 on the chestnut photosynthesis characteristics, growth and fruiting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shou-le; Sun, Xiao-li; Shen, Guang-ning; Xu, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Compound fertilizer can improve the fertilizer use efficiency and tree nutrition status to ensure balanced fertilization. Taking 7 year-old chestnut trees as test material, with (NH2)2CO and KH2PO4 being mixed at the different ratios, the effects of different compound fertilizers on the photosynthesis characteristics as well as the growth and fruiting of chestnut were studied quantitatively by trunk injection method. Results showed that compound fertilizer of (NH2)2CO and KH2PO4 induced positive synergistic effects to enhance photosynthetic capacity, yield and quality of chestnut obviously. The content of chlorophyll was decreased by (NH2)2CO and increased by KH2PO4, but increased obviously by the compound fertilizer. The contents of N, P, K of leaf and branch rose under the four compounded fertilization treatments, among which 0.3%(NH2)2CO+0.3%KH2PO4 was the best. All fertilizer treatments could advance the photosynthetic parameters, while the compound fertilizer performed better. 0.3% (NH2)2CO + 0.3% KH2PO4 treatment significantly increased the photosynthetic rate, the maximum net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, carboxylation efficiency, instantaneous water use efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency. Compound fertilizer could promote the growth of branch in diameter and length synchronously, and increase the number of mixed buds, while (NH2)2CO only promoted the growth of branch in length, and did little in the number of mixed buds. The compound fertilizer did better in advancing nuts yield and quality than single fertilization of N or P. The nuts yield, mass and total sugar were increased by 68.2%, 25.5% and 14.9% respectively under 0.3% (NH2)2CO+0.3%KH2PO4 treatment compared with the control.

  19. Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manetti MC

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement? This paper aims at evaluating the role of standards in chestnut coppices from a biological and functional perspective. In addition to a detailed analysis of Italian regulations on the issue, the technical definition of the term is analysed: (i as for the functional role of standards; (ii to assess whether the required functions are technically necessary and are being actually performed. In this contex, the results of an experimental trial are reported. The goal of the trial were to assess the shoots’ parameters, the stand productivity, the dynamics of canopy cover in coppices with or without standards. In 2001, at harvesting operations in a coppice aged 30 with standards managed by the local community, two experimental plots 2500 m2 each were established. The two theses being compared were: simple coppice and coppixce with standards (100 standards per hectare. The released standards were qualified immediately after final harvesting. Sprouting ability, growth pattern and stool vitality were surveyed in March 2004 (at age 2, in May 2008 (at age 6 and in April 2010 (at age 8. First results highlighted the evidence of statistically significant differences between the two thesis. The high number of standards effected negatively both vitality and growth pattern of the stools. Simple coppice recorded a lower shoot mortality, a higher diametrical growth and canopy cover degree as well; the heigth growth was, on the opposite, significantly lower. These results, although referred to a limited lifespan (1/3 of the rotation time and to one site only, underline productive, ecological and environmental benefits and as a consequence suggest the widening of the experimental network and the development of new, more relevant and consistent rules, making acceptable the simple coppice as a possible silvicultural choice to be applied to chestnut coppices.

  20. Roe deer browsing effects on growth development of Turkey oak and chestnut coppices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cutini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Over the last three decades wild ungulates populations in Italy increased to values ranging from 300% to 600%. As a consequence, in Italy as well as in other European countries, situations with high ungulate density and, then, negative effects on the stability and dynamics of ecosystems, are increasing frequently. Starting from these evidences we investigated the effects of roe deer population on the vegetative regeneration of two different broadleaved tree species: Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. coppice stands. In Alpe di Catenaia (Apennines – Central Italy, after coppicing in 2002, we chose six experimental areas where fenced (P and non-fenced (NP plots were established. Measurements were performed at the beginning of the study period and in winter 2008 in both P and NP plots. Diameter and    height of all sprouts were measured. Results showed a different impact of roe deer on the two species. After seven years chestnut did not show any significant browsing-related damage, while in Turkey oak heavy differences between protected and non-protected areas are present: in NP plots roe deer browsing has produced a significant reduction in basal area (58% and volume (57% compared to P plots. The results agree with previous studies and confirm: (a a selective browsing pressure on Turkey oak; (b the lasting effect of the early impact after clear cutting, visible even seven years after. Based on the findings, we discussed the need for an integrated management of forest vegetation and forest fauna which should define the density of ungulates not only according to the theoretical carrying capacity    of ecosystems, but also considering (i the preservation of the ecosystem overall functionality, (ii the forest structure development and (iii the forest management type. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso

  1. Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot®

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E allele produces black or bay coat horses. Because black or bay colored coats are considered as the purebred phenotype for most of the breeds from this region, it is important to have a fast and reliable method to detect alleles causing chestnut coat color in horses. Findings In order to assess coat color genotype in reproductive animals with a view to avoiding those bearing chestnut alleles, we have developed a reliable, fast and cost-effective screening device which involves Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) detection based on SNaPshot® (Applied Biosystems) methodology. We have applied this method to four native breeds from the Iberian Cantabrian Coast: Pottoka and Jaca Navarra pony breeds, in which only black or bay coats are acceptable, and Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia and Burguete heavy breeds, in which chestnut coats are acceptable. The frequency of the chestnut alleles ranged between f = 0.156-0.322 in pony breeds and between f = 0.604-0.716 in heavy breeds. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of the DNA methodology reported herein as a device for identifying chestnut alleles; the methodology constitutes a valuable tool for breeders to decrease the incidence of chestnut animals among Cantabrian Coast pony breeds. PMID:20015355

  2. Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estonba Andone

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E allele produces black or bay coat horses. Because black or bay colored coats are considered as the purebred phenotype for most of the breeds from this region, it is important to have a fast and reliable method to detect alleles causing chestnut coat color in horses. Findings In order to assess coat color genotype in reproductive animals with a view to avoiding those bearing chestnut alleles, we have developed a reliable, fast and cost-effective screening device which involves Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP detection based on SNaPshot® (Applied Biosystems methodology. We have applied this method to four native breeds from the Iberian Cantabrian Coast: Pottoka and Jaca Navarra pony breeds, in which only black or bay coats are acceptable, and Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia and Burguete heavy breeds, in which chestnut coats are acceptable. The frequency of the chestnut alleles ranged between f = 0.156-0.322 in pony breeds and between f = 0.604-0.716 in heavy breeds. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of the DNA methodology reported herein as a device for identifying chestnut alleles; the methodology constitutes a valuable tool for breeders to decrease the incidence of chestnut animals among Cantabrian Coast pony breeds.

  3. Micromorphology of the floral nectary of red horse chestnut (Aesculus ×carnea Hayne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Europe Aesculus ×carnea Hayne is planted in cities as an avenue tree. Compared to A. hippocastanum L., it is more drought resistant, but less resistant to low temperatures. A. ×carnea is a lower tree than A. hippocastanum and develops a smaller corolla. It produces dark green, shiny and crinkled leaves. Its flowers have different colours, from bright pink to carmine red. The nectary glands secrete nectar abundantly. Due to the long corolla tube, nectar is difficult to reach for bees. The aim of this study was to investigate the topography and micromorphology of the nectaries of A. ×carnea using scanning electron microscopy. The study shows that the nectary gland of red horse chestnut forms an incomplete ring around the base of the staminal filaments, surrounding only four stamens out of the seven that occur in the flower. Three stamens are outside the nectary. In its widest place, the nectary diameter reaches 2.7 mm. Three expanded portions of the gland can bee seen in the marginal part of the nectary, adjoining the petals. The part of the nectary adjacent to the filaments forms a convex protrusion with a wavy appearance (shape, which results from the vicinity of the filaments. Nectar is secreted through numerous stomata located beneath the convex part of the nectary. The stoma length is 21.7 μm, while the width 23.3 μm. In the material examined, most stomata had open pores. Secretion was observed in many places. The stomata were surrounded by 6-7 guard cells; this allows them to be classified as the cyclocytic type. The cells of the stomatal complex were raised above the surface of the other epidermal cells. The walls of the guard cells and of the adjacent epidermal cells were covered by a cuticle with irregular striation.

  4. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill starch for industrial utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g, lipid (5.39 g/100g, crude fiber (2.34 g/100g and ash (2.14 g/100g. Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and corn. This fraction showed more lipids and proteins than the other starches. Chestnut starch granules showed peculiar shape, smaller than the control starches and low amount of damaged units. Chemical composition concerning amylose : amylopectin ratio was intermediate to that presented by cassava and corn starch granules. Water absorption at different temperatures as well as solubility were also intermediate but closer to that presented by cassava granules. The same behavior was observed in the interaction with dimethyl-sulfoxide. Native starch granules and those submitted to enzymatic treatment with commercial alpha-amylase and also with enzymes from germinated wheat were observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Water suspensions of chestnut starch granules were heated to form pastes that were studied comparatively to those obtained with cassava and corn starches. Viscographic pattern of chestnut starch pastes showed a characteristic profile with high initial viscosity but peak absence, high resistance to mechanical stirring under hot conditions and high final viscosity. There was no way to compare it with the paste viscographic profiles obtained with the control starches. Chestnut starch pastes were stable down to pH 4 but unstable at pH 3. The water losses observed in the chestnut starch pastes after freeze-thaw cycles showed more similarity to the pattern observed in corn starch pastes as well as clarity and strength of the gel. In general the results

  5. STUDIES ON CONTINUOUS GRINDING PROCESS FOR DRIED WATER CHESTNUT KERNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. GARG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Grinding is a unit operation to break big solid material into smaller pieces. As far as process of grinding is concerned, power consumption, specific energy consumption and particle size distribution and mill capacity are main considerations from engineering point of view. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of speed of mill, sieve size, feed rate and time of grinding on power consumption and average particle diameter of water chestnut in continuous grinding process. Power consumption was measured for a constant feed rate of 1 and 2 kg/h at different speed of the mill varied from 800 to 1200 rpm for the sieve openings of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm. For all the sieve sizes and feed rates, it was observed that as the speed of the mill increases, there is an increase in power consumption and found significantly low for higher sieve size and lower feed rate. The size distribution of the water chestnut kernel for different speeds and sieve sizes at constant feed rate were obtained by sieve analysis. The milling speed has no significant effect on particle size distribution of ground product and mass fraction was minimum at lower feed rate and higher sieve size. Harris model was found best suitable to describe the size distribution in continuous grinding process. Fineness modulus decreases with increase of milling speed for experimental sieve size and feed rate.

  6. A study on the carbonization of grapeseed and chestnut shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezcimen, Didem; Ersoy-Mericboyu, Ayseguel [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical-Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Department of Chemical Engineering, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-15

    Carbonization experiments of grapeseed and chestnut shell samples having the average particle size of 0.657 mm and 0.377 mm, respectively, were performed to determine the effect of temperature, sweep gas flow rate and heating rate on the biochar yield. A statistical design technique was applied by the use of a two-level factorial design matrix to interpret experimental results. Carbonization conditions were selected according to a two-level factorial design matrix considering the following variables: temperature (723 K and 823 K), nitrogen gas flow rate (0 and 1000 cm{sup 3}/min) and heating rate (5 and 20 K/min). Empirical relations between the biochar yield and the carbonization conditions were developed. To comment on the effect of parameters between the superior and inferior levels and to prove the accuracy of design equations from statistical design technique, biochar yields obtained at different conditions were also presented in the graphical way. It was found that temperature has the strongest effect on the biochar yields in comparison with nitrogen gas flow rate and heating rate. Biochar yields of grapeseed and chestnut shell were decreased with the increasing temperature, heating rate and sweep gas flow rate. A comparison between the fuel properties of waste materials and biochar products was also done. (author)

  7. Short communication. Inheritance of cotyledon storage proteins in European sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M. A.; Alvarez, J. B.; Gutierrez, J. C.; Martin, L. M.

    2012-11-01

    A first approximation to the inheritance of cotyledon storage proteins was studied in European sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) by evaluating the offspring of a controlled cross between two local chestnut varieties (Corriente and Pilonga) from southern Spain. The analysis was carried out in 15 polymorphic bands corresponding to the albumin fraction of the storage proteins. The relationship between bands displayed one case of allelism and four of linkage. These results should be considered as the baseline of the genetics of these proteins and suggest that they could be useful for the evaluation of the genetic variability in chestnut. (Author) 13 refs.

  8. Cataract surgery training using pig eyes filled with chestnuts of various hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekada, A; Nakajima, J; Nakamura, J; Hirata, H; Kishi, T; Kani, K

    1999-05-01

    This method uses pig eyes filled with cooked chestnuts serving as pseudonuclei with the goal of teaching dividing techniques of phacoemulsification and aspiration. The pseudonuclei simulate the various degrees of human lens nuclear sclerosis. The chestnuts are trimmed to lens size. After lens extraction through a self-sealing straight incision from the pig eyes, the chestnuts are inserted in the capsular bag through the incision, which is then sutured. These preparatory procedures were initially performed by experienced surgeons but after practicing phacoemulsification technique several times, inexperienced surgeons were able to complete the entire procedure, allowing them to practice phaco chop, divide and conquer, and nondividing phacoemulsification.

  9. Winter starch reserves of white oak as a predictor of attack by the twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Weber) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J P; Kimmerer, T W; Potter, D A

    1987-12-01

    The twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Weber) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), attacks oaks (Quercus spp.) and is associated with extensive mortality of trees in the eastern deciduous forests of North America. We tested the hypothesis that winter starch reserves of oak roots are an indicator of tree vigor and that only trees low in stored starch would be attacked by A. bilineatus. We measured the levels of stored starch in the roots of 200 non-infested healthy white oaks during the dormant season and determined their correlation with A. bilineatus attacks the following spring. There was a significant increase in A. bilineatus captures on sticky traps with a decrease in winter starch reserves. Trees low in stored starch that were also stressed by phloem-girdling attracted 3.7 times as many beetles as did non-girdled trees that were low in starch. However, non-girdled trees that had low winter starch reserves were also attacked. Only oaks that had had extremely low winter root starch reserves (5 mg/g dry wt died. These results indicate that winter starch reserves are a good predictor of A. bilineatus attack.

  10. Sourdough fermentation and chestnut flour in gluten-free bread: A shelf-life evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2017-06-01

    The effect of sourdough fermentation combined with chestnut flour was investigated for improving technological and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread during 5day shelf life by means of chemico-physical and nutritional properties. Sourdough fermentation by itself and with chestnut flour reduced volume of loaves and heterogeneity in crumb grain. Sourdough technology allowed increasing crumb moisture content with no significant variations during shelf-life. Chestnut flour darkened crumb and crust while no effects on colour were observed for sourdough. Sourdough and/or chestnut flour addition caused a significant increase in crumb hardness at time 0 while a significant reduction of staling was observed only at 5days, even if a decrease in amylopectin fusion enthalpy was observed. The percentage of hydrolysed starch during in vitro digestion was significantly reduced by sourdough fermentation with a presumable lower glycaemic index.

  11. Morphogenesis of Chinese Water Chestnut Pistil and Pollen Tube during Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kunpeng OU; Fanglian HE; Yan WANG; Wen JIANG; Meiping GAO; Zhiqiang BI; Lijuan CHEN; Weiqing DONG; Jie GUI

    2016-01-01

    With the forms of pistil stigma of " Guiti 2" Chinese water chestnut cultivar during the pollination as the object of observation,we reveal the pollination process of Chinese water chestnut from the microscopic point of view,to provide reference for Chinese water chestnut crossbreeding. The results show that the Chinese water chestnut pistil has 2- 4 stigmas which present white filament and vascular bundle forms,and the vessels on epidermis are thick with long translucent branched hairs; after pollination,pollen grains are tightly bound on branched hairs,and after identification,the pollen tube can penetrate branched hairs,continue to grow,and transfer the genetic material in pollen to vascular bundle.

  12. Starch characterization in seven raw, boiled and roasted chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A P; Oliveira, I; Silva, M E; Guedes, C M; Borges, O; Magalhães, B; Gonçalves, B

    2016-01-01

    Changes occurring in seven chestnut (Castanea sativa sp.) cultivars, caused by boiling and roasting, on starch content, cell and starch granules dimension were evaluated, and morphological changes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Three clear patterns of variation were detected after processing, namely: i) decrease of starch content with processing; ii) starch increase with the applied treatments; iii) increase of starch with boiling and decrease with roasting. Starch granules of raw chestnuts presented round, oval or elliptical form, external smooth surface and eccentric hilum, with rather ellipsoid-shaped growth rings. Processing resulted in modifications of the granules, with fusion of individual granules, and gelatinization taking place with the formation of elongated clusters. The present results indicate that boiling and roasting, besides changing the starch content of chestnut, causes important modifications in the starch granules, which can affect the sensory, rheological and chemical characteristics of chestnuts.

  13. Trials to identify irradiated chestnut (Castanea bungena) with different analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.-W. E-mail: chunghw@kfda.go.kr; Delincee, Henry; Han, S.-B.; Hong, J.-H.; Kim, H.-Y.; Kim, M.-C.; Byun, M.-W.; Kwon, J.-H

    2004-10-01

    Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) measurement, DNA comet assay, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and thermoluminescence (TL) measurement were applied to identify irradiated chestnut. Samples were irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays at 0-0.5 kGy. The PSL photon counts for irradiated chestnuts were too low to be distinguished from those of the non-irradiated sample. There was no difference in DNA comets between non-irradiated and irradiated chestnuts. ESR spectroscopy did not show any radiation-induced specific signals but a symmetric singlet. However, using TL, the shape of the glow curve (Glow 1) made it possible to identify the irradiated chestnuts. In addition, the TL glow ratio (Glow 1/Glow 2) obtained by normalization was less than 0.01 for the non-irradiated sample and {>=}0.10 for irradiated ones, respectively.

  14. Native and introduced parasitoids attacking the invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The globally invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus was recently reported in Italy and threatens European chestnut orchards and native forests. Of Chinese origin, this species has invaded Japan, Korea, the USA, Nepal and Europe and in each region it has been attacked by parasitoids exploiting oak gall wasps. Classical biological control using the parasitoid Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) successfully reduced infestation in Japan. Subsequent work in Japan and Korea showed...

  15. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Du

    Full Text Available Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng, we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant

  16. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis) on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yanli; Zhang, Jiaxin; Yan, Zengguang; Ma, Yongqiang; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Minzhao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qin, Ling; Cao, Qingqin

    2016-01-01

    Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng), we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant-volatile-mediated host

  17. Grafting Seedling Techniques of Chestnut%板栗嫁接育苗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国举

    2014-01-01

    Grafting seedling techniques of chestnut were summarized from rootstock breeding,scion collecting and processing,grafting etc.,so as to provide reference for seedling of chestnut growers.%从砧木培育、接穗采集及处理、嫁接等方面总结了板栗嫁接育苗技术,以期为板栗种植者育苗提供参考。

  18. [Determination the Change of Main Trace Elements in the Ovary with Self- and Cross-Pollination of Chinese Chestnut by ICP-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Feng; Guo, Su-Juan; Wang, Jing; Peng, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Na; Peng, Ya-Qin

    2015-10-01

    Castanea mollissima Blume has potential as an non-wood forest trees that have been cultivated for thousands of years in China. In order to elucidate the trace elements of chestnut ovary, the major trace elements of self- and cross-pollination chestnut ovary were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that self- and cross-pollination 5-50 d, six trace elements trends showed fluctuations. After cross-pollination 20 d, the content of Ca was up to 6.50 mg x g(-1), while the self-pollination 10 d, the content of Ca reached up to 7.77 mg x g(-1). After cross- and self-pollination pollination 30 d, the content of Mg were highest, 4.19 and 4.69 mg x g(-1), respectively. After cross-pollination 5 d, the content of Zn reached the highest, 0.038 7 mg x g(-1), while self-pollination 10d the content of Zn was 0.039 9 mg x g(-1). After self- and cross-pollination 35 d, the content of Fe were 0.022, 0.019 mg x g(-1), respectively. After cross- and self-pollination 20 d, the content of Cu were 0.056, 0.045 mg x g(-1), respectively. After self-pollination 40d, the content of Mn reaching the highest was 1.204 mg x g(-1), while cross-pollination 30 d, the content of Mn reached its maximum 0.845 mg x g(-1). The results can provide a reference for spraying fertilizer on the ovary development, thereby improving chestnut production.

  19. Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahamadou E.GOUNGA; Shi-ying XU; Zhang WANG

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption.Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample's protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal.

  20. Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounga, Mahamadou E; Xu, Shi-ying; Wang, Zhang

    2008-09-01

    In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption. Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample's protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal.

  1. Horse chestnut – efficacy and safety in chronic venous insufficiency: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Dudek-Makuch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe extract from horse chestnut seeds (Aesculus hippocastanumL., Sapindaceae, standardised for the content of aescin, is used as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-oedematous properties and indicates a positive effect on the venous tone, rheological properties, and blood coagulability. The mechanism of horse chestnut seed extract/aescin activity was proposed on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies, and its effectiveness was documented with numerous randomised clinical trials. The results of the studies have proven that horse chestnut seed extract not only significantly improves subjective symptoms in patients with chronic venous insufficiency like calf spasm, leg pain, pruritus, fatigue, but it also reduced leg volume, the ankle and calf circumference. The preparations containing horse chestnut seed extract are very popular and they have similar effectiveness as compression therapy and a preparation with O-(β-hydroxyethyl-rutosides. Moreover, horse chestnut seed extract has been proven to be safe and very well tolerated. The study was to present the results of the studies that have been conducted so far and that have confirmed the effectiveness of use of horse chestnut seed extract or aescin as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency.

  2. Chestnut Lodge and the psychoanalytic approach to psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, John S

    2011-02-01

    The study of psychosis has a long history in psychoanalysis, as does the debate over the suitability of psychoanalysis for treating schizophrenia. For decades, Chestnut Lodge was not only a hospital but also a clinical research and educational institution. A unique patient-staff ratio--about twenty analytic therapists for a hundred patients--made possible prolonged and intense clinical work with schizophrenic and other severely disturbed patients. Interstaff discussions were encouraged and facilitated. This quasi-academic approach to in-depth individual case studies led to clinical findings and theoretical formulations that had a significant impact on developments in psychoanalysis, both here and abroad. Many of these findings and theoretical formulations are relevant to current studies and treatments of psychotic and nonpsychotic patients.

  3. Toxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates from weevil-damaged chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J M; Payne, J A

    1975-10-01

    Aspergillus and Penicillium were among the most common genera of fungi isolated on malt-salt agar from weevil-damaged Chinese chestnut kernels (16.8 and 40.7% occurrence, respectively). Chloroform extracts of 21 of 50 Aspergillus isolates and 18 of 50 representative Penicillium isolates, grown for 4 weeks at 21.1 C on artificial medium, were toxic to day-old cockerels. Tweleve of the toxic Aspergillus isolates were identified as A. wentii, eight as A. flavus, and one as A. flavus var. columnaris. Nine of the toxic Penicillium isolates were identified as P. terrestre, three as P. steckii, two each as P. citrinum and P. funiculosum, and one each as P. herquei (Series) and P. roqueforti (Series). Acute diarrhea was associated with the toxicity of A. wentii and muscular tremors with the toxicity of P. terrestre, one isolate of P. steckii, and one of P. funiculosum.

  4. Purification of castamollin, a novel antifungal protein from Chinese chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2003-11-01

    A novel antifungal protein, designated castamollin, was isolated from Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollisima) seeds with a procedure involving ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 75. Castamollin possessed a novel N-terminal sequence demonstrating little similarity to N-terminal sequences of Castanea sativa chitinase. Castamollin exhibited a molecular mass of 37kDa in gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. It inhibited the activity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 7microM and translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC(50) of 2.7microM. Castamollin displayed antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Physalospora piricola, and Coprinus comatus but was devoid of lectin activity.

  5. The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskella, Britt; Parr, Nicole

    2015-08-19

    Insight to the spatial and temporal scales of coevolution is key to predicting the outcome of host-parasite interactions and spread of disease. For bacteria infecting long-lived hosts, selection to overcome host defences is just one factor shaping the course of evolution; populations will also be competing with other microbial species and will themselves be facing infection by bacteriophage viruses. Here, we examine the temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial adaptation against natural phage populations from within leaves of horse chestnut trees. Using a time-shift experiment with both sympatric and allopatric phages from either contemporary or earlier points in the season, we demonstrate that bacterial resistance is higher against phages from the past, regardless of spatial sympatry or how much earlier in the season phages were collected. Similarly, we show that future bacterial hosts are more resistant to both sympatric and allopatric phages than contemporary bacterial hosts. Together, our results suggest the evolution of relatively general bacterial resistance against phages in nature and are contrasting to previously observed patterns of phage adaptation to bacteria from the same tree hosts over the same time frame, indicating a potential asymmetry in coevolutionary dynamics.

  6. Identification of a homolog of Arabidopsis DSP4 (SEX4) in chestnut: its induction and accumulation in stem amyloplasts during winter or in response to the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Ibañez, Cristian; Acebo, Paloma; Ramos, Alberto; Perez-Solis, Estefania; Collada, Carmen; Casado, Rosa; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Allona, Isabel

    2011-10-01

    Oligosaccharide synthesis is an important cryoprotection strategy used by woody plants during winter dormancy. At the onset of autumn, starch stored in the stem and buds is broken down in response to the shorter days and lower temperatures resulting in the buildup of oligosaccharides. Given that the enzyme DSP4 is necessary for diurnal starch degradation in Arabidopsis leaves, this study was designed to address the role of DSP4 in this seasonal process in Castanea sativa Mill. The expression pattern of the CsDSP4 gene in cells of the chestnut stem was found to parallel starch catabolism. In this organ, DSP4 protein levels started to rise at the start of autumn and elevated levels persisted until the onset of spring. In addition, exposure of chestnut plantlets to 4 °C induced the expression of the CsDSP4 gene. In dormant trees or cold-stressed plantlets, the CsDSP4 protein was immunolocalized both in the amyloplast stroma and nucleus of stem cells, whereas in the conditions of vegetative growth, immunofluorescence was only detected in the nucleus. The studies indicate a potential role for DSP4 in starch degradation and cold acclimation following low temperature exposure during activity-dormancy transition.

  7. Effect of cooking on total vitamin C contents and antioxidant activity of sweet chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ana I R N A; Nunes, Fernando M; Gonçalves, Berta; Bennett, Richard N; Silva, Ana Paula

    2011-09-01

    In this work the total vitamin C contents (ascorbic acid+dehydroascorbic acid) and antioxidant activity of raw and cooked chestnuts was evaluated. The vitamin C contents of raw chestnuts varied significantly between the different cultivars (cv) studied and it varied from 400mg/kg dry weight (cv Lada) to 693mg/kg dry weight (cv Martaínha). The different cultivars behave differently during the cooking process concerning the loss of vitamin C. A significant decrease in the vitamin C content of the chestnuts was observed, 25-54% for the boiling process and 2-77% for the roasting process. Boiled and roasted chestnuts can be good sources of vitamin C since it may represent 22.4%, 16.2%, 26.8% and 19.4%, respectively, of the recommended dietary intake for an adult man and woman. The cooking process significantly changed the antioxidant activity of the chestnuts. A difference was observed between the cultivars during the cooking processes, concerning the antioxidant activity. For the raw chestnuts the variation in vitamin C content of the chestnuts explains 99% of the antioxidant activity variation but for the roasted and boiled chestnuts this percentage significantly decreases to 51% and 88%, respectively. Although a high antioxidant activity is still present in the cooked chestnuts, the cause for this antioxidant activity is less dependent on the vitamin C content of the chestnuts, probably due to the conversion of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. The increase in gallic acid during the cooking process, presumably transferred from the peels to the fruit, also contributes to the high antioxidant activity observed for the cooked chestnuts.

  8. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

  9. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing’s cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  10. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut ( Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube ( Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing's cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  11. Necessity of screening water chestnuts for microcystins after cyanobacterial blooms break out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fu-Gang; Zhao, Xiao-Lian; Tang, Jian; Gu, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Niu, Wei-Min

    2009-08-01

    Water chestnut is one of the most popular vegetables in Asian countries that grows in shallow water. Eighteen water chestnut samples were collected from Lake Tai and six samples were bought at markets in Wuxi, China, in October 2007. Extraction solution of water chestnut was cleaned up with a solid phase extraction column and immunoaffinity chromatography cartridges, then the microcystin (MC) level was detected by indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results of ELISA showed that there were six samples collected from Lake Tai which contained MCs; the highest level of total MCs was 7.02 ng/g. The results of LC-MS confirmed that MC-LR and MC-RR were present in five samples. The highest level of MC-LR was 1.02 ng/g and that of MC-RR was 4.44 ng/g. Heavy cyanobacterial blooms had occurred, and MCs were detected in water at the points in Lake Tai where MCs occurred in water chestnuts collected in 2007. MCs were not detected in the six samples bought at Wuxi markets. The results suggest that MCs can accumulate in water chestnuts, which is a potential hazard for human health.

  12. Sensitization from chestnuts and bananas in patients with urticaria and anaphylaxis from contact with latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Corres, L; Moneo, I; Muñoz, D; Bernaola, G; Fernández, E; Audicana, M; Urrutia, I

    1993-01-01

    We present eight patients allergic to latex and fruit (chestnut and banana), seven of whom are women, and aged 17 to 42 years (mean 25 years). Four had family and five personal atopic histories. The total IgE varied from 41 to 520 Ku/L (mean 263). The symptoms followed ingestion of fruit (anaphylaxis) in four patients and contact with rubber (contact urticaria and anaphylaxis) in the other four. Skin prick test (SPT) with latex and radioallergosorbent test to latex were positive in all the patients. Histamine release (HR) to latex was carried out on six patients and was positive in three. In the six patients with symptoms after having eaten chestnuts the SPT was positive and specific IgE was detected in five of them. Histamine release to chestnuts was positive in three of the six patients tested and one of them (-SPT and + IgE) tolerated the fruit. Two out of five patients with symptomatic banana allergy had negative SPT with banana while the test was positive in one patient who tolerated this fruit, this being the only case with specific IgE to banana. Histamine release with banana was only positive in one case. The important correlation between SPT, RAST, and HR results to latex and chestnut together with the total inhibition of the chestnut RAST with a serum pool by preincubation with latex suggests cross-reactivity among these allergens.

  13. Competitiveness of gamma irradiation with fumigation for chestnuts associated with quarantine and quality security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kwon, Yong-Jung; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2004-09-01

    Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and methyl bromide (MeBr) fumigation were determined for fresh chestnut on mortality of pests and quality stability. Chestnut was exposed to both irradiation at 0-10 kGy and MeBr fumigation in commercial conditions, and then subjected to the corresponding study during storage at 5°C for 6 months. Pests with quarantine importance for chestnut were found Curculio sikkimensis Heller and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee, which showed 100% mortality by MeBr at the 3rd day after fumigation and by irradiation at 0.5 kGy in about 4 weeks. Sprouting was controlled for 6 months with treatments of 0.25 kGy or more and of MeBr, but rotting rate dramatically increased from 2 months after fumigation. Irradiation over 1 kGy as well as fumigation significantly caused changes in the color of stored chestnut. Considering the cumulative mortality of chestnut pests, irradiation at the range of 0.5 kGy is recommendable as one of alternatives to MeBr fumigation for both quarantine and sprout control purposes.

  14. Competitiveness of gamma irradiation with fumigation for chestnuts associated with quarantine and quality security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, J.-H. E-mail: jhkwon@knu.ac.kr; Kwon, Y.-J.; Byun, M.-W.; Kim, K.-S

    2004-10-01

    Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and methyl bromide (MeBr) fumigation were determined for fresh chestnut on mortality of pests and quality stability. Chestnut was exposed to both irradiation at 0-10 kGy and MeBr fumigation in commercial conditions, and then subjected to the corresponding study during storage at 5 deg. C for 6 months. Pests with quarantine importance for chestnut were found Curculio sikkimensis Heller and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee, which showed 100% mortality by MeBr at the 3rd day after fumigation and by irradiation at 0.5 kGy in about 4 weeks. Sprouting was controlled for 6 months with treatments of 0.25 kGy or more and of MeBr, but rotting rate dramatically increased from 2 months after fumigation. Irradiation over 1 kGy as well as fumigation significantly caused changes in the color of stored chestnut. Considering the cumulative mortality of chestnut pests, irradiation at the range of 0.5 kGy is recommendable as one of alternatives to MeBr fumigation for both quarantine and sprout control purposes.

  15. Research Progress on Development of Chinese Chestnut Beverage%板栗饮料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董翠

    2016-01-01

    板栗是我国有名的传统农副产品,风味独特,营养丰富。板栗饮料不仅集合了板栗的优点,更解决了板栗不能长时间贮藏的问题。简述了板栗汁、板栗复合饮料、板栗发酵乳工艺流程与配方方面的研究进展,并对板栗饮料的发展前景进行展望。%Chinese chestnut is a famous traditional agricultural and sideline product with unique flavor and rich nutrition. The Chinese chestnut beverage not only has the advantages of Chinese chestnut, but also solves the problem that the Chinese chestnut cannot be stored for a long time. This paper briefly introduces the research progress on technological process and formulation of Chinese chestnut juice, Chinese chestnut compound beverage and Chinese chestnut fermented milk, and also prospects the development of Chinese chestnut beverage.

  16. 75 FR 59258 - Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC's application for market-based...

  17. 78 FR 36769 - Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  18. Salicylic acid inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) by competitively inhibiting polyphenol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Li, Lin; Wu, Yanwen; Fan, Junfeng; Ouyang, Jie

    2015-03-15

    The inhibitory effect and associated mechanisms of salicylic acid (SA) on the browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut were investigated. Shelled and sliced chestnuts were immersed in different concentrations of an SA solution, and the browning of the chestnut surface and interior were inhibited. The activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) extracted from chestnuts were measured in the presence and absence of SA. SA at concentrations higher than 0.3g/L delayed chestnut browning by significantly inhibiting the PPO activity (P0.05). The binding and inhibition modes of SA with PPO and POD, determined by AUTODOCK 4.2 and Lineweaver-Burk plots, respectively, established SA as a competitive inhibitor of PPO.

  19. Assessing the effects of gamma irradiation and storage time in energetic value and in major individual nutrients of chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Angela; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is an important food resource all over the world. In the present study, it is intended to evaluate if the application of gamma irradiation doses ≤ 3 kGy maintain chestnuts chemical and nutritional profiles unaffected. Furthermore, possible interactions among irradiation dose and storage time were accessed using linear discriminate analysis (LDA). The nutritional composition was evaluated through determination of proteins, fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. The chemical composition was focused in the main nutrients found in chestnuts: sugars - sucrose, fatty acids - palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, tocopherols - γ-tocopherol. The obtained results seem to indicate that the irradiation treatment did not affect the nutritional and chemical quality of chestnut fruits. Otherwise, storage time exerted more evident influence in those parameters. The application of gamma irradiation emerges as a promising technology for chestnuts chemical quality, but food safety issues have to be evaluated in order to recommend its application as a useful conservation alternative.

  20. Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Melanin Fractions from Chestnut Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Yu Yao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut shell melanin can be used as a colorant and antioxidant, and fractionated into three fractions (Fr. 1, Fr. 2, and Fr. 3 with different physicochemical properties. Antioxidant activities of the fractions were comparatively evaluated for the first time. The fractions exhibited different antioxidative potential in different evaluation systems. Fr. 1, which is only soluble in alkaline water, had the strongest peroxidation inhibition and superoxide anion scavenging activity; Fr. 2, which is soluble in alkaline water and hydrophilic organic solvents but insoluble in neutral and acidic water, had the greatest power to chelate ferrous ions; and Fr. 3, which is soluble both in hydrophilic organic solvents and in water at any pH conditions, had the greatest hydroxyl (·OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH· radicals scavenging abilities, reducing power, and phenolic content. The pigment fractions were superior to butylated hydroxytolune (BHT in ·OH and DPPH· scavenging and to ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA in the Fe2+–chelation. They were inferior to BHT in peroxidation inhibition and O2·− scavenging and reducing power. However, BHT is a synthetic antioxidant and cannot play the colorant role. The melanin fractions might be used as effective biological antioxidant colorants.

  1. Does management improve the state of chestnut (Castanea sativa L. on Belasitsa Mountain, southwest Bulgaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanov T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut forests in the Belasitsa Mountain region of southwest Bulgaria were traditionally intensively managed as orchard-like stands for nut production. More recently, management intensity has been sharply reduced as a result of rural abandonment, which combined with the effects of chestnut blight has led to marked structural changes in these forests. The focus of this paper is on the seed-based regeneration potential and seedling survival of chestnut in mixed stands managed over the past 15 years. Results suggest that management of stands under a high-forest system is appropriate, and regeneration from seed has advantages over coppicing if competing species can be controlled. An investigation into “sanitation cutting” performed since the 1990s shows that this had not a successful response to blight infestations.

  2. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the biosorption of Cu(II) onto chestnut shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Z.-Y., E-mail: zengyuyao@126.com [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning 110016 (China); Qi, J.-H. [College of Life Sciences, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Wang, L.-H. [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning 110016 (China)

    2010-02-15

    The biosorption of Cu(II) onto chestnut shell, a residue of the food processing industry, in a batch adsorber has been studied. Equilibrium isotherms, kinetic data, and thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated. Equilibrium data agreed well with Langmuir isotherm and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. The adsorption capacity of chestnut shell for Cu(II) was determined with the Langmuir model and was found to be 12.56 mg g{sup -1} at 293 K. The kinetic data were found to follow the pseudo-second-order model. Intra-particle diffusion is not the sole rate-controlling factor. Gibbs free energy was spontaneous for all interactions, and the adsorption process exhibited exothermic enthalpy values. Chestnut shell was shown to be a promising biosorbent for Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions.

  3. Volatile Flavor Compounds of Chestnuts and Puffed Chestnut Products%板栗及其膨化制品的挥发性香气成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文艳; 刘凌; 吴娜; 张晓磊

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取结合气相色谱-质谱联用技术对生板栗粉、煮板栗和3种膨化板栗制品的挥发性香气成分进行分离鉴定。共鉴定出68种挥发性物质,初步认定吡嗪类物质中的甲基吡嗪、2,3-二甲基吡嗪、2.乙基-6-甲基吡嗪、2,6-二-甲基吡嗪;呋喃类物质中的2-戊基呋喃、γ-丁内酯、2-糠醇、2,5-二氢-3,5-二甲基-2-呋喃酮和1-辛内酯及芳香族类物质中的苯甲醛是板栗的特征风味物质。煮制可提升板栗的香气。膨化板栗片的膨化加工方式对其香气成分影响显著,挤压膨化板栗片的香气物质组成和煮板栗比较相似,微波膨化板栗片中易产生具有枯焦气息的2,4-二叔丁基苯酚,油炸膨化板栗片的挥发性成分最复杂,醛类物质较多。%The volatile flavor compounds of chestnut powder, boiled chestnut and three puffed chestnut products were determined by HS-SPME-GC/MS. Sixty eight kinds of volatile flavor compounds were identified. Four kinds of pyrazine (methylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethyl pyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine, 2,6 - dimethyl pyrazine) , five kinds of furans (2-pentyl furan, γ-Butyrolactone, 2-furfuryl alcohol, 2,5-dihydro-3,5-dimethyl-2-furanone, 2 ( 3 H )-Fura-none, 5-butyldihydro-) as well as one kind of aromatic substances ( Benzaldehyde ) were initially identified as impor-tant aroma impact compounds. Chestnut aroma enhanced after cooking. Different puffing significantly influence aroma compositions of puffed chestnuts crisps. The aroma substance composition of extruded chestnut crisps and boiled chestnut are quite similar. A lot of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, which has paste flavor was generated in microwave puffing chestnut crisps. Volatile components of fried puffed chestnut crisps were the most complex which contained more alde-hydes substances.

  4. The success of the horse-chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK revealed with hypothesis-led citizen science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J O Pocock

    Full Text Available Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the 'Conker Tree Science' project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1 the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2 the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging

  5. 矮化板栗表型特征及早期鉴定%Phenotypic characteristics and early identification of dwarf chestnut cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏振国; 刘维国; 宋庆桃

    2001-01-01

    Four factors i. e. the rate of cortex/wood, taper index, length of internode and annual growth of developmental branches of 2 dwarf and 6 standard chestnut cultivars were measured. It was found that there existed significant correlation among tree height, rate of cortex/wood, taprter index, and annual growth. It was further verified that the critical parameters of dwarf chestnut had been established when the rate of corter/wood amounted to 19% and taper index to 55%.Statistic regression Y=458. 4538-11.7191X1-1.0156X2 was established, where Y was height of four-year old tree,X1 being rate of cortex/wood, and X2 taper index. It would be used to early identify dwarf types of chestnut cultivars.%通过对2个矮化型和6个乔化型板栗品种发育枝的枝皮率、尖削指数、节间长度、年生长量4个因子的调查分析,发现发育枝枝皮率,尖削指数、年生长量3个因子与树高存在显著相关性,即枝皮率≥19%,尖削指数≥55%时为矮化型,反之为乔化型。通过验证,确定了枝皮率19%、尖削指数55%为板栗矮化型与乔化型的临界参数。并建立Y=458.4538-11.7191X1-1.0156X2,4年生树高(Y)与嫁接当年发育枝枝皮率(X1)、尖削指数(X2)相关的多元回归方程,可用该方程对矮化型板栗品种进行早期鉴定。

  6. Allergens from birch pollen and pollen of the European chestnut share common epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschwehr, R; Jäger, S; Horak, F; Ferreira, F; Valenta, R; Ebner, C; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O

    1993-09-01

    Type I allergy to pollen of the European chestnut (Castanea sativa) represents a major cause of pollinosis in (sub) Mediterranean areas. Using sera from 14 patients with established allergy to pollen of the European chestnut, 13/14 sera (92%) showed IgE-binding to a 22 kD protein, 2/14 (14%) displayed additional binding to a 14 kD protein and 1/14 (7%) bound only to the 14 kD protein of European chestnut pollen extract. Two monoclonal mouse antibodies, BIP 1 and BIP 4, directed against different epitopes of Bet v I (the major birch pollen allergen), and a rabbit antibody to recombinant birch profilin (rBet v II) were used to characterize the proteins of the European chestnut pollen. The recombinant birch pollen allergens, rBet v I and rBet v II (profilin) were employed to show common allergenic structures on proteins from both birch and European chestnut pollen by IgE-inhibition experiments. Despite the fact that the 22 kD protein displayed a higher molecular weight in comparison to the 17 kD major birch pollen allergen, Bet v I, we could demonstrate reactivity of both monoclonal antibodies, BIP 1 and BIP 4, with this protein. A complete inhibiton of IgE-binding to this 22 kD protein was shown by pre-incubating sera with purified recombinant Bet v I. In addition, the 14 kD protein could be identified by IgE-inhibition studies with recombinant Bet v II and by using a rabbit anti-profilin antibody as the profilin from pollen of the European chestnut.

  7. Microwave sensing of tree trunks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, Jana; Mertens, Laurence; Lambot, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    was divided into three sections to separate parts with different moisture (heartwood and sapwood) or empty space (decays). For easier manipulation with the antenna we developed a special ruler for measuring the distance along the scans. Instead of the surveying wheel we read the distance with a camera, which was fixed on the antenna and focused on the ruler with a binary pattern. Hence, during whole measurement and the data processing we were able to identify an accurate position on the tree in view of the scan. Some preliminary measurements on the trees were also conducted. They were performed using a GSSI 900 MHz antenna. Several tree species (beech, horse-chestnut, birch, ...) in Louvain-la-Neuve and Brussels, Belgium, have been investigated to see the internal structure of the tree decays. The measurements were carried out mainly by circumferential measurement around the trunk and also by vertical measurement along the trunk for approximate detection of the cavity. The comparison between the numerical simulations, simplified tree trunk model and real data from trees is presented. This research is funded by the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS, Belgium) and benefits from networking activities carried out within the EU COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar".

  8. Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its contractor Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., has constructed a storage facility, the Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile (CRBAWP), for mercury-contaminated soil excavated from the Oak Ridge Civic Center properties and the Oak Ridge Sewer Line Beltway. Excavation of the soil from the Civic Center began in September 1984 and was completed in early 1985. Similar soils from other areas of the city were added to the pile until 1987. Approximately 3000 yd{sup 3} are stored at the present time. An Interim Status RCRA permit was initially sought for this facility. Samples from the waste pile passed the Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test (EP Tox). The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (now the Tennessee Department of Conservation-TDC) denied the permit based on their conclusion that the waste was not a RCRA-regulated waste. On September 25, 1990 the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) superseded the EP Tox test. TCLP tests are not proposed to satisfy a request by TDC and to make a final determination of the nature of the soils in order to close the CRBAWP as a solid waste disposal facility under Tennessee State rule 1200-1-7-.04. The objectives of this work are to summarize existing site information and detail actions necessary to sample and characterize soils from the waste pile as hazardous or nonhazardous per the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Within the scope of this plan, a site investigation will be discussed; a field sampling plan will be described in terms of sampling locations, procedures, and quality assurance; and ancillary activities such as waste management, data management, and health and safety will be outlines. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Enumerating Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Kucharczyk, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    In this note we discuss trees similar to the Calkin-Wilf tree, a binary tree that enumerates all positive rational numbers in a simple way. The original construction of Calkin and Wilf is reformulated in a more algebraic language, and an elementary application of methods from analytic number theory gives restrictions on possible analogues.

  10. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  11. Investigation on natural durability and sorption properties of Italian Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) from coppice stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Militz, H.; Busetto, D.; Hapla, F.

    2003-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill. from coppice stands in Italy were evaluated. Fungi trials with different white rot, brown rot and soft rot fungi showed, that the heartwood of chestnut can be classified following EN 350 in durability class 2 as ¿durable¿. However, the durability within the tested material (bet

  12. Effect of γ-radiation in the survival of Aspergillus parasiticus in chestnuts

    OpenAIRE

    Calado, Thalita; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Rodrigues, Paula; Venâncio, Armando

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the use of rays as an inactivation agent agains one of the most ubiquous and mycotoxigenic fungus - Aspergillus parasiticus - was studied. Chestnuts were previous incoulated with a spore suspension of one strain of A. parasiticus. After irradiation the growth of colonies were observed during 4 days. In general, the higher level of radiation the lower survival rate.

  13. [Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) used nasally as snuff - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    There are only few reports in the medical literature about side effects and toxicity of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum). We report a 15-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital because of symptoms including: vomiting, dyspnea, burning in the nose and throat, and syncope, after intranasal snuff of powdered horse chestnut seeds. Laboratory tests showed no abnormalities. After 2 days of hospitalization the female was discharged home with subjective and objective improvement. Preparation and use of snuff is related to the tradition of the kashubian region. The powder formed from horse chestnuts, which is white in color, effects after about 5-10 minutes, and causes severe irritation of the nasal mucous membranes, which results in sneezing. Responsible for side effects is mainly aescin. The most frequently observed aescin intoxication symptoms were gastrointestinal irritation and allergic reactions. Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut used nasally as snuff may lead, as it was in our case, to sudden and self-limiting clinical symptoms. Supportive therapy and a short hospital observation seems to be sufficient in such cases.

  14. Influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Amilcar L; Fernandes, Angela; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-01

    As seasonal products chestnuts have to be post-harvest treated to increase their shelf-life. The most common preservation method for chestnuts is the chemical fumigation with methyl bromide, a toxic agent that is under strictly Montreal Protocol due to its adverse effects on human health and environment. Food irradiation is a possible feasible alternative to substitute the traditional quarantine chemical fumigation treatment. This preliminary study evaluated the influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnut fruits and skins, through several chemical and biochemical parameters. The bioactive compounds (phenolics and flavonoids) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching capacity were determined. The obtained results seem to indicate that the storage favoured chestnuts antioxidant potential. Furthermore, the application of gamma irradiation also seems to be advantageous for antioxidant activity, independently of the dose used (0.27 ± 0.04 kGy or 0.54 ± 0.04 kGy).

  15. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE ROASTING CHESTNUTS PROCESS BY SUPERHEATED STEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematic modeling for chestnuts roasting process by superheated steam is conducted. Diffusion and thermal diffusion coefficients are used for process description. Initial conditions and boundary conditions of the third kind for thermal conductivity and mass transfer equations are set.

  16. Extraction and determination of ellagic acid contentin chestnut bark and fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekiari, S A; Gordon, M H; García-Macías, P; Labrinea, H

    2008-10-15

    Chestnuts are an important economic resource in the chestnut growing regions, not only for the fruit, but also for the wood. The content of ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring inhibitor of carcinogenesis, was determined in chestnut fruits and bark. EA was extracted with methanol and free ellagic acid was determined by HPLC with UV detection, both in the crude extract and after hydrolysis. The concentration of EA was generally increased after hydrolysis due to the presence of ellagitannins in the crude extract. The concentration varied between 0.71 and 21.6mgg(-1) (d.w.) in un-hydrolyzed samples, and between 2.83 and 18.4mgg(-1) (d.w.) in hydrolyzed samples. In chestnut fruits, traces of EA were present in the seed, with higher concentrations in the pellicle and pericarp. However, all fruit tissues had lower concentrations of EA than had the bark. The concentration of EA in the hydrolyzed samples showed a non-linear correlation with the concentration in the unhydrolyzed extracts.

  17. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.;

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  18. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast n...

  19. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast navig...

  20. Practices to manage chestnut orchards infested by the Chinese gall wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchetti T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of the Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in Italian chestnut growing areas is causing new criticisms. In this context, in addition to a clear plant suffering due to the wasp infestation, the dangerous recurrence of chestnut blight and the sudden spread of Gnomoniopsis sp., a coloniser of galls but also the etiological agent of nut brown rot, must be considered. Therefore, it is very important to increase the plants’ vigour and prevent their decline. Preliminary experiments were carried out in different Italian regions between 2010 and 2011. Organic plant fertilizers were applied to plants showing middle or high defoliation levels caused by the wasp attacks. The observations carried out during the growing season indicate a good vegetative restart in the treated plants compared to the untreated controls, in all the situations and independently of the fertilizers applied. Most of the treated plants (between the 75% and the 100% showed an evident improvement in the canopy vegetation, while the untreated controls were always classified in the worse classes of crown condition. These preliminary results highlight the efficacy of this kind of treatments for infested chestnut stands. This strategy, which is based on the preliminary evaluation of the plant vigour (following the proposed scale of attack severity and lack of foliage, consists in a manuring treatment at vegetative restart, which can be repeated in the following years in dependence on the results obtained. Moreover, pruning may be suggested only to manage the development of plants showing a definite recovery. The gall wasp pullulation requires new management strategies aimed at preserving the chestnut orchards, in order to avoid the chestnut cultivation to be marginalized or abandoned.

  1. Effects of electron-beam radiation on nutritional parameters of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Bento, Albino; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-08-08

    Chestnuts are a widely consumed fruit around the world, with Portugal being the fourth biggest producer in Europe. Storage of these nuts is an important step during processing, and the most widely used fumigant was banned in the European Union under the Montreal Protocol because of its toxicity. Recently, radiation has been introduced as a cheap and clean conservation method. Previous studies of our research group proved that γ radiation had no negative effect on the nutritional value of chestnuts; in fact, storage time had a much bigger influence on the chestnut quality. In the present study, we report the effect of a less ionizing radiation, electron beam, with doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 3, and 6 kGy in the nutritional value of chestnuts (ash, energy, fatty acids, sugars, and tocopherols), previously stored at 4 °C for 0, 30, and 60 days. The storage time seemed to reduce fat and energetic values but reported a tendency for higher values of dry matter. With regard to fatty acids, there was a higher detected quantity of C20:2 in non-irradiated samples and four fatty acids were only detected in trace quantities (C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, and C12:0). γ-Tocopherol decreased during storage time but did not alter its quantity for all of the radiation doses (as like α-, β-, and δ-tocopherol); in fact, these compounds were present in higher concentrations in the irradiated samples. Sucrose and total sugars were lower in non-irradiated samples, and raffinose was only detected in irradiated samples. Electron-beam irradiation seems to be a suitable methodology, because the effects on chemical and nutritional composition are very low, while storage time seems to be quite important in chestnut deterioration.

  2. Breeding research on hybrid chestnut variety“Gaojiangan”%中日杂交栗“高见甘”选育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑瑞杰

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of introduction,selection and breeding,hybrid chestnut variety“Gaojiangan”was bred and selected by variet-ies comparison and regional test.The new variety was examined and approved by the Tree Variety Appraisal Value Committee of Lia-oning Province in 2013.The varieties on the one hand had the characteristics of Japanese chestnut such as high and stable yield and large fruit,on the other hand has Chinese chestnut characteristics i.e.high quality and endocarp of nut easy to strip.After 3~4 years of grafting,the average yield of individual tree was 5.27 kg,single nut mean weight was 20.57 g,each chestnut bud contained 2.1 nuts. The flesh was yellow,sticky,fragrant and sweet.The endocarp of nut was easy to strip,and was even easier to peal after stewing. In Dalian,the fruit matured in middle to late September.“Gaojiangan”was a strain hybridized by Chinese variety and Japanese variety, with low selectivity to stock and stronger grafting affinity.Besides,“Gaojiangan”had properties such as high resistance and tolerance to Dryocosmus kuriphilus,poor soil and cold weather and so on.This variety is suitable to plant in regions south of central Kuandian, Liaoning Province and with the average annual temperature above 8℃.%在前期引种、选种、育种基础上,通过品种比较和区域试验进行良种筛选,选育出栗树中日杂交种高见甘,2013年通过辽宁省林木品种审定委员会认定。该品种一方面具有日本栗丰产稳产、果个大的特点,另一方面具有中国板栗品质优、涩皮易剥离的特点。嫁接3~4年生高见甘平均株产5.27 kg,平均单果重20.57 g,每苞平均含坚果2.1粒,果肉淡黄色,质地细腻,风味香甜,涩皮易剥离,经蒸煮后涩皮极易剥离。在辽宁大连地区9月中下旬果实成熟。高见甘为中日杂交种,对砧木选择性不强,嫁接亲和能力强。另外具有抗栗瘿蜂、耐瘠薄、抗寒性较强等特点,适

  3. 中国板栗生长状况对柱头形态的影响%Effect of Different Growth State on Stigmatic Morphology in the Chinese Chestnut(Castanea mollissima Blume)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石卓功; 夏立

    2008-01-01

    通过扫描电子显微镜观察研究中国板栗柱头形态.板栗为典型的针状形柱头,在其顶端有一个很小的开孔,直径约为50μm.在云南4月底到5月初柱头的先端可见有分泌物溢出,一个星期后分泌物迅速增加,并可把整个开孔全部覆盖."生长健壮树"的柱头开孔要比"生长衰弱树"的大,后者柱头开也又比"空苞树"大.而且,"生长健壮树"的柱头分泌物最多,其次是"生长衰弱树","空苞树"的柱头分泌物最少.%The stigmatic morphology of Chinese chestnut was studied by using scanning electron microscopy.The stigma of Chinese chestnut is typically needle-shaped with,and there is a small aperture of around 50 μm in diameter on its top.At the end of April and early in May secretion was spilt over on top of the stigma in Yunnan Province.One week later secretion increased quickly and covered completely the aperture of the stigma.At the same time aperture of stigma of the tree"robust growth state"was bigger than that of the tree"weak growth state",the latter bigger than"the empty cupulae tree".Likwise,quantity of secretion of the specimen"robust growth state"was much more than that of the specimen"weak growth state"and"the empty eupulae tree".

  4. The Development and Utilization of the Chinese Chestnut in Xinyang%信阳板栗的开发利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏明奎; 魏宗烽; 邵颖; 叶建成

    2014-01-01

    对板栗的营养价值、信阳气候特点、信阳板栗产业现状及板栗深加工产品现状进行了综述,以期推动信阳地区板栗种植业良性发展,加快板栗深加工产品的商业化。%The nutrition value of Chinese chestnut , Xinyang’ s climate characteristics, the current situation of the industry and the deep processing of Chinese chestnut were reviewed, in order to promote Chinese chestnut planting to the benign development in Xinyang area and to speed up the commercialization of the Chinese chestnut deep processing products.

  5. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers reveal a Balkan origin for the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, R; Kenis, M; Hernandez-Lopez, A; Augustin, S; Mari Mena, N; Magnoux, E; Rougerie, R; Lakatos, F; Roques, A; Lopez-Vaamonde, C

    2009-08-01

    Biological invasions usually start with a small number of founder individuals. These founders are likely to represent a small fraction of the total genetic diversity found in the source population. Our study set out to trace genetically the geographical origin of the horse-chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella, an invasive microlepidopteran whose area of origin is still unkown. Since its discovery in Macedonia 25 years ago, this insect has experienced an explosive westward range expansion, progressively colonizing all of Central and Western Europe. We used cytochrome oxidase I sequences (DNA barcode fragment) and a set of six polymorphic microsatellites to assess the genetic variability of C. ohridella populations, and to test the hypothesis that C. ohridella derives from the southern Balkans (Albania, Macedonia and Greece). Analysis of mtDNA of 486 individuals from 88 localities allowed us to identify 25 geographically structured haplotypes. In addition, 480 individuals from 16 populations from Europe and the southern Balkans were genotyped for 6 polymorphic microsatellite loci. High haplotype diversity and low measures of nucleotide diversities including a significantly negative Tajima's D indicate that C. ohridella has experienced rapid population expansion during its dispersal across Europe. Both mtDNA and microsatellites show a reduction in genetic diversity of C. ohridella populations sampled from artificial habitats (e.g. planted trees in public parks, gardens, along roads in urban or sub-urban areas) across Europe compared with C. ohridella sampled in natural stands of horse-chestnuts in the southern Balkans. These findings suggest that European populations of C. ohridella may indeed derive from the southern Balkans.

  6. Context trees

    OpenAIRE

    Ganzinger, Harald; Nieuwenhuis, Robert; Nivela, Pilar

    2001-01-01

    Indexing data structures are well-known to be crucial for the efficiency of the current state-of-the-art theorem provers. Examples are \\emph{discrimination trees}, which are like tries where terms are seen as strings and common prefixes are shared, and \\emph{substitution trees}, where terms keep their tree structure and all common \\emph{contexts} can be shared. Here we describe a new indexing data structure, \\emph{context trees}, where, by means of a limited kind of conte...

  7. Two Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Cochrane, John. H.; Longstaff, Francis A.; Santa-Clara, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    We solve a model with two “Lucas trees.†Each tree has i.i.d. dividend growth. The investor has log utility and consumes the sum of the two trees’ dividends. This model produces interesting asset-pricing dynamics, despite its simple ingredients. Investors want to rebalance their portfolios after any change in value. Since the size of the trees is fixed, however, prices must adjust to offset this desire. As a result, expected returns, excess returns, and return volatility all vary throug...

  8. Development Trends and Progress of Chestnut Products in China%板栗制品开发现状及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐同成; 王文亮; 刘洁; 杜方岭

    2011-01-01

    介绍了板栗的营养价值、板栗系列产品的开发现状,并对板栗产业的发展趋势进行了探讨。%This paper systematically introduced the nutrition value of chestnut and the development status of chestnut products, and discussed the development trends of chestnut industry.

  9. Talking Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  10. Resilience of Sweet Chestnut and Truffle Holm-Oak Rural Forests in Languedoc-Roussillon, France: Roles of Social-Ecological Legacies, Domestication, and Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Aumeeruddy-Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cévennes sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. forest-orchards and the holm-oak (Quercus ilex L. black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad. associations of the garrigue in Languedoc-Roussillon have suffered a century of decline because of great reductions of rural populations and lack of understanding of the ecological and social dimensions of these rural forests by sectorial public agencies. Levels of tree and forest domestication alternated during historical periods in parallel with statuses of disorganization and reorganization of local social groups. Social-ecological legacies intrinsically linked to trees, forests, and landscape domestication, as well as knowledge, social, and technical practices have been mobilized and provided a basis for knowledge innovations, new domestications, uses, and new institutional networks related to changes in social set-ups. Collective actions emerging from local needs to revive territories in a modern context, cross-scale and reciprocal exchanges of rural and scientific knowledge, as well as institutional changes are interrelated variables that have enabled innovations and have increased resilience of these rural forests. This paper opens new avenues for future research on the interplay between the effects of social-ecological legacies and innovations on the resilience of social-ecological systems.

  11. Production and analysis of recombinant tree nut allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Leanna N; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2014-03-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts are a growing global concern as the number of affected individuals continues to rise. Unlike some food allergies, tree nuts can cause severe reactions that persist throughout life. The tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions: cashew, almond, hazelnut, walnut, pecan, Brazil nut, pistachio, and chestnut. The native allergenic proteins derived from tree nuts are frequently difficult to isolate and purify and may not be adequately represented in aqueous nut protein extracts. Consequently, defined recombinant allergens have become useful reagents in a variety of immunoassays aimed at the diagnosis of tree nut allergy, assessing cross-reactivity between various nuts and other seeds, mapping of IgE binding epitopes, and analyzing the effects of the food matrix, food processing, and gastric digestion on allergenicity. This review describes the approaches that can be used for the production of recombinant tree nut allergens and addresses key issues associated with their production and downstream applications.

  12. Relationships between silvicultural system, forest type and floristic diversity in chestnut coppices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scoppola A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut stands are among the main forest formations in Italy. The aim of this work is to assess the floristic diversity of chestnut coppice stands of Sabatini Mts. (central Italy, highlighting the relationships between the silvicultural system and the ecological processes. In the management of these coppices almost exclusive importance has been given to the wood production, rating the stands on the basis of the rotation that maximizes the production of the most valuable assortments. The assessment carried out is based on floristic and dendrometric surveys within permanent circular plots (10 meters radius randomly selected within three chronological strata. Surveys have been realized on a total of 15 plots, 5 for each stratum. Indices of floristic richness and diversity have been elaborated to point out variations of forest types and to suggest possible alternatives to the current management to mitigate its impact on biodiversity.

  13. EFFECT of hydrocolloids on the quality evaluation of flour based noodles from Horse Chestnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiq Syed Insha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused to investigate the effects of hydrocolloids (guar gum and xanthan gum at additional levels (1%, 2% and 3% on the noodle characteristics prepared from horse chestnut flour. The qualities of noodles prepared from horse chestnut flour were compared with wheat flour based noodles in terms of cooking characteristics, textural and sensory properties. The hydrocolloid addition in noodles resulted in improvement of cooking and textural qualities in consistent to control sample. The incorporation of 3% gum significantly increased cooking properties and the firmness of cooked noodles. The results of the sensory evaluation based on a nine point hedonic scale revealed that apart from the control, noodles with 3% gum were acceptable to the panellists.

  14. Insolubilization of Chestnut Shell Pigment for Cu(II Adsorption from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Yu Yao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut shell pigment (CSP is melanin from an agricultural waste. It has potential as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment but cannot be used in its original state because of its solubility in water. We developed a new method to convert CSP to insolubilized chestnut shell pigment (ICSP by heating, and the Cu(II adsorption performance of ICSP was evaluated. The conversion was characterized, and the thermal treatment caused dehydration and loss of carboxyl groups and aliphatic structures in CSP. The kinetic adsorption behavior obeyed the pseudo-second-order rate law, and the equilibrium adsorption data were well described with both the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. ICSP can be used as a renewable, readily-available, easily-producible, environmentally-friendly, inexpensive and effective adsorbent to remove heavy-metal from aquatic environments.

  15. Ancient Forests and the Tree-Ring Reconstruction of Past Climate (Ancient Forests and Dendroclimatology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahle, David (Tree-Ring Laboratory, University of Arkansas)

    2003-02-12

    The original presettlement forests of North America have been dramatically altered, but thousands of unmolested ancient forests survive on remote or noncommercial terrain, including dry-site eastern hardwoods such as chestnut oak and post oak, the pinyon-juniper woodlands of the semiarid West, oak woodlands of California and in northeast Mexico, and the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska. Long tree-ring chronologies derived from these ancient forest remnants provide irreplaceable archives of environmental variability which are crucial for evaluating present and future change. Temperature sensitive tree -ring chronologies from cold treeline environments place 20th century warming into long historical perspective, and moisture sensitive tree-ring chronologies provide analogs to the decadal moisture regimes of the 20th century. These tree-ring data suggests that the 16th century megadrought was the most severe-sustained drought to impact North America in 1500 years, and had huge environmental and social impacts at the dawn of European settlement.

  16. Phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baños, Hector; Bushek, Nathaniel; Davidson, Ruth; Gross, Elizabeth; Harris, Pamela E.; Krone, Robert; Long, Colby; Stewart, Allen; WALKER, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the package PhylogeneticTrees for Macaulay2 which allows users to compute phylogenetic invariants for group-based tree models. We provide some background information on phylogenetic algebraic geometry and show how the package PhylogeneticTrees can be used to calculate a generating set for a phylogenetic ideal as well as a lower bound for its dimension. Finally, we show how methods within the package can be used to compute a generating set for the join of any two ideals.

  17. Use of molecular identification techniques for the study of parasitoids of the chestnut gall wasp

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) is considered as a major pest of Castanea species worldwide. A three-year monitoring of the indigenous parasitoids of this pest was performed by collecting specimens inside the galls. Each specimen was processed by molecular analysis. DNA was analysed by amplification and sequencing of the COI gene, coding for cytochrome c oxydase subunit 1. Each sequence was compared with reference sequences from adults sampled i...

  18. A chestnut seed cystatin differentially effective against cysteine proteinases from closely related pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernas, M; Sánchez-Monge, R; Gómez, L; Salcedo, G

    1998-12-01

    Cystatin CsC, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from chestnut (Castanea sativa) seeds, has been purified and characterized. Its full-length cDNA clone was isolated from an immature chestnut cotyledon library. The inhibitor was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from bacterial extracts. Identity of both seed and recombinant cystatin was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis, two-dimensional electrophoresis and N-terminal sequencing. CsC has a molecular mass of 11,275 Da and pI of 6.9. Its amino acid sequence includes all three motifs that are thought to be essential for inhibitory activity, and shows significant identity to other phytocystatins, especially that of cowpea (70%). Recombinant CsC inhibited papain (Ki 29 nM), ficin (Ki 65 nM), chymopapain (Ki 366 nM), and cathepsin B (Ki 473 nM). By contrast with most cystatins, it was also effective towards trypsin (Ki 3489 nM). CsC is active against digestive proteinases from the insect Tribolium castaneum and the mite Dermatophagoides farinae, two important agricultural pests. Its effects on the cysteine proteinase activity of two closely related mite species revealed the high specificity of the chestnut cystatin.

  19. Preparation and characterisation of the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnut polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Jun; Yu, Lin

    2015-08-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a strong oxidant that cleaves glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides. In this study, the oligosaccharides were prepared by removing the starch from Chinese water chestnuts through hydrolysis using α-amylase and then hydrolysing the remaining polysaccharides with H2O2, during which the oligosaccharide yield was monitored. The yield of oligosaccharide was affected by reaction time, temperature, and H2O2 concentration. Extended reaction times, high temperatures, and high H2O2 concentrations decreased oligosaccharide yield. Under optimum conditions (i.e., reaction time of 4h, reaction temperature of 80°C, and 2.5% H2O2 concentration), the maximum oligosaccharide yield was 3.91%. The oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides exhibited strong hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity when applied at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The results indicate that the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides possessed good antioxidant properties and can be developed as a new dietary supplement and functional food.

  20. Phylogeography of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) in the Japanese Archipelago based on chloroplast DNA haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Kanako; Kaneko, Yuko; Ito, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Sakio, Hitoshi; Hoshizaki, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Wajiro; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata: Hippocastanaceae) is one of the typical woody plants that grow in temperate riparian forests in the Japanese Archipelago. To analyze the phylogeography of this plant in the Japanese Archipelago, we determined cpDNA haplotypes for 337 samples from 55 populations covering the entire distribution range. Based on 1,313 bp of two spacers, we determined ten haplotypes that are distinguished from adjacent haplotypes by one or two steps. Most of the populations had a single haplotype, suggesting low diversity. Spatial analysis of molecular variance suggested three obvious phylogeographic structures in western Japan, where Japanese horse chestnut is scattered and isolated in mountainous areas. Conversely, no clear phylogeographic structure was observed from the northern to the southern limit of this species, including eastern Japan, where this plant is more common. Rare and private haplotypes were also found in southwestern Japan, where Japanese horse chestnuts are distributed sparsely. These findings imply that western Japan might have maintained a relatively large habitat for A. turbinata during the Quaternary climatic oscillations, while northerly regions could not.

  1. Hydrolyzable Tannins from Sweet Chestnut Fractions Obtained by a Sustainable and Eco-friendly Industrial Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Margherita; Pinelli, Patrizia; Romani, Annalisa

    2016-03-01

    Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood extracts, rich in Hydrolyzable Tannins (HTs), are traditionally used in the tanning and textile industries, but recent studies suggest additional uses. The aim of this work is the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS characterization of Sweet Chestnut aqueous extracts and fractions obtained through a membrane separation technology system without using other solvents, and the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiradical activities. Total tannins range between 2.7 and 138.4 mM; gallic acid ranges between 6% and 100%; castalagin and vescalagin range between 0% and 40%. Gallic Acid Equivalents, measured with the Folin-Ciocalteu test, range between 0.067 and 56.99 g/100 g extract weight; ORAC test results for the marketed fractions are 450.4 and 3050 µmol/g Trolox Equivalents/extract weight. EC₅₀ values, measured with the DPPH test, range between 0.444 and 2.399 µM. These results suggest a new ecofriendly and economically sustainable method for obtaining chestnut fractions with differentiated, stable and reproducible chemical compositions. Such fractions can be marketed for innovative uses in several sectors.

  2. Game tree algorithms and solution trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a theory of game tree algorithms is presented, entirely based upon the concept of solution tree. Two types of solution trees are distinguished: max and min trees. Every game tree algorithm tries to prune nodes as many as possible from the game tree. A cut-off criterion in

  3. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  4. 栗叶栗果与土壤中微量营养元素形态关系的研究%Studies on the Relationships among the Trace Nutrient Element Fractions in Chestnut Forest Soils and Chestnut Leaves and Chestnuts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐兆宏; 刘霞; 刘树庆; 孙志梅

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to study the relationships among the trace nutrient element fractions in chestnut forest soils and chestnut leaves and chestnuts. [Method] The Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu concentration in 0 -20 cm and 20 -40 cm soil layers of chestnut forest in Yan mountain area were determined by the available form and BCR (the Community Bureau of Reference) three-step sequential chemical extraction experiment. The bio-absorption coefficient and the correlations between elements in chestnut leaves and nuts and their fractions in soil were analyzed. [ Result ] The BAC of Mn in chestnut leaves was higher than those of the other elements, while the BAC of Zn in chestnut nuts was relatively large. The element speciation in soils could better reveal the bio-geochemical characteristics of nutrient elements in chestnut forest soils. The Fe, Zn and Mn nutrient status of chestnut leaves could be estimated by the acetic acid extractable fraction of Fe and Zn in 20 -40 cm soil layer and the acetic acid extractable fraction of Mn in 0 - 20 cm soil layer. The contents of Mn, Cu and Zn in chestnut nuts were affected the interactions among element fractions in chestnut forest soils. [ Conclusion ] The research provides theoretical basis for the growth of chestnut, reasonable fertilization, improving the yield and quality of chestnut and maintaining the eoo-enviromnent of chestnut forest.%[目的]研究栗叶栗果与土壤中微量营养元素形态的关系.[方法]同时采用有效态和欧共体BCR三步提取法对燕山山区板栗土壤0~20和20~40 cm土层中Fe、Mn、Zn、Cu的各形态含量进行了测定,并分析了板栗的生物吸收系数以及土壤中微量营养元素形态与栗叶和栗果中矿质营养的关系.[结果]栗叶对Mn的生物吸收系数高于其他元素,栗果对Zn的生物吸收系数较大.运用营养元素赋存形态能更好地揭示板栗土壤中元素的生物地球化学特征,可用0~20 cm土层弱酸提取态Mn以及20~40

  5. Discovery of highly conserved unique peanut and tree nut peptides by LC-MS/MS for multi-allergen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey-Voyksner, Jennifer; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Voyksner, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Proteins unique to peanuts and various tree nuts have been extracted, subjected to trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, in order to find highly conserved peptides that can be used as markers to detect peanuts and tree nuts in food. The marker peptide sequences chosen were those found to be present in both native (unroasted) and thermally processed (roasted) forms of peanuts and tree nuts. Each peptide was selected by assuring its presence in food that was processed or unprocessed, its abundance for sensitivity, sequence size, and uniqueness for peanut and each specific variety of tree nut. At least two peptides were selected to represent peanut, almond, pecan, cashew, walnut, hazelnut, pine nut, Brazil nut, macadamia nut, pistachio nut, chestnut and coconut; to determine the presence of trace levels of peanut and tree nuts in food by a novel multiplexed LC-MS method.

  6. Physico-chemical, morphological and pasting properties of starches extracted from water Chestnuts (Trapa natans from three Lakes of Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Gani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on physicochemical, morphology and pasting properties of starches extracted from water chestnuts of three Lakes of Kashmir valley (Wular, Anchar and Dal Lakes were conducted to determine their application in different food products. The water chestnut starch from Dal Lake had more oval shaped granules than water chestnut starches from the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.The unique feature of the water chestnut starches were shape of starch granules which looked like horn(s protruding from the surface which did not appear in other starches already studied. Proximate analysis of water chestnut starches showed that average protein content were 0.4%, amylose 29.5 % and ash 0.007 on dry weight basis. Increase in water binding capacity, swelling power and solubility was found over a temperature range of 50-90ºC. Water chestnut starches showed an increase in syneresis during freeze thaw cycles and decline in paste clarity upon storage. Starch extracted from the water chestnuts of the Dal Lake showed higher water binding capacity, swelling, solubility, past clarity, freeze thaw stability, peak viscosity, final viscosity and lower protein content, amylose content, pasting temperature and gel firmness than starches extracted from water chestnuts of the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.

  7. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry.

  8. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A M

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39 °C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens.

  9. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen de Keijzer

    Full Text Available Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39 °C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens.

  10. Interpreting Tree Ensembles with inTrees

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Houtao

    2014-01-01

    Tree ensembles such as random forests and boosted trees are accurate but difficult to understand, debug and deploy. In this work, we provide the inTrees (interpretable trees) framework that extracts, measures, prunes and selects rules from a tree ensemble, and calculates frequent variable interactions. An rule-based learner, referred to as the simplified tree ensemble learner (STEL), can also be formed and used for future prediction. The inTrees framework can applied to both classification an...

  11. Nutrient Components and Processing Adaptability of Chinese Chestnut%板栗的营养成分及加工特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 汪浩明; 张丛兰; 李皓; 李庆; 马小建; 杨芳

    2013-01-01

    以湖北麻城的油栗、广东阳山的油栗和风栗为研究对象,对其主要营养成分和加工适应性以及板栗淀粉物理特性进行了分析.结果表明:三种板栗在—般营养成分上差异不大,麻城油栗含水量59.5%,适于制浆加工;阳山油栗单粒重16.53 g、颗粒大,麻城油栗、阳山风栗板栗单重小,可食率高.板栗品种对淀粉组成影响不大,产地上有差异;三种板栗淀粉在95℃时,溶解度接近50%,膨润力在30%左右,实验温度下阳山油栗仁淀粉溶解度和膨润力较大.在透明度方面,阳山风栗仁淀粉较高;各种板栗淀粉都有较强的冻融稳定性.%In order to study the nutrients components and the processing adaptability of different varieties Chinese chenstnut, there chestnut samples (oil chestnut from Macheng in Hubei province,oil chestnut and wind chestnut from Yangshan in Guangdong province) were analyzed. The results showed that the three kinds of chestnut had little difference in nutrient components. Macheng oil chestnut with 59.5% water content was suitable for pulping. Yangshan oil chestnut had large grain with weight value of 16.53g. Macheng oil chestnut and Yangshan wind chestnut had higher edible rate. Small difference was observed in characters of chestnut starch from different sources. The solubility and swelling power of the tested chestnut starch were closer to 50% and about 30% at 95 °C. The starch of Yangshan oil chestnut had higher solubility and swelling power than that of the others. Considering the transparence of the starch, Yanshan oil chestnut was better than the others. All tested chestnut showed high freeze-thaw stability.

  12. The effects of flooding and sedimentation on seed germination of two bottomland hardwood tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A.R.; King, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    Flooding and sedimentation are two of the dominant disturbances that influence tree species composition and succession in floodplain forests. The importance of these disturbances may be most notable during the germination and establishment phases of plant succession. Channelization of most alluvial systems in the southeastern United States has caused dramatic and systematic alterations to both hydrologic and sedimentation processes of floodplain systems. We determined the influence of these altered abiotic processes on the germination and growth of two common floodplain tree species: swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) and overcup oak (Q. lyrata Walt.). Flood durations of 0 days, 15 days, and 30 days prior to germination was a factor in germination, but the effect varied by species. For instance, ovcrcup oak, which has a higher tolerance to flooding than swamp chestnut oak, had higher germination rates in the flooded treatments (15-day x?? = 78% and 30-day x?? = 85%) compared to the non-flooded treatment (x?? = 54%). In contrast, germination rates of swamp chestnut oak were negatively affected by the 30-day flood treatment. Sediment deposition rates of 2 cm of top soil, 2 cm of sand, and 8 cm of sand also affected germination, but were secondary to flood duration. The main effect of the sediment treatment in this experiment was a reduction in above-ground height of seedlings. Our study provides evidence for the importance of both flooding and sedimentation in determining tree species composition in floodplain systems, and that tolerance levels to such stressors vary by species. ?? 2007, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  13. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghi, R.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A.; Duhl, T.; Daly, R.

    2012-10-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple (Malus sp.), horse chestnut (Aesculus carnea, "Ft. McNair"), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, "Sunburst"), and hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata, "Pauls Scarlet"). These species constitute ~ 65% of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees) from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10-C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS). Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the post-blooming state for crabapple and honey locust. The results were scaled to the dry mass of leaves and flowers contained in the enclosure. Only flower dry mass was accounted for crabapple emission rates as leaves appeared at the end of the flowering period. Total normalized (30 °C) monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.3 μgC g-1 h-1) than after flowering (1.2 μgC g-1 h-1). The total normalized BVOC emission rate from crabapple (93 μgC g-1 h-1) during the flowering period is of the same

  14. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baghi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple, horse chestnut, honey locust, and hawthorn. These species constitute ~65 % of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10–C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS. Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the vegetative state for crabapple and honey locust. Total normalized (30 °C monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.26 μg Cg−1 h−1 than after flowering (1.23 μg Cg−1 h−1. The total normalized BVOC emission rate from crabapple (93 μg Cg−1 h−1 during the flowering period is of the same order as isoprene emissions from oak trees, which are among the highest BVOC emissions observed from plants to date. These findings illustrate that during the relatively brief springtime flowering period, floral

  15. Carcass and meat quality traits of Celta heavy pigs. Effect of the inclusion of chestnuts in the finishing diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Temperan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcass and meat quality traits were studied in 36 Celta pigs (a breed native from NW of Spain reared for 16 months in an extensive regime and slaughtered at a live weight of around 170 kg. The effect of partially or totally replacing commercial compound feed with chestnuts in the finishing diet was also investigated. Celta heavy pigs were characterised by high killing out, subcutaneous fat thickness, and ham length values, and by low ham perimeter, and Longissimus lumborum muscle area values. Meat showed high myoglobin contents and a* values, and very high hardness. By increasing the proportion of chestnuts in the finishing diet the quantity of back fat increased and the pH of the meat decreased. However, neither these effects, nor any of those on the other traits studied were statistically significant. The absence of significant effects may be due to the fact that pigs fed with chestnuts were not subjected to feed restrictions.

  16. The effect of feed moisture and temperature on tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extruded chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiang-Obounou, Brice Wilfried; Ryu, Gi Hyung

    2013-12-15

    This study focuses on the effect of extrusion processing on tannin reduction, phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant and anitimicrobial activity. Extrusion temperature (120 and 140 °C) and feed moisture (25% and 28%) were used on the tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Extrusion cooking reduced tannin content up to 78%, and improved antioxidant activity from 12.89% to 21.17% in a concentration dependant manner without affecting its antimicrobial activity that varied from 250 to 500 mg. The time-kill assay confirmed the ability of extruded chestnut to reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa count below detectable limit that reduced the original inoculum by 3log10 CFU/mL. Overall, the results showed that extrusion cooking might serve as a tool for tannin reduction and could improve the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of chestnut, which might be helpful for chestnut related products in the food industry.

  17. Aspen Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Elaine

    2002-01-01

    Describes a fifth-grade art activity that offers a new approach to creating pictures of Aspen trees. Explains that the students learned about art concepts, such as line and balance, in this lesson. Discusses the process in detail for creating the pictures. (CMK)

  18. Determination of timber assortments obtainable from coppice chestnut stands (Susa Valley, Northern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Nosenzo A

    2007-01-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) coppice stands currently cover about 195.000 ha of Piedmont (North-Western Italy) surface, corresponding to 22.4 % of the overall forested area in the region. Most of these forest stands are usually older than the typical rotation period. As a consequence from these stands timber assortments with a higher value could be obtained. The purpose of this study is to assess the amount of timber assortments and to propose a sorting methodology based on measurements on s...

  19. Potential tree species for use in urban areas in temperate and oceanic climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the potential of trees for integration in urban development by evaluating the damage caused by trees in relation to various tree characteristics. Tree damage to permeable pavement systems and other urban structures such as impermeable pavements, kerbs, roads, retaining walls, footpaths, walls and buildings were assessed to identify the most suitable trees for the urban environment. One hundred square sites of 100 m × 100 m were randomly selected in Greater Manchester for this representative example case study to demonstrate the assessment methodology. Among tree species in this study, Acer platanoides L. (Norway maple occurred most frequently (17%; others were Tilia spp. L. (Lime; 16%, Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash; 12%, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (sycamore; 10% and Prunus avium L. (wild cherry; 8%. The study concludes that 44% of the damage was to impermeable pavements and 22% to permeable pavements. Other damage to structures included kerbs (19%, retaining walls (5%, footpaths (4%, roads (3% and walls (3%. Concerning the severity of damage, 66% were moderate, 21% light and 19% severe. Aesculus hippocastanum L. (horse chestnut caused the greatest damage (59% expressed in percentage as a ratio of the tree number related to damage over the corresponding tree number that was found close to structures.

  20. Unimodular trees versus Einstein trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Enrique; González-Martín, Sergio; Martín, Carmelo P.

    2016-10-01

    The maximally helicity violating tree-level scattering amplitudes involving three, four or five gravitons are worked out in Unimodular Gravity. They are found to coincide with the corresponding amplitudes in General Relativity. This a remarkable result, insofar as both the propagators and the vertices are quite different in the two theories.

  1. Unimodular Trees versus Einstein Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Enrique; Martin, Carmelo P

    2016-01-01

    The maximally helicity violating (MHV) tree level scattering amplitudes involving three, four or five gravitons are worked out in Unimodular Gravity. They are found to coincide with the corresponding amplitudes in General Relativity. This a remarkable result, insofar as both the propagators and the vertices are quite different in both theories.

  2. Unimodular trees versus Einstein trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Enrique; Gonzalez-Martin, Sergio [Universidad Autonoma, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Martin, Carmelo P. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Departamento de Fisica Teorica I Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    The maximally helicity violating tree-level scattering amplitudes involving three, four or five gravitons are worked out in Unimodular Gravity. They are found to coincide with the corresponding amplitudes in General Relativity. This a remarkable result, insofar as both the propagators and the vertices are quite different in the two theories. (orig.)

  3. Chestnut optimization of process parameters of shelling in the microwave cut%板栗微波去壳切口工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房贵磊; 罗仓学; 胡兵; 张冬梅

    2012-01-01

    主要研究切口板栗的相关工艺条件,以期获得较好的爆壳效果。按照板栗背部中轴位置,对板栗进行纵向切口,且切口长度为全长,切口深度不伤及栗仁和切口数为1道时为宜;经切口的物料在微波功率700W、处理时间60s的条件下,板栗爆壳率达90%。%According to previous research of microwave on chestnut shelling shows that chestnut shells can get a higher rate of explosive if the clothes are cut, and is conducive to maintaining the integrity of chestnut. This paper studies the relevant process conditions of chestnut incision in order to obtain a better shell burst effect. In accordance with the chestnut back axis position, vertical incision on the chestnut, and the incision length is full-length, the depth of the incision and incision does not hurt chestnut number of 1 is appropriate. Shell burst rate reached 90%.

  4. Pyrosequencing of environmental soil samples reveals biodiversity of the Phytophthora resident community in chestnut forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Andrea; Bruni, Natalia; Tomassini, Alessia; Franceschini, Selma; Vettraino, Anna Maria

    2013-09-01

    Pyrosequencing analysis was performed on soils from Italian chestnut groves to evaluate the diversity of the resident Phytophthora community. Sequences analysed with a custom database discriminated 15 pathogenic Phytophthoras including species common to chestnut soils, while a total of nine species were detected with baiting. The two sites studied differed in Phytophthora diversity and the presence of specific taxa responded to specific ecological traits of the sites. Furthermore, some species not previously recorded were represented by a discrete number of reads; among these species, Phytophthora ramorum was detected at both sites. Pyrosequencing was demonstrated to be a very sensitive technique to describe the Phytophthora community in soil and was able to detect species not easy to be isolated from soil with standard baiting techniques. In particular, pyrosequencing is an highly efficient tool for investigating the colonization of new environments by alien species, and for ecological and adaptive studies coupled with biological detection methods. This study represents the first application of pyrosequencing for describing Phytophthoras in environmental soil samples.

  5. Quick detection of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in chestnut dormant buds by nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, C; Marinoni, D Torello; Quacchia, A; Botta, R

    2012-06-01

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) develops in chestnut buds that remain asymptomatic from oviposition (June-July) until budburst; it is, thus, easily spread by plant material used in propagation. Therefore, it is particularly interesting to identify infested plant batches before their movement. Unfortunately, a non-destructive method for checking buds has not yet been developed, and the only technique available is the screening of a bud sample. The visual investigation is long and requires highly skilled and trained staff. The purpose of this work was to set up an effective and fast method able to identify the presence of first instar larvae of D. kuriphilus in a large number of chestnut buds by PCR. Four primer pairs were designed on nuclear and mitochondrial sequences of a set of seven gall wasp taxa and tested on five different cynipid's DNA. Nested diagnostic PCR was carried out on DNA extracted from samples of 2 g buds simulating four levels of infestation (larvae were added to uninfested buds); 320 bp amplicon of 28S sequence was chosen as a marker to detect one larva out of 2 g buds. The method showed a potential efficiency of 5000 to 15,000 buds per week, depending on bud size.

  6. Phenols, lignans and antioxidant properties of legume and sweet chestnut flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Turfani, Valeria; Azzini, Elena; Maiani, Giuseppe; Carcea, Marina

    2013-10-15

    Total phenols (TPC) and antioxidant properties were determined in chick-pea, green and red lentils and sweet chestnut flours, in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues, by the Folin Ciocalteau method and by the FRAP assay, respectively. Plant lignans were quantified in flours by means of HPLC. In addition, the FRAP of plant lignans (secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol, matairesinol), their mixture and enterolignans (enterodiol and enterolactone) were determined. In all flours, the highest TPC values were found in the residue. Specific and varietal significant differences were observed in all parameters. The highest TPC (737.32 and 1492.93mg/100gd.w.) and FRAP (140.32 and 101.25μmol/gd.w.) values were reached by green lentils in both aqueous-organic extract and residue, respectively. Sweet chestnuts had the highest total lignans (980.03μg/100gd.w.). It was also found that the plant lignans standards have a higher antioxidant activity than enterolignans standards and that matairesinol has the highest activity.

  7. Chestnut shell as heavy metal adsorbent: Optimization study of lead, copper and zinc cations removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Gonzalo, E-mail: gonzalo.vazquez@usc.es [School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Calvo, Marcos, E-mail: norrisnoia@hotmail.com [School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sonia Freire, M., E-mail: mariasonia.freire@usc.es [School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gonzalez-Alvarez, Julia, E-mail: julia.gonzalez@usc.es [School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Antorrena, Gervasio, E-mail: gervasio.antorrena@usc.es [School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2009-12-30

    The influence of initial cation concentration, temperature and pH was investigated to optimize Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} removal from aqueous solutions using acid formaldehyde pre-treated chestnut shell as adsorbent. Experiments were planned according to an incomplete 3{sup 3} factorial experimental design. Under the optimal conditions selected, the metal ion adsorption equilibrium was satisfactorily described by the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum pre-treated chestnut shell adsorption capacity was obtained for Pb{sup 2+} ions, 8.5 mg g{sup -1}, and the order of cation affinity was Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+}. A model that considered the effect of axial dispersion was successfully used to describe the fixed-bed adsorption behaviour of Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} ions at the flow rates essayed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies showed that the functional groups involved in metal ions binding included carboxyl, hydroxyl, ether, alcoholic and amino groups.

  8. [Micrococcus sp.--the pathogen of leaf necrosis of horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.) in Kiev].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, L M; Makhinia, L V; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2013-01-01

    A group of phytopathogenic bacteria was isolated from patterns of drying horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.), which grow in Kyiv. The properties of slowly growing, highly aggressive microorganisms have been described in the paper. They grow up on the 8-10th day after sowing. The investigated microorganisms form very small (0.5-1 mm in diameter) colonies on the potato agar. Bacteria are protuberant, shining, smooth with flat edges, they are pale yellow, yellow, or pink. The bacteria are Gram-positive, spherical, are disposed in smears singly, in pairs, as accumulations, or netting. They are aerobes, do not form spores, are not mobile. They are inert in respect of different sources of carbon. They reduce nitrates, do not dilute gelatin, do not hydrolyze starch, do not release hydrogen sulphide and indole. The bacteria are catalase-positive, oxidase-negative. They do not cause potato and carrot rot. They lose quickly their viability under the laboratory conditions. The saturated acids C 14:0; C 15:0; C16:0; C18:0 have been revealed in the composition of cellular fatty acids. Microorganisms are identified as Micrococcus sp. Under artificial inoculation this highly aggressive pathogen causes drying of the horse-chestnut buds and necrosis, which occupies 1/3-1/2 of the leaf plate. A wide zone of chlorosis, surrounding necrosis, may occupy the whole leaf surface. The infected leaves use to twist up from the top (apex) or along a midrib and to dry.

  9. Effects of Different Pollination Treatments on Nutrition Changes of the Ovary in Chinese Chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume has noteworthy ecological, economic and cultural importance in the Northern Hemisphere. The low yield of chestnut often affect the economic efficiency. Ovary development is an important step in nut production. Changes in nutrient contents during ovary development in chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ and ‘Dabanhong’ were used as material. About 50~100 pollinated female inflorescences were picked every five days (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 days to determine N, P, K, fat, total soluble sugar, crude protein and starch contents. The results indicated that the contents of total soluble sugar, starch and fat increased constantly in ovaries after self-and cross-pollination, but protein, N and K contents first increased in 20 DAP (day after pollination and after that decreased in the stage of young fruit development. The changes of P has two peak values, one was in 40 DAP and the other was in 50 DAP. P and crude protein were not significantly after pollination treatments. However, N, sugar, starch, fat and K were significantly higher in cross-pollination treatment it seems that these nutrient has a decisive role during ovary development in chestnut. The characteristics of these nutrition changes provide a basis information for spraying N, P, K etc during ovary development and may have the potential to improve nut yield.

  10. The Effects of Cultivar Type on the Quality Characteristics of Chinese Chestnuts (Castanea mollissima Canned in Sugar Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Wen Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the single grain weight, the carbohydrate composition (starch, amylose, total sugar, reducing sugar, pectin, fibre and moisture, protein, fat and ash contents of four Chinese chestnut cultivars (Banhong, Yankui, Yanlong and Zaofeng from the Yan mountain range of China. Results showed that the tannin content of the pellicle of the chestnuts and the rate of its loss during the canning heat treatment had a significant effect on pellicle removal (p<0.05. Analysis of the canned chestnuts after storage at room temperature (25±2°C suggested that Banhong was most preferred with a sensory score of 6.15 after 7 days and 5.79 after 180 days of storage. No significant quality differences were observed between the Zaofeng and Banhong cultivars, while the quality of the Yanlong and Yankui cultivars was significantly lower (p<0.05. We have obtained some dependence between the chestnuts’ physicochemical components and the overall acceptability of the canned chestnuts.

  11. Silvicultural and phytosanitary researches in thinned chestnut coppices at different elevations in Sila (Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Avolio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of mensurational and phytosanitary researches ten years after thinning trials in chestnut coppices (Castanea sativa Miller in Sila, are reported.. Eight experimental areas, four located at an average elevation of 1200 m a.s.l. aged 20 yrs and four located on average at 1050 m a.s.l. aged 13 yrs, were compared. Three sub-plots were installed in each area and mensurational and phytosanitary surveys were carried out in 1997 (before and after thinning trials and ten years later (2007 on 30 stools per sub-plot to assess bio-ecological, structural and compositional status of the standing crops. At each elevation, the experimental protocol included the following theses: thesis T (control: release of the standing crop and removal of dried up stems on the ground, only; thesis A (light thinning: removal of the dominated storey, on average 30% of coppice shoots, poorly shaped, both withered and green; thesis B (moderate thinning: removal from the dominated up to the dominant storey = 43% of the shoots, both dried up and green; thesis C (heavy thinning: removal = 62% of coppice shoots, both withered and green. Results highlighted the significance of thinnings in the cultivation of chestnut coppices. As for silviculture and growth pattern, the surveying ten years later showed the following outcomes: reduction of shoots mortality, according to the thinning intensity from A to C (by comparing the number of dried up coppice shoots surveyed in the control theses; a higher number of coppice shoots in the commercial category “average stems” in the thinned plots; the higher percentage increment in dbh, basal area and volume in the sub-plots undergoing thinning A and C at the elevation of 1050 m and, in general, with thesis C at both elevations; the complete recovery of canopy cover even in the sub-plots heavily thinned. As for the phytosanitary aspects, the research has been oriented on the chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, due to

  12. Finite Sholander Trees, Trees, and their Betweenness

    CERN Document Server

    Chvátal, Vašek; Schäfer, Philipp Matthias

    2011-01-01

    We provide a proof of Sholander's claim (Trees, lattices, order, and betweenness, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 3, 369-381 (1952)) concerning the representability of collections of so-called segments by trees, which yields a characterization of the interval function of a tree. Furthermore, we streamline Burigana's characterization (Tree representations of betweenness relations defined by intersection and inclusion, Mathematics and Social Sciences 185, 5-36 (2009)) of tree betweenness and provide a relatively short proof.

  13. 荸荠营养成分及保健价值的研究%Study on nutritional ingredients and health care value of Chinese water chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡; 胡月珍; 李小根

    2013-01-01

    Chinese water chestnut has abundant nutritions which are essential to the health of human beings.Modern medical research has found that Chinese water chestnut with a variety of health care value. The paper summarized the nutritional ingredients and health care value of Chinese water chestnut.The study provides a reliable basis for the processing of Chinese water chestnut.%  荸荠富含人体需要的多种营养成分,现代医学研究发现,荸荠含有多种保健价值。本文论述了荸荠的营养成分及保健价值,为荸荠的开发利用开辟了一条途径。

  14. Studies on Lactic Acid Bacteria Beverage of Chestnut and Red Date%板栗红枣乳酸菌饮料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰; 李岩; 刘伟

    2011-01-01

    本文将板栗浆与脱脂乳混合进行发酵制成板栗酸牛奶,再以板栗酸牛奶为基料添加红枣汁制成风味独特、清凉爽口的乳酸菌饮料,并确定其最佳配方为:板栗发酵乳添加量为35%,红枣汁添加量为4%,调整pH值为4.0.%A study on the chestnut yogurt fermentation with liquid of chestnut and skim milk. Made lactic acid bacteria beverage with chestnut yogurt of fundamental material adds juice of red dates, it has flavour of special, refreshing and cool tasty. The best result of the former is chestnut yogurt: 35%, juice of red dates: 4%, pH:4.0.

  15. Modular tree automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular...

  16. Modular Tree Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular r...

  17. Primary and secondary metabolite composition of kernels from three cultivars of Portuguese chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) at different stages of industrial transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Carmo Barbosa Mendes De Vasconcelos, Maria; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira Cardoso, Jorge Ventura

    2007-05-02

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa) is an important basic food in rural diets and a major starch crop used in a similar way to potatoes. Chestnuts are a fundamental economic resource in the "chestnut regions" not only for the fruit but also for the chestnut wood. Chestnuts have become increasingly important with respect to human health, for example, as an alternative gluten-free flour source. Chestnuts are also a rich source of other beneficial compounds, but there have been few studies on the composition during processing. In this study, we analyzed the chemical composition of three Portuguese cultivars at different stages of industrial processing. The chestnut cultivars were Longal, Judia, and Martaínha. All three cultivars had high moisture contents but were low in ash, crude fat, and crude protein contents, with high starch and low fiber contents. The free amino acid contents, including various essential amino acids, varied depending on the cultivar. All three cultivars also had a significant content of polyphenolics with gallic acid; ellagic acid was predominant among hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Many of these compounds are known to exert significant positive effects on human health. The one-way analysis of variance for fresh chestnut shows significant differences among the three cultivars for most of the studied parameters. The same statistical analysis applied to each one of the two cultivars (Judia and Longal) sampled for the four processing steps analyzed indicates a significant effect of this factor in practically all of the constituents. On the other hand, the two-way analysis of variance shows that, besides the residual, the processing step and the interaction cultivar x processing step were the factors that more contributed for the total variation observed in the constituents analyzed, while the contribution of cultivar was much less significant.

  18. The Standard Cultivation Techniques for Chestnut in Xinyang City%信阳市板栗标准化栽培技术要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵师成

    2012-01-01

    信阳市板栗产业近年来急剧衰退,市场严重萎缩;为适应市场需求,重振信阳市板栗产业,结合当地实际,必须强调板栗栽培各个管理环节的技术标准化,如科学规划建园、良好的土肥水管理与花果管理、合理的整形修剪、因地制宜的病虫防治技术等,大力普及推广板栗的标准化栽培技术,让板栗产业真正成为促进信阳市农业增效、农民增收的重要产业.%Xinyang chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) industry had been decline rapidly in recent years as the market had been seriously shrinking. To meet the demand of market and refresh Xinyang chestnut industry, the standardization management technology during chestnut cultivation, such as scientific planning and construction of chestnut orchard, suitable fertilizer and water management and flower and fruit management, reasonable pruning, pest control technology suitable to local conditions should be emphasized based on practical. The standardized cultivation technology of chestnut should be vigorously promoted so that chestnut industry could promote the efficiency of agricultural and income of farmer in Xinyang city.

  19. The effect of chestnut coppice forests abandon on slope stability: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Chiara; Bassanelli, Chiara; Rossi, Lorenzo; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Battista Bischetti, Gian

    2013-04-01

    Sweet chestnut has been fundamental for Italian mountainous economies for many centuries. This kind of forest was traditionally managed by coppicing in shortly rotation (15-20 years) to rapidly produce wood biomass until half of XX century. In the last decades these forests were in large part abandoned due to change in economy which made coppiced forest management unprofitable, especially in steeper slopes and where forest viability is scarce. As a consequence most of them are over aged and very dense, leading to an observed increasing in localized slope instability, primary because of the uprooting of stools (Vogt et al., 2006). In this work the effect of the abandon of chestnut coppice on slope stability was analyzed, focusing on shallow landslides triggering. The mechanical contribution to soil shear strength of differently managed chestnut stand was estimated and compared in terms of additional root cohesion. The study area is located in the Valcuvia Valley (Lombardy Prealps - Northern Italy) at an elevation about 600 m a.s.l., where two different stands, one managed and the other abandoned (over 40 year aged), were chosen. The two sampling stands are on cohesionless slopes (quaternary moraine deposits) and are homogeneous with regard to the substrate, exposure and elevation. Slope steepness influences heavily forestry practices and steeper stands are more frequently abandoned than stands on gentler terrain: in fact in the abandoned coppice the slope was higher (35 degrees against 13 in the managed stand) and no stands completely homogeneous can be found. In each site the main characteristics of the stand were surveyed and a trench in each stand was excavated to analyze root diameter and number distribution with depth; root specimens were also collected for the tensile force determination through laboratory tensile tests. Root distribution and force were then used to estimate root cohesion values through a Fiber Boundle Model (Pollen and Simon, 2005). Results

  20. Effect of chestnut tannin in the diet of lactating ewes on milk and cheese quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Buccioni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A commercial product consisting of pure soluble tannins extracted from chestnut wood was introduced into the diet of lactating ewes at pasture, at the level of 20 g / head / day in the concentrate mixed feed. The supplementation with tannins did not exert any influence on milk yield and on lactose and fat content of milk, but induced an increase in milk protein yield, apparently in heat coagulable proteins. This is maybe due to an increase of the rumen undegradable fraction of dietary proteins. The somatic cells count and the bacterial load of milk were not affected as well. Further studies are needed to confirm these important results, in order to optimize the nitrogen metabolic balance of ruminant animals, among the other advantages.

  1. Feasibility assessment of anaerobic digestion of European water chestnuts (Trapa natans L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besha, J.A.; Countryman, W.D.

    1980-07-01

    The project determined the technical and economic feasibility of anaerobic digestion of Trapa natans L. or European water chestnuts, to produce methane. Trapa natans is a nuisance aquatic plant presently found in the northeastern United States. The field data collection phase included color aerial photogrammetry and manual sampling. Yields of 9.08 kg per square meter of raw material with a corresponding dry weight of 1.53 kg/sq meter were determined. Bacterial digestion resulting in gas production of 69% methane and 31% carbon dioxide was shown in laboratory-scale digestion experiments. Mass spectrographic analysis indicated no contaminants in the gas stream. Conceptual technical design of a 400 kW methane-fueled electric generation facility indicated economic feasibility of this facility either as an independent or a hybrid process in conjunction with a small hydroelectric facility. Substantial economic and environmental benefits may accure from the control of Trapa natans by this means.

  2. Emodin, a toxic metabolite of Aspergillus wentii isolated from weevil-damaged chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J M; Cole, R J; Kirksey, J W

    1975-07-01

    A diarrheagenic toxin from culture extracts of Aspergillus wentii Wehmer isolated from weevil-damaged Chinese chestnuts was identified as emodin (2-methyl-4,5,7-trihydroxyanthraquinone). The orange-red, crystalline toxin (mp 255 to 257 C) showed ultraviolet absorption maxima in ethyl alcohol at 223, 250, 267, 290, and 442 nm, and infrared absorption maxima at 3,400 cm-1 (OH), 1,635, and 1,625 CM-1. Chemical shifts and coupling constants of the proton magnetic resonance spectra of the A. wentii toxin and of authentic emodin agreed. Mean lethal dose of emodin orally administered to 1-day-old DeKalb cockerels was 3.7 mg/kg.

  3. Wolbachia infections and mitochondrial diversity of two chestnut feeding Cydia species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios N Avtzis

    Full Text Available Cydia splendana and C. fagiglandana are two closely related chestnut feeding lepidopteran moth species. In this study, we surveyed the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia in these two species. Infection rates were 31% in C. splendana and 77% in C. fagiglandana. MLST analysis showed that these two species are infected with two quite diverse Wolbachia strains. C. splendana with Sequence Type (ST 409 from the A-supergroup and C. fagiglandana with ST 150 from the B-supergroup. One individual of C. splendana was infected with ST 150, indicating horizontal transfer between these sister species. The mitochondrial DNA of the two Cydia species showed a significantly different mtDNA diversity, which was inversely proportional to their infection rates.

  4. [Peculiar "chestnuts in burrs" formation in MGIT cultures of pulmonary Mycobacterium xenopi cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keiko; Yamazato, Masaya; Ohtani, Sumire; Shinozawa, Youko; Nakamura, Haruki; Miura, Takao; Hasegawa, Naoki; Hara, Masamichi

    2007-12-01

    We report 3 patients whose sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cultures for acid fast bacteria in MGIT liquid media grew colonies of Mycobacterium xenopi (M. xenopi) with a characteristic chestnut burr like appearance. Patients I, II, and III were a 74-year-old man, 47-year-old woman, and 62-year-old woman, respectively. Chest X ray showed a pulmonary cavity in each case. Patient I had a history of pulmonary and renal tuberculosis. The past medical history of patient II was unremarkable. Patient III had a history of lung cancer. Eight sputum samples and 4 BALF samples from patient I, 3 sputum samples and 1 BALF sample from patient II, and 4 sputum samples from patient III were positive for acid fast bacteria, and the organism was identified as M. xenopi in 9 samples. Smears of these MGIT-positive cultures were stained by the Ziehl Neelsen method, and examined under a microscope. Large and small, spherical shaped, 15-100 microm clusters of thin, elongated bacteria, with a chestnut burr-like or spherical moss like and partly budding appearance, were scattered throughout the smear preparation. Although only 34 cases of M. xenopi infection were reported in Japan between 1984 and 2005, the number of reported cases has been on the increase in recent years. Since no report from Japan, Europe, or the United States have noted the characteristic appearance of M. xenopi in cultures, we consider that the feature described in this communication is useful to presumptively identify M. xenopi.

  5. Physicochemical, pasting, rheological, thermal and morphological properties of horse chestnut starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Syed Insha; Jan, Kulsum; Singh, Sukhcharn; Saxena, D C

    2015-09-01

    Indian Horse chestnuts contain high content of starch which can be explored to be used in various applications in food industry as encapsulating agent, stabilizer, binder, thickener, gelling agents and many more. Horse chest nut is locally available and can be a boon for food industry if the inherent properties are explored. Hence, horse chest nut starch can be a better option for the replacement of conventional starches to meet the industrial demand of starch. Physicochemical, pasting, rheological, thermal and morphological properties of starch isolated from Indian Horse chestnut (HCN) were determined. Amylose content was found to be 26.10 %. Peak viscosity obtained from RVA profile was 4110 cP. Hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness and gumminess were determined by Texture Profile Analyser. Particle size analysis showed a typical Uni modal size distribution profile with particle distribution ranging from 7.52 to 27.44 μm. The shape of starch granules varied from round, irregular, oval, and elliptical with smooth surface. X- ray diffraction revealed that HCN starch showed a typical C-type pattern with characteristic peaks at 5.7, 15.0, 17.3 and 22.3°. The transition temperatures (To, Tp, and Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) values were 53.35, 58.81, 63.57 °C and 8.76 J/g, respectively. The rheological properties were determined in terms of variation of storage modulus (G (/)), loss modulus (G (//)) and loss factor (tan δ) at different temperatures. Peak G (/), peak G (//) and peak tan δ values were observed as 10,400 Pa, 1,710 Pa, and 0.164, respectively.

  6. Phenolic compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) heartwood. Effect of toasting at cooperage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Castanea sativa Mill., before and after toasting in cooperage, were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS, and some low molecular weight phenolic compounds and hydrolyzable tannins were found. The low molecular weight phenolic compounds were lignin constituents as the acids gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, ferulic, and ellagic, the aldehydes protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, coniferylic, and sinapic, and the coumarin scopoletin. Their patterns were somewhat different those of oak because oak does not contain compounds such protocatechuic acid and aldehyde and is composed of much lower amounts of gallic acid than chestnut. Vescalagin and castalagin were the main ellagitannins, and acutissimin was tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. Moreover, some gallotannins were tentatively identified, including different isomers of di, tri, tetra, and pentagalloyl glucopyranose, and di and trigalloyl-hexahydroxydiphenoyl glucopyranose, comprising 20 different compounds, as well as some ellagic derivatives such as ellagic acid deoxyhexose, ellagic acid dimer dehydrated, and valoneic acid dilactone. These ellagic derivatives as well as some galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl derivatives were tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. The profile of tannins was therefore different from that of oak wood because oak only contains tannins of the ellagitannins type. Seasoned and toasted chestnut wood showed a very different balance between lignin derivatives and tannins because toasting resulted in the degradation of tannins and the formation of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignin degradation. Moreover, the different toasting levels provoked different balances between tannins and lignin constituents because the intensity of lignin and tannin degradation was in relation to the intensity of toasting.

  7. Research on Processing Characteristics and Quality Assessment on Chestnut of Different Species about Sugar Frying Chestnut%不同板栗品种的糖炒板栗加工特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周家华; 常虹; 谢敏

    2012-01-01

    通过模糊数学法对16种糖炒板栗进行综合评价,确定各评价指标的权重分别为:单粒重(X)、栗仁颜色(X4)、滋味(X6)均为0.25,单粒重标准差(X2)为0.125,外观(X3)、香气(X5)、反生程度(X7)、硬度(X8)、出品率(X9)、均为0.025。根据平均隶属度的排序结果,得到最适宜加工成糖炒板栗的品种前五名分别为:怀黄、达1—3、早丰、燕奎和红栗。%16 different species of chestnut canned comprehensively were assessed by using the method of fuzzy mathematics. Assure the weight of all assessment standards were: the appearance (X1), the color of chestnut (X2) and the taste (X4) were all 0.25, the browning degree (X6) was 0.125, the aroma (X3), the light transmittance rate (X5), the soluble solids (X77) and the hardness (X8) were all 0.025. According to the ordering result of the average degree of membership, 5 species were concluded which suitable most for processing to be chestnut canned: Huaihuang, Dal-3, Zaofeng, Yankui and red chestnut.

  8. 板栗加工工艺对挥发性香气成分的影响%Effect of Processing Technology on Volatile Components of Chinese Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亚辉; 徐芳; 王丰俊; 王建中; 欧阳杰

    2012-01-01

    Chinese chestnut forms different flavors by different processing technology. An automatic thermal de-sorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (ATD-GC-MS) system was applied to analyze the volatile composition of raw chestnut, boiled chestnut, fried chestnut and roasted chestnut. Herbaceous aroma such as ethyl acetate, hex-anal, butyl acetate, 1-butanol-3-methyl-acetate, alpha-pinene and benzaldehyde were found in raw chestnut; fried chestnut and roasted chestnut were found to have characteristic volatiles such as 2-pentyl-furan, 3-carene, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-ketone; and in boiled chestnut, spiro [2,4] hepta-4,6-diene was found first time. The results will provide a reference for the further research and development of Chinese chestnut products.%板栗经过不同的加工工艺熟化后会产生不同的风味.文中分别对生板栗,以及煮制、炒制和烤制加工后的板栗进行ATD热脱附以及GC-MS分析,得出不同加工工艺条件下的板栗挥发性香气成分.其中生板栗主要有板栗本身的草本清香香气成分,如乙酸乙酯、己醛、乙酸丁酯、3-甲基-1-丁醇乙酸酯、α-蒎烯和苯甲醛等;炒板栗和烤板栗的特征性挥发物有2-戊基呋喃、3-蒈烯、4-羟基-2-丁酮和2-甲基-四氢呋喃-3-酮;煮板栗中发现了之前未在板栗香气研究中报道过的香气成分螺[2,4]庚-4.6-二烯.

  9. Horse Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    60036 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/horsechestnut ... us ... 60036 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/horsechestnut ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/Specifics ... us ... 60036 ... https:// ...

  10. Application of a new purification method of West-Kazakhstan chestnut soil microbiota DNA for metagenomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergaliev, N. Kh.; Kakishev, M. G.; Zhiengaliev, A. T.; Volodin, M. A.; Andronov, E. E.; Pinaev, A. G.

    2015-04-01

    A method for the extraction of soil microbial DNA has been tested on chestnut soils (Kastanozems) of the West Kazakhstan region. The taxonomic analysis of soil microbiome libraries has shown that the phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria constitute the largest part of microbial communities in the analyzed soils. The Archaea form an appreciable part of the microbiome in the studied samples. In the underdeveloped dark chestnut soil, their portion is higher than 11%. This is of interest, as the proportion of Archaea in the soil communities of virgin lands usually does not exceed 5%. In addition to the phyla mentioned above, there are representatives of the phyla Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadales, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia, which are all fairly common in soil communities.

  11. Research on Liquefaction Technology of Chestnut Shells%板栗苞液化技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丽珍; 牛俊玲; 兰彦平; 王杰

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]This paper aimed at studying the liquefaction technology of chestnut shells [Method]Effects on chestnut shells liquefaction of six catalysts were studied,which were sodium hydroxide,sodium carbonate,acetic acid(99.5%),phosphoric acid(85%),hydrochloric acid(37%),sulfuric acid(98%).The research had analyzed the liquefaction effects of chestnut shells in presence of phenol and at liquefaction temperatures of 130,150 and 170 ℃,in which the proportion of added quantities of concentrated sulfuric acid,phosphoric acid,concentrated hydrochloric acid to phenol were 1%-6%.Properties of phenolic resin made from formaldehyde and phenol-liquefied products of chestnut shells catalyzed by concentrated sulfuric acid with an added amount of 4% at 150 ℃(WPF)were analyzed and compared with traditional phenolic formaldehyde resin(PF).[Result]Acid catalysts were better than alkaline ones in the phenol-liquefaction of chestnut shells,and the liquefaction ratio increased with the increasing of acidic intensity.The liquefaction ratio had attained the maximum as 92.11 % when catalyzed by concentrated sulfuric acid with an added amount of 4% at 150 ℃.The phenolic resin made from the liquefied products of chestnut shells was basically in accordance with the standard of GB/T 14732-93 when the mass ratio of chestnut shells powders to phenol was 1∶3.[Conclusion]It was possible to produce phenolic resin with liquefied chestnut shells.%[目的]对板栗苞液化技术进行研究。[方法]对氢氧化钠、碳酸钠、醋酸(99.5%)、磷酸(85%)、盐酸(37%)和硫酸(98%)6种催化剂对板栗苞液化的影响进行研究,并分析在130、150和170℃液化反应温度下,浓硫酸、磷酸和浓盐酸加入量与苯酚的百分比为1~6%时,对板栗苞苯酚液化效果的影响。对150℃时,以加入量为4%的浓硫酸催化板栗苞苯酚液化产物与甲醛制成的树脂和传统酚醛树脂的性能进行分析。[结

  12. Design of Automatic Chestnut Shelling Machine%自动板栗脱壳机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文斌

    2015-01-01

    针对目前板栗脱壳过程中主要依靠手工剥壳,手指极易被板栗刺壳上坚硬的刺刺伤,以及劳动强度大、生产效率低的问题,设计了一种新型的自动板栗脱壳机。该机采用胶皮与螺纹钢揉挤的方式将板栗刺与板栗米分开,同时采用鼓风机搭配输送带的方式进行分离。实际测试结果表明,该机采用的脱壳方式和分离方式新颖,能最大限度地将板栗米与板栗刺剥离,且能实现两者的自动分离,对于减轻栗农劳动强度,缩短栗子从采摘到上市的时间发挥了极大作用,值得进一步推广普及。%At present, chestnut is basically using hand to strip off, people’ s finger is inevitably scratched.Focusing on the current problem of high labor cost and low working efficiency, a new automatic chestnut shelling machine is designed. This machine combines rubber and deformed steel bars to separate the chestnut and its capillus.At the same time, the fan and conveyer belt are combined to realize their separation.The practical testing results show that this machine could separate the chestnut and its capillus to a great degree by using the novel shelling and separating way, it will reduce working hard and shorten time from picking to go to the market, it has great value to popularize.

  13. Chestnut wood in compression perpendicular to the grain : non-destructive correlations for test results in new and old wood

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Paulo B.; Feio, A. O.; Machado, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the evaluation of the compressive properties of chestnut wood under compression perpendicular to the grain, using destructive and non-destructive methods. Three non-destructive methods (ultrasonic testing, Resistograph and Pilodyn) are proposed and the possibility of their application is discussed based on the application of simple linear regression models. Timber specimens were tested up to failure, divided in two different groups for assessing a possible load h...

  14. Antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein haplotypes and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein (CN) haplotypes (αs1-, β-, κ-CN) and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys. The CN haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, whereas antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. The results showed that chestnut honey presented the highest phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, which are closely associated with its high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of fortified yogurt samples was affected both by different CN haplotypes and by type of honey added. Yogurts fortified with chestnut honey showed higher antioxidant activity than those fortified with sulla honey. The different behavior observed among the fortified yogurts led us to hypothesize that the effects of protein-polyphenol complex on antioxidant activity are interactive. The results suggest that milk proteins polymorphism and polyphenols play different roles in affecting the bioavailability and the antioxidant activity of yogurt.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF TANNIN AND THERMAL TREATMENT ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LAMINATED CHESTNUT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Gunduz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tannin and thermal treatment on physical properties such as dimensional stability and moisture content (%, as well as mechanical properties such as bending strength, modulus of elasticity, and compression strength of laminated chestnut wood composites, which are used commonly for shipboard construction in Turkey. The chestnut wood used in boat construction is usually exposed to several treatments in order to achieve better bonding performance and to remove excessive tannins. According to the results obtained, physical properties of laminated chestnut wood without tannin were better compared to samples with tannin. Oven-dry density and air-dry density were found to be higher in samples containing tannins and not exposed to thermal treatment. Moreover, the lowest value of density was observed in samples containing no tannin and exposed to thermal treatment. In terms of mechanical properties, the highest bending strength and modulus of elasticity were obtained from samples containing tannins and not exposed to heat treatment. The lowest values were found in samples without tannin exposed to heat treatment. Regarding compression strength, the maximum and minimum values were found in samples containing tannins and not exposed to heat treatment and samples without tannin and exposed to heat treatment, respectively.

  16. Analysis of organic acids in electron beam irradiated chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.): Effects of radiation dose and storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-05-01

    Since 2010, methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant was banned from the European Union under the Montreal Protocol guidelines, due to its deleterious effects on health and risk to the environment. Since then, many alternatives for chestnut conservation have been studied (hot water dip treatment being the most common), among them, electron beam irradiation has been proposed as being a safe, clean and cheap alternative. Herein, the effects of this radiation at different doses up to 6kGy and over storage up to 60days in the amounts and profile of nutritionally important organic acids were evaluated. Chestnuts contained important organic acids with quinic and citric acids as main compounds. Storage time, which is traditionally well accepted by consumers, caused a slight decrease on quinic (13-9mg/g), ascorbic (1.2-0.8mg/g), malic (5-4mg/g), fumaric (0.4-0.3mg/g) and total organic (33-26mg/g) acids content. Otherwise, irradiation dose did not cause appreciable changes, either individually or in total (28-27mg/g) organic acid contents. Electron beam irradiation might constitute a valuable alternative for chestnut conservation.

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on the biological, physico-chemical, nutritional and antioxidant parameters of chestnuts - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Amilcar L; Carocho, Márcio; Bento, Albino; Quintana, Begoña; Luisa Botelho, M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-09-01

    Gamma radiation has been used as a post-harvest food preservation process for many years. Chestnuts are a seasonal product consumed fresh or processed, and gamma irradiation emerged recently as a possible alternative technology for their post-harvest processing, to fulfil the requirements of international phytosanitary trade laws. After harvest and storage, several problems may occur, such as the presence of infestations and development of microorganisms, namely rotting and fungi. These diminish the quality and safety of the product, decreasing the yield along the production chain. In fruits, gamma irradiation treatment is for two main purposes: conservation (ripening delay) and insect disinfestation (phytosanitary treatment). In this review, the application of gamma irradiation to chestnuts is discussed, including production data, the irradiated species and the effects on biological (sprouting, rotting, respiration rate, insects, worms and fungi), physico-chemical (color, texture, and drying rate), nutritional (energetic value, proteins, sugars and fatty acids) and antioxidant (tocopherols, ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) parameters. These changes are the basis for detecting if the food product has been irradiated or not. The validation of standards used for detection of food irradiation, as applied to chestnuts, is also discussed.

  18. Developing a formula for Tuanfeng water chestnut cakes%团风荸荠糕的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王知龙; 吴鹏

    2016-01-01

    In this paper ,Tuanfeng water chestnut flour and glutinous rice flour are used as raw materials to make cakes which are aroma‐scented ,moderately sweet ,tasty ,nutritious and healthy .Single factor and orthogonal experiments are conducted to develop a processing technology for making water chestnut cakes .Based on an evaluation of the look and taste of the cakes ,an optimal formula is obtained .The optimal formula requires of a proportion of water chestnut and glu‐tionous rice flours of 1∶2 ,and the contents of water and sugar of 20 mL and 3 g respectively .%以团风荸荠粉和糯米粉为原料研制出香气浓郁、甜度适中,口感优良、具有营养保健作用的荸荠糕。通过单因素实验和正交实验对荸荠糕的加工工艺进行研究,以感官品质评定为依据,得到生产荸荠糕的最优工艺配方,即荸荠粉与糯米粉比例为1∶2,加水量为20mL,加糖量为3g。

  19. Healthy,Happy trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Healthy trees are important to us all. Trees provide shade, beauty, and homes for wildlife. Trees give us products like paper and wood. Trees can give us all this only if they are healthy.They must be well cared for to remain healthy.

  20. Effect of chestnuts level in the formulation of the commercial feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Celta pig breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesús, C. De; Domínguez, R.; Cantalapiedra, J.; Iglesias, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality from 24 castrated males Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of 15% of chestnut (CH15) improved (p<0.01) the carcass (118 vs. about 104 kg) and live weights (149 vs. 133-139 kg). Killing out percentage was also better for chestnuts groups than for control group. With regards the morphometric parameters, there were no statistically significant (p>0.05) differences except for the carcass length and ham length, for which the CH15 group proved to be the group with the longest sizes. The diet did not affect the physicochemical properties (colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force) of longissimus dorsi muscle. The composition of some fatty acids of the longissimus dorsi muscle was affected by diet. The total saturated (35-38%) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (8-10%) did not present differences. However, the increase of chestnut in the diet increased (p<0.05) the monounsaturated fatty acids in intramuscular fat (57% in CH25 vs. 53% in control and CH15). Within monounsaturated fatty acids, the C18:1n9 was the most influenced of the diet. Therefore, the lower content of protein and the higher amounts of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 in the chestnut could be explaining the greater content of C18:1n9 in muscle of chestnut-fed animals. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet would allow reduce production costs with no effect or even improving carcass measurements and meat quality. (Author)

  1. Effect of the Inclusion of Chestnut in the Finishing Diet on Volatile Compounds of Dry-Cured Ham from Celta Pig Breed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jos M. Lorenzo; Javier Carballo; Daniel Franco

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the inclusion of chestnut in pigs ifnishing diet on volatile compounds of dry-cured Celta ham was studied. Twelve hams of each type (from three different pigs ifnishing diets:concentrate (CO), mixed (MI) and chestnut (CH)) were used. Volatiles were extracted using a purge-and-trap method and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty-nine volatile compounds were identified in dry-cured Celta ham samples. Most abundant volatiles in ham samples were aldehydes, which represented respectively, 53% (CO), 51% (MI) and 46% (CH) of the total volatile composition. With the exception of 2-butenal, 2-methyl, all aldehydes were affected by feeding system. On the other hand, hydrocarbons n-alkanes were the second major group in the volatile proifle of dry-cured Celta hams and represented 28.9, 35.7 and 32.4%of the total volatile composition for CO, MI and CH groups, respectively. Ham samples from chestnut group showed a higher content of alcohols and this result could be related with the inclusion of chestnut in the ifnishing diet of pigs. Principal component analysis showed a good separation among groups. The discriminant analysis selected eight variables (butanoic acid, hexanal, octanal, nonenal (E), decenal (E), tetradecane, decane trimethyl and pyridine 2-methyl) and calculated two discriminating functions to predict if chestnut has been included in the ifnishing diet. Thus, it was possible to discriminate between groups fed with ifnishing diets containing chestnuts in their composition (mixed and chestnut group).

  2. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  3. 马蹄的贮藏保鲜与加工利用研究进展%Progress Research on Storage and Processing Utilization of Water Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兵; 段振华

    2016-01-01

    马蹄营养丰富,皮嫩汁多,属季节性食品,货架期较短。鲜切后的马蹄易于变色和失水腐败,影响外观品质、风味和营养价值等,产品附加值低;在加工中产生的马蹄皮含有较多活性物质,如处理不当易造成资源浪费和环境的污染。本文主要综述了马蹄贮藏保鲜处理的技术,主要有涂膜保鲜、热处理保鲜、氮气处理保鲜、乙醛熏蒸处理保鲜及护色剂保鲜等;以及马蹄果肉和马蹄皮加工利用的方法,包括马蹄果肉饮料的加工,马蹄皮果酒、果醋加工及棕色素、黄酮和多酚类等物质的提取。%Water chestnut is rich in nutrition, skin tender and juicy, which belongs to the seasonal food and shelf life is short. After the fresh cut, the water chestnut is easy to change the color and the loss of water, which affects the appearance quality, flavor and nutritional value, and the low added value of the product. Water chestnut peel contains many active substances produce in the process, easily lead to waste of resources and en-vironmental pollution if handled properly. This paper mainly summarizes the technology of storage and preserva-tion of water chestnut, mainly coating preservation, heat preservation, processing nitrogen preservation, ac-etaldehyde fumigation treatment and color preservation agent, etc.. The processes and utilization methods of Water chestnut pulp and peel of Eleocharis tuberosa, including water chestnut pulp beverage processing, water chestnut peel fruit wine vinegar processing and extracting brown pigment, flavonoids and polyphenols sub-stances. The utilization rate and economic value of water chestnut were greatly improved by storage and pro-cessing, which provided a reference for the further research of horse's hoof. Which greatly improves the utiliza-tion rate and economic value of water chestnut.

  4. 板栗在贮藏中的微观形态变化%Changes of Microcosmic Morpha during the Storage of Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭正林

    2009-01-01

    After comparison with the micrographs of chestnut between the fresh chestnut and the stored chestnut, the results showed that the cell membrane of the fresh chestnut was complete and smooth, endoplasm was homogeneous. The cell membrane of the blet chestnut was not complete, the limit of cell was not obviously, mitoehondrion membrane became vague and its erista was blurry after 90 days storage. But the nucleolus was unchanged.%对贮藏前后的板栗进行光学显微镜和电子显微镜观察,结果表明贮藏前的板栗细胞排列紧密,淀粉粒清晰可见,细胞膜较完整、光滑、内质均匀;腐烂板栗的细胞膜不完整,细胞与细胞的界限不明显,淀粉粒不清晰,线粒体膜不清晰,嵴模糊.但是贮藏前后板栗的细胞核没有发生明显的变化.

  5. 油板栗的营养成分及加工适应性研究%Study on Nutrient Components and Processing Adaptability of Oil Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 张美; 张丛兰; 刘觉天; 周露; 杨芳

    2011-01-01

    以罗田油板栗为实验材料,对其营养成分和部分加工适应性进行了分析.结果表明,油板栗含水量在5o%以上,蛋白质含量丰富,脂肪含量低,抗氧化成分Vc含量高;油板栗单粒重偏小但可食率高、可溶性糖含量高,营养全面,适合制蓉和炒制.%The nutrient components and the processing adaptability of oil chestnut from Luotian in Hubei province were analyzed. The results showed that the water content of oil chestnut was more than 50 % and it was abundant in protein. Oil chestnut was high in the vitamin C content but low in the fatty oil content. The weight of single fruit was relatively less,but the edible rate of oil chestnut was high,and its total soluble sugar content was high as well, so oil chestnut was characterized by fully nutritious and suitable for making paste and stir-frying.

  6. 我国新型板栗制品研发现状与思考%Status and Consideration of Research and Development of New Chestnut Product in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彬合; 李霞

    2015-01-01

    The chestnut resources are rich in China, with the yield accounting for 70%of total yield of chestnut in the world. This paper introduces the current situation of production and processing of chestnuts in China, as well as the status of research and development of new chestnut products, and put forwards some countermeasures and ideas for the processing industry of chestnuts.%我国板栗资源丰富,产量占世界板栗总量的70%以上。本文介绍了我国板栗的生产与加工现状,并阐述了新型板栗制品的研发现状,为板栗加工业的发展提出了一些对策和思路。

  7. Fault-Tree Compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Fault-Tree Compiler (FTC) program, is software tool used to calculate probability of top event in fault tree. Gates of five different types allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language easy to understand and use. In addition, program supports hierarchical fault-tree definition feature, which simplifies tree-description process and reduces execution time. Set of programs created forming basis for reliability-analysis workstation: SURE, ASSIST, PAWS/STEM, and FTC fault-tree tool (LAR-14586). Written in PASCAL, ANSI-compliant C language, and FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

  8. Cryopreservation of zygotic embryo axes and somatic embryos of European chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; San-José, M Carmen; Ballester, Antonio; Vieitez, Ana M

    2004-01-01

    This work describes experiments demonstrating the feasibility of long-term conservation of Castanea sativa germplasm through cryopreservation of embryonic axes or somatic embryo clumps. Between 93 % and 100 % of excised embryonic axes of recalcitrant chestnut seeds survived storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) following desiccation in a laminar flow cabinet to moisture contents of 20-24 % (on a fresh weight basis), and some 63 % subsequently developed as whole plants. Desiccation to moisture contents less than 19 % produced damage resulting in loss of organized plant development after cryostorage, allowing only root growth. When 6-8 mg clumps of globular or heart-shaped somatic embryos were precultured for 7 days on high-sucrose medium and then desiccated to a moisture content of 25 % before storage in LN, the embryogenesis resumption level after thawing was 33 %. When the embryo clumps were precultured for 3 days on high-sucrose medium followed by 60 min application of PVS2 vitrification solution before cryostorage, the post-storage embryogenesis resumption level was 68 %.

  9. Cryopreservation of zygotic embryonic axes and somatic embryos of European chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieitez, Ana M; San-José, M Carmen; Corredoira, Elena

    2011-01-01

    For Castanea sativa (European chestnut), a species with recalcitrant seeds that is not easily propagated vegetatively, cryopreservation is one of the most promising techniques for maintaining genetic resource diversity and for conservation of selected germplasms. Long-term conservation of selected seeds and valuable embryogenic lines can be achieved through the cryopreservation of zygotic embryonic axes and somatic embryos, respectively. This chapter describes methods for the desiccation-based cryostorage of zygotic embryonic axes, and the vitrification-based cryopreservation of somatic embryos. For zygotic embryonic axes, the highest post-thaw survival and plantlet recovery rates are obtained by desiccation in a laminar flow hood to 20-25% moisture content, followed by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. For somatic embryos, embryogenesis resumption rates of over 60% are achieved by preculture of embryo clumps for 3 days on solid medium containing 0.3 M sucrose, incubation in PVS2 vitrification solution for 60 min at 0°C, and direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Plantlet recovery from cryostored embryogenic lines requires proliferation of the thawed embryos and subsequent maturation before germination and conversion into plantlets.

  10. Chestnut shell as unexploited source of fermentable sugars: effect of different pretreatment methods on enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurelli, Luisa; Ionata, Elena; La Cara, Francesco; Morana, Alessandra

    2013-07-01

    Chestnut shell (CS) is an agronomic residue mainly used for extraction of antioxidants or as adsorbent of metal ions. It also contains some polysaccharide that has not been considered as potential source of fermentable sugars for biofuel production until now. In this study, the effect of different pretreatment methods on CS was evaluated in order to obtain the greatest conversion of cellulose and xylan into fermentable sugars. Hot acid impregnation, steam explosion (acid-catalysed or not), and aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) were selected as pretreatments. The pretreated biomass was subjected to saccharification with two enzyme cocktails prepared from commercial preparations, and evaluation of the best pretreatment and enzyme cocktail was based on the yield of fermentable sugars produced. As AAS provided the best result after preliminary experiments, enhancement of sugar production was attempted by changing the concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, enzymes, and CS. The optimal pretreatment condition was 10 % ammonium hydroxide, 70 °C, 22 h with CS at 5 % solid loading. After saccharification of the pretreated CS for 72 h at 50 °C and pH 5.0 with a cocktail containing cellulase (Accellerase 1500), beta-glucosidase (Accellerase BG), and xylanase (Accellerase XY), glucose and xylose yields were 67.8 and 92.7 %, respectively.

  11. Use of natural extract of chestnut (Silvafeed ENC® in broiler feeding: effect on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zoccarato

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of addition of natural extract of chestnut (Castanea sativa Silvafeed ENC® in commercial feed on the growth of broilers. Two hundred and four broiler chicks (Cobb 508 14 d old male, were randomly assigned to 12 floor pens and fed commercial diet supplemented with 0% (CE0, 0.15% (CE15, 0.20% (CE20 and 0.25% (CE25 of ENC. The ENC addition showed a beneficial effect on weight increases daily feed intake (DFI and average daily gain (ADG from 14 to 35 days of age. In the second half of trial the effects were less evident and concluding with a detrimental effect in CE25 group. Feed conversion rate (FCR appears to be statistically different in the second and fifth weeks of feeding. The inclusion of ENC at 0.20%, (CE20 had significant influences on final weight, DFI and ADG and a favourable influence on FCR in comparison with the other three groups. In conclusion, ENC has been shown to be beneficial at concentrations between 0.15% and 0.20%.

  12. Behavioral plasticity is not signiifcantly associated withhead volume ina wild Chestnut Thrush (Turdus rubrocanus) population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingshan Zhao; Yuehua Sun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The drivers of intraspeciifc variation in behavioral plasticity are poorly known. A widely held hypothesis is that brain size is positively correlated with behavioral plasticity. Methods: A total of 71 Chestnut Thrushes (Turdus rubrocanus) were caught in the wild population. We quantiifed behavior plasticity of activity of individuals measured in the same cage across two contexts (common and with a novel object stimulation), using a random regression analysis. We then investigated whether head volume (a proxy for brain size) was associated with behavioral plasticity in activity level using Spearman rank-order correlation. Results: We found no signiifcant evidence that activity plasticity was associated with relative head volume. There was no sex difference in head volume or in variance in head volume. Conclusions: We speculate that the absence of an association between brain volume and activity behavior plasticity may result from the inaccuracy of using external skull measurements to estimate brain size, or from a particular part of the brain being responsible for plasticity in activity level.

  13. Sample preparation for metalloprotein analysis: A case study using horse chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhães, Cristiana Schmidt; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2007-03-30

    In the present work, 11 different procedures for protein and metalloprotein extraction from horse chestnuts (Aescullus hippocastanum L.) in natura were tested. After each extraction, total protein was determined and, after protein separation through sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), those metals belonging to the protein structure were mapped by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF). After mapping the elements (Cr, Fe and Mn) in the protein bands (ca. 33 and 23.7kDa), their concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS). Good results were obtained for protein extraction using a combination of grinding and sonication. However, this strategy was not suitable to preserve metal ions in the protein structure. In fact, there was 42% decrease on Mn concentration using this procedure, compared to that performed with sample agitation in water (taken as reference). On the other hand, when grinding and agitation with an extracting buffer was used, there was a 530% increase of Mn concentration, when compared to the reference procedure. These results indicate agreement between metal identification and determination in proteins as well as the great influence of the extraction procedure (i.e., the sample preparation step) for preserving metals in the protein structures.

  14. Pilot project to investigate the anaerobic digestion of the European water chestnut. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    A pilot project was undertaken by the City of Watervliet, New York, funded by the US Department of Energy, Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program, to verify the feasibility of producing methane gas through the anaerobic digestion of the European Water Chestnut Trapa natans L. Previous laboratory scale experiments confirmed the hypothesis that Trapa natans L. was susceptible to digestion by anaerobic bacteria. The experiment described herein confirmed those results in a ''real-world'' environment. Furthermore, it was shown that Trapa natans L. could be harvested, held in storage, and digested without employing unusual technologies. Energy for the digestion reaction was obtained from solar radiation, not fossil fuels, limiting the energy-debt to the construction and harvesting aspects of the project. Phase One of this project took place during the months of June through November, 1982. The digester failed to produce gas due to high oxygen levels. It was hypothesized that the buoyancy cells of the uncrushed plants were the source of this oxygen. Phase Two took place during the months of June through September, 1983. At that time, the Trapa natans L. plants were manually crushed and shredded before introduction to the digester. Gas production was 51% methane and 46% carbon dioxide for the second digester run. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Effect of chestnuts level in the formulation of the commercial feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Celta pig breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen De Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality from 24 castrated males Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of 15% of chestnut (CH15 improved (p0.05 differences except for the carcass length and ham length, for which the CH15 group proved to be the group with the longest sizes. The diet did not affect the physicochemical properties (colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force of longissimus dorsi muscle. The composition of some fatty acids of the longissimus dorsi muscle was affected by diet. The total saturated (35-38% and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (8-10% did not present differences. However, the increase of chestnut in the diet increased (p<0.05 the monounsaturated fatty acids in intramuscular fat (57% in CH25 vs. 53% in control and CH15. Within monounsaturated fatty acids, the C18:1n9 was the most influenced by the diet. The expression of the enzyme that synthesizes C18:1n9 depend on the composition of the diet. Therefore, the lower content of protein and the higher amounts of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 in the chestnut could be explaining the greater content of C18:1n9 in muscle of chestnut-fed animals. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet would allow reduce production costs with no effect or even improving carcass measurements and meat quality.

  16. Embeddings of Iteration Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, William

    1992-01-01

    This paper, dating from May 1991, contains preliminary (and unpublishable) notes on investigations about iteration trees. They will be of interest only to the specialist. In the first two sections I define notions of support and embeddings for tree iterations, proving for example that every tree iteration is a direct limit of finite tree iterations. This is a generalization to models with extenders of basic ideas of iterated ultrapowers using only ultrapowers. In the final section (which is m...

  17. Making Tree Ensembles Interpretable

    OpenAIRE

    Hara, Satoshi; Hayashi, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    Tree ensembles, such as random forest and boosted trees, are renowned for their high prediction performance, whereas their interpretability is critically limited. In this paper, we propose a post processing method that improves the model interpretability of tree ensembles. After learning a complex tree ensembles in a standard way, we approximate it by a simpler model that is interpretable for human. To obtain the simpler model, we derive the EM algorithm minimizing the KL divergence from the ...

  18. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  19. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  20. The Wish Tree Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah DeWitt

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in implementing a Wish Tree project in her school in an effort to bring the school community together with a positive art-making experience during a potentially stressful time. The concept of a wish tree is simple: plant a tree; provide tags and pencils for writing wishes; and encourage everyone to…

  1. Winter Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  2. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  3. Macro tree transducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1985-01-01

    Macro tree transducers are a combination of top-down tree transducers and macro grammars. They serve as a model for syntax-directed semantics in which context information can be handled. In this paper the formal model of macro tree transducers is studied by investigating typical automata theoretical

  4. Study on the production process of Chinese chestnut milk%栗子奶制造技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张齐军; 韦丽

    2012-01-01

    The production process of Chinese chestnut milk, a kind of drink made from chestnut and milk with unique flavor was introduced.Firstly, the chestnuts were well-baked and grinded into serum, appropriately enzyme hydrolyzed by adding some malt,and finally mixed with milk.To ensure the product quality and flavor,the baking and hydrolysis processes, as well as ingredients ratio were optimized ,which showed that the optimal conditions for sugar-soaking and baking of chestnut were 2tO~C for 30 minutes,while that for enzymatic hydrolysis were 65℃ for 65 minutes with 2.0% malt ratio at pH 6.5, and the ideal DE value was about 15 of enzymatic hydrolysate.The optimal ingredients of Chinese chestnut milk were 10.0% chestnut kernel,2.0% malt, ].2% milk powder and 6.0% sugar,etc.The product was a kind of slight-yellow colored milk of good taste and high quality as well as the functions of nourishing the stomach and the kidney, promoting blood circulation and delaying ageing.%板栗经精心烘制处理,果仁磨浆后选用优质麦芽为酶解剂适度酶解,配以奶粉等用科学方法制成具有养胃健脾、补肾强筋、活血、养颜益寿、风味独特的健康功能饮料。对影响产品品质与风味的烘制工艺、麦芽酶解工艺及成分配比进行优化选择,结果表明:板栗浸糖烘烤的最佳条件为210%,30min;麦芽酶解栗仁浆的最优条件是麦芽用量2.0%,温度65%,pH6.5,时间65min,酶解液DE值的理想值在15左右;栗子奶最佳配方则为板栗仁10.0%、麦芽2.0%、奶粉1.2%、蔗糖6.0%。制得的产品色泽微黄、气味香甜略带淡雅奶香.风味、滋味俱佳.品盾上乘。

  5. Effect of the amount of chestnuts in the diet of Celta pigs on the fatty acid profile of dry-cured lacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jesús, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed (0, 15 and 25% chestnut on the fatty acids of dry-cured lacon from Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of chestnuts decreases the saturated fatty acid content (SFA and the monounsaturated fatty acid content (MUFA. With regards to the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, the lacon from animals fed with chestnuts presented higher values of total PUFA, n6 PUFAs and n3 PUFAs. This is related to the fact that chestnut diets had the highest amounts of essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3, therefore the lacon from chestnut-fed animals also presented higher amounts of these fatty acids. According to nutritional ratios, lacon obtained from chestnut-fed pigs was healthier than the one obtained from pigs fed on commercial feed. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet allows us to obtain healthier dry-cured meat products.Se estudió el efecto de la inclusión de la castaña en la formulación del pienso (0, 15 y 25% de castaña sobre el perfil de ácidos grasos del lacón curado de cerdo Celta. La inclusión de castañas produjo una disminución del contenido de ácidos grasos saturados (SFA y monoinsaturados (MUFA. Con respecto a los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA los lacones de animales alimentados por castaña presentaron valores más altos de PUFA totales, PUFA n6 y PUFA n3. Esto está relacionado con que las castañas tienen una mayor cantidad de ácidos grasos esenciales (C18:2n6 y C18:3n3, por tanto los lacones de cerdos alimentados con castaña también presentan mayores contenidos de estos ácidos grasos. De acuerdo con los índices nutricionales, los lacones obtenidos de cerdos alimentados con mayor proporción de castañas fueron más saludables. La inclusión de castañas en la dieta nos permite obtener productos cárnicos curados más saludables.

  6. Study of Investigation and Irulence Differentiation for Chestnut Blight%板栗疫病的调查和致病力分化研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆荣

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence law of chestnut blight was introduced, the investigation method was elaborated. The pathogenesis of chestnut blight was studied with two dimensional gel electrophore method. From the perspective of proteomics, irulence differentiation was studied%介绍了板栗疫病的发生规律,论述了板栗疫病的调查方法,探讨了双向凝胶电泳法研究板栗疫病菌的致病机理,并从蛋白质组学角度介绍了板栗疫病菌致病力分化的研究.

  7. Case study of a new method for the classification and analysis of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu damage to young chestnut sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tani A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dryocosmus kuriphilus is a new chestnut pest that is causing a serious problem worldwide. This gall wasp causes severe infestations of Italian Castanea sativa stands, which lowers their productivity. The most effective method for controlling gall wasp infestations is to introduce the parasitoid, Torymus sinensis, although experience shows that it can be 6-18 years before it is effective in reducing the infestation to acceptable levels. From a silvicultural point of view, it is important to reduce the damage as rapidly as possible to maintain plant vigour and fruit production, thereby avoiding chestnut stand degradation and abandonment before biological control is effective. This study analyzed the damage caused by Dryocosmus kuriphilus during normal plant development and detected differences in plant susceptibility, irrespective of genetic factors. Data were collected from a young Castanea sativa coppice stand in Tuscany (Italy where damage was evaluated during the 2010 growing season. The study consisted of two phases: (1 classification of the damages caused by galls; and (2 studying the galls and damage distribution effects on different vigour chestnut sprouts to determine whether there were preferred oviposition sites or different degrees of susceptibility to gall wasp attack depending on a plant’s physiological state. The D. kuriphilus damage classification scale was based on two factors: damage position (the vegetative organ attacked and damage effect (abnormal organ development caused by galls. This classification included damage types that had not been previously described in literature. The statistical analysis identified differences in damage susceptibility in terms of: axis (stem or branches, plant organs (shoots, leaves, or buds, position of the attacked node (high or low region of the axis, and sprout vigour. Information on the D. kuriphilus damage distribution and its effect on plants with different levels vigour can be used to

  8. Morphological and pheno logical description of 38 sweet chestnut cultivars (Castanea sativa Miller) in a contemporary collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furones-Perez, P.; Fernandez-Lopez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Thirty eight traditional chestnut cultivars, from a contemporary collection, were described using nine characteristics, seven of which are included in the guidelines for carrying out tests of distinctness, homogeneity and stability of chestnut established by the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV). The nine variables were chosen from among 13 characteristics evaluated in the collection with regard to the criteria for distinctness, uniformity and stability. The evaluations were carried out over the years 2003, 2004 and 2005, in two plantations, situated in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Each mean value obtained for each cultivar, plantation and year were assigned a state and numerical number using the UPOV system or proposed new descriptors. No cultivar showed a very late time of leaf bud burst nor a very late time for the start of male and female flowering, nor a strong penetration of the seed coat into embryo. In five variables there was no or few differences among years and between plantations. Consequently they can be evaluated at one site in one year. These characters were: filament length of male flowers, percent of chestnuts with a split pericarp, the degree of penetration of the seed coat into the embryo, fruit shape and the ratio of hilum length to hilum width. Of the remaining four variables, three were phonologic (time of leaf bud burst, time of beginning of male and female flowering) and one related to fruit size (size of fruit hilum). They varied among years and between plantations and consequently need to be evaluated under contrasting site conditions for a minimum number of years. Additional key words: cultivated varieties, descriptor, genetic resources, UPOV. (Author) 27 refs.

  9. Diversity and infection prevalence of endosymbionts in natural populations of the chestnut weevil: relevance of local climate and host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2011-02-01

    Many insects are ubiquitously associated with multiple endosymbionts, whose infection patterns often exhibit spatial and temporal variations. How such endosymbiont variations are relevant to local adaptation of the host organisms is of ecological interest. Here, we report a comprehensive survey of endosymbionts in natural populations of the chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis, whose larvae are notorious pests of cultivated chestnuts and also infest acorns of various wild oaks. From 968 insects representing 55 localities across the Japanese Archipelago and originating from 10 host plant species, we identified six distinct endosymbiont lineages, namely Curculioniphilus, Sodalis, Serratia, Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Spiroplasma, at different infection frequencies (96.7%, 12.8%, 82.3%, 82.5%, 28.2% and 6.8%, respectively) and with different geographical distribution patterns. Multiple endosymbiont infections were very common; 3.18±0.61 (ranging from 1.74 to 5.50) endosymbionts per insect on average in each of the local populations. Five pairs of endosymbionts (Curculioniphilus-Serratia, Curculioniphilus-Wolbachia, Sodalis-Rickettsia, Wolbachia-Rickettsia and Rickettsia-Spiroplasma) co-infected the same host individuals more frequently than expected, while infections with Serratia and Wolbachia were negatively correlated to each other. Infection frequencies of the endosymbionts were significantly correlated with climatic and ecological factors: for example, higher Sodalis, Wolbachia and Rickettsia infections at localities of higher temperature; lower Wolbachia and Rickettsia infections at localities of greater snowfall; and higher Curculioniphilus, Sodalis, Serratia, Wolbachia and Rickettsia infections on acorns than on chestnuts. These patterns are discussed in relation to potential host-endosymbiont co-evolution via local adaptation across geographical populations.

  10. Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

  11. Effect of pasture in oak and chestnut groves on chemical and sensorial traits of cured lard of Cinta Senese pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreste Franci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pasture in oak and chestnut groves on the chemical and sensorial traits of cured lard. Thirty Cinta Senese barrows (124kg of l.w. on average were allotted to three groups: one group (CONC was reared outdoors in a confined area and fed commercial feedstuff. The other two groups were raised under free-range conditions on acorns (AC or chestnuts (CH. At slaughtering (148kg of LW the backfat was seasoned for 60 days to obtained cured lard. Results demonstrated that the lard of CH and AC respect to CONC group was the richest in MUFA (46.9 and 47.76 vs 44.78% respectively because of the higher content of oleic acid (44.2 and 44.91 vs 42.05%, P<0.05, respectively. CH showed a higher percentage of PUFA-n3 than AC and CONC (1.18 vs 1.06 and 1.03%, P<0.05, respectively, a lower content of α-tocopherol (9.77 vs 14.46 and 13.31μ/g, P<0.05 respectively and a higher content of γ-tocopherol (13.73 vs 6.02 and 4.32μ/g, P<0.05, respectively. As regards sensorial traits, the lard of CH and AC groups exhibited a lower value of pinkness than CONC (29.3 and 32.4 vs 49.2, P<0.05, respectively and higher scores of yellowness (31.4 and 28.6 vs 18.6, P<0.05, respectively and oiliness (37.0 and 33.7 vs 24.0, P<0.05, respectively. The pasture in the acorn and chestnut groves affected the chemical traits of lard, prevalently the composition of fatty acids . The consumption of acorns or chestnuts led to a higher content of oleic acid with respect to concentrate, affecting some sensorial traits of lard.

  12. Trees in Lhasa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Degyi

    2008-01-01

    Trees are flourishing in Lhasa wherever the history exists. There is such a man. He has already been through cus-toms after his annual trek to Lhasa, which he has been doing for over twenty years in succession to visit his tree.Although he has been making this journey for so long,it is neither to visit friends or family,nor is it his hometown.It is a tree that is tied so profoundly to his heart.When the wind blows fiercely on the bare tree and winter snow falls,he stands be-fore the tree with tears of jo...

  13. Distributed Contour Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther H.

    2014-03-31

    Topological techniques provide robust tools for data analysis. They are used, for example, for feature extraction, for data de-noising, and for comparison of data sets. This chapter concerns contour trees, a topological descriptor that records the connectivity of the isosurfaces of scalar functions. These trees are fundamental to analysis and visualization of physical phenomena modeled by real-valued measurements. We study the parallel analysis of contour trees. After describing a particular representation of a contour tree, called local{global representation, we illustrate how di erent problems that rely on contour trees can be solved in parallel with minimal communication.

  14. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baghi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple (Malus sp., horse chestnut (Aesculus carnea, "Ft. McNair", honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, "Sunburst", and hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata, "Pauls Scarlet". These species constitute ~ 65% of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10–C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS. Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the post-blooming state for crabapple and honey locust. The results were scaled to the dry mass of leaves and flowers contained in the enclosure. Only flower dry mass was accounted for crabapple emission rates as leaves appeared at the end of the flowering period. Total normalized (30 °C monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.3 μgC g−1 h−1 than after flowering (1.2 μgC g−1 h−1. The total normalized BVOC

  15. Growth of a Pine Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  16. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    A tree transducer is a set of mutually recursive functions transforming an input tree into an output tree. Macro tree transducers extend this recursion scheme by allowing each function to be defined in terms of an arbitrary number of accumulation parameters. In this paper, we show how macro tree...... transducers can be concisely represented in Haskell, and demonstrate the benefits of utilising such an approach with a number of examples. In particular, tree transducers afford a modular programming style as they can be easily composed and manipulated. Our Haskell representation generalises the original...... definition of (macro) tree transducers, abolishing a restriction on finite state spaces. However, as we demonstrate, this generalisation does not affect compositionality....

  17. Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhl, J.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania and the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task in this project is to establish, through several distinct epidemiologic approaches, health data to be used to test hypotheses about relations of air pollution exposures to morbidity and mortality rates in this region. This project affords a cost-effective opportunity for state-of-the-art techniques to be used in both costly areas of air pollution and health effects data collection. The closely spaced network of monitors, plus the dispersion modeling capabilities, allow for the investigation of health impacts of various pollutant gradients in neighboring geographic areas, thus minimizing the confounding effects of social, ethnic, and economic factors. The pollutants that are monitored in this network include total gaseous sulfur, sulfates, total suspended particulates, NOx, NO, ozone/oxidants, and coefficient of haze. In addition to enabling the simulation of exposure profiles between monitors, the air quality modeling, along with extensive source and background inventories, will allow for upgrading the quality of the monitored data as well as simulating the exposure levels for about 25 additional air pollutants. Another important goal of this project is to collect and test the many available models for associating health effects with air pollution, to determine their predictive validity and their usefulness in the choice and siting of future energy facilities.

  18. Effects of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb from horse chestnuts on gastric emptying in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, H; Li, Y; Murakami, T; Yamahara, J; Yoshikawa, M

    1999-03-05

    Inhibitory effects of the saponin fraction and its principal constituents, escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb, from horse chestnuts on gastric emptying were investigated in mice loaded with a non-nutrient or nutrient meal. The saponin fraction and escins Ia-IIb inhibited gastric emptying of a 1.5% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC-Na) meal by 11.1-54.2% (12.5-200 mg/kg). Escins Ia-IIb (50 mg/kg) also inhibited gastric emptying of a 40% glucose meal by 21.1-23.5% except for escin Ia, a milk meal by 18.4-33.1%, and a 30% ethanol meal by 13.5-15.9%. The effects of escins Ia-IIb on gastric emptying of the CMC-Na meal were attenuated by pretreatment with streptozotocin (100 mg/kg, i.v.), capsaicin (75 mg/kg in total, s.c.), or insulin (1 U/kg, s.c.). The effect of insulin was reduced by glucose (2 g/kg, i.v.) which can directly nourish the brain, but not by fructose (2 g/kg, i.v.) which cannot be utilized by the brain. The effects of escins Ia-IIb (50 mg/kg) were overridden in 60% ethanol-loaded mice, in which the central nervous system was suppressed by ethanol. These results suggest that capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves and central nervous system partly participate in the effects of escins Ia-IIb.

  19. Plant growth-promoting and antifungal activity of yeasts from dark chestnut soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Lyudmila V; Brazhnikova, Yelena V; Berzhanova, Ramza Z; Mukasheva, Togzhan D

    2015-06-01

    538 yeast strains were isolated from dark chestnut soil collected from under the plants of the legume family (Fabaceae). The greatest number of microorganisms is found at soil depth 10-20 cm. Among the 538 strains of yeast 77 (14.3%) strains demonstrated the ability to synthesize IAA. 15 strains were attributed to high IAA-producing yeasts (above 10 μg/ml). The most active strains were YA05 with 51.7 ± 2.1 μg/ml of IAA and YR07 with 45.3 ± 1.5 μg/ml. In the study of effect of incubation time on IAA production the maximum accumulation of IAA coincided with maximum rates of biomass: at 120 h for YR07 and at 144 h for strain YA05. IAA production increased when medium was supplemented with the L-tryptophan. 400 μg/ml of L-tryptophan showed maximum IAA production. 10 strains demonstrated the ability to inhibit the growth and development of phytopathogenic fungi. YA05 and YR07 strains formed the largest zones of inhibition compared to the other strains--from 21.6 ± 0.3 to 30.6 ± 0.5 mm. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed for YA05 against Phytophtora infestans and YR07 strains against Fusarium graminearum. YA05 and YR07 strains were identified as Aureobasidium pullulans YA05 (GenBank accession No JF160955) and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa YR07 (GenBank accession No JF160956).

  20. The possible usage of mycoviruses in biological control against tree pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Gülden Aday Kaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoviruses in many organism including plant pathogenic fungi. They are mostly spread intracellularly via asexual and sexual reproduction of the fungi and cause some changes on them. Although many mycoviruses have no clear effect on their hosts, there are also many reports that they cause some phenotypic chances. Especially, they have effect on plant pathogenic fungi by increasing or decreasing their virulence. When they reduce the virulence of the host like in Chestnut canker sample, it is possible to use them in biological control. In this review, mycoviruses detected on some important fungal pathogens of forest trees both in our country and world were introduced and the studies carried out were summarized.

  1. 板栗生产与流通价值链研究--以罗田板栗的价格为例%Research on the Value chain of Chestnut Production and Circulation---Take the prices of Chestnut in Luotian base as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴玲; 陈琳; 涂慧娇; 陶君成

    2015-01-01

    板栗产业是能创造极高经济效益的特色农业。通过对湖北省罗田县板栗实地调研,发现罗田板栗供不应求时价格却未显著提高的现象,进而分析该现象与生产规模、贮藏保鲜、加工技术、营销策略密切相关,并从板栗数量和差异化两方面提出提升罗田板栗价值,提高其竞争力的建议。%Chestnut industry is the characteristic agriculture to create high economic benefit.Based on spot investigation about chestnut in Luotian county of Hubei province,Luotian chestnut in short supply did not improve the price,closely related to the scale of production,fresh-keeping,processing technology and marketing strategy.Then Put forward to the suggestions about how to strengthen the competitive power of Luotian chestnut and improve their value from the quantity of Luotian chestnut and differentiation.

  2. Pattern Avoidance in Ternary Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Gabriel, Nathan; Pudwell, Lara; Tay, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the enumeration of ternary trees (i.e. rooted ordered trees in which each vertex has 0 or 3 children) avoiding a contiguous ternary tree pattern. We begin by finding recurrence relations for several simple tree patterns; then, for more complex trees, we compute generating functions by extending a known algorithm for pattern-avoiding binary trees. Next, we present an alternate one-dimensional notation for trees which we use to find bijections that explain why certain pairs of tree patterns yield the same avoidance generating function. Finally, we compare our bijections to known "replacement rules" for binary trees and generalize these bijections to a larger class of trees.

  3. 不同节水灌溉方式对干旱山地板栗生长结实的影响%Effects of different water-saving irrigation modes on chestnut growth and fruiting in drought hilly land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田寿乐; 沈广宁; 许林; 孙晓莉

    2012-01-01

    在山东省泰安市半干旱、半湿润气候区的山地果园,以板栗为试材,研究了陶罐贮水、蓄水穴和畦灌覆盖3种节水灌溉方式下栗园土壤水分特征及对板栗根系、树体生长和结实的影响.结果表明:与畦灌(对照)相比,3种节水灌溉方式均能延长果园土壤保湿时间,其中陶罐贮水处理效果最明显,保湿时间长达32 d,较对照延长13 d.节水处理下,板栗结果枝长度和数量、叶片面积和质量、果前梢混合芽数量等均较对照明显增加,陶罐贮水和蓄水穴处理能对深层土壤根系进行灌溉并诱导深层根系生长,降低了浅层干旱对根系的胁迫.3种节水灌溉均能大幅度提高板栗果实产量,陶罐贮水、蓄水穴和畦灌覆盖处理的产量分别较对照提高18.8%、16.5%和14.2%.%Taking the chestnut trees in a serai-arid and semi-humid hilly orchard of Tai' an, Shandong Province of East China as test objects, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different water-saving irrigation modes (pottery jar storing water, small hole storing water, and border irrigation with covering) on the soil moisture characteristics and the growth, fruiting, and development of chestnut roots. Comparing with the control (border irrigation) , all the three water-saving irrigation modes could prolong the period of soil keeping moist, and the best effect came from pottery jar treatment, with the soil keeping moist for 32 days, 13 days longer than the control. Under water-saving irrigations, the bearing branches length and number, leaf area and mass, and shoot mixed buds all increased obviously. Both pottery jar storing water and small hole storing water could irrigate deeper roots and induce root growth in deeper soil layers, and thus, relieve the drought stress on superficial roots. The three water-saving irrigation modes could increase chestnut yield markedly, with an increment of 18.8% , 16.5% , and 14.2% , respectively, as

  4. Effect of diet chestnut tannin supplementation on meat quality, fatty acid profile and lipid stability in broiler rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chestnut tannins on meat quality in broiler rabbits. 72 commercial hybrid rabbits (mean body weight 740 g, 32 days old were fed for 49 days with three diets containing 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% of a commercial chestnut wood extract (ENC®, Sil- vachimica srl, respectively. Eight rabbits per group were slaughtered at 12 weeks of age and at 24h post-mortem pH and colour were measured on the carcass. Moreover, both sides of m. longis- simus thoracis (LT were dissected. Left side was used for cooking losses whereas the other side was used for the determination of fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. No differences were found in pH, colour and cooking losses, as well as the fatty acid profile of LT muscle and its relative health indexes. Concerning the antioxidant effect, the ENC shows a positive and significant effect at the inclusion level of 0.5%. In conclusion, the ENC has not undesirable side effects on the meat quality of rabbits, although further studies will be necessary to find the optimal diet inclusion level of ENC to elicit a stronger antioxidant effect in the rabbit meat.

  5. Comparative effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the antioxidant potential of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barros, Lillian; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-10-01

    Chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been recently studied for their antioxidant potential. The present study reports the effect of e-beam and gamma radiation (doses of 0, 0.5, 1 and 3 kGy) on the antioxidant potential of Portuguese chestnuts. Irradiation might be an alternative preservation method, since Methyl Bromide, a widely used fumigant, was banished by the European Union in 2010 due to its toxicity. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay, reducing power by the Ferricyanide/Prussian blue assay, and lipid peroxidation inhibition by β-carotene/linoleate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays. The analysis of total phenolics and flavonoids was performed by spectrophotometric assays. Irradiated samples preserved total phenolics content (but not flavonoids) and revealed higher antioxidant activity (lower EC50 values) than the control samples. The most indicated doses to maintain antioxidants content, and to increase antioxidant activity were 1 and 3 kGy for electron beam and gamma radiation, respectively.

  6. Production comparisons of Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch] functional corms grown in hydroponics versus flooded sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch.] corms are used as a canned or raw vegetable worldwide and may have potential use as a functional vegetable for human health uses. The accessions in the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit do not produce very many...

  7. Risk assessment of the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus for the EU territory and identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Panel on Plant Health was requested by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on the risk posed by the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus to the EU territory and to identify and evaluate risk management options. Additional analyses were conducted by the Panel ...

  8. Best management practices plan for the Chestnut Ridge-Filled Coal Ash Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP) Project has been established to satisfy Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2. FCAP is on Chestnut Ridge, approximately 0.5 miles south of the Y-12 Plant. A 62-foot high earthen dam across Upper McCoy Branch was constructed in 1955 to create a pond to serve as a settling basin for fly and bottom ashes generated by burning coal at the Y-12 Steam Plant. Ash from the steam was mixed with water to form a slurry and then pumped to the crest of Chestnut Ridge and released through a large pipe to flow across the Sluice Channel area and into the pond. The ash slurry eventually overtopped the dam and flowed along Upper McCoy Branch to Rogers Quarry. The purpose of this document is to provide a site-specific Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan for construction associated with environmental restoration activities at the FCAP Site.

  9. Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report For The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.B.

    1998-02-01

    This report contains the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1997 in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). In July 1997, the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved modifications to several of the permit conditions that address RCRA pow-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and RCIU4 post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin) and Kerr Hollow Quarry. This report has been prepared in accordance with these modified permit requirements. Also included in this report are the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 1997 for the purposes ofi (1) detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste disposal facilities (SWDFS) in accordance with operating permits and applicable regulations, (2) monitoring in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Recove~ Act Records of Decision (now pefiormed under the Integrated Water Quality Program for the Oak Ridge Reservation), and (3) monitoring needed to comply with U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.1.

  10. Study on enzymatic browning and blanching methods of chestnut%板栗的酶促褐变特性及灭酶预处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾婷婷; 张立彦; 芮汉明

    2011-01-01

    The activity and thermal stability of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in frozed chestnut were studied. The blanching methods and their effects on candying processing of chestnut were also investigated. Results showed that the thermal stability of PPO was higher than POD,the optimum temperature and pH of PPQ were 20℃,6.5 respectively, When the relative activity of PPO was decreased to less than 8%,the enzymes causing browning in chestnut were estimated to be inactivated enough, Compared with the way of hot water and steam blanching, enzymatic browning in chestnut was inhibited efficiently by microwave blanching ,and the sugar impregnation into chestnut was enhanced too in the processing of low-sugar candied chestnut, The optimal treatment of microwave blanching was that chestnut was heated at 4W/g power indensity for 6min.%对冻藏板栗中多酚氧化酶(PPO)的活力及热稳定性进行了比较,研究低糖板栗果脯灭酶顸处理及其对后续渗糖过程的影响。结果表明:板栗中影响褐变的酶主要有PPO和POD,其中PPO较POD热稳定性略高。冻藏后的板栗中PPO最适温度及pH分别为20℃和6.5。板栗加工中应以板栗PPO活力降至8%以下作为是否灭酶充分的标准。通过与热水烫漂灭酶、蒸汽灭酶比较发现,微波热烫处理可抑制低糖板粟果脯加工过程中的褐变,并有助于提高渗糖效率。微波炎酶的最佳条件是:功率密度4W/g,处理6min。

  11. Bayesian Rose Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Charles; Heller, Katherine A

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical structure is ubiquitous in data across many domains. There are many hier- archical clustering methods, frequently used by domain experts, which strive to discover this structure. However, most of these meth- ods limit discoverable hierarchies to those with binary branching structure. This lim- itation, while computationally convenient, is often undesirable. In this paper we ex- plore a Bayesian hierarchical clustering algo- rithm that can produce trees with arbitrary branching structure at each node, known as rose trees. We interpret these trees as mixtures over partitions of a data set, and use a computationally efficient, greedy ag- glomerative algorithm to find the rose trees which have high marginal likelihood given the data. Lastly, we perform experiments which demonstrate that rose trees are better models of data than the typical binary trees returned by other hierarchical clustering algorithms.

  12. 不同板栗-农间作模式对土壤理化性质的影响%Effects of different Chinese chestnut-crop intercropping patterns on soil physical and chemical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦宏民; 何斌; 梁运; 韦智卫; 韦雅玲; 黄承标; 刘红英

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand change status of soil physical and chemical properties in chestnut-crop intercropping, density, porosity, water-holding capacity, pH value and nutrient content of soil were studied and compared under four patterns of chestnut-crop intercropping (chestnut-maize, chestnut-peanut, chestnut-soybean and pure chestnut stand) in Donglan County of Guangxi. The results show that soil physical and chemical properties have differences among four patterns of chestnut-crop intercropping. The density of surface soil (0-20 cm) under intercropping patterns of chestnut-peanut, chestnut-maize, chestnut-soybean and pure chestnut stand are 1.11, 1.13, 1.08, 1.21 g/cm3, respectively;non-capillary porosities are 13.60%, 11.36%, 10.35%, 9.62%, respectively; total porosities are 54.04%, 52.68%, 53.73%, 50.42%, respectively. Based on contents of total N, hydrolyzable N, available P and available K in soil from high to low, the order of the four chestnut-crop intercropping pattern is chestnut-peanut, chestnut-soybean, chestnut-maize, pure chestnut stand. Therefore, chestnut-crop intercropping is beneifcial for improving soil structure and increasing effective nutrient contents in soil.%为了了解板栗-农作物间作的土壤理化性质变化状况,对广西东兰县4种板栗-农间作模式(板栗-玉米、板栗-花生、板栗-黄豆和板栗纯林)土壤密度、孔隙度、持水量、pH值和养分含量进行分析比较。研究结果表明,不同板栗-农间作模式土壤理化性质存在一定差异,其中板栗-花生、板栗-玉米、板栗-黄豆和板栗纯林表层土壤(0~20 cm)密度分别为1.11、1.13、1.08和1.21 g/cm3,非毛管隙度分别为13.60%、11.36%、10.35%和9.62%,总孔隙度分别为54.04%、52.68%、53.73和50.42%;不同板栗-农间作模式按照土壤全N、水解N、速效P和速效K含量由高到低排列依次大致为板栗-花生、板栗-黄豆、板栗-玉米、板栗纯林。因此,板栗

  13. The valuative tree

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This volume is devoted to a beautiful object, called the valuative tree and designed as a powerful tool for the study of singularities in two complex dimensions. Its intricate yet manageable structure can be analyzed by both algebraic and geometric means. Many types of singularities, including those of curves, ideals, and plurisubharmonic functions, can be encoded in terms of positive measures on the valuative tree. The construction of these measures uses a natural tree Laplace operator of independent interest.

  14. Comparison of galled trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Gabriel; Llabrés, Mercè; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Galled trees, directed acyclic graphs that model evolutionary histories with isolated hybridization events, have become very popular due to both their biological significance and the existence of polynomial-time algorithms for their reconstruction. In this paper, we establish to which extent several distance measures for the comparison of evolutionary networks are metrics for galled trees, and hence, when they can be safely used to evaluate galled tree reconstruction methods.

  15. A theory of game trees, based on solution trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie); A. Plaat (Aske)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a complete theory of game tree algorithms is presented, entirely based upon the notion of a solution tree. Two types of solution trees are distinguished: max and min solution trees respectively. We show that most game tree algorithms construct a superposition of a max and a

  16. D2-tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Sioutas, Spyros; Pantazos, Kostas;

    2015-01-01

    We present a new overlay, called the Deterministic Decentralized tree (D2-tree). The D2-tree compares favorably to other overlays for the following reasons: (a) it provides matching and better complexities, which are deterministic for the supported operations; (b) the management of nodes (peers......-balancing scheme of elements into nodes is deterministic and general enough to be applied to other hierarchical tree-based overlays. This load-balancing mechanism is based on an innovative lazy weight-balancing mechanism, which is interesting in its own right....

  17. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number...... of available processor cores compared to its sequential counterpart, thereby taking full advantage of multicore parallelism. The parallel buffer tree is a search tree data structure that supports the batched parallel processing of a sequence of N insertions, deletions, membership queries, and range queries...

  18. Symmetric M-tree

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Alan P

    2010-01-01

    The M-tree is a paged, dynamically balanced metric access method that responds gracefully to the insertion of new objects. To date, no algorithm has been published for the corresponding Delete operation. We believe this to be non-trivial because of the design of the M-tree's Insert algorithm. We propose a modification to Insert that overcomes this problem and give the corresponding Delete algorithm. The performance of the tree is comparable to the M-tree and offers additional benefits in terms of supported operations, which we briefly discuss.

  19. Development Actualities of and Strategies for Chestnut Industry in Shucheng County%舒城县板栗产业现状及发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶明福

    2015-01-01

    通过对舒城县板栗资源、产业加工、生产现状进行专题调研,指出了板栗产业发展存在的主要问题,并从加强栗园科学管理,提高板栗产量;改造低产园,建立示范点;政府购买社会组织服务,统一防治病虫害;引导企业(大户)承包栗园,实行规模经营;狠抓储藏、加工环节,提高产业效益;加大财政支持力度,加快产业发展等方面提出对策和建议。%In this paper a special field research was made on the chestnut resources, industrial processing and production actualities in Shucheng County and the main existing problems in the development of chestnut industry were pointed out. Some strategies and suggestions were put forward including strengthening management of chestnut plantations, increasing chestnut yields, improving low-yield plantations, establishing demonstration sites, buying services from social organization by the government, unified pest and disease control, leading enterprises to contract manage chestnut plantations, scale management, paying much attention to links of storage and processing, improving the industrial efficiency, strengthening financial support and speeding up its industrial development.

  20. Extraction of Chinese Chestnut Protein and Preparation of the Ploypeptides%板栗蛋白质的提取及多肽的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帅; 张培宜; 冯翠萍

    2011-01-01

    Protein was extracted from Chinese chestnut, and the Chinese chestnut polypeptide was obtained by hydrolysis, with a substance to provide a scientific basis for the development and use of Chinese chestnut protein polypeptide.Molecular weight of the protein was determined through SDS-PAGE. The albumen hydrolysis special-purpose enzyme was selected to determine the optimum hydrolysis conditions about Chinese chestnut polypeptide, using three factors three levels orthogonal experimental design. The isoelectronic point of the protein is 4. 5 , and molecular weight is about 25000 Da; The best hydrolysis condition of albumen hydrolysis special-purpose enzyme is : Substrate concentration 2. 5 g ·L-1 , enzyme capacity 0. 3 % , pH 8. 5 , the degree of hydrolysis 20. 13 %. The protein and polypeptides of Chinese chestnut were preparated.%以板栗为原料,提取蛋白质并水解制备多肽.通过SDS-PAGE测定板栗蛋白质的分子量,以植物蛋白水解专用酶采用三因素三水平的正交试验筛选制备板栗多肽的最佳水解条件,旨在为板栗的开发,利用提供理论依据.板栗蛋白质的等电点为4.5;分子量约为25 000 Da;植物蛋白水解专用酶最佳的水解条件:底物浓度2.5 g·L-1,酶添加量0.3%,pH 8.5,水解度是20.13%.得到板栗蛋白并制备出板栗多肽.

  1. Effect of chitosan on clarification water chestnut juice%壳聚糖对马蹄汁澄清效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢树文

    2011-01-01

    研究壳聚糖澄清马蹄汁的工艺条件,以马蹄汁透光率为指标,重点探讨壳聚糖添加量、处理温度及澄清时间等工艺参数对马蹄汁澄清效果的影响.结果表明,壳聚糖澄清马蹄原汁的最佳工艺条件是:壳聚糖用量0.8 g/L.温度40℃,pH值5.0(自然pH值),澄清时间45 min.澄清后的马蹄汁透光率可达93.9%,与原汁相比,其Vc含量、可溶性固形物及总糖含量无明显变化,果胶含量去除80%以上.%With water chestnut juice light transmittance as index, mainly discussed the optimum technological conditions of amount to chitosan, temperature, PH value and clarify time etc. for water chestnut juice clarification by using chitosan. The results of orthogonal test :indicates that the optimum technological conditions for water chestnut juice clarification by using chitosan were 0.8 g/L,40 ℃ ,pH 5.0 and time is 45 min. compared with water chestnut juice, water chestnut juice luminousness can reach 93.9%, and the Vc content、 the amount of soluble solid content and sugar content was remained almost unchangeable, pectin content remove more than 80%.

  2. Assessment of the Empirical Management Method of Coppice Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. Forests Practiced by the Monks and its Effect on the Availability of Forest Soil Resources in Mount Athos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios PAPAIOANNOU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, chestnut forests (Castanea sativa Mill. occupy more than 30,000 ha of forest land. The species is one of the most significant of the Balkans. It is mainly cultivated for its high quality wood. Concerning cultivation and harvesting, the monks in Mount Athos peninsula in northern Greece practice a special empirical management method for local coppice chestnut forests. Data collected from 9 sampling surfaces, comprising of coppice chestnut stands of three different ages (10, 20 and 40 years old, were analyzed to study the effect of this particular empirical management method on specific soil parameters. Results indicated that, there is a general trend for increased organic matter and nutrient concentrations in the soil of 10 and 40 years old chestnut stands in comparison to those of 20 years of age. Cultivation treatments cause intense alterations on soil properties, leading to severe degradation of nutrient resources.

  3. Matching Subsequences in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2009-01-01

    Given two rooted, labeled trees P and T the tree path subsequence problem is to determine which paths in P are subsequences of which paths in T. Here a path begins at the root and ends at a leaf. In this paper we propose this problem as a useful query primitive for XML data, and provide new...

  4. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  5. Tree nut oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  6. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  7. Ecogeochemical dosing model and adaptability regionalization of Jingdong chestnut%京东板栗生态地球化学环境比配模型与适应性区划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李随民; 栾文楼; 宋泽峰; 崔邢涛

    2011-01-01

    京东板栗是河北省优势农产品之一,由于板栗生长环境的地质地球化学方面的研究较少,致使目前板栗的种植、规划等缺乏理论依据.本文以河北迁西优质板栗产区75件样品为例,分析探讨了温度、地形地貌、岩石土壤类型和部分地球化学元素对优质板栗种植区的控制作用和影响程度,在此基础上建立了上述生态地质地球化学环境因素与板栗之间的比配模型,划分了板栗种植的优质区、适宜区和非适宜区域,为当地板栗种植和规划提供了理论依据和参考.%Jingdong chestnut is one of the advantageous agricultural products in Hebei Province; nevertheless, chestnut planting and planning lack theoretical foundation due to insufficient research on geological-geochemical environment for chestnut growth. Based on 75 samples collected from the high -quality production area of chestnut, this paper systematically discusses the temperature, topography, rock soil type and some factors controlling and affecting the high-quality chestnut. On such a basis, the authors established the ecogeochemical dosing model of Jingdong chestnut and classified chestnut planting areas into three kinds, I.e., qualified areas, suitable areas and unsuitable areas. The results obtained will provide theoretical basis and reference for local chestnut planting and planning.

  8. [Effects of biological organic fertilizer on microbial community's metabolic activity in a soil planted with chestnut (Castanea mollissima)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Gu, Jie; Hu, Ting; Gao, Hua; Chen, Zhi-Xue; Qin, Qing-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted in Zhashui County of Shaanxi Province, Northwest China in 2011 to study the effects of biological organic fertilizer on the microbial community's metabolic activity in a soil planted with chestnut (Castanea mollissima). Three treatments were installed, i. e., control, compound fertilizer, and biological organic fertilizer. Soil samples were collected at harvest, and the metabolic activity was tested by Biolog method. In the treatment of biological organic fertilizer, the average well color development, Shannon evenness, richness, and McIntosh indices of microbial community were all significantly higher than the other two treatments. As compared with the control, applying biological organic fertilizer improved the ability of soil microbes in utilizing the carbon sources of carbohydrates and polymers, while applying compound fertilizer was in opposite. The principal component analysis demonstrated that there was an obvious difference in the soil microbial community among different treatments, mainly depending on the species of carbohydrates and amino acids.

  9. Rupture and Modulus of Elasticity of Heat Treated Anatolian Chestnut (Castanea Sativa Wood by Fuzzy Logic Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Yapıcı

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, test samples prepared from Anatolian chestnut (Castanea sativa wood were first exposed to heat treatment at 130, 145, 160, 175, 190 and 205 ºC for 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours. Then the values of the samples of the modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE were determined and evaluated by multiple variance analysis. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of heat treatment on the MOR and MOE values of wood samples by using fuzzy logic classifier. Secondly, input and output values and rule base of the fuzzy logic classifier model were built by using the results obtained from the experiment. The developed fuzzy classifier model could predict the MOR and MOE values of test samples at the accuracy levels of 92.64 % and 90.35 %, respectively. The model could be especially employed in manufacturing stages of timber industry.

  10. Effect of sucrose, stevia and xylitol on rheological properties of gels from blends of chestnut and rice flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Raymundo, A; Sousa, I

    2013-10-15

    The development of high quality gluten-free products requires the understanding of the phenomena that dictate the ingredient interactions commonly used in foodstuff. In this work, the main objective was to develop alternative gluten-free gelled desserts from blends of chestnut flour (Cf) and whole (Rw), Agulha (Ra) or Carolino (Rc) rice flours. The impact of sucrose, stevia and xylitol on textural, rheological and structural properties of selected gels was investigated. Texture results indicated that studied gels in the presence of sucrose and xylitol decreased significantly the firmness. Rheological outcomes showed that the temperature ramps on heating of Cf/Rw gels were similar to those obtained for Cf/Ra, whereas Cf/Rc gels presented a particular pattern. The presence of sucrose resulted in a significant decrease in the values of storage and loss moduli. Confocal microscopic images showed that the sugar addition leads to a less aggregated structure with fracture lines well marked.

  11. Ecological Meaning and Consideration of Economic Forest Carbon Sinks in China----Take Yan-Shan Chestnut for Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Li, H.; Zhang, W. W.; Liu, S. R.

    Along with our country scientific researchers' study on native forest carbon sinks as well as the summary of the increasing amount of China's forest carbon, With the deepening of our scientists on the study of the national forest carbon sinks, forest carbon sinks has become a favorable support for climate diplomacy. Currently, a lot of work has focused on the carbon cycle, the level of carbon sinks of forest ecosystems, but the characteristics of economic forest carbon sinks are in a blank state. Beijing chestnut is one of the national food strategic security stockpiles, and estimate the potential of economic forest carbon sinks has important scientific significance to the establishment of carbon sink function area, and expansion of sustainable economic and social development of response measures.

  12. 13C MAS NMR studies of the effects of hydration on the cell walls of potatoes and Chinese water chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H; Belton, P S; Ng, A; Ryden, P

    1999-02-01

    13C NMR with magic angle spinning (MAS) has been employed to investigate the cell walls of potatoes and Chinese water chestnuts over a range of hydration levels. Both single-pulse excitation (SPEMAS) and cross-polarization (CPMAS) experiments were carried out. Hydration led to a substantial increase in signal intensities of galactan and galacturonan in the SPEMAS spectra and a decrease in line width, implying mobilization in the backbone and side chains of pectin. In CPMAS spectra of both samples, noncellulose components showed signal loss as hydration increased. However, the signals of some galacturonan in the 3(1) helix configuration remained in the spectra even when the water content was as high as 110%. Cellulose was unaffected. It is concluded that the pectic polysaccharides experience a distribution of molecular conformations and mobility, whereas cellulose remained as typical rigid solid.

  13. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  14. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  15. Proximate analysis and physico-chemical properties of flour from the seeds of the China chestnut, Sterculia monosperma Ventenat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noitang, S; Sooksai, S A; Foophow, T; Petsom, A

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional composition of China chestnut seeds, Sterculia monosperma Vent. and analyze the physico-chemical properties of flour from the seeds. The results obtained on proximate analysis of China chestnut seeds, S. monosperma, revealed that they contained mostly carbohydrate (73.7% dm), followed by fat (12.0% dm), protein (7.8% dm), fiber (5.5% dm) and ash (1.0% dm). They have a relatively high content of potassium (12.3 mg g(-1) dm) following by phosphorus (2.30 mg g(-1) dm), magnesium (1.87 mg g(-1) dm), sulfur (0.88 mg g(-1) dm) and calcium (0.14 mg g(-1) dm). The fatty acids profile was found to be composed of mainly palmitic (42%) and oleic acids (34%), with general long-chain fatty acids the other significant component by mass (13%). Glutamic acid (17.4%), aspartic acid (12.5%) and arginine (12.5%) were the three major amino acid constituents. The purified seed starch was investigated for its morphological, starch content and physico-chemical properties, such as amylose content, swelling power, solubility and pasting properties. The starch granules were quite round, about 10-15 micron diameter and composed of more than 35% (w/w) of amylose. The pasting properties of flour from the seeds of S. monosperma revealed that gelatinization began at 72.6-73.2 degrees C and the maximum viscosity in the holding period at 95 degrees C was 633 BU. Interestingly and potentially of use, was that the viscosity at the cooling period was more than two-fold higher than that in the holding period.

  16. LIMSUP DEVIATIONS ON TREES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Aihua

    2004-01-01

    The vertices of an infinite locally finite tree T are labelled by a collection of i.i.d. real random variables {Xσ}σ∈T which defines a tree indexed walk Sσ = ∑θ<r≤σXr. We introduce and study the oscillations of the walk:Exact Hausdorff dimension of the set of such ξ 's is calculated. An application is given to study the local variation of Brownian motion. A general limsup deviation problem on trees is also studied.

  17. The gravity apple tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  18. Tree-growth analyses to estimate tree species' drought tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilmann, B.; Rigling, A.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is challenging forestry management and practices. Among other things, tree species with the ability to cope with more extreme climate conditions have to be identified. However, while environmental factors may severely limit tree growth or even cause tree death, assessing a tree specie

  19. Tree-like tableaux

    CERN Document Server

    Aval, Jean-Christophe; Nadeau, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    In this work we introduce and study tree-like tableaux, which are certain fillings of Ferrers diagrams in simple bijection with permutation tableaux and alternative tableaux. We exhibit an elementary insertion procedure on our tableaux which gives a clear proof that tableaux of size n are counted by n!, and which moreover respects most of the well-known statistics studied originally on alternative and permutation tableaux. Our insertion procedure allows to define in particular two simple new bijections between tree-like tableaux and permutations: the first one is conceived specifically to respect the generalized pattern 2-31, while the second one respects the underlying tree of a tree-like tableau.

  20. Tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil.

  1. NLCD 2001 - Tree Canopy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The National Land Cover Database 2001 tree canopy layer for Minnesota (mapping zones 39-42, 50-51) was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the...

  2. Tree Improvement Glossary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    Forest tree improvement encompasses a number of scientific and technical areas like floral-, reproductive- and micro-biology, genetics breeding methods and strategies, propagation, gene conservation, data analysis and statistics, each area with a comprehensive terminology. The terms selected...... for definition here are those most frequently used in tree improvement literature. Clonal propagation is included in the view of the great expansion of that field as a means of mass multiplication of improved material....

  3. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  4. Fault Tree Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    to be Evaluated Manufacturer Location Seismic Susceptibility Flood Susceptibility Temperature Humidity Radiation Wear-out Susceptibility Test...For the category " Seismic Susceptibility," we might define several sensitivity levels ranging from no sensitivity to extreme sensitivity, and for more... Hanford Company, Richland, Wash- ington, ARH-ST-l 12, July 1975. 40. W.E. Vesely, "Analysis of Fault Trees by Kinetic Tree Theory," Idaho Nuclear

  5. Geometric Decision Tree

    CERN Document Server

    Manwani, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new algorithm for learning oblique decision trees. Most of the current decision tree algorithms rely on impurity measures to assess the goodness of hyperplanes at each node while learning a decision tree in a top-down fashion. These impurity measures do not properly capture the geometric structures in the data. Motivated by this, our algorithm uses a strategy to assess the hyperplanes in such a way that the geometric structure in the data is taken into account. At each node of the decision tree, we find the clustering hyperplanes for both the classes and use their angle bisectors as the split rule at that node. We show through empirical studies that this idea leads to small decision trees and better performance. We also present some analysis to show that the angle bisectors of clustering hyperplanes that we use as the split rules at each node, are solutions of an interesting optimization problem and hence argue that this is a principled method of learning a decision tree.

  6. Tree felling 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    With a view to creating new landscapes and making its population of trees safer and healthier, this winter CERN will complete the tree-felling campaign started in 2010.   Tree felling will take place between 15 and 22 November on the Swiss part of the Meyrin site. This work is being carried out above all for safety reasons. The trees to be cut down are at risk of falling as they are too old and too tall to withstand the wind. In addition, the roots of poplar trees are very powerful and spread widely, potentially damaging underground networks, pavements and roadways. Compensatory tree planting campaigns will take place in the future, subject to the availability of funding, with the aim of creating coherent landscapes while also respecting the functional constraints of the site. These matters are being considered in close collaboration with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP). GS-SE Group

  7. Extraction of high quality of RNA and construction of a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library from chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Wen, Xiaopeng; Tao, Nengguo; Hu, Zhiyong; Yue, Hailin; Deng, Xiuxin

    2006-04-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a rare fruit crop of promising economical importance in fruit and ornamental exploitation in China. Isolation of high quality RNA from chestnut rose is difficult due to its high levels of polyphenols, polysaccharides and other compounds, but a modified CTAB extraction procedure without phenol gave satisfactory results. High concentrations of PVP (2%, w/v), CTAB (2%, w/v) and beta-mercaptoethanol (4%, v/v) were used in the extraction buffer to improve RNA quality. The average yield was about 200 microg RNA g(-1) fresh leaves. The isolated RNA was of sufficient quality for construction of suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) library, which allowed the isolation of several pathogen-induced defense genes.

  8. Assessment of electron beam-induced DNA damage in larvae of chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoriki, Setsuko [Radiation and Information Technology Laboratory, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)]. E-mail: setsuko@nfri.affrc.go.jp; Hasan, Mahbub [Laboratory for Stored Product Protection, Department of Zoology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Miyanoshita, Akihiro [Radiation and Information Technology Laboratory, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Imamura, Taro [Radiation and Information Technology Laboratory, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Hayashi, Toru [Radiation and Information Technology Laboratory, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)

    2006-02-15

    Effect of electron beam treatment on DNA damage in mature larvae of chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) was assessed using single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet assay). Electrons at acceleration voltages of 0 (control), 300, 750, 1000, and 1500 kV at radiation doses of 1 and 4 kGy were used. Electron beam-treated chestnut larvae showed typical DNA fragmentation, compared with cells from non-treated ones which showed a more intact DNA. Investigations using the comet assay showed that the parameters including tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment as well as the quota of DNA damage at both the doses were significantly larger than the control batch larvae. Thus, this technique could contribute to analytical identification of an effective disinfestation and quarantine treatment.

  9. Assessment of electron beam-induced DNA damage in larvae of chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hasan, Mahbub; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro; Hayashi, Toru

    2006-02-01

    Effect of electron beam treatment on DNA damage in mature larvae of chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) was assessed using single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet assay). Electrons at acceleration voltages of 0 (control), 300, 750, 1000, and 1500 kV at radiation doses of 1 and 4 kGy were used. Electron beam-treated chestnut larvae showed typical DNA fragmentation, compared with cells from non-treated ones which showed a more intact DNA. Investigations using the comet assay showed that the parameters including tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment as well as the quota of DNA damage at both the doses were significantly larger than the control batch larvae. Thus, this technique could contribute to analytical identification of an effective disinfestation and quarantine treatment.

  10. Vacuum freeze-drying process of chestnut kernel%真空冷冻干燥板栗仁加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏飞; 周家华; 常虹; 马良; 张宇昊

    2011-01-01

    With fresh chestnut as raw materials,we studied the vacuum freeze-drying chestnut kernel processing technology.Results show that the color protection liquid composition for 0.2% ascorbic acid,0.3 % citric acid,0.1% ethylenediamine tetraacetate(EDTA) and 0.1% sodium chloride.Best temperature is 40 ℃.The best vacuum freeze-drying conditions is the material quantity 4.85 kg/m2,45 ℃ with 12 hours.Processed chestnut kernel water content is about 3%,taste sweet and crisp,chestnut original color,fragrance,taste to maintain good.%以新鲜板栗为原料,研究了真空冷冻干燥板栗仁的加工工艺。结果表明:板栗仁护色液组成为0.2%抗坏血酸、0.3%柠檬酸、0.1%乙二胺四乙酸(EDTA)和0.1%氯化钠;护色温度为40℃。最佳真空冷冻干燥条件是单位面积的物料量4.85kg/m2、隔板温度45℃、冻干时间为12h,制得的冷冻干燥板栗仁含水量为3%,口感香甜松脆,板栗原有色、香、味保持良好。

  11. 1-MCP对板栗采后生理的影响%Effects of 1-MCP on Postharvest Physiological Responses of Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费斐; 薛风照

    2016-01-01

    以采自河南信阳的板栗为试材,进行1-MCP(1-甲基环丙烯)处理,于0℃低温下贮藏,通过测定失重率、腐烂率和VC等指标,旨在研究其对板栗采后生理的影响。得到试验结果:1.0μL/L 1-MCP处理可有效抑制板栗失重、VC和还原糖含量的下降,推迟果实的后熟与衰老。0℃贮藏75 d以后,好果率达86.6%,且外观色泽饱满,风味正常。%Chestnut collected from Henan Xinyang were treated with 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), then stored at 0℃. Through the determination of weight loss rate, decay rate, VC and other indicators, aims to study the influence on chestnut postharvest physiology.The results showed that chestnut treated with 1.0 μL/L effec-tively inhibiting its weight loss, vitamin C and delaying the declining of sugar content ;delay the ripening and senescence of Xinyang. Chestnut fruits, the rate of good fruit was 86.6%when stored at 0℃for 75 d, then look fresh and full flavor normal.

  12. Local spread of an exotic invader: using remote sensing and spatial analysis to document proliferation of the invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziosi I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and spatial analysis represent useful tools for modeling species’ dispersal, characterizing the spread of invasions and the invasability of a region, and thus allowing more accurate predictions for developing mitigation strategies. American chestnut, Castanea dentata, was historically a dominant forest species in North America, but occurs only sporadically today after its functional elimination by an exotic fungal pathogen in the early 1900’s. In recent decades Castanea resources have increased due to restoration efforts, commercial chestnut plantations, and horticultural uses. This resurgence is threatened by an additional exotic species, the globally invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus. The gall wasp was first discovered in Lexington, Kentucky (USA in 2010. We used remotely sensed data and Geographic Information Systems to describe the local distribution of the Castanea hosts, and the occurrence and dispersal of the gall wasp. We tested the hypotheses that geomorphology, Castanea occurrence, and prevailing winds influence local proliferation. We found that gall wasp spread may be attributable to host plant distribution and to the effects of prevailing winds occurring during a brief period of adult insect emergence, and is influenced by topography. Our results suggest that weather data and topographic features can be used to delineate currently infested areas and predict future gall wasp infestations.

  13. Development of Lactic Acid Bacteroa Fermentation Water Chestnut Yoghurt%乳酸菌发酵荸荠酸乳的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 杨跃寰; 张锐毅; 王凤娇; 王侠

    2011-01-01

    Taking milk as main raw materials and adding water chestnut to develop water chestnut yoghurt through the fermentation lactic acid bacteroa,the optimum technology parameter was determined by sensory evaluation.The results of tests showed that the water chestnut adding of 20% and homogenization pressure of 20MPa,the fermentation conditions were fermentation temperature of 42 ℃,sugar adding of 3%,inoculation amount of 4% and fermentation time of 5h,the stabilizer combination was xanthan gum 0.08%,agar 0.09% and CMC-Na 0.04%.%以牛奶为主要原料,添加荸荠,经乳酸菌发酵研制荸荠酸乳。通过感官综合评定确定最佳工艺参数。实验结果表明:荸荠添加量为20%;均质压力为20 MPa;发酵条件为:发酵温度42℃,加糖量3%,接种量4%(均为质量分数),发酵时间5 h;稳定剂组合为:黄原胶0.08%,琼脂0.09%,羧甲基纤维素钠0.04%(均为质量分数)。

  14. Hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 nanoneedles grown on nickel foam as binder-free electrode for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kwun Nam; Hui, Kwan San; Tang, Zikang; Jadhav, V. V.; Xia, Qi Xun

    2016-10-01

    Hierarchical chestnut-like manganese cobalt oxide (MnCo2O4) nanoneedles (NNs) are successfully grown on nickel foam using a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal method. High resolution TEM image further verifies that the chestnut-like MnCo2O4 structure is assembled by numerous 1D MnCo2O4 nanoneedles, which are formed by numerous interconnected MnCo2O4 nanoparticles with grain diameter of ∼10 nm. The MnCo2O4 electrode exhibits high specific capacitance of 1535 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and good rate capability (950 F g-1 at 10 A g-1) in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. An asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using MnCo2O4 NNs on Ni foam (MnCo2O4 NNs/NF) as the positive electrode and graphene/NF as the negative electrode. The device shows an operation voltage of 1.5 V and delivers a high energy density of ∼60.4 Wh kg-1 at a power density of ∼375 W kg-1. Moreover, the device exhibits an excellent cycling stability of 94.3% capacitance retention after 12000 cycles at 30 A g-1. This work demonstrates that hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 NNs could be a promising electrode for the high performance energy storage devices.

  15. 水杨酸对冷藏板栗贮藏效果的影响%Storage effects of salicylic acid on post-harvest chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶利民; 徐芬芬

    2011-01-01

    Effects of physiological and biochemical changes of the post-harvest chestnut fruit were studied with different concentrations of salicylic acid to dipping fruit at different times during storage. Main results were as follows: salicylic acid treatment could inhibit respiration rate of the chestnut during storage,delay the arrival of climacteric. Salicylic acid could inhibit the decreasing of the vitamin C content and the starch content. In addition, salicylic acid treatment decreased chestnut rot rate and weight loss rate.The best treatment condition by salicylic acid was O. 5 g/L for 10 min.%以不同浓度水杨酸、不同浸果时间研究水杨酸对板栗果实冷藏效果的影响.结果表明:水杨酸可抑制贮藏期间栗果呼吸强度,推迟呼吸跃变的到来;还可抑制VC含量和淀粉含量;水杨酸处理后栗果腐烂率和质量损失率均降低.最佳处理方式为0.5 g/L水杨酸浸果10 min.

  16. 野生板栗资源开发利用技术探讨%TECHNICAL STUDIES ON DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF WILD CHINESE CHESTNUT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马朝阳; 胡继周; 车明轩

    2001-01-01

    In order to explore the wild Chinese chestnut in mountainous areas in Chengxian county, the Chengxian Planning Committee assigned a project of “Technical Demonstration of high-level grafting with well-bred species on Wild Chinese Chestnut” to achieve the goal of development with means of well-bred species, intensive management and industrialization of Chinese chestnut production. With co-operation of relevant organizations and the project grop in three years, three demonstration bases of high-level grafting and low-yield-garden improvement of Chinese chestnut have been build. Tests on some technical aspects necessary to the project were done.%为了开发利用甘肃省成县山区的野生板栗资源,实现板栗生产的良种化、集约化和产业化发展目标,经3年的研究,进行野生板栗高接、换优实验技术与生产示范。

  17. Analyse of Browning Factors during the Process of Chinese Chestnut%板栗加工过程中褐变因素的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建暖

    2014-01-01

    The browning and factors including different peeling methods,heating time,heating temperature,pH of water and storage time during the process of Chinese chestnut were studied. The results showed that the peeling and heating were the main factors of browning chestnut. Chestnut browning could be controlled by reducing the heating temperature,shortening the heating time and changing pH of the water.%试验研究了板栗(Castanea mollissima)加工过程中的褐变及不同去皮方法、加热时间、温度和水的pH及贮藏时间等影响因素。结果表明,加工中的去皮、加热是影响褐变的主要因素,可通过降低加热温度、缩短加热时间及调整水的pH抑制褐变的发生。

  18. 全自动栗子高速划口机设计%Design on Automatic High-speed Shell-cutting Machine for Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张聪

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type automatic high-speed shell-cutting machine for chestnut by o-riginal design. The machine is consisted of load plates, pressing mechanism, cutting mechanism and transmission system etc. When the machine is running, chestnuts are positioned conveyor, pressing clamp and continuous cutting. Chestnut shell-cutting is evenly, with adjustable depth. The machine design and test speed of up to 12500 - 15000A/ h ( single channel ).%介绍一套原创性设计的新型全自动栗子高速划口机.机器主要由载料模板、压合机构、切割机构及传动系统等组成,使栗子实现定位输送、压合夹持、连续切割,确保栗子表皮划口均匀、深度可调.机器设计及试验速度可达12500~ 15000个/h(单通道).

  19. On the neighbourhoods of trees

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Tree rearrangement operations typically induce a metric on the space of phylogenetic trees. One important property of these metrics is the size of the neighbourhood, that is, the number of trees exactly one operation from a given tree. We present an expression for the size of the TBR (tree bisection and reconnection) neighbourhood, thus answering a question first posed in [Annals of Combinatorics, 5, 2001 1-15].

  20. The inference of gene trees with species trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöllősi, Gergely J; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent; Boussau, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the various models that have been used to describe the relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular phylogeny has focused mainly on improving models for the reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alignments. Yet, most phylogeneticists seek to reveal the history of species. Although the histories of genes and species are tightly linked, they are seldom identical, because genes duplicate, are lost or horizontally transferred, and because alleles can coexist in populations for periods that may span several speciation events. Building models describing the relationship between gene and species trees can thus improve the reconstruction of gene trees when a species tree is known, and vice versa. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the problem in one direction or the other, but in general neither gene trees nor species trees are known. Only a few studies have attempted to jointly infer gene trees and species trees. These models account for gene duplication and loss, transfer or incomplete lineage sorting. Some of them consider several types of events together, but none exists currently that considers the full repertoire of processes that generate gene trees along the species tree. Simulations as well as empirical studies on genomic data show that combining gene tree-species tree models with models of sequence evolution improves gene tree reconstruction. In turn, these better gene trees provide a more reliable basis for studying genome evolution or reconstructing ancestral chromosomes and ancestral gene sequences. We predict that gene tree-species tree methods that can deal with genomic data sets will be instrumental to advancing our understanding of genomic evolution.

  1. Covering R-trees

    CERN Document Server

    Berestovskii, V N

    2007-01-01

    We show that every inner metric space X is the metric quotient of a complete R-tree via a free isometric action, which we call the covering R-tree of X. The quotient mapping is a weak submetry (hence, open) and light. In the case of compact 1-dimensional geodesic space X, the free isometric action is via a subgroup of the fundamental group of X. In particular, the Sierpin'ski gasket and carpet, and the Menger sponge all have the same covering R-tree, which is complete and has at each point valency equal to the continuum. This latter R-tree is of particular interest because it is "universal" in at least two senses: First, every R-tree of valency at most the continuum can be isometrically embedded in it. Second, every Peano continuum is the image of it via an open light mapping. We provide a sketch of our previous construction of the uniform universal cover in the special case of inner metric spaces, the properties of which are used in the proof.

  2. Reinforcement Learning Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruoqing; Zeng, Donglin; Kosorok, Michael R

    In this paper, we introduce a new type of tree-based method, reinforcement learning trees (RLT), which exhibits significantly improved performance over traditional methods such as random forests (Breiman, 2001) under high-dimensional settings. The innovations are three-fold. First, the new method implements reinforcement learning at each selection of a splitting variable during the tree construction processes. By splitting on the variable that brings the greatest future improvement in later splits, rather than choosing the one with largest marginal effect from the immediate split, the constructed tree utilizes the available samples in a more efficient way. Moreover, such an approach enables linear combination cuts at little extra computational cost. Second, we propose a variable muting procedure that progressively eliminates noise variables during the construction of each individual tree. The muting procedure also takes advantage of reinforcement learning and prevents noise variables from being considered in the search for splitting rules, so that towards terminal nodes, where the sample size is small, the splitting rules are still constructed from only strong variables. Last, we investigate asymptotic properties of the proposed method under basic assumptions and discuss rationale in general settings.

  3. Steiner trees in industry

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ding-Zhu

    2001-01-01

    This book is a collection of articles studying various Steiner tree prob­ lems with applications in industries, such as the design of electronic cir­ cuits, computer networking, telecommunication, and perfect phylogeny. The Steiner tree problem was initiated in the Euclidean plane. Given a set of points in the Euclidean plane, the shortest network interconnect­ ing the points in the set is called the Steiner minimum tree. The Steiner minimum tree may contain some vertices which are not the given points. Those vertices are called Steiner points while the given points are called terminals. The shortest network for three terminals was first studied by Fermat (1601-1665). Fermat proposed the problem of finding a point to minimize the total distance from it to three terminals in the Euclidean plane. The direct generalization is to find a point to minimize the total distance from it to n terminals, which is still called the Fermat problem today. The Steiner minimum tree problem is an indirect generalization. Sch...

  4. Odds-On Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Prosenjit; Douieb, Karim; Dujmovic, Vida; King, James; Morin, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Let R^d -> A be a query problem over R^d for which there exists a data structure S that can compute P(q) in O(log n) time for any query point q in R^d. Let D be a probability measure over R^d representing a distribution of queries. We describe a data structure called the odds-on tree, of size O(n^\\epsilon) that can be used as a filter that quickly computes P(q) for some query values q in R^d and relies on S for the remaining queries. With an odds-on tree, the expected query time for a point drawn according to D is O(H*+1), where H* is a lower-bound on the expected cost of any linear decision tree that solves P. Odds-on trees have a number of applications, including distribution-sensitive data structures for point location in 2-d, point-in-polytope testing in d dimensions, ray shooting in simple polygons, ray shooting in polytopes, nearest-neighbour queries in R^d, point-location in arrangements of hyperplanes in R^d, and many other geometric searching problems that can be solved in the linear-decision tree mo...

  5. Factors Affecting Browning of Cooked Chestnut Kernel%影响熟化板栗褐变的因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    綦菁华; 王芳; 庞美霞; 黄漫青; 赵琛琛

    2009-01-01

    板栗在熟化加工过程中易产生非酶褐变,本文针对板栗自身原料有关成分及部分加工条件对板栗熟化后褐变的影响进行了研究,探讨影响熟化板栗褐变的因素.研究结果表明:板栗非酶褐变前后蛋白质平均减少了30.34%、还原糖平均减少了38.44%、维生素C平均减少了85.81%;表明美拉德反应和抗坏血酸氧化是板栗熟化过程发生非酶褐变的主要原因.另外,在pH,NaCl,蔗糖三个加工条件研究中,pH对板栗褐变影响较大,pH为3.0、4.0、5.0的溶液对熟化板栗有较好的抑制褐变的效果,而NaCl,蔗糖的抑制作用不显著.%Non - enzymatic browning often occurs in the processing of cooked chestnut kernel. Chemical components of chestnut kernel before and after the processing and factors related to the processing conditions have been studied in this work in order to control the browning. Results; After the non - enzymatic browning in processing the protein content of the cooked chestnut kernel decreases by 30.34% , reduced sugar content decreases by 38.44% and Vitamin C content decreases by 85.81%. Therefore, Maillard reaction and Vitamin C oxidation are the main reactions resulting in the browning of cooked chestnut kernel. In addition, among three processing condition factors, i. e. , pH value, sucrose, and sodium chlorine, the influence of pH to the browning is significant, while sucrose and sodium chlorine have no effects. Solution with pH of 3, 4, or 5 displays rather good effects of inhibiting the browning of cooked chestnut kernel.

  6. Study on the Technology for Flaky Pastry Processed by Chestnut and Beandregs%板栗豆渣酥饼的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗松明

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the technology concluding the preprocession for chestnut and the usage of bean dregs in the crust or stuffing was studied, for good sensory quality of flaky pastry processed by chestnut and beandregs. The result shows that chestnut roasted with sugar in heated sand would keep inherent flavors more than chestnut cooked in water. If the ratio of the addition of wheat flour and bean dregs in the water-You-Pi dough is 10∶1.5, the ratio of the addition of chestnut and bean dregs in the stuffing of the flaky pastry is 7∶3, the ratio of the crust and the stuffing is 3∶7, the flaky pastry would have a good quality and high nutritional value with more dietary fiber and protein content than the common flaky pastry.%以板栗、豆渣、调和油为主要原料,探讨了板栗作为饼馅的处理方法,豆渣在酥饼饼皮和饼馅中的用量等因素对板栗豆渣酥饼的感官品质的影响。试验结果表明,糖炒板栗的方法比水煮熟化的方法更能体现板栗固有风味;在饼皮的水油皮面团的小麦粉和豆渣的用量比例为10∶1.5,饼馅中的板栗和豆渣的用量比例为7∶3,酥饼的皮馅比为3∶7条件下生产的酥饼质量较好;其膳食纤维和蛋白质的含量比普通酥饼要高些,具有较高的营养价值。

  7. Visualization of Uncertain Contour Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Contour trees can represent the topology of large volume data sets in a relatively compact, discrete data structure. However, the resulting trees often contain many thousands of nodes; thus, many graph drawing techniques fail to produce satisfactory results. Therefore, several visualization methods...... were proposed recently for the visualization of contour trees. Unfortunately, none of these techniques is able to handle uncertain contour trees although any uncertainty of the volume data inevitably results in partially uncertain contour trees. In this work, we visualize uncertain contour trees...... by combining the contour trees of two morphologically filtered versions of a volume data set, which represent the range of uncertainty. These two contour trees are combined and visualized within a single image such that a range of potential contour trees is represented by the resulting visualization. Thus...

  8. Active flows on trees

    CERN Document Server

    Forrow, Aden; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection interacts with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks and find good agreement with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages $\\sim 1/4$ the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macrosco...

  9. Generic Ising trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur Jøgvan; Napolitano, George Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove that they......The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove...... that they exhibit no spontaneous magnetization. Furthermore, the values of the Hausdorff and spectral dimensions of the underlying trees are calculated and found to be, respectively,¯dh =2 and¯ds = 4/3....

  10. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  11. The gene tree delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John

    2016-01-01

    Higher-level relationships among placental mammals are mostly resolved, but several polytomies remain contentious. Song et al. (2012) claimed to have resolved three of these using shortcut coalescence methods (MP-EST, STAR) and further concluded that these methods, which assume no within-locus recombination, are required to unravel deep-level phylogenetic problems that have stymied concatenation. Here, we reanalyze Song et al.'s (2012) data and leverage these re-analyses to explore key issues in systematics including the recombination ratchet, gene tree stoichiometry, the proportion of gene tree incongruence that results from deep coalescence versus other factors, and simulations that compare the performance of coalescence and concatenation methods in species tree estimation. Song et al. (2012) reported an average locus length of 3.1 kb for the 447 protein-coding genes in their phylogenomic dataset, but the true mean length of these loci (start codon to stop codon) is 139.6 kb. Empirical estimates of recombination breakpoints in primates, coupled with consideration of the recombination ratchet, suggest that individual coalescence genes (c-genes) approach ∼12 bp or less for Song et al.'s (2012) dataset, three to four orders of magnitude shorter than the c-genes reported by these authors. This result has general implications for the application of coalescence methods in species tree estimation. We contend that it is illogical to apply coalescence methods to complete protein-coding sequences. Such analyses amalgamate c-genes with different evolutionary histories (i.e., exons separated by >100,000 bp), distort true gene tree stoichiometry that is required for accurate species tree inference, and contradict the central rationale for applying coalescence methods to difficult phylogenetic problems. In addition, Song et al.'s (2012) dataset of 447 genes includes 21 loci with switched taxonomic names, eight duplicated loci, 26 loci with non-homologous sequences that are

  12. Error-tolerant Tree Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Oflazer, K

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient algorithm for retrieving from a database of trees, all trees that match a given query tree approximately, that is, within a certain error tolerance. It has natural language processing applications in searching for matches in example-based translation systems, and retrieval from lexical databases containing entries of complex feature structures. The algorithm has been implemented on SparcStations, and for large randomly generated synthetic tree databases (some having tens of thousands of trees) it can associatively search for trees with a small error, in a matter of tenths of a second to few seconds.

  13. A Suffix Tree Or Not a Suffix Tree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starikovskaya, Tatiana; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the structure of suffix trees. Given an unlabeled tree r on n nodes and suffix links of its internal nodes, we ask the question “Is r a suffix tree?”, i.e., is there a string S whose suffix tree has the same topological structure as r? We place no restrictions on S, in part......In this paper we study the structure of suffix trees. Given an unlabeled tree r on n nodes and suffix links of its internal nodes, we ask the question “Is r a suffix tree?”, i.e., is there a string S whose suffix tree has the same topological structure as r? We place no restrictions on S...

  14. Tree-ring growth and wood chemistry response to manipulated precipitation variation for two temperate Quercus species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Rebekah J. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Kaye, Margot W. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Abrams, Marc D. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship among ambient and manipulated precipitation, wood chemistry, and their relationship with radial growth for two oak species in eastern Tennessee. The study took place on the Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment (TDE) site, located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, TN. Two dominant species, white oak (Quercus alba) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), were selected for study from a 13-year experiment of whole-stand precipitation manipulation (wet, ambient and dry). The relationships between tree-ring width and climate were compared for both species to determine the impact of precipitation manipulations on ring width index. This study used experimental spectroscopy techniques to measure the sensitivity of tree-ring responses to directional changes in precipitation over 13 years, and the results suggest that oaks at this study site are resilient to imposed changes, but sensitive to inter-annual variations in climate. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) allowed us to measure nutrient intensities (similar to element concentrations) at 0.5-1.0 mm spacing along the radial growth axis of trees growing in the wet, ambient, and dry treatment sites. A difference in stemwood nutrient levels was observed between the two oak species and among the three treatments. Significant variation in element intensity was observed across treatments for some elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, N and P) suggesting the potential for long-term impacts on growth under a changing climate regimes for southeastern oaks.

  15. Cloning Ancient Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    west of Tiananmen Square in Beijing, in Zhongshan Park, there stand several ancient cypress trees, each more than 1,000 years old. Their leafy crowns are all more than 20 meters high, while four have trunks that are 6 meters in circumference. The most unique of these

  16. Certified Kruskal's Tree Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Sternagel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first formalization of Kurskal's tree theorem in aproof assistant. The Isabelle/HOL development is along the lines of Nash-Williams' original minimal bad sequence argument for proving the treetheorem. Along the way, proofs of Dickson's lemma and Higman's lemma, as well as some technical details of the formalization are discussed.

  17. Multiscale singularity trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Johansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We propose MultiScale Singularity Trees (MSSTs) as a structure to represent images, and we propose an algorithm for image comparison based on comparing MSSTs. The algorithm is tested on 3 public image databases and compared to 2 state-of-theart methods. We conclude that the computational complexity...

  18. Portraits of Tree Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balgooy, van M.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    With the publication of the second volume of the series ‘Malesian Seed Plants’, entitled ‘Portraits of Tree Families’, I would like to refer to the Introduction of the first volume, ‘Spot-characters’ for a historical background and an explanation of the aims of this series. The present book treats 1

  19. The TS-Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira; Krieger, Ralph; Afschari, Farzad;

    2008-01-01

    Continuous growth in sensor data and other temporal data increases the importance of retrieval and similarity search in time series data. Efficient time series query processing is crucial for interactive applications. Existing multidimensional indexes like the R-tree provide efficient querying fo...

  20. Tree Formation Using Coordinate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Choudhary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are introducing a new method of tree formation, we propose a coordinate based method by which we can store and access tree structures. As we know in NLP, parsing is the most important module. The output of this module is generally parsed trees. Currently, TAG (Tree Adjoining Grammar is widely used grammar due to its linguistic and formal nature. It is simply tree generating system. The unit structure used in TAG is structured trees. So we used our new method to store trees where we worked on English to Hindi language. We worked on different sentences from English to Hindi, our method is the easiest way to manipulate tree. We have implemented within small corpus and for finite number of structures and further can be extended in future.

  1. Visual perception of tree forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muederrisoglu, Haldun; Eroglu, Engin; OEzkan, Suekran; Ak, Kivanc [Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Forestry, Abant Izzet Baysal University, 81000, Duzce (Turkey)

    2006-06-15

    This study, made in the cities of Adapazari, Duzce, and Bolu, has three fundamental goals. The first one is the evaluation of visual quality and strength of each tree form, second is the determination of visual quality and strength of different tree forms next to each other, and the third goal of this study is determining the effects of personal characteristics to the perception of tree forms. To reach these three goals the semantic differential method was used to evaluate graphical visions of tree forms. According to the findings, trees with pyramid forms have the most effective visual quality and strength. Pyramid-formed tree combinations have higher visual quality and strength than mixed combinations do. At the same time personal characteristics are effective on the visual perception of tree forms. A strong relationship between the amount of area per person in the cities the participants live in and their visual perception of tree forms has been found. (author)

  2. Tree Transduction Tools for Cdec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Matthews

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a collection of open source tools for learning tree-to-string and tree-to-tree transducers and the extensions to the cdec decoder that enable translation with these. Our modular, easy-to-extend tools extract rules from trees or forests aligned to strings and trees subject to different structural constraints. A fast, multithreaded implementation of the Cohn and Blunsom (2009 model for extracting compact tree-to-string rules is also included. The implementation of the tree composition algorithm used by cdec is described, and translation quality and decoding time results are presented. Our experimental results add to the body of evidence suggesting that tree transducers are a compelling option for translation, particularly when decoding speed and translation model size are important.

  3. An oxidative burst of superoxide in embryonic axes of recalcitrant sweet chestnut seeds as induced by excision and desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Thomas; Ivanova, Mariyana; Beckett, Richard P; Minibayeva, Farida V; Green, Ian; Pritchard, Hugh W; Kranner, Ilse

    2008-06-01

    Recalcitrant seeds are intolerant of desiccation and cannot be stored in conventional seed banks. Cryopreservation allows storage of the germplasm of some recalcitrant seeded species, but application to a wide range of plant diversity is still limited. The present work aimed at understanding the stresses that accompany the first steps in cryopreservation protocols, wounding and desiccation, both of which are likely to lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Extracellular ROS production was studied in isolated embryonic axes of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa). Axis excision was accompanied by a burst of superoxide (O(2)(*-)), demonstrated by a colorimetric assay using epinephrine, electron spin resonance and staining with nitroblue tetrazolium. Superoxide was immediately produced on the cut surface after isolation of the axis from the seed, with an initial 'burst' in the first 5 min. Isolated axes subjected to variable levels of desiccation stress showed a decrease in viability and vigour and increased electrolyte leakage, indicative of impaired membrane integrity. The pattern of O(2)(*-) production showed a typical Gaussian pattern in response to increasing desiccation stress. The results indicate a complex interaction between excision and subsequent drying and are discussed with a view of manipulating ROS production for optimisation of cryopreservation protocols.

  4. Purification and in vitro chaperone activity of a class I small heat-shock protein abundant in recalcitrant chestnut seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collada, C; Gomez, L; Casado, R; Aragoncillo, C

    1997-09-01

    A 20-kD protein has been purified from cotyledons of recalcitrant (desiccation-sensitive) chestnut (Castanea sativa) seeds, where it accumulates at levels comparable to those of major seed storage proteins. This protein, termed Cs smHSP 1, forms homododecameric complexes under nondenaturing conditions and appears to be homologous to cytosolic class I small heat-shock proteins (smHSPs) from plant sources. In vitro evidence has been obtained that the isolated protein can function as a molecular chaperone; it increases, at stoichiometric levels, the renaturation yields of chemically denatured citrate synthase and also prevents the irreversible thermal inactivation of this enzyme. Although a role in desiccation tolerance has been hypothesized for seed smHSPs, this does not seem to be the case for Cs smHSP 1. We have investigated the presence of immunologically related proteins in orthodox and recalcitrant seeds of 13 woody species. Our results indicate that the presence of Cs smHSP 1-like proteins, even at high levels, is not enough to confer desiccation tolerance, and that the amount of these proteins does not furnish a reliable criterion to identify desiccation-sensitive seeds. Additional proteins or mechanisms appear necessary to keep the viability of orthodox seeds upon shedding.

  5. Soil DNA pyrosequencing and fruitbody surveys reveal contrasting diversity for various fungal ecological guilds in chestnut orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Paula; Reis, Francisca; Pereira, Eric; Tavares, Rui M; Santos, Pedro M; Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André; Lino-Neto, Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Fungal diversity in Mediterranean forest soils is poorly documented, particularly when considering saprobic and pathogenic organisms. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods applied to soil fungi provide the opportunity to unveil the most inconspicuous functional guilds (e.g. saprobes) and life forms (e.g. Corticiaceae) of this tremendous diversity. We used fruitbody surveys over 2 years and soil 454 metabarcoding in Castanea sativa orchards to evaluate respectively the reproductive (fruitbodies) and vegetative (mycelia) parts of fungal communities in three 100-year-old stands. Analysis of 839 fruitbodies and 210 291 ITS1 reads revealed high fungal diversity, mainly shown by belowground analysis, with high (dominant) abundance of mycorrhizal fruitbodies and reads. Both methods displayed contrasted composition and structure of fungal communities, with Basidio- and Ascomycetes dominating above- and belowground, respectively. For the two dominant fungal guilds (i.e. ectomycorrhizal and saprobic), diversity above- and belowground overlapped weakly. This study is the first assessment of the complementarity of fruitbody surveys and NGS for analysing fungal diversity in Mediterranean ecosystems and shows that belowground methods still need to be completed by fruiting diversity to provide a comprehensive overview of the different fungal guilds. The results shed light on chestnut soil biodiversity and question the spatial distribution and synergies among fungal guilds.

  6. Influence of Na+, K+ and Ca2+ on mechanical and structural properties of gels from chestnut and rice flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Raymundo, A; Sousa, I

    2014-02-15

    The addition of salts to foodstuffs to improve the mechanical characteristics and thereby increasing sample strength has been widely studied in gels of model systems, however has been investigated to a lesser extent in complex systems, such as gluten-free flour gels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of cation concentration and ion valence of chloride salts (NaCl, KCl or CaCl2, 0-2%, w/w) on textural, rheological and microstructural properties of selected gluten-free flour gels from blends of chestnut flour and whole, Agulha or Carolino rice flours. Firmness increased in the presence of CaCl2. Storage and loss moduli increased slightly with the monovalent salts concentration, whereas a more pronounced rise was observed with the divalent salt addition. It was found that K(+) was more effective in modifying the rheology of studied gels than Na(+). Confocal microscopic images of gels revealed a microstructure consistent with the observed mechanical properties.

  7. Effects of chestnut tannins on the meat quality, welfare, and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huawei; Li, Ke; Mingbin, Lv; Zhao, Jinshan; Xiong, Benhai

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) on the meat quality, welfare and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs. Lambs in one group were raised at 20°C and fed a basal diet (N), and three other groups (32°C) were fed a basal diet with 0 (CT0), 5 (CT5), and 10 g (CT10) of CT/kg. Addition of CT increased the b* and L* values of meat and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in the serum and liver of heat-stressed lambs. The malondialdehyde concentration in meat, serum, and liver of heat-stressed lambs was decreased by dietary CT supplementation. Lambs in the CT0 group had higher cortisol, T3, and T4 levels, creatine kinase activity, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and a lower lymphocyte count than that in the N and CT10 groups. In conclusion, the addition of CT improved meat quality, certain stress parameters, and the antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs.

  8. A tangled tale of two teal: Population history of the grey Anas gracilis and chestnut teal a. castanea of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, L.; Adcock, G.J.; Linde, C.; Omland, K.E.; Heinsohn, R.; Terry, Chesser R.; Roshier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two Australian species of teal (Anseriformes: Anatidae: Anas), the grey teal Anas gracilis and the chestnut teal A. castanea, are remarkable for the zero or near-zero divergence recorded between them in earlier surveys of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. We confirmed this result through wider geographical and population sampling as well as nucleotide sampling in the more rapidly evolving mtDNA control region. Any data set where two species share polymorphism as is the case here can be explained by a model of gene flow through hybridization on one hand or by incomplete lineage sorting on the other hand. Ideally, analysis of such shared polymorphism would simultaneously estimate the likelihood of both phenomena. To do this, we used the underlying principle of the IMa package to explore ramifications to understanding population histories of A. gracilis and A. castanea. We cannot reject that hybridization occurs between the two species but an equally or more plausible finding for their nearly zero divergence is incomplete sorting following very recent divergence between the two, probably in the mid-late Pleistocene. Our data add to studies that explore intermediate stages in the evolution of reciprocal monophyly and paraphyletic or polyphyletic relationships in mtDNA diversity among widespread Australian birds. ?? 2009 J. Avian Biol.

  9. Pathway Analysis and Metabolites Identification by Metabolomics of Etiolation Substrate from Fresh-Cut Chinese Water Chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xiao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fresh-cut Chinese water chestnuts (CWC turn yellow after being peeled, reducing their shelf life and commercial value. Metabolomics, the systematic study of the full complement of small molecular metabolites, was useful for clarifying the mechanism of fresh-cut CWC etiolation and developing methods to inhibit yellowing. In this study, metabolic alterations associated with etiolation at different growth stages (0 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days from fresh-cut CWC were investigated using LC–MS and analyzed by pattern recognition methods (principal component analysis (PCA, partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. The metabolic pathways of the etiolation molecules were elucidated. The main metabolic pathway appears to be the conversion of phenylalanine to p-coumaroyl-CoA, followed by conversion to naringenin chalcone, to naringenin, and naringenin then following different pathways. Firstly, it can transform into apigenin and its derivatives; secondly, it can produce eriodictyol and its derivatives; and thirdly it can produce dihydrokaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. The eriodictyol can be further transformed to luteolin, cyanidin, dihydroquercetin, dihydrotricetin, and others. This is the first reported use of metabolomics to study the metabolic pathways of the etiolation of fresh-cut CWC.

  10. Pathway Analysis and Metabolites Identification by Metabolomics of Etiolation Substrate from Fresh-Cut Chinese Water Chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Xiao; Pan, Yong-Gui; He, Feng-Ping; Yuan, Meng-Qi; Li, Shang-Bin

    2016-12-01

    Fresh-cut Chinese water chestnuts (CWC) turn yellow after being peeled, reducing their shelf life and commercial value. Metabolomics, the systematic study of the full complement of small molecular metabolites, was useful for clarifying the mechanism of fresh-cut CWC etiolation and developing methods to inhibit yellowing. In this study, metabolic alterations associated with etiolation at different growth stages (0 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days) from fresh-cut CWC were investigated using LC-MS and analyzed by pattern recognition methods (principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA)). The metabolic pathways of the etiolation molecules were elucidated. The main metabolic pathway appears to be the conversion of phenylalanine to p-coumaroyl-CoA, followed by conversion to naringenin chalcone, to naringenin, and naringenin then following different pathways. Firstly, it can transform into apigenin and its derivatives; secondly, it can produce eriodictyol and its derivatives; and thirdly it can produce dihydrokaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. The eriodictyol can be further transformed to luteolin, cyanidin, dihydroquercetin, dihydrotricetin, and others. This is the first reported use of metabolomics to study the metabolic pathways of the etiolation of fresh-cut CWC.

  11. Optimization of water curing for the preservation of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) and evaluation of microbial dynamics during process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Di Capua, Marika; Romano, Annalisa; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Chestnuts are very perishable fruits, whose quality may be compromised during postharvest handling. Damage can be caused both by insects and fungi. Water curing, a commonly used postharvest method, is based on soaking fruits in water typically for about one week. Factors that affect effectiveness of water curing have only been explained partially. A decrease in pH, likely imputable to a light fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria, may inhibit the growth of moulds. In this study a Lactobacillus pentosus strain was selected for its ability to inhibit fungi, and used as a starter culture during water curing. As second goal, a reduction of the environmental impact of the process was evaluated by using water that had been re-cycled from a previous curing treatment. Experiments were performed on pilot as well as on farm scale. In all trials, microbial dynamics were evaluated by means of a polyphasic approach including conventional and molecular-based analyses. According to results, the employment of an adjunct culture appears as a very promising opportunity. Even if no reduction in the duration of the process was achieved, waters exhibited a minor microbial complexity and fruits did not lose the natural lustre after the process.

  12. Rational therapy of chronic venous insufficiency – chances and limits of the therapeutic use of horse-chestnut seeds extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greeske Karin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods We report two clinical studies, one already published, performed in patients with early and advanced chronic venous insufficiency (CVI. In both, compression therapy and oral therapy with horse-chestnut seeds extracts (HCSE were compared to placebo. Results The published study in early CVI (Grade I showed HCSE and compression to be superior to placebo and to be equivalent to each other in reducing lower leg volume, a measure for oedema. In the study, in advanced CVI (Grade II and IIIa, compression appeared to be superior to placebo, whereas HCSE was not. HCSE fared better in Grade II than in Grade IIIa patients. These results are discussed in the light of data from an in vitro model, where HCSE has been able to close the intercellular gaps in the venular endothelium. Not fully specified factors lead to an opening of these gaps, resulting in oedema as well as in local coagulation and thrombosis. The subsequent inflammation keeps these gaps open and initiates and maintains a chronic disease process, which may be the starting point of CVI. Conclusion Due to its ability to close the venular endothelial gaps, HCSE seems to be a suitable and protecting therapy during the early stages of CVI. In later more severe stages compression therapy is indicated. Taking into account the observed negative impact of compression on quality of life, pharmacological CVI therapy should start early to avoid progress and to spare patients compression therapy.

  13. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....

  14. Biological Characters and Occurrence Conditions of a New Pest Tegra novaehollandiae viridinotata on Chestnut%板栗新害虫深褐拟叶螽生物学特性及发生条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练飞; 佘德松; 冯福娟

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to explore the occurrence conditions of Tegra novaehollandiae viridinotata on chestnut. [Method] Life history was observed by the combination of indoor-rearing and field observation, as well as the relationship between occurrence and surroundings in field. [Result] T.novaehollandiae viridinotata has one generation each year in Yunhe County, Zhejiang Province, and overwinters by laying eggs in chestnut trunk with diameter of 5.0 cm. Adults and the nymphs feed on Glochidion puberum leaves, adults damage trunks of young chestnut by oviposition. Nymphs hatch in early April, adults moult in last June and lay eggs in middle July. [Conclusion] T.novaehollandiae viridinotata could be controlled by eliminating shrubs such asGlochidion puberum., cutting the eggs in dormancy by an knife, spraying pesticides in middle April or June and July, coating stem in winter etc.

  15. Spanning trees crossing few barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asano, T.; Berg, M. de; Cheong, O.; Guibas, L.J.; Snoeyink, J.; Tamaki, H.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding low-cost spanning trees for sets of n points in the plane, where the cost of a spanning tree is defined as the total number of intersections of tree edges with a given set of m barriers. We obtain the following results: (i) if the barriers are possibly intersecting

  16. Rectilinear Full Steiner Tree Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariasen, Martin

    1999-01-01

    The fastest exact algorithm (in practice) for the rectilinear Steiner tree problem in the plane uses a two-phase scheme: First, a small but sufficient set of full Steiner trees (FSTs) is generated and then a Steiner minimum tree is constructed from this set by using simple backtrack search, dynamic...

  17. A Class of Graceful Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡洪; 苏耕; 杨继

    2000-01-01

    The present paper shows the coordinates of a tree and its vertices, defines a kind of Trees with Odd-Number Radiant Type (TONRT), deals with the gracefulness of TONRT by using the edge-moving theorem, and uses graceful TONRT to construct another class of graceful trees.

  18. Generalising tree traversals to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2015-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead. The resulting graph traversals avoid...

  19. Selecting Landscape Plants: Flowering Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012

    2009-01-01

    This publication helps the reader to select wisely among the many species and varieties of flowering trees available. The following are considerations that should be taken into account when choosing flowering trees for the home landscape: selections factors, environmental responses, availability and adaptability, and flowering tree descriptions.

  20. Junction trees of general graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofei WANG; Jianhua GUO

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we study the maximal prime subgraphs and their corresponding structure for any undirected graph.We introduce the notion of junction trees and investigate their structural characteristics,including junction properties,induced-subtree properties,running-intersection properties and maximum-weight spanning tree properties.Furthermore,the characters of leaves and edges on junction trees are discussed.

  1. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  2. Protecting Trees Means Protecting Ourselves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国虹; 张超

    2016-01-01

    As everyone knows,spring is a planting season.Every year people all over China go out to plant trees.Trees can make our environment more beautifully~①.Trees can stop wind from blowing the earth and sand away.They can also prevent soil from being washed away by wa-

  3. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben;

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoill...

  4. A suffix tree or not a suffix tree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starikovskaya, Tatiana; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the structure of suffix trees. Given an unlabeled tree τ on n nodes and suffix links of its internal nodes, we ask the question “Is τ a suffix tree?”, i.e., is there a string S whose suffix tree has the same topological structure as τ? We place no restrictions on S, in part......In this paper we study the structure of suffix trees. Given an unlabeled tree τ on n nodes and suffix links of its internal nodes, we ask the question “Is τ a suffix tree?”, i.e., is there a string S whose suffix tree has the same topological structure as τ? We place no restrictions on S......, in particular we do not require that S ends with a unique symbol. This corresponds to considering the more general definition of implicit or extended suffix trees. Such general suffix trees have many applications and are for example needed to allow efficient updates when suffix trees are built online. Deciding...

  5. Structura, diversitatea și starea de sănătate a vegetației urbane în București: un studiu de caz bazat pe aliniamente [Structure, diversity and health status of urban vegetation in Bucharest: a case study based on street tree alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea C.A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Street tree alignments are among the most common green spaces within urban areas. The aim of this study was to assess the interspecific variability and the degree of defoliation of the trees within street alignments situated along four of the most common boulevards from Bucharest, namely Kiseleff, Ştefan cel Mare, Virtuţii and Timişoara. The total evaluated distance was 17.6 km. 1621 trees were sampled and more than 30 taxa were recorded. Autochthonous species were more numerous, compared with the allochthonous ones, but the non-indigenous trees were better represented, mainly due to the large number of London plane tree, northern red oak and horse-chestnut. The most common autochthonous species were smallleaved lime, silver linden and narrow-leafed ash. Half of the species were large, reaching heights up to 25 m or more. All four boulevards were dominated by three species. Almost 80% of the trees were in good health and only 7% were almost dead. Several tree features in accordance with the conditions for establishment of future street tree alignments were discussed

  6. TREE SELECTING AND TREE RING MEASURING IN DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Akbulut

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendrochronology is a method of dating which makes use of the annual nature of tree growth. Dendrochronology may be divided into a number of subfields, each of which covers one or more aspects of the use of tree ring data: dendroclimatology, dendrogeomorphology, dendrohydrology, dendroecology, dendroarchaelogy, and dendrogylaciology. Basic of all form the analysis of the tree rings. The wood or tree rings can aid to dating past events about climatology, ecology, geology, hydrology. Dendrochronological studies are conducted either on increment cores or on discs. It may be seen abnormalities on tree rings during the measurement like that false rings, missing rings, reaction wood. Like that situation, increment cores must be extracted from four different sides of each tree and be studied as more as on tree.

  7. PoInTree: A Polar and Interactive Phylogenetic Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carreras Marco; Gianti Eleonora; Sartori Luca; Plyte Simon Edward; Isacchi Antonella; Bosotti Roberta

    2005-01-01

    PoInTree (Polar and Innteractive Tree) is an application that allows to build, visualize, and customize phylogenetic trees in a polar, interactive, and highly flexible view. It takes as input a FASTA file or multiple alignment formats. Phylogenetic tree calculation is based on a sequence distance method and utilizes the Neighbor Joining (NJ) algorithm. It also allows displaying precalculated trees of the major protein families based on Pfam classification. In PoInTree, nodes can be dynamically opened and closed and distances between genes are graphically represented.Tree root can be centered on a selected leaf. Text search mechanism, color-coding and labeling display are integrated. The visualizer can be connected to an Oracle database containing information on sequences and other biological data, helping to guide their interpretation within a given protein family across multiple species.The application is written in Borland Delphi and based on VCL Teechart Pro 6 graphical component (Steema software).

  8. 我国出口板栗的比较优势及其影响因素探讨%Analysis on Comparative Advantages and Influencing Factorsof Chinese Chestnuts Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆博; 刘俊昌

    2012-01-01

    本文在分析我国板果贸易格局的基础上,从价格、质量指数、国际市场占有率、贸易竞争指数和显示性对称比较优势指数等五个指标对我国出口板栗的比较优势进行评价,并运用引力模型对影响我国板栗比较优势的主要因素进行了实证分析。结果表明,我国出口板栗具有较强的比较优势,但是在质量水平上不具备竞争力;出口对象国的GDP、我国人口数、汇率和出口价格是板栗出口的主要影响因素。最后,就提高板栗的质量水平提出了相应的建议。%Based on the trade pattern of Chinese chestnuts, this paper analyz- es the comparative advantages of Chinese chestnuts from the price, quality index, international market share, trade competitiveness index and Revealed Symmetric comparative advantage index. Using gravity model, the paper analyzes the influ- encing factors of the comparative advantages of Chinese chestnuts. It finds that Chinese chestnuts export has strong comparative advantages, but the quality does not have international competitiveness; and GDP of export objects, the population of China, exchange rate, export price are the main factors influencing the export of Chinese chestnuts. Finally, the study puts forward corresponding suggestions to improve the quality of Chinese chestnuts.

  9. 超声生物显微镜在巩膜栗刺异物诊断中的应用%The application of ultrasound biomicroscopy on the early diagnosis of occult chestnut thorn foreign bodies in sclera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse the significance to the application of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in the early diagnosis of occult chestnut thorn foreign bodies in sclera.Methods Thirty-five eyes of 30 patients who were diagnosed as occult scleral chestnut thorn foreign bodies were retrospectively studied.UBM were used to diagnose suspicious scleral foreign bodies.Results Sixty foreign bodies were confirmed by UBM,58 chestnut thorn foreign bodies were removed by surgical operation,and the false positive rate was 3.5%.One patient with negnative-UBM developed conjuctival redness,and one chestnut thorn foreign bodies was removed by surgical operation,and the false negative rate was 1.8%.Conclusion Ultrasound biomicroscopy is helpful to early detection of occult scleral chestnut thorn foreign bodies,confirming the quantity of chestnut thorns,and is conductive to the intraoperative localization.%目的 分析超声生物显微镜(UBM)在隐匿性巩膜栗刺异物早期诊断中应用的意义.方法 回顾性分析本院2012年9月至2014年10月经UBM检查早期诊断隐匿性巩膜栗刺异物30例(35眼).结果 UBM检查发现异物60枚(35眼),手术摘出栗刺58枚(33眼),假阳性率3.5%.另有1眼UBM未见异物,但2周后出现红肿,手术探查摘出1枚异物,假阴性率1.8%.结论 UBM有助于早期发现隐匿性巩膜栗刺异物,明确栗刺数量,并有利于术中定位.

  10. Fringe trees, Crump-Mode-Jagers branching processes and $m$-ary search trees

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Cecilia; Janson, Svante

    2016-01-01

    This survey studies asymptotics of random fringe trees and extended fringe trees in random trees that can be constructed as family trees of a Crump-Mode-Jagers branching process, stopped at a suitable time. This includes random recursive trees, preferential attachment trees, fragmentation trees, binary search trees and (more generally) $m$-ary search trees, as well as some other classes of random trees. We begin with general results, mainly due to Aldous (1991) and Jagers and Nerman (1984). T...

  11. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-06

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  12. 板栗种子淀粉体发育的扫描电镜观察%Observation of amyloplast development in chestnut seed by scanning electron microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘帅; 陈良珂; 房克凤; 杨瑞; 邢宇; 曹庆芹; 秦岭

    2015-01-01

    In order to get the growth law of the Chinese chestnut seed amyloid, the chestnut seeds at different development stages were used as the experiment materials. The size, shape and development condition of amyloid features were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Results show that the aleurone layer cells have no amyloid and accumulation of starch. The amyloid mainly concentrates in the cotyledons. The chestnut seeds contain two kinds of amyliod:the large are pebble and the small are round. The large amyloid is the main kind, and its spatial arrangement is close. In addition, the amyliod has other forms in chestnut seeds, such as polyhedral, spherical, kidney, and complex form. The volume of large amyloid changes obviously in the prophase and metaphase stages in chestnut seeds. The small amyloplast proliferation mainly occurres in middle and late stages of seed growth, and distributes in clearance of large amyloid. As the chestnut seed develops, the volume of amyloid gradually increases, and the growth change of long axis and short axis shows “S” type in the growing curves.%为了探明板栗种子淀粉体生长的规律,以不同发育时期的板栗种子为试验材料,对淀粉体的大小、形态和发育情况等特性进行扫描电镜观察。结果表明:板栗糊粉层细胞中无淀粉体,不积累淀粉,淀粉体主要集中在子叶中;板栗种子有大、小两种淀粉体,大淀粉体呈鹅卵石形,小淀粉体呈圆球形;板栗种子以大淀粉体为主,空间排布较为紧密,此外,板栗淀粉体具有多面体形、球形、肾形、复合形等形态;板栗大淀粉体在种子发育前期和中期体积变化比较明显,而小淀粉体分布于大淀粉体的间隙中,增殖主要发生在种子发育中期和后期;淀粉体体积随发育天数的增加逐渐增大,长轴和短轴增长的变化呈“S”型生长曲线。

  13. Fault-Tree Compiler Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Martensen, Anna L.

    1992-01-01

    FTC, Fault-Tree Compiler program, is reliability-analysis software tool used to calculate probability of top event of fault tree. Five different types of gates allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language of FTC easy to understand and use. Program supports hierarchical fault-tree-definition feature simplifying process of description of tree and reduces execution time. Solution technique implemented in FORTRAN, and user interface in Pascal. Written to run on DEC VAX computer operating under VMS operating system.

  14. Effect of brine preservation on volatile profiles of chestnut flowers%盐水保存对板栗花挥发性香气成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宾; 崔亚辉; 徐芳; 欧阳杰

    2014-01-01

    板栗花是板栗的雄性花序,香味柔和,含有多种芳香性成分,但由于板栗的雌雄花比例悬殊,大部分雄花被废弃。为了实现对板栗花的深度开发利用,以河北迁西4个品种(早丰、燕龙、紫珀和燕魁)的板栗雄花为原料,采用同时蒸馏萃取-气质联用法( SDE-GC/MS)提取了鲜花以及用盐水保存6个月的板栗花中的挥发油,并对其香气成分进行定性分析。结果表明,鲜板栗花挥发油中含有35种挥发性成分,盐水保存的板栗花挥发油中含有20种挥发性成分,但是两者中主要挥发性香气物质均为α-甲基苯甲醇丙酸酯、壬醛、苯乙酮、芳樟醇,其相对百分含量相差较小,表明盐水保存对板栗花挥发性香气成分影响较小。%Chestnut flower is the male inflorescence of chestnut, which has sweet smell and contains a variety of fragrant compounds. Most of male flowers were discarded since the proportion of male to female flower was very high. In order to exploit chestnut flowers, the volatile aromatic components of four varieties of Chinese chestnut flower ( Zaofeng, Yanlong, Zipo and Yankui) , which were fresh or brine preserved for six months,were qualitatively identified by modified SDE-GC/MS. The results showed that the essential oil obtained from fresh chestnut flower contained 35 kinds of volatile components and the brine preserved one contained 20 kinds. However, the highest contents of volatiles in four varieties of fresh and brine preserved chestnut flowers were alpha-methyl-benzenemethanol, nonanal, acetophenone and linalool. The method of brine preservation had little effect on volatile profile of chestnut flower. The results provide foundation for further research and development of essential oil in chestnut flowers.

  15. 基于土壤液化原理的荸荠采收船的研究%Studies on Harvesting Ship of Water Chestnuts Based on Soil Liquefaction Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海峰§; 张士玺§; 闫一野; 陈号; 谢强

    2013-01-01

      荸荠的生长环境特殊,收获仍旧采用传统手工挖掘,劳动效率低,劳动强度大,难以挖净,而薯类收获机械又难以适应水田荸荠的收获,通过对荸荠生长地的土壤成分分析,基于土壤液化原理,搭建了小型实验平台,对荸荠挖掘机理进行了试验模拟。提出了一套适用于水田作物荸荠机械挖掘、筛分的流程,并对挖掘原理进行了实验探究。根据实验数据分析,获得了影响荸荠收获的主要因素。研究表明利用土壤液化原理可以使砂壤土液化,为该原理用于荸荠采收提供依据,为荸荠挖掘机样机的试制提供设计参考。%Water chestnut grows in a special environment,and its harvest still relies on the traditional manual mining. The labor efficiency is low, and labor intensity is big. It is difficult to dig net. When as, it is difficult for potato harvest machinery to adapt to the rice field to harvest water chestnut. By analyzing the composition of soil where water chestnut grows in, a small experimental platform was built to carry out a test simulation of the mechanism of water chestnut digging according to the principle of soil liquefaction. A set of process suitable for rice paddy crop water chestnut mechanical mining and screening was put forward, and the theory of digging was explored. According to the analysis of experimental data, the main factors affecting water chestnut harvest have been obtained. The research showed that sandy loam can be liquefied by using the principle of soil liquefaction. The study provided a basis for the principle used for water chestnut harvest and provided design reference for water chestnut excavator prototype trial.

  16. Effects of Tea Polyphenol on Calcification and Reactive Oxygen Metabolism of Chestnuts%茶多酚对板栗"石灰化"及活性氧代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖豪; 顾采琴; 张倩; 朱冬雪; 郑志茂; 邱浩纯

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨抗氧化剂茶多酚对板栗"石灰化"及活性氧代谢的影响.[方法]以新鲜板栗为试材,经2%、4%、6%茶多酚溶液处理后进行常温贮藏,测定贮藏过程中"石灰化"指数、超氧阴离子(O2)产生速率、过氧化氢(H202)含量、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性的变化以及膜脂过氧化产物(丙二醛,MDA)含量的变化.[结果]经2%茶多酚溶液处理的板栗"石灰化"指数受到显著抑制.进一步研究表明,2%茶多酚溶液处理能使板栗的SOD和CAT活性高于对照,而O2产生速率和H202积累量低于对照,减少MDA积累,从而抑制板栗过氧化作用.[结论]适宜浓度的茶多酚处理可降低板栗贮藏过程中的活性氧产生,抑制"石灰化"发生.%[Objective] The effects of antioxidant tea polyphenol on calcification and reactive oxygen species of fresh chestnuts were investigated. [Method] Fresh chestnuts treated with 2%, 4%, or 6% tea polyphenol solutions were stored under room temperature, and then calcification indexes, O2- production rate, H2O2 content, SOD and CAT activities and content of MDA(malondialdehyde) (a membrane lipid peroxidation product of chestnuts) during storage were detected. [Result] The calcification indexes of chestnuts were significantly inhibited the calcification index of chestnuts. Furthermore, SOD and CAT activities of chestnuts treated with 2% tea polyphenol were higher, while O2- production rate and H2O2 accumulation were lower as compared with chestnuts of control, indicating an inhibition of peroxidation with a lower MDA accumulation. [Conclusion]Treatment with tea polyphenol solution at a suitable concentration reduced active oxygen production and thus inhibited the calcification occurrence of chestnuts during storage.

  17. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  18. Source tree composition

    OpenAIRE

    Jonge, de, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Dividing software systems in components improves software reusability as well as software maintainability. Components live at several levels, we concentrate on the implementation level where components are formed by source files, divided over directory structures. Such source code components are usually strongly coupled in the directory structure of a software system. Their compilation is usually controlled by a single global build process. This entangling of source trees and build processes ...

  19. Pushdown machines for the macro tree transducer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1986-01-01

    The macro tree transducer can be considered as a system of recursive function procedures with parameters, where the recursion is on a tree (e.g., the syntax tree of a program). We investigate characterizations of the class of tree (tree-to-string) translations which is induced by macro tree transduc

  20. Tree Rings: Timekeepers of the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, R. L.; McGowan, J.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science issues, this booklet describes the uses of tree rings in historical and biological recordkeeping. Separate sections cover the following topics: dating of tree rings, dating with tree rings, tree ring formation, tree ring identification, sample collections, tree ring cross dating, tree…

  1. Effect of the supplementation linseed oil, inulin and horse chestnut into a high fat diet on the fatty acid profile of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Brestenský

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In the present study it was evaluated the effect of the addition of linseed oil, inulin and horse chestnut added to a high fat (HF diet on the content of fatty acids (FAs in musculuss longissimus dorsi (MLD of pigs. A 5d with adaptation period was followed by a 70 d experimental period, during which the pigs were fed with a HF basal diet. The HF basal diet which served as a control (group CG was supplemented either with linseed oil (group LG or with inulin and horse chestnut (group IG. All of the pigs were slaughtered at the end of the experiment and samples of MLD were taken for FA analysis. The concentration of α-linolenic acid in MLD of the LG group was 58 % and 61 % higher (P˂0.05 compared to CG and IG groups, respectively. The content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA was 0.03 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 0.07 in LG treatment. These FAs were not detected in CG and IG. The ratio of MUFA and PUFA n-6/n-3 in the MLD was the lowest (P˂0.05 in the LG (8.84 compared to CG (14.07 or IG (14.74 groups, representing a difference of 31.2%. The n-3/saturated FA ratio was highest (P˂0.05 in LG group (0.04 when compared to CG and IG groups (0.02. The supplementation of linseed oil, into the HF diet resulted in a higher concentration of α-linolenic acid, EPA, DHA and lower ratio of n-6/n-3 FA in MLD. Inulin and horse chestnut had no effect on FA profile of MLD.

  2. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

  3. Low dose γ-irradiation as a suitable solution for chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) conservation: effects on sugars, fatty acids, and tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-28

    Along with dehydration, the development of insects and microorganisms is the major drawback in chestnut conservation. Irradiation has been regaining interest as an alternative technology to increase food product shelf life. In the present work, the effects of low dose gamma irradiation on the sugar, fatty acid, and tocopherol composition of chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different storage periods (0, 30, and 60 days) was evaluated. The irradiations were performed in a 60Co experimental equipment, for 1 h (0.27±0.04 kGy) and 2 h (0.54±0.04 kGy). Changes in sugars and tocopherols were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index and fluorescence detections, respectively, while changes in fatty acids were analyzed by gas-chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection. Regarding sugar composition, storage time proved to have a higher effect than irradiation treatment. Fructose and glucose increased after storage, with the corresponding decrease of sucrose. Otherwise, the tocopherol content was lower in nonirradiated samples, without a significant influence of storage. Saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected, either by storage or irradiation. Nevertheless, some individual fatty acid concentrations were influenced by one of two factors, such as the increase of palmitic acid in irradiated samples or the decrease of oleic acid after 60 days of storage. Overall, the assayed irradiation doses seem to be a promising alternative treatment to increase chestnut shelf life, without affecting the profile and composition in important nutrients.

  4. Active flows on trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrow, Aden; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-11-01

    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection can interact with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks. Our analytical predictions agree well with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages 1 / 4 the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macroscopic response of active networks, from actin-myosin networks in cells to flow networks in Physarum polycephalum, can be dominated by a few select modes.

  5. Slim Sets of Binary Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Grünewald, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    A classical problem in phylogenetic tree analysis is to decide whether there is a phylogenetic tree $T$ that contains all information of a given collection $\\cP$ of phylogenetic trees. If the answer is "yes" we say that $\\cP$ is compatible and $T$ displays $\\cP$. This decision problem is NP-complete even if all input trees are quartets, that is binary trees with exactly four leaves. In this paper, we prove a sufficient condition for a set of binary phylogenetic trees to be compatible. That result is used to give a short and self-contained proof of the known characterization of quartet sets of minimal cardinality which are displayed by a unique phylogenetic tree.

  6. Making CSB + -Trees Processor Conscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performance...... of the CSB+-tree. We argue that it is necessary to consider a larger group of parameters in order to adapt CSB+-tree to processor architectures as different as Pentium and Itanium. We identify this group of parameters and study how it impacts the performance of CSB+-tree on Itanium 2. Finally, we propose...... a systematic method for adapting CSB+-tree to new platforms. This work is a first step towards integrating CSB+-tree in MySQL’s heap storage manager....

  7. 食品加工剩余物板栗壳的利用研究进展%Review on Utilization of Chestnut Shell Residue from Food Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚建华; 姚增玉; 王力华; 夏金虎

    2012-01-01

    为了更好地对食品加工剩余物板栗壳进行开发利用,促进节能减排,综述了国内外最近20年在板栗壳资源化利用方面的研究进展,发现现有研究涉及将板栗壳作为生物吸附剂用于重金属污水处理、作为基质用于食用菌栽培和作为原料用于活性炭制备,以及从中提取天然色素用于食品着色和纺织品印染等方面,但这些研究并不系统,今后还需对板栗壳色素进行安全性评价,补充其毒理学和代谢方面的数据.板栗壳对重金属的吸附量偏低,有待于进一步通过理化改性提高其吸附性能,提取过色素的板栗壳残渣可进一步作为原料用于制备活性炭,以达到循环利用.%In order to better exploit chestnut shells which are residues from food processing, and to promote energy conservation and pollution reduction, the domestic and foreign research progress on the utilization of chestnut shell resource in the last 20 years was reviewed. The informed researches involved employing the shells as biosorbents for heavy metal removal from waste water, as substrates for mushroom cultivation, and as a material for activated carbon preparation, as well as for natural pigment production to color foods and dye textiles. However, these studies were lack of systematicness and some further researches should be conducted in future studies. The information on the toxicology and metabolism of the chestnut shell pigments should be given to evaluate their safety. The sorption capacities towards heavy metals of chestnut shell were low, and chemical modifications were needed to improve their sorption performance. The residue after pigment extraction could be further used as a raw material for the activated carbon preparation in order to achieve recycling.

  8. 板栗苞中栲胶提取工艺的研究%Study on tannin extract from chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽卫; 孙健; 王岩; 赵兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective To obtain the optimum extraction parameters of tannin extract from chestnut shell. Methods Based on single-factor test, uniform experimental design with 4-factor and 3-level was adopted to study the effects ofparticle size, concentration of acetone solution, solid-liquid ratio and ultrasonic power on the extraction rate of tannin extract. Using partial least squares regression analysis, the optimal extraction parameters were obtained. Component of tannin extract was also analyzed by hide powder method.Results The optimum conditions of tannin extract from chestnut shell were as follows: particle size was 100 meshes, 50% acetone solution, solid-liquid ratio was 1:18 and ultrasonic power was 400 W. Under this condition, the extraction rate of tannin extract was 31.28%, the content of tannin was 63.68%, the pH value was 3.81 and the total color value was 22.Conclusion The tannin extract from chestnut shell has reached the standard of cold-soluble valonea extraction, which illustrated the feasibility of using chestnut shell as a kind of material for tannin extract.%目的:以板栗苞为原料,研究板栗苞提取栲胶的最佳工艺。方法在粉碎粒度、丙酮溶液浓度、料液比和超声功率单因素实验基础上,以栲胶提取率为响应值,设计4因素3水平的均匀实验,通过均匀设计偏最小二乘回归建模分析,得出最优指标时各个因素组合参数,并采用铬皮粉法对最优条件下提取的栲胶进行分析。结果板栗苞中栲胶提取的最佳工艺为:粉碎粒度100目,50%丙酮溶液,料液比1:18,超声功率400 W,在此条件下,栲胶提取率为31.28%,单宁含量为63.68%, pH值为3.81,总色值为22。结论以板栗苞为原料提椀取的栲胶达到了橡栲胶冷溶合格品的指标,说明板栗苞提取栲胶的工艺可行性。

  9. Groundwater quality assessment for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste- management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR), which is one of the three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division of the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP).

  10. Gene tree correction for reconciliation and species tree inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swenson Krister M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reconciliation is the commonly used method for inferring the evolutionary scenario for a gene family. It consists in “embedding” inferred gene trees into a known species tree, revealing the evolution of the gene family by duplications and losses. When a species tree is not known, a natural algorithmic problem is to infer a species tree from a set of gene trees, such that the corresponding reconciliation minimizes the number of duplications and/or losses. The main drawback of reconciliation is that the inferred evolutionary scenario is strongly dependent on the considered gene trees, as few misplaced leaves may lead to a completely different history, with significantly more duplications and losses. Results In this paper, we take advantage of certain gene trees’ properties in order to preprocess them for reconciliation or species tree inference. We flag certain duplication vertices of a gene tree, the “non-apparent duplication” (NAD vertices, as resulting from the misplacement of leaves. In the case of species tree inference, we develop a polynomial-time heuristic for removing the minimum number of species leading to a set of gene trees that exhibit no NAD vertices with respect to at least one species tree. In the case of reconciliation, we consider the optimization problem of removing the minimum number of leaves or species leading to a tree without any NAD vertex. We develop a polynomial-time algorithm that is exact for two special classes of gene trees, and show a good performance on simulated data sets in the general case.

  11. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  12. Life-threatening rupture of a renal angiomyolipoma in a patient taking over-the-counter horse chestnut seed extract.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Snow, Aisling

    2011-02-09

    BACKGROUND: Alternative medical therapies are increasingly being prescribed due to their good safety profile and perceived limited side effects. They are often unregulated and prescribed over the counter. One such medication is horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE), which is used for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and is known to affect blood coagulation. Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign fat-containing mesenchymal tumor of the kidney. It is often found incidentally and in most cases can be managed conservatively. Rupture of the kidney with hemorrhage is a well-known complication that may be serious and life-threatening. Known risk factors for hemorrhage include anticoagulation as well as pregnancy, increased size of the lesion, high lesion vascularity, and aneurysm formation within the tumor. OBJECTIVES: The aim is to raise awareness of potential HCSE-induced anticoagulation, including, as in the case presented, acute renal AML hemorrhage. CASE REPORT: The case of a patient taking HCSE for venous insufficiency is presented. The patient suffered a life-threatening rupture of the kidney in the presence of known renal AML. She underwent emergency embolization with a successful outcome. Because HCSE-containing products are thought to be generally safe in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, it is important to be mindful of their potential anticoagulant properties and, therefore, their relative contraindication both in patients taking other anticoagulants and those with known renal AML. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate a potentially life-threatening association between HSCE-containing products and renal AML, highlighting the risk associated with HSCE-induced anticoagulation.

  13. Effects of chestnut tannins and coconut oil on growth performance, methane emission, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Vaddella, V; Zhou, D

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) and coconut oil (CO) on growth performance, methane (CH₄) emission, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations in sheep. A total of 48 Rideau Arcott sheep (average body weight 31.5±1.97 kg, 16 wk old) were randomly assigned into 6 treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial design, with CT and CO as the main effects (8 sheep per group). The treatments were control diet (CTR), 10 or 30 g of CT/kg of diet (CT10 and CT30), 25 g of CO/kg of concentrate (CO25), and 10 or 30 g of CT/kg of diet+25 g of CO/kg of concentrate (CT10CO25 and CT30CO25). After the feeding trial (60 d), all sheep were moved to respiratory chambers to measure CH₄ emission. After CH₄ emission measurements, all sheep were slaughtered to obtain rumen fluid samples. Results showed that the addition of CT, CO, and CT+CO had no significant effects on growth performance of sheep but reduced CH₄ emission. Addition of CT reduced the NH₃-N concentration in rumen fluid in CT30. Addition of CO decreased the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in rumen fluid. No significant differences were observed in pH and molar proportion of volatile fatty acids among treatments. Addition of CT, CO, and CT+CO significantly decreased methanogen and protozoa populations. Moreover, CO decreased counts of Fibrobacter succinogenes. No significant differences were observed in populations of fungi, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, or Ruminococcus albus among treatments. In conclusion, supplementation of CT and CO seemed to be a feasible means of decreasing emissions of CH₄ from sheep by reduction of methanogen and protozoa populations with no negative effect on growth performance.

  14. Evaluation of Meat and Egg Traits of Beijing-you Chickens Rotationally Grazing on Chicory Pasture in a Chestnut Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Meng

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Barn and cage-fed chickens have presented several problems, such as high rates of infectious disease and consequent antibiotic abuse, poorer chicken health and welfare, and often poorer meat and egg quality compared with free-range chickens. The poultry agroforestry system is becoming increasingly popular in many poultry farms nowadays. In this study, to evaluate the contribution of poultry agroforestry system to enhance some meat and egg traits of Beijing-you chickens, some indexes of meat and egg qualities, some indexes of slaughter traits, and the feed conversion efficiency were investigated in rotational grazing Beijing-you chickens on chicory (Cichorium intybus L. pasture (CGRG group and only free-ranging chickens on bare land without forage (control group in chestnut forest. Results showed that the live body weight, the dressing weight, the thigh muscle weight, and the breast muscle weight were increased (p<0.05 based on the decrease of 15% feed concentration in the CGRG group relative to the control. Furthermore, compared with the control, the crude ash, the essential amino acid content, and the inosinic acid content were increased (p<0.05, and the crude fat contents were decreased (p<0.05 in the thigh and breast muscles, while the yolk cholesterol and the feed conversion ratio were significantly decreased (p<0.05 in the CGRG group. This study would provide a scientific basis and technological support for the large-scale demonstration and application of rotational grazing chickens on the artificial pasture in forest.

  15. Detection of a hypersensitive reaction in the chestnut hybrid 'Bouche de Bétizac' infested by Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Francesca; Sartor, Chiara; Botta, Roberto

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the study was the identification of the mechanisms of resistance to Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in the hybrid-resistant cultivar 'Bouche de Bétizac' (Castanea sativa × Castanea crenata). Larvae and eggs of the insect are found in the buds of this cultivar at the end of winter, but there is no gall development after budburst. The hypothesis of the presence of a hypersensitive reaction (HR) in the buds was tested using diaminobenzidine (DAB) to detect H(2)O(2) and by Real Time PCR (RT-PCR) to evaluate the expression of a germin-like protein gene. HR in plants is elicited by the production of reactive oxygen compounds, such as H(2)O(2), and results in the programmed cell death. The DAB test was applied to buds of 'Bouche de Bétizac' and of the susceptible cultivar 'Madonna' (C. sativa) at different stages of budburst. The DAB staining produced brown areas in the swelling buds of 'Bouche de Bétizac', indicating the presence of H(2)O(2). On the contrary, all uninfested buds, as well as the infested buds of 'Madonna', appeared whitish. Papers report that germin and germin-like proteins (GLP) with oxalate oxidase activity are discrete markers of stress-responsive gene products. A strong expression of the chestnut GLP gene was detected by RT-PCR at bud swelling in infested 'Bouche de Bétizac' buds but not in 'Madonna' ones. The results support the hypothesis of the occurrence of an HR in 'Bouche de Bétizac' as response to the cynipid infestation, resulting in cell and larvae death.

  16. Effects of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb from horse chestnuts on gastrointestinal transit and ileus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, H; Li, Y; Yoshikawa, M

    1999-08-01

    The effects of saponin fraction and its principal constituents escins Ia (1), Ib (2), IIa (3), and IIb (4) from horse chestnuts on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) and ileus were investigated in mice. Ileus was induced by acetic acid peritoneal irritation or by laparotomy with manipulation. One hour after the oral administration, the saponin fraction (12.5-100 mg/kg) and 14 (12.5-50 mg/ kg, except for 3 at 12.5 mg/kg) dose-dependently accelerated GIT. The optimal effects of the saponin fraction (25 mg/kg) occurred 5-240 min (applied intervals between the fraction and the charcoal meal) after the oral administration. The fraction (12.5-100 mg/ kg) and 1-4 (12.5-50 mg/kg, except for 1 and 2 at 12.5 mg/kg) dose-dependently prevented the inhibition of GIT induced by the acetic acid peritoneal irritation. They (12.5-100mg/kg) also dose-dependently prevented the inhibition of GIT induced by the laparotomy with manipulation. Desacylescins I (5) and II (6) (50 mg/kg) showed no such effects. These results demonstrated that the saponin fraction and 1-4 accelerated GIT and prevented the experimental ileus, and indicate that the 21, 22-acyl groups are essential for the accelerative effects of 1-4. The accelerations of GIT by 1-4 were completely abolished by the pretreatment with streptozotocin (100 mg/kg, iv), but not by the pretreatment with capsaicin (75 mg/kg in total, sc) or atropine (10 mg/kg, sc). These results imply that the sympathetic nervous system may be, but neither capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves nor the cholinergic mechanism, involved in the accelerations of GIT by escins 1-4.

  17. Tree plastic bark

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Arroyo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Tree plastic bark" consiste en la realización de una intervención artística en un entorno natural concreto, generando de esta manera un Site Specific(1). Como hace alusión Rosalind Krauss en sus reflexiones “La escultura en el campo expandido”(2), comenta que su origen esta claramente ligado con el concepto de monumentalidad. La escultura es un monumento, se crea para conmemorar algún hecho o personaje relevante y está realizada para una ubicación concreta. La investigación parte de la id...

  18. Save a Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    1999-10-01

    Starting in September 1925, JCE reproduced pictures of famous chemists or chemistry-related works of art as frontispieces. Often, the Journal included a biography or other article about the picture. The August 1945 frontispiece featured the largest cork oak in the United States. An accompanying article described the goals of the Cork Project to plant cork trees in suitable locations in the U.S., to compensate for uncertain European and African sources during World War II. The final frontispiece appeared in December 1956. To view supplementary material, please refer to JCE Online's supplementary links.

  19. The fault-tree compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martensen, Anna L.; Butler, Ricky W.

    1987-01-01

    The Fault Tree Compiler Program is a new reliability tool used to predict the top event probability for a fault tree. Five different gate types are allowed in the fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N gates. The high level input language is easy to understand and use when describing the system tree. In addition, the use of the hierarchical fault tree capability can simplify the tree description and decrease program execution time. The current solution technique provides an answer precise (within the limits of double precision floating point arithmetic) to the five digits in the answer. The user may vary one failure rate or failure probability over a range of values and plot the results for sensitivity analyses. The solution technique is implemented in FORTRAN; the remaining program code is implemented in Pascal. The program is written to run on a Digital Corporation VAX with the VMS operation system.

  20. New Explorations for Decision Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, the decision tree method is defined and used for finding the optimal solution of a Bayesian decision problem. And it is difficult to use the decision tree method to find the sub-optimal solution, not to mention to rank alternatives. This paper discusses how to use the decision tree method for the alternative selecting and ranking.A practical case study is given to illustrate the applicability.

  1. Antiamnesic effects of ethyl acetate fraction from chestnut (Castanea crenata var. dulcis) inner skin on Aβ(25-35)-induced cognitive deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hee-Rok; Jo, Yu Na; Jeong, Ji Hee; Jin, Dong Eun; Song, Byung Gi; Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Heo, Ho Jin

    2012-12-01

    To investigate neuronal cell protective effects of an ethyl acetate fraction from chestnut inner skin, in vitro assays, including 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were performed. Intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species resulting from hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) treatment of PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were present in the medium compared to PC12 cells treated with H(2)O(2) only. In a cell viability assay using MTT, the ethyl acetate fraction protected against H(2)O(2)-induced neurotoxicity, and inhibited LDH release into the medium. In addition, the ethyl acetate fraction improved in vivo cognitive ability against amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)-induced neuronal deficit. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses showed that gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin were predominant phenolics in the ethyl acetate fraction. Consequently, the results suggest that chestnut inner skin, including above phenolics, could ameliorate Aβ-induced learning and memory deficiency, and be utilized as effective substances for neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Castanea sativa (European Chestnut Leaf Extracts Rich in Ursene and Oleanene Derivatives Block Staphylococcus aureus Virulence and Pathogenesis without Detectable Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L Quave

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is home to a rich history of medical traditions that have developed under the influence of diverse cultures over millennia. Today, many such traditions are still alive in the folk medical practices of local people. Investigation of botanical folk medicines used in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections led us to study Castanea sativa (European Chestnut for its potential antibacterial activity. Here, we report the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of refined and chemically characterized European Chestnut leaf extracts, rich in oleanene and ursene derivatives (pentacyclic triterpenes, against all Staphylococcus aureus accessory gene regulator (agr alleles. We present layers of evidence of agr blocking activity (IC50 1.56-25 μg mL-1, as measured in toxin outputs, reporter assays hemolytic activity, cytotoxicity studies, and an in vivo abscess model. We demonstrate the extract's lack of cytotoxicity to human keratinocytes and murine skin, as well as lack of growth inhibitory activity against S. aureus and a panel of skin commensals. Lastly, we demonstrate that serial passaging of the extract does not result in acquisition of resistance to the quorum quenching composition. In conclusion, through disruption of quorum sensing in the absence of growth inhibition, this study provides insight into the role that non-biocide inhibitors of virulence may play in future antibiotic therapies.

  3. Castanea sativa (European Chestnut) Leaf Extracts Rich in Ursene and Oleanene Derivatives Block Staphylococcus aureus Virulence and Pathogenesis without Detectable Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Lyles, James T.; Kavanaugh, Jeffery S.; Nelson, Kate; Parlet, Corey P.; Crosby, Heidi A.; Heilmann, Kristopher P.; Horswill, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean is home to a rich history of medical traditions that have developed under the influence of diverse cultures over millennia. Today, many such traditions are still alive in the folk medical practices of local people. Investigation of botanical folk medicines used in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections led us to study Castanea sativa (European Chestnut) for its potential antibacterial activity. Here, we report the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of refined and chemically characterized European Chestnut leaf extracts, rich in oleanene and ursene derivatives (pentacyclic triterpenes), against all Staphylococcus aureus accessory gene regulator (agr) alleles. We present layers of evidence of agr blocking activity (IC50 1.56–25 μg mL-1), as measured in toxin outputs, reporter assays hemolytic activity, cytotoxicity studies, and an in vivo abscess model. We demonstrate the extract’s lack of cytotoxicity to human keratinocytes and murine skin, as well as lack of growth inhibitory activity against S. aureus and a panel of skin commensals. Lastly, we demonstrate that serial passaging of the extract does not result in acquisition of resistance to the quorum quenching composition. In conclusion, through disruption of quorum sensing in the absence of growth inhibition, this study provides insight into the role that non-biocide inhibitors of virulence may play in future antibiotic therapies. PMID:26295163

  4. 热风干燥温度对马蹄产品品质的影响%Effect of Temperature on the Product Quality of Hot Air Drying for Water Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭婷; 黎润凤; 陈振林; 张志; 梁璇; 莫玉菲

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the temperature on the quality of water chestnut slice by hot air drying,the col-or,rehydration capacity,hardness,porosity and sensory value of the water chestnut slice were compared. Results showed that hot air drying temperature had a significantly influence on the color parameters and porosity of water chestnut (P<0.05). With the drying temperature rising,the dry basis moisture content decreased faster,the dry-ing time shortened. The water chestnut slice hardness prepared at hot air drying temperature 65℃was small,the porosity and color was good.%为探究热风干燥温度对马蹄品质的影响,比较不同干燥温度对马蹄色泽、复水性、硬度、多孔性、及感官等的影响。结果表明:热风干燥温度对马蹄的色泽和多孔性含量有显著影响(P<0.05);随着干燥温度升高,失水速率增加,干燥时间缩短,干燥温度为65℃时,马蹄片的硬度小,多孔性好,呈现出较好色泽。

  5. Effects of substituting a concentrated diet for chestnuts on the lipid traits of muscle and adipose tissues in corsican and corsican × large white pigs reared in a sylvo-pastoral system in corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutron-Gambotti, C; Gandemer, G; Casabianca, F

    1998-10-01

    In the sylvo-pastoral extensive system in Corsica, pigs are fattened with chestnuts. The decrease in chestnut resource forces the farmers to use more and more concentrated diets for feeding the pigs but so far they have disregarded the consequences of this on meat quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of substituting a concentrated diet for chestnuts during the fattening period on the lipid composition of adipose and muscle tissues of ham in Corsican and Corsican × Large-White pigs. The results showed that the Corsican × Large-White pigs had heavier carcasses (125kg versus 106kg) and hams (12·5kg versus 10·2kg) but the genotype affected neither the carcass fatness nor the lipid composition of the adipose and muscle tissues. In addition, compared to chestnuts, the concentrated diet used did not affect live-weight, carcass and ham weights, or the carcass fatness of the pigs at slaughter. However, pigs fattened with a concentrated diet had adipose tissue lipids, intramuscular triglycerides and phospholipids with a lower proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (8·1% versus 6·2%, 5·8% versus 4·5%, and 47·7% versus 37·1%, respectively).

  6. Effects of Different Transplanting Dates on Growth and Yield of Water Chestnut%不同移栽期对荸荠生长和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖昌健; 廖首发; 周达平; 邓廷禧

    2013-01-01

      以桂蹄1号荸荠组培苗为试材,研究不同移栽期对荸荠生长和产量的影响。试验结果表明,从7月中旬到8月中旬,荸荠移栽越早,生长越快,8月移栽对荸荠生长和产量形成较为不利,荸荠球茎产量形成的最佳移栽期为7月下旬。%In the paper, we studied the effects of different transplanting dates on the growth and yield of water chestnut by taking plantlets of Guiti No.1 as experimental material. The results showed that from middle July to middle August, the earlier the transplanting date was, the faster the water chestnut grew, and August was the worse transplanting period for the growth and yield formation of water chestnut, while late July was the best transplanting period for corm yield formation of water chestnut.

  7. The Hill and the Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕文

    2007-01-01

    Once there was a well-known hill here. There were many lush trees, beautiful flowers and green grasses on it. One day, the hill said to the trees proudly, “Look, how beautiful I am! But you look so ugly on my back. It must be better if I could drive you away.” One of the trees said, “You won't have beautiful and green clothing without us trees? If you leave us, you will die away.” The hill laughed and said again,”I feel very ashamed for I am staying with you together. Sooner or later I will drive you all...

  8. Tree wavelet approximations with applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yuesheng; ZOU Qingsong

    2005-01-01

    We construct a tree wavelet approximation by using a constructive greedy scheme(CGS). We define a function class which contains the functions whose piecewise polynomial approximations generated by the CGS have a prescribed global convergence rate and establish embedding properties of this class. We provide sufficient conditions on a tree index set and on bi-orthogonal wavelet bases which ensure optimal order of convergence for the wavelet approximations encoded on the tree index set using the bi-orthogonal wavelet bases. We then show that if we use the tree index set associated with the partition generated by the CGS to encode a wavelet approximation, it gives optimal order of convergence.

  9. Phylogenetic trees and Euclidean embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, Mark; Rhodes, John A

    2017-01-01

    It was recently observed by de Vienne et al. (Syst Biol 60(6):826-832, 2011) that a simple square root transformation of distances between taxa on a phylogenetic tree allowed for an embedding of the taxa into Euclidean space. While the justification for this was based on a diffusion model of continuous character evolution along the tree, here we give a direct and elementary explanation for it that provides substantial additional insight. We use this embedding to reinterpret the differences between the NJ and BIONJ tree building algorithms, providing one illustration of how this embedding reflects tree structures in data.

  10. Tree felling: a necessary evil

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    CERN started a campaign of tree felling in 2010 for safety reasons, and it will continue this year in various parts of the Meyrin site. As in previous years, the trees cut down in 2013 will be recycled and some will be replaced.   Diseased tree that had to be cut down on the Meyrin site. In association with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP), CERN commissioned the Geneva school of landscaping, engineering and architecture (Haute école du paysage, d’ingénierie et d’architecture, HEPIA) to compile an inventory of the trees on the Meyrin site. In total, 1285 trees (excluding poplars) were recorded. 75.5% of these trees were declared to be in a good state of health (i.e. 971 trees), 21.5% in a moderate state of health (276 trees) and 3% in a poor state of health (38 trees). As for the poplars, the 236 specimens recorded on the Meyrin site were judged to be too old, to...

  11. The Steiner tree problem

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, FK; Winter, P

    1992-01-01

    The Steiner problem asks for a shortest network which spans a given set of points. Minimum spanning networks have been well-studied when all connections are required to be between the given points. The novelty of the Steiner tree problem is that new auxiliary points can be introduced between the original points so that a spanning network of all the points will be shorter than otherwise possible. These new points are called Steiner points - locating them has proved problematic and research has diverged along many different avenues. This volume is devoted to the assimilation of the rich field of intriguing analyses and the consolidation of the fragments. A section has been given to each of the three major areas of interest which have emerged. The first concerns the Euclidean Steiner Problem, historically the original Steiner tree problem proposed by Jarník and Kössler in 1934. The second deals with the Steiner Problem in Networks, which was propounded independently by Hakimi and Levin and has enjoyed the most...

  12. Genealogy and gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmuson, Marianne

    2008-02-01

    Heredity can be followed in persons or in genes. Persons can be identified only a few generations back, but simplified models indicate that universal ancestors to all now living persons have occurred in the past. Genetic variability can be characterized as variants of DNA sequences. Data are available only from living persons, but from the pattern of variation gene trees can be inferred by means of coalescence models. The merging of lines backwards in time leads to a MRCA (most recent common ancestor). The time and place of living for this inferred person can give insights in human evolutionary history. Demographic processes are incorporated in the model, but since culture and customs are known to influence demography the models used ought to be tested against available genealogy. The Icelandic data base offers a possibility to do so and points to some discrepancies. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome patterns give a rather consistent view of human evolutionary history during the latest 100 000 years but the earlier epochs of human evolution demand gene trees with longer branches. The results of such studies reveal as yet unsolved problems about the sources of our genome.

  13. Occurrence of leguminous trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkbride, J.H.; Arkcoll, D.B.A.; Turnbull, J.W.; Magalhaes, L.M.S.; Fernandes, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Five papers from the symposium are presented. Kirkbride, J.H. Jr.; Legumes of the cerrado. pp 23-46 (Refs. 55) A review is given. Some 548 legume species in 59 genera are listed that have been reported from cerrado vegetation. Felker, P.; Legume trees in semi-arid and arid areas. pp 47-59 (Refs. 41) A review is given of worldwide research activities. Arkcoll, D.B.; A comparison of some fast growing species suitable for woodlots in the wet tropics. pp 61-68 (Refs. 9) Studies are described near Manaus on intensive silviculture (for fuelwood production) of Eucalyptus deglupta, Cedrelinga catanaeformis (catenaeformis), Jacaranda copaia, and Inga edulis. Turnbull, J.W.; Six phyllodinous Acacia species for planting in the humid tropical lowlands. pp 69-73 (Refs. 14) Distribution, ecology, growth, and utilization are described for A. auriculiformis, A. mangium, A. aulacocarpa, A. crassicarpa, A. cincinnata, and A. polystachya. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Fernandes, N.P.; Experimental stands of leguminous trees in the Manaus region. pp 75-79 (Refs. 8) Performance up to age 20 yr of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Dalbergia nigra, Dinizia excelsa, Dipteryx odorata, Dipteryx sp., Diplotropis sp., Eperua bijuga, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, and Hymenaea sp. is described.

  14. Distributed Merge Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther

    2013-01-08

    Improved simulations and sensors are producing datasets whose increasing complexity exhausts our ability to visualize and comprehend them directly. To cope with this problem, we can detect and extract significant features in the data and use them as the basis for subsequent analysis. Topological methods are valuable in this context because they provide robust and general feature definitions. As the growth of serial computational power has stalled, data analysis is becoming increasingly dependent on massively parallel machines. To satisfy the computational demand created by complex datasets, algorithms need to effectively utilize these computer architectures. The main strength of topological methods, their emphasis on global information, turns into an obstacle during parallelization. We present two approaches to alleviate this problem. We develop a distributed representation of the merge tree that avoids computing the global tree on a single processor and lets us parallelize subsequent queries. To account for the increasing number of cores per processor, we develop a new data structure that lets us take advantage of multiple shared-memory cores to parallelize the work on a single node. Finally, we present experiments that illustrate the strengths of our approach as well as help identify future challenges.

  15. Sussing Merger Trees: A proposed Merger Tree data format

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Peter A; Tweed, Dylan; Benson, Andrew J; Croton, Darren; Elahi, Pascal; Henriques, Bruno; Iliev, Ilian T; Knebe, Alexander; Lux, Hanni; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Neyrinck, Mark; Pearce, Frazer R; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Schneider, Aurel; Srisawat, Chaichalit

    2015-01-01

    We propose a common terminology for use in describing both temporal merger trees and spatial structure trees for dark-matter halos. We specify a unified data format in HDF5 and provide example I/O routines in C, FORTRAN and PYTHON.

  16. DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…

  17. Tree Decomposition based Steiner Tree Computation over Large Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an exact algorithm for the Steiner tree problem. The algorithm is based on certain pre-computed index structures. Our algorithm offers a practical solution for the Steiner tree problems on graphs of large size and bounded number of terminals.

  18. Trees and Shrubs for Overhead Utility Easements

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; French, Sue (Sue C.); Johnson-Asnicar, Brenda; Relf, Diane; Day, Susan D.; Nunnally, Richard, 1947-; Vest, John

    2009-01-01

    Trees are one of the major causes of power outages in areas of overhead utility lines due to direct tree contact with lines, or to trees or tree limbs falling on the lines. This publication covers conflict resolution options and tree selection and planting when dealing with landscaping around power lines.

  19. 唐宋时期湖州平原菱的种植与湿地农业开发%The Planting of Water Chestnut and Wetland Agriculture Development in the Huzhou Plain in the Tang-Song Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晴

    2012-01-01

    The water chestnut was planted popularly in the Huzhou Plain in the Tang-Song Dynasties. There was a broad stretch of wetland in the late Tang and early Song Dynasties, at the same time Form. Trapa spp. was banded in some of the shallow lakes and meres. After history came to the period of Southern Song Dy- nasty, many meres were enclosed, the land were changed to farmland instead. Meanwhile water chestnut was planted in the specialized ponls. The planting area of water chestnuts were expanded in the Huzhou Plain, and many cultivated species were selected. People used water chestnut to fish and to protect the embankments. In brief, the wetland exploitation in the Huzhou Plain was always connected with the planting of water chestnuts.%唐宋时期江南地区湖州平原区中存在着大面积的湖沼湿地,菱是这个区域中典型水生植被之一。唐末至宋初人类活动对本地区湖沼湿地的干扰较少,湿地生境中存在着大面积菱的野生植物群落,宋以后随着太湖地区水体资源的开发与集约化利用程度的加强,湖州平原中人工栽培菱的面积扩大,出现了众多的栽培菱品种。南宋时期人们利用许多技术措施对菱进行了广泛的栽培,湖州平原湿地农业开发进程中始终伴随着水生植物菱的种植。

  20. Fires on trees

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoin, Jean

    2010-01-01

    We consider random dynamics on the edges of a uniform Cayley tree with $n$ vertices, in which edges are either inflammable, fireproof, or burt. Every inflammable edge is replaced by a fireproof edge at unit rate, while fires start at smaller rate $n^{-\\alpha}$ on each inflammable edge, then propagate through the neighboring inflammable edges and are only stopped at fireproof edges. A vertex is called fireproof when all its adjacent edges are fireproof. We show that as $n\\to \\infty$, the density of fireproof vertices converges to 1 when $\\alpha>1/2$, to 0 when $\\alpha<1/2$, and to some non-degenerate random variable when $\\alpha=1/2$. We further study the connectivity of the fireproof forest, in particular the existence of a giant component.

  1. Random Projection Trees Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dhesi, Aman

    2010-01-01

    The Random Projection Tree structures proposed in [Freund-Dasgupta STOC08] are space partitioning data structures that automatically adapt to various notions of intrinsic dimensionality of data. We prove new results for both the RPTreeMax and the RPTreeMean data structures. Our result for RPTreeMax gives a near-optimal bound on the number of levels required by this data structure to reduce the size of its cells by a factor $s \\geq 2$. We also prove a packing lemma for this data structure. Our final result shows that low-dimensional manifolds have bounded Local Covariance Dimension. As a consequence we show that RPTreeMean adapts to manifold dimension as well.

  2. Tree Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, R; Rivasseau, V

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new formalism for quantum field theory which is neither based on functional integrals, nor on Feynman graphs, but on marked trees. This formalism is constructive, i.e. it computes correlation functions through convergent rather than divergent expansions. It applies both to Fermionic and Bosonic theories. It is compatible with the renormalization group, and it allows to define non-perturbatively {\\it differential} renormalization group equations. It accommodates any general stable polynomial Lagrangian. It can equally well treat noncommutative models or matrix models such as the Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. Perhaps most importantly it removes the space-time background from its central place in QFT, paving the way for a nonperturbative definition of field theory in noninteger dimension.

  3. The Harary index of trees

    CERN Document Server

    c, Aleksandar Ili\\'; Feng, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    The Harary index of a graph $G$ is recently introduced topological index, defined on the reverse distance matrix as $H(G)=\\sum_{u,v \\in V(G)}\\frac{1}{d(u,v)}$, where $d(u,v)$ is the length of the shortest path between two distinct vertices $u$ and $v$. We present the partial ordering of starlike trees based on the Harary index and we describe the trees with the second maximal and the second minimal Harary index. In this paper, we investigate the Harary index of trees with $k$ pendent vertices and determine the extremal trees with maximal Harary index. We also characterize the extremal trees with maximal Harary index with respect to the number of vertices of degree two, matching number, independence number, domination number, radius and diameter. In addition, we characterize the extremal trees with minimal Harary index and given maximum degree. We concluded that in all presented classes, the trees with maximal Harary index are exactly those trees with the minimal Wiener index, and vice versa.

  4. The Tree of Industrial Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to bring forth an interaction between evolutionary economics and industrial systematics. The suggested solution is to reconstruct the "family tree" of the industries. Such a tree is based on similarities, but it may also reflect the evolutionary history in industries ...

  5. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  6. Some Hopf algebras of trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, P. van der

    2001-01-01

    In the literature several Hopf algebras that can be described in terms of trees have been studied. This paper tries to answer the question whether one can understand some of these Hopf algebras in terms of a single mathematical construction. The starting point is the Hopf algebra of rooted trees as

  7. Effects of long-term supplementation of chestnut and valonea extracts on methane release, digestibility and nitrogen excretion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischer, G; Greiling, A M; Boguhn, J; Steingass, H; Schollenberger, M; Hartung, K; Rodehutscord, M

    2014-06-01

    The long-term effects of adding chestnut (CHE; Castanea sativa) and valonea (VAL; Quercus valonea) tannin-rich extracts to sheep feed were investigated. In Experiment 1, sheep (65 kg BW) were fed 842 g/day of a ryegrass-based hay. The control-treated animals (CON) received 464 g/day of concentrate, and tannin-treated animals received the same amount of concentrate additionally containing 20 g of the respective tannin-rich extract. Hay and concentrates were offered together in one meal. After the onset of treatment, methane release was measured in respiration chambers for 23.5-h intervals (nine times) in a 190-days period. Faeces and urine were collected three times (including once before the onset of the tannin treatment) to assess digestibility and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Based on the results obtained from Experiment 1, a second experiment (Experiment 2) was initiated, in which the daily tannin dosage was almost doubled (from 0.9 (Experiment 1) to 1.7 g/kg BW0.75). With the exception of the dosage and duration of the treatment (85 days), Experiment 2 followed the same design as Experiment 1, with the same measurements. In an attempt to compare in vitro and in vivo effects of tannin supplementation, the same substrates and tannin treatments were examined in the Hohenheim gas test. In vitro methane production was not significantly different between treatments. None of the tannin-rich extract doses induced a reduction in methane in the sheep experiments. On the 1st day of tannin feeding in both experiments, tannin inclusion tended to decrease methane release, but this trend disappeared by day 14 in both experiments. In balance period 3 of Experiment 1, lower dry matter and organic matter digestibility was noted for tannin treatments. The digestibility of CP, but not NDF or ADF, was reduced in both experiments. A significant shift in N excretion from urine to faeces was observed for both tannin-rich extracts in both experiments, particularly in

  8. TREE DECOMPOSITIONS OF MULTIGRAPHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Minyong

    1999-01-01

    For a graph G, ifE(G) can be partitioned into several pairwise disjointsets as { E1, E2,……,El} such thatthe subgraph induced by Ei is a tree of orderki, (i=1,2, ……, l), then G is said to have a {k1,k2,……, kl}-tree-decomposition, denoted by {k1,k2,……, kl}∈G.For k≥1 and l≥0, a collection(G)(k,l) is the setof multigraphs such that G∈(G)(k,l) if and only if ε(G) = k(|G|-1)-l and ε(H)≤max{(k-1)(|H|-1), k(|H|-1)-l} for any subgraph H of G.We prove that (1) If k≥2, 0≤l≤3 and G∈(G)(k,l) of order n≥l+1, then {n,n,……, n-l}∈ G. (2) If k≥2 and G∈(G)(k,2) oforder n≥3, then {n,n,……, n,n-2}∈G and {n,n,……, n,n-1,n-1}∈G. (3) If k3 and G∈(G)(k,3) oforder n≥4, then {n,n,……, n,n-3}∈G ,{ n,n,……, n,n-1,n-2}∈ G and {n,n, ……, n,n-1,n-1,n-1}∈G.

  9. Modelling tree biomasses in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repola, J.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of

  10. Tree species, tree genotypes and tree genotypic diversity levels affect microbe-mediated soil ecosystem functions in a subtropical forest

    OpenAIRE

    Purahong, Witoon; Durka, Walter; Fischer, Markus; Dommert, Sven; Schöps, Ricardo; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Tree species identity and tree genotypes contribute to the shaping of soil microbial communities. However, knowledge about how these two factors influence soil ecosystem functions is still lacking. Furthermore, in forest ecosystems tree genotypes co-occur and interact with each other, thus the effects of tree genotypic diversity on soil ecosystem functions merit attention. Here we investigated the effects of tree species, tree genotypes and genotypic diversity levels, alongside soil physicoch...

  11. Tree Coding of Bilevel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Presently, sequential tree coders are the best general purpose bilevel image coders and the best coders of halftoned images. The current ISO standard, Joint Bilevel Image Experts Group (JBIG), is a good example. A sequential tree coder encodes the data by feeding estimates of conditional...... probabilities to an arithmetic coder. The conditional probabilities are estimated from co-occurrence statistics of past pixels, the statistics are stored in a tree. By organizing the code length calculations properly, a vast number of possible models (trees) reflecting different pixel orderings can...... is one order of magnitude slower than JBIG, obtains excellent and highly robust compression performance. A multipass free tree coding scheme produces superior compression results for all test images. A multipass free template coding scheme produces significantly better results than JBIG for difficult...

  12. Quantum Computation and Decision Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Farhi, E; Farhi, Edward; Gutmann, Sam

    1998-01-01

    Many interesting computational problems can be reformulated in terms of decision trees. A natural classical algorithm is to then run a random walk on the tree, starting at the root, to see if the tree contains a node n levels from the root. We devise a quantum mechanical algorithm that evolves a state, initially localized at the root, through the tree. We prove that if the classical strategy succeeds in reaching level n in time polynomial in n, then so does the quantum algorithm. Moreover, we find examples of trees for which the classical algorithm requires time exponential in n, but for which the quantum algorithm succeeds in polynomial time. The examples we have so far, however, could also be solved in polynomial time by different classical algorithms.

  13. Analysis on Models of Intercropping with Chestnut in Returning Farmland to Forestry%退耕还林板栗园林农间作模式初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国伟; 王国宏; 侯方

    2012-01-01

    according to requirements of returning farmland to forest,intercropping chestnut in the middle of forestry is a three-dimensional model of growing both crops and forestry.This article states the impacts on growing chestnut by intercropping with forestry,and mainly analyzes the benefits,planting techniques,key problems of two intercropping models.One is chestnut + pepper+ pea,the other is chestnut+ tobacco(vegetables)+ green manure.The results show: the implementation of intercropping with forestry is one of the most important ways to improve the utilization of land and economic benefits of per unit area;promote the growth of plants mutually by fertilization and watering;reasonable intercropping plays an positive role in many aspects such as ecology,economy,and social benefits.%退耕还林板栗园林农间作是在退耕还林造林地块中间作套种具有农作物的林业立体种植模式。论述了农林间作对板栗生长的影响,重点通过对"板栗+辣椒+豌豆"和"板栗+烟草(蔬菜)+绿肥"间作模式的分析,分别从效益、种植技术、注意的问题等方面进行研究。结果表明:实施林农间作是提高土地利用率,提高单位面积经济效益的重要手段;通过农林间作,给作物施肥、浇水,同时也给林木补充了肥料和水,相互促进加速了树木的生长;合理间种在增加经济效益的同时,充分发挥了栗园的生态、经济、社会效益。

  14. Some Results on Metric Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Aksoy, Asuman Guven

    2010-01-01

    Using isometric embedding of metric trees into Banach spaces, this paper will investigate barycenters, type and cotype, and various measures of compactness of metric trees. A metric tree ($T$, $d$) is a metric space such that between any two of its points there is an unique arc that is isometric to an interval in $\\mathbb{R}$. We begin our investigation by examining isometric embeddings of metric trees into Banach spaces. We then investigate the possible images $x_0=\\pi ((x_1+\\ldots+x_n)/n)$, where $\\pi$ is a contractive retraction from the ambient Banach space $X$ onto $T$ (such a $\\pi$ always exists) in order to understand the "metric" barycenter of a family of points $ x_1, \\ldots,x_n$ in a tree $T$. Further, we consider the metric properties of trees such as their type and cotype. We identify various measures of compactness of metric trees (their covering numbers, $\\epsilon$-entropy and Kolmogorov widths) and the connections between them. Additionally, we prove that the limit of the sequence of Kolmogorov...

  15. 脱脂、脱蛋白处理对板栗粉膨胀势的影响%Effect of De-Fat and De-Protein Treatments on Swelling Power of Chinese Chestnut (C.mollissima Bl.) Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丽松; 林顺顺; 张柏林; 王贵禧

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The experiments were conducted to compare the swelling power of chestnut native powder of 24 cultivars of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) from different cultivar groups, and investigate the effect of de-fat and/or de-protein on swelling power of different cultivars of Chinese chestnut power. [Method] The contents of protein, fat and starch were determined by Kjeldahl method, Soxhlet extraction method and Anthracene ketone colorimetric method, respectively. The native power, de-fat power and de-protein power of chestnut were obtained by freeze-drying, SoxhLet extraction and alkali liquor precipitation, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 11.0. [ Result ] Differences of swelling power of chestnut native powder were found among different cultivars and different cultivar groups. Native powder of chestnut from North Cultivar Groups (NCG) had the lowest swelling power compared with other two cultivar groups. De-fat treatment had less influence on swelling power of chestnut powder. However, de-protein treatment increased significantly the swelling power of all cultivars chestnut. There were obvious differences in swelling power and the changes of swelling among cultivars after de-protein, but no differences among different cultivar groups were found. The combination of de-fat and de-protein resulted in significant increases in swelling power and there existed differences among the cultivars. The swelling power of de-protein powder of chestnut followed the sequence: North Cultivar Groups (NCG) > Mid-type Cultivar Groups (MCG) > South Cultivar Groups (SCG). There was a significant difference between NCG and SVG. The differences of content of starch, protein and fat occurred in different cultivar chestnuts, and apparent correlation between starch content and swelling power of chestnut powder were conformed in the meanwhile. [Conclusion] Starch was the main factor influencing swelling power of chestnut powder. Protein

  16. What Good Is a Tree?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lowell; Ponte; 史书碧

    1998-01-01

    文章开头说:Trees are so common and quiet that we pay them little mind. 其实,初见此标题——What Good Is a Tree?笔者也pay this essay little mind。这个题目还能够讲出多少新意来呢?不料,细读之后,竟不忍释手! Trees sustain our lives and our planet in a thousand practical ways. Trees do more than make life pleasant;they make life possible. 这是文章的两句主题句。读罢全文,认真一想,便觉这决非耸人听闻之言:无言的树,“挪死”的树,支撑着我们这个星球,庇护着天下的生灵!诸如: …they draw carbon dioxide from the air…and oxygen iS released. Without tree our entire world would be a much drier place. For centuries,the Chinese have derived medicines form the ginkgo tree. 让读者双眼一亮的是,文章提供了许多你我都不曾想到的有关树的信息: a.树木能彼此互通信息: …trees send unseen signals to each other.When willows are attacked bywebworms and tent caterpillars,they give off a chemical that alerts nearby trees.Theneighboring trees respond by pumping more tannin into their leaves,making them moredifficult for the insects tO digest。 更让人?

  17. SPDE Approximation for Random Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Bakhtin, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    We consider the genealogy tree for a critical branching process conditioned on non-extinction. We enumerate vertices in each generation of the tree so that for each two generations one can define a monotone map describing the ancestor--descendant relation between their vertices. We show that under appropriate rescaling this family of monotone maps converges in distribution in a special topology to a limiting flow of discontinuous monotone maps which can be seen as a continuum tree. This flow is a solution of an SPDE with respect to a Brownian sheet.

  18. Memory effect in growing trees

    OpenAIRE

    Malarz, K.; Kulakowski, K.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the structure of a growing tree preserves an information on the shape of an initial graph. For the exponential trees, evidence of this kind of memory is provided by means of the iterative equations, derived for the moments of the node-node distance distribution. Numerical calculations confirm the result and allow to extend the conclusion to the Barabasi--Albert scale-free trees. The memory effect almost disappears, if subsequent nodes are connected to the network with more than o...

  19. Tree modules and counting polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Kinser, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    We give a formula for counting tree modules for the quiver S_g with g loops and one vertex in terms of tree modules on its universal cover. This formula, along with work of Helleloid and Rodriguez-Villegas, is used to show that the number of d-dimensional tree modules for S_g is polynomial in g with the same degree and leading coefficient as the counting polynomial A_{S_g}(d, q) for absolutely indecomposables over F_q, evaluated at q=1.

  20. Trees Are Useful to Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明

    2005-01-01

    Trees are useful to man in three impor-tant ways. They provide him with wood and other products;they give him shade;they help prevent drought(干旱)and floods. Unfortunately,in many parts of the world, man has not realized that the third one is the most important. Two thousand years ago a rich and pow-erful country cut down its trees to build war-ships, with which to gain itself an empire. It gained the empire,however,without its trees, its soil became hard and poor. When the em-pire fell to pieces, the home c...

  1. Tree for all reasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, T.

    1980-04-01

    For centuries Chinese peasants have planted paulownia trees, not only for their beauty but also for their fast-growing characteristics - an amazing average of 0.37 cubic meters of timber per year. The leaves, flowers, fruits and bark can be used as medicines and, because of their high nitrogen content the leaves are used as fodder. But above all, paulownias are increasingly being used by Chinese peasants to boost grain output. In Lanka county, Henan province, for example, grain output has increased to an average of 5.25 tons per hectare from less than 0.75 tons in 1963 when paulownia interplanting as a system was introduced. They help crops to withstand sandstorms, droughts and frosts, they increase air humidity and reduce evaporation of moisture in the fields. They do not compete with crops for fertilizer and water since about 80% of their absorbing roots reach a depth of 40-100 cm, while most cereals roots are less than 40 cm.

  2. The chestnut blight fungus for studies on virus/host and virus/virus interactions: from a natural to a model host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio-Cope, Ana; Sun, Liying; Tanaka, Toru; Chiba, Sotaro; Kasahara, Shin; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2015-03-01

    The chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, is an important plant pathogenic ascomycete. The fungus hosts a wide range of viruses and now has been established as a model filamentous fungus for studying virus/host and virus/virus interactions. This is based on the development of methods for artificial virus introduction and elimination, host genome manipulability, available host genome sequence with annotations, host mutant strains, and molecular tools. Molecular tools include sub-cellular distribution markers, gene expression reporters, and vectors with regulatable promoters that have been long available for unicellular organisms, cultured cells, individuals of animals and plants, and certain filamentous fungi. A comparison with other filamentous fungi such as Neurospora crassa has been made to establish clear advantages and disadvantages of C. parasitica as a virus host. In addition, a few recent studies on RNA silencing vs. viruses in this fungus are introduced.

  3. Study on Current Status and Promotion Strategy of International Competitiveness of Chinese Chestnut Industry%中国板栗产业国际竞争力现状及其提升策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴永务; 刘伟平

    2012-01-01

    利用UNcomtrade在线数据库中1995-2010年的板栗贸易数据,对中国板栗产业国际竞争力的现状进行评价与国际比较;并依据波特的钻石模型对中国板栗产业国际竞争力影响因素进行深入分析.结果表明:中国板栗产业具有较强的国际竞争力,国际竞争优势主要来源于低廉的劳动力成本和庞大的内需市场,但受劳动力成本上升和科技创新能力低的影响,所具有的传统低价竞争优势正在逐渐丧失.据此提出强化种植户培训力度、增强技术创新能力、发展板栗加工业和实施品牌战略等提升我国板栗产业国际竟争力的策略.%The paper evaluates quantitatively and contrasts internationally the international competitiveness of Chinese chestnut industry, and then analyzed deeply the factors of the international competitiveness of Chinese chestnut industry on the basis of Porter's diamond model, based on the data about chestnut trade from UNcomtrade online database in the period of 1992-2009. The result shows that Chinese chestnut industry has a strong international competitiveness from low labor costs and huge domestic market, but the traditional low-cost competitive advantage is gradually lost by the impact of rising labor casts and low scientific and technological innovation capability. Based on the conclusion, this article put forward some strategies to promote the international competitiveness of Chinese chestnut industry, including fanners training efforts to strengthen and enhancing the ability of technological innovation, the development of chestnut processing industry and the implementation of brand strategy.

  4. 不同抑菌杀菌剂对新鲜板栗仁抑菌效果的研究%Study on the Antibacterial Effect of Disinfectant in Rresh Chestnut Kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德静; 胡燕

    2014-01-01

    板栗不仅营养价值高,而且有一定的保健功效。但是板栗因易腐烂变质而不易保藏。新鲜板栗仁因表面保护组织的破坏而更不易保藏。以广水板栗为试材,研究了几种不同的抑菌剂对新鲜板栗仁的抑菌效果。结果显示,0.10%次氯酸钠和0.10%脱氢醋酸钠在新鲜板栗仁中的抑菌效果较好。用次氯酸钠和脱氢醋酸钠处理过的板栗仁中细菌和真菌的生长都受到了极大的抑制。特别是次氯酸钠不仅有抑菌作用,还能降低呼吸作用的强度,能显著的延长新鲜板栗仁的保鲜期。%Chestnut is not only a high nutritional food, but also have certain health care function. But it is not easily stored for it is highly perishable and the fresh chestnut kernel is not easily stored too for the damage of the surface protection tissue. With Guangshui chestnut as the material, the antibacterial effect of different disinfectant in fresh chestnut kernel was studied. The result shows that the antibacterial effect of 0.10%sodium hypochlorite and 0.10%sodium dehydro acetate are better in fresh chestnut kernel.The grows of the bacteria and fungus are inhibited after treated with sodium hypochlorite and sodium dehydroacetate. Especially sodium hypochlorite which has an antibacterial effect, but also can reduce the respiration intensity so it can ignificantly extend the shelf-life of fresh chestnut kernel.

  5. Study on in vitro Free-radicals Scavenging Activity of the Coarse Polysaccharide from the Hull of Water Chestnut%菱角壳粗多糖体外清除自由基活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志国; 赵文亚

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究菱角壳粗多糖体外清除自由基的活性.[方法]采用水提醇沉法从菱角壳中提取粗多糖,并对菱角壳粗多糖在体外清除羟自由基(·OH)、1,1- 二苯基苦基苯肼(DPPH·)和超氧阴离子(O2-·)的能力进行了研究.[结果]随着浓度的增加,菱角壳粗多糖对3种自由基的清除能力均呈现增强的趋势,在多糖浓度为2.5 mg/ml时,菱角壳粗多糖对羟自由基、DPPH和超氧阴离子的清除率分别为70.6%、66.2%和48.6%.[结论]菱角壳粗多糖具有较强的清除自由基的能力.%[Objective ] The aim was to study the in vitro free-radicals scavenging activity of the coarse polysaccharide from the hull of water chestnut. [Method] The coarse polysaccharide from the hull of water chestnut was extracted by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. The abilities of the coarse polysaccharide from the hull of water chestnut to scavenge ? OH, DPPH ? and O2-? were evaluated. [Results]The scavenging rate of the coarse polysaccharide from the hull of water chestnut on ? OH, DPPH ? and O2-? was enhanced with the increment of polysaccharide concentration. When the polysaccharide concentration was 2. 5 mg/ml, the scavenging rate of the coarse polysaccharide from the hull of water chestnut on ?OH, DPPH? and O2-? were 70. 6% , 66. 2% and 48.6% . [Conclusion] The coarse polysaccharide from the hull of water chestnut had significant scavenging activity on free radicals.

  6. Study on Freeze-drying of Water Chestnut%马蹄真空冷冻干燥实验的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学玲; 何建军; 关健; 梅新; 程薇; 熊光权; 叶丽秀; 陈玉霞

    2011-01-01

    利用真空冷冻干燥技术对马蹄进行保鲜加工研究.利用电阻法测量了马蹄的共晶点和共熔点,采用L12(35)正交试验方法,研究了影响冻干产品质量和设备生产能力的主要参数,评定了冻干产品的含水量、外观、复水性等特性.实验结果表明,马蹄冻干的最佳工艺为:速冻温度-36℃,速冻时间20h,干燥升华时仓压(120±10)Pa;干燥解析时仓压(40±10)Pa,解析时的搁板温度50℃,干燥时间14h.%Water Chestnut were stored and processed by Freeze-drying.Eutectic point and consolute point were measured by resistivity method.The main factors affecting the properties of freeze-drying product and production capacity of the equipment were studied using L12(35) orthogonal experiments.Water content of product,product form,rehydration character were evaluated.The optimal technics for freeze-drying Water Chestnut were following:deep freeze temperature-36℃,deep freeze time 20h,pressure of drying room while vacuum sublimation drying(120±10)Pa,pressure of drying room while vaccum resolution drying(40±10)Pa,shelf temperature while vacuum resolution drying 50℃,drying time 14h.

  7. Protein cryoprotective activity of a cytosolic small heat shock protein that accumulates constitutively in chestnut stems and is up-regulated by low and high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Matas, Maria-Angeles; Nuñez, Paulina; Soto, Alvaro; Allona, Isabel; Casado, Rosa; Collada, Carmen; Guevara, Maria-Angeles; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Gomez, Luis

    2004-04-01

    Heat shock, and other stresses that cause protein misfolding and aggregation, trigger the accumulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in virtually all organisms. Among the HSPs of higher plants, those belonging to the small HSP (sHSP) family remain the least characterized in functional terms. We analyzed the occurrence of sHSPs in vegetative organs of Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut), a temperate woody species that exhibits remarkable freezing tolerance. A constitutive sHSP subject to seasonal periodic changes of abundance was immunodetected in stems. This protein was identified by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and internal peptide sequencing as CsHSP17.5, a cytosolic class I sHSP previously described in cotyledons. Expression of the corresponding gene in stems was confirmed through cDNA cloning and reverse transcription-PCR. Stem protein and mRNA profiles indicated that CsHSP17.5 is significantly up-regulated in spring and fall, reaching maximal levels in late summer and, especially, in winter. In addition, cold exposure was found to quickly activate shsp gene expression in both stems and roots of chestnut seedlings kept in growth chambers. Our main finding is that purified CsHSP17.5 is very effective in protecting the cold-labile enzyme lactate dehydrogenase from freeze-induced inactivation (on a molar basis, CsHSP17.5 is about 400 times more effective as cryoprotectant than hen egg-white lysozyme). Consistent with these observations, repeated freezing/thawing did not affect appreciably the chaperone activity of diluted CsHSP17.5 nor its ability to form dodecameric complexes in vitro. Taken together, these results substantiate the hypothesis that sHSPs can play relevant roles in the acquisition of freezing tolerance.

  8. Study on Methods of Total RNA Extraction from Cotyledon of Chinese Chestnut%板栗子叶总RNA提取方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王滨蔚; 车鹏燕; 何承忠; 王猛; 石卓功

    2012-01-01

    为了获得板栗子叶总RNA提取的理想方法,为后续的分子生物学研究打下基础,以板栗幼果子叶为材料,采用改良CTAB法、硼砂-CTAB法、酚-SDS法、皂土法和2种植物总RNA提取试剂盒共6种方法提取板栗子叶总RNA.结果表明,除硼砂-CTAB法外,其他5种方法均能获得板栗子叶总RNA.但是,与酚-SDS法、皂土法和2种植物总RNA提取试剂盒相比较,改良CTAB法提取的板栗子叶总RNA完整性好,纯度高,且无DNA污染,能够满足cDNA-AFLP等分子生物学研究的要求.%In order to obtain an ideal total RNA extraction method of cotyledon in Chinese chestnuts for providing foundation for molecular biology research, total RNA of cotyledon excised from young fruit of Chinese chestnut were extracted with 6 methods, including improved CTAB method, borax-CTAB method, phenol-SDS method, bentonite method and 2 RNA extraction kits. The results showed that total RNA was obtained with 5 methods but borax-CTAB method. However, the improved CTAB method was better than phenol-SDS method, bentonite method and two RNA extraction kits. The total RNA extracted with improved CTAB method had high integrity, high purity and no DNA pollution, and would be suitable for related molecular researches, such as cDNA-AFLP markers.

  9. Research on Methods for Pollen Viability Determinationof Water Chestnut%菱花粉生活力测定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双梅; 柯卫东; 彭静; 李峰; 钟兰; 孙亚林

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore suitable methods for pollen viability determination of water chestnut, the pollen viability of cultivar Xiaoganhongling was determined by using the methods of inorganic salt culture, MTT staining and TTC staining. The results showed that the medium supplemented with low concentrations of sucrose and boric acid could promote the germination of pollen, and the optimum medium for pollen germination was 10% sucrose+0.005% boric acid, with the germination rate of 65.9%. The MTT staining and TTC staining methods were not ideal for pollen viability determination of water chestnut, because their dyeing rates were merely 36.9%and 27.1%.%为了探索菱花粉生活力的最佳测定方法,以孝感红菱花粉为试材,利用无机盐培养法、MTT(四甲基噻唑蓝)染色法和TTC(氯化三苯基四氮唑)染色法对花粉生活力进行测定。研究结果表明,培养基中添加低浓度的蔗糖和硼酸对菱花粉的萌发有促进作用,菱花粉萌发的最适培养基为10%蔗糖+0.005%硼酸,萌发率达65.9%;用MTT染色法和TTC染色法测定菱花粉生活力,染色率仅为36.9%和27.1%,效果不理想。

  10. Algorithms for Decision Tree Construction

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The study of algorithms for decision tree construction was initiated in 1960s. The first algorithms are based on the separation heuristic [13, 31] that at each step tries dividing the set of objects as evenly as possible. Later Garey and Graham [28] showed that such algorithm may construct decision trees whose average depth is arbitrarily far from the minimum. Hyafil and Rivest in [35] proved NP-hardness of DT problem that is constructing a tree with the minimum average depth for a diagnostic problem over 2-valued information system and uniform probability distribution. Cox et al. in [22] showed that for a two-class problem over information system, even finding the root node attribute for an optimal tree is an NP-hard problem. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  11. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  12. Visualizing Contour Trees within Histograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Many of the topological features of the isosurfaces of a scalar volume field can be compactly represented by its contour tree. Unfortunately, the contour trees of most real-world volume data sets are too complex to be visualized by dot-and-line diagrams. Therefore, we propose a new visualization...... that is suitable for large contour trees and efficiently conveys the topological structure of the most important isosurface components. This visualization is integrated into a histogram of the volume data; thus, it offers strictly more information than a traditional histogram. We present algorithms...... to automatically compute the graph layout and to calculate appropriate approximations of the contour tree and the surface area of the relevant isosurface components. The benefits of this new visualization are demonstrated with the help of several publicly available volume data sets....

  13. Efficient Frequent Pattern Tree Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Bujji Babu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Association rule learning is a popular and well researched technique for discovering interesting relations between variables in large databases in the area of data mining. The association rules are a part of intelligent systems. Association rules are usually required to satisfy a user-specified minimum support and a user-specified minimum confidence at the same time. Apriori and FP-Growth algorithms are very familiar algorithms for association rule mining. In this paper we are more concentrated on the Construction of efficient frequent pattern trees. Here, we present the novel frequent pattern trees and the performance issues. The proposed trees are fast and efficient trees helps to extract the frequent patterns. This paper provides the major advantages in the FP-Growth algorithm for association rule mining with using the newly proposed approach.

  14. Skeletal Rigidity of Phylogenetic Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Howard; Li, Brian; Risteski, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by geometric origami and the straight skeleton construction, we outline a map between spaces of phylogenetic trees and spaces of planar polygons. The limitations of this map is studied through explicit examples, culminating in proving a structural rigidity result.

  15. Tree and tree-like species of Mexico: gymnosperms, monocotyledons, and tree ferns

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Ricker; Héctor M. Hernández

    2010-01-01

    Trees or tree-like plants are defined here broadly as perennial, self-supporting plants with an adult height of at least 5 m (without ascending leaves or inflorescences), and with 1 or several erect stems with a diameter of at least 10 cm. We present an updated list of all Mexican tree species under that definition in the Gymnospermae (86 species, 38% endemic to Mexico), Monocotyledonae (75 species, 55% endemic), and Pteridophyta (9 species, none endemic). The list contains a total of 170 spe...

  16. Quantum Simulation of Phylogenetic Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Ellinas, Demosthenes

    2011-01-01

    Quantum simulations constructing probability tensors of biological multi-taxa in phylogenetic trees are proposed, in terms of positive trace preserving maps, describing evolving systems of quantum walks with multiple walkers. Basic phylogenetic models applying on trees of various topologies are simulated following appropriate decoherent quantum circuits. Quantum simulations of statistical inference for aligned sequences of biological characters are provided in terms of a quantum pruning map operating on likelihood operator observables, utilizing state-observable duality and measurement theory.

  17. Short Tree, Long Tree, Right Tree, Wrong Tree: New Acquisition Bias Corrections for Inferring SNP Phylogenies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaché, Adam D.; Banbury, Barbara L.; Felsenstein, Joseph; de Oca, Adrián nieto-Montes; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful markers for phylogenetic studies owing in part to their ubiquity throughout the genome and ease of collection. Restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) methods are becoming increasingly popular for SNP data collection, but an assessment of the best practises for using these data in phylogenetics is lacking. We use computer simulations, and new double digest RADseq (ddRADseq) data for the lizard family Phrynosomatidae, to investigate the accuracy of RAD loci for phylogenetic inference. We compare the two primary ways RAD loci are used during phylogenetic analysis, including the analysis of full sequences (i.e., SNPs together with invariant sites), or the analysis of SNPs on their own after excluding invariant sites. We find that using full sequences rather than just SNPs is preferable from the perspectives of branch length and topological accuracy, but not of computational time. We introduce two new acquisition bias corrections for dealing with alignments composed exclusively of SNPs, a conditional likelihood method and a reconstituted DNA approach. The conditional likelihood method conditions on the presence of variable characters only (the number of invariant sites that are unsampled but known to exist is not considered), while the reconstituted DNA approach requires the user to specify the exact number of unsampled invariant sites prior to the analysis. Under simulation, branch length biases increase with the amount of missing data for both acquisition bias correction methods, but branch length accuracy is much improved in the reconstituted DNA approach compared to the conditional likelihood approach. Phylogenetic analyses of the empirical data using concatenation or a coalescent-based species tree approach provide strong support for many of the accepted relationships among phrynosomatid lizards, suggesting that RAD loci contain useful phylogenetic signal across a range of divergence times despite the

  18. Longest common extensions in trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li;

    2016-01-01

    to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...

  19. Longest Common Extensions in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li;

    2015-01-01

    to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...

  20. Generic physical protection logic trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  1. Layered Working-Set Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Prosenjit; Dujmović, Vida; Howat, John

    2009-01-01

    The working-set bound [Sleator and Tarjan, J. ACM, 1985] roughly states that searching for an element is fast if the element was accessed recently. Binary search trees, such as splay trees, can achieve this property in the amortized sense, while data structures that are not binary search trees are known to have this property in the worst case. We close this gap and present a binary search tree called a layered working-set tree that guarantees the working-set property in the worst case. The unified bound [Badoiu et al., TCS, 2007] roughly states that searching for an element is fast if it is near (in terms of rank distance) to a recently accessed element. We show how layered working-set trees can be used to achieve the unified bound to within a small additive term in the amortized sense while maintaining in the worst case an access time that is both logarithmic and within a small multiplicative factor of the working-set bound.

  2. Balanced binary trees in the Tamari lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Giraudo, Samuele

    2010-01-01

    We show that the set of balanced binary trees is closed by interval in the Tamari lattice. We establish that the intervals [T0, T1] where T0 and T1 are balanced trees are isomorphic as posets to a hypercube. We introduce tree patterns and synchronous grammars to get a functional equation of the generating series enumerating balanced tree intervals.

  3. Computing Refined Buneman Trees in Cubic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, G.S.; Fagerberg, R.; Östlin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Reconstructing the evolutionary tree for a set of n species based on pairwise distances between the species is a fundamental problem in bioinformatics. Neighbor joining is a popular distance based tree reconstruction method. It always proposes fully resolved binary trees despite missing evidence...... in the underlying distance data. Distance based methods based on the theory of Buneman trees and refined Buneman trees avoid this problem by only proposing evolutionary trees whose edges satisfy a number of constraints. These trees might not be fully resolved but there is strong combinatorial evidence for each...

  4. Hi-trees and their layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Kim; Sbarski, Peter; van Gelder, Tim; Prager, Daniel; Bulka, Andy

    2011-03-01

    We introduce hi-trees, a new visual representation for hierarchical data in which, depending on the kind of parent node, the child relationship is represented using either containment or links. We give a drawing convention for hi-trees based on the standard layered drawing convention for rooted trees, then show how to extend standard bottom-up tree layout algorithms to draw hi-trees in this convention. We also explore a number of other more compact layout styles for layout of larger hi-trees and give algorithms for computing these. Finally, we describe two applications of hi-trees: argument mapping and business decision support.

  5. 36 CFR 223.4 - Exchange of trees or portions of trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of trees or portions of trees. 223.4 Section 223.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.4 Exchange of trees or portions of trees. Trees or portions...

  6. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeological Regime, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number for the Y-12 Plant is TN.

  7. Effects of Low-pressure Treatment on Physical and Chemical Properties of Chestnut Starch%低压处理对板栗淀粉理化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白丽; 周裔彬; 陈俊芳; 宋岑; 张健; 杨彬

    2011-01-01

    With Dahongpao chestnut starch from Anhui as raw material, the changes of apparent form and crystal feature of the said chestnut were analyzed by a field scanning electron microscope and a light microscopy at different pressures and material - water ratio. The results showed that chestnut starch granules easily swelled and broke a-long the increase of the pressure under the same time. Some starch granules ruptured when the pressure reached 0. 05 Mpa. Chestnut starch granules were much easier for rupture with the increases of water content, and some starch granules ruptured when the material -water ratio reached 1 =1 and the pressure was only 0.05 Mpa. In the solubility test, after being treated under different pressure and water content, the solubility of chestnut starch increased when the pressure increased; the solubility became higher when the pressure was constant and the water content was higher. And after being treated under different pressures and water contents, the chestnut starch presented the following crystal features: the pressure did not change the crystal type of the chestnut starch; when the pressure increased, the water content in the starch increased and the treatment time was prolonged, the crystal area of the chestnut starch reduced and the crystal content decreased.%摘要以安徽大红袍板栗为原料,采用场扫描电镜和光学显微镜分析板栗淀粉在不同压力和料液比条件下表观形态和晶体特性的变化.结果表明:在相同的时间条件下,随着压力增大,板栗淀粉颗粒越易膨胀破裂,当压力为0.05 MPa时,淀粉颗粒表面出现泡状凸起;随着淀粉体系中水分含量的升高,板栗淀粉颗粒越易膨胀破裂,料液比达到1∶1,压力为0.05 MPa时,大部分淀粉颗粒破碎崩溃.溶解度试验中,不同压力、水分处理后,压力增大,板栗淀粉溶解度随之增大;压力一定,水分含量越高,溶解度越大.不同压力、水分处理后的板

  8. 舒城县板栗病虫害特征特性及防治技术%Characteristics and Diseases and Pest Control Technologies of Chestnuts in Shucheng County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松林

    2014-01-01

    Characteristics of diseases and pest of chestnuts were summarized,including Endothia parasitica(Murr.) P. J. et H. W. Anders.,Dryocosnms kuriphilus Yasumatsu,Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi),Coniella castaneicola etc.,and control technologies were proposed,so as to provide reference for the high-yield cultivation of chestnuts in Shucheng County.%总结了板栗疫病、栗瘿蜂、栗树红蜘蛛、板栗炭疽病等板栗病虫害的特征特性,并提出了防治技术,以期为舒城县板栗的高产栽培参考。

  9. A bicriterion Steiner tree problem on graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujošević Mirko B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a formulation of bicriterion Steiner tree problem which is stated as a task of finding a Steiner tree with maximal capacity and minimal length. It is considered as a lexicographic multicriteria problem. This means that the bottleneck Steiner tree problem is solved first. After that, the next optimization problem is stated as a classical minimums Steiner tree problem under the constraint on capacity of the tree. The paper also presents some computational experiments with the multicriteria problem.

  10. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant`s remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data.

  11. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This annual groundwater report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

  12. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 2000 Groundwater Monitoring Data Evaluation Report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 2000 from sampling locations in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure A.1). Prepared by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), this monitoring data evaluation report addresses applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1 -- General Environmental Protection Program -- that require: (1) an evaluation of the quantity and quality of groundwater in areas that are, or could be, impacted by Y-12 operations, (2) an evaluation of the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants from Y-12 facilities are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) an evaluation of long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1 (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). Illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  13. 新型板栗脱壳机及其技术经济分析%New Machine of Cutting Chestnut's Shell off and Its Technologi es Economical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑传祥

    2001-01-01

    Cutting chestnut's shell off is an important process in ch estnut producing.There are several me-thods of cutting chestnut's shell off .But t hese methods are not very suitable to Chinese market for some reasons.The paper compared structure and economic of those methods,and gave out a new method of cu tting chestnut's shell off .It has good economic and simple operation.%我国板栗也像其他农产品一样曾出现相对过剩 。解决过量板栗的出路在于开发各种各样的深加工新产品,而首先要解决的是板栗的脱壳去 红衣问题。目前脱壳设备国内外有多种,然而能大量适用于中国市场到目前为止还没有。本 文将对各种脱壳设备的结构、技术经济进行比较,并提供一种适用于我国国情的低价高效板 栗脱壳机。

  14. Utilization of nitrogen fixing trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewbaker, J.L.; Beldt, R. van den; MacDicken, K.; Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O.; Escalante, G.; Herrera, R.; Aranguren, J.; Arkcoll, D.B.; Doebereinger, J. (cord.)

    1983-01-01

    Six papers from the symposium are noted. Brewbaker, J.L., Beldt, R. van den, MacDicken, K. Fuelwood uses and properties of nitrogen-fixing trees, pp 193-204, (Refs. 15). Includes a list of 35 nitrogen-fixing trees of high fuelwood value. Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O. Leguminous trees for shade, pp 205-222, (Refs. 68). Escalante, G., Herrera, R., Aranguren, J.; Nitrogen fixation in shade trees (Erythrina poeppigiana) in cocoa plantations in northern Venezuela, pp 223-230, (Refs. 13). Arkcoll, D.B.; Some leguminous trees providing useful fruits in the North of Brazil, pp 235-239, (Refs. 13). This paper deals with Parkia platycephala, Pentaclethra macroloba, Swartzia sp., Cassia leiandra, Hymenaea courbaril, dipteryz odorata, Inga edulis, I. macrophylla, and I. cinnamonea. Baggio, A.J.; Possibilities of the use of Gliricidia sepium in agroforestry systems in Brazil, pp 241-243; (Refs. 15). Seiffert, N.F.; Biological nitrogen and protein production of Leucaena cultivars grown to supplement the nutrition of ruminants, pp 245-249, (Refs. 14). Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru, L. campina grande (L. leucocephala), and L. cunningham (L. leucocephalae) were promising for use as browse by beef cattle in central Brazil.

  15. View Dependent Sequential Point Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Cheng Wang; Feng Wei; En-Hua Wu

    2006-01-01

    Sequential point trees provide the state-of-the-art technique for rendering point models, by re-arranging hierarchical points sequentially according to geometric errors running on GPU for fast rendering. This paper presents a view dependent method to augment sequential point trees by embedding the hierarchical tree structures in the sequential list of hierarchical points. By the method, two kinds of indices are constructed to facilitate the points rendering in an order mostly from near to far and from coarse to fine. As a result, invisible points can be culled view-dependently in high efficiency for hardware acceleration, and at the same time, the advantage of sequential point trees could be still fully taken. Therefore, the new method can run much faster than the conventional sequential point trees, and the acceleration can be highly promoted particularly when the objects possess complex occlusion relationship and viewed closely because invisible points would be in a high percentage of the points at finer levels.

  16. Totally optimal decision trees for Boolean functions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2016-07-28

    We study decision trees which are totally optimal relative to different sets of complexity parameters for Boolean functions. A totally optimal tree is an optimal tree relative to each parameter from the set simultaneously. We consider the parameters characterizing both time (in the worst- and average-case) and space complexity of decision trees, i.e., depth, total path length (average depth), and number of nodes. We have created tools based on extensions of dynamic programming to study totally optimal trees. These tools are applicable to both exact and approximate decision trees, and allow us to make multi-stage optimization of decision trees relative to different parameters and to count the number of optimal trees. Based on the experimental results we have formulated the following hypotheses (and subsequently proved): for almost all Boolean functions there exist totally optimal decision trees (i) relative to the depth and number of nodes, and (ii) relative to the depth and average depth.

  17. Negative Tree Reweighted Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new class of lower bounds on the log partition function of a Markov random field which makes use of a reversed Jensen's inequality. In particular, our method approximates the intractable distribution using a linear combination of spanning trees with negative weights. This technique is a lower-bound counterpart to the tree-reweighted belief propagation algorithm, which uses a convex combination of spanning trees with positive weights to provide corresponding upper bounds. We develop algorithms to optimize and tighten the lower bounds over the non-convex set of valid parameter values. Our algorithm generalizes mean field approaches (including naive and structured mean field approximations), which it includes as a limiting case.

  18. Attention trees and semantic paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

    2007-02-01

    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial

  19. A distributed spanning tree algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Svend Hauge

    1988-01-01

    We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well...... as communication is asyncronous. The total number of messages sent during a construction of a spanning tree is at most 2E+3NlogN. The maximal message size is loglogN+log(maxid)+3, where maxid is the maximal processor identity....

  20. A Distributed Spanning Tree Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Sven Hauge

    We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two-way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well...... as communication is asynchronous. The total number of messages sent during a construction of a spanning tree is at most 2E+3NlogN. The maximal message size is loglogN+log(maxid)+3, where maxid is the maximal processor identity....