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Sample records for chestnut castanea crenata

  1. Weed Suppressing Potential and Isolation of Potent Plant Growth Inhibitors from Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc

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    Phung Thi Tuyen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study isolated, determined, and quantified plant growth inhibitors in Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc, a deciduous species native to Japan and Korea. In laboratory assays, C. crenata leaves showed strong inhibition on germination and seedling growth of Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyardgrass, Lactuca sativa (lettuce, and Raphanus sativus (radish. Laboratory and greenhouse trials showed that leaves of C. crenata appeared as a promising material to manage weeds, especially the dicot weeds. By GC-MS and HPLC analyses, gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, ferulic, ellagic, and cinnamic acids were identified and quantified, of which ellagic acid was present in the highest quantity (2.36 mg/g dried leaves. By column chromatography and spectral data (1H- and 13C-NMR, IR, and LC-MS analysis, a compound identified as 2α,3β,7β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid (1 was purified from the methanolic leaf extract of C. crenata (0.93 mg/g dried leaves. This constituent showed potent inhibition on growth of E. crus-galli, a problematic weed in agricultural practice. The inhibition of the compound 1 (IC50 = 2.62 and 0.41 mM was >5 fold greater than that of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (IC50 = 15.33 and 2.11 mM on shoot and root growth of E. crus-galli, respectively. Results suggest that the isolated the compound 1 has potential to develop natural herbicides to manage E. crus-galli. This study is the first to isolate and identify 2α,3β,7β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid in a plant and report its plant growth inhibitory potential.

  2. Phylogenetic and phenotypic characterisation of Sirococcus castaneae comb. nov. (synonym Diplodina castaneae), a fungal endophyte of European chestnut.

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    Meyer, Joana B; Trapiello, Estefanía; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Sieber, Thomas N; Cornejo, Carolina; Aghayeva, Dilzara; González, Ana J; Prospero, Simone

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we resolve the taxonomic status of the fungus Diplodina castaneae (Ascomycetes, Diaporthales, Gnomoniaceae) which occurs on the European chestnut (Castanea sativa) as endophyte and as the causal agent of Javart disease. Specimens from Switzerland, Spain, and Azerbaijan were sequenced at five nuclear loci (β-tubulin, EF-1α, ITS, LSU, and RPB2). Phylogenies were inferred to place D. castaneae in the Gnomoniaceae family. Moreover, growth rates and morphological characteristics on different agar media were assessed and compared to those of Gnomoniopsis castaneae, which can easily be confused with D. castaneae. Based on morphological and phylogenetic characteristics, we propose to reallocate D. castaneae to the genus Sirococcus, as S. castaneae comb. nov. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of the transcriptomes of American chestnut (Castanea dentata and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima in response to the chestnut blight infection

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    Wheeler Nicholas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background1471-2229-9-51 American chestnut (Castanea dentata was devastated by an exotic pathogen in the beginning of the twentieth century. This chestnut blight is caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, a fungus that infects stem tissues and kills the trees by girdling them. Because of the great economic and ecological value of this species, significant efforts have been made over the century to combat this disease, but it wasn't until recently that a focused genomics approach was initiated. Prior to the Genomic Tool Development for the Fagaceae project, genomic resources available in public databases for this species were limited to a few hundred ESTs. To identify genes involved in resistance to C. parasitica, we have sequenced the transcriptome from fungal infected and healthy stem tissues collected from blight-sensitive American chestnut and blight-resistant Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima trees using ultra high throughput pyrosequencing. Results We produced over a million 454 reads, totaling over 250 million bp, from which we generated 40,039 and 28,890 unigenes in total from C. mollissima and C. dentata respectively. The functions of the unigenes, from GO annotation, cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. In silico expression analyses showed that many of the stress response unigenes were expressed more in canker tissues versus healthy stem tissues in both American and Chinese chestnut. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either American or Chinese chestnut canker tissues. Conclusion Our study resulted in the identification of a large set of cDNA unigenes from American chestnut and Chinese chestnut. The ESTs and unigenes from this study constitute an important

  4. Soil preparation methods promoting ectomycorrhizal colonization and American chestnut Castanea dentata establishment in coal mine restoration

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    Jenise M. Bauman; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Shiv Hiremath; Brian C. McCarthy

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate soil subsurface methods that may aid in seedling establishment and encourage root colonization from a diverse group of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi during restoration projects. American chestnut Castanea dentata Marsh. Borkh. and backcrossed chestnuts seedlings were planted on a reclaimed coal mine site...

  5. Morphometric characteristics of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. fruits

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    Oľga Grygorieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to determine morphometric differences of fruits between selected sweet chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.. The 28 genotypes (referred as CS-01 to CS-28 were introduced by seeds from Czech Republic, Carpathians, Kyrgyzstan. Genotypes of sweet chestnut are grow more than 30 years in Forest-Steppe of Ukraine in the M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of NAS of Ukraine. They are well adapted to the climatic and soil conditions. The fruits were collected at the period of their full maturity (September. The population differs in weight, shape, size and color of fruits. Their morphometric parameters were following: weight from 1.70 g (CS-26 to 18.60 g (CS-20, length from 8.07 mm (CS-28 to 33.39 mm (CS-11, width from 16.34 mm (CS-28 to 40.95 mm (CS-11, thickness from 9.02 mm (CS-26 to 28.70 mm (CS-11 and hilum length from 6.62 mm (CS-26 to 31.30 mm (CS-07, hilum width from 6.50 mm (CS-23 to 19.99 mm (CS-07. The shape index of the fruits was found in the range of 0.81 (CS-20 to 0.98 (CS-12. The shape index of the hilum was found in the range of 1.48 (CS-04 to 2.03 (CS-23. The outcome of the research point to the fact that the genepool Ukrainian sweet chestnut is a rich source of genetic diversity and might be used in selection for creation a new genotypes and cultivars. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Cytogenetic analysis of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) using fluorescent in situ hybridization.

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    MN Islam Faridi; CD Nelson; PH Sisco; TL Kubisiak; FV Hebard; RL Paris; RL Phillips

    2009-01-01

    The American chestnut (Castanea dentata), once known as ‘The King of the Forest’ in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, has been all but extirpated by chestnut blight disease caused by an Asiatic bark fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. A group of scientists at The American Chestnut Foundation has been working since 1983 to...

  6. Facilitation of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedling establishment by Pinus virginiana in mine restoration

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    Jenise M. Bauman; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Shiv. Hiremath

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of planting sites on the establishment and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization of American chestnut (Castanea denetata (Marsh.) Borkh.) on an abandoned coal mine in an Appalachian region of the United States. Root morphotyping and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were used to identify...

  7. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill starch for industrial utilization

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    Demiate Ivo Mottin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g, lipid (5.39 g/100g, crude fiber (2.34 g/100g and ash (2.14 g/100g. Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and corn. This fraction showed more lipids and proteins than the other starches. Chestnut starch granules showed peculiar shape, smaller than the control starches and low amount of damaged units. Chemical composition concerning amylose : amylopectin ratio was intermediate to that presented by cassava and corn starch granules. Water absorption at different temperatures as well as solubility were also intermediate but closer to that presented by cassava granules. The same behavior was observed in the interaction with dimethyl-sulfoxide. Native starch granules and those submitted to enzymatic treatment with commercial alpha-amylase and also with enzymes from germinated wheat were observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Water suspensions of chestnut starch granules were heated to form pastes that were studied comparatively to those obtained with cassava and corn starches. Viscographic pattern of chestnut starch pastes showed a characteristic profile with high initial viscosity but peak absence, high resistance to mechanical stirring under hot conditions and high final viscosity. There was no way to compare it with the paste viscographic profiles obtained with the control starches. Chestnut starch pastes were stable down to pH 4 but unstable at pH 3. The water losses observed in the chestnut starch pastes after freeze-thaw cycles showed more similarity to the pattern observed in corn starch pastes as well as clarity and strength of the gel. In general the results

  8. Gnomoniopsis castanea is the main agent of chestnut nut rot in Switzerland

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    Francesca G. DENNERT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuts of sweet chestnut have been an important food source for the alpine population in Switzerland since the Middle Ages and are still valued today for the preparation of traditional food commodities. Nut quality is reduced by insect damage and by various pathogenic fungi. In the last few years, producers and consumers perceived an increase of brown nut rot; while the nut rot agent Gnomoniopsis castanea was reported locally in southern Switzerland, its presence has not been investigated over large areas until now. This study assessed the incidence of brown nut rot and identified the causal agent present in Switzerland. Fully ripened nuts were collected from the main sweet chestnut growing areas of Switzerland. A filamentous fungus morphologically identified as G. castanea was isolated from 10 to 91% of the sampled nuts, despite only 3 to 21% of the sampled nuts showing brown rot symptoms. This fungus was isolated from symptomatic chestnuts as well as from apparently healthy chestnuts. Our results suggest a possible endophytic lifestyle in ripened nuts as well as in branches, leaves and unripe nuts as previously found. Species identity of 45 isolates was confirmed by EF-1alpha, beta-tubulin and ITS sequencing. Concatenation of β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences showed that several haplotypes were present at each sampling locality. No other nut rot pathogens could be isolated in this study, suggesting that G. castanea is the main causal agent of nut rot in Switzerland. The presence of this species is reported for the first time in a site in northern Switzerland. Further studies are needed to assess the influence of meteorological conditions and chestnut varieties on the incidence of G. castanea in order to provide prevention strategies for chestnut growers. Normal 0 21 false false false FR-CH X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso

  9. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts of Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis reduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin

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    LEE, BO MI; AN, SUNGKWAN; KIM, SOO-YEON; HAN, HYUN JOO; JEONG, YU-JIN; LEE, KYOUNG-ROK; ROH, NAM KYUNG; AHN, KYU JOONG; AN, IN-SOOK; CHA, HWA JUN

    2015-01-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20–50 years w...

  10. The use of tannin from chestnut (Castanea vesca).

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    Krisper, P; Tisler, V; Skubic, V; Rupnik, I; Kobal, S

    1992-01-01

    After mimosa and quebracho extracts, chestnut extract is the third most important vegetable tannin used for leather production. It is produced only in Europe on the northern side of the Mediterranean sea. The extract is prepared by hot water extraction of the bark and timber, followed by spray-drying of the solution. Analysis shows that there are insignificant variations in extract quality between batches, so the extract can be used with modern automated leather production systems. The extract contains approximately 75 percent active tanning substances. The primary component is castalagin, along with smaller amounts of vescalagin, castalin, and vescalin. A castalagin-based pharmaceutical product is currently in use for prevention and treatment of diarrhea in pigs and cattle that is caused by changes in diet. The beneficial effect is due to prevention of water losses through mucous membranes. The castalagin may also form chelates with iron, which influences the reabsorption of the metal in the animal digestive tract.

  11. Cytotoxic triterpenoids isolated from sweet chestnut heartwood (Castanea sativa) and their health benefits implication.

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    Pérez, Andy J; Pecio, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Kontek, Renata; Gajek, Gabriela; Stopinsek, Lidija; Mirt, Ivan; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2017-11-01

    For centuries wood containers have been used in aging of wines and spirits, due to the pleasant flavors they give to the beverages. Together with oak, sweet chestnut wood (Castanea sativa) have been often used for such purpose. The maturation process involves the transfer of secondary metabolites, mainly phenolics, from the wood to the liquid. At the same time, other metabolites, such as triterpenoids and their glycosides, can also be released. Searching for the extractable triterpenoids from sweet chestnut heartwood (C. sativa), two new ursane-type triterpenoid saponins named chestnoside A (1) and chestnoside B (2), together with two known oleanen-type analogs (3 and 4) were isolated and characterized. The cytotoxicity of isolated compounds was tested against two cancer cell lines (PC3 and MCF-7), and normal lymphocytes. Breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were more affected by tested compounds than prostate cancer cells (PC3). Chestnoside B (2) exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity with an IC 50 of 12.3 μM against MCF-7 cells, lower than those of positive controls, while it was moderately active against normal lymphocytes (IC 50  = 67.2 μM). These results highlight the occurrence of triterpenoid saponins in sweet chestnut heartwood and their potential for the chemoprevention of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovery of bioactive molecules from chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) by-products through extraction by different solvents.

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    Vella, Filomena Monica; Laratta, Bruna; La Cara, Francesco; Morana, Alessandra

    2018-05-01

    The underutilised forest and industrial biomass of Castanea sativa (Mill.) is generally discarded during post-harvest and food processing, with high impact on environmental quality. The searching on alternative sources of natural antioxidants from low-cost supplies, by methods involving environment-friendly techniques, has become a major goal of numerous researches in recent times. The aim of the present study was the set-up of a biomolecules extraction procedure from chestnut leaves, burs and shells and the assessing of their potential antioxidant activity. Boiling water was the best extraction solvent referring to polyphenols from chestnut shells and burs, whereas the most efficient for leaves resulted 60% ethanol at room temperature. Greatest polyphenol contents were 90.35, 60.01 and 17.68 mg gallic acid equivalents g -1 in leaves, burs and shells, respectively. Moreover, flavonoids, tannins and antioxidant activity were assessed on the best extract obtained from each chestnut by-product.

  13. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts of Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis reduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin.

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    Lee, Bo Mi; An, Sungkwan; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Han, Hyun Joo; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Rok; Roh, Nam Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2015-05-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20-50 years were asked to apply the test materials to the face. Skin oil content, pore size, pore number and extracted sebum surface area were measured using various measurement methods. All the measurements were performed at pre- and post-application of the test materials. When the cosmetic cleanser containing DPC was applied to the skin, the oil content decreased by 77.3%, from 6.19 to 1.40. The number of skin pores decreased by 24.83%, from 125.39 to 94.23. Skin pore size decreased from 0.07 to 0.02 µm 3 (71.43% decrease). The amount of extracted sebum increased by 335% when the DPC cleanser was used. Compared to the control cleanser, skin oil content was significantly decreased when the cleanser that contained DPC was used. The cleanser containing DPC also decreased pore size and number. Finally, the DPC cleanser easily removed solidified sebum from the skin.

  14. A tangled tale of two teal: Population history of the grey Anas gracilis and chestnut teal a. castanea of Australia

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    Joseph, L.; Adcock, G.J.; Linde, C.; Omland, K.E.; Heinsohn, R.; Terry, Chesser R.; Roshier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two Australian species of teal (Anseriformes: Anatidae: Anas), the grey teal Anas gracilis and the chestnut teal A. castanea, are remarkable for the zero or near-zero divergence recorded between them in earlier surveys of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. We confirmed this result through wider geographical and population sampling as well as nucleotide sampling in the more rapidly evolving mtDNA control region. Any data set where two species share polymorphism as is the case here can be explained by a model of gene flow through hybridization on one hand or by incomplete lineage sorting on the other hand. Ideally, analysis of such shared polymorphism would simultaneously estimate the likelihood of both phenomena. To do this, we used the underlying principle of the IMa package to explore ramifications to understanding population histories of A. gracilis and A. castanea. We cannot reject that hybridization occurs between the two species but an equally or more plausible finding for their nearly zero divergence is incomplete sorting following very recent divergence between the two, probably in the mid-late Pleistocene. Our data add to studies that explore intermediate stages in the evolution of reciprocal monophyly and paraphyletic or polyphyletic relationships in mtDNA diversity among widespread Australian birds. ?? 2009 J. Avian Biol.

  15. Tannin analysis of chestnut bark samples (Castanea sativa Mill.) by HPLC-DAD-MS.

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    Comandini, Patrizia; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2014-08-15

    In the present investigation, an HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS method for the complete analysis of tannins and other phenolic compounds of different commercial chestnut bark samples was developed. A total of seven compounds (vescalin, castalin, gallic acid, vescalagin, 1-O-galloyl castalagin, castalagin and ellagic acid) were separated and quantified, being 1-O-galloyl castalagin tentatively identified and found for the first time in chestnut bark samples. Thus, this method provided information regarding the composition and quality of chestnut bark samples, which is required since these samples are commercialised due to their biochemical properties as ingredients of food supplements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Leaf physiology and biomass allocation of backcross hybrid American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedlings in response to light and water availability.

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    Brown, Caleb E; Mickelbart, Michael V; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2014-12-01

    Partial canopy cover promotes regeneration of many temperate forest trees, but the consequences of shading on seedling drought resistance are unclear. Reintroduction of blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) into eastern North American forests will often occur on water-limited sites and under partial canopy cover. We measured leaf pre-dawn water potential (Ψpd), leaf gas exchange, and growth and biomass allocation of backcross hybrid American chestnut seedlings from three orchard sources grown under different light intensities (76, 26 and 8% full photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)) and subjected to well-watered or mid-season water-stressed conditions. Seedlings in the water-stress treatment were returned to well-watered conditions after wilting to examine recovery. Seedlings growing under medium- and high-light conditions wilted at lower leaf Ψpd than low-light seedlings. Recovery of net photosynthesis (Anet) and stomatal conductance (gs) was greater in low and medium light than in high light. Seed source did not affect the response to water stress or light level in most cases. Between 26 and 8% full PAR, light became limiting to the extent that the effects of water stress had no impact on some growth and morphological traits. We conclude that positive and negative aspects of shading on seedling drought tolerance and recovery are not mutually exclusive. Partial shade may help American chestnut tolerate drought during early establishment through effects on physiological conditioning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Combustion Characteristics of Impregnated and Surface-treated Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. Wood Left Outdoors for One Year

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    Muhammed Said Fidan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treating wood with impregnating materials in order to improve resistance to burning is a commonly employed safety measure. In this study, chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. wood samples were impregnated using either Tanalith-E or Wolmanit-CB according to ASTM-D 1413-76 and surface-treated using water-based or synthetic varnish according to ASTM-D 3023. These samples were used to investigate the combustion characteristics of samples left outdoors for one year as detailed in ASTM-E 160-50. The combustion temperatures of the samples left outdoors were similar upon impregnation with either Tanalith-E or Wolmanit-CB. However, the combustion temperature of the samples treated with synthetic varnish was lower than those that were treated with water-based varnish. The time to collapse and the total duration of combustion of the samples left outdoors were shorter for those impregnated with Wolmanit-CB. Weight loss of the samples left outdoors was higher for those that were impregnated with Tanalith-E and treated with water-based varnish. Gas analysis of the samples that were left outdoors indicated that the O2 content of flue gas from samples that were impregnated with Wolmanit-CB and treated with synthetic varnish was high and the CO content of flue gas from the same samples was low.

  18. The determination of microscopic fungi from Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. fruits, leaves, crust and pollen

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    Miroslava Kačániová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant-microbial interactive relations with respect to determination of the mycoflora of the Castanea sativa Mill. nuts, crust, leaves and pollen and their effect on the host organism in four Slovak regions were studied. In the experiments were isolated 7 genera and 10 species of microscopic fungi from the nut, crust and leaves. It was found, that isolates from the Castanea sativa Mill. pollen were represented by 8 genera and 11 species of microscopic fungi. Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor and Rhizopus appeared to be the most frequently occurring genera of nuts, leaves and crust. Acremonium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Penicillium and Trichoderma are the most frequently fungi of pollen. On the base of further taxonomic determination from the genera Aspergillus were isolated and identified representatives of species A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. ochraceus, A. terreus and A. versicolor. From the genera Fusarium was isolated F. oxysporum and from Penicillium genera were isolated P. crustosum and P. glabrum. It is necessary to underline that the isolated genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium are considered as the most important producers of mycotoxins.

  19. Antioxidant potential of chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) and almond (Prunus dulcis L.) by-products.

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    Barreira, J C M; Ferreira, I C F R; Oliveira, M B P P; Pereira, J A

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant properties of almond green husks (Cvs. Duro Italiano, Ferraduel, Ferranhês, Ferrastar and Orelha de Mula), chestnut skins and chestnut leaves (Cvs. Aveleira, Boa Ventura, Judia and Longal) were evaluated through several chemical and biochemical assays in order to provide a novel strategy to stimulate the application of waste products as new suppliers of useful bioactive compounds, namely antioxidants. All the assayed by-products revealed good antioxidant properties, with very low EC(50) values (lower than 380 μg/mL), particularly for lipid peroxidation inhibition (lower than 140 μg/mL). The total phenols and flavonoids contents were also determined. The correlation between these bioactive compounds and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in pig brain tissue through formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was also obtained. Although, all the assayed by-products proved to have a high potential of application in new antioxidants formulations, chestnut skins and leaves demonstrated better results.

  1. Extracts and compounds with anti-diabetic complications and anti-cancer activity from Castanea mollissina Blume (Chinese chestnut).

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    Zhang, Lin; Gao, Hui-yuan; Baba, Masaki; Okada, Yoshihito; Okuyama, Toru; Wu, Li-jun; Zhan, Li-bin

    2014-10-28

    Castanea mollissima Blume (Chinese chestnut), as a food product is known for its various nutrients and functional values to the human health. The present study was carried out to analyze the anti-diabetic complications and anti-cancer activities of the bioactive compounds present in C. mollissima. The kernels (CK), shells (CS) and involucres (CI) parts of C. Blume were extracted with 90% alcohol. The water suspension of these dried alcohol extracts were extracted using EtOAc and n-BuOH successively. The n-BuOH fraction of CI (CI-B) was isolated by silica gel column, Sephadex LH 20 column and preparative HPLC. The isolated compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMBC, HMQC and ESI-Q-TOF MS, All the fractions and compounds isolated were evaluated on human recombinant aldose reductase (HR-AR) assay, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation assay and human COLO 320 DM colon cancer cells inhibitory assay. CI-B was found to show a significant inhibitory effect in above biological screenings. Six flavonoids and three polyphenolic acids were obtained from CI-B. They were identified as kaempferol (1), kaempferol-3-O-[6''-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), kaempferol-3-O-[6''-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-D-galactopyranoside (3), kaempferol-3-O-[2''-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), kaempferol-3-O-[2", 6"-di-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside (5) and kaempferol-3-O-[2", 6"-di-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-D-galactopyranoside (6), casuariin (7), casuarinin (8) and castalagin (9). Compounds 2-9 were found to show higher activity than quercetin (positive control) in the AR assay. Compounds 3-6, 8, and 9 showed stronger inhibitory effects than amino guanidine (positive control) on AGEs production. Compounds 4-6, 7, and 8 showed much higher cytotoxic activity than 5-fluorouracil (positive control) against the human COLO 320 DM colon cancer cells. Our results suggest that flavonoids and polyphenolic acids possesses anti-diabetes complications and anti

  2. Antioxidant activities of chestnut nut of Castanea sativa Mill. (cultivar 'Judia') as function of origin ecosystem.

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    Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Oliveira, Maria Manuela; Almeida, José; Costa, Rita; Gomes-Laranjo, José; Peixoto, Francisco

    2012-05-01

    The antioxidant properties of different ecotypes of chestnut nut (cv. Judia) were studied. Total phenolics and flavonoids were also determinated. Total phenolics amount ranged from 9.6mg/g of GAE (hottest ecotype, Murça) to 19.4mg/g of GAE (coldest ecotype, Valpaços). Gallic and ellagic acid were the predominant compounds and Valpaços had the highest values while, Murça had the lowest ones. The antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extracts were evaluated through several biochemical essays: ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity, FRAP (ferric reducing/antioxidant power) and inhibition of oxidative haemolysis in erythrocytes. In order to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of each ecotype, the EC50 values were calculated. Once again Valpaços revealed the best antioxidant properties, presenting much lower EC50 values. Climatic conditions influence seems to be a limiting factor for production of phenolic compounds and consequently for the antioxidant properties of chestnut nuts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of an Energy Biorefinery Model for Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. Shells

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    Alessandra Morana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut shells (CS are an agronomic waste generated from the peeling process of the chestnut fruit, which contain 2.7–5.2% (w/w phenolic compounds and approximately 36% (w/w polysaccharides. In contrast with current shell waste burning practices, this study proposes a CS biorefinery that integrates biomass pretreatment, recovery of bioactive molecules, and bioconversion of the lignocellulosic hydrolyzate, while optimizing materials reuse. The CS delignification and saccharification produced a crude hydrolyzate with 12.9 g/L of glucose and xylose, and 682 mg/L of gallic acid equivalents. The detoxification of the crude CS hydrolyzate with 5% (w/v activated charcoal (AC and repeated adsorption, desorption and AC reuse enabled 70.3% (w/w of phenolic compounds recovery, whilst simultaneously retaining the soluble sugars in the detoxified hydrolyzate. The phenols radical scavenging activity (RSA of the first AC eluate reached 51.8 ± 1.6%, which is significantly higher than that of the crude CS hydrolyzate (21.0 ± 1.1%. The fermentation of the detoxified hydrolyzate by C. butyricum produced 10.7 ± 0.2 mM butyrate and 63.9 mL H2/g of CS. Based on the obtained results, the CS biorefinery integrating two energy products (H2 and calorific power from spent CS, two bioproducts (phenolic compounds and butyrate and one material reuse (AC reuse constitutes a valuable upgrading approach for this yet unexploited waste biomass.

  4. Optimization of osmotic dehydration of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. slices using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Delgado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic dehydration of chestnut slices in sucrose was optimized for the first time by Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Experiments were planned according to a three-factor central composite design (α=1.68, studying the influence of sucrose concentration, temperature and time, on the following parameters: volume ratio, water activity, color variation, weight reduction, solids gain, water loss and normalized moisture content, as well as total moisture, ash and fat contents. The experimental data was adequately fitted into second-order polynomial models with coefficients of determination (R2 from 0.716 to 0.976, adjusted-R2 values from 0.460 to 0.954, and non-significant lacks of fit. The optimal osmotic dehydration process conditions for maximum water loss and minimum solids gain and color variation were determined by the “Response Optimizer” option: 83% sucrose concentration, 20 °C and 9.2 hours. Thus, the best operational conditions corresponded to high sugar concentration and low temperature, improving energy saving and decreasing the process costs.

  5. Development and characterization of fourteen novel microsatellite markers for the chestnut short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia castanea), and cross-amplification to related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Katherine A; Waits, Lisette P; Hohenlohe, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Rapid anthropogenic land use change threatens the primary habitat of the Chestnut short-tailed bat (Carollia castanea) throughout much of its range. Information on population genetic structure can inform management strategies for this widespread frugivorous bat, and effective protection of C. castanea will also benefit the more than 20 mutualistic plant species of which this bat is the primary seed disperser. To facilitate understanding of population genetic structure in this species, fourteen novel microsatellite markers were developed using restriction-site-associated DNA libraries and Illumina sequencing and tested on 28 individuals from 13 locations in Costa Rica. These are the first microsatellite markers developed for C. castanea. All loci were polymorphic, with number of alleles ranging from 2-11 and average observed heterozygosity of 0.631. Markers were also cross-amplified in three additional frugivorous bat species threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation: Sowell's short-tailed bat (Carollia sowelli), Seba's short-tailed bat (Carollia perspicillata), and the Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis), and 10, 11, and 8 were polymorphic, respectively.

  6. Castanea sativa (European Chestnut Leaf Extracts Rich in Ursene and Oleanene Derivatives Block Staphylococcus aureus Virulence and Pathogenesis without Detectable Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L Quave

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is home to a rich history of medical traditions that have developed under the influence of diverse cultures over millennia. Today, many such traditions are still alive in the folk medical practices of local people. Investigation of botanical folk medicines used in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections led us to study Castanea sativa (European Chestnut for its potential antibacterial activity. Here, we report the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of refined and chemically characterized European Chestnut leaf extracts, rich in oleanene and ursene derivatives (pentacyclic triterpenes, against all Staphylococcus aureus accessory gene regulator (agr alleles. We present layers of evidence of agr blocking activity (IC50 1.56-25 μg mL-1, as measured in toxin outputs, reporter assays hemolytic activity, cytotoxicity studies, and an in vivo abscess model. We demonstrate the extract's lack of cytotoxicity to human keratinocytes and murine skin, as well as lack of growth inhibitory activity against S. aureus and a panel of skin commensals. Lastly, we demonstrate that serial passaging of the extract does not result in acquisition of resistance to the quorum quenching composition. In conclusion, through disruption of quorum sensing in the absence of growth inhibition, this study provides insight into the role that non-biocide inhibitors of virulence may play in future antibiotic therapies.

  7. Sugars profiles of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C M; Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-03-01

    Sugar profiles of different almond and chestnut cultivars were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by means of a refractive index (RI) detector. A solid-liquid extraction procedure was used in defatted and dried samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Eurospher 100-5 NH(2) column using an isocratic elution with acetonitrile/water (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. All the compounds were separated in 16 min. The method was optimized and proved to be reproducible and accurate. Generally, more than 95% of sugars were identified for both matrixes. Sugars profiles were quite homogeneous for almond cultivars; sucrose was the main sugar (11.46 +/- 0.14 in Marcona to 22.23 +/- 0.59 in Ferragnes g/100 g of dried weight), followed by raffinose (0.71 +/- 0.05 in Ferraduel to 2.11 +/- 0.29 in Duro Italiano), glucose (0.42 +/- 0.12 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 1.47 +/- 0.19 in Ferragnes) and fructose (0.11 +/- 0.02 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 0.59 +/- 0.05 in Gloriette). Commercial cultivars proved to have higher sucrose contents, except in the case of Marcona. Nevertheless, chestnut cultivars revealed a high heterogeneity. Sucrose was the main sugar in Aveleira (22.05 +/- 1.48), Judia (23.30 +/- 0.83) and Longal (9.56 +/- 0.91), while glucose was slightly prevalent in Boa Ventura (6.63 +/- 0.49). The observed variance could serve for inter-cultivar discrimination.

  8. Modelling chestnut biogeography for American chestnut restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Songlin; Liang, Liang; Paillet, Frederick L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Chestnuts (Castanea spp.) are ecologically and economically important species. We studied the general biology, distribution and climatic limits of seven chestnut species from around the world. We provided climatic matching of Asiatic species to North America to assist the range-wide restoration...... American chestnut appears feasible if a sufficiently diverse array of Chinese chestnut germplasm is used as a source of blight resistance. Our study provided a between-continent climate matching approach to facilitate the range-wide species restoration, which can be readily applied in planning...... the restoration of other threatened or endangered species....

  9. Optimization of water curing for the preservation of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) and evaluation of microbial dynamics during process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Di Capua, Marika; Romano, Annalisa; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Chestnuts are very perishable fruits, whose quality may be compromised during postharvest handling. Damage can be caused both by insects and fungi. Water curing, a commonly used postharvest method, is based on soaking fruits in water typically for about one week. Factors that affect effectiveness of water curing have only been explained partially. A decrease in pH, likely imputable to a light fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria, may inhibit the growth of moulds. In this study a Lactobacillus pentosus strain was selected for its ability to inhibit fungi, and used as a starter culture during water curing. As second goal, a reduction of the environmental impact of the process was evaluated by using water that had been re-cycled from a previous curing treatment. Experiments were performed on pilot as well as on farm scale. In all trials, microbial dynamics were evaluated by means of a polyphasic approach including conventional and molecular-based analyses. According to results, the employment of an adjunct culture appears as a very promising opportunity. Even if no reduction in the duration of the process was achieved, waters exhibited a minor microbial complexity and fruits did not lose the natural lustre after the process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The distribution and biocultural value assessment of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. in the cadastral districts of Stredné Plachtince and Horné Plachtince (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pástor Michal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The cadastral districts of Stredné Plachtince and Horné Plachtince are situated in the southern part of the Krupinská Planina Mts. in the Carpathian Mts. and about one-third of both the districts is made up of traditional agricultural landscape. Sweet chestnut finds here suitable natural conditions for its growth. The article focuses on the chestnut biocultural value assessment in the given traditional landscape type. Firstly, the field survey concerning chestnuts and old stables identification and positioning was done. Secondly, the data were processed by the geospatial analysis tools in QGIS aiming at the evaluation of chestnuts and old stables spatial distribution in the study area. Thirdly, the chestnut biocultural value was assessed and the modification of current boundary of the given landscape type was proposed. Chestnuts most frequently occurred in the extensively used CLC patches with pastures and heterogeneous agricultural areas - “Land principally occupied by agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation”, in parallel coinciding with HNV farmlands and habitats of European importance and with local occurrence of the protected bat species. Chestnuts found in the vicinity of old stables partially confirmed their specific function in cattle breading in the past. We can conclude that sweet chestnut supports the value of the traditional landscape type of “pastoral land with meadows” and its current area could be extended correspondingly to our results.

  11. Descriptor data of Castanea accessions at the University of Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Castanea L., trees were propagated and planted in repositories at the Horticulture and Agroforestry Research Center, New Franklin, Missouri in 1996, 2002, 2009 with additional accessions acquired annually. Trees have been pruned, fertilized, irrigated, and pests controlled following Unive...

  12. Biotechnology of trees: Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.D. Nelson; W.A. Powell; S.A. Merkle; J.E. Carlson; F.V. Hebard; N Islam-Faridi; M.E. Staton; L. Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology has been practiced on chestnuts (Castanea spp.) for many decades, including vegetative propagation, controlled crossing followed by testing and selection, genetic and cytogenetic mapping, genetic modifi cation, and gene and genome sequencing. Vegetative propagation methods have ranged from grafting and rooting to somatic embryogenesis, often in...

  13. Dietary effects of oregano (Origanum vulgaris L. plant or sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. wood extracts on microbiological, chemical-physical characteristics and lipid oxidation of cooked ham during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ranucci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effect of feeding pigs with diets enriched with sweet chestnut wood (Castanea sativa Mill. or oregano (Origanum vulgaris L. extract on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of cooked pork ham. Three groups of 10 pigs were fed with a control diet (CTRL, with the CTRL diet enriched with 0.2% of oregano extract (OR and with the CTRL diet enriched with 0.2% of sweet chestnut wood extract (SCW, respectively. Six cooked hams per group were produced, sliced and packaged under a modified atmosphere (N2:CO2=80:20 and stored at refrigeration temperature (4±1°C. Three packages per cooked ham were sampled for analyses at three different storage times (0, 10 and 20 days. At day 0 time, antioxidant capacity of the products (ORACFL assay and chemical composition were performed. At each sampling time, from all the samples the following analyses were performed: Total Microbial Count (TMC, Lactic Acid Bacteria count (LAB, Enterobacteriaceae count, Listeria monocytogenes, pH value, colour coordinates (L*, a*, b*, total basic volatile nitrogen (TBVN and thio-barbituric reactive substances (TBARs determinations. No differences in TMC, LAB and Enterobacteriaceae count, pH, TBVN, chemical composition and L* values were registered between the three groups at all the sampling times considered. No Listeria monocytogenes was detected in the samples tested. Significant differences were registered for ORACFL at 0 days, a* and b* values and TBARs value at 10 and 20 days of storage, with higher values for ORACFL, a* and b* values and lower values for TBARs in SCW and OR than CTRL. No antimicrobial effect could be recorded for OR and SCW but a higher oxidative stability, also highlighted by the colour maintenance, was observed in both OR and SCW.

  14. Soil fungal communities in a Castanea sativa (chestnut) forest producing large quantities of Boletus edulis sensu lato (porcini): where is the mycelium of porcini?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peintner, Ursula; Iotti, Mirco; Klotz, Petra; Bonuso, Enrico; Zambonelli, Alessandra

    2007-04-01

    A study was conducted in a Castanea sativa forest that produces large quantities of the edible mushroom porcini (Boletus edulis sensu lato). The primary aim was to study porcini mycelia in the soil, and to determine if there were any possible ecological and functional interactions with other dominant soil fungi. Three different approaches were used: collection and morphological identification of fruiting bodies, morphological and molecular identification of ectomycorrhizae by rDNA-ITS sequence analyses and molecular identification of the soil mycelia by ITS clone libraries. Soil samples were taken directly under basidiomes of Boletus edulis, Boletus aestivalis, Boletus aereus and Boletus pinophilus. Thirty-nine ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified on root tips whereas 40 fungal species were found in the soil using the cloning technique. The overlap between above- and below-ground fungal communities was very low. Boletus mycelia, compared with other soil fungi, were rare and with scattered distribution, whereas their fruiting bodies dominated the above-ground fungal community. Only B. aestivalis ectomycorrhizae were relatively abundant and detected as mycelia in the soil. No specific fungus-fungus association was found. Factors triggering formation of mycorrhizae and fructification of porcini appear to be too complex to be simply explained on the basis of the amount of fungal mycelia in the soil.

  15. Winter Iinjury of American chestnut seedlings grown in a common garden at the species' northern range limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Thomas M. Saielli; Gary J. Hawley; Joshua M. Halman; Kendra M. Gurney

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) with Chinese chestnut (C. mollissima), followed by backcrossing to American chestnut, is conducted to increase the resistance of resulting stock to chestnut blight, caused by the fungal pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. Backcross breeding is...

  16. EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF CONDENSED TANNINS IN CASTANEA SATIVA MILL.

    OpenAIRE

    J Živković; I Mujić; G Nikolić; S Vidović; A Mujić

    2010-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins are widespread in woody plants, but are also found in certain forages. Castanea sativa Mill. are exploited for various purposes, but a little is known about potential of this species and possible application in diet and therapy. The parts of chestnut such as: seed, peeled seed, brown seed shell, red internal seed shell, leaves, catkin, spiny bur, as well as the new and old chestnut bark were extracted with 50% ethanol as an extragents. Conten...

  17. Effects of light acclimation on photosynthesis, growth, and biomass allocation in america chestnut seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Geoff Wang; William L. Bauerle; Bryan T. Mudder

    2006-01-01

    American chestnut [Castanea dentate(Marshall) Borkh.] was a widely distributed tree species in the Eastern U.S., comprising an estimated 25 percent of native eastern hardwood forests. Chestnut blight eradicated American chestnut from the forest canopy by the 1950s, and now it only persists as understory sprouts. However, blight-resistant hybrids with...

  18. Cooperative test plots produce some promising Chinese and hybrid chestnut trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse D. Diller; Russell B. Clapper; Richard A. Jaynes

    1964-01-01

    In attempts to find a chestnut tree that is resistant to the blight fungus Endothia parasitica, Asiatic chestnuts have been imported and grown in this country, and tree breeders have worked to produce hybrid trees that might be suitable substitutes for the blight-susceptible American chestnut, Castanea dentate, in timber and nut...

  19. The American chestnut and fire: 6-year research results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy L. Clark; Callie J. Schweitzer; Mike R. Saunders; Ethan P. Belair; Scott J. Torreano; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2014-01-01

    American chestnut [Castanea dentata Marsh. (Borkh.)] is an iconic species with important ecological and utilitarian values, but was decimated by the mid-20th century by exotic fungal species fromAsia. Successful restoration will require sustainable silvicultural methods to maximize survival and afford chestnut a competitive advantage over natural vegetation. The study...

  20. Allelic Frequency Analysis of Chinese Chestnut (Castanea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chengxiang Ai

    evolution and relationship between closely related wild relatives (Huang et al., .... channels for the primers CmTCR10 and CmTCR21 were blue and black, respectively. ..... eye in the PAGE maps, consequently, it limits the application of SSR ...

  1. Silvicultural and logistical considerations associated with the pending reintroduction of American chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    Traditional breeding for blight resistance has led to the potential to restore American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) to Eastern United States forests using a blight resistant hybrid chestnut tree. With prospects of pending wide-scale reintroduction, restoration strategies based on ecological and biological characteristics of the...

  2. Phylogeny of Castanea (Fagaceae) based on chloroplast trnT-L-F sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping Lang; Fenny Dane; Thomas L. Kubisiak

    2005-01-01

    Species in the genus Castanea are widely distributed in the deciduous forests of the Northern Hemisphere from Asia to Europe and North America. They show floristic similarity but differences in chestnut blight resistance especially among eastern Asian and eastern North American species. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted in this study using...

  3. Application of Biotechnology in the Conservation of the Genus Castanea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Corredoira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Castanea is a hardwood forest genus of considerable agro-economic importance for both timber and nut production. Chestnuts are one of the most significant nut crops in the temperate zone. However, this species is threatened by pollution, social factors, economical changes, and two major fungal diseases: ink disease (Phytophthora spp., and chestnut blight canker (Cryphonectria parasitica. Similar to other wood species, chestnuts are difficult to propagate both generatively by seed and vegetatively by means of grafting or cuttings. Biotechnological methods such as in vitro culture have been developed in the last few years as an alternative to conventional vegetative propagation. Biotechnology plays a very important role not only in the propagation of selected individuals (being used at a commercial level, but also in its short-term preservation, and offers the possibility of preserving the propagated material in the medium-term (cold storage or long-term using cryopreservation.

  4. Castanea sativa by-products: a review on added value and sustainable application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Nair; Rodrigues, Francisca; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill. is a species of the family Fagaceae abundant in south Europe and Asia. The fruits (chestnut) are an added value resource in producing countries. Chestnut economic value is increasing not only for nutritional qualities but also for the beneficial health effects related with its consumption. During chestnut processing, a large amount of waste material is generated namely inner shell, outer shell and leaves. Studies on chestnut by-products revealed a good profile of bioactive compounds with antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective properties. These agro-industrial wastes, after valorisation, can be used by other industries, such as pharmaceutical, food or cosmetics, generating more profits, reducing pollution costs and improving social, economic and environmental sustainability. The purpose of this review is to provide knowledge about the type of chestnut by-products produced, the studies concerning its chemical composition and biological activity, and also to discuss other possible applications of these materials.

  5. Performance of container-grown seedlings of American chestnut backcross hybrids BC3 F3 generation in central Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Stacy L. Clark; Scott Schlarbaum; Daniel C. Dey; Daniel J. Leduc

    2016-01-01

    Seedlings from two families of the BC3F3 backcross generation of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) and Chinese chestnut (C. mollissima) were cultured in 2013 in Missouri using the Root Production Method®, a container-based system used to avoid disease problems associated with...

  6. Lichenized fungi of a chestnut grove in Livari (Rumija, Montenegro)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Helmut; Drescher, Anton; Stešević, Danijela; Bilovitz, Peter O.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty taxa (59 species and 1 variety) of lichenized fungi are reported from a chestnut grove in Livari. The majority of them (55 species and 1 variety) occurred on Castanea sativa. The recently described Xylographa soralifera is new to the Balkan Peninsula. The lichenicolous fungus Monodictys epilepraria growing on Lepraria rigidula is new to Montenegro. The lichen mycota is compared with similar localities in Italy and Switzerland. The species composition in Livari is most similar to the Montieri site in Tuscany. PMID:26869743

  7. Genetic variation patterns of American chestnut populations at EST-SSRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver Gailing; C. Dana Nelson

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze patterns of genetic variation at genic expressed sequence tag - simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) and at chloroplast DNA markers in populations of American chestnut (Castanea dentata Borkh.) to assist in conservation and breeding efforts. Allelic diversity at EST-SSRs decreased significantly from southwest to northeast along...

  8. The influence of inoculated and native ectomycorrhizal fungi on morphology, physiology and survival of American chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenise M. Bauman; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Shiv. Hiremath

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of five different species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi on root colonization of native fungi on putatively blight resistant chestnut hybrids (Castanea dentata x C. mollissima) in a reclaimed mine site in central Ohio. The five species were Hebeloma crustuliniforme, Laccaria bicolor,...

  9. Resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi among seedlings from backcross families of hybrid american chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven N. Jeffers; Inga M. Meadows; Joseph B. James; Paul H. Sisco

    2012-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) once was a primary hardwood species in forests of the eastern United States. Sometime during the late 18th century, it is speculated that Phytophthora cinnamomi, which causes Phytophthora root rot (PRR) on many woody plant species, was introduced to the southeast region of...

  10. Germplasm conservation for species restoration: Examples from efforts to restore the American chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.F. Fitzsimmons; K.M. Collins; J. Westbrook; T.M. Saielli; M.D. Brinckman

    2017-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once a foundational species in much of its native range, especially in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States. Unfortunately, the species was driven to functional extinction by the accidental importation of an exotic fungal pathogen (Cryphonectria parasitica), the causal...

  11. Assessment of weather risk on chestnut production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. G.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Caramelo, L.

    2009-04-01

    to March) precipitation, the number of days with maximum temperature between 24°C and 28°C and the number of days of May with minimum temperature below 0°C is able to model the chestnut productivity with r2 equal to 0.79. It should be pointed out that the relation between weather/climate and chestnut productivity may change over time. Finally, it is important to express objectively the effects of temperature and precipitation extremes on the chestnut productivity since temperature is one of the global circulation models predicted variables with less uncertainty. With these tools will be possible to assess the weather related risk on chestnut production as well as infer about evolution of the adequate conditions to the chestnut trees in the actual plantations and about the expansion of this specie. Bounous, G. (2002) "Il castagno" [Chestnut.] - Edagricole, Bologna. [In Ital.] Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955.

  12. Molecular evidence for an Asian origin and a unique westward migration of species in the genus Castanea via Europe to North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping Lang; Fenny Dane; Thomas L. Kubisiak; Hongwen Huang

    2007-01-01

    The genus Castanea (Fagaceae) is widely distributed in the deciduous forests of the Northern Hemisphere. The striking similarity between the Xoras of eastern Asia and those of eastern North America and the divergence in chestnut blight resistance among species has been of interest to botanists for a century. To infer the biogeographical history of...

  13. Allele frequency analysis of Chinese chestnut ( Castanea mollissima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish a method for allele frequency detection in bulk samples. The abundance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products in bulk leaf samples was detected using fluorescent labeled Simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers and an Applied biosystems (AB) automatic DNA analyzer.

  14. Evaluating the Use of Tree Shelters for Direct Seeding of Castanea on a Surface Mine in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Barton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available American chestnut (Castanea dentata, once a primary constituent of the eastern hardwood forest ecosystem, was nearly extirpated from the forest canopy by the accidental introduction of chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica. An intensive breeding program has sought to breed blight resistance from Chinese chestnut into American chestnuts, while maintaining as much of the desirable American chestnut phenotypes as possible. Previous studies suggest that these blight resistant American chestnuts, termed “restoration chestnuts”, are capable of thriving on reclaimed surface mines. We direct seeded pure Chinese, pure American, and three backcross lines into brown sandstone minesoil on a mine site in Pike County, KY. To investigate the effects of tree sheltering on survival and growth, we installed tree shelters on half the plots, and left the rest of the plots unsheltered. Results indicated that shelters were highly effective at reducing initial mortality. In addition, while pure Chinese chestnut survival was highest, the three backcross lines have also survived well on this site. Our study demonstrates that American, Chinese, and backcrossed chestnuts can survive through five growing seasons on reclaimed surface mines with the use of tree shelters.

  15. Native mycorrhizal fungi replace introduced fungal species on Virginia pine and American chestnut planted on reclaimed mine sites of Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanand Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma; Jenise M. Bauman

    2014-01-01

    Plant-microbe community dynamics influence the natural succession of plant species where pioneer vegetation facilitates the establishment of a distantly related, later successional plant species. This has been observed in the case of restoration of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) on abandoned mine land where Virginia pine (Pinus...

  16. Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreira, João C.M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.

    2012-01-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. α-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition. - Highlights: ► γ-irradiation was applied to Turkish chestnuts as a conservation method. ► Doses till 3 kGy did not affect chestnuts nutritional parameters. ► Storage time influenced chestnuts chemical composition. ► Irradiation might be a suitable

  17. Assessment of the chestnut production weather dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mário; Caramelo, Liliana; Gouveia, Célia; Gomes-Laranjo, José

    2010-05-01

    satellite and meteorological data are complementary in what respects to the evaluation of the spatial and temporal evolution of the chestnut production. The satellite data proves to be very useful to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of the vegetation state in the locations of the chestnut orchads and when tested as potential predictors by means of correlation and regression analysis. Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955. Gouveia C., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C., Libonati R., Pereira J.M.C., 2008b. The North Atlantic Oscillation and European vegetation dynamics. International Journal of Climatology, vol. 28, issue 14, pp. 1835-1847, DOI: 10.1002/joc.1682.

  18. Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreira, J.C.M.; Guenaydi, T.; Alkan, H.; Botelho, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing promising features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, for Portugese cultivars. Hence, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 deg C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) was evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for fatty acids (FA), tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids, were the only FA that undergone some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected neither by storage nor irradiation. α-tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, our results confirm that gamma irradiation is a promising conservation methodology, without inducing changes in chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

  19. RESULTS OBTAINED FROM RESEARCH ON SWEET CHESTNUT FROM THE SEMI-SPONTANEOUS FLORA OF NORTHERN OLTENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecu Anca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. is present into the semi-spontaneous flora of Northern Oltenia, around old monasteries from Vâlcea County (Horezu, Bistrita, and Turnu and Gorj (Tismana and Polovragi or in the forest fund. Present study was conducted in order to improve knowledge about sweet chestnut present in this area and assess its qualities aimed at preserving indigenous genetic resources, away from genetic erosion and promoting valuable genotypes on local market, which can be used for chestnut crop recovery. 70 biotypes from Horezu, Bistrita and Dăeşti (Valcea County and Polovragi (Gorj County were taken into study. Out of these, 16 biotypes were selected. Selections were carried out based on morphological and quality characteristics of fruits from trees with large fruits (8 selections, on those with medium fruits (5 selections and with small fruits (3 selections.

  20. Sucrose effect on broomrape (Orobanche crenata) development on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Key words: Sucrose, Orobanche crenata, Vicia narbonensis and broomrape control. INTRODUCTION ... and forage legume used for livestock feed in the .... the yield of faba bean significantly (Kukula and Masri, 1984). More-.

  1. The Effect of Cryphonectria parasitica Attack on Castanea sativa Histological Properties (Case Study: Visroud Forest- Guilan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Hasani boosari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chestnut (Castanea sativa trees are generally distributed in the northern part of Iran. Chestnut trees provide eaten fruit and good-quality timber in many countries. Dried chestnut wood has a high resistance to decay due to extractive compounds, such as tannins. Chestnut wood is used for many applications, such as the construction of buildings and wooden furniture, shipbuilding, timbers, and musical instruments. This important tree species was used extensively until the occurence of the fatal disease chestnut blight (CBD caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, which is a tree pathogen notable for the disease commonly known as chestnut blight, which primarily affects species of sweet chestnut including the American sweet chestnut (Castanea dentata and European sweet chestnut (C. sativa. The pathogen has been referred to as the chestnut blight fungus. Castanea sativa has a ring-porous wood with larger early wood vessels formed in the spring. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the anatomy and the xylem vessels diameter and some ray attributes of diseased chestnut wood and healthy chestnut wood in the north of Iran. Material and Methods: The sample tree was 20 m in height and 15-40 cm in diameter. The tests specimens were taken at 1.30 m height above the ground in the form of a disc that includes the infected area. In this study the effect of the Cryphonectria parasitica was investigated in wooden and bark samples from healthy and diseased trees in three diameter classes (small medium and large. Both diseased and healthy wood samples with dimensions of 2 x 2 x 2 cm were taken from a diseased chestnut tree to determine the anatomical features of thin (8-15 μm transverse, radial, and tangential sections. This was done by using a microtome (Leica 820, Germany for the light microscopical study of wood anatomy. All of the anatomical sections were prepared as recommended by Parsa pajouh and Schweingruber (1988. Then, some thin

  2. 137Cs Behaviour in Chestnut Honey From Northwestern Croatia Two Decades After Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozmaric Macefat, M.; Rogic, M.; Nodilo, M.; Barisic, D.; Svecnjak, L.; Bubalo, D.; Popijac, M.; Kezic, N.

    2011-01-01

    Covering the large area in nectar gathering process and searching for food, honey bees yield a unique random composite sample incorporated in honey. Thus, honey represents an excellent media for studying behaviour of bioavailable elements as well as environmental pollutants. Caesium, a product of nuclear weapon testing and Chernobyl nuclear accident, still present in soils, is transferred to plants by plant uptake. It has already been established that chestnut honey can be used as a bioindicator for monitoring 137Cs many years after the Chernobyl accident. The aim of this study was to determine whether the chestnut honey is suitable for monitoring environmental pollution with 137Cs two decades after the contamination event. Chestnut honey from northwest Croatia has been analysed during the period from 2004 to 2008, for activity concentrations of 137Cs and 40K. Honey samples were collected mechanically by extracting honey from combs. Based on the pollen analysis (> 85 % of chestnut pollen grains) and measured electrical conductivity of honey (> 0.8 mS cm -1 ), honey has been identified as unifloral chestnut honey (Castanea sativa Mill.). 137Cs and 40K activity concentrations have been determined by gamma spectrometry. Decrease of 137Cs activity in chestnut honey was approximated by linear equation. The activity concentration of 137Cs in chestnut honey decreases very slowly over the time as opposed to the activity concentrations of 40K that are more or less equable. Thus, chestnut honey can be used as a good bioindicator for 137Cs even two decades after the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  3. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Du

    Full Text Available Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng, we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant

  4. Spectroscopy analysis of phenolic and sugar patterns in a food grade chestnut tannin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, A; Lagel, M-C; Parpinello, G P; Pizzi, A; Kilmartin, P A; Versari, A

    2016-07-15

    Tannin of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood, commonly used in winemaking was characterised with a spectroscopy qualitative approach that revealed its phenolic composition: several vibrational diagnostic bands assigned using the Attenuated Total Reflectance-Infrared Spectroscopy, and fragmentation patterns obtained using the Laser-Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight technique evidenced polygalloylglucose, e.g. castalagin/vescalagin-like structures as the most representative molecules, together with sugar moieties. The implication of these findings on winemaking application and the potential influence of the chemical structure on the sensory properties of wine are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploration of a rare population of Chinese chestnut in North America: stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Amy C; Woeste, Keith E; Anagnostakis, Sandra L; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2014-10-20

    With the transport of plants around the globe, exotic species can readily spread disease to their native relatives; however, they can also provide genetic resistance to those relatives through hybrid breeding programmes. American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was an abundant tree species in North America until its decimation by introduced chestnut blight. To restore chestnut in North America, efforts are ongoing to test putative blight-resistant hybrids of Castanea dentata and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima), but little is known about the ecology of C. mollissima. In a forest in northeastern USA in which C. mollissima has become established, we explored questions of stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships of C. mollissima offspring to an adjacent parent orchard. We found that C. mollissima was adapted and randomly distributed among native species in this relatively young forest. The genetics of the C. mollissima population compared with its parents indicated little effect of selection pressure as each of the parent trees contributed at least one offspring. The ease with which this exotic species proliferated calls to question why C. mollissima is rare elsewhere in forests of North America. It is likely that a time window of low animal predation allowed seedlings to establish, and the shallow soil at this site limited the maximum forest canopy height, permitting the characteristically short-statured C. mollissima to avoid suppression. Our results indicate that because C. mollissima exhibited pioneer species characteristics, hybrids between C. mollissima and C. dentata have the potential to be successful pioneer species of future forests in North America, and we challenge the paradigm that exotic tree species are wholly detrimental to native biodiversity. We contend that exotic tree species should be assessed not only by their level of threat to native species, but also by their potential positive impacts on ecosystems via hybrid breeding programmes

  6. Biological Characteristics and Control of Orobanche Crenata Forsk., a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Restuccia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic phanerogam which is particularly noxious to legumes, such as faba bean (Vicia faba L., pea (Pisum sativum L., chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris Medik., etc., and commonly considered one of the major causes which has contributed to re-rizing the area designed to their cultivation. After a few brief references on the origin and diffusion of O. crenata, in this work summarises the results of research into biological aspects and control of this species. The information obtained especially concerns seed production, seed viability, seed longevity and dormancy, seed conditioning and germination, parasitism phases, the effects of parasite attacks on host plants and the means of control.

  7. Biological Characteristics and Control of Orobanche Crenata Forsk., a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Restuccia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic phanerogam which is particularly noxious to legumes, such as faba bean (Vicia faba L., pea (Pisum sativum L., chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris Medik., etc., and commonly considered one of the major causes which has contributed to re-rizing the area designed to their cultivation. After a few brief references on the origin and diffusion of O. crenata, in this work summarises the results of research into biological aspects and control of this species. The information obtained especially concerns seed production, seed viability, seed longevity and dormancy, seed conditioning and germination, parasitism phases, the effects of parasite attacks on host plants and the means of control.

  8. Male sterility in chestnuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya

    1982-01-01

    A tentative plan was proposed for chestnuts based on their pollination system, male sterility and restoration. The studies on the male sterility of 1,063 cultivars and clones suggested that there were three types of male sterility. The first type (S-1) was characterized by antherless florets. In the second type (S-2), the catkins fell before anthesis, and the third type (S-3) appeared to develop normally in gross floral morphology, but the pollen grains were abnormal in shape and did not have germinating power. In an interspecific hybrid clone CS which belonged to S-1, fertility was restored in an open pollinated progeny. The use of CS and CSO-3 with its restored fertility, permitted the planning of breeding the chestnut hybrid cultivars propagated by seeds. The inbred clones with either male sterility or restorer genes are first bred mainly by back crossing with parents with favorable pollen. The clones are selected individually for early bearing, wasp and disease resistance, and restoration. Then, the hybrid seedling lines between male sterile and restorer inbreds are evaluated for homogenity in nut characters and tree habits. Next, the hybrid seedling lines selected will be examined for crop yield, vigor and cross compatibility. The superior seedling lines are finally selected, and the parental inbreds are grafted to be propagated for seed production orchards. (Kaihara, S.)

  9. Trigoxazonane, a monosubstituted trioxazonane from Trigonella foenum-graecum root exudate, inhibits Orobanche crenata seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Andolfi, Anna; Rubiales, Diego; Motta, Andrea

    2007-10-01

    Orobanche crenata is a major threat to grain legume production. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual legume that has been shown to effectively reduce O. crenata infection when intercropped with grain legumes. In this paper, we point that this can be attributed to allelopathy, through inhibition of the germination of O. crenata by fenugreek root exudates. The main inhibitory metabolite was isolated and characterized. Allelopathy was demonstrated in different bioassays, by inhibition of O. crenata seeds germination both by growing fenugreek and pea plants together (intercropped), and by application of fenugreek root exudates. Fenugreek root exudates were extracted with organic solvent and fractionated giving several fractions, two of which showed moderate (27%) and strong (54%) inhibition of O. crenata seed germination, respectively. The most active metabolite is a new monosubstituted trioxazonane, characterized by spectroscopic methods as the 2-butyl-[1,4,7,2]trioxazonane and named trigoxazonane.

  10. Influence of electron beam irradiation in the organic acids profile of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C.M.; Bento, Albino; Rafalski, Andrzej; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids are primary metabolites that play important roles in plant metabolism and confer distinct flavors in fruits. Their consumption is beneficial for humans, namely against certain illnesses. The food industry uses them as preservatives and flavor enhancers. In fruits conservation and transport, organic acids should be preserved at all costs in order to maintain physical quality and pleasant flavors until they reach the consumer. In 2010, due to European legislation, meth...

  11. Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Fruit Composition & Quality - Effects of Industrial Processing on Nutrients & Secondary Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Maria do Carmo Barbosa Mendes de

    2010-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências Agrárias e Florestais O castanheiro é cultivado um pouco por toda a Europa do Sul (principalmente Itália, Portugal, França e Espanha), Turquia, América do Norte, América do Sul (Chile e Bolívia), Ásia(China, Japão e Coreia), Austrália e Nova Zelândia, onde os seus frutos são consumidos em larga escala. Face ao seu conteúdo em amido, açúcares livres, fibra, proteínas, lípidos, vitaminas e sais minerais, bem como em outros compostos biologicamente activ...

  12. Hydrolyzable Tannins from Sweet Chestnut Fractions Obtained by a Sustainable and Eco-friendly Industrial Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Margherita; Pinelli, Patrizia; Romani, Annalisa

    2016-03-01

    Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood extracts, rich in Hydrolyzable Tannins (HTs), are traditionally used in the tanning and textile industries, but recent studies suggest additional uses. The aim of this work is the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS characterization of Sweet Chestnut aqueous extracts and fractions obtained through a membrane separation technology system without using other solvents, and the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiradical activities. Total tannins range between 2.7 and 138.4 mM; gallic acid ranges between 6% and 100%; castalagin and vescalagin range between 0% and 40%. Gallic Acid Equivalents, measured with the Folin-Ciocalteu test, range between 0.067 and 56.99 g/100 g extract weight; ORAC test results for the marketed fractions are 450.4 and 3050 µmol/g Trolox Equivalents/extract weight. EC₅₀ values, measured with the DPPH test, range between 0.444 and 2.399 µM. These results suggest a new ecofriendly and economically sustainable method for obtaining chestnut fractions with differentiated, stable and reproducible chemical compositions. Such fractions can be marketed for innovative uses in several sectors.

  13. Variation in the resistance of some faba bean genotypes to orobanche crenata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbes, Z.; Sellami, F.; Amri, M.; Kharrat, M.

    2011-01-01

    Four faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes were tested for their reaction to Orobanche crenata Forsk., infestation. Evaluation was carried out for two cropping seasons at the Ariana research station, Tunisia in a field naturally infested with O. crenata and in pot experiments. At maturity, the genotypes Baraca, Giza 429 and the breeding line Bader carried 2-6 times less of number of emerged parasites and 3-7 less of dry weight of emerged parasites than the susceptible cv. Bader. The average yield observed for the three resistant genotypes was two to four-fold higher than the one observed for the susceptible genotype. These resistant genotypes seemed to flower earlier and to show late orobanche establishment which gave them an advantage over the parasite. The genotype Bader, which was selected for its resistance to O. foetida, was resistant to O. crenata, showing that selecting for O. foetida resistance can protect against O. crenata infection. Besides, the two genotypes Baraca and Giza 429 selected for their resistance to O. crenata in Spain and Egypt respectively, do not present tubercle necrosis on their roots, showing that they do not respond similarly to the Tunisian population of O. crenata. These partially resistant genotypes may provide breeders with additional sources of resistance to O. crenata, and can form appropriate material for an integrated control package. (author)

  14. Upgrade of Castanea sativa (Mill.) genetic resources by sequencing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-03

    Sep 3, 2015 ... wide distribution, several Castanea species were evolved, but among them only C. .... identification and classification (Kress et al. 2005; Kress ..... D. H. 2005 Use of DNA barcodes to identify flowering plants. Proc. Natl. Acad.

  15. Risk assessment of the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus for the EU territory and identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    in its assessment that a) Castanea plants for intended planting represent the main pathway for entry of D. kuriphilus to the EU; b) D. kuriphilus has a very high potential for establishment in the EU and the climate is suitable wherever Castanea sativa is grown in southern, central and western Europe; c......The Panel on Plant Health was requested by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on the risk posed by the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus to the EU territory and to identify and evaluate risk management options. Additional analyses were conducted by the Panel...... to a) determine the distribution of the endangered area within the EU territory; b) investigate the pattern and rate of pest diffusion and c) consider the environmental risk of introduction of the biological control agent Torymus sinensis identified as a potential management option. The Panel concluded...

  16. Resistance of a Local Ecotype of Castanea sativa to Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Nugnes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The cynipid Dryocosmus kuriphilus is the most impactful invasive pest of Castanea sativa copse woods and orchards currently reported from many European countries. A low impact solution for the containment of this pest could be the use of resistant trees. We examined the resistance of the red salernitan ecotype (RSE of C. sativa to D. kuriphilus and carried out a morphological characterization of this ecotype’s plants and fruits. From November 2015 to May 2017 we observed and recorded the percentage of infested buds, healthy leaves and shoots on about 50 chestnut trees, together with the number, size, and position of galls, and the number of eggs laid by the gall wasps into the buds and the number of larvae inside the galls. We showed a progressive mortality of cynipid larvae up to the starting point of galls development when almost total larval mortality was recorded. This suggests that RSE trees have a moderate resistance to D. kuriphilus; however, resistance acts at different levels, resulting in fewer eggs being deposited, a low number of larvae reaching the complete development, and a low number of galls on the branches. Moreover, the galls on resistant trees are smaller than the susceptible ones, so the larvae are more exposed to parasitization.

  17. Inhibition of Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth by allelochemicals identified in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio; Rubiales, Diego

    2013-10-16

    Orobanche crenata is a parasitic weed that causes severe yield losses in important grain and forage legume crops. Cereals have been reported to inhibit O. crenata parasitism when grown intercropped with susceptible legumes, but the responsible metabolites have not been identified. A number of metabolites have been reported in cereals that have allelopathic properties against weeds, pests, and pathogens. We tested the effect of several allelochemicals identified in cereals on O. crenata seed germination and radicle development. We found that 2-benzoxazolinone, its derivative 6-chloroacetyl-2-benzoxazolinone, and scopoletin significantly inhibited O. crenata seed germination. Benzoxazolinones, l-tryptophan, and coumalic acid caused the stronger inhibition of radicle growth. Also, other metabolites reduced radicle length, this inhibition being dose-dependent. Only scopoletin caused cell necrotic-like darkening in the young radicles. Prospects for their application to parasitic weed management are discussed.

  18. Changes in Cryphonectria parasitica populations affects natural biological control of chestnut blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježić, Marin; Mlinarec, Jelena; Vuković, Rosemary; Katanić, Zorana; Krstin, Ljiljana; Nuskern, Lucija; Poljak, Igor; Idžojtić, Marilena; Tkalec, Mirta; Curkovic-Perica, Mirna

    2018-02-14

    Invasive species, especially plant pathogens have a potential to completely eradicate native plant species and remodel landscapes. Tripartite interaction among sweet chestnut, Castanea sativa, chestnut blight-causing invasive fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, and a hyperparasitic virus, Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirus 1 (CHV1) were studied in two populations. The number of different vegetative compatibility (vc) types of C. parasitica more than doubled over the ten years, while the hypovirulence incidence dropped in one population, and slightly increased in the other one. Over the course of our short term, three year monitoring experiment, the prevalence of hypovirulent isolates obtained from monitored cankers increased slowly, i.e. more hypovirulent isolates were being obtained from the same cankers over time. Within studied cankers considerable changes in vc type and CHV1 presence were observed, indicating a highly dynamic system in which virulent and hypovirulent mycelia, sometimes of discordant vc types, often appeared together. The increase in hypovirulence prevalence did not have any observable curative effect on the cankers, and occasionally reactivation of healed cankers by new, virulent C. parasitica isolates was observed. Both, short and long term observations and revalidation of the infected plant populations are necessary to accurately estimate disease progress and formulate an adequate disease management strategy.

  19. PHYTOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT ON N-HEXANE EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS OF Marsilea crenata Presl. LEAVES THROUGH GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Ma'arif

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency causes various health problems in postmenopausal women, including osteoporosis. Phytoestrogen emerged as a potential alternative of estrogen with minimum side effects. Green clover (Marsilea crenata Presl. is a typical plant in East Java which suspected contains estrogen-like substances. The aim of this research was to report the phytochemical properties of M. crenata using GC-MS as a preliminary study. M. crenata leaves were dried and extracted with n-hexane, then separated using vacuum column chromatography to get four fractions, after that the n-hexane extract and four fractions were identified with GC-MS. The results of GC-MS analysis showed some compounds contained in M. crenata leaves like monoterpenoid, diterpenoid, fatty acid compounds, and other unknown compounds. The results obtained in this research indicated a promising potential of M. crenata as medicinal plants, especially as antiosteoporotic agent.

  20. Comprehensive preserving technique for Chinese chestnut storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuntang; Yang Baoan; Zhang Jianwei; Li Qiufang

    2003-01-01

    Chinese chestnut can be preserved for a long time by using a comprehensive preserving technique, which consists of casing, irradiating, treating with preserving agent and controlling environment conditions. The shelftime of the treated chestnuts reaches 11 months keeping no insects, no germination and good quality for eating with the good fruit ratio of 97.5% and water losing ratio of 3.8%

  1. Molecular mapping of resistance to blight in an interspecific cross in the genus Castanea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Kubisiak; F.V. Hebard; C. Dana Nelson; Jiansu Zhang; R. Bernatzky; H. Huang; S.L. Anagnostakis; R.L. Doudrick

    1997-01-01

    A three-generation American chestnut x Chinese chestnut pedigree was used to construct a genetic linkage map for chestnut and to investigate the control of resistance to Endothia parasitica (chestnut blight fungus). DNA genotypes for 241 polymorphic markers (eight isozymes, 17 restriction fragment length polymorphisms [RFLPs], and 216 random...

  2. Growth, survival, and competitive ability of chestnut (Castanea Mill.) seedlings planted across a gradient of light levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelia C. Pinchot; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Stacy L. Clark; Arnold M. Saxton; Ami M. Sharp; Callie J. Schweitzer; Frederick V. Hebard

    2017-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in tree breeding for resistance to exotic pests and pathogens, however relatively little research has focused on the reintroduction of these tree species. Understanding the durability of resistance in field settings and the field performance of improved trees is critical for successful species reintroduction. To evaluate methods for...

  3. Gene expression analysis of molecular mechanisms of defense induced in Medicago truncatula parasitized by Orobanche crenata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, José Vicente; González Verdejo, Clara I; Dita, Miguel A; Nadal, Salvador; Román, Belén

    2009-07-01

    The infection of Medicago truncatula Gaertn. roots with the obligate parasite Orobanche crenata Forsk. is a useful model for studying the molecular events involved in the legumes-parasite interaction. In order to gain insight into the identification of gene-regulatory elements involved in the resistance mechanism, the temporal expression pattern of ten defense-related genes was carried out using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. The induction of all of the analyzed transcripts significantly increased over a range from 2- to 321-fold higher than the control depending on the gene and time point. The transcriptional changes observed in response to O. crenata infection suggest that resistance could rely on both, the induction of general defense-related genes and more specific responses.

  4. Socioeconomic Perspectives on Household Chestnut Fruit Utilization and Chestnut Blight Prevention Efforts in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Okan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Exotic pathogens, within the center of genetic diversity for the species, compromise European chestnut populations in Turkey. In Turkey today, the species is of tremendous economic, ecological and cultural importance. At this time of severe exotic pathogenic pressure on a highly-valued forest species, we ask, how does awareness of diseases and treatments as well as value for chestnut trees affect the efforts of households to manage pests and diseases of chestnut trees in Turkey? We conducted 96 surveys in 34 villages in 10 provinces across Turkey to investigate awareness of diseases and other challenges to the chestnut population, chestnut harvesting habits, family value for chestnuts and efforts to mitigate pest and disease pressure. We analyze our results using cluster and regression analysis. Our results show that based on analysis of all observed characteristics, our research sites in Turkey break cleanly into groups based on production level. Further, results demonstrate significant correlation between amount of chestnut-derived income and awareness of pests and diseases as well as the likelihood of households enacting disease mitigation measures. These results also demonstrate correlation between observed awareness of diseases and pests and the likelihood of households enacting disease mitigation measures.

  5. Mucilage production during the incompatible interaction between Orobanche crenata and Vicia sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; Lozano, M Dolores; Cubero, José I; González-Melendi, Pablo; Risueño, M Carmen; Rubiales, Diego

    2006-01-01

    Orobanche spp. (broomrapes) are holoparasites lacking in chlorophyll and totally dependent on their host for their supply of nutrients. O. crenata is a severe constraint to legumes cultivation and breeding for resistance remains as one of the best available methods of control. However, little is known about the basis of host resistance to broomrapes. It is a multicomponent event, and resistance based on hampering development and necrosis of broomrape tubercles has been reported. In the present work, the formation of mucilage and occlusion of host xylem vessels associated with the death of O. crenata tubercles were studied histologically. Samples of necrotic O. crenata tubercles established on resistant and susceptible vetch genotypes were collected. The samples were fixed, sectioned and stained using different procedures. The sections were observed at the light microscopy level, either under bright field, epi-fluorescence or confocal laser scanning microscopy. A higher proportion of necrotic tubercles was found on the resistant genotype and this was associated with a higher percentage of occluded vessels. Mucilage is composed mainly by carbohydrates (non-esterified pectins) and the presence of polyphenols was also detected. The mucilage and other substances composed by parasite secretions and host-degraded products was found to block host vessels and obstruct the parasite supply channel, being a quantitative defensive response against O. crenata in vetch, and probably also in other legumes and plants. The presence of foreign substances (i.e. parasite secretions) and host-degraded products (i.e. carbohydrates from cell walls) inside host vessels seems to activate this response and leads to xylem occlusion and further death of established Orobanche tubercles.

  6. Effect of gamma ray irradiation on seed germination of Ardisia crenata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Donghua; Xu Hong; Huang Yanping; Song Xiaomin

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of Ardisia crenata were used as experimental material and treated with gamma ray under the irradiative doses ranging from 50 to 500 Gy. The results showed that the seed germination rates were not affected under the irradiative dose of 150 Gy and below. The germination potentiality turned to reduce while the irradiative dose was higher than 250 Gy. And in the range of 300 to 500 Gy the germination rates were decreased with the increase of the irradiative dose. (authors)

  7. Analgesic properties of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguelefack, T B; Fotio, A L; Watcho, P; Wansi, S L; Dimo, T; Kamanyi, A

    2004-05-01

    The aqueous and ethanol extracts of the dry leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (300 and 600 mg/kg) were evaluated for their analgesic properties on the pain induced by acetic acid, formalin and heat in mice and by pressure on rats. The ethanol extract of K. crenata at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced an inhibition of 61.13% on pain induced by acetic acid and 50.13% for that induced by formalin. An inhibition of 67.18% was observed on pain induced by heat 45 min after the administration of the extract. The aqueous extract administered at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced a maximum effect of 25% on pain induced by pressure. These activities were similar to those produced by a paracetamol-codeine association, while indomethacin exhibited a protective effect only against the writhing test. Our results suggest that the leaves of K. crenata could be a source of analgesic compounds. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. In vitro antiviral activity of chestnut and quebracho woods extracts against avian reovirus and metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupini, C; Cecchinato, M; Scagliarini, A; Graziani, R; Catelli, E

    2009-12-01

    Field evidences have suggested that a natural extract, containing tannins, could be effective against poultry enteric viral infections. Moreover previous studies have shown that vegetable tannins can have antiviral activity against human viruses. Based on this knowledge three different Chestnut (Castanea spp.) wood extracts and one Quebracho (Schinopsis spp.) wood extract, all containing tannins and currently used in the animal feed industry, were tested for in vitro antiviral activity against avian reovirus (ARV) and avian metapneumovirus (AMPV). The MTT assay was used to evaluate the 50% cytotoxic compounds concentration (CC(50)) on Vero cells. The antiviral properties were tested before and after the adsorption of the viruses to Vero cells. Antiviral activities were expressed as IC(50) (concentration required to inhibit 50% of viral cytopathic effect). CC(50)s of tested compounds were > 200 microg/ml. All compounds had an extracellular antiviral effect against both ARV and AMPV with IC(50) values ranging from 25 to 66 microg/ml. Quebracho extract had also evident intracellular anti-ARV activity (IC(50) 24 microg/ml). These preliminary results suggest that the examined vegetable extracts might be good candidates in the control of some avian virus infections. Nevertheless further in vivo experiments are required to confirm these findings.

  9. [Sensitization to Castanea sativa pollen and pollinosis in northern Extremadura (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmes Martín, P M; Moreno Ancillo, A; Domínguez Noche, C; Gutiérrez Vivas, A; Belmonte Soler, J; Roure Nolla, J M

    2005-01-01

    Castanea sativa pollen allergy has generally been considered to be uncommon and clinically insignificant. In our geographical area (Plasencia, Cáceres, Spain) Castanea sativa pollen is a major pollen. To determine the atmospheric fluctuations and prevalence of patients sensitized to Castanea pollen in our region and to compare this sensitization with sensitizations to other pollens. Patients with respiratory symptoms attending our outpatient clinic for the first time in 2003 were studied. The patients underwent skin prick tests with commercial extracts of a battery of inhalants including Castanea sativa pollen. Serologic specific IgE to Castanea sativa pollen was determined using the CAP system (Pharmacia and Upjohn, Uppsala, Sweden). Airborne pollen counts in our city were obtained using Cour collection apparatus over a 4-year period (2000 to 2003). The most predominant pollens detected were (mean of the maximal weekly concentrations over 4 years in pollen grains/m3): Quercus 968, Poacea 660, Olea 325, Platanus 229, Pinus 126, Cupresaceae 117, Plantago 109, Alnus 41, Populus 40, Castanea 32. We studied 346 patients (mean age: 24.1 years). In 210 patients with a diagnosis of pollinosis, the percentages of sensitization were: Dactylis glomerata 80.4%, Olea europea 71.9%, Fraxinus excelsior 68%, Plantago lanceolata 62.8%, Chenopodium album 60.9%, Robinia pseudoacacia 49%, Artemisia vulgaris 43.8%, Platanus acerifolia 36.6%, Parietaria judaica 36.1%, Populus nigra 32.3%, Betula alba 27.6%, Quercus ilex 21.4%, Alnus glutinosa 20.9%, Cupressus arizonica 7.6% and Castanea sativa 7.1%. Fifteen patients were sensitized to Castanea sativa and 14 had seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. Ten patients had serum specific IgE to Castanea pollen (maximum value: 17.4 Ku/l). Castanea pollen is present in our area in large amounts from the 23rd to the 28th weeks of the year, with a peak pollen count in the 25th week. The most important allergenic pollens in northern Extremadura

  10. Analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of extracts from the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haworth (Crassulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguelefack, T B; Nana, P; Atsamo, A D; Dimo, T; Watcho, P; Dongmo, A B; Tapondjou, L A; Njamen, D; Wansi, S L; Kamanyi, A

    2006-06-15

    Kalanchoe crenata Andr. (Crassulaceae) is a fleshy herbaceous plant used in the African traditional medicine as remedies against otitis, headache, inflammations, convulsions and general debility. In the present work, the analgesic effects of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) (CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH) extract and its hexane, methylene chloride (CH(2)Cl(2)), ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions and aqueous residue have been evaluated using acetic acid, formalin and pressure test. The anticonvulsant effects of the CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract were also investigated on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ 70 mg/kg), strychnine sulphate (STN 2.5 mg/kg) and thiosemicarbazide (TSC 50 mg/kg). CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract and its fractions, administered orally at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, exhibited protective effect of at least 30% on the pain induced by acetic acid. The CH(2)Cl(2) fraction at 300 mg/kg showed a maximal effect of 78.49%. The CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract and its CH(2)Cl(2) fraction at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the first phase of pain induced by formalin while the second phase was completely inhibited. The CH(2)Cl(2) fraction produced more than 45% reduction in the sensitivity to pain induced by pressure. The CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract of Kalanchoe crenata significantly increased the latency period in seizures induced by PTZ and significantly reduced the duration of seizures induced by the three convulsant agents. The extract protected 20% of animals against death in seizures induced by TSC and STN. These results suggest a peripheral and central analgesic activities as well as an anticonvulsant effect of the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata.

  11. Antihyperglycaemic potential of the water-ethanol extract of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, René; Mboumi, Rostand Youmbi; Fondjo, Angèle Foyet; Tagne, Michel Archange Fokam; N'dillé, Gabriel Patrice Roland Mengue; Yonkeu, Jeanne Ngogang

    2008-01-01

    Kalanchoe crenata is a vegetable widely used in Cameroon and largely efficient in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of the water-ethanol extract of this plant (WEKC) on blood glucose levels was investigated in fasting normal and diet-induced diabetic rats (MACAPOS 1) after a short- and medium-term treatment. Diabetes was induced by submitting Wistar rats to a hypercaloric sucrose diet over 4 months. Six hours after a single oral administration of WEKC, 135 and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight extracts significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the blood glucose levels both in normal and diabetic rats without real dose-dependent effect. During the medium-term treatment, 200 mg kg(-1) WEKC administered daily for 4 weeks significantly reduced blood glucose levels within week 1 (P < 0.05), with a maximum effect at week 4 (-52%, P < 0.01), while maintaining glycaemia within the normal range. All the WEKC-treated diabetic rats exhibited significant (P < 0.01) increase in insulin sensitivity index (K (ITT)) compared with the initial time and to the untreated diabetic animals. Animals treated for 4 weeks exhibited a slight resistance in body-weight gain and decrease in food and water intake. The WEKC activities on all parameters assessed were comparable with the glibenclamide effects. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed that K. crenata contains terpenoids, tannins, polysaccharids, saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids. The data suggest that K. crenata might contain important chemical components that could induce significant improvement in glucose clearance and/or uptake and resistance to body-weight gain and insulin sensitivity, and could be a potent alternative or complementary therapeutic substance in the control of type 2 diabetes and other insulin-resistant conditions.

  12. Host differentiation and variability of Orobanche crenata populations from legume species in Morocco as revealed by cross-infestation and molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennami, Mounia; Briache, Fatima Zahra; Gaboun, Fatima; Abdelwahd, Rabha; Ghaouti, Lamiae; Belqadi, Loubna; Westwood, James; Mentag, Rachid

    2017-08-01

    Orobanche crenata represents a major biotic constraint to production of faba bean and lentil in Morocco. While this parasitic plant attacks both of these crops, the extent to which Orobanche biotypes specialise in parasitising specific crops is unknown. To address this question, we studied O. crenata that grew on different hosts and quantified their host specificity to faba bean and lentil. The virulence of O. crenata populations on each host was investigated through field trials, pot and Petri dishes assays. Genetic diversity of the parasite populations was also assessed through molecular analyses. The two legume species showed distinct patterns of specificity. Faba bean was more susceptible to both O. crenata populations, while the specificity for lentil by lentil-grown O. crenata was evident at the final stage of the parasite life cycle as shown by correspondence factorial analyses. Considerable internal variation (81%) within O. crenata populations parasitising both legume species was observed by molecular analyses, but significant divergence (19%; Ø = 0.189; P = 0.010) among the populations was detected. These results indicate that O. crenata can adapt to specific host species, which is important knowledge when developing integrated pest management practices for parasitic weed control. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN eMORAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30ºC during both periods, with a maximum around 20ºC. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from -1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche spp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata.

  14. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Lozano-Baena, María Dolores; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt) and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic) on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30°C during both periods, with a maximum around 20°C. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from -1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche sp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata.

  15. Breeding approaches for crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) management in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, Diego; Fernández-Aparicio, Monica; Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; Castillejo, Mari A; Prats, Elena; Sillero, Josefina C; Rispail, Nicolas; Fondevilla, Sara

    2009-05-01

    Pea cultivation is strongly hampered in Mediterranean and Middle East farming systems by the occurrence of Orobanche crenata Forsk. Strategies of control have been developed, but only marginal successes have been achieved. Most control methods are either unfeasible, uneconomical, hard to achieve or result in incomplete protection. The integration of several control measures is the most desirable strategy. [corrected] Recent developments in control are presented and re-evaluated in light of recent developments in crop breeding and molecular genetics. These developments are placed within a framework that is compatible with current agronomic practices. The current focus in applied breeding is leveraging biotechnological tools to develop more and better markers to speed up the delivery of improved cultivars to the farmer. To date, however, progress in marker development and delivery of useful markers has been slow. The application of knowledge gained from basic genomic research and genetic engineering will contribute to more rapid pea improvement for resistance against O. crenata and/or the herbicide.

  16. Performance of faba bean genotypes with Orobanche foetida Poir. and Orobanche crenata Forsk. infestation in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Trabelsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche foetida Poir. and O. crenata Forsk. are major constraints to faba bean (Vicia faba L. cultivation in Tunisia. To evalúate the different levels of resistance of seven small-seeded faba bean genotypes to these parasitic weed species, three trials were conducted in fields infested and non-infested with O. foetida in the Oued Beja Agricultural Experimental Unit and O. crenata in an experimental field at Ariana of the National Institute of Agricultural Research during three cropping seasons. Compared to the susceptible cv. Bad'i, the seven genotypes showed moderate to high levels of resistance to both Orobanche species. The number and dry weight of emerged broomrapes and underground tubercles recorded on the new improved genotypes were lower than those recorded on released and resistant 'Najeh' and 'Baraca'. The parasitism index on the new genotypes varied from 2-6 times less than susceptible 'Bad'i' in both Oued-Beja and Ariana. Yield reduction due to O.foetida infection varied from 13.5% on genotype XAR-VF00.13-89-2-1-1-1-1 to 59.7% on 'Baraca', whereas the yield loss was about 92% on the susceptible control. Parasitic infection did not affect dry grain protein accumulation in the tested genotypes.

  17. The effect of Orobanche crenata infection severity in faba bean, field pea, and grass pea productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Fernandez-Aparicio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Broomrape weeds (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp. are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops i.e. faba bean, field pea and grass pea. Regression functions modelled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2 and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The proportion of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host-parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than 4 parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size

  18. The Effect of Orobanche crenata Infection Severity in Faba Bean, Field Pea, and Grass Pea Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Flores, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape weeds ( Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops, i.e., faba bean, field pea, and grass pea. Regression functions modeled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2, and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea, and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The increase of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host-parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than four parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size. In contrast

  19. Effect of chestnut extract and chestnut fiber on viability of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains under gastrointestinal tract conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; La Gatta, Barbara; Di Capua, Marika; Di Luccia, Aldo; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The main challenge to probiotics, during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract, are the acidic gastric secretions of the stomach, and the bile salts released into the duodenum. The survival of the strains, in this phase, is strongly influenced by the food used for their delivery. This work is part of a project studying the development of novel food processes, based on the use of chestnuts from cultivar "Castagna di Montella". In detail, the effect of indigestible chestnut fiber and of chestnut extract on the viability of selected lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated. Among 28 cultures, twelve strains were selected, on the basis of tolerance to low pH values and bile salts, and submitted to exposition to simulated gastric or bile juice in presence of chestnut extract with or without immobilization in chestnut fiber. The presence of chestnut extract proved to play a significant role on the gastric tolerance improvement of lactobacilli. The recorded protective effect could not be simply related to the starch or reducing sugars content. RP-HPLC demonstrated that in the chestnut flour, there are one or more hydrophobic peptides or oligopeptides, which specifically offer a marked resistance to simulated gastric juice, albeit present at low concentration. These beneficial effects proved to be dependent by the cultivar used to produce the flour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanisms of protection of pea plants by polysaccharides extracted from a strain of Rhizobium against Orobanche crenata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairi, Hanene; Temani, Randa

    2009-01-01

    The Broomrape causes notable damage on the leguminous crops and became major factor limiting production of pea in the Mediterranean region. The effect of the polysaccharides extracted from P.SOM Rhizobium strain on the development of Orobanche crenata on pea was studied. The results showed that the lipopolysaccharides significantly reduce the infestation of pea by O. crenata. This limitation of infestation results from the reduction of seeds germination rates of the parasite resulting in reduction of the tubercles number on pea roots. Moreover, necrosis of orobanche before or after attachment on pea roots treated by LPS can explain this reduction of parasitism. A correlation was observed between the reduction of pea infection by the broomrape and the activation phenolic compounds pathway. This activation resulted to increase of two enzymes (peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase) activities these enzymes are implicated in plant defense. The results of our study showed that the LPS seem implied in the induction of pea resistance against the broomrape.

  1. Interaction between Orobanche crenata and its host legumes: unsuccessful haustorial penetration and necrosis of the developing parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-DE-Luque, A; Rubiales, D; Cubero, J I; Press, M C; Scholes, J; Yoneyama, K; Takeuchi, Y; Plakhine, D; Joel, D M

    2005-05-01

    Orobanche species represent major constraints to crop production in many parts of the world as they reduce yield and alter root/shoot allometry. Although much is known about the histology and effect of Orobanche spp. on susceptible hosts, less is known about the basis of host resistance to these parasites. In this work, histological aspects related to the resistance of some legumes to Orobanche crenata have been investigated in order to determine which types of resistance responses are involved in the unsuccessful penetration of O. crenata. Samples of resistance reactions against O. crenata on different genotypes of resistant legumes were collected. The samples were fixed, sectioned and stained using different procedures. Sections were observed using a transmission light microscope and by epi-fluorescence. Lignification of endodermal and pericycle host cells seems to prevent parasite intrusion into the root vascular cylinder at early infection stages. But in other cases, established tubercles became necrotic and died. Contrary to some previous studies, it was found that darkening at the infection site in these latter cases does not correspond to death of host tissues, but to the secretion of substances that fill the apoplast in the host-parasite interface and in much of the infected host tissues. The secretions block neighbouring host vessels. This may interfere with the nutrient flux between host and parasite, and may lead to necrosis and death of the developing parasite. The unsuccessful penetration of O. crenata seedlings into legume roots cannot be attributed to cell death in the host. It seems to be associated with lignification of host endodermis and pericycle cells at the penetration site. The accumulation of secretions at the infection site, may lead to the activation of xylem occlusion, another defence mechanism, which may cause further necrosis of established tubercles.

  2. Validation of QTLs for Orobanche crenata resistance in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) across environments and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ruiz, Ramón; Torres, A M; Satovic, Z; Gutierrez, M V; Cubero, J I; Román, Belén

    2010-03-01

    Broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) is a major root-parasite of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), that seriously limits crop cultivation in the whole Mediterranean area. This parasitic weed is difficult to control, difficult to evaluate and the resistance identified so far is of polygenic nature. This study was conducted to identify genetic regions associated with broomrape resistance in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and to validate their previous location in the original F(2) population derived from the cross between lines Vf6 and Vf136. A progeny consisting of 165 F(6) RILs was evaluated in three environments across two locations in 2003 and 2004. Two hundred seventy seven molecular markers were assigned to 21 linkage groups (9 of them assigned to specific chromosomes) that covered 2,856.7 cM of the V. faba genome. The composite interval mapping on the F(6) map detected more quantitative trait loci (QTL) than in the F(2) analysis. In this sense, four QTLs controlling O. crenata resistance (Oc2-Oc5) were identified in the RI segregant population in three different environments. Only Oc1, previously reported in the F(2) population, was not significant in the advanced lines. Oc2 and Oc3 were found to be associated with O. crenata resistance in at least two of the three environments, while the remaining two, Oc4 and Oc5, were only detected in Córdoba-04 and Mengíbar-04 and seemed to be environment dependent.

  3. Protein cross-linking, peroxidase and beta-1,3-endoglucanase involved in resistance of pea against Orobanche crenata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; González-Verdejo, Clara I; Lozano, M Dolores; Dita, Miguel A; Cubero, José I; González-Melendi, Pablo; Risueño, María C; Rubiales, Diego

    2006-01-01

    Root holoparasitic angiosperms, like Orobanche spp, completely lack chlorophyll and totally depend on their host for their supply of nutrients. O. crenata is a severe constraint to the cultivation of legumes and breeding for resistance remains the most economical, feasible, and environmentally friendly method of control. Due to the lack of resistance in commercial pea cultivars, the use of wild relatives for breeding is necessary, and an understanding of the mechanisms underlying host resistance is needed in order to improve screening for resistance in breeding programmes. Compatible and incompatible interactions between O. crenata and pea have been studied using cytochemical procedures. The parasite was stopped in the host cortex before reaching the central cylinder, and accumulation of H2O2, peroxidases, and callose were detected in neighbouring cells. Protein cross-linking in the host cell walls appears as the mechanism of defence, halting penetration of the parasite. In situ hybridization studies have also shown that a peroxidase and a beta-glucanase are differently expressed in cells of the resistant host (Pf651) near the penetration point. The role of these proteins in the resistance to O. crenata is discussed.

  4. Effect of methanolic fraction of Kalanchoe crenata on metabolic parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, René; Foyet, Angèle F; Essame, Jean-Louis O; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Kalanchoe crenata methanolic fraction (MEKC) on proteinuria, glucosuria, and some other biochemical parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats. Ether anesthetized rats received three intravenous injections (days 0, 14, and 28) of 2 mg/kg body weight of adriamycin. Repeated doses of the extract (0, 50, and 68 mg/kg b.w.) and losartan (10 mg/kg b.w.) were administered orally once daily, for 6 weeks, to these rats. Kidney functions were assessed through biochemical parameters. MEKC decreased proteinuria and also the urinary excretion of creatinine, glucose, and urea significantly in diseased rats. A decrease in serum levels of creatinine, urea, potassium, alkaline phosphatase, conjugate bilirubin, and alanine transaminase level was also recorded in nephropathic rats, but plasma levels of uric acid and glucose remained unchanged. Moreover, the plant extract markedly (P < 0.05) increased plasma sodium and decreased (P < 0.01) the urinary sodium and potassium levels. The results indicated that the treatment with the methanolic fraction of K. crenata may improve proteinuria and all other symptoms due to adriamycin-induced nephropathy and, more than losartan, could ameliorate kidney and liver functions. K. crenata could be a potential source of new oral antinephropathic drug.

  5. Spoilage fungi and their mycotoxins in commercially marketed chestnuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overy, David Patrick; Seifert, K.A.; Savard, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    A nationwide survey was carried out to assess mould spoilage of Castanea sativa nuts sold in Canadian grocery stores in 1998-99. Morphological and cultural characters, along with secondary metabolite profiles derived from thin-layer chromatography, were used to sort and identify fungi cultured from...

  6. Knee osteoarthritis in a chestnut farmer – Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mattioli

    2017-03-01

    Considering the lack of major individual risk factors for knee OA, it is reasonable to suppose that five decades of exposure to biomechanical overload as a chestnut farmer was a relevant risk factor for the onset of the disease.

  7. Myiasis by Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae in Panama Miasis ocasionada por Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae en Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Herrera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the parasitism of an unidentified species of Philornis, extracted from a juvenile Dendroica castanea that was collected from Pipeline Road of the Soberania National Park of Panama. This finding is unusual since Philornis spp. parasitizes nested chicks. On the other hand, this is the first time that this parasite is reported in D. castanea.Registramos el parasitismo de una especie no identificada de Philornis extraída de un juvenil de Dendroica castanea, capturada en el Sendero del Oleoducto del Parque Nacional Soberanía. Este hallazgo es inusual ya que Philornis spp. parasita principalmente polluelos en nidos. Del mismo modo, el presente constituye el primer registro del parásito en D. castanea.

  8. Residues of diflubenzuron on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) leaves and their efficacy against the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejmanová, Jana; Cvacka, Josef; Hrdý, Ivan; Kuldová, Jelena; Mertelík, Josef; Muck, Alexander; Nesnerová, Petra; Svatos, Ales

    2006-03-01

    Residues of the insect growth regulator diflubenzuron were quantified on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) leaves treated with a diflubenzuron 480 g litre(-1) SC, Dimilin. To analyse the samples, an analytical procedure was developed involving a simple extraction step followed by high-performance liquid chromatography on an octadecyl-modified silica column with methanol + 0.01 M ammonium acetate mobile phase. The results showed diflubenzuron to be highly stable on horse chestnut leaves; more than 4 months (127 days) after application, 38% (on average) of the insecticide still remained on/in the leaves. The data confirmed biological observations showing diflubenzuron's long-term efficacy against the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimić, which is the most important pest of the horse chestnut in Europe. The hypothesis of possible penetration of diflubenzuron into the leaf mass is explored and discussed.

  9. Translocation of radiocesium released by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in Japanese chestnut and chestnut weevil larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yoshito; Ishii, Yasuo; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Niizato, Tadafumi

    2016-01-01

    To examine the translocation of radiocesium scattered by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident that occurred in March 2011 to the Japanese chestnut, we investigated the autoradiography and radiocesium concentration in each part of Japanese chestnuts. The Japanese chestnut fruit has a thin skin between the kernel (cotyledons) and shell; the kernel of the fruit is edible. The 137 Cs concentration in each part of the fruit was found to be almost the same at about 1.0 × 10 4 Bq·kg -1 DW, as well as leaves. The radiocesium concentration in chestnut weevil larvae found on the fruit was approximately one-seventh of that in the kernel. (author)

  10. Essais préliminaires d'utilisation de Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulacée dans la prophylaxie et le traitement de la coccidiose aviaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbédé, G.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies on the utilization of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulacea in the prophylaxis and treatment of avian coccidiosis. In an experiment aiming at evaluating the efficiency of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulacea leaves in preventing avian coccidiosis as compared to "Amprolsol" (Amprolium, MSD, 90 "Hybro lourd" breed of broiler chickens were divided into 3 equal groups : A (control, B (treated with infusions of K. crenata leaves, and C (treated with "Amprolsol". Based on the number of oocysts per gram of feces (opg noted until the 7th week of the experiment, it was shown that K. crenata limited oocyst excretion (73.9 % reduction compared to the control treatment, but this occured to a lesser extend than "Amprolsol" (95.7 % reduction compared to the control. In a second experiment designed to compare the effects of the plant in reducing oocyst output to those of the commercial drug, 60 "Hybro lourd" chickens were divided into 2 equal groups D (treated with plant infusions and E (treated with "Amprolsol". The commercial drug reduced the opg by 96.3 % against a 73.4 % reduction for the plant. Given the encouraging results this experiment produced, more advanced studies have to be undertaken to more efficiently use and find the active anticoccidial principles in K. crenata leaves.

  11. Leaf physiology and morphology of Castanea dentata (Marsh) Borkh., Castanea mollissima Blume, and three backcross breeding generations planted in the southern Appalachians, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Stacy L Clark; Lauren S. Pile; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2014-01-01

    Backcross breeding programs have been used to transfer disease resistance and other traits from one forest tree species to another in order to meet restoration objectives. Evaluating the field performance of such material is critical for determining the success of breeding programs. In eastern North America, The American Chestnut Foundation has a backcross breeding...

  12. Hepatoprotective Effect of Essential Oils from Hyptis crenata in Sepsis-Induced Liver Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Glauber Cruz; Vasconcelos, Yuri de Abreu Gomes; de Santana Souza, Marilia Trindade; Oliveira, Alan Santos; Bomfim, Rangel Rodrigues; de Albuquerque Júnior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Camargo, Enilton Aparecido; Portella, Viviane Gomes; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Diniz, Lúcio Ricardo Leite

    2018-02-28

    No specific therapeutics are available for the treatment of sepsis-induced liver dysfunction, a clinical complication strongly associated with the high mortality rate of septic patients. This study investigated the effect of the essential oil of Hyptis crenata (EOHc), a lamiaceae plant used to treat liver disturbances in Brazilian folk medicine, on liver function during early sepsis. Sepsis was induced by the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Rats were divided into four groups: Sham, Sham+EOHc, CLP, and CLP+EOHc. EOHc (300 mg/kg) was orally administered 12 and 24 h after surgery. The animals were sacrificed for blood collection and liver tissue samples 48 h after surgery. Hepatic function was evaluated by measuring serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The levels of malondialdehyde and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and GSH peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured for assessment of oxidative stress. Liver morphology was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. EOHc normalized serum ALP, ALT, and bilirubin levels and inhibited morphological changes. In addition, we observed that EOHc inhibited elevation in hepatic lipid peroxidation and reduction of the glutathione peroxidase activity induced by sepsis. Our data show that EOHc plays a protective effect against liver injury induced by sepsis.

  13. [Effect of bamboo leaf biochar addition on soil CO2 efflux and labile organic carbon pool in a Chinese chestnut plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-Lei; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Liu, Juan

    2014-11-01

    Effect of biochar addition on soil CO2 efflux in a typical Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) plantation in Lin'an, Zhejiang Province, China was investigated from July 2012 to July 2013 by the static closed chamber-GC technique. Soil temperature, soil moisture, WSOC and MBC concentrations were determined as well. Results showed that soil CO2 efflux exhibited a strong sea- sonal pattern. Compared with the control (without biochar application), the biochar treatment increased the soil CO2 efflux only in the first month since application, and then the effect diminished thereafter. There were no significant differences in the annual cumulative value of soil CO2 efflux between the biochar and control treatments. The annual mean value in soil MBC concentration (362 mg · kg(-1)) in the biochar treatment was higher than that (322 mg · kg(-1)) in the control. However, no significant difference in the soil WSOC concentration was found between the biochar and control treatments. Strong exponential relationships between soil temperature and soil CO2 efflux were observed regardless of the treatment and soil layer. The apparent temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil CO2 efflux in the biochar treatment was higher than that in the control. Soil CO2 efflux was related to soil WSOC concentration but not with soil MBC or moisture content. To conclude, the application of bamboo leaf biochar did not affect the annual cumulative CO2 emission in the Chinese chestnut plantation but increased the Q10, and the CO2 efflux was predominantly controlled by the soil temperature and soil WSOC level.

  14. The efficiency of introduced pisolithus tinctorius inoculum on backcrossed chestnut germination and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenise M. Bauman; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Shiv. Hiremath

    2012-01-01

    American chestnut was eliminated as a canopy tree from the Appalachian region of North America with the introduction of chestnut blight in the early 1900s. Breeding programs initiated in the 1980s have produced seedling lines that display the pure American morphology with potential resistance to chestnut blight. More work is required to assess their field performance...

  15. Quantification of minerals and tocopherols isomers in chestnuts approach chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Evelazio de Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The levels of the ?, ?, and (?+?-tocopherol isomers and the amounts of the minerals Se, Zn, Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Mg, and Cu were analyzed in chestnuts. High contents of Zn (>65% relative to the recommended dietary intake (RDI were found in all chestnuts except macadamia nuts (25% of the RDI. All samples had Se contents higher than the RDI: Brazil nuts > macadamia nuts, cashew nuts > pecans > almonds > pistachio nuts > hazelnuts > European nuts. A greater concentration of ?-tocopherol was found in almonds (30% of RDI. All samples, except for hazelnuts, almonds, and macadamia nuts, had (?+?- tocopherols, with the largest amount found in pistachios. Only pecan nuts and European nuts had ?-tocopherol and only in low amounts. Multivariate analysis allowed for better characterization and distinction of the chestnuts

  16. Differential expression proteomics to investigate responses and resistance to Orobanche crenata in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rubiales

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic angiosperm Orobanche crenata infection represents a major constraint for the cultivation of legumes worldwide. The level of protection achieved to date is either incomplete or ephemeral. Hence, an efficient control of the parasite requires a better understanding of its interaction and associated resistance mechanisms at molecular levels. Results In order to study the plant response to this parasitic plant and the molecular basis of the resistance we have used a proteomic approach. The root proteome of two accessions of the model legume Medicago truncatula displaying differences in their resistance phenotype, in control as well as in inoculated plants, over two time points (21 and 25 days post infection, has been compared. We report quantitative as well as qualitative differences in the 2-DE maps between early- (SA 27774 and late-resistant (SA 4087 genotypes after Coomassie and silver-staining: 69 differential spots were observed between non-inoculated genotypes, and 42 and 25 spots for SA 4087 and SA 27774 non-inoculated and inoculated plants, respectively. In all, 49 differential spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF following MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Many of the proteins showing significant differences between genotypes and after parasitic infection belong to the functional category of defense and stress-related proteins. A number of spots correspond to proteins with the same function, and might represent members of a multigenic family or post-transcriptional forms of the same protein. Conclusion The results obtained suggest the existence of a generic defense mechanism operating during the early stages of infection and differing in both genotypes. The faster response to the infection observed in the SA 27774 genotype might be due to the action of proteins targeted against key elements needed for the parasite's successful infection, such as protease inhibitors. Our data are discussed and

  17. Differential expression proteomics to investigate responses and resistance to Orobanche crenata in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillejo, Ma Angeles; Maldonado, Ana M; Dumas-Gaudot, Eliane; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Susín, Rafael; Diego, Rubiales; Jorrín, Jesús V

    2009-07-03

    Parasitic angiosperm Orobanche crenata infection represents a major constraint for the cultivation of legumes worldwide. The level of protection achieved to date is either incomplete or ephemeral. Hence, an efficient control of the parasite requires a better understanding of its interaction and associated resistance mechanisms at molecular levels. In order to study the plant response to this parasitic plant and the molecular basis of the resistance we have used a proteomic approach. The root proteome of two accessions of the model legume Medicago truncatula displaying differences in their resistance phenotype, in control as well as in inoculated plants, over two time points (21 and 25 days post infection), has been compared. We report quantitative as well as qualitative differences in the 2-DE maps between early- (SA 27774) and late-resistant (SA 4087) genotypes after Coomassie and silver-staining: 69 differential spots were observed between non-inoculated genotypes, and 42 and 25 spots for SA 4087 and SA 27774 non-inoculated and inoculated plants, respectively. In all, 49 differential spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) following MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Many of the proteins showing significant differences between genotypes and after parasitic infection belong to the functional category of defense and stress-related proteins. A number of spots correspond to proteins with the same function, and might represent members of a multigenic family or post-transcriptional forms of the same protein. The results obtained suggest the existence of a generic defense mechanism operating during the early stages of infection and differing in both genotypes. The faster response to the infection observed in the SA 27774 genotype might be due to the action of proteins targeted against key elements needed for the parasite's successful infection, such as protease inhibitors. Our data are discussed and compared with those previously obtained with pea 1 and

  18. A proteomic approach to studying plant response to crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata) in pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles Castillejo, M; Amiour, Nardjis; Dumas-Gaudot, Eliane; Rubiales, Diego; Jorrín, Jesús V

    2004-06-01

    Crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata) is a parasitic plant that threatens legume production in Mediterranean areas. Pea (Pisum sativum) is severely affected, and only moderate levels of genetic resistance have so far been identified. In the present work we selected the most resistant accession available (Ps 624) and compared it with a susceptible (Messire) cultivar. Experiments were performed by using pot and Petri dish bioassays, showing little differences in the percentage of broomrape seed germination induced by both genotypes, but a significant hamper in the number of successfully installed tubercles and their developmental stage in the Ps 624 compared to Messire. The protein profile of healthy and infected P. sativum root tissue were analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Approximately 500 individual protein spots could be detected on silver stained gels. At least 22 different protein spots differentiated control, non-infected, Messire and Ps 624 accessions. Some of them were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and database searching as cysteine proteinase, beta-1,3-glucanase, endochitinase, profucosidase, and ABA-responsive protein. Both qualitative and quantitative differences have been found among infected and non-infected root extracts. Thus, in the infected susceptible Messire genotype 34 spots were decreased, one increased and three newly detected, while in Ps 624, 15 spots were increased, three decreased and one newly detected. In response to the inoculation, proteins that correspond to enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism (fructokinase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase), nitrogen metabolism (ferredoxin-NADP reductase) and mitochondrial electronic chain transport (alternative oxidase 2) decreased in the susceptible check, while proteins that correspond to enzymes of the nitrogen assimilation pathway (glutamine synthetase) or typical pathogen defence, PR proteins, including beta-1,3-glucanase and peroxidases, increased in Ps 624. Results are

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A TECHNOLOGY FOR LOW IN GLUTEN CHESTNUT PUREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlina Paraskova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the scientific research related to technologies for processing and implementation of chestnut products are aimed to establish the regimes of preliminary treatment of the nuts, such as devitalization, hydrotherapy, thermo-hydro therapy, refrigeration and freezing with the scope of long term storage of the raw material in disguise of peeled, unpeeled, cooled, chilled and etc. chestnut. Additionally added value products can be designed to designate some specific target group like consumers with food allergies, obese people as well as pupils’ nutrition

  20. Comparative anatomy of leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata and K. crenata in sun and shade conditions, as a support for their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattacha S. Moreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam. Pers. and K. crenata (Andrews Haw., Crassulaceae, are popularly used in the treatment of many diseases. Their biological activities, such as anti-leishmaniasis and analgesic, can be useful in phytotherapy. Both species are often misidentified as the other, because of their similar popular uses and names, and the similar external morphology of the leaves. We investigated the existence of anatomical characters that will permit correct identification of the species grown in shade and in sun conditions. We also contribute with new observations on the leaf anatomy of K. pinnata and K. crenata. Fixed (FAA70 leaves were used, and their sections were embedded in Leica historesin. Hydathodes were observed in both species, and for the first time were anatomically described in K. crenata. The species showed anatomical differences in relation to the presence of epidermal idioblasts only in K. crenata, the different pattern of distribution of subepidermal idioblasts, and the presence of leaf buds only in K. pinnata.

  1. N-Phthaloylglycine-derived strigol analogues. Influence of the D-ring on the seed germination activity of the parasitic weeds Striga hermonthica and Orobanche crenata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuring, J.W.J.F.; Bitter, J.H.; Kok, M.M.K. de; Nefkens, G.H.L.; Riel, A.M.D.A. van; Zwanenburg, B.

    1997-01-01

    Several strigol analogues with modifications in the D-ring were synthesized and assayed for germination stimulatory activity of seeds of Striga hermothica and Orobanche crenata. All of these D-ring analogues are derived from N-phthaloylglycine as the common ABC-fragment. It was concluded that the

  2. Comparative anatomy of leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata and K. crenata in sun and shade conditions, as a support for their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattacha S. Moreira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam. Pers. and K. crenata (Andrews Haw., Crassulaceae, are popularly used in the treatment of many diseases. Their biological activities, such as anti-leishmaniasis and analgesic, can be useful in phytotherapy. Both species are often misidentified as the other, because of their similar popular uses and names, and the similar external morphology of the leaves. We investigated the existence of anatomical characters that will permit correct identification of the species grown in shade and in sun conditions. We also contribute with new observations on the leaf anatomy of K. pinnata and K. crenata. Fixed (FAA70 leaves were used, and their sections were embedded in Leica historesin. Hydathodes were observed in both species, and for the first time were anatomically described in K. crenata. The species showed anatomical differences in relation to the presence of epidermal idioblasts only in K. crenata, the different pattern of distribution of subepidermal idioblasts, and the presence of leaf buds only in K. pinnata.

  3. In Vitro Evaluation of Reversible and Time-Dependent Inhibitory Effects of Kalanchoe crenata on CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Bouic, Patrick J; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Kalanchoe crenata popularly known as "dog's liver" is used in most African countries for the treatment of chronic diseases such as diabetes, asthma and HIV/AIDS related infections. The evaluation of K. crenata for herb-drug interactions has not been reported. This study therefore aims to evaluate the risk of K. crenata for herb-drug interaction in vitro. Crude methanol and fractions of K. crenata were incubated and preincubated with recombinant human CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Comparative studies were conducted in both human liver microsomes and recombinant human CYP to ascertain the inhibition profile of the crude extract and the various fractions. The cocktail approach of recombinant human CYPs was conducted to confirm the inhibition potential of the fractions in the presence of other CYPs. The results showed significant time-dependent inhibition of tested samples on CYP3A4 with crude methanol (39KC), fractions 45A, 45B and 45D given IC50 fold decrease of 3.29, 2.26, 1.91 and 1.49, respective. Time dependent kinetic assessment of 39KC and 45D showed KI and kinact values for 39KC as 1.77 µg/mL and 0.091 min(-1) while that of 45D were 6.45 µg/mL and 0.024 min(-1), respectively. Determination of kinact based on IC50 calculations yielded 0.015 and 0.04 min(-1) for 39KC and 45D, respectively. Cocktail approach exhibited fold decreases in IC50 for all test fractions on CYP3A4 within the ranges of 2.10 - 4.10. At least one phytoconstituent in the crude methanol extract of Kalanchoe crenata is a reversible and time-dependent inhibitor of CYP3A4.

  4. Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelle, R.H.; Huff, D.D.

    1984-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables

  5. Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot?

    OpenAIRE

    Rendo, Fernando; Iriondo, Mikel; Manzano, Carmen; Estonba, Andone

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E allele produces black or bay coat horses. Because black or bay colored coats are considered as the purebred phe...

  6. Cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of Elephantopus mollis, Kalanchoe crenata and 4 other Cameroonian medicinal plants towards human carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuete, Victor; Fokou, Fabrice W; Karaosmanoğlu, Oğuzhan; Beng, Veronique P; Sivas, Hülya

    2017-05-25

    Cancer still constitutes one of the major health concerns globally, causing serious threats on patients, their families, and the healthcare system. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of Elephantopus mollis whole plant (EMW), Enantia chlorantha bark (ECB), Kalanchoe crenata leaves (KCL), Lophira alata bark (LAB), Millettia macrophylla leaves (MML) and Phragmanthera capitata leaves (PCL) towards five human solid cancer cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts, was evaluated. Extracts were subjected to qualitative chemical screening of their secondary metabolite contents using standard methods. The cytotoxicity of samples was evaluated using neutral red uptake (NR) assay meanwhile caspase activation was detected by caspase-Glo assay. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle distribution and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) whilst spectrophotometry was used to measure the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of polyphenols, triterpenes and sterols in all extracts. The IC 50 values of the best samples ranged from 3.29 μg/mL (towards DLD-1 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells) to 24.38 μg/mL (against small lung cancer A549 cells) for EMW, from 2.33 μg/mL (mesothelioma SPC212 cells) to 28.96 μg/mL (HepG2 hepatocarcinoma) for KCL, and from 0.04 μg/mL (towards SPC212 cells) to 0.55 μg/mL (towards A549 cells) for doxorubicin. EMW induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells mediated by MMP loss and increased ROS production whilst KCL induced apoptosis via ROS production. This study provides evidences of the cytotoxicity of the tested plant extract and highlights the good activity of Elephantopus mollis and Kalanchoe crenata. They deserve more exploration to develop novel cytotoxic drugs.

  7. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis of phytohormone biosyntheis and signaling genes in the flowers of Chinese chinquapin (Castanea henryi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chinese chinquapin (Castanea henryi) nut provides a rich source of starch and nutrient elements as food and feed, but its yield is restricted by a low ratio of female to male flowers (1/2000-1/3000). Little is known about the developmental programs underlying the sex differentiation of the flowe...

  8. Improvement of maturation and conversion of horse chestnut androgenic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćalić-Dragosavac, D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae is a relict species of the tertiary flora and endemit of Balkan peninsula. It has enormous horticultular and medical important. Horse chestnut trees are native to the Balkan peninsula, but grow as ornamental trees in parks and avenues throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Because of the slow and difficult reproduction of great importance to be fast and cheap in vitro multiplication. Possible solution is regenerated by androgenesis. Microspore culture has been used in recent years as a tool for producing haploid plants in a varyety of higher plants, but the low frequencies of microspore-derived plants restrict the use of the technique in plant breeding.

  9. Population genetic characteristics of horse chestnut in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocokoljić Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The general population genetic characteristics of cultivated horse chestnut trees excelling in growth, phenotype characteristics, type of inflorescence, productivity and resistance to the leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimić were analyzed in Serbia. The analyzed population genetic parameters point to fundamental differences in the genetic structure among the cultivated populations in Serbia. The study shows the variability in all properties among the populations and inter-individual variability within the populations. The variability and differential characteristics were assessed using statistical parameters, taking into account the satisfactory reflection of the hereditary potential. The assessed differences in the vitality and evolution potential of different populations can determine the methods of horse chestnut gene pool collection, reconstruction and improvement. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041: Establishment of Wood Plantations Intended for a forestation of Serbia

  10. Biological control of chestnut blight in Croatia: an interaction between host sweet chestnut, its pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica and the biocontrol agent Cryphonectria hypovirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstin, Ljiljana; Katanić, Zorana; Ježić, Marin; Poljak, Igor; Nuskern, Lucija; Matković, Ivana; Idžojtić, Marilena; Ćurković-Perica, Mirna

    2017-03-01

    Chestnut blight, caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, is a severe chestnut disease that can be controlled with naturally occurring hypoviruses in many areas of Europe. The aim of this research was to measure the effect of different Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) strains on the growth of the fungal host and select strains that could potentially be used for human-mediated biocontrol in forests and orchards, and to investigate whether and how chestnut-fungus-virus interactions affect the development and growth of the lesion area on cut stems. Two Croatian CHV1 strains (CR23 and M56/1) were selected as potential biocontrol agents. The sequencing of CHV1/ORF-A showed that both of these virus strains belonged to the Italian subtype of CHV1. In vitro transfection of selected virus strains from hypovirulent to genetically diverse virus-free fungal isolates and subsequent inoculation of all virus/fungus combinations on stems of genetically diverse sweet chestnut trees revealed that Croatian virus strain CR23 had an equally hypovirulent effect on the host as the strong French strain CHV1-EP713, while M56/1 had a weaker effect. Furthermore, it was shown that in some cases the same hypovirus/fungus combinations induced various degrees of canker development on different chestnut genotypes. Some CHV1 strains belonging to the Italian subtype have similar hypovirulent effects on C. parasitica to those belonging to the French subtype. Furthermore, chestnut susceptibility and recovery could be influenced by the response of chestnut trees to particular hypovirulent C. parasitica isolates, and virus-fungus-chestnut interactions could have significant implications for the success of chestnut blight biocontrol. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Survey for the presence of Phytophthora cinnamomi on reclaimed mined lands in Ohio chosen for restoration of the American chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiv Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma; Jenise M. Bauman

    2013-01-01

    We have been planting blight resistant American chestnut seedlings on reclaimed coal mined areas in Southeastern Ohio, which was once within the natural range of the American chestnut. Towards the goal of restoring the American chestnut, we are testing suitable sites that can aid survival, growth and establishment of planted seedlings pre-inoculated with...

  12. Influence of Soil Type and Drainage on Growth of Swamp Chestnut Oak (Quercus Michauxii Nutt.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald D. Hook

    1969-01-01

    Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) seedlings were grown for 2 years in five soil types in drained and undrained pots. First-year height growth was related to soil type and pot drainage, but second-year height growth was related only to soil type. Results suggest that swamp chestnut oak is site-sensitive. But slow growth, a maximum of 2...

  13. Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manetti MC

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement? This paper aims at evaluating the role of standards in chestnut coppices from a biological and functional perspective. In addition to a detailed analysis of Italian regulations on the issue, the technical definition of the term is analysed: (i as for the functional role of standards; (ii to assess whether the required functions are technically necessary and are being actually performed. In this contex, the results of an experimental trial are reported. The goal of the trial were to assess the shoots’ parameters, the stand productivity, the dynamics of canopy cover in coppices with or without standards. In 2001, at harvesting operations in a coppice aged 30 with standards managed by the local community, two experimental plots 2500 m2 each were established. The two theses being compared were: simple coppice and coppixce with standards (100 standards per hectare. The released standards were qualified immediately after final harvesting. Sprouting ability, growth pattern and stool vitality were surveyed in March 2004 (at age 2, in May 2008 (at age 6 and in April 2010 (at age 8. First results highlighted the evidence of statistically significant differences between the two thesis. The high number of standards effected negatively both vitality and growth pattern of the stools. Simple coppice recorded a lower shoot mortality, a higher diametrical growth and canopy cover degree as well; the heigth growth was, on the opposite, significantly lower. These results, although referred to a limited lifespan (1/3 of the rotation time and to one site only, underline productive, ecological and environmental benefits and as a consequence suggest the widening of the experimental network and the development of new, more relevant and consistent rules, making acceptable the simple coppice as a possible silvicultural choice to be applied to chestnut coppices.

  14. Genetic divergence in nuclear genomes between populations of Fagus crenata along the Japan Sea and Pacific sides of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Tomaru, Nobuhiro

    2009-05-01

    Genetic diversity and structure in Fagus crenata were studied by analyzing 14 nuclear microsatellite loci in 23 populations distributed throughout the species' range. Although population differentiation was very low (F (ST) = 0.027; R (ST) = 0.041), both neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses provided clear evidence of genetic divergence between populations along the Japan Sea (Japan Sea lineage) and Pacific (Pacific lineage) sides of Japan, indicating that physical barriers to migration and gene flow, notably the mountain ranges separating the populations along the Japan Sea and Pacific sides, have promoted genetic divergence between these populations. The two lineages of the nuclear genome are generally consistent with those of the chloroplast genome detected in a previous study, with several discrepancies between the two genomes. Within-population genetic diversity was generally very high (average H (E) = 0.839), but decreased in a clinal fashion from southwest to northeast, largely among populations of the Japan Sea lineage. This geographical gradient may have resulted from the late-glacial and postglacial recolonization to the northeast, which led to a loss of within-population genetic diversity due to cumulative founder effects.

  15. Sourdough fermentation and chestnut flour in gluten-free bread: A shelf-life evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2017-06-01

    The effect of sourdough fermentation combined with chestnut flour was investigated for improving technological and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread during 5day shelf life by means of chemico-physical and nutritional properties. Sourdough fermentation by itself and with chestnut flour reduced volume of loaves and heterogeneity in crumb grain. Sourdough technology allowed increasing crumb moisture content with no significant variations during shelf-life. Chestnut flour darkened crumb and crust while no effects on colour were observed for sourdough. Sourdough and/or chestnut flour addition caused a significant increase in crumb hardness at time 0 while a significant reduction of staling was observed only at 5days, even if a decrease in amylopectin fusion enthalpy was observed. The percentage of hydrolysed starch during in vitro digestion was significantly reduced by sourdough fermentation with a presumable lower glycaemic index. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, S.

    2010-01-01

    Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaT Scan and Cluster Seer) and a non spatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana) regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moderate level of conformity and revealed similar chestnut oak regeneration site affinity. Chestnut oak regeneration hotspots were positively associated with the abundance of chestnut oak trees in the over story and a moderate cover of heather species (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia spp.) but were negatively associated with the abundance of hay scented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latiforia). In general, hotspot detection is a viable tool for assisting natural resource managers with identifying areas possessing significantly high or low tree regeneration.

  17. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songlin Fei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaTScan and ClusterSeer and a nonspatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moderate level of conformity and revealed similar chestnut oak regeneration site affinity. Chestnut oak regeneration hotspots were positively associated with the abundance of chestnut oak trees in the overstory and a moderate cover of heather species (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia spp. but were negatively associated with the abundance of hayscented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula and mountain laurel (Kalmia latiforia. In general, hotspot detection is a viable tool for assisting natural resource managers with identifying areas possessing significantly high or low tree regeneration.

  18. Partial structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a phenolic-xylan from Castanea sativa hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Emmanuel; Barbat-Rogeon, Aline; Chaleix, Vincent; Calliste, Claude-Alain; Colas, Cyril; Gloaguen, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    4-O-Methylglucuronoxylans (MGX) were isolated from chestnut wood sawdust using two different procedures: chlorite delignification followed by the classical alkaline extraction step, and an unusual green chemistry process of delignification using phthalocyanine/H2O2 followed by a simple extraction with hot water. Antioxidant properties of both MGX were evaluated against the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) by electronic spin resonance (ESR). IC50 of water-extracted MGX was found to be less than 225 μg mL(-1), in contrast with alkali-extracted MGX for which no radical scavenging was observed. Characterization of extracts by colorimetric assay, GC, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy provided some clues to understanding structure-function relationships of MGX in connection with their antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Yeast Communities of Chestnut Soils under Vineyards in Dagestan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullabekova, D. A.; Magomedova, E. S.; Magomedov, G. G.; Aliverdieva, D. A.; Kachalkin, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    The study of yeast communities in chestnut soils (Kastanozems) under vineyards in the Republic of Dagestan made it possible to isolate 20 yeast species. Most of the yeasts under vineyards belonged to ascomycetes, among which species of the Saccharomycetaceae family (in particular, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) comprised a significant part. The obtained results indicate that the soils under vineyards keep the pool of microbial diversity and ensure preservation of many species typical for grapes. The method of enrichment culture on grape juice medium proved to be more efficient than other methods of analysis with respect to the number of isolated species and the rate of their detection. However, implementation of different techniques to study yeasts' diversity can give somewhat different results; a set of methods should be used for an integrated analysis.

  20. Proteomic analysis by two-dimensional differential in gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) of the early response of Pisum sativum to Orobanche crenata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillejo, Ma Ángeles; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Rubiales, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata) is considered to be the major constraint for legume crops in Mediterranean countries. Strategies of control have been developed, but only marginal successes have been achieved. For the efficient control of the parasite, a better understanding of its interaction and associated resistance mechanisms at the molecular level is required. The pea response to this parasitic plant and the molecular basis of the resistance was studied using a proteomic approach based on 2D DIGE and MALDI-MSMS analysis. For this purpose, two genotypes showing different levels of resistance to O. crenata, as well as three time points (21, 25, and 30 d after inoculation) have been compared. Multivariate statistical analysis identified 43 differential protein spots under the experimental conditions (genotypes/treatments), 22 of which were identified using a combination of peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and MSMS fragmentation. Most of the proteins identified were metabolic and stress-related proteins and a high percentage of them (86%) matched with specific proteins of legume species. The behaviour pattern of the identified proteins suggests the existence of defence mechanisms operating during the early stages of infection that differed in both genotypes. Among these, several proteins were identified with protease activity which could play an important role in preventing the penetration and connection to the vascular system of the parasite. Our data are discussed and compared with those previously obtained in pea and Medicago truncatula.

  1. Metabolic profiles and cDNA-AFLP analysis of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia castanea Diel f. tomentosa Stib.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng Yang

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Salvia produce various types of phenolic compounds and tanshinones which are effective for treatment of coronary heart disease. Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib are two important members of the genus. In this study, metabolic profiles and cDNA-AFLP analysis of four samples were employed to identify novel genes potentially involved in phenolic compounds and tanshinones biosynthesis, including the red roots from the two species and two tanshinone-free roots from S. miltiorrhiza. The results showed that the red roots of S. castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib produced high contents of rosmarinic acid (21.77 mg/g and tanshinone IIA (12.60 mg/g, but low content of salvianolic acid B (1.45 mg/g. The red roots of S. miltiorrhiza produced high content of salvianolic acid B (18.69 mg/g, while tanshinones accumulation in this sample was much less than that in S. castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib. Tanshinones were not detected in the two tanshinone-free samples, which produced high contents of phenolic compounds. A cDNA-AFLP analysis with 128 primer pairs revealed that 2300 transcript derived fragments (TDFs were differentially expressed among the four samples. About 323 TDFs were sequenced, of which 78 TDFs were annotated with known functions through BLASTX searching the Genbank database and 14 annotated TDFs were assigned into secondary metabolic pathways through searching the KEGGPATHWAY database. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that the expression of 9 TDFs was positively correlated with accumulation of phenolic compounds and tanshinones. These TDFs additionally showed coordinated transcriptional response with 6 previously-identified genes involved in biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic compounds in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots treated with yeast extract. The sequence data in the present work not only provided us candidate genes involved in phenolic compounds and tanshinones biosynthesis

  2. Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2012-04-01

    The European chestnut is cultivated for its nuts and wood. Several studies point to the dependency of chestnut productivity on specific soil and climate characteristics. For instance, this species dislikes chalky and poorly drained soils, appreciates sedimentary, siliceous and acidic to neutral soils. Chestnut trees also seems to appreciate annual mean values of sunlight spanning between 2400 and 2600 h, rainfall ranging between 600 and 1500 mm, mean annual temperature between 9 and 13°C, 27°C being the mean of the maximum temperature (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992; Gomes-Laranjo et al.,2008). The amount of heat between May and October must range between 1800°D and 2400°D (Dinis et al., 2011) . In Poland, the growing season is defined as the period of time when the mean 24-h temperature is greater than 5°C (Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007). In Portugal, maximum photosynthetic activity occurs at 24-28°C for adult trees, but exhibits more than 50% of termoinhibition when the air temperature is above 32°C, which is frequent during summer (Gomes- Laranjo et al., 2006, 2008). Recently Pereira et al (2011) identified a set of meteorological variables/parameters with high impact on chestnut productivity. The main purpose of this work is to assess the potential impacts of future climate change on chestnut productivity in Portugal as well as on European chestnut orchards. First, observed data from the European Climate assessment (ECA) and simulations with the Regional Circulation Model (RCM) COSMO-CLM for recent climate conditions are used to assess the ability of the RCM to model the actual meteorological conditions. Then, ensemble projections from the ECHAM5/COSMO-CLM model chain for two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) are used to estimate the values of relevant meteorological variables and parameters und future climate conditions. Simulated values are then compared with those obtained for present climate. Results point to changes in the spatial and temporal

  3. [Effects of fertilization on soil CO2 flux in Castanea mollissima stand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Shen, Zhen-Ming; Liu, Juan; Wang, Zhan-Lei

    2013-09-01

    In June 2011-June 2012, a fertilization experiment was conducted in a typical Castanea mollissima stand in Lin' an of Zhejiang Province, East China to study the effects of inorganic and organic fertilization on the soil CO2 flux and the relationships between the soil CO2 flux and environmental factors. Four treatments were installed, i. e., no fertilization (CK), inorganic fertilization (IF), organic fertilization (OF), half organic plus half inorganic fertilization (OIF). The soil CO2 emission rate was determined by the method of static closed chamber/GC technique, and the soil temperature, soil moisture content, and soil water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentration were determined by routine methods. The soil CO2 emission exhibited a strong seasonal pattern, with the highest rate in July or August and the lowest rate in February. The annual accumulative soil CO2 emission in CK was 27.7 t CO2 x hm(-2) x a(-1), and that in treatments IF, OF, and OIF was 29.5%, 47.0%, and 50.7% higher than the CK, respectively. The soil WSOC concentration in treatment IF (105.1 mg kg(-1)) was significantly higher than that in CK (76.6 mg x kg(-1)), but was obviously lower than that in treatments OF (133.0 mg x kg(-1)) and OIF (121.2 mg x kg(-1)). The temperature sensitivity of respiration (Q10) in treatments CK, IF, OF, and OIF was 1.47, 1.75, 1.49, and 1.57, respectively. The soil CO2 emission rate had significant positive correlations with the soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm and the soil WSOC concentration, but no significant correlation with soil moisture content. The increase of the soil WSOC concentration caused by fertilization was probably one of the reasons for the increase of soil CO2 emission from the C. mollissima stand.

  4. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

  5. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located ∼800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1

  6. Influence of climatic factors in productivity of three been of the genus Boletus associated with hybrid of Castanea

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Fernandez de Ana Magan, F. J.

    1997-01-01

    Phenologic response of three species of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Boletus fragans, Boletus edulis and Boletus erythropus) asociated with hybrid chestnut were analized. To this objective, we use the data of ten years (1984-1993) and the principal component analysis was applied to delimit the climatic variables that have influence on these species yield. We obtained an equations that could permit to predit the number of fruitbody produced depending on climatic conditions

  7. Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables

  8. Short-term storage evaluation of quality and antioxidant capacity in chestnut-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Cirlini, Martina; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Bread traditionally made from wheat is now often supplemented with alternative functional ingredients as chestnut flours; no data have been previously published about the staling of chestnut-containing bread. Thus short-term storage (3 days) for chestnut flour-supplemented soft wheat bread is evaluated by means of selected physicochemical properties (i.e. water dynamics, texture, colour, crumb grain characteristic, total antioxidant capacity). Bread prepared with a 20:80 ratio of chestnut:soft wheat flours maintained its moisture content in both crust and crumb. Crumb hardness, after baking, was found to be significantly higher than that of the soft wheat bread; it did not change during storage, whereas it significantly increased in the control bread until the end of the shelf life. The supplemented bread presented a heterogeneous crumb structure, with a significant decrease in the largest pores during shelf life, relative to the shrinkage of crumb grain. The control exhibited a significant redistribution of crumb holes, with a decrease in the smallest grain classes and an increase in the intermediate ones, most likely caused by cell wall thickening. The colour of the crumb remained unaltered in both breads. The crust of the control presented a significant decrease of a* (redness) and that of the supplemented bread exhibited a decrease of b* (yellowness). The antioxidant capacity was detected after day 1 of storage in the chestnut flour bread only. Chestnut flour supplementation could represent a feasible way of producing bread with improved characteristics, not only just after baking but also during shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Post-cultural stand dynamics in an abandoned chestnut coppice at its ecological border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the be­ginning of the last century, chestnut has played an important role as staple food and primary wood source. In many cases it was cultivated at the border of its ecological limits where it was planted by man in place of the original and more site-adapted tree species. However, with the abandonment of the rural activities, ma­nagement of chestnut forests was progressively left starting from more marginal areas, usually occupied by coppice stands. After the interruption of the traditional coppice management system (usual rotation periods of 10-25 years, natural intra- and interspecific competition dynamics have become the driving force of the stand evolution. This may lead to dramatic changes in both structure and species composition of the stands. The aim of this study is to analyse the post-cultural evolution of an abandoned chestnut coppice in the Pesio Valley (Piedmont, Italy in order to highlight the competition among different "basic silvi­cultural components" of the forest using a dendroecological approach. The "basic silvicultural components" are intended as the elements defined as groups of trees of the stand that have similar features such as silvi­culturally relevant attributes: species (chestnut, beech, fir, origin (seed, sprout and cultural age and function (standard/reserve, maiden, shoot, regeneration, dead tree. The mean growth curves of the compo­nents show the different fitness of each category. From a general point of view, the beech and fir components show a better competitive potential in comparison with chestnut. Among chestnut components, maidens from seeds reveal a better growth trend compared to coppice shoots and standards.

  10. Detection of Oil Chestnuts Infected by Blue Mold Using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Combined with Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Feng

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mildew damage is a major reason for chestnut poor quality and yield loss. In this study, a near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system in the 874–1734 nm spectral range was applied to detect the mildew damage to chestnuts caused by blue mold. Principal component analysis (PCA scored images were firstly employed to qualitatively and intuitively distinguish moldy chestnuts from healthy chestnuts. Spectral data were extracted from the hyperspectral images. A successive projections algorithm (SPA was used to select 12 optimal wavelengths. Artificial neural networks, including back propagation neural network (BPNN, evolutionary neural network (ENN, extreme learning machine (ELM, general regression neural network (GRNN and radial basis neural network (RBNN were used to build models using the full spectra and optimal wavelengths to distinguish moldy chestnuts. BPNN and ENN models using full spectra and optimal wavelengths obtained satisfactory performances, with classification accuracies all surpassing 99%. The results indicate the potential for the rapid and non-destructive detection of moldy chestnuts by hyperspectral imaging, which would help to develop online detection system for healthy and blue mold infected chestnuts.

  11. In vitro activity of a partially purified and characterized bark extract of Castanea sativa Mill. (ENC®) against Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Valentina; Ginocchietti, Laura; Budriesi, Roberta; Micucci, Matteo; Costa, Roberta; Biondi, Roberta; Cevenini, Roberto; Chiarini, Alberto; Aldini, Rita; Donati, Manuela; Pollini, Gian Matteo; Cenacchi, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill (ENC®), containing tannins against 33 Chlamydia strains, was compared to SMAP-29 with inhibitory effect against C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. The ENC® activity against Chlamydia spp. was evaluated determining the lowest concentration to achieve more than half reduction of intact chlamydial inclusions versus controls. ENC® reduced all Chlamydia strains tested at 1 µg/mL, while SMAP-29 induced reductions of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae infectivity at 10 µg/mL. A great reduction of C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, and C. abortus infectivity was achieved with a 10 µg/mL ENC® concentration, whereas their infectivity was almost inhibited at 100 µg/mL ENC® concentration.

  12. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI

  13. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  14. Sporulation capacity of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branches from six 2 to 3-year old northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with ca. 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum isolate Pr-6 and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia produ...

  15. Infectivity and sporulation of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branches from northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia production, while the other three plants w...

  16. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE ROASTING CHESTNUTS PROCESS BY SUPERHEATED STEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematic modeling for chestnuts roasting process by superheated steam is conducted. Diffusion and thermal diffusion coefficients are used for process description. Initial conditions and boundary conditions of the third kind for thermal conductivity and mass transfer equations are set.

  17. Polymorphic sequence-characterized codominant loci in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Davis; Thomas L. Kubisiak; M. G. Milgroom

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the population biology of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, have previously been carried out with dominant restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) fingerprinting markers. In this study, we described the development of 11 condominant markers from randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). RAPD fragments were...

  18. Screening for Phytophthora cinnamomi in reclaimed mined lands targeted for American chestnut restoration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiv Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma; Annemarie Nagle; Pierluigi. Bonello

    2011-01-01

    We are working toward restoring the American chestnut in southeastern Ohio, which was once part of the tree's natural range. Some of these lands have been severely affected by excessive mining operations for several decades. Therefore, we are planning and testing use of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the restoration efforts. Mycorrhizal fungi may play a vital role in...

  19. Hydroponic production of Chinese water chestnut corms for potential use as a functional vegetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese water chestnut is used as a canned or raw vegetable worldwide. The accessions in the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit do not produce very many or healthy corms when grown in plastic pots containing flooded sand in Griffin, GA. This study was conducted to use a drip irriga...

  20. Replacement of steel cable with synthetic rope in mountain logging operations in Castanea sativa Mill. coppice stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Canga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective of this study was to evaluate skidding from stump area to roadside with a tracked skidder (Caterpillar 3DG XL using two different types of cable (steel or synthetic.Area of study: NW of Spain.Material and methods: A time study was performed to calculate productivity for the two types of cable and two regression models were fitted to predict the productive and cycle time of the tracked skidder.Research highlights: An increase of 12.53% in productivity (m3/SMH and improvements in working conditions using synthetic rope were found.Keywords: Chestnut; synthetic rope; time study; tracked skidder.

  1. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  2. Practices to manage chestnut orchards infested by the Chinese gall wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchetti T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of the Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in Italian chestnut growing areas is causing new criticisms. In this context, in addition to a clear plant suffering due to the wasp infestation, the dangerous recurrence of chestnut blight and the sudden spread of Gnomoniopsis sp., a coloniser of galls but also the etiological agent of nut brown rot, must be considered. Therefore, it is very important to increase the plants’ vigour and prevent their decline. Preliminary experiments were carried out in different Italian regions between 2010 and 2011. Organic plant fertilizers were applied to plants showing middle or high defoliation levels caused by the wasp attacks. The observations carried out during the growing season indicate a good vegetative restart in the treated plants compared to the untreated controls, in all the situations and independently of the fertilizers applied. Most of the treated plants (between the 75% and the 100% showed an evident improvement in the canopy vegetation, while the untreated controls were always classified in the worse classes of crown condition. These preliminary results highlight the efficacy of this kind of treatments for infested chestnut stands. This strategy, which is based on the preliminary evaluation of the plant vigour (following the proposed scale of attack severity and lack of foliage, consists in a manuring treatment at vegetative restart, which can be repeated in the following years in dependence on the results obtained. Moreover, pruning may be suggested only to manage the development of plants showing a definite recovery. The gall wasp pullulation requires new management strategies aimed at preserving the chestnut orchards, in order to avoid the chestnut cultivation to be marginalized or abandoned.

  3. Post-closure permit application for the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin at the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, J.K. Jr.; Kimbrough, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains information related to the closure and post closure of the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin of the Y-12 plant. Information concerning the background of the basin, geology, hydrology, and analysis of the sediments is included

  4. Litterfall and litter decomposition in chestnut high forest stands in northern Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricio, M. S.; Nunes, L. F.; Pereira, E. L.

    2012-11-01

    This research aimed to: estimate the inputs of litterfall; model the decomposition process and assess the rates of litter decay and turnover; study the litter decomposition process and dynamics of nutrients in old chestnut high forests. This study aimed to fill a gap in the knowledge of chestnut decomposition process as this type of ecosystems have never been modeled and studied from this point of view in Portugal. The study sites are located in the mountains of Marao, Padrela and Bornes in a west-to-east transect, across northern Portugal, from a more-Atlantic-to-lessmaritime influence. This research was developed on old chestnut high forests for quality timber production submitted to a silviculture management close-to-nature. We collected litterfall using littertraps and studied decomposition of leaf and bur litter by the nylon net bag technique. Simple and double exponential models were used to describe the decomposition of chestnut litterfall incubated in situ during 559 days. The results of the decomposition are discussed in relation to the initial litter quality (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and the decomposition rates. Annually, the mature chestnut high-forest stands (density 360-1,260 tree ha1, age 55-73 years old) restore 4.9 Mg DM ha–1 of litter and 2.6 Mg ha{sup -}1 yr{sup -}1 of carbon to the soil. The two-component litter decay model proved to be more biologically realistic, providing a decay rate for the fast initial stage (46-58 yr{sup -}1for the leaves and 38-42 yr{sup -}1for the burs) and a decay rate related to the recalcitrant pool (0.45-0.60 yr{sup -}1for the leaves and 0.22-0.36 yr{sup -}1for the burs). This study pointed to some decay patterns and release of bioelements by the litterfall which can be useful for calibrating existing models and indicators of sustainability to improve both silvicultural and environmental approaches for the management of chestnut forests. (Author) 45 refs.

  5. Chestnut flowers as functionalizing agents to enhance the antioxidant properties of highly appreciated traditional pastry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-11-01

    Some studies have proven the antioxidant and antimicrobial potency of chestnut flowers both in the raw matrix and after extraction, and the consumption of their decoctions has been related to beneficial effects towards health. In recent years, due to controversy and ambiguous legislation of chemical conservatives, plant extracts have been successfully used as functionalizing agents in different matrixes by displaying their various beneficial effects towards the foodstuff and/or the consumer. In this paper, decoctions of chestnut flowers as well as the dried flower were added to Portuguese traditional cakes that were then stored for 15 and 30 days, after which they were analysed for their antioxidant potential. The results were analysed by means of a 2 way ANOVA and a linear discriminant analysis, concluding that storage time had a slightly higher influence on alteration of the antioxidant activity. DPPH and TBARS were the most improved parameters, regardless of the concentration added.

  6. EFFECT of hydrocolloids on the quality evaluation of flour based noodles from Horse Chestnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiq Syed Insha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused to investigate the effects of hydrocolloids (guar gum and xanthan gum at additional levels (1%, 2% and 3% on the noodle characteristics prepared from horse chestnut flour. The qualities of noodles prepared from horse chestnut flour were compared with wheat flour based noodles in terms of cooking characteristics, textural and sensory properties. The hydrocolloid addition in noodles resulted in improvement of cooking and textural qualities in consistent to control sample. The incorporation of 3% gum significantly increased cooking properties and the firmness of cooked noodles. The results of the sensory evaluation based on a nine point hedonic scale revealed that apart from the control, noodles with 3% gum were acceptable to the panellists.

  7. Insolubilization of Chestnut Shell Pigment for Cu(II Adsorption from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Yu Yao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut shell pigment (CSP is melanin from an agricultural waste. It has potential as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment but cannot be used in its original state because of its solubility in water. We developed a new method to convert CSP to insolubilized chestnut shell pigment (ICSP by heating, and the Cu(II adsorption performance of ICSP was evaluated. The conversion was characterized, and the thermal treatment caused dehydration and loss of carboxyl groups and aliphatic structures in CSP. The kinetic adsorption behavior obeyed the pseudo-second-order rate law, and the equilibrium adsorption data were well described with both the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. ICSP can be used as a renewable, readily-available, easily-producible, environmentally-friendly, inexpensive and effective adsorbent to remove heavy-metal from aquatic environments.

  8. Environmental Fate of Emamectin Benzoate After Tree Micro Injection of Horse Chestnut Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic an...

  9. Effects of environmental parameters on the chestnut gall wasp and its complex of indigenous parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Carmelo Peter; Bernardo, Umberto

    2018-04-01

    The chestnut gall wasp (CGW), Dryocosmus kuriphilus, an invasive pest native to China, has caused severe yield and economic losses to chestnut production in Europe since its arrival in 2002. In Southern Italy, the complex of indigenous parasitoids colonizing CGW was monitored between 2013 and 2015, with the aim of estimating the composition of the indigenous parasitoid complex, its ability to control CGW populations, and the interactions of both factors with several measured environmental parameters. We compared results among three differently managed field types. Results showed an increase in the rate of parasitism both when the host population density was lower and in unmanaged chestnut stands with more natural conditions. The percentage of parasitism in galls was related to morphological traits of the galls and to higher seasonal temperatures, which reduced the parasitism intensity because CGW develops earlier under such conditions. The host-parasitoid mortality inside galls varied among sites and was associated mostly with rot fungi during wet spring and summer months. Parasitoid species richness was similar among the study sites, but the proportion of parasitoid species differed between orchards and unmanaged coppice stands. The timing of attack by parasitoids followed a species-specific successional sequence throughout the larva-to-adult life cycle of the CGW. These interactions should be considered in future research on trophic relationships and when modeling invasive scenarios for new pest species.

  10. Wheat-water chestnut flour blends: effect of baking on antioxidant properties of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Musarat; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Bazaz, Rafiya

    2016-12-01

    Proximate composition, mineral content, functional, pasting and antioxidant properties of water chestnut flour (WCF) were compared with refined wheat flour. WCF showed higher phenolic (4.25 gGAE/1000 g), flavonoid (1.92 g QE/1000 g) and mineral content (K, Mg, Zn, Cu) than wheat flour. WCF showed greater retrogradation tendency but lower peak viscosity than wheat flour. Wheat flour - WCF blends and cookies were evaluated for water activity, physical & textural properties. Water activity of cookies decreased significantly (0.415-0.311) with increase in level of WCF in wheat flour. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity (DPPH• scavenging capacity, FRAP) of WCF - wheat flour blends as well as their cookies was also determined. Baking led to a greater increase in DPPH• scavenging capacity of WCF cookies (33.8%) than WF cookies (25%). Baking had a similar effect on FRAP value. Wheat flour cookies showed a decrease of 51%, and 62% while WCF cookies showed a decrease of 36%, and 34% in TPC and TFC values respectively. WCF cookies thus showed better retention of antioxidant activities suggesting greater stability of WC phenolics than wheat phenolics. Sensory analysis showed cookies made from water chestnut (100%) had fair acceptability due to their characteristic flavor. Thus, water chestnut flour serves both as a gluten free as well as antioxidant rich flour for production of cookies.

  11. Thickness of Knox Group overburden on Central Chestnut Ridge, Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, W.P.; Hopkins, R.A.

    1984-05-01

    The thickness of residual soil overlying the Knox Group along Central Chestnut Ridge was estimated by a conventional seismic refraction survey. The purpose of this survey was to identify sites on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation where ample overburden exists above the water table for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste. The results of the survey suggest that the upper slopes of the higher ridges in the area have a minimum of 16 to 26 m (52 to 85 ft) of overburden and that the crests of these ridges may have more than 30 m (100 ft). Therefore, it is unlikely that sound bedrock would be encountered during trench excavation [maximum of 10 m (32 ft)] along Central Chestnut Ridge. Also, the relatively low seismic wave velocities measured in the overburden suggest that the water table is generally deep. On the basis of these preliminary results, Central Chestnut Ridge appears to be suitable for further site characterization for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste. 3 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  12. Sobre la introducción del Castaño, Castanea sativa, en el Mediterráneo Occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio GUILLEN OTERINO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Una idea generalizada y bastante aceptada en torno a la introducción del Castaño, Castanea sativa, en el área occidental del Mediterráneo y concretamente en la Península es la que sostiene que esta especie fue extendida por los romanos quienes tomándola en su zona de origen, Asia menor y Caucaso, la naturalizaron en toda la Europa mediterránea hasta llegar a la Península Ibérica. Muchos autores modernos en sus publicaciones, al hablar del Castaño, siguen haciendo mención a lo expuesto anteriormente (JONKER, 1952; STRASBURGER, 1894; LANZARA y PIZZETTI, 1977 y FONT QUER, 1961 entre otros. Sin embargo, parece que los datos que la palinología y el estudio de carbones han aportado en investigaciones realizadas en yacimientos arqueológicos y turberas constatan la presencia del Castaño en épocas muy anteriores a la de la expansión romana.

  13. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry

  14. Physico-chemical, morphological and pasting properties of starches extracted from water Chestnuts (Trapa natans from three Lakes of Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Gani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on physicochemical, morphology and pasting properties of starches extracted from water chestnuts of three Lakes of Kashmir valley (Wular, Anchar and Dal Lakes were conducted to determine their application in different food products. The water chestnut starch from Dal Lake had more oval shaped granules than water chestnut starches from the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.The unique feature of the water chestnut starches were shape of starch granules which looked like horn(s protruding from the surface which did not appear in other starches already studied. Proximate analysis of water chestnut starches showed that average protein content were 0.4%, amylose 29.5 % and ash 0.007 on dry weight basis. Increase in water binding capacity, swelling power and solubility was found over a temperature range of 50-90ºC. Water chestnut starches showed an increase in syneresis during freeze thaw cycles and decline in paste clarity upon storage. Starch extracted from the water chestnuts of the Dal Lake showed higher water binding capacity, swelling, solubility, past clarity, freeze thaw stability, peak viscosity, final viscosity and lower protein content, amylose content, pasting temperature and gel firmness than starches extracted from water chestnuts of the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.

  15. Effect of the amount of chestnuts in the diet of Celta pigs on the fatty acid profile of dry-cured lacon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, M.C. de; Dominguez, R.; Cantalapiedra, J.; Iglesias, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed (0, 15 and 25% chestnut) on the fatty acids of dry-cured lacon from Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of chestnuts decreases the saturated fatty acid content (SFA) and the monounsaturated fatty acid content (MUFA). With regards to the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the lacon from animals fed with chestnuts presented higher values of total PUFA, n6 PUFAs and n3 PUFAs. This is related to the fact that chestnut diets had the highest amounts of essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3), therefore the lacon from chestnut-fed animals also presented higher amounts of these fatty acids. According to nutritional ratios, lacon obtained from chestnut-fed pigs was healthier than the one obtained from pigs fed on commercial feed. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet allows us to obtain healthier dry-cured meat products. (Author)

  16. [Micrococcus sp.--the pathogen of leaf necrosis of horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.) in Kiev].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, L M; Makhinia, L V; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2013-01-01

    A group of phytopathogenic bacteria was isolated from patterns of drying horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.), which grow in Kyiv. The properties of slowly growing, highly aggressive microorganisms have been described in the paper. They grow up on the 8-10th day after sowing. The investigated microorganisms form very small (0.5-1 mm in diameter) colonies on the potato agar. Bacteria are protuberant, shining, smooth with flat edges, they are pale yellow, yellow, or pink. The bacteria are Gram-positive, spherical, are disposed in smears singly, in pairs, as accumulations, or netting. They are aerobes, do not form spores, are not mobile. They are inert in respect of different sources of carbon. They reduce nitrates, do not dilute gelatin, do not hydrolyze starch, do not release hydrogen sulphide and indole. The bacteria are catalase-positive, oxidase-negative. They do not cause potato and carrot rot. They lose quickly their viability under the laboratory conditions. The saturated acids C 14:0; C 15:0; C16:0; C18:0 have been revealed in the composition of cellular fatty acids. Microorganisms are identified as Micrococcus sp. Under artificial inoculation this highly aggressive pathogen causes drying of the horse-chestnut buds and necrosis, which occupies 1/3-1/2 of the leaf plate. A wide zone of chlorosis, surrounding necrosis, may occupy the whole leaf surface. The infected leaves use to twist up from the top (apex) or along a midrib and to dry.

  17. Population Dynamics of Native Parasitoids Associated with the Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Panzavolta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Native parasitoids may play an important role in biological control. They may either support or hinder the effectiveness of introduced nonnative parasitoids released for pest control purposes. Results of a three-year survey (2011–2013 of the Asian chestnut gall wasp (ACGW Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae populations and on parasitism rates by native indigenous parasitoids (a complex of chalcidoid hymenopterans in Italian chestnut forests are given. Changes in D. kuriphilus gall size and phenology were observed through the three years of study. A total of 13 species of native parasitoids were recorded, accounting for fluctuating parasitism rates. This variability in parasitism rates over the three years was mainly due to the effect of Torymus flavipes (Walker (Hymenoptera: Torymidae, which in 2011 accounted for 75% of all parasitoid specimens yet decreased drastically in the following years. This strong fluctuation may be related to climatic conditions. Besides, our data verified that parasitoids do not choose host galls based on their size, though when they do parasitize smaller ones, they exploit them better. Consequently, ACGWs have higher chances of surviving parasitism if they are inside larger galls.

  18. Male sterility in chestnuts. A tentative plan for the seed propagation of fruit trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya [Fruit Tree Research Station, Yatabe, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1982-03-01

    A tentative plan was proposed for chestnuts based on their pollination system, male sterility and restoration. The studies on the male sterility of 1,063 cultivars and clones suggested that there were three types of male sterility. The first type (S-1) was characterized by antherless florets. In the second type (S-2), the catkins fell before anthesis, and the third type (S-3) appeared to develop normally in gross floral morphology, but the pollen grains were abnormal in shape and did not have germinating power. In an interspecific hybrid clone CS which belonged to S-1, fertility was restored in an open pollinated progeny. The use of CS and CSO-3 with its restored fertility, permitted the planning of breeding the chestnut hybrid cultivars propagated by seeds. The inbred clones with either male sterility or restorer genes are first bred mainly by back crossing with parents with favorable pollen. The clones are selected individually for early bearing, wasp and disease resistance, and restoration. Then, the hybrid seedling lines between male sterile and restorer inbreds are evaluated for homogenity in nut characters and tree habits. Next, the hybrid seedling lines selected will be examined for crop yield, vigor and cross compatibility. The superior seedling lines are finally selected, and the parental inbreds are grafted to be propagated for seed production orchards.

  19. Pyrosequencing of environmental soil samples reveals biodiversity of the Phytophthora resident community in chestnut forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Andrea; Bruni, Natalia; Tomassini, Alessia; Franceschini, Selma; Vettraino, Anna Maria

    2013-09-01

    Pyrosequencing analysis was performed on soils from Italian chestnut groves to evaluate the diversity of the resident Phytophthora community. Sequences analysed with a custom database discriminated 15 pathogenic Phytophthoras including species common to chestnut soils, while a total of nine species were detected with baiting. The two sites studied differed in Phytophthora diversity and the presence of specific taxa responded to specific ecological traits of the sites. Furthermore, some species not previously recorded were represented by a discrete number of reads; among these species, Phytophthora ramorum was detected at both sites. Pyrosequencing was demonstrated to be a very sensitive technique to describe the Phytophthora community in soil and was able to detect species not easy to be isolated from soil with standard baiting techniques. In particular, pyrosequencing is an highly efficient tool for investigating the colonization of new environments by alien species, and for ecological and adaptive studies coupled with biological detection methods. This study represents the first application of pyrosequencing for describing Phytophthoras in environmental soil samples. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. Published 2014 SETAC.

  1. Allozyme and RAPD Analysis of the Genetic Diversity and Geographic Variation in Wild Populations of the American Chestnut (Fagaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongwen Huang; Fenny Dane; Thomas L. Kubisiak

    1998-01-01

    Genetic variation among 12 populations of the American chestnut (Custanea dentata) was investigated. Population genetic parameters estimated from allozyme variation suggest that C. dentata at both the population and species level has narrow genetic diversity as compared to other species in the genus. Average expected heterozygosity...

  2. Do chestnut, northern red, and white oak germinant seedlings respond similary to light treatments? II. Gas exchange and chlorophyll responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne Rebbeck; Amy Scherzer; Kurt. Gottschalk

    2012-01-01

    Understanding differences in physiological and growth strategies in low-light environments among upland oak species may help managers address the challenges of oaks' poor regeneration. Gas exchange and chlorophyll content were measured for northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), and white oak (...

  3. The bonded in the chestnut-tree (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) bark water freezing process studied by means NMR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haranczyk, H.; Weglarz, W.

    1994-01-01

    The bonded in the chestnut-tree (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) bark water freezing process was studied by means NMR method. The measured relaxation time (as a function of temperature) shows two compounds. First from solid state water (T 2 * 20 μs) and the second one from liquid water (T 2 * = 1 ms). This results are presented and discussed

  4. Saprophytic Activity and Sporulation of Cryphonectria parasitica on Dead Chestnut Wood in Forests with Naturally Established Hypovirulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, S; Conedera, M; Heiniger, U; Rigling, D

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT Sustainable biological control of the chestnut blight fungus Crypho-nectria parasitica with hypovirulence depends on the production and dissemination of hypovirus-infected propagules of the pathogen. We investigated the ability of C. parasitica to sporulate and produce hypo-virus-infected spores on recently dead chestnut wood in coppice stands in southern Switzerland where hypovirulence has been naturally established. The number and type (active, inactive, or none) of cankers was assessed on experimentally cut and stacked stems, firewood stacks, and natural dead wood. Hypovirus-free and hypovirus-infected strains readily survived for more than 1 year in the chestnut blight cankers of the stacked stems. Sporulation of C. parasitica was observed on the surface of preexisting inactive and active cankers, as well as on newly colonized bark areas and was significantly more abundant than on comparable cankers on living stems. On all types of dead wood, we observed more stromata with perithecia than with pycnidia; however, a large proportion of the stromata was not differentiated. All perithecia examined yielded only hypovirus-free ascospores. The incidence of pycnidia that produced hypovirus-infected conidia ranged from 5% on natural dead wood to 41% on the experimental stacks. The mean virus transmission rate into conidia was 69%. Our study demonstrates a considerable saprophytic activity of C. parasitica on recently dead chestnut wood and supports the hypothesis of a role of this saprophytic phase in the epidemiology of hypovirulence.

  5. East Chestnut Ridge hydrogeologic characterization: A geophysical study of two karst features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Permitting and site selection activities for the proposed East Chestnut Ridge landfill, located on the Oak Ridge Reservation, have required additional hydrogeologic studies of two karst features. Geophysical testing methods were utilized for investigating these karst features. The objectives of the geophysical testing was to determine the feasibility of geophysical techniques for locating subsurface karst features and to determine if subsurface anomalies exist at the proposed landfill site. Two karst features, one lacking surface expression (sinkhole) but with a known solution cavity at depth (from previous hydrologic studies), and the other with surface expression were tested with surface geophysical methods. Four geophysical profiles, two crossing and centered over each karst feature were collected using both gravimetric and electrical resistivity techniques

  6. Groundwater quality assessment for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This report contains an evaluation of groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy Y- 12 Plant. These sites are located south of the Y- 12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring. Section 2.0 of this report contains background information regarding groundwater monitoring at the waste-management sites located in the CRHR. An overview of the hydrogeologic system in the CRHR is provided in Section 3.0. A discussion of the interpretive assumptions used in evaluating the 1991 assessment data and detailed descriptions of groundwater quality in the regime are presented

  7. Hydrolysable chestnut tannins for reduction of postweaning diarrhea: Efficacy on an experimental ETEC F4 model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Marion; Thanner, Sophie; Pradervand, Nicolas; Hu, Dou; Ollagnier, Catherine; Bee, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    An experimental model for postweaning diarrhea with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC F4) was set up in piglets, and the efficacy of 1% chestnut-tannin extract in preventing diarrhea was subsequently assessed. In a first trial (infection model), 32 Swiss Large White piglets (age: 24 days; average BW: 7.8 ± 0.8 kg) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (infected [INF], noninfected [NINF]). In a subsequent trial, 72 Swiss Large White piglets (age: 26 days; average BW: 7.4 ± 1.5 kg) were blocked by BW and assigned within block to four experimental groups: NINF-CO: not infected and fed a standard control starter diet (CO); INF-CO: infected and fed the CO diet; NINF-TA: not infected and fed the CO diet supplemented with 1% chestnut extract containing 54% of hydrolysable tannins (TA); and INF-TA: infected and fed the TA diet. Both diets (TA and CO) were formulated to be isocaloric and isoproteic and to meet or surpass the nutritional requirements. In both trials, four days after weaning, piglets assigned to the INF group received an oral suspension of ETEC F4. Fecal score, ETEC shedding in feces (only in trial 2), and growth performance traits were measured for the following 14 days post infection. In both trials, more than 50% of the INF piglets developed diarrhea within six days post infection. Tannins reduced (P < 0.05) the average fecal score, the percentage of piglets in diarrhea, and the duration of diarrhea, whereas feed intake and the average daily gain were unaffected.

  8. Horse Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gastrointestinal upset, muscle spasm, or headache. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care providers about any ... Privacy and Policies Accessibility en Español FOIA Site Map Contact Us U.S. Department of Health & Human Services , ...

  9. 75 FR 76453 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EG10-65-000; EG10-66-000; EG10-67-000; EG10-68-000; EG10- 69-000; EG10-70-000; EG10-71-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco Wind, LLC; Arizona Solar One LLC; Criterion...

  10. Optical Coherence Tomography Examination of the Anterior Segment in a Case of Corneal Perforation and Lens Trauma by Chestnut Burr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ono

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut burrs, the thorny encapsulation of chestnut fruit, can sometimes cause corneal injuries and ulceration, with poor prognoses. We report a case of corneal perforation and damaged anterior lens capsule due to a chestnut burr, using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT. A 67-year-old woman with a chestnut burr injury in her right eye was referred to our hospital. Her right best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.8. Slit-lamp examination and AS-OCT showed perforation involving the endothelial layer at the center of the cornea. The iris and anterior lens capsule were damaged. Cell infiltration was observed around the wound. Bacterial examination showed gram-positive cocci but no fungi. The patient was diagnosed with a corneal perforation and bacterial keratitis. Levofloxacin 1.5% and cefmenoxime treatments were initiated and a soft contact lens was placed to seal the wound. On day 3, there was no improvement in the corneal cell infiltration, but AS-OCT suggested that the inner wound had closed. A culture test revealed the presence of Propionibacterium acnes, which was sensitive to both levofloxacin and cefmenoxime. Therefore, we continued the same antibiotic treatment. On day 26, the opacification and cell infiltration at the center of the cornea had improved. AS-OCT showed healing of the corneal wound with reduction in the central corneal thickness. Her BCVA improved to 1.0. AS-OCT was a valuable tool to noninvasively observe wound shape and detect the presence of any intracorneal foreign bodies.

  11. Potential Anticancer Effects of Polyphenols from Chestnut Shell Extracts: Modulation of Cell Growth, and Cytokinomic and Metabolomic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Sorice

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a hydroalcoholic chestnut shell extract was characterized and tested on six different human cell lines. Gallic, ellagic, and syringic acids were the most abundant non-condensed compounds in the chestnut extract, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Tannins were mainly represented by condensed monomeric units of epigallocatechin and catechin/epicatechin. After 48 h of treatment, only the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells reached an inhibition corresponding to IC50 with an increase of apoptosis and mitochondrial depolarization. The cytokinome evaluation before and after treatment revealed that the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α decreased after the treatment, suggesting a potential anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effect of this extract. Moreover, the metabolome evaluation by 1H-NMR evidenced that the polyphenols extracted from chestnut shell (PECS treatment affected the levels of some amino acids and other metabolites. Overall, these data highlight the effects of biomolecules on cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and mitochondrial depolarization, and on cytokinomics and metabolomics profiles.

  12. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This annual groundwater report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline

  13. Antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein haplotypes and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein (CN) haplotypes (αs1-, β-, κ-CN) and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys. The CN haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, whereas antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. The results showed that chestnut honey presented the highest phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, which are closely associated with its high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of fortified yogurt samples was affected both by different CN haplotypes and by type of honey added. Yogurts fortified with chestnut honey showed higher antioxidant activity than those fortified with sulla honey. The different behavior observed among the fortified yogurts led us to hypothesize that the effects of protein-polyphenol complex on antioxidant activity are interactive. The results suggest that milk proteins polymorphism and polyphenols play different roles in affecting the bioavailability and the antioxidant activity of yogurt. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of chestnuts level in the formulation of the commercial feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Celta pig breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesús, C. De; Domínguez, R.; Cantalapiedra, J.; Iglesias, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality from 24 castrated males Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of 15% of chestnut (CH15) improved (p<0.01) the carcass (118 vs. about 104 kg) and live weights (149 vs. 133-139 kg). Killing out percentage was also better for chestnuts groups than for control group. With regards the morphometric parameters, there were no statistically significant (p>0.05) differences except for the carcass length and ham length, for which the CH15 group proved to be the group with the longest sizes. The diet did not affect the physicochemical properties (colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force) of longissimus dorsi muscle. The composition of some fatty acids of the longissimus dorsi muscle was affected by diet. The total saturated (35-38%) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (8-10%) did not present differences. However, the increase of chestnut in the diet increased (p<0.05) the monounsaturated fatty acids in intramuscular fat (57% in CH25 vs. 53% in control and CH15). Within monounsaturated fatty acids, the C18:1n9 was the most influenced of the diet. Therefore, the lower content of protein and the higher amounts of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 in the chestnut could be explaining the greater content of C18:1n9 in muscle of chestnut-fed animals. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet would allow reduce production costs with no effect or even improving carcass measurements and meat quality. (Author)

  15. THE PESTS OF HORSE CHESTNUT TREE – AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T PERJU

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1998 the presence of the horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka-Dimic was reported in Cluj- Napoca. During 2000 – 2003 research concerning the extent, biology, ecology at this micro-lepidopteron, a new pest in our country, was performed. Signaled for the fi rst time in Western area of our country (1998, then in Central (1998, Southern (1999, and Eastern (2003 part of the country, the spread year by year conquering new territories. In the clime conditions of our country, the insect had 4 generations in 2000, and 3 during 2001 – 2003, remaining in hiemal diapauses during pupae stage, inside of the silk cocoons from the galleries of larvae feeding. The fl ight of the butterfl ies from the IIIrd generation (hiemal is recorded in the beginning of May. The Ist generation has a developmental stage during 15 May – 30 June, the IInd during 1 July – 15 August, and the IIIrd during 15 August – 15 May.

  16. [The validity of radioimmunologic determination of bioavailability of beta-escin in horse chestnut extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrödter, A; Loew, D; Schwankl, W; Rietbrock, N

    1998-09-01

    The bioavailability under steady state conditions of a standard, slow-release horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE)-containing product was compared with that of an analogous, fast-release test preparation (Noricaven novo) in a prospective, randomised, double-blind study in a double cross-over design. The serum concentration of beta-escin (CAS 6805-41-0) was measured by radioimmunoassay. In addition, the biopharmaceutical properties of the HCSEs present in the products were investigated, the amount and composition of the active ingredient, escin, being analysed with a validated HPLC method. The pharmacokinetics of this study were compared with the corresponding data of a similar investigation carried out under analogous conditions concerning study design, analytical methods and reference preparation. Comparison of the similar studies revealed differences in characteristic pharmakokinetic values of beta-escin in terms of a shift of the concentration time curves as could be demonstrated for the reference product. The total amounts of escin in the two products investigated did not differ significantly. However, quantitative and qualitative differences were detected in the constituents of the two different extract preparations. It is concluded that the high specificity of the validated beta-escin radioimmunoassay leads to analytical imprecision due to the variable constituents of the extract preparations used. It is necessary to test whether this problem can be solved using an analytical approach, which is specific for each extract.

  17. Comparative vesicle proteomics reveals selective regulation of protein expression in chestnut blight fungus by a hypovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinzi; Wang, Fangzhen; Feng, Youjun; Mi, Ke; Chen, Qi; Shang, Jinjie; Chen, Baoshan

    2013-01-14

    The chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) and hypovirus constitute a model system to study fungal pathogenesis and mycovirus-host interaction. Knowledge in this field has been gained largely from investigations at gene transcription level so far. Here we report a systematic analysis of the vesicle proteins of the host fungus with/without hypovirus infection. Thirty-three differentially expressed protein spots were identified in the purified vesicle protein samples by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Down-regulated proteins were mostly cargo proteins involved in primary metabolism and energy generation and up-regulated proteins were mostly vesicle associated proteins and ABC transporter. A virus-encoded protein p48 was found to have four forms with different molecular mass in vesicles from the virus-infected strain. While a few of the randomly selected differentially expressed proteins were in accordance with their transcription profiles, majority were not in agreement with their mRNA accumulation patterns, suggesting that an extensive post-transcriptional regulation may have occurred in the host fungus upon a hypovirus infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identificationof Major Phenolic Compounds of Chinese Water Chestnut and their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese water chestnut (CWC is one of the most popular foods among Asian people due to its special taste and medical function. Experiments were conducted to test the antioxidant activity and then determine the major phenolic compound components present in CWC. CWC phenolic extract strongly inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and exhibited a dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which was superior to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, two commercial used antioxidants. Furthermore, the CWC extract was found to have a relatively higher reducing power, compared with BHT. The major phenolic compounds present in CWC tissues were extracted, purified and identified by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC as (–-gallocatechin gallate, (–-epicatechin gallate and (+-catechin gallate. This study suggests that CWC tissues exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions.

  19. Governance structures in the production chain Amazônia chestnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Fernanda Sbsczk Pereira Meneguetti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify the structure of governance in the Production Chain Chestnut of the Amazon state of Rondonia in order to know the relationship of its agents. We used secondary data source and qualitative approach, based on the collection of data resulting from the project on nontimber forest products (NTFPs, which included the cities of Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Machadinho do Oeste, Porto Velho and Presidente Médici, located in the state of Rondônia. It was found that producers and middlemen pay a high cost for shipping, however, these costs is not just about the initial link of the chain, but to the end consumer to pay more for the product, due to the difficulties faced during the process. Furthermore, it was also evidenced the low price of the product received by producers and middlemen, however, the transactions show that there is no formal relationship between the parties, contracts are informal, the form of governance found most frequently is the way market.

  20. Effect of the amount of chestnuts in the diet of Celta pigs on the fatty acid profile of dry-cured lacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jesús, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed (0, 15 and 25% chestnut on the fatty acids of dry-cured lacon from Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of chestnuts decreases the saturated fatty acid content (SFA and the monounsaturated fatty acid content (MUFA. With regards to the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, the lacon from animals fed with chestnuts presented higher values of total PUFA, n6 PUFAs and n3 PUFAs. This is related to the fact that chestnut diets had the highest amounts of essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3, therefore the lacon from chestnut-fed animals also presented higher amounts of these fatty acids. According to nutritional ratios, lacon obtained from chestnut-fed pigs was healthier than the one obtained from pigs fed on commercial feed. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet allows us to obtain healthier dry-cured meat products.Se estudió el efecto de la inclusión de la castaña en la formulación del pienso (0, 15 y 25% de castaña sobre el perfil de ácidos grasos del lacón curado de cerdo Celta. La inclusión de castañas produjo una disminución del contenido de ácidos grasos saturados (SFA y monoinsaturados (MUFA. Con respecto a los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA los lacones de animales alimentados por castaña presentaron valores más altos de PUFA totales, PUFA n6 y PUFA n3. Esto está relacionado con que las castañas tienen una mayor cantidad de ácidos grasos esenciales (C18:2n6 y C18:3n3, por tanto los lacones de cerdos alimentados con castaña también presentan mayores contenidos de estos ácidos grasos. De acuerdo con los índices nutricionales, los lacones obtenidos de cerdos alimentados con mayor proporción de castañas fueron más saludables. La inclusión de castañas en la dieta nos permite obtener productos cárnicos curados más saludables.

  1. L-Ascorbic acid metabolism during fruit development in an ascorbate-rich fruit crop chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2014-09-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a fruit crop that contains unusually high levels of l-ascorbic acid (AsA; ∼1300 mg 100g(-1) FW). To explore the mechanisms underlying AsA metabolism, we investigated the distribution and abundance of AsA during fruit development. We also analyzed gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and content of metabolites related to AsA biosynthesis and recycling. AsA first accumulated during late fruit development and continued to accumulate during ripening, with the highest accumulation rate near fruit maturity. The redox state of AsA in fruit was also enhanced during late fruit development, while leaf and other tissues had much lower levels of AsA and the redox state of AsA was lower. In mature fruit, AsA was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the mesocarp. Correlation analysis suggested that the gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and related metabolite concentrations involved in the l-galactose pathway showed relatively high correlations with the accumulation rate of AsA. The gene expression pattern and activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) correlated strongly with AsA concentration, possibly indicating the crucial role of DHAR in the accumulation of high levels of AsA in chestnut rose fruit. Over expression of DHAR in Arabidopsis significantly increased the reduced AsA content and redox state. This was more effective than over expression of the l-galactose pathway gene GDP-d-mannose-3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.18). These findings will enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating accumulation of AsA in chestnut rose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Micromorphology of the floral nectary of red horse chestnut (Aesculus ×carnea Hayne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Europe Aesculus ×carnea Hayne is planted in cities as an avenue tree. Compared to A. hippocastanum L., it is more drought resistant, but less resistant to low temperatures. A. ×carnea is a lower tree than A. hippocastanum and develops a smaller corolla. It produces dark green, shiny and crinkled leaves. Its flowers have different colours, from bright pink to carmine red. The nectary glands secrete nectar abundantly. Due to the long corolla tube, nectar is difficult to reach for bees. The aim of this study was to investigate the topography and micromorphology of the nectaries of A. ×carnea using scanning electron microscopy. The study shows that the nectary gland of red horse chestnut forms an incomplete ring around the base of the staminal filaments, surrounding only four stamens out of the seven that occur in the flower. Three stamens are outside the nectary. In its widest place, the nectary diameter reaches 2.7 mm. Three expanded portions of the gland can bee seen in the marginal part of the nectary, adjoining the petals. The part of the nectary adjacent to the filaments forms a convex protrusion with a wavy appearance (shape, which results from the vicinity of the filaments. Nectar is secreted through numerous stomata located beneath the convex part of the nectary. The stoma length is 21.7 μm, while the width 23.3 μm. In the material examined, most stomata had open pores. Secretion was observed in many places. The stomata were surrounded by 6-7 guard cells; this allows them to be classified as the cyclocytic type. The cells of the stomatal complex were raised above the surface of the other epidermal cells. The walls of the guard cells and of the adjacent epidermal cells were covered by a cuticle with irregular striation.

  3. Comparison of bonding strengths of the sapwoods and heartwoods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... strengths formed by joining the sapwood and heartwood of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.), oak ... nated by tar oil or epoxy resin to protect against damage .... phenol formaldehyde ... Preparation of experimental samples.

  4. Effect of diet chestnut tannin supplementation on meat quality, fatty acid profile and lipid stability in broiler rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chestnut tannins on meat quality in broiler rabbits. 72 commercial hybrid rabbits (mean body weight 740 g, 32 days old were fed for 49 days with three diets containing 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% of a commercial chestnut wood extract (ENC®, Sil- vachimica srl, respectively. Eight rabbits per group were slaughtered at 12 weeks of age and at 24h post-mortem pH and colour were measured on the carcass. Moreover, both sides of m. longis- simus thoracis (LT were dissected. Left side was used for cooking losses whereas the other side was used for the determination of fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. No differences were found in pH, colour and cooking losses, as well as the fatty acid profile of LT muscle and its relative health indexes. Concerning the antioxidant effect, the ENC shows a positive and significant effect at the inclusion level of 0.5%. In conclusion, the ENC has not undesirable side effects on the meat quality of rabbits, although further studies will be necessary to find the optimal diet inclusion level of ENC to elicit a stronger antioxidant effect in the rabbit meat.

  5. Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared from wheat flour supplemented with cassava and water chestnut flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Bala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared by supplementing different proportions of cassava flour (CF and water chestnut flour (WCF blends (0–100% to wheat flour (WF were studied. Seven formulations of cookies were prepared from (a Control (100% WF, (b 30% WF, 35% WCF and 35% CF, (c 27% WF, 37.5% WCF and 37.5% CF, (d 20% WF, 40% WCF and 40% CF, (e 15% WF, 42.5% WCF and 42.5% CF, (f 10% WF, 45% WCF and 45% CF, and (g 0% WF, 50% WCF and 50% CF. Cookies were subjected to physical analysis (cookie diameter, cookie thickness, spread ratio, bulk volume, bulk density, breaking strength, and color analysis and evaluated for consumer acceptance by descriptive sensory analysis. Cookies prepared from water chestnut and cassava flour had low moisture content (5.63%, low fat (24.87%, higher spread ratio (8.148, decreased L, a and b values (dark color, and low breaking strength than control ones. Sensory evaluation established that cookies prepared from 50% WCF and 50% CF were more acceptable than cookies prepared from other formulations.

  6. Compositional analysis of Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) cell-wall material from parenchyma, epidermis, and subepidermal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassby, Terri; Jay, Andrew J; Merali, Zara; Parker, Mary L; Parr, Adrian J; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2013-10-09

    Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis (Burman f.) Trin ex Henschel) is a corm consumed globally in Oriental-style cuisine. The corm consists of three main tissues, the epidermis, subepidermis, and parenchyma; the cell walls of which were analyzed for sugar, phenolic, and lignin content. Sugar content, measured by gas chromatography, was higher in the parenchyma cell walls (931 μg/mg) than in the subepidermis (775 μg/mg) or epidermis (685 μg/mg). The alkali-extractable phenolic content, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, was greater in the epidermal (32.4 μg/mg) and subepidermal cell walls (21.7 μg/mg) than in the cell walls of the parenchyma (12.3 μg/mg). The proportion of diferulic acids was higher in the parenchyma. The Klason lignin content of epidermal and subepidermal cell walls was ~15%. Methylation analysis of Chinese water chestnut cell-wall polysaccharides identified xyloglucan as the predominant hemicellulose in the parenchyma for the first time, and also a significant pectin component, similar to other nongraminaceous monocots.

  7. Best management practices plan for the Chestnut Ridge-Filled Coal Ash Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP) Project has been established to satisfy Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2. FCAP is on Chestnut Ridge, approximately 0.5 miles south of the Y-12 Plant. A 62-foot high earthen dam across Upper McCoy Branch was constructed in 1955 to create a pond to serve as a settling basin for fly and bottom ashes generated by burning coal at the Y-12 Steam Plant. Ash from the steam was mixed with water to form a slurry and then pumped to the crest of Chestnut Ridge and released through a large pipe to flow across the Sluice Channel area and into the pond. The ash slurry eventually overtopped the dam and flowed along Upper McCoy Branch to Rogers Quarry. The purpose of this document is to provide a site-specific Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan for construction associated with environmental restoration activities at the FCAP Site

  8. Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report For The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.B.

    1998-02-01

    This report contains the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1997 in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). In July 1997, the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved modifications to several of the permit conditions that address RCRA pow-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and RCIU4 post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin) and Kerr Hollow Quarry. This report has been prepared in accordance with these modified permit requirements. Also included in this report are the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 1997 for the purposes ofi (1) detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste disposal facilities (SWDFS) in accordance with operating permits and applicable regulations, (2) monitoring in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Recove~ Act Records of Decision (now pefiormed under the Integrated Water Quality Program for the Oak Ridge Reservation), and (3) monitoring needed to comply with U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.1.

  9. Phisiological and biochemical characteristics of protein and lipid exchanges of maple and chestnut seeds from different regions of Dnepropetrovsk city technogenic pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Filonik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The indexes of protein and lipid exchanges - the content of proteins, lipase activity, level of lipids and their composition, component composition of free fatty acids in the maple and chestnut seeds from several sites of Dnepropetrovsk technical pollution were investigated. The revealed figures can be used as biomarkers of anthropogenic pollution in industrial region.

  10. Deposition pattern and throughfall fluxes in secondary cool temperate forest, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Gautam, Mukesh; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Song, Byeong-Yeol

    2017-07-01

    Chemistry and deposition fluxes in the rainfall and throughfall of red pine (Pinus densiflora), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), and chestnut (Castanea crenata) monocultures, and mixed red pine-black locust-chestnut stands were examined in a nutrient-limited cool temperate forest of central South Korea. Throughfall was enriched in both basic and acidic constituents relative to rainfall, suggesting that both dry deposition and canopy leaching are important sources of throughfall constituents. Net throughfall fluxes (NTFs) of cations and anions significantly differed among four different stands as well as seasonally. Red pine exhibited highest fluxes (TF and NTF) for Ca2+, black locust for K+, mixed stands for Mg2+, and chestnut for Na+. In contrast, NTF of SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+was highest in the red pine, intermediate in the chestnut and mixed stands, and lowest in the black locust. In general, canopy uptake of H+ and NH4+ for all stands was higher in summer than in winter. Dry deposition appears to play a major role in atmospheric deposition to this cool temperate forest, especially in summer. Dry deposition for both cations and anions displayed high spatial variability, even though stands were adjacent to one another and experienced identical atmospheric deposition loads. Canopy leaching of K+ (95-78% of NTF), Mg2+ (92-23% of NTF), and Ca2+ (91-12% of NTF) was highest for the black locust, lowest for chestnut, and intermediate for the red pine and mixed stands. The present study documented significant changes in throughfall chemistry and NTF among different forest stands, which presumably be related with the differences in the canopy characteristics and differences in their scavenging capacity for dry deposition and canopy exchange. Difference in the canopy retention of H+ and base cation leaching suggests that canopy exchange was mainly driven by weak acid excretion and lesser by H+ exchange reaction. Our results indicate that despite a high base cation

  11. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994. Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management sites located within the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the Y-12 Plant and is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the TDEC by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities.

  12. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994. Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management sites located within the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the Y-12 Plant and is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the TDEC by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities

  13. Effects of chestnut tannins on performance and antioxidative status of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H W; Zhou, D W; Li, K

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) on performance and antioxidative status of transition dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Chinese Holstein cows in late gestation were paired according to expected calving date and randomly assigned either to a diet supplemented with CT (CNT, 10 g of CT/kg of diet, dry matter basis) or to an unsupplemented control (CON) diet from 3 wk prepartum to 3 wk postpartum. Blood samples were taken on d -21, 1, 7, and 21 relative to calving for analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver samples were taken by puncture biopsy on d 1 and 21 relative to calving for analysis of SOD, GSH-Px, and MDA. Data were analyzed for a completely randomized block design with repeated measures. The addition of CT had no significant effects on dry matter intake, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, and milk composition but did decrease milk MDA and somatic cell score in transition dairy cows. Dry matter intake decreased from d -21 to 0 and increased from d 1 to 21 relative to calving across treatments. During the experimental period, body weight and body condition score decreased, whereas milk MDA and somatic cell score increased across treatments. A time effect was also observed for plasma MDA, which peaked on d 1 relative to calving and remained higher than that on d -21 relative to calving across treatments. Addition of CT decreased MDA concentrations in plasma and liver. Neither time nor CT × time effects were observed for SOD and T-AOC in plasma and SOD and GSH-Px in liver; a time effect was observed for plasma GSH-Px, which peaked on d 1 relative to calving and remained higher than those on d -21 relative to calving across treatments. Addition of CT increased SOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC activities in plasma and SOD and GSH-Px activities in liver. In conclusion, addition of CT might

  14. HPCE quantification of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine in genomic DNA: methodological optimization for chestnut and other woody species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbún, Rodrigo; Valledor, Luís; Rodríguez, José L; Santamaria, Estrella; Ríos, Darcy; Sanchez, Manuel; Cañal, María J; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Quantification of deoxynucleosides using micellar high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) is an efficient, fast and inexpensive evaluation method of genomic DNA methylation. This approach has been demonstrated to be more sensitive and specific than other methods for the quantification of DNA methylation content. However, effective detection and quantification of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine depend of the sample characteristics. Previous works have revealed that in most woody species, the quality and quantity of RNA-free DNA extracted that is suitable for analysis by means of HPCE varies among species of the same gender, among tissues taken from the same tree, and vary in the same tissue depending on the different seasons of the year. The aim of this work is to establish a quantification method of genomic DNA methylation that lends itself to use in different Castanea sativa Mill. materials, and in other angiosperm and gymnosperm woody species. Using a DNA extraction kit based in silica membrane has increased the resolutive capacity of the method. Under these conditions, it can be analyzed different organs or tissues of angiosperms and gymnosperms, regardless of their state of development. We emphasized the importance of samples free of nucleosides, although, in the contrary case, the method ensures the effective separation of deoxynucleosides and identification of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine.

  15. Effect of Cryphonectria parasitica toxin on lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to clarify the responses of different chestnut cultivars to Cp-toxin stress, the effect of Cp-toxin from Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr on Castanea mollissima Blume, especially on its cell structure, was examined. Chestnut shoots of both resistant (Beiyu No. 2) and susceptible (Hongguang) cultivars were treated ...

  16. An experimental test of the role of structural blue and melanin-based chestnut coloration in aggressive contests in male eastern bluebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin eMercadante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis have feathers with either structurally based blue coloration or melanin-based chestnut coloration, and they hold territories during the breeding season that they defend vigorously. We tested whether the melanin pigmentation or structural coloration of feathers serve as signals during intrasexual aggressive encounters by placing color-modified stuffed bluebirds in male territories. We recorded the time to attack and the intensity of attacks on each model, and we then compared the response to color-enhanced versus color-reduced models. Male bluebirds attacked models with brighter and more chromatic blue coloration significantly more often than they attacked models with darker and less chromatic blue coloration. In contrast, the darkness of the chestnut breast coloration did not have a significant effect on the rate at which models were attacked. We conclude that territorial male bluebirds perceive intruding males with brighter blue coloration as a greater threat than males with drabber blue coloration, presumably because blue coloration is a signal of fighting ability. In contrast, the chestnut coloration of breast feathers appears to be a signal of gender and sexual maturity and not a graded signal of social status.

  17. Biochemical, Oxidative, and Lipolytic Changes during Vacuum-Packed Storage of Dry-Cured Loin: Effect of Chestnuts Intake by Celta Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gómez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the inclusion of chestnuts in the finishing diet of Celta pig breed on the characteristics of dry-cured loin, a traditional Spanish dry-cured meat product, after the manufacturing process and the vacuum-packed storage was studied. In general, no significant differences between the diets (chestnut, mixed, and concentrate diet were obtained for physicochemical (moisture, intramuscular fat, and titratable acidity and lipolytic parameters. Lower pH and higher values for oxidation parameters (peroxide and TBA values were obtained in loins from pigs fed with chestnuts. However, no differences were found for fatty acids from the different lipid fractions when diets were compared, with the exception of some minor fatty acids. Free fatty acids represented over 2.7% of the fat in the final product. The distinction between diets was procured when a discriminant canonical analysis was performed for fatty acid contents. After vacuum-packed storage, only a slight evolution of the studied parameters was obtained.

  18. Hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 nanoneedles grown on nickel foam as binder-free electrode for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kwun Nam; Hui, Kwan San; Tang, Zikang; Jadhav, V. V.; Xia, Qi Xun

    2016-10-01

    Hierarchical chestnut-like manganese cobalt oxide (MnCo2O4) nanoneedles (NNs) are successfully grown on nickel foam using a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal method. High resolution TEM image further verifies that the chestnut-like MnCo2O4 structure is assembled by numerous 1D MnCo2O4 nanoneedles, which are formed by numerous interconnected MnCo2O4 nanoparticles with grain diameter of ∼10 nm. The MnCo2O4 electrode exhibits high specific capacitance of 1535 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and good rate capability (950 F g-1 at 10 A g-1) in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. An asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using MnCo2O4 NNs on Ni foam (MnCo2O4 NNs/NF) as the positive electrode and graphene/NF as the negative electrode. The device shows an operation voltage of 1.5 V and delivers a high energy density of ∼60.4 Wh kg-1 at a power density of ∼375 W kg-1. Moreover, the device exhibits an excellent cycling stability of 94.3% capacitance retention after 12000 cycles at 30 A g-1. This work demonstrates that hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 NNs could be a promising electrode for the high performance energy storage devices.

  19. Effect of Dietary Chestnut or Quebracho Tannin Supplementation on Microbial Community and Fatty Acid Profile in the Rumen of Dairy Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Buccioni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruminants derived products have a prominent role in diets and economy worldwide; therefore, the capability to control the rumen microbial ecosystem, for ameliorating their quality, is of fundamental importance in the livestock sector. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with chestnut and quebracho tannins on microbial community and fatty acid profile, in the rumen fluid of dairy ewes. Multivariate analysis of PCR-DGGE profiles of rumen microbial communities showed a correlation among the presence of chestnut or quebracho in the diet, the specific Butyrivibrio group DGGE profiles, the increase in 18:3 cis9, cis12, and cis15; 18:2 cis9 and cis12; 18:2 cis9 and trans11; 18:2 trans11 and cis15; and 18:1 trans11 content, and the decrease in 18:0 concentration. Phylogenetic analysis of DGGE band sequences revealed the presence of bacteria representatives related to the genera Hungatella, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium and unclassified Lachnospiraceae family members, suggesting that these taxa could be affected by tannins presence in the diets. The results of this study showed that tannins from chestnut and quebracho can reduce the biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids through changes in rumen microbial communities.

  20. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is ∼ 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends ∼1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of ∼1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top

  1. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  2. Chancro en castaño: hongos implicados en la enfermedad y estrategias de control de "Cryphonectria parasitica"

    OpenAIRE

    Trapiello, Estefanía

    2017-01-01

    The European chestnut (Castanea sativa), an ecologically and socioeconomically important species, is being seriously damaged by chestnut blight disease. Since the detection of its main causal agent, the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, in 1947 in Spain it has been observed in different areas of the country. In Asturias it was detected in 1982, and since then it has spread rapidly, declining the Asturian chestnut stands. Previous experiences of disease control in Europe, were ba...

  3. Pathway Analysis and Metabolites Identification by Metabolomics of Etiolation Substrate from Fresh-Cut Chinese Water Chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xiao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fresh-cut Chinese water chestnuts (CWC turn yellow after being peeled, reducing their shelf life and commercial value. Metabolomics, the systematic study of the full complement of small molecular metabolites, was useful for clarifying the mechanism of fresh-cut CWC etiolation and developing methods to inhibit yellowing. In this study, metabolic alterations associated with etiolation at different growth stages (0 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days from fresh-cut CWC were investigated using LC–MS and analyzed by pattern recognition methods (principal component analysis (PCA, partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. The metabolic pathways of the etiolation molecules were elucidated. The main metabolic pathway appears to be the conversion of phenylalanine to p-coumaroyl-CoA, followed by conversion to naringenin chalcone, to naringenin, and naringenin then following different pathways. Firstly, it can transform into apigenin and its derivatives; secondly, it can produce eriodictyol and its derivatives; and thirdly it can produce dihydrokaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. The eriodictyol can be further transformed to luteolin, cyanidin, dihydroquercetin, dihydrotricetin, and others. This is the first reported use of metabolomics to study the metabolic pathways of the etiolation of fresh-cut CWC.

  4. Rational therapy of chronic venous insufficiency – chances and limits of the therapeutic use of horse-chestnut seeds extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greeske Karin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods We report two clinical studies, one already published, performed in patients with early and advanced chronic venous insufficiency (CVI. In both, compression therapy and oral therapy with horse-chestnut seeds extracts (HCSE were compared to placebo. Results The published study in early CVI (Grade I showed HCSE and compression to be superior to placebo and to be equivalent to each other in reducing lower leg volume, a measure for oedema. In the study, in advanced CVI (Grade II and IIIa, compression appeared to be superior to placebo, whereas HCSE was not. HCSE fared better in Grade II than in Grade IIIa patients. These results are discussed in the light of data from an in vitro model, where HCSE has been able to close the intercellular gaps in the venular endothelium. Not fully specified factors lead to an opening of these gaps, resulting in oedema as well as in local coagulation and thrombosis. The subsequent inflammation keeps these gaps open and initiates and maintains a chronic disease process, which may be the starting point of CVI. Conclusion Due to its ability to close the venular endothelial gaps, HCSE seems to be a suitable and protecting therapy during the early stages of CVI. In later more severe stages compression therapy is indicated. Taking into account the observed negative impact of compression on quality of life, pharmacological CVI therapy should start early to avoid progress and to spare patients compression therapy.

  5. Effect of the supplementation linseed oil, inulin and horse chestnut into a high fat diet on the fatty acid profile of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Brestenský

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In the present study it was evaluated the effect of the addition of linseed oil, inulin and horse chestnut added to a high fat (HF diet on the content of fatty acids (FAs in musculuss longissimus dorsi (MLD of pigs. A 5d with adaptation period was followed by a 70 d experimental period, during which the pigs were fed with a HF basal diet. The HF basal diet which served as a control (group CG was supplemented either with linseed oil (group LG or with inulin and horse chestnut (group IG. All of the pigs were slaughtered at the end of the experiment and samples of MLD were taken for FA analysis. The concentration of α-linolenic acid in MLD of the LG group was 58 % and 61 % higher (P˂0.05 compared to CG and IG groups, respectively. The content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA was 0.03 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 0.07 in LG treatment. These FAs were not detected in CG and IG. The ratio of MUFA and PUFA n-6/n-3 in the MLD was the lowest (P˂0.05 in the LG (8.84 compared to CG (14.07 or IG (14.74 groups, representing a difference of 31.2%. The n-3/saturated FA ratio was highest (P˂0.05 in LG group (0.04 when compared to CG and IG groups (0.02. The supplementation of linseed oil, into the HF diet resulted in a higher concentration of α-linolenic acid, EPA, DHA and lower ratio of n-6/n-3 FA in MLD. Inulin and horse chestnut had no effect on FA profile of MLD.

  6. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

  7. Evaluation of Meat and Egg Traits of Beijing-you Chickens Rotationally Grazing on Chicory Pasture in a Chestnut Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Meng

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Barn and cage-fed chickens have presented several problems, such as high rates of infectious disease and consequent antibiotic abuse, poorer chicken health and welfare, and often poorer meat and egg quality compared with free-range chickens. The poultry agroforestry system is becoming increasingly popular in many poultry farms nowadays. In this study, to evaluate the contribution of poultry agroforestry system to enhance some meat and egg traits of Beijing-you chickens, some indexes of meat and egg qualities, some indexes of slaughter traits, and the feed conversion efficiency were investigated in rotational grazing Beijing-you chickens on chicory (Cichorium intybus L. pasture (CGRG group and only free-ranging chickens on bare land without forage (control group in chestnut forest. Results showed that the live body weight, the dressing weight, the thigh muscle weight, and the breast muscle weight were increased (p<0.05 based on the decrease of 15% feed concentration in the CGRG group relative to the control. Furthermore, compared with the control, the crude ash, the essential amino acid content, and the inosinic acid content were increased (p<0.05, and the crude fat contents were decreased (p<0.05 in the thigh and breast muscles, while the yolk cholesterol and the feed conversion ratio were significantly decreased (p<0.05 in the CGRG group. This study would provide a scientific basis and technological support for the large-scale demonstration and application of rotational grazing chickens on the artificial pasture in forest.

  8. Life-threatening rupture of a renal angiomyolipoma in a patient taking over-the-counter horse chestnut seed extract.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Snow, Aisling

    2011-02-09

    BACKGROUND: Alternative medical therapies are increasingly being prescribed due to their good safety profile and perceived limited side effects. They are often unregulated and prescribed over the counter. One such medication is horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE), which is used for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and is known to affect blood coagulation. Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign fat-containing mesenchymal tumor of the kidney. It is often found incidentally and in most cases can be managed conservatively. Rupture of the kidney with hemorrhage is a well-known complication that may be serious and life-threatening. Known risk factors for hemorrhage include anticoagulation as well as pregnancy, increased size of the lesion, high lesion vascularity, and aneurysm formation within the tumor. OBJECTIVES: The aim is to raise awareness of potential HCSE-induced anticoagulation, including, as in the case presented, acute renal AML hemorrhage. CASE REPORT: The case of a patient taking HCSE for venous insufficiency is presented. The patient suffered a life-threatening rupture of the kidney in the presence of known renal AML. She underwent emergency embolization with a successful outcome. Because HCSE-containing products are thought to be generally safe in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, it is important to be mindful of their potential anticoagulant properties and, therefore, their relative contraindication both in patients taking other anticoagulants and those with known renal AML. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate a potentially life-threatening association between HSCE-containing products and renal AML, highlighting the risk associated with HSCE-induced anticoagulation.

  9. Radionuclide migration pathways analysis for the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Lee, D.W.; Cannon, J.B.; Ketelle, R.H.

    1984-10-01

    A dose-to-man pathways analysis is performed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge Site. Both shallow land burial (trench) and aboveground (tumulus) disposal methods are considered. The waste volumes, characteristics, and radionuclide concentrations are those of waste streams anticipated from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The site capacity for the waste streams is determined on the basis of the pathways analysis. The exposure pathways examined include (1) migration and transport of leachate from the waste disposal units to the Clinch River (via the groundwater medium for trench disposal and Ish Creek for tumulus disposal) and (2) those potentially associated with inadvertent intrusion following a 100-year period of institutional control: an individual resides on the site, inhales suspended particles of contaminated dust, ingests vegetables grown on the plot, consumes contaminated water from either an on-site well or from a nearby surface stream, and receives direct exposure from the contaminated soil. It is found that either disposal method would provide effective containment and isolation for the anticipated waste inventory. However, the proposed trench disposal method would provide more effective containment than tumuli because of sorption of some radionuclides in the soil. Persons outside the site boundary would receive radiation doses well below regulatory limits if they were to ingest water from the Clinch River. An inadvertent intruder could receive doses that approach regulatory limits; however, the likelihood of such intrusions and subsequent exposures is remote. 33 references, 31 figures, 28 tables

  10. Quality assurance project plan for the Chestnut Ridge Fly Ash Pond Stabilization Project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Fly Ash Pond Stabilization (CRFAPS) Project will stabilize a 19-m-high (62-ft-high) earthen embankment across Upper McCoy Branch situated along the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge. This task will be accomplished by raising the crest of the embankment, reinforcing the face of the embankment, removing trees from the face and top of the embankment, and repairing the emergency spillway. The primary responsibilities of the team members are: Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) will be responsible for project integration, technical support, Title 3 field support, environmental oversight, and quality assurance (QA) oversight of the project; Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation (FWENC) will be responsible for design and home office Title 3 support; MK-Ferguson of Oak Ridge Company (MK-F) will be responsible for health and safety, construction, and procurement of construction materials. Each of the team members has a QA program approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations. This project-specific QA project plan (QAPP), which is applicable to all project activities, identifies and integrates the specific QA requirements from the participant's QA programs that are necessary for this project

  11. Variabilidad adaptativa de poblaciones de castaño europeo ("Castanea sativa" Mill.) y estimación de parámetros genéticos para el desarrollo del programa de mejora genética forestal del castaño en Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    Miguez Soto, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    El castaño europeo (Castanea sativa Mill.) es una especie de distribución circum-Mediterránea que cubre 2.53 millones de hectáreas en Europa, teniendo una gran importancia económica por su calidad de madera y producción de fruto. A pesar de la evidente domesticación de la especie desde la antigüedad, varios estudios de poblaciones indican la existencia de diferenciación en caracteres adaptativos como el ritmo de crecimiento anual o el vigor. Este hecho es también corroborado por estudios con ...

  12. Annual report of 1991 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin at the Y-12 Plant: Ground water surface elevations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevenell, L.; Switek, J.

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a summary and interpretation of hydraulic head measurements obtained from wells surrounding the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin sites at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Periodic water level observations are presented using hydrographs and water table contour maps based on data obtained from quarterly sampling during calendar year 1991. Generalized, preliminary interpretation of results are presented. The two sites covered by this report have interim status under the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A subset of the wells at each rate are used for groundwater monitoring purposes under the requirements of RCRA. A discussion of the up-gradient and down-gradient directions for each of the sites is included

  13. CONTRIBUTION TO DETERMINING THE BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE WATER CHESTNUT TRAPA NATANS L. LAKE OUBEIRA EL-KALA AND DEVELOPMENT OF NUTRIENT AGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED SAHLI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is aims to determining the biochemical composition of the flour water chestnut seeds and the development of a nutrient agar for bacteria and fungi in the presence and absence of oxytetracycline. The culture medium consists of the filtrate recovered after dispersion of the flour of the seeds in distilled water and the agar. The results show in the absence of oxytetracycline, bacterial and fungal strains develop. In the presence of the antibiotic to 0.25 mg·mL-1 and 0.5 mg·mL-1 bacteria are completely inhibited whereas fungi evolve. Statistical analysis reveals the existence of a very highly significant difference (P ≤ 0.001 between the effects of different concentrations of the bactericide deploying Pyrenophora tritici and Septoria nodorum. There is no influence of antibacterial concentrations on the growth of Fusarium sp.

  14. The success of the horse-chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK revealed with hypothesis-led citizen science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J O Pocock

    Full Text Available Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the 'Conker Tree Science' project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1 the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2 the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging

  15. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeological Regime, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number for the Y-12 Plant is TN

  16. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Data for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater monitoring is performed at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities located in the regime per the requirements of applicable operating/post closure permits and governing state/federal regulations and guidelines, including DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A require evaluation of available monitoring data with regard to: (1) groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by Y-12 Plant operations, (2) the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) long-term trends in groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant. This report presents the results of these DOE Order 5400.1A evaluations based on available data for the network of monitoring wells and springs in the Chestnut Ridge Regime sampled during calendar year (CY) 1998. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively

  17. Determination of Four Major Saponins in Skin and Endosperm of Seeds of Horse Chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum L.) Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Positive Confirmation by Thin Layer Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Abudayeh, Zead Helmi Mahmoud; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Naddaf, Ahmad; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna; Kislichenko, Viktoria Sergeevna

    2015-01-01

    urpose: To separate and quantify four major saponins in the extracts of the skin and the endosperm of seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) using ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) with positive confirmation by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Methods: The saponins: escin Ia, escin Ib, isoescin Ia and isoescin Ib were extracted using ultrasonic extraction method. The optimized ex...

  18. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant`s remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data.

  19. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Data for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1999-09-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater monitoring is performed at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities located in the regime per the requirements of applicable operating/post closure permits and governing state/federal regulations and guidelines, including DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A require evaluation of available monitoring data with regard to: (1) groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by Y-12 Plant operations, (2) the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) long-term trends in groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant. This report presents the results of these DOE Order 5400.1A evaluations based on available data for the network of monitoring wells and springs in the Chestnut Ridge Regime sampled during calendar year (CY) 1998. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  20. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant's remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data

  1. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This annual groundwater report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

  2. CsSCL1 is differentially regulated upon maturation in chestnut microshoots and is specifically expressed in rooting-competent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielba, Jesús M; Díaz-Sala, Carmen; Ferro, Enrique; Rico, Saleta; Lamprecht, María; Abarca, Dolores; Ballester, Antonio; Sánchez, Conchi

    2011-10-01

    The Castanea sativa SCL1 gene (CsSCL1) has previously been shown to be induced by auxin during adventitious root (AR) formation in rooting-competent microshoots. However, its expression has not previously been analyzed in rooting-incompetent shoots. This study focuses on the regulation of CsSCL1 during maturation and the role of the gene in the formation of AR. The expression of CsSCL1 in rooting-incompetent microshoots and other tissues was investigated by quantitative reverse transcriptase--polymerase chain reaction. The analysis was complemented by in situ hybridization of the basal segments of rooting-competent and --incompetent microshoots during AR induction, as well as in AR and lateral roots. It was found that CsSCL1 is upregulated by auxin in a cell-type- and phase-dependent manner during the induction of AR. In root-forming shoots, CsSCL1 mRNA was specifically located in the cambial zone and derivative cells, which are rooting-competent cells, whereas in rooting-incompetent shoots the hybridization signal was more diffuse and evenly distributed through the phloem and parenchyma. CsSCL1 expression was also detected in lateral roots and axillary buds. The different CsSCL1 expression patterns in rooting-competent and -incompetent microshoots, together with the specific location of transcripts in cell types involved in root meristem initiation and in the root primordia of AR and lateral roots, indicate an important role for the gene in determining whether certain cells will enter the root differentiation pathway and its involvement in meristem maintenance.

  3. Rapid molecular screening of black carbon (biochar) thermosequences obtained from chestnut wood and rice straw: A pyrolysis-GC/MS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaal, Joeri; Schneider, Maximilian P.W.; Schmidt, Michael W.I.

    2012-01-01

    Rice straw and chestnut wood were heated between 200 and 1000 °C (T CHAR ) to produce Black C ‘thermosequences’. The molecular properties of the charred residues were assessed by pyrolysis-GC/MS to investigate the relation between charring intensity and pyrolysis fingerprint. Samples obtained at T CHAR > 500 °C (wood) or >700 °C (straw) gave low quality pyrograms and poor reproducibility because of high thermal stability, but pyrolysis-GC/MS allowed to track the thermal degradation of the main biocomponents (polysaccharides, lignin, methylene chain-based aliphatics, triterpenoids, chlorophyll and proteins) in the lower temperature range, mostly occurring between T CHAR 250 and 500 °C. With increasing T CHAR , the charred residues of these biocomponents lose characteristic functional groups, aromatise and finally condense into non-pyrolysable biomass. The proportions of the pyrolysis products of unspecific origin (benzene, toluene, PAHs, etc.), increase with charring intensity, while the ratios that reflect the abundance of alkyl cross-linkages between aromatic moieties (e.g. benzene/toluene, naphthalene/alkylnaphthalene) decrease. These results provide the guidelines to using pyrolysis-GC/MS for the molecular characterisation of different components in Black C and biochar, which is an important parameter for predicting Black C/biochar behaviour in soil. Results are consistent with earlier studies of these samples using the BPCA (benzenepolycarboxylic acid) method and the ring current-induced 13 C benzene chemical shift NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) approach. Pyrolysis-GC/MS provides more information on molecular structures in the low temperature range (T CHAR ≤ 500 °C) while the BPCA and NMR ring current methods provide more reliable estimations of charring intensity, especially at higher temperatures (T CHAR ≥ 500 °C). -- Highlights: ► Charred rice straw and chestnut wood (200–1000 °C) analysed by pyrolysis-GC/MS. ► Pyrolysis-GC/MS allows

  4. Produção de castanha e de folhada e concentração de nutrientes nas folhas de soutos submetidos a diferentes sistemas de mobilização do solo Chestnut and litterfall production and leaf nutrient concentration in chestnut groves submitted to different soil tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Raimundo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de vários sistemas de preparação do solo na produção das componentes caducas da biomassa (folhas, ouriços, castanhas e inflorescências e no teor de nutrientes nas folhas, num souto com árvores de 50 anos de idade média localizado no Nordeste de Portugal. O sistema experimental foi instalado no início de 1996 e incluiu os seguintes tratamentos: mobilização tradicional com escarificador a uma profundidade média de 15 cm (MT, mobilização com grade de discos até 7 cm de profundidade (GD, pastagem semeada plurianual de sequeiro (PS e não-mobilização com vegetação herbácea espontânea (NM. A produção média da biomassa caduca (folhas, ouriços, castanhas e inflorescências, durante o período de 1999 a 2004, expressa por m² de área de projecção vertical da copa, foi máxima no tratamento NM (755 g m-2, seguida do PS (729 g m-2, do GD (708 g m-2 e por último do MT (627 g m-2, não se observando diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Durante o período de estudo, os ouriços (36,7% foram a componente mais importante do total da biomassa caduca, seguidos pelas folhas (32,5%, castanhas (24,7% e inflorescências (6,1%. A produção de castanhas, também para aquele período, no tratamento MT (133 g m-2 foi significativamente inferior à observada nos tratamentos NM (193 g m-2 e PS (191 g m². O teor de N, P e Mg das folhas, em 2003 e 2004, foi significativamente menor no tratamento MT do que nos restantes; o teor de K, por seu turno, foi significativamente menor nos tratamentos MT e PS do que no GD; o teor de Ca nos tratamentos GD e PS foi significativamente maior do que no tratamento MT. As alternativas de gestão à mobilização tradicional revelaram-se mais promissoras para a produtividade dos soutos e para a redução dos custos de produção.The effects of several soil management systems on litterfall production (leaves, burs, chestnuts and inflorescences and leaf nutrient concentration were

  5. Valorization of solid wastes from chestnut industry processing: Extraction and optimization of polyphenols, tannins and ellagitannins and its potential for adhesives, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Alfredo; Carvalho, Rosa; Saavedra, Maria José

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential of chestnut peels to produce pomaces enhanced with tannins to be used in the formulations of wood adhesives, leather tanning or as natural antioxidants in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. An analytical procedure was planned as 2 factorial design to analyze the influence of solvent (water, Na2SO3 and NaOH at different concentrations of 1, 2, 4, and 8% in water) and extraction time (30, 60, and 120, 240, 480 and 960min) on extraction yield, pH, Stiasny index, and tannins. HPLC-diode array detector equipped with an ionization mass spectrophotometer was used to assess the polyphenol composition. Our results showed that both extraction properties and phytochemicals were significantly affected (Ptannins identified were the hydrolyzable gallic acid, vescalagin castalagin and ellagic acid, and the condensed epigallocatechin, catechin and epicatechin. The solvent 1% Na2SO3 was more effective to extract the condensed tannins whilst hydrolyzable tannins were extracted efficiently by 1% NaOH. The multivariable analysis and the Pearson's correlation coefficients showed a direct association between Stiasny number and the average levels of condensed tannins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Global DNA Methylation in the Chestnut Blight Fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and Genome-Wide Changes in DNA Methylation Accompanied with Sectorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kum-Kang So

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mutation in CpBck1, an ortholog of the cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica resulted in a sporadic sectorization as culture proceeded. The progeny from the sectored area maintained the characteristics of the sector, showing a massive morphogenetic change, including robust mycelial growth without differentiation. Epigenetic changes were investigated as the genetic mechanism underlying this sectorization. Quantification of DNA methylation and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing revealed genome-wide DNA methylation of the wild-type at each nucleotide level and changes in DNA methylation of the sectored progeny. Compared to the wild-type, the sectored progeny exhibited marked genome-wide DNA hypomethylation but increased methylation sites. Expression analysis of two DNA methyltransferases, including two representative types of DNA methyltransferase (DNMTase, demonstrated that both were significantly down-regulated in the sectored progeny. However, functional analysis using mutant phenotypes of corresponding DNMTases demonstrated that a mutant of CpDmt1, an ortholog of RID of Neurospora crassa, resulted in the sectored phenotype but the CpDmt2 mutant did not, suggesting that the genetic basis of fungal sectorization is more complex. The present study revealed that a mutation in a signaling pathway component resulted in sectorization accompanied with changes in genome-wide DNA methylation, which suggests that this signal transduction pathway is important for epigenetic control of sectorization via regulation of genes involved in DNA methylation.

  7. Annual report of 1995 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) and the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) are inactive waste management sites located at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The KHQ and CRSDB are regulated as treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facilities were granted interim status in calendar year (CY) 1986 under Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Hazardous Waste Management Rule 1200-1-11-.05. Historical environmental monitoring data and baseline characterization under interim status indicated that releases of contaminants to groundwater had not occurred; thus, the detection monitoring was implemented at the sites until either clean closure was completed or post-closure permits were issued. The CRSDB was closed in Cy 1989 under a TDEC-approved RCRA closure plan. A revised RCRA PCPA for the CRSDB was submitted by DOE personnel to TDEC staff in September 1994. A final post-closure permit was issued by the TDEC on September 18, 1995. Closure activities at KHQ under RCRA were completed in October 1993. The Record of Decision will also incorporate requirements of the RCRA post-closure permit once it is issued by the TDEC

  8. Proposed modifications to the RCRA post-closure permit for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This report presents proposed modifications to several conditions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR) (permit number TNHW-088, EPA ID No. TN3 89 009 0001). These permit conditions define the requirements for RCRA post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) and Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ), and RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSPs). Modification of these PCP conditions is requested to: (1) clarify the planned integration of RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the CRSPs with the monitoring program to be established in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) record of decision (ROD), (2) revise several of the current technical requirements for groundwater monitoring based on implementation of the RCRA monitoring programs during 1996, (3) replace several of the technical procedures included in the PCP with updated versions recently issued by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), and (4) correct inaccurate regulatory citations and references to permit conditions and permit attachments. With these modifications, the Y- 12 Plant will continue to meet the full intent of all regulatory obligations for post-closure care of these facilities. Section 2 provides the technical justification for each proposed permit modification. Section 3.0 contains proposed changes to Section II of the PCP. Modifications to site-specific permit conditions are presented in Section 4.0 (CRSDB), Section 5.0 (CRSPs), and Section 6.0 (KHQ). Sections 7.0 and 8.0 reference updated and revised procedures for groundwater sampling, and monitoring well plugging and abandonment, respectively. Appendix A includes all proposed revisions to the permit attachments

  9. Proposed modifications to the RCRA post-closure permit for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report presents proposed modifications to several conditions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR) (permit number TNHW-088, EPA ID No. TN3 89 009 0001). These permit conditions define the requirements for RCRA post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) and Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ), and RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSPs). Modification of these PCP conditions is requested to: (1) clarify the planned integration of RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the CRSPs with the monitoring program to be established in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) record of decision (ROD), (2) revise several of the current technical requirements for groundwater monitoring based on implementation of the RCRA monitoring programs during 1996, (3) replace several of the technical procedures included in the PCP with updated versions recently issued by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), and (4) correct inaccurate regulatory citations and references to permit conditions and permit attachments. With these modifications, the Y- 12 Plant will continue to meet the full intent of all regulatory obligations for post-closure care of these facilities. Section 2 provides the technical justification for each proposed permit modification. Section 3.0 contains proposed changes to Section II of the PCP. Modifications to site-specific permit conditions are presented in Section 4.0 (CRSDB), Section 5.0 (CRSPs), and Section 6.0 (KHQ). Sections 7.0 and 8.0 reference updated and revised procedures for groundwater sampling, and monitoring well plugging and abandonment, respectively. Appendix A includes all proposed revisions to the permit attachments.

  10. Phase 2 Sampling Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    CDM Federal Programs Corporation (CDM Federal) was contracted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to prepare a Phase H Sampling Plan to describe field investigation work necessary to address regulatory agency review comments on the Remedial Investigation of Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP)/Upper McCoy Branch, Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 at the Y-12 Plant, conducted by CH2M Hill in 1990. The scope and approach of the field investigation described in this plan specifically focus on deficiencies noted by the regulators in discussions at the comment resolution meeting of May 8, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This Phase II Sampling Plan includes a field sampling plan, a field and laboratory quality assurance project plan, a health and safety plan, a waste management plan, and appendixes providing an update to applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements for this site and field and laboratory testing methods and procedures. To address deficiencies noted by the regulators, the following activities will be conducted: Background surface soil and surface water/sediment samples will be collected based on statistical considerations for comparison to site data. Existing and new data to be collected will be used to support a human health risk assessment that includes the future homesteader scenario. Biological surveys, samples, and measurements will be collected/conducted to augment existing data and support an ecological risk assessment. Another round of groundwater sampling will be conducted, including on-site wells and the wells on Chestnut Ridge downgradient of the Security Pits. Borings will be completed in the FCAP to collect samples from below the surface depth to describe the chemical characteristics and volume of the ash. The volume of ash associated with sluice channel on Chestnut Ridge will be determined. Soil samples will be corrected below the coal ash in the FCAP and adjacent to sluice channel to evaluate soil contamination and migration of contaminants

  11. Rhododendron maximum impacts seed bank composition and richness following Tsuga canadensis loss in riparian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristan M. Cofer; Katherine J. Elliott; Janis K. Bush; Chelcy F. Miniat

    2018-01-01

    Southern Appalachian riparian forests have undergone changes in composition and function from invasive pathogens and pests. Castanea dentata mortality in the 1930s from chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) and Tsuga canadensis mortality in the 2000s from the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) have led to the expansion and...

  12. Effect of pasture on chestnut or acorn on fatty acid composition and aromatic profile of fat of Cinta Senese dry-cured ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci, Oreste

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pasture on oak and chestnut grove on chemical and aromatic traits of Cinta Senese cured ham. Fifteen Cinta Senese barrows (124 kg of l.w. on average were allotted to three groups: one group (MI was reared outdoors in confined area and fed commercial feedstuff. The other two groups were raised under free-range conditions on acorn (AC or chestnut (CH woods. At slaughtering (148 kg of l.w. the right thighs were seasoned for 360 days, on average, to obtained cured hams. Results demonstrated that subcutaneous fat of ham of CH and AC groups, respect to CONC group, was the richest in MUFA (51.3 and 53.9 vs 49.5% respectively, because of the higher content of oleic acid (48.4 and 50.8 vs 46.2%, respectively. AC showed a lower percentage of PUFA than CH and CONC (13.8 vs 15.4 and 16.3%, respectively. As regard volatile compounds, AC, respect to CH and MI groups, showed the highest value of aldehydes (44.1 vs 30.3 and 33.5% respectively and ethers (4.04 vs 1.15 and 1.71% respectively.El objetivo de este estudio fue la evaluación de la composición de los ácidos grasos y de los compuestos volátiles del jamón curado Toscano obtenido de cerdos Cinta Senese alimentados con bellota, castaña o pienso. Quince cerdos de raza Cinta Senese fueron criados en extensivo: 5 fueron criados en bosque de bellota (AC, 5 en bosque de castaña (CH y 5 en un cercado y alimentados con pienso (MI. El día posterior al sacrificio se curaron los jamones. La composición de los ácidos grasos fue estadísticamente diferente entre los tipos de alimentación. La grasa de AC presentó el mayor porcentaje de AGMI total en comparación con CH y MI (51.3 y 53.9 vs 49.5% respectivamente gracias al mayor porcentaje de ácido oleico (48.4 y 50.8 vs 46.2%, respectivamente, y la menor de AGPI total (13.8 vs 15.4 y 16.3%, respectivamente. En relación a los compuestos volátiles, la grasa de AC, en comparación con CH y MI

  13. Seasonal variations of trace element contents in leaves and bark of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. in urban and industrial regions in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the ability of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. to capture heavy metals, and whether its capacity to absorb metals from soil is associated with surrounding ecological characteristics and sources of pollution. We studied the seasonal accumulation of B, Cu, Sr and Zn in leaves and bark, and the chlorophyll content in the common deciduous tree Aesculus hippocastanum L. in four urban parks in Pančevo, Smederevo, Obrenovac and Belgrade (Serbia affected by different anthropogenic activities. The research included plants from a control site located within the zone of a former oak forest. Our findings suggest that there are potential ecological risks around Smederevo, Belgrade and Obrenovac due to elevated concentrations of B and Zn relative to the average concentrations described for worldwide soils, as well as national regulations. Substantial and toxic foliar accumulation of B was observed in Smederevo and Belgrade, and of Sr in both plant tissues at all sites. However, the Cu and Zn contents in leaves were not enough to meet the physiological needs of plants. Chlorophyll a and the total carotenoid content peaked in August under the most unfavorable conditions of the year, which may be considered as an adaptive mechanism. The obtained results showed the remarkable complexity of environmental conditions and the difficulties A. hippocastanum, as a species, has to overcome. Under conditions of different types of urban and industrial pollution, A. hippocastanum showed great element accumulation potential and could be regarded as both an accumulator and a response indicator, since its leaves are quite susceptible to damage. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173018

  14. Determination of Four Major Saponins in Skin and Endosperm of Seeds of Horse Chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum L.) Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Positive Confirmation by Thin Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudayeh, Zead Helmi Mahmoud; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Naddaf, Ahmad; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna; Kislichenko, Viktoria Sergeevna

    2015-11-01

    To separate and quantify four major saponins in the extracts of the skin and the endosperm of seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) using ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) with positive confirmation by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The saponins: escin Ia, escin Ib, isoescin Ia and isoescin Ib were extracted using ultrasonic extraction method. The optimized extraction conditions were: 70% methanol as extraction solvent, 80 °C as extraction temperature, and the extraction time was achieved in 4 hours. The HPLC conditions used: Zorbax SB-ODS-(150 mm × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) column, acetonitrile and 0.10% phosphoric acid solution (39:61 v/v) as mobile phase, flow rate was 0.5 mL min(-1) at 210 nm and 230 nm detection. The injection volume was 10 μL, and the separation was carried out isothermally at 30 °C in a heated chamber. The results indicated that the developed HPLC method is simple, sensitive and reliable. Moreover, the content of escins in seeds decreased by more than 30% in endosperm and by more than 40% in skin upon storage for two years. This assay can be readily utilized as a quality control method for horse chestnut and other related medicinal plants.

  15. Annual report of 1991 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin at the Y-12 Plant: Reporting and statistical evaluation of the subsequent year (sixth) data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, L.W.; Mercier, T.M.

    1992-02-01

    This annual report has historically been prepared to meet the annual reporting requirements of the Tennessee Department of and Environment and Conservation (TDEC), Hazardous Waste Management Regulation 1200-1-11-.05 (6)(e), for detection monitoring data collected on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) wells in place around facilities which are accorded interim status. The regulatory authority for these units at the Y-12 Plant is currently in transition. A Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) with an effective date of January 1, 1992, has been negotiated with the Department of Energy (DOE) for the Oak Ridge Reservation. This agreement provides a framework for remediation of the Oak Ridge Reservation so that both RCRA and CERCLA requirements are integrated into the remediation process and provides for State, EPA, and DOE to proceed with CERCLA as the lead regulatory requirement and RCRA as an applicable or relevant and appropriate requirement. This report is presented for the RCRA certified wells for two interim status units at the Y-12 Plant. These units are Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin. Kerr Hollow is currently undergoing clean closure under RCRA. The Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) was closed in 1989 under a TDEC approved RCRA closure plan. The relevance of a RCRA Post-Closure Permit to either of these units is a matter of contention between DOE and TDEC since the FFA does not contemplate post-closure permits

  16. Preliminary study on antioxidant properties, phenolic contents, and effects of Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut seed shell extract on in vitro cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatomo Makino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Human skin exposure to solar UV radiation induces cells to produce reactive oxygen species that directly cause DNA damage via the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs, which are the primary UVB-induced DNA lesions. CPDs are responsible for cell death, mutation, and neoplastic transformation. Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut seed extract has traditionally been used for venotonic treatments and also as a raw material for cosmetics. This study aimed to characterize the antioxidant properties of the phenolic contents of extracts from A. hippocastanum seed shell and endosperm and to investigate their effects on CPD repair in UVB-exposed human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Materials and Methods: Crude 60% aqueous ethanol extracts (v/v were prepared, and their total polyphenol contents, antioxidant activities, and ORAC values were measured by Folin–Ciocalteu, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, and ORAC assays, respectively. The levels of CPDs induced by UVB irradiation were measured by cell-based immunoassays after 6-h treatment with the extract of A. hippocastanum seed shell at a concentration of 100-μg/ml and 9-h treatment with it at concentrations of 50, 100, and 200- μg/ml. Result: A. hippocastanum seed shell extract had 602 ± 1.6-mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract and exhibited 4990 ± 70.9 and 7140 ± 835 μmol Trolox equivalents per gram of extract as DPPH radical-scavenging activity and ORAC value, respectively; these values were comparable to those of extracts from green tea and Mallotus japonicus leaves. However, these values of the seed endosperm extract were relatively low. A 9-h treatment of cells with seed shell extracts at concentrations of 50, 100, and 200-μg/ml after UVB exposure significantly reduced CPD levels compared with those in UVB-exposed cells without treatment. Conclusion: This study indicated that A. hippocastanum seed shell extract possesses a potential to

  17. Morfologia de frutos, sementes e plântulas de castanheira (Terminalia catappa L. - COMBRETACEAE Morphology of the fruit, the seed and the seedlings of chestnut tree (Terminalia catappa L. - COMBRETACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Azevedo Ivani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de descrever morfologicamente os frutos, sementes e plântulas de castanheira. Foi feita a biometria dos frutos e das sementes e sua caracterização quanto à forma, por meio de mensurações com paquímetro e observações realizadas em estereomicroscópio com câmara clara. Os frutos de castanheira são carnosos, indeiscentes, do tipo nucóide, glabros, de coloração verde a vinácea, projeção das nervuras carpelares externamente evidentes, com epicarpo delgado, mesocarpo carnoso e esponjoso de coloração vinácea, com feixes vasculares conspícuos em corte transversal. Geralmente, cada fruto contém apenas uma semente. As sementes são exalbuminosas, de formas alongadas e cilíndricas, recobertas por endocarpo rígido de coloração marrom; possuem cerca de 2,5cm, 0,7cm e 0,7cm, de comprimento, largura e espessura, respectivamente. A germinação das sementes de castanheira é epígea, e a plantula é fanerocotiledonar.The work was carried out with the objective of describing morphologically the fruits, seeds and seedlings of chestnut tree. It was made the biometry of the fruits and seeds with a digital pachymeter and its characterization in relation to the shape, in stereomicroscope with clear chamber. It can be evidenced that the chestnut tree fruits are fleshly, indehiscent, nucoid, glabrous, from green to purple coloration, with evident projection of the carpel ribbings, with a fleshly and spongy epicarp and mesocarp, of purple color, with conspicuous vascular bundle in transversal cut. Generally, it has a seed per fruit. The seeds are unalbuminous, of prolongated and cylindrical shape and recovered with a rigid endocarp of brown coloration. The seeds possess about 2,5; 0,7 and 0,7 cm, of length, width and thickness, respectively. The germination of the seeds of chestnut tree is epigeal and the seedling is fanerocotyledonary.

  18. Sucrose effect on broomrape (Orobanche crenata) development on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... sense, different control means such as ammonium- containing nutrients or essential amino acids ... Afterwards, the plates were wrapped in aluminium foil in order to maintain Orobanche seeds in the dark, .... tion of ammonium sulphate and to increase the yield of faba bean significantly (Kukula and Masri, ...

  19. Phase 2 Sampling Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    CDM Federal Programs Corporation (CDM Federal) was contracted by Energy Systems to prepare a Phase II Sampling Plan to describe the field investigation work necessary to address regulatory agency review comments on the Remedial Investigation of the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP)/Upper McCoy Branch, Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 at the Y-12 Plant, conducted by CH2M Hill in 1990. The scope and approach of the field investigation described in this plan specifically focus on deficiencies noted by the regulators in discussions at the comment resolution meeting of May 8, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This Phase II Sampling Plan includes a field sampling plan, a field and laboratory quality assurance project plan, a health and safety plan, a waste management plan, and appendixes providing an update to the applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements for this site and field and laboratory testing methods and procedures

  20. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of furfuralcohol from chestnut shell hydrolysate by a sequential acid-catalyzed dehydration under microwave and Escherichia coli CCZU-Y10 whole-cells conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Junhua; Ma, Cuiluan; Qian, Jianghao; Liao, Xiaolong; Peng, Bo; He, Yucai

    2018-08-01

    In this study, chemo-enzymatic synthesis of furfuralcohol from biomass-derived xylose was successfully demonstrated by a sequential acid-catalyzed dehydration under microwave and whole-cells reduction. After dry dewaxed chestnut shells (CNS, 75 g/L) was acid-hydrolyzed with dilute oxalic acid (0.5 wt%) at 140 °C for 40 min, the obtained CNS-derived xylose (17.9 g/L xylose) could be converted to furfural at 78.8% yield with solid acid SO 4 2- /SnO 2 -Attapulgite (2.0 wt% catalyst loading) in the dibutyl phthalate-water (1:1, v:v) under microwave (600 W) at 180 °C for 10 min. In the dibutyl phthalate-water (1:1, v/v) media at 30 °C and pH 6.5, the furfural liquor (47.0 mM furfural) was biologically converted to furfuralcohol by recombinant Escherichia coli CCZU-Y10 whole-cells harboring an NADH-dependent reductase (PgCR) without extra addition of NAD + and glucose, and furfural was completely converted to furfuralcohol after 2.5 h. Clearly, this one-pot synthesis strategy can be effectively used for furfuralcohol production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Part 2: 1995 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1995 from monitoring wells and springs located at or near several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the boundaries of the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The objectives of the GWPP are to provide the monitoring data necessary for compliance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. corporate policy. The following evaluation of the data is organized into background regulatory information and site descriptions, an overview of the hydrogeologic framework, a summary of the CY 1995 groundwater monitoring programs and associated sampling and analysis activities, analysis and interpretation of the data for inorganic, organic, and radiological analytes, a summary of conclusions and recommendations, and a list of cited references. Appendix A contains supporting maps, cross sections, diagrams, and graphs; data tables and summaries are in Appendix B. Detailed descriptions of the data screening and evaluation criteria are included in Appendix C

  2. Pest risk analysis for Conogethes punctiferalis (Yellow peach moth or castor capsule borer)

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Environment Research Agency

    2012-01-01

    This is a highly polyphagous pest, the larvae boring into fruit, seeds and stems of plants in many different families. Economic hosts grown in the UK include Allium cepa (onion), Malus (apple), Prunus (plum, cherry), Pyrus (pear), Vitis vinifera (grape vine), and Zea mays (maize). Other recorded hosts include Castanea (chestnut), Citrus, Curcuma longa (tumeric), Durio zibethinus (durian), Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Punica granatum (po...

  3. Evidence for exploitative competition: Comparative foraging behavior and roosting ecology of short-tailed fruit bats (Phyllostomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, F.J.; Winkelmann, J.R.; Shin, D.; Agrawal, C.I.; Aslami, N.; Bonney, C.; Hsu, A.; Jekielek, P.E.; Knox, A.K.; Kopach, S.J.; Jennings, T.D.; Lasky, J.R.; Menesale, S.A.; Richards, J.H.; Rutland, J.A.; Sessa, A.K.; Zhaurova, L.; Kunz, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Chestnut short-tailed bats, Carollia castanea, and Seba's short-tailed bats, C. perspicillata (Phyllostomidae), were radio-tracked (N = 1593 positions) in lowland rain forest at Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Orellana Province, Ecuador. For 11 C. castanea, mean home range was 6.8 ?? 2.2 ha, mean core-use area was 1.7 ?? 0.8 ha, and mean long axis across home range was 438 ?? 106 m. For three C. perspicillata, mean home range was 5.5 ?? 1.7 ha, mean core-use area was 1.3 ?? 0.6 ha, and mean long axis was 493 ?? 172 m. Groups of less than five C. castanea occupied day-roosts in earthen cavities that undercut banks the Tiputini River. Carollia perspicillata used tree hollows and buildings as day-roosts. Interspecific and intraspecific overlap among short-tailed bats occurred in core-use areas associated with clumps of fruiting Piper hispidum (peppers) and Cecropia sciadophylla. Piper hispidum seeds were present in 80 percent of the fecal samples from C. castanea and 56 percent of samples from C. perspicillata. Carollia perspicillata handled pepper fruits significantly faster than C. castanea; however, C. castanea commenced foraging before C. perspicillata emerged from day-roosts. Evidence for exploitative competition between C. castanea and C. perspicillata is suggested by our observations that 95 percent of ripe P. hispidum fruits available at sunset disappear before sunrise (N = 74 marked fruits). Piper hispidum plants produced zero to 12 ripe infructescences per plant each night during peak production. Few ripe infructescences of P. hispidum were available during the dry season; however, ripe infructescences of C. sciadophylla, remained abundant. ?? 2007 The Author(s) Journal compilation ?? 2007 by The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation.

  4. THEORETICALLY POSSIBLE AND PRACTICALLY RELIZABLE PRODUCTIVITY OF THE LIGHT-CHESTNUT SOILS OF THE NORTHERN WEST PRECASPIAN REGION ACORDING TO THE MOISTURE AND SOLINITY (ON EXAMPLE OF KOCHUBEY BIOSPHERE STATION OF PIBR DNC RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Hasanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The article presents the productivity data, the species composition and utilization rates phytocenoses FAR depending on theintegrals of dryness and moisture climate volatility, coefficient of moisture and dynamics of harmful salts in the soil according to years and seasons of the year.Methods.The studies were conducted on light-chestnut carbonate saline soil of Kochubey biosphere stations on the territory of the Terek- Kuma Lowland Precaspianregion in 2011–2013. The calculation of the use of FAR was conducted using the formula A.A. Nichiporovich to determine the theoretically possible yield of plants. Klimatogrammy during these years has been compiled by the method Walter. Stocks above and below ground plant matter into account by the method of A.A.Titlyanova.The names of species given by S.K. Cherepanov.Results. According to the results of our observations, the most important for achieving high productivity ephemeral synusia under these conditions include precipitation for April and May. Between the amount of rainfall in April and May and the productivity of abovegroundphytomass ofephemera direct correlation exists, which in 2011 had a strong, and in the next two years-the average severity. In 2012 the volatility increased, KU fell in 5 times. Such weather conditions contributed to the rise of water-soluble salts to the upper soil horizons and substantial change in species composition phytocenoses. The content Cl- in the layer 0–20 cm over the same period 2011 increased in 3.9 times, SO4--- 1.7 in times. If in 2011 the stepen soil salinity in the layer 0–35 cm characterized as weak, in 2012 the average at the same chloride- sulphate type of salinity. Obviously , an increase in the content of Cl- - ions and its relationship to the S04-- contributed to a dramatic increase in productivity and thistle herbs in 2012. Luxuriant growth of Salsola iberica Sennen et Pau particularly stood.Thus, the formation of a biomass

  5. Plant regeneration through indirect organogenesis of chestnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mehrcedeh

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... Druce-A multiple desert tree. Researcher 1:28-32. Kvaalen H, Gram Daehlen O, Tove Rognstad A, Grǿnstad B,. Egertsdotter U (2005). Somatic embryogenesis for plant production of. Abies lasiocarpa. Can. J. For. Res. 35:1053-1060. Liu CZ, Murch SJ, Demerdash MEL, Saxena PK (2003). Regeneration.

  6. Mineralogical characterization of West Chestnut Ridge soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Kopp, O.C.; Lietzke, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    The morphological, physicochemical, and mineralogical properties of the soils and residua from the proposed site of the Central Waste Disposal Facility were characterized. The proposed site is underlain by cherty dolostones, limestones, and shales of the Knox Group covered by a thick residuum. Three diagnostic horizons from four soil profiles and six samples from residuum cores were selected for mineralogical analysis. The coarse fractions (gravel and sand) of the samples included different types of chert, iron-manganese oxide nodules, and quartz. The samples were high in clay content (except those from the A and E horizons) and low in pH and base saturation. The clay fractions were composed of varying amounts of kaolinite, mica, vermiculite, aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite, amorphous iron and aluminum oxides, gibbsite, and quartz. Aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite is the major component in surface horizons, but kaolinite becomes dominant in subsurface horizons of the soils. Degradation of kaolinite and formation of aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite and iron and aluminum oxides are pronounced chemical weathering processes in the surface soils. The aluminum hydroxy interlayering of vermiculite reduces cation exchange and selective sorption capacities of soils. In the residua, micaceous minerals free of aluminum hydroxy interlayering, kaolinite, and amorphous iron and aluminum oxides are major components in the clay fraction. The sorption ratios of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 60 Co, and the uranium isotopes expected to be in the radioactive wastes should be very high for the clays having such mineralogical composition. The low acid-buffering capacity (base saturation) of the residua suggest that the fragile chemical and mineralogical equilibria can be easily broken if an extreme chemical condition is imposed on the residua

  7. Estimating the ecology of extinct species with paleoecological data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiho, A.; McLachlan, J. S.; Dietze, M.

    2017-12-01

    In order to understand long term, unobservable ecosystem processes, ecologists must use both paleoecoloigcal data and ecosystem models. Models parameterize species competitive interactions using modern data. But, modern ecological or physiological observations are not available for extinct species, making it difficult for models to conceptualize their ecology. For instance, American chestnut (Castanea dentata), who played a large role in forests of northeastern US, was decimated by disease to virtual extinction. Since chestnut's demise, defining its ecology has been controversial. Models typically assume that chestnut's ecology was very similar to oak; They parameterize chestnut like oak species. These assumptions are drawn from paleoecological data, but these data are often reported without uncertainty. Since the paleoecological data are often reported without uncertainty, paleoecological data has never been directly incorporated with ecosystem models. We developed a Bayesian statistical model to estimate fractional composition from paleoecological data with uncertainty. Then, we assimilated this data product into an ecosystem model for long term forest succession using a generalized ensemble adjustment filter to determine which species demographic parameters lead to changes in species composition over the last 2,000 years at Harvard Forest. We found that chestnut was strongly negatively correlated with white pine (Pinus strobus) and red oak (Quercus rubra) in the process covariance matrix, suggesting a strong competitive interaction that is not currently understood by models for forest succession. These findings provide support for utilizing a data assimilation framework to ecologically interpret paleoecological data or data products to learn about the ecology of extinct species.

  8. Phytotherapy of experimental depression: Kalanchoe integra Var. Crenata (Andr. Cuf Leaf Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy K E Kukuia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Kalanchoe sp. have been used since 1921 for central nervous system (CNS disorders such as psychosis and depression. It is known to possess CNS depressant effects. Aims: To investigate the antidepressant properties of the aqueous leaf extract of Kalanchoe integra. Settings and Design: The study was carried out at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology between 6 a.m. and 3 p.m. Materials and Methods: ICR mice were subjected to the forced swimming test (FST and tail suspension test (TST after they had received extract (30-300 mg/kg, fluoxetine (3-30 mg/kg, desipramine (3-30 mg/kg orally, or water (as vehicle. In a separate experiment, mice were pre-treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg, α-methyl paratyrosine (AMPT; 400 mg/kg, both reserpine (1 mg/kg and AMPT (200 mg/kg concomitantly, or p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA; 200 mg/kg to ascertain the role of the noradrenergic and serotoninergic systems in the mode of action of the extract. Statistical analysis used: Means were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls′ post hoc test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In both FST and TST, the extract induced a decline in immobility, indicative of antidepressant-like effect. This diminution in immobility was reversed by pCPA, but not by reserpine and/or AMPT. The extract increased the swimming and climbing scores in the FST, suggestive of possible interaction with serotoninergic and noradrenergic systems. In the TST, the extract produced increases in both curling and swinging scores, suggestive of opioidergic monoaminergic activity, respectively. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the antidepressant potential of the aqueous leaf extract of K. integra is mediated possibly by a complex interplay between serotoninergic, opioidergic, and noradrenergic systems.

  9. Phytotherapy of experimental depression: Kalanchoe integra Var. Crenata (Andr.) Cuf Leaf Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuia, Kennedy K E; Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac J; Woode, Eric; Biney, Robert P; Addae, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Kalanchoe sp. have been used since 1921 for central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as psychosis and depression. It is known to possess CNS depressant effects. To investigate the antidepressant properties of the aqueous leaf extract of Kalanchoe integra. The study was carried out at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology between 6 a.m. and 3 p.m. ICR mice were subjected to the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) after they had received extract (30-300 mg/kg), fluoxetine (3-30 mg/kg), desipramine (3-30 mg/kg) orally, or water (as vehicle). In a separate experiment, mice were pre-treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg), α-methyl paratyrosine (AMPT; 400 mg/kg), both reserpine (1 mg/kg) and AMPT (200 mg/kg) concomitantly, or p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA; 200 mg/kg) to ascertain the role of the noradrenergic and serotoninergic systems in the mode of action of the extract. Means were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Newman-Keuls' post hoc test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. In both FST and TST, the extract induced a decline in immobility, indicative of antidepressant-like effect. This diminution in immobility was reversed by pCPA, but not by reserpine and/or AMPT. The extract increased the swimming and climbing scores in the FST, suggestive of possible interaction with serotoninergic and noradrenergic systems. In the TST, the extract produced increases in both curling and swinging scores, suggestive of opioidergic monoaminergic activity, respectively. The present study has demonstrated the antidepressant potential of the aqueous leaf extract of K. integra is mediated possibly by a complex interplay between serotoninergic, opioidergic, and noradrenergic systems.

  10. Environmental variation shifts the relationship between trees and scatterhoarders along the continuum from mutualism to antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, Gina M; Goldberg, Adam S; Steele, Michael A; Dalgleish, Harmony J

    2018-05-01

    The conditional mutualism between scatterhoarders and trees varies on a continuum from mutualism to antagonism and can change across time and space, and among species. We examined 4 tree species (red oak [Quercus rubra], white oak [Quercus alba], American chestnut [Castanea dentata] and hybrid chestnut [C. dentata × Castanea mollissima) across 5 sites and 3 years to quantify the variability in this conditional mutualism. We used a published model to compare the rates of seed emergence with and without burial to the probability that seeds will be cached and left uneaten by scatterhoarders to quantify variation in the conditional mutualism that can be explained by environmental variation among sites, years, species, and seed provenance within species. All species tested had increased emergence when buried. However, comparing benefits of burial to the probability of caching by scatterhoarders indicated a mutualism in red oak, while white oak was nearly always antagonistic. Chestnut was variable around the boundary between mutualism and antagonism, indicating a high degree of context dependence in the relationship with scatterhoarders. We found that different seed provenances did not vary in their potential for mutualism. Temperature did not explain microsite differences in seed emergence in any of the species tested. In hybrid chestnut only, emergence on the surface declined with soil moisture in the fall. By quantifying the variation in the conditional mutualism that was not caused by changes in scatterhoarder behavior, we show that environmental conditions and seed traits are an important and underappreciated component of the variation in the relationship between trees and scatterhoarders. © 2018 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Avaliação das propriedades físicas e químicas do solo sujeito a diferentes sistemas de mobilização em soutos do Nordeste Transmontano Effect of different soil management systems on soil physical and chemical properties in chestnut orchards of Northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Raimundo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se várias propriedades físicas e químicas do solo de soutos do Nordeste de Portugal em que foram experimentados, a partir de 1996, quatro sistemas de preparação do solo: (a mobilização tradicional (MT com escarificador, (b mobilização com grade de discos (GD, (c instalação de pastagem semeada de sequeiro (PS e (d não-mobilização com vegetação herbácea espontânea (NM. Até 2004 observou- -se que a massa volúmica aparente do solo foi significativamente superior nos tratamentos NM e PS do que no MT, imediatamente após as mobilizações, pois poucos meses depois essa diferença esbate-se. Os tratamentos GD, PS e NM induziram a um acréscimo da resistência à penetração na camada superficial do solo (0-12 cm; comparativamente ao tratamento MT; o tratamento GD, por seu turno, determinou menor compactação do solo do que os tratamentos NM e PS somente até 3 cm de profundidade. A concentração de N mineral do solo, até 15 cm de profundidade, atingiu os menores valores no tratamento NM; o tratamento MT apresentou um forte aumento dessa concentração no período posterior à execução das mobilizações. Os teores de C orgânico, P e K extraíveis, Ca, Mg, K, acidez e Al de troca e os valores de pH não foram, na generalidade, influenciados significativamente pelos tratamentos, considerando o conjunto das varias camadas do solo analisadas. A produção de fruto foi menor no tratamento MT, nomeadamente nos últimos três anos de estudo (2002-2004.Several soil physical and chemical properties were evaluated in chestnut groves subjected to several soil management systems: chisel plow, that corresponds to the traditional tillage (MT, disc harrowing (GD, with rainfed seeded pasture (PS, and no-tillage with spontaneous herbaceous vegetation (NM. Obtained results, between 1996 and 2004, showed that soil bulk density was significantly higher in treatments NM and PS than in MT, just after tillage; nevertheless, five months

  12. Characterization of a chestnut FLORICAULA/LEAFY homologous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the flowering effectiveness of the gene was assessed with transgenic Arabidopsis. CmLFY protein showed a high degree of similarity to PEAFLO (78%), which is a homologue of FLO/LFY from pea. RT-PCR analysis showed that, CmLFY expressed at high levels in inflorescences, but not in young leaves, fruits ...

  13. American chestnut: A test case for genetic engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leila Pinchot

    2014-01-01

    The thought of genetically engineered (GE) trees might conjure images of mutant trees with unnatural and invasive tendencies, but there is much more to the story. GE trees are a new reality that, like it or not, will probably be part of the future of forestry. The basic inclination of most Forest Guild stewards is to reject GE trees as violating our principle to...

  14. Breeding ecology of the Chestnut-backed Sparrowlark Eremopterix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results suggest that parental contributions during incubation are almost equal, but females made significantly more food deliveries during the nestling period compared to males. The diet of nestlings comprised mainly of invertebrates (50.2%), seeds (34.4%) and unidentified food items (15.4%). Breeding success was ...

  15. Época de maturação, caracterização física e química de cultivares e seleções de castanheiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nove cultivares ('Taishowase', 'Tiodowase', 'Tamatsukuri', 'Isumo', 'Okuni', 'Moriwase', 'Kinshu', 'Senri' e 'Ibuki' e duas seleções ('KM-2' e 'KM-1' de castanheiro híbrido (Castanea crenata x Castanea sp. foram analisadas em São Bento do Sapucaí-SP. Avaliaram-se o início e o término da colheita, a deiscência do fruto e a deiscência, as propriedades físicas, tais como dimensões e massas dos frutos e castanhas, além do formato das castanhas e a poliembrionia, e ainda as propriedades químicas e a composição mineral. Os dados apresentados indicam que as cultivares e seleções diferem quanto à deiscência dos frutos. A colheita das castanhas concentra-se entre a primeira quinzena de novembro e a segunda quinzena de abril. Algumas cultivares apresentaram reduzido número de castanhas dentro da cápsula, o que indica falta de sincronia no período de floração. Há diferença na constituição química das castanhas entre as cultivares e seleções. As castanhas analisadas possuem alta quantidade de proteínas e açúcares totais, baixa quantidade de sódio e extrato etérico, indicando que o amido é a principal substância de reservas das castanhas, das cultivares e seleções analisadas.

  16. THE EFFECT OF GRAIN ANGLE AND SPECIES ON THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOME SELECTED WOOD SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasit Esen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the thermal conductivity of different wood materials was determined. For this purpose, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Uludag fir (Abies Bornmülleriana Matff, Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L, Oak (Quercus robur L., and Chestnut of Anatolia (Castanea sativa Mill. woods were used. In the test, the thermal conductivity of the woods was measured according to procedure of ASTM C 1113-99 standards. The lowest thermal conductivity was obtained in the perpendicular direction of Scots pine samples as 0.156 Kcal/mh°C. The highest thermal conductivity was obtained from perpendicular direction of samples in Oriental beech as 0.331 Kcal/mh°C.

  17. Relation between Silver Nanoparticle Formation Rate and Antioxidant Capacity of Aqueous Plant Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azat Akbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between the antioxidant capacity and silver nanoparticle formation rates of pomegranate (Punica granatum, quince (Cydonia oblonga, chestnut (Castanea sativa, fig (Ficus carica, walnut (Juglans cinerea, black mulberry (Morus nigra, and white mulberry (Morus alba leaf extracts is investigated at a fixed illumination. Silver nanoparticles formed in all plant leaf extracts possess round shapes with average particle size of 15 to 25 nm, whereas corresponding surface plasmon resonance peak wavelengths vary between 422 nm and 451 nm. Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity technique is used as a reference method to determine total antioxidant capacity of the plant leaf extracts. Integrated absorbance over the plasmon resonance peaks exhibits better linear relation with antioxidant capacities of various plant leaf extracts compared to peak absorbance values, with correlation coefficient values of 0.9333 and 0.7221, respectively.

  18. Participatory Selection of Tree Species for Agroforestry on Sloping Land in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The action research project reported in this article used a participatory approach to select trees for sloping-land agroforestry as a key strategy for forest ecosystem restoration and local livelihood development. It was the first such project in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea to use a participatory approach, empowering local user groups to develop their preferences for agroforestry species. Local knowledge of the multiple functions of agroforestry species ensured that the tree selection criteria included the value of timber, fruit, fodder, oil, medicines, fuelwood, and erosion control. Involving 67 farmers from 3 counties, this participatory selection process resulted in Prunus armeniaca, Castanea crenata, and Ziziphus jujuba being selected as the top 3 species for the development of sloping-land agroforestry in North Hwanghae Province. These trees embody what the region’s farmers value most: erosion control, production of fruit, and economic value. The participatory approach in agroforestry could help to meet both local needs for food security and the national objective of environmental conservation and has great potential for wide adaptation in North Korea and beyond.

  19. Spatio-temporal change in forest cover and carbon storage considering actual and potential forest cover in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kijun; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Kim, Moonil; Kwak, Doo-Ahn; Byun, Woo-Hyuk; Yu, Hangnan; Kwak, Hanbin; Kwon, Taesung; Sung, Joohan; Chung, Dong-Jun; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzes change in carbon storage by applying forest growth models and final cutting age to actual and potential forest cover for six major tree species in South Korea. Using National Forest Inventory data, the growth models were developed to estimate mean diameter at breast height, tree height, and number of trees for Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, Pinus rigida, Larix kaempferi, Castanea crenata and Quercus spp. stands. We assumed that actual forest cover in a forest type map will change into potential forest covers according to the Hydrological and Thermal Analogy Groups model. When actual forest cover reaches the final cutting age, forest volume and carbon storage are estimated by changed forest cover and its growth model. Forest volume between 2010 and 2110 would increase from 126.73 to 157.33 m(3) hm(-2). Our results also show that forest cover, volume, and carbon storage could abruptly change by 2060. This is attributed to the fact that most forests are presumed to reach final cutting age. To avoid such dramatic change, a regeneration and yield control scheme should be prepared and implemented in a way that ensures balance in forest practice and yield.

  20. Antioxidant Potential of Selected Korean Edible Plant Extracts

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    Yaejin Woo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of various plant extracts. A total of 94 kinds of edible plant extracts obtained from the Korea Plant Extract Bank were screened for cytotoxicity, following which the total phenolic content of 24 shortlisted extracts was determined. Of these, extracts from three plants, namely, Castanea crenata (CC leaf, Camellia japonica (CJ fruit, and Viburnum dilatatum (VD leaf, were examined for antioxidant capabilities by measuring radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity. In addition, cellular antioxidant activities of the three extracts were assessed by a cell-based dichlorofluorescein assay and antioxidant response element (ARE reporter activity assay. The results demonstrated that all three extracts concentration-dependently scavenged free radicals, inhibited lipid peroxidation, reduced the cellular level of reactive oxygen species, and increased ARE-luciferase activity, indicating antioxidant enzyme-inducing potential. In particular, CJ extract showed significantly greater antioxidative activity and antimigratory effect in a breast cancer cell line compared to CC and VD extracts. Hence, CJ extract deserves further study for its in vivo functionality or biologically active constituents.

  1. Genomic organization and dynamics of repetitive DNA sequences in representatives of three Fagaceae genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Sofia; Ribeiro, Teresa; Inácio, Vera; Rocheta, Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2012-05-01

    Oaks, chestnuts, and beeches are economically important species of the Fagaceae. To understand the relationship between these members of this family, a deep knowledge of their genome composition and organization is needed. In this work, we have isolated and characterized several AFLP fragments obtained from Quercus rotundifolia Lam. through homology searches in available databases. Genomic polymorphisms involving some of these sequences were evaluated in two species of Quercus, one of Castanea, and one of Fagus with specific primers. Comparative FISH analysis with generated sequences was performed in interphase nuclei of the four species, and the co-immunolocalization of 5-methylcytosine was also studied. Some of the sequences isolated proved to be genus-specific, while others were present in all the genera. Retroelements, either gypsy-like of the Tat/Athila clade or copia-like, are well represented, and most are dispersed in euchromatic regions of these species with no DNA methylation associated, pointing to an interspersed arrangement of these retroelements with potential gene-rich regions. A particular gypsy-sequence is dispersed in oaks and chestnut nuclei, but its confinement to chromocenters in beech evidences genome restructuring events during evolution of Fagaceae. Several sequences generated in this study proved to be good tools to comparatively study Fagaceae genome organization.

  2. First Record of Biocontrol Agent Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera; Torymidae in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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    Dinka Matošević

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Dryocosmus kuriphilus is an invasive insect species of sweet chestnut (Castanea spp. originating from China, and the only effective control measure against this pest is classical biological control with introduced parasitoid Torymus sinensis. This parasitoid has been widely released in many European countries, but it also has the ability to rapidly spread naturally. No official releases have been done in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Material and Methods: D. kuriphilus galls were collected in July 2017 on 6 localities in forest district Unsko (Una Sana canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Presence and parasitism rates of T. sinensis were recorded in the entomological laboratory, Croatian Forest Research Institute. T. sinensis larvae were identified morphologically and by being compared with the voucher specimens. Results and Discussion: Torymus sinensis larvae were positively identified in the examined D. kuriphilus galls from all localities in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Parasitism rates ranged from 44.83 to 74%. Occurrence and high parasitism rates in Bosnia and Herzegovina observed in this study are not results of biocontrol releases of T. sinensis, but can be attributed to natural spread from Croatia. High parasitism rates observed in this study can indicate that the parasitoid was present in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2016. Conclusions: This study presents the first record of Torymus sinensis in Bosnia and Herzegovina. We predict that the parasitoid will continue its spread over Bosnia and Herzegovina in sweet chestnut forests and orchards and that it will act as effective biological control agent against D. kuriphilus.

  3. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing’s cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  4. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut ( Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube ( Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing's cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  5. Radiocarbon ages of soil charcoals from the southern Alps, Ticino, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdas, Irka; Schlumpf, Nadia; Minikus-Stary, Nicole; Hagedorn, Frank; Eckmeier, Eileen; Schoch, Werner; Burga, Conradin; Bonani, Georges; Schmidt, Michael W.I.; Cherubini, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of macroscopic charcoal is a useful tool for paleoclimatic and paleoecologic reconstructions. Here we present results of 14 C dating of charcoals found in charcoal-rich soils of Ticino and the Misox Valley (southern Switzerland) which indicate that the Late Glacial and early Holocene fires coincided with warm phases in the North Atlantic region and low lake levels in the Central Europe. Late Holocene charcoals found in these soils document an earlier than believed presence of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in southern Switzerland. Sweet chestnut trees play a key role in Mediterranean woodlands, and for longer than two millennia have been used as a food source. Based on palynological evidence it is commonly believed that in southern Switzerland C. sativa was first introduced 2000 years ago by the Romans, who cultivated it for wood and fruit production. Our results indicate that this tree species was present on the southern slopes of the Alps ∼1500 years earlier than previously assumed, and therefore was likely introduced independently from cultivation by the Romans

  6. 76 FR 37706 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Castanea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... release (Paillet, 1993, p. 267). This indicates there is some level of reproduction (cross pollination and... in shaping landscape and regional vegetation patterns in the Interior Highlands (Batek et al. 1999... scales, but at the landscape scale, vegetation patterns also may be controlled by disturbance histories...

  7. 75 FR 30313 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Castanea pumila

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ...; (b) Genetics and taxonomy; (c) Historical and current range, including distribution patterns; (d... summarized in our 12-month finding. Petition History On January 6, 2004, we received a petition, dated... the genetics of populations (Stillwell et al. 2003, p. 4). The results of Stillwell et al. (2003, pp...

  8. Short-term administration of an aqueous extract of kalanchoe integra var. crenata (Andr.) Cuf leaves produces no major organ damage in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac J; Antwi, Daniel A; Awortwe, Charles; N'guessan, Benoit Banga; Nyarko, Alexander K

    2014-02-03

    Kalanchoe intergra (Ki) leaf extract is an orally administered multipurpose plant medicine in Ghana and other parts of the world for the treatment of ulcers, pain and adenoma of the prostate gland. There is paucity of information concerning its short-term usage. The present study is aimed at conducting histopathological and biochemical studies in a 14-day sub-acute toxicity studies using female Sprague-Dawley rats. Crude extract of Ki leaves was prepared and freeze-dried. A 14-day sub-acute toxicity studies was conducted using 2 week old nulliparous and non-pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats (120-150g). Reconstituted Ki was administered at a dosage of 900mgkg(-1) (high dose), 300mgkg(-1) with a control group receiving an equivalent volume of distilled water (as vehicle) by gastric lavage. Histopathological studies of major organs and blood chemistry analysis were performed on blood obtained via cardiac puncture into EDTA tubes after euthanisation. There was a significant decrease in urea (p<0.016) and creatinine levels (p<0.001) in both the high and low dose groups. There was an increase in ALP levels (P=0.01) in both the high and low dose groups. ALT and AST rather decreased significantly in both the high and low dose groups (p<0.0001). Histopathological results did not show any abnormalities in all the H&E stained paraffin sections. Thus the photomicrographs of the liver, kidney and heart were within histopathological limits. Ki leaf extract is non-toxic when administered by the oral route over a time period of 14 days at the above doses. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved.

  9. Unexpected presence of Fagus orientalis complex in Italy as inferred from 45,000-year-old DNA pollen samples from Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffetti, Donatella; Vettori, Cristina; Caramelli, David; Vernesi, Cristiano; Lari, Martina; Paganelli, Arturo; Paule, Ladislav; Giannini, Raffaello

    2007-08-16

    Phylogeographic analyses on the Western Euroasiatic Fagus taxa (F. orientalis, F. sylvatica, F. taurica and F. moesiaca) is available, however, the subdivision of Fagus spp. is unresolved and there is no consensus on the phylogeny and on the identification (both with morphological than molecular markers) of Fagus Eurasiatic taxa. For the first time molecular analyses of ancient pollen, dated at least 45,000 years ago, were used in combination with the phylogeny analysis on current species, to identify the Fagus spp. present during the Last Interglacial period in Italy. In this work we aim at testing if the trnL-trnF chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) region, that has been previously proved efficient in discriminating different Quercus taxa, can be employed in distinguishing the Fagus species and in identifying the ancient pollen. 86 populations from 4 Western Euroasistic taxa were sampled, and sequenced for the trnL-trnF region to verify the efficiency of this cpDNA region in identifying the Fagus spp.. Furthermore, Fagus crenata (2 populations), Fagus grandifolia (2 populations), Fagus japonica, Fagus hayatae, Quercus species and Castanea species were analysed to better resolve the phylogenetic inference. Our results show that this cpDNA region harbour some informative sites that allow to infer relationships among the species within the Fagaceae family. In particular, few specific and fixed mutations were able to discriminate and identify all the different Fagus species. Considering a short fragment of 176 base pairs within the trnL intron, 2 transversions were found able in distinguishing the F. orientalis complex taxa (F. orientalis, F. taurica and F. moesiaca) from the remaining Fagus spp. (F. sylvatica, F. japonica, F. hayataea, F. crenata and F. grandifolia). This permits to analyse this fragment also in ancient samples, where DNA is usually highly degraded. The sequences data indicate that the DNA recovered from ancient pollen belongs to the F. orientalis complex since

  10. Experimental analysis of bonding in steel bars glued into chestnut and tali timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero Chans, D.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the results of an extensive experiment designed to determine the effect of geometric and mechanical parameters on the axial strength of the bonds formed when threaded steel bars are glued into sawn hardwood timber. The studies conducted to date on glued wood joints have focused primarily on softwood glued laminated timber or glulam. In the present study, specimens made from two hardwood species with very different physical and mechanical properties were used to evaluate the effect of wood characteristics on the axial strength of such bonds. Several geometries were tested by loading a total of 190 specimens to failure. The ultimate load values found for the specimens were compared to the design values proposed in the final draft version of Eurocode 5 (prEN 1995-1-1(2001.

    En el presente artículo se resumen los resultados de una amplia campaña experimental encaminada a evaluar la influencia de los distintos parámetros geométricos y mecánicos en la capacidad resistente de uniones realizadas con barras roscadas de acero encoladas en madera aserrada de frondosa. Los estudios existentes en el campo de las uniones encoladas en madera se han centrado fundamentalmente en el análisis de uniones realizadas en madera laminada de especies coníferas. Con objeto de evaluar la influencia de las características de la madera en la capacidad resistente de la unión se ensayaron probetas realizadas con dos especies de madera frondosa de características físicas y mecánicas muy diferentes. Se utilizaron diversas configuraciones geométricas. Un total de 190 probetas han sido ensayadas hasta rotura. Los valores de carga de rotura alcanzados por las probetas se han comparado además con los valores de cálculo propuestos por el Eurocódigo 5, en su versión de borrador final prEN 1995-1-1(2001.

  11. Effectiveness of the UPV on nondestructive evaluation of elements of Chestnut timber

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Mário André Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Civil A madeira é um dos materiais mais antigos utilizados na construção, estando por isso presente numa grande parte das construções históricas existentes. A avaliação das propriedades de uma estrutura em madeira tem por base o recurso a inspeções visuais realizadas in-situ e a ensaios não destrutivos, que têm como objetivo estimar as propriedades mecânicas do material em questão, sem que para isso seja necessário causar qualquer...

  12. An Old Chestnut Revisited: Teachers' Opinions and Attitudes toward Grading within a Competency Based Training Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' opinions with regard to the value and process of grading within a competency based training (CBT) framework, following the introduction of a formalised grading system at a specialist Technical and Further Education centre for hospitality and tourism training The data were gathered using a 16-item…

  13. The Preliminary Study of Utilization of Water Chestnut as Supercapacitor Electrode Using Steam Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Zulkifli

    2018-01-01

    Keywords: Purun tikus, superkapasitor, siklis voltammetri, kapasitansi spesifik, perairan REFERENCE Asikin, S. dan Thamrin, M. 2012. Manfaat Purun Tikus (Eleocharis Dulcis Pada Ekosistem Sawah Rawa. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian, 31(1: 35-42 Arepalli, S., Fireman, H., Huffman, C., Moloney, P., Nikolaev, P., Yowell, L., Higgins, C. D., Kim, K., Kohl, P. A., Turano, S. P. and Ready W. J. 2005. Carbon-nanotube-based electrochemical double-layer capacitor technologies for spaceflight applications. Journal of  The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 57:26-31. Erari, S.S., Mangimbulude, J., Lewerissa, K. 2012. Pencemaran Organik di Perairan Pesisir Pantai Teluk Youtefa Kota Jayapura, Papua. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Kimia Unesa. ISBN 978-979-028-550-7. (C: 327-340. Farma, R., Deraman, M., Awitdrus, A., Talib, I.A.  Taer, E., Basri, N.H., Manjunatha, J.G., Ishak, M.M., Dollah, B.N.M., Hashmi, S.A. 2013.  Preparation of highly porous binderless activated carbon electrodes from fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunches for application in supercapacitors. Bioresource Technology. 132:254–261 Feng, C.W., R.L. Tseng., C.C. Hu., C.C Wang., 2015, Effects of pore structure and electrolyte on the capasitive characteristics of steam and KOH activated carbons for supercapasitors, Journal of power sources. 144:302-309. Ionnidou, A and Zabaniotu. 2007. Agricultural residues of precursors for activated carbon production–a review, Renewable and sustainable energy reviews. 11:1705-1966. Kurniawan, F., Wongso, M., Ayucitra, A., Soetaredjo F.E., Angkawijaya A. E., Ju,Y. H., Ismadji, S. 2014. Carbon microsphere from water hyacinth for supercapacitor electrode. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 47: 197-201. Liu, B., Zhou, X., Chen, H., Liu, Y., Li, H. 2016. Promising porous carbons derived from lotus seedpods with outstanding supercapacitance performance. Electrochimica Acta. 208 :55–63. Taer, E., Mustika, W.S., Zulkifli, Syam, I.D.M., Taslim, R. Pengaruh Suhu Pengaktivan CO2 Terhadap Luas Permukaan Elektroda Karbon dan Sifat Kapasitan Sel Superkapasitor dari Kayu Karet. 2015. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Fisika Universitas Andalas (SNFUA. 96-100 Taer, E., Taslim, R., Aini, Z., Hartati, S.D., Mustika, W.S. 2017. Activated carbon electrode from banana-peel waste for supercapacitor applications. AIP Conference Proceedings. 1801:040004-1-040004-4. Taer, E., Zulkifli., Arif, E.N., Taslim, R. Analisa Kapasitansi Spesifik Elektroda Karbon Superkapasitor dari Kayu Karet Terhadap Laju Scan Berdasarkan Variasi Aktivasi HNO3. 2016. Spektra Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya. 1(1: 35-40. Yu, M., Han, Y., Li, J., Wang, L., 2016. CO2-activated porous carbon derived from cattail biomass for removal of malachite green dye and application as supercapacitors. Chemical Engineering Journal. 17:1-41.

  14. Amplification of North American Red Oak Microsatellite Markers in European White Oaks and Chinese Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. R. Aldrich; M. Jagtap; C. H. Michler; J. Romero-Severson

    2003-01-01

    We examined the cross-species amplification success of thirty microsatellite markers developed from North American northern red oak (Quercus rubra) in other members of the family Fagaceae. Sixteen of these markers are newly developed and we report primer sequences and amplification conditions here. Twelve of the thirty (40.0%) red oak markers...

  15. Chestnuts and spring chickens: conflict and change in farmers market ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oths, Kathryn S; Groves, Katy M

    2012-01-01

    The taxonomy of farmers markets requires an update to encompass the expanding range of available options. Also absent from the literature is an appreciation of the connection between market types, ideological stances, social characteristics, and conflict-necessary for understanding the social processes, motivations, and expectations that create a farmers market. Our study of a long-standing farmers market on the verge of municipal revamping aims to unite these interests, with a focus on the diverse demographics and values of the social groups involved. We propose a synthetic two-dimensional scheme to classify U.S. farmers markets. Bourdieu's theory of distinction is instrumental in making sense of the diversity encountered. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  16. Zinc Oxide Nanostructures: From Chestnut Husk-Like Structures to Hollow Nanocages, Synthesis and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Scarano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tailor-made nanostructured ZnO cages have been catalytically grown on Au and Pt films covering silicon substrates, by a controlled evaporation process, which means an accurate choice of temperatures, times, gas flows (He in the heating, He/air during the synthesis, and Au/Pt film thickness. The effect of the process parameters affecting the morphology and the structure of the obtained materials has been investigated by XRD analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM microscopies, and FTIR spectroscopies. In particular, the role of the synthesis temperature in affecting the size and shape of the obtained ZnO cages has been highlighted. It will be shown that by adopting higher temperatures, the protruding nanowhiskers several microns in length, covering the cages and exhibiting both basal and prismatic faces, change into very thin and narrow structures, with extended prismatic faces, prevailing with respect to the basal ones. At an even higher process temperature, the building up of Au particles aggregates inside and/or anchored to the walls of the hollow cages, without any evidence of elongated ZnO nanostructures will be highlighted. From FTIR spectra information on lattice modes of the investigated ZnO, materials have been obtained.

  17. Early-stage changes in natural (13)C and (15)N abundance and nutrient dynamics during different litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Mukesh Kumar; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Song, Byeong-Yeol; Lee, Dongho; Bong, Yeon-Sik

    2016-05-01

    Decomposition, nutrient, and isotopic (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) dynamics during 1 year were studied for leaf and twig litters of Pinus densiflora, Castanea crenata, Erigeron annuus, and Miscanthus sinensis growing on a highly weathered soil with constrained nutrient supply using litterbags in a cool temperate region of South Korea. Decay constant (k/year) ranged from 0.58 to 1.29/year, and mass loss ranged from 22.36 to 58.43 % among litter types. The results demonstrate that mass loss and nutrient dynamics of decomposing litter were influenced by the seasonality of mineralization and immobilization processes. In general, most nutrients exhibited alternate phases of rapid mineralization followed by gradual immobilization, except K, which was released throughout the field incubation. At the end of study, among all the nutrients only N and P showed net immobilization. Mobility of different nutrients from decomposing litter as the percentage of initial litter nutrient concentration was in the order of K > Mg > Ca > N ≈ P. The δ(13)C (0.32-6.70 ‰) and δ(15)N (0.74-3.90 ‰) values of residual litters showed nonlinear increase and decrease, respectively compared to initial isotopic values during decomposition. Litter of different functional types and chemical quality converged toward a conservative nutrient use strategy through mechanisms of slow decomposition and slow nutrient mobilization. Our results indicate that litter quality and season, are the most important regulators of litter decomposition in these forests. The results revealed significant relationships between litter decomposition rates and N, C:N ratio and P, and seasonality (temperature). These results and the convergence of different litters towards conservative nutrient use in these nutrient constrained ecosystems imply optimization of litter management because litter removal can have cascading effects on litter decomposition and nutrient availability in these systems.

  18. Polyphenolic profile as a useful tool to identify the wood used in wine aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Hernández, Ma Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2012-06-30

    Although oak wood is the main material used in cooperage, other species are being considered as possible sources of wood for the production of wines and their derived products. In this work we have compared the phenolic composition of acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia), chestnut (Castanea sativa), cherry (Prunus avium) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior and F. americana) heartwoods, by using HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS/MS (some of these data have been showed in previous paper), as well as the changes that toasting intensity at cooperage produce in each polyphenolic profile. Before toasting, each wood shows a different and specific polyphenolic profile, with both qualitative and quantitative differences among them. Toasting notably changed these profiles, in general, proportionally to toasting intensity and led to a minor differentiation among species in toasted woods, although we also found phenolic markers in toasted woods. Thus, methyl syringate, benzoic acid, methyl vanillate, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4,5-trimethylphenol and p-coumaric acid, condensed tannins of the procyanidin type, and the flavonoids naringenin, aromadendrin, isosakuranetin and taxifolin will be a good tool to identify cherry wood. In acacia wood the chemical markers will be the aldehydes gallic and β-resorcylic and two not fully identified hydroxycinnamic compounds, condensed tannins of the prorobinetin type, and when using untoasted wood, dihydrorobinetin, and in toasted acacia wood, robinetin. In untoasted ash wood, the presence of secoiridoids, phenylethanoid glycosides, or di and oligolignols will be a good tool, especially oleuropein, ligstroside and olivil, together verbascoside and isoverbascoside in F. excelsior, and oleoside in F. americana. In toasted ash wood, tyrosol, syringaresinol, cyclolovil, verbascoside and olivil, could be used to identify the botanical origin. In addition, in ash wood, seasoned and toasted, neither hydrolysable nor condensed tannins were detected. Lastly, in chestnut wood, gallic

  19. Coppice Woods and Pollard Trees in the Visual Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacina Jan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sprouting capacity of some broadleaves has been used for their regeneration since ancient times. Often concurrently with taking advantage of sprouting stools, the trees used to be shaped also by pruning their stems, namely on pasturelands and in grazing forests. The activity of woodcutters and shepherds was obviously rather common in warmer climates with broadleaved stands because coppice and pollard trees appear relatively often in the visual arts from ancient works through the period if the Italian and German Renaissance up to the romantic and realistic landscape painting of the 19th century overlapping into the 20th century. For centuries, most frequently illustrated in European and Czech paintings have been pollard willows (Salix spp.. Other coppice and pollard tree species identified in paintings are oaks (Quercus spp., hornbeam (Carpinus betulus, European beech (Fagus sylvatica, European chestnut (Castanea sativa, and rarely other species, too. Artists apparently often used bizarrely shaped woods to increase the dramatic atmosphere of their landscape sceneries as well as figural compositions, and the coppice and pollard trees had certainly also a symbolic meaning in some of their works.

  20. Physicochemical properties of honey from Marche, Central Italy: classification of unifloral and multifloral honeys by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldia, Anna; Finale, Carolina; Rossetti, Monica; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the physicochemical characterization and classification of Italian honey from Marche Region with a chemometric approach. A total of 135 honeys of different botanical origins [acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), chestnut (Castanea sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), lime (Tilia spp.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Metcalfa honeydew and multifloral honey] were considered. The average results of electrical conductivity (0.14-1.45 mS cm(-1)), pH (3.89-5.42), free acidity (10.9-39.0 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), lactones (2.4-4.5 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), total acidity (14.5-40.9 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), proline (229-665 mg kg(-1)) and 5-(hydroxy-methyl)-2-furaldehyde (0.6-3.9 mg kg(-1)) content show wide variability among the analysed honey types, with statistically significant differences between the different honey types. Pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were performed in order to find a relationship between variables and types of honey and to classify honey on the basis of its physicochemical properties. The variables of electrical conductivity, acidity (free, lactones), pH and proline content exhibited higher discriminant power and provided enough information for the classification and distinction of unifloral honey types, but not for the classification of multifloral honey (100% and 85% of samples correctly classified, respectively).

  1. Characterisation of the ruminal fermentation and microbiome in lambs supplemented with hydrolysable and condensed tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Saheed A; Valenti, Bernardo; Bella, Marco; O'Grady, Michael N; Luciano, Giuseppe; Kerry, Joseph P; Jones, Eleanor; Priolo, Alessandro; Newbold, Charles J

    2018-05-01

    This study characterised the response of ruminal fermentation and the rumen microbiome in lambs fed commercial vegetal sources of hydrolysable tannins (HT) and condensed tannins (CT). Forty-four lambs (19.56 ± 2.06 kg) were randomly assigned to either a concentrate diet (CON, n = 8) or CON supplemented with 4% of two HT [chestnut (Castanea sativa, HT-c) and tara (Caesalpinia spinosa, HT-t)] and CT [mimosa (Acacia negra, CT-m) and gambier (Uncaria gambir, CT-g)] extracts (all, n = 9) for 75 days pre-slaughter. Tannin supplementation did not influence ruminal fermentation traits. Quantitative PCR demonstrated that tannins did not affect the absolute abundance of ruminal bacteria or fungi. However, CT-m (-12.8%) and CT-g (-11.5%) significantly reduced the abundance of methanogens, while HT-t (-20.7%) and CT-g (-20.8%) inhibited protozoal abundance. Ribosomal amplicon sequencing revealed that tannins caused changes in the phylogenetic structure of the bacterial and methanogen communities. Tannins inhibited the fibrolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter and tended to suppress the methanogen genus, Methanosphaera. Results demonstrated that both HT and CT sources could impact the ruminal microbiome when supplemented at 4% inclusion level. HT-t, CT-m and CT-g extracts displayed specific antimicrobial activity against methanogens and protozoa without compromising ruminal fermentation in a long-term feeding trial.

  2. In situ conservation and landscape genetics in forest species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín L.M.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of forest genetic resources is essential for sustaining the environmental and productive values of forests. One of the environmental values is the conservation of the diversity that is assessed through the amount of genetic diversity stored by forests, their structure and dynamics. The current need for forest conservation and management has driven a rapid expansion of landscape genetics discipline that combines tools from molecular genetics, landscape ecology and spatial statistics and is decisive for improving not only ecological knowledge but also for properly managing population genetic resources. The objective of this study is to show the way to establish the safeguard of genetic diversity through this approach using the results obtained in sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. that has provided a better understanding on the species genetic resources. In this respect, we will show how the information provided by different types of molecular markers (genomic and genic offer more accurate indication on the distribution of the genetic diversity among and within populations assuming different evolutionary drivers.

  3. Responses of Contrasting Tree Functional Types to Air Warming and Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Martínez-Sancho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change-induced rise of air temperatures and the increase of extreme climatic events, such as droughts, will largely affect plant growth and hydraulics, leading to mortality events all over the globe. In this study, we investigated the growth and hydraulic responses of seedlings of contrasting functional types. Pinus sylvestris, Quercus spp. and Castanea sativa seedlings were grown in a common garden experiment under four treatments: control, air warming, drought and their combination during two consecutive growing periods. Height and diameter increments, stomatal conductance and stem water potentials were measured during both growing seasons. Additionally, hydraulic parameters such as xylem-specific native and maximum hydraulic conductivities, and native percentage of loss of conductivity were measured at the end of the entire experiment. Our results clearly pointed to different adaptive strategies of the studied species. Scots pine displayed a relatively isohydric behavior with a strict stomata control prohibiting native embolism whereas sweet chestnut and oak as relatively anisohydric species displayed an increased loss of native conductivity as a results of low water potentials. Seasonal timing of shoot and diameter growth also differed among functional types influencing drought impacts. Additionally, the possibility of embolism reversal seemed to be limited under the study conditions.

  4. Responses of primary production, leaf litter decomposition and associated communities to stream eutrophication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunck, Bárbara; Lima-Fernandes, Eva; Cássio, Fernanda; Cunha, Ana; Rodrigues, Liliana; Pascoal, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the eutrophication effects on leaf litter decomposition and primary production, and on periphytic algae, fungi and invertebrates. According to the subsidy-stress model, we expected that when algae and decomposers were nutrient limited, their activity and diversity would increase at moderate levels of nutrient enrichment, but decrease at high levels of nutrients, because eutrophication would lead to the presence of other stressors and overwhelm the subsidy effect. Chestnut leaves (Castanea sativa Mill) were enclosed in mesh bags and immersed in five streams of the Ave River basin (northwest Portugal) to assess leaf decomposition and colonization by invertebrates and fungi. In parallel, polyethylene slides were attached to the mesh bags to allow colonization by algae and to assess primary production. Communities of periphytic algae and decomposers discriminated the streams according to the trophic state. Primary production decomposition and biodiversity were lower in streams at both ends of the trophic gradient. - Highlights: • Algae and decomposers discriminated the streams according to the eutrophication level. • Primary production and litter decomposition are stimulated by moderate eutrophication. • Biodiversity and process rates were reduced in highly eutrophic streams. • Subsidy-stress model explained biodiversity and process rates under eutrophication. - Rates of leaf litter decomposition, primary production and richness of periphytic algae, fungi and invertebrates were lower in streams at both ends of the trophic gradient

  5. Spatial variability in the level of infestation of the leaves of horse chestnut by the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and in the number of adult moths and parasitoids emerging form leaf litter in an urban environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopačka, Michal; Zemek, Rostislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, JAN 27 (2017), s. 42-52 E-ISSN 1802-8829 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 8G15006 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 063/2013/Z Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Gracillariidae * Aesculus hippocastanum Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016

  6. Sweet chestnut agroforestry systems in North-western Spain: Classification, spatial distribution and an ecosystem services assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José V. Roces-Diaz

    2018-05-01

    Research highlights: The relevance of the C. sativa agroforestry systems from ES point of view was pointed out in this work, but also their declining dynamic. Further analysis, based on temporal trends, could help to a better understanding of their status and to define conservation and management strategies.

  7. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. as a biomonitor of air pollution in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIANA VELCHEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a small part of a program for application the methods of passive and active phytomonitoring with herbaceous species, trees, mosses and lichens for assessment of the anthropogenic factor in urban conditions. Aesculus hippocastanum L. was studied as a possible biomonitor of air pollution with heavy metals and toxic elements in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and U in leaf samples from urban areas with different anthropogenic impact were compared. Motor transport was found to be the major source of contaminants. It was found the significant contribution of some factors as urban gradient, canyon-street effect and wind rose in forming the urban air quality.

  8. Acidification of soil solution in a chestnut forest stand in southern Switzerland: are there signs of recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannatier, Elisabeth Graf; Luster, Jörg; Zimmermann, Stephan; Blaser, Peter

    2005-10-15

    In a previous study, a rapid acidification of soil solution was observed between 1987 and 1997 in a cryptopodzolic soil in southern Switzerland despite a reduction in acidic deposition. The molar ratio of base nutrient cations to aluminum (BC/Al) in the soil solution was used to assess acidification. The monitoring of the soil solution chemistry was continued at the same site between 1998 and 2003 to find out how long the delay in reaction to reduced deposition would last and whether the BC/Al ratios would recover. The reevaluation of all data collected during the 16-year observation period showed no clear improvement in the BC/Al ratios, except below the litter layer where the ratios greatly increased after 1998. Initial signs of recovery were also detected in the mineral horizons, the ratios stabilizing in the second part of the observation period. Sulfate concentrations decreased significantly below the litter mat in response to decreased S deposition. BC concentrations markedly declined below the litter layer and in the mineral horizons, which was attributed to the depletion of the BC exchangeable pool as a result of continued acidic deposition.

  9. Porosity development in the Copper Ridge Dolomite and Maynardville Limestone, Bear Creek Valley and Chestnut Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstrand, P.M.; Menefee, L.S.; Dreier, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    Matrix porosity data from deep core obtained in Bear Creek Valley indicate that porosities in the Maynardville Limestone are lithology and depth dependent. Matrix porosities are greater in the Cooper Ridge Dolomite than in the Maynardville Limestone, yet there is no apparent correlation with depth. Two interrelated diagenetic processes are the major controlling factors on porosity development in the Copper Ridge Dolomite and Maynardville Limestone; dissolution of evaporate minerals and dedolomitization. Both of these diagenetic processes produce matrix porosities between 2.1 and 1.3% in the Copper Ridge Dolomite and upper part of the Maynardville Limestone (Zone 6) to depths of approximately 600 ft bgs. Mean matrix porosities in Zones 5 through 2 of the Maynardville Limestone range from 0.8 to 0.5%. A large number of cavities have been intersected during drilling activities in nearly all zones of the Maynardville Limestone in Bear Creek Valley. Therefore, any maynardville Limestone zone within approximately 200 ft of the ground surface is likely to contain cavities that allow significant and rapid flow of groundwater. Zone 6 could be an important stratigraphic unit in the Maynardville Limestone for groundwater flow and contaminant transport because of the abundance of vuggy and moldic porosities. There are large variations in the thickness and lithology in the lower part of the Maynardville (Zones 2, 3, and 4 in the Burial Grounds region). The direction and velocity of strike-parallel groundwater flow may be altered in this area within the lower Maynardville Limestone

  10. Relationships between biotic and abiotic factors and regeneration of chestnut oak, white oak, and northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songlin Fei; Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley; Marc E. McDill

    2003-01-01

    A series of substantial field surveys of 38 mixed-oak stands in central Pennsylvania were carried out during 1996-2000. All the stands were surveyed 1 year prior to harvest, and 16 stands have been surveyed 1 year after harvest. Three abiotic factors at stand scale, four abiotic factors at plot scale, and two biotic factors and one abiotic factor at subplot scale was...

  11. A fast and cost-effective approach to develop and map EST-SSR markers: oak as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherubini Marcello

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs are a source of simple sequence repeats (SSRs that can be used to develop molecular markers for genetic studies. The availability of ESTs for Quercus robur and Quercus petraea provided a unique opportunity to develop microsatellite markers to accelerate research aimed at studying adaptation of these long-lived species to their environment. As a first step toward the construction of a SSR-based linkage map of oak for quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping, we describe the mining and survey of EST-SSRs as well as a fast and cost-effective approach (bin mapping to assign these markers to an approximate map position. We also compared the level of polymorphism between genomic and EST-derived SSRs and address the transferability of EST-SSRs in Castanea sativa (chestnut. Results A catalogue of 103,000 Sanger ESTs was assembled into 28,024 unigenes from which 18.6% presented one or more SSR motifs. More than 42% of these SSRs corresponded to trinucleotides. Primer pairs were designed for 748 putative unigenes. Overall 37.7% (283 were found to amplify a single polymorphic locus in a reference full-sib pedigree of Quercus robur. The usefulness of these loci for establishing a genetic map was assessed using a bin mapping approach. Bin maps were constructed for the male and female parental tree for which framework linkage maps based on AFLP markers were available. The bin set consisting of 14 highly informative offspring selected based on the number and position of crossover sites. The female and male maps comprised 44 and 37 bins, with an average bin length of 16.5 cM and 20.99 cM, respectively. A total of 256 EST-SSRs were assigned to bins and their map position was further validated by linkage mapping. EST-SSRs were found to be less polymorphic than genomic SSRs, but their transferability rate to chestnut, a phylogenetically related species to oak, was higher. Conclusion We have generated a bin map for oak

  12. Quantity and quality of black carbon molecular markers as obtained by two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-DAD) - How do results compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M. P. W.; Smittenberg, R. H.; Dittmar, T.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2009-04-01

    Chars produced by wildfires are an important source of black carbon (BC) in the environment. After their deposition on the soil surface they can be distributed into rivers, marine waters and sediments. The analysis of benzenepolycarboxylic acids (BPCAs) as a quantitative measure for black carbon (BC) in soil and sediment samples is a well-established method (Glaser et al., 1998; Brodowski et al., 2005). Briefly, the nitric acid oxidation of fused aromatic ring systems in BC forms eight molecular markers (BPCAs), which can be assigned to BC, and which subsequently can be quantified by GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector). Recently, this method was modified for the quantification of BC in seawater samples using HPLC-DAD (High performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector) for the determination of individual BPCAs (Dittmar, 2008). A direct comparison of both analytical techniques is lacking but would be important for future data comparison aimed at the calculation of global BC budgets. Here we present a systematic comparison of the two BPCA quantification methods. We prepared chars under well-defined laboratory conditions. In order to cover a broad spectrum of char properties we used two sources of biomass and a wide range of pyrolysis temperatures. Chestnut hardwood chips (Castanea sativa) and rice straw (Oryza sativa) were pyrolysed at temperatures between 200 and 1000°C under a constant N2 stream. The maximum temperatures were held constant for 5 hours (Hammes et al., 2006). The BC contents of the chars have been analysed using the BPCA extraction method followed by either GC-FID or HPLC-DAD quantification. Preliminary results suggest that both methods yield similar total quantities of BPCA, and also the proportions of the individual markers are similar. Ongoing experiments will allow for a more detailed comparison of the two methods. The BPCA composition of chars formed at different temperatures and from different precursor

  13. National Dam Safety Program. Alcyon Lake Dam (NJ 00427) Delaware River Basin, Chestnut Branch-Mantua Creek, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Phase 1 Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    froma small concreto , platform which extends out from the- culvert fas Ci,). The qate is divided into two section, and is mounted on a steel frame...se(ver al concreto fILurneS that0 e xiend fromn the, nrmcurhli me andI drain baick into the, reiser vo ir . AlIl were o-r i qi n a Iv e% qu i pped( wi

  14. Contribution to the biochemical characterization of the silk and structure characterization of the cocoons of the horse chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hněvsová, V.; Kodrík, Dalibor; Weyda, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 4 (2011), s. 711-715 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/2382; GA MŠk 2B06005 Grant - others:The Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic - Open Science(CZ) CZ.1.07./2.3.00/09.0034 No. 1.33/3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : silk * cocoon * pupal chamber Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.061, year: 2011 http://www.eje.cz/scripts/viewabstract.php?abstract=1672

  15. Ultrasound-assisted extraction, characterization, and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of polysaccharides from Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii tratt) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangjing; Kan, Jianquan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the response surface methodology was utilized to determine optimum conditions for extracting the polysaccharides from Rosa roxburghii Tratt fruit (RRTPs) using ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and the characterization and antioxidant activities of the RRTPs were discussed. RRTPs yield was 6.59 ± 1.34%, which was well consistent with the predicted value of 6.716%, under the following optimum conditions: ratio of water to raw material 40.18 mL/g, extraction temperature 78.8 °C, ultrasonic power 148 W, and extraction time 32.8 min. The monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that RRTPs were composed of mannose (Man), rhamnose (Rha), glucuronic acid (GlcA), galacturonic acid (GalA), glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), arabinose (Ara) and xylose (Xyl). The molecular weight distribution analysis showed that RRTPs had four main components with molecular weights of 332.56, 183.96, 11.92 and 5.95 kDa, respectively. In vitro antioxidant studies revealed RRTPs exhibited significant antioxidant potential on hydroxyl, superoxide and DPPH radicals. In addition, antioxidant assays in vivo demonstrated that RRTPs can significantly increase the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities, and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) to some extent, as well as decrease the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in both serum and liver of d-Gal aging-induced mice. These data suggested that RRTPs could be a potential candidate of natural antioxidants for applications in functional food, pharmaceuticals or cosmetic industries. In summary, this work provided an effective method for the exploitation and utilization of value-added R. roxburghii Tratt fruit which would be useful to fully utilize this resource.

  16. The Adaptive potential pasture phytocenosis to sole ambience and influence them on speaker of the fertility light-chestnut ground in condition of the natural moistening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Z. Usmanov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the adaptive potential natural phytocenosis is given to soil salinization ground under natural moistening. The Studied general regularities of the operation to pasture vegetation and condition of the renewing the vegetable cover on techno-broken ground (the lands. The analysed role prevail plants in conservation balances conditions pasture.

  17. Ultrastructural and biochemical comparison of summer active and summer diapausing pupae of the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillaridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weyda, F.; Pflegerová, Jitka; Stašková, Tereza; Tomčala, Aleš; Prenerová, E.; Zemek, Rostislav; Volter, L.; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 1 (2015), s. 197-203 ISSN 1210-5759 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 038/2014/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Gracillariidae * Cameraria ohridella Subject RIV: ED - Physiology; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2014 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2015/01/26.pdf

  18. Updated subsurface data base for Bear Creek Valley, Chestnut Ridge, and parts of Bethel Valley on the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.B.; Thompson, B.K.; Field, S.M.

    1995-07-01

    Construction and hydrogeological data for 1,173 boreholes and wells installed through May 1995 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and in the surrounding vicinity are summarized in this document. This document represents the third revision to Y/TS-881 and is the sixth update of a previous compilation. General data about boreholes and wells included in the data base are survey coordinates, elevations, alternative names and well status. Construction data tabulated include total depth, completion method, borehole diameter, casing and screen materials, filter pack depths, open-hole intervals, and open hole diameters. Hydrogeological data summarized include depth to weathered and fresh bedrock, formations penetrated, sampling history, and whether rock core and geophysical logs were obtained. The tabulations provide a means of determining the amount and quality of data available for a particular borehole or well. Applications of the data include evaluation of the suitability of wells for continued use in groundwater investigations and monitoring studies, site hydrogeological characterization activities, background evaluations of sites prior to initiation of new drilling activities, and hydrogeological review of selected sites prior to the initiation of remedial actions

  19. Subsurface data base for Bear Creek Valley, Chestnut Ridge, and parts of Bethel Valley on the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.; Gillis, G.A.; King, H.L.

    1987-04-01

    Construction data and available hydrogeological data for 582 boreholes and wells at the Y-12 Plant and in the surrounding vicinity have been assembled and tabulated in a data base. General data about boreholes and wells included in the data base are survey coordinates, elevations, and alternative names. Construction data tabulated include total depth, completion method, borehole diameter, casing and screen materials, filter pack depths, open-hole intervals, and open hole diameters. Hydrogeological data summarized includes depth to weathered and fresh bedrock, formations penetrated, and whether rock core and geophysical logs were obtained. The tabulations provide a means of determining the amount and quality of data available for a particular borehole or well. Applications of the data tabulations include evaluation of the suitability of wells for continued use in groundwater investigations and monitoring studies, site hydrogeological characterization activities, background evaluations of sites prior to initiation of new drilling activities, and geohydrologic review of selected sites prior to the initiation of remedial actions. 8 refs., 1 fig

  20. Monitoring the population dynamics of the horse chestnut leafminer .I.Cameraria ohridella./I. with a synthetic pheromone in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindl, Jiří; Kalinová, Blanka; Freise, J.; Heitland, W.; Augustin, S.; Guichard, S.; Avtzis, N.; Svatoš, Aleš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2002), s. 131-138 ISSN 1212-2580 Grant - others:CONTROCAM(XE) QLK5-CT-2000-01684 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : .I.Cameraria ohridella./I. * female sex pheromone traps Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  1. Spatial patterns and infestation processes in the horse chestnut leafminer .I.Cameraria ohridella./I.: a tale of two cities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibert, M.; Svatoš, Aleš; Lehmann, M.; Bacher, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 107, - (2003), s. 25-27 ISSN 0013-8703 Grant - others:Controcam(XE) QLK5-CT-2000-01684; Swiss Ministry for Education and Science(CH) BBW99.0830-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : .I.Cameraria ohridella./I. * Biological invasion * sex pheromone Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.850, year: 2003

  2. Updated Subsurface Data Base For Bear Creek Valley, Chestnut Ridge, And Parts Of Bethel Valley On The U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-12-01

    This document represents a compilation of location, construction, and hydrologic information relating to boreholes, groundwater monitoring wells, and surface water locations that have been installed/established at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) through August 2013. To date, a total of 1422 boreholes and wells have been installed in and around the Y-12 area. Of those, 835 existing boreholes and wells continue to be utilized for groundwater monitoring programs, research, remedial investigations, plume characterization and delineation studies, and various other hydrogeologic endeavors. In addition, 215 surface water locations, such as rivers, streams, seeps, springs, lakes, ponds, and building sumps are included in this database. General data about boreholes and wells included in the database are survey coordinates, survey system, elevations, alternative names and well status. Surface water location information (Appendix I) includes name, alias, functional area, northing and easting coordinates, survey system, map number and sampling history. Tabulated construction data include total depth, completion method, borehole diameter, casing and screen materials, casing and screen diameters, casing and screen depths, filter pack depths, open-hole intervals, and open-hole diameters. Hydrogeological data summarized in this document include the aquifer monitored by the completion interval, depth to weathered and fresh bedrock, formations penetrated, well sampling history, and whether rock core and geophysical logs were obtained. This document (which is the sixth revision to Y/TS–881 and the ninth overall update of a previous compilation) is published on a regular basis by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which serves as custodian of drilling records and well construction data for the network of wells and other groundwater monitoring stations at Y-12. The tabulations in this database are arranged in appendices of like information. An example application of the data compiled in this document would be the evaluation of the suitability of wells for continued use in groundwater investigations and monitoring studies. Other uses may include: the siting of hydrogeological characterization activities, background evaluations of sites prior to initiation of new drilling activities, and hydrogeological review of selected sites prior to the initiation of remedial actions or new construction activity. Existing boreholes, wells, and surface water locations are presented on a series of maps (Appendix K). Boreholes and wells that have been plugged and abandoned, destroyed, could not be located, or otherwise are of unknown status/condition appear on a second series of maps of identical coverage (Appendix L).

  3. Factors optimization to improve the tensile and flexural properties of short fibre non-woven hedgehog chestnuts spines reinforced polyester composites

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, J.E.; Rocha, João; Queijo, Luís

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade has been observed an increased interest in the use of natural fibers instead of synthetic fibres (i.e. glass, carbon or kevlar fibres). The natural fibre composites (NFC) have important advantages like their fibers are a renewable resource, for which production requires little energy, involves CO2 absorption, whilst returning oxygen to the environment and can be produced at lower cost than synthetic fibre [1]. However, the NFC have also some limitations, na...

  4. Enrichment of extruded snack products with coproducts from chestnut mushroom (Agrocybe aegerita) production: interactions between dietary fiber, physicochemical characteristics, and glycemic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Brennan, Charles S

    2012-05-02

    Mushrooms are a common vegetable product that have also been linked to pharmaceutical and medicinal uses. However, the production of the fruiting bodies of mushrooms results in a large quantity of food waste in the form of spent compost. Hyphae and the base of fruit bodies from Agrocybe aegerita were retrieved from spent mushroom compost and refined as a freeze-dried powder. This fiber-rich ingredient was used in the manufacture of ready-to-eat extruded cereal snack products. Inclusions rates were 0, 5, 10, and 15% w/w replacement levels for wheat flour from a control recipe. Inclusion of mushroom coproduct material (MCM) was significantly correlated to increased product expansion (r = 0.848) and density (r = 0.949) but negatively correlated to water absorption index (WAI; r = -0.928) and water solubility index (WSI; r = -0.729). Fiber content could not be correlated to differences in pasting properties of extruded snacks even though snack products with MCM showed significantly lower final viscosity values compared to the control. The potential glycemic response of foods was significantly lowered by including MCM (p extruded snacks (r = 0.916, 0.851, and 0.878. respectively). The results illustrate a reduction in the potential glycemic response from including 5% (w/w) of MCM in extruded snacks exceeds 20%. Thus, the incorporation of MCM in ready-to-eat snack foods may be of considerable interest to the food industry in trying to regulate the glycemic response of foods.

  5. Programs | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our development programs support innovative solutions that improve global ... Chestnut farm worker carries basket of harvest chestnuts on shoulders in China ... Invest in knowledge and innovation for large-scale positive change; Build the ...

  6. Morphological and physiological features of the species Asimina triloba (L. dunal, introduced as an ornamental plant in Baia Mare (Maramureş county, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice SZILAGYI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tree species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal, is native to North America. In the area of origin is cultivated, both as food species because the edible fruit, and as ornamental species. Ornamental value derives both from decorative flowers, that open in early spring, and because habitus species. The species is demanding from slightly acidic soils (pH 5.5 to 7.0 and well drained. Seedlings are susceptible to heatstroke and need areas of the sun, but since the second year, vegetate well in bright light conditions [27]. Optimum climate is temperate to subtropical one. The species exhibits unique quality traits for a temperate fruit that are similar to other fruit in the Annonaceae family, including cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., sugar apple or sweetsop, (A. squamosa L., soursop (A. muricata L., custard apple (A. reticulata L., and atemoya (A. squamosa X A. cherimola, all of which are tropical [2].This study follows the behavior of the species, in particular conditions of the Baia Mare and its surroundings. In this area a fewindividuals were introduced, in order to diversigy the range of species of ornamental plants. In Baia Mare, topoclimate is specifically depression, sheltered by mountains, more atenuated as temperature and winds, than in surrounding areas. As a result ofclimatic conditions, chestnut Castanea sativa, grows in good conditions in Baia Mare. Instead, the area is heavily polluted,especially at ground level. Pollution by heavy metals is a historical being generated by the mining industry.The introduction and use of a new plant species into a new area involves: 1. easy to obtain seed; 2.- maintaining the crown shape habitus and and leaf shape and size, respectively; 3 – determination of optimal physiological parameters. Therefore have been performed, the following experimental determinations: 1. - germination of seed obtained in the particular conditions of the Baia Mare; 2. - some morphomtric characteristics of leaves, in the juveniles

  7. Ecological implications of Laurel Wilt infestation on Everglades Tree Islands, southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James R.

    2014-01-01

    There is a long history of introduced pests attacking native forest trees in the United States (Liebhold and others, 1995; Aukema and others, 2010). Well-known examples include chestnut blight that decimated the American chestnut (Castanea dentata), an extremely important tree in the eastern United States, both as a food source for wildlife and humans and for the wood; Dutch elm disease that attacks native elms (Ulmus spp.), including those commonly planted as shade trees along city streets; and the balsam wooly adelgid (Adelges piceae), an insect that is destroying Fraser firs (Abies fraseri) in higher elevations of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Laurel wilt, a fungal disease transmitted by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), is a 21st-century example of an introduced forest pest that attacks native tree species in the laurel family (Lauraceae) (Mayfield, 2007; Hulcr and Dunn, 2011).The introduction of laurel wilt disease has been traced to the arrival of an Asian ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) at Port Wentworth, Georgia, near Savannah, in 2002, apparently accidently introduced in wooden shipping material (Mayfield, 2007). Within the next 2 years, it was determined that the non-native wood-boring insect was the vector of an undescribed species of fungus, responsible for killing large numbers of red bay (Persea borbonia) trees in the surrounding area. Dispersing female redbay ambrosia beetles drill into live trees and create tunnels in the wood. They carry with them fungal spores in specialized organs called mycangia at the base of each mandible and sow the spores in the tunnels they excavate. The fungus, since named Raffaelea lauricola (Harrington and others, 2008), is the food source for adults and larvae. The introduction of Raffaelea lauricola causes the host plant to react in such a way as to block the vascular tissue, resulting in loss of water conduction, wilt, and death (Kendra and others, 2013).Although first seen in red bay

  8. 77 FR 10472 - Dow AgroScience LLC; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...;and investigations, committee meetings, agency decisions and rulings, #0;delegations of authority.... Evan Chestnut, Policy Analyst, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 147...

  9. 76 FR 20623 - Florigene Pty., Ltd.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...;and investigations, committee meetings, agency decisions and rulings, #0;delegations of authority... Chestnut, Policy Analyst, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 147, Riverdale, MD...

  10. Study of bark of chestnut tree Aesculus hippocastanum L. by two-dimensional decomposition of nuclear relax application; Badanie kory kasztanowca (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) metoda dwuwymiarowej dekompozycji funkcji relaksacji jadrowej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weglarz, W.; Haranczyk, H. [Inst. Fizyki, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Water bound in the bark of Aesculus hippocastanum L. was studied by two-dimensional decomposition of nuclear relaxation function. The aim of the work was to increase accuracy of relaxation function measurement. The work shows three components of relaxation function. 6 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs.

  11. The Effects of Degradational Factors on the Ecosystem of Mount Madra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, R.; Soykan, A.; Sönmez, S.; Cürebal, I.

    2009-04-01

    environment of Kozak Plataeu, and in addition to this, quarrying activity has recently begun in the area around Burhaniye. All these activities have led to problems such as erosion, decreased biodiversity, and pollution of water sources on Mount Madra. The forest clearances which have been made, for various reasons, on the northern and southern slopes of Mount Madra, have caused the topsoil to be worn away by surface water. The most striking examples of this can be seen on Mount Şabla (1111m) and on the southern slopes of Maya peak (1344m). The trimming recently carried out by the Forestry Commission on sections of Mount Madra has badly damaged the forest's vegetation and in a short space of time caused irreversible harm to the ecosystem of the mountain. For thousands of years, parts of the top of Mount Madra and the Kozak plateau have been used as summer grounds and, as a result, the forest has been cleared from a wide section. On the north-facing slopes of Mount Madra, the number of chestnut trees (Castanea sativa) found within pine woods is increasing daily. The pine trees around the chestnuts are being chopped down in order to increase the number of chestnut trees, whose fruit are harvested for the economic benefit they bring. The pine forests are, for this reason, in constant decline. Forest roads, both planned and unplanned, have led to further destruction of forest vegetation. Apart from the forest vegetation of the Mountain, other natural resources are under threat; particularly water sources. Facilities for fish farming have been built with no pre-planning or research, leading to the clearance of forest and pollution of the environment. Mount Madra is an important water source for the rivers in the surrounding areas. It is the source of the Madra and Karınca Rivers which flow into the Aegean Sea, the Kocaçay River which feeds Manyas Lake and several tributaries of the Bakırçay River. The protection of Mount Madra and its freshwater sources and biodiversity is

  12. Anti-dyslipidemic and Antioxidant Potentials of Methanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The activity of the methanol extract of the whole plant of Kalanchoe crenata (MEKC) was studied for the treatment of diabetes-induced nephropathy in rats. Methods: Five-day old Wistar rats received a single intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection (90 ìg/kg body weight) to induce diabetes. Kidney disease onset in ...

  13. Effect of imazapyr treated maize on Striga infestation and time of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-01-21

    Jan 21, 2015 ... Falconer, D. S. (1989) Introduction to quantitative genetics, 3rd edition. Longman Scientific and. Technical Essex England. Garcia-Torres, L. and Lopez-Granados, F. (1991). Control of bromerape (Orobanche crenata. Forsk.) in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) with imadazolines and other herbicides. Weed. Res.

  14. Use of microsatellite markers in an American beech (Fagus grandifolia) population and paternity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Koch; Dave Carey; M.E. Mason

    2010-01-01

    Cross-species amplification of six microsatellite markers from European beech (Fagus sylvatica Linn) and nine markers from Japanese beech (Fagus crenata Blume) was tested in American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.). Three microsatellites from each species were successfully adapted for use in American beech...

  15. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Of Crude Extracts From Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Kalanchoe crenata were screened for their antimicrobial activities. Solvents used included water, methanol, and local solvents such as palmwine, local gin (Seaman's Schnapps 40% alcoholic drink,) and “omi ekan-ogi” (Sour water from 3 days fermented milled maize).

  16. Characterization of Resistance Mechanisms in Faba Bean (Vicia faba) against Broomrape Species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, Diego; Rojas-Molina, Maria M.; Sillero, Josefina C.

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba) production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata, although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca, and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida. Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa, neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri, or P. aegyptiaca. Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegyptiaca, suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further exploited in faba

  17. Fusarium spp. suppress germination and parasitic establishment of bean and hemp broomrapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abouzeid

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-nine Fusarium isolates were obtained from newly emerged infected bean broomrape (Orobanche crenata and hemp broomrape (O. ramosa collected from infested fields of faba bean (Vicia faba and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum respectively, in two governorates located south of Giza, Egypt. All Fusarium isolates were identified to species level and the effect of their culture filtrates on the germination of seeds from the two Orobanche species was tested in vitro. The inhibition of seed germination differed between the tested Fusarium isolates, depending on the plant part from which they were isolated, with isolates from the shoots of Orobanche inhibiting seed germination more than isolates from the inflorescences. The culture filtrates of Fusarium species from O. crenata were more toxic to the seeds of both Orobanche species than the Fusarium filtrates from O. ramosa. Seeds of O. crenata were more resistant to Fusarium culture filtrates than seeds of O. ramosa. The highest inhibition of Orobanche seed germination was achieved by six Fusarium isolates, one of which was identified as F. oxysporum, one as F. equiseti, whilst the other four were all F. compactum. Aqueous mixtures of mycelia and conidia of all the Fusarium isolates were directly sprayed on O. ramosa tubercles attached to the roots of tomato plants grown in transparent plastic bags, and were also used to infest soil in pots seeded with both faba bean and O. crenata. Two of the four F. compactum isolates (22 and 29 were significantly more pathogenic against O. crenata and O. ramosa, respectively, than the other Fusarium isolates tested in the pots and plastic bags. The study clearly shows the potential of biocontrol agents originating in one Orobanche sp. (e.g. O. crenata to control another Orobanche sp. (e.g. O. ramosa, as many Fusarium isolates deriving from O. crenata were found to be more pathogenic to O. ramosa seeds than the isolates from O. ramosa themselves. This may widen the

  18. Characterization resistance mechanisms in faba bean (Vicia faba against broomrape species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rubiales

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata, although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca, and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida. Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa, neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri or P. aegyptiaca. Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegytiaca, suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further

  19. Characterization of Resistance Mechanisms in Faba Bean (Vicia faba) against Broomrape Species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, Diego; Rojas-Molina, Maria M; Sillero, Josefina C

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean ( Vicia faba ) production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata , although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca , and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida . Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa , neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri , or P. aegyptiaca . Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegyptiaca , suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further exploited

  20. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on the emergence of larvae of curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Cydia kurokoi (Amsel) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Taro; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Hayashi, Toru

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the emergence of larvae of the chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller), were investigated. One hundred chestnuts were irradiated in a 60 Co irradiator (Gammacell 220, Nordion, Canada) at a dose rate of 0.40 kGy/h. The doses at which irradiation was carried out were 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 1000 Gy. After treatment, the chestnuts were kept at 25degC, 70% RH and emerged larvae were counted daily. Larvae of the nut fruit moth, Cydia kurokoi (Amsel), also emerged from the chestnuts. The data on the chestnut weevil were subjected to probit analysis and the LD 99.9 of weevil larvae was estimated to be about 500 Gy. (author)

  2. Biodegradation of lignin by Shiitake Lentinus edodes (berk. ) sing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, T.; Watanabe, H.; Ishikawa, H.

    1981-01-01

    Each strain of L. edodes destroyed all of the structural components of wood (Fagus crenata) at almost the same rate during the loss of approximately 30% of the total weight of wood. The activities of the extracellular enzymes, i.e. peroxidase, laccase, and polyphenol oxidase, in the wood powder and lignin-containing cultures increased during the early period of mycelial growth, and then declined rapidly, while the activity of Beta-glucosidase increased gradually throughout the growth period. Functional group analysis, nitrobenzene oxidation, and spectroscopic characterization showed that dioxane lignin from F. crenata degraded by L. edodes or in crude enzyme solution isolated from wood-containing culture had a higher content of carboxyl groups than the sound dioxane lignin, whereas the content of methoxyl group was lower in the degraded dioxane lignin than in sound dioxane lignin. The building units of dioxane lignin, which yield aromatic aldehydes on nitrobenzene oxidation, were attacked preferentially by L. edodes under the above conditions.

  3. Beech cupules share endophytic fungi with leaves and twigs

    OpenAIRE

    Tateno, Osamu; Hirose, Dai; Osono, Takashi; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic mycobiota on leaves, twigs and cupules of Fagus crenata were investigated using a culture-dependent method over a growing season to test the hypothesis that endophytic fungi of cupule (a woody phyllome) share some components of the endophytic fungal assemblages with both leaves and twigs. A total of 14 fungal taxa were isolated, and the most frequent taxon was Phomopsis sp., followed by Xylaria sp., Ascochyta fagi and Geniculosporium sp. The compositions of fungal assemblages of le...

  4. Study of some resistance mechanisms to Orobanche spp. infestation in faba bean (Vicia faba L. breeding lines in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Trabelsi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of seven faba bean breeding lines toward Orobanche foetida and Orobanche crenata infestation was examined under field, pots, and in vitro conditions and compared to reference cultivars. The breeding lines presented resistance reaction to Orobanche spp. in different experiment conditions. In infested field by O. foetida, the grain yield reduction ranged from 55.7 to 83% for the breeding lines compared to 97% for the susceptible cultivar Badï. Lines L6 and L7 were the less affected by Orobanche parasitism considering severity, number of emerged Orobanche, and yield. In pots, the number of attachments varied from .6 to 3.4 and from 1.4 to 6.4 for the breeding lines against 10.4 and 12.3 for Badï inoculated, respectively, by O. foetida and O. crenata. In Petri dish experiment, Orobanche germination reached the highest rates; 69.9 and 59.7%, respectively, with O. crenata and O. foetida for Badï. For the breeding lines, it ranged from 6.3 to 44.9% for O. crenata and from 4.8 to 40.8% for O. foetida. Moreover, all breeding lines showed low tubercles number and delay in Orobanche attachments as compared to Badï. All breeding lines, except L5, maintained an acceptable level of resistance to Orobanche species manifested by a reduced Orobanche germination rate, low Orobanche number and dry weight, delay of attachments, and higher grain production compared to Badï. L5 seems to be less resistant even it behaves better than Badï in different culture conditions. The studied breeding lines could be recommended as resistance sources or candidates for varieties registrations.

  5. Typologie spatiale de la végétation sahélienne en relation avec les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    0,0316. Tribulus terrestris L. 16,5. 0,0373. Très dégradé. Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) Haw. 36,5. 0,0170. Acalypha crenata Hochst.ex A.Rich. 36,5. 0,0250. Tableau 4: Quantification comparative des variables par stade de dégradation. Variables de dégradation des glacis du bassin versant de. Gourouol. Peu dégradé.

  6. Sensitivity of water and carbon fluxes to climate changes from 1960 to 2100 in European forest ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davi, H.; Dufrêne, E.; Francois, C.; Maire, Le G.; Loustau, D.; Bosc, A.; Rambal, S.; Granier, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of climate changes on carbon and water fluxes are quantified using a physiologically multi-layer, process-based model containing a carbon allocation model and coupled with a soil model (CASTANEA). The model is first evaluated on four EUROFLUX sites using eddy covariance data, which

  7. GenBank blastn search result: AK289245 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK289245 J100077H08 AY525350.1 AY525350 Castanea ozarkensis voucher CC R-etaT3, G. Miller (Connecticut Agric...ultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut) Ycf9 (ycf9) gene, partial cds;

  8. Novos longicórneos neotrópicos: XIII. (Col., Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Zajciw

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available The author describes one new genus, Dihammaphoroides allied to Dihammaphora Chevr., 1859 and tree new species: Coleoxestia omega, approximate to bivittata (Buq., 1852, Ommata (Eclipta melzeri resembling castanea Bat., 1873 and Dihammaphoroides sanguinicollis, all from Brazil, Prov. Rio de Janeiro, National Park Itatiaia, collected by J. F. Zikan.

  9. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Colonial Waterbird Habitats and Nesting Populations in North Carolina Estuaries: 1983 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Verbena braziliensis 1 -- -- Part henocissus quinquefolia 1 3 4 Ptilimniwn capillacewn -- 6 -- Spartina cynosuroides -- 4 - Sonchus oleraceus -- 4...ty Zis castanea -- 2 -- Verbena spp. I- -- Calium hispiduiwn -- I -- Rubus flagilaris -- 1 2 Phytolacca canericana 1 4 Sonchus as per -- I -- Acer

  10. 76 FR 13446 - Nittany Bald and Eagle Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Eagle Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA- COG Joint Rail Authority Nittany Bald and Eagle... 0.0 and milepost 1.8 in Castanea, Clinton County, Pa. The line is owned or leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA-COG). N&BE states that the line it proposes to operate is an extension of its...

  11. Studies on preservation of agricultural products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.H.; Kwon, S.H.; Lee, Y.I.; Chae, J.C.; Shin, I.C.

    1981-01-01

    This study was attempted to develop and establish the preservation techniques of agricultural products by irradiation through ascertainment of the optimum irradiation doses for sprout inhibition of white potato and chestnut, and for disinfestation of rice insects during storage

  12. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available The prostate gland is located underneath the bladder and is about the size of a chestnut. In this cut ... part of the urethra is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically ...

  13. Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology - Vol 76, No 3 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demography of the Seychelles Black Paradise-flycatcher: considerations for ... to the Brown-necked Parrot P. fuscicollis fuscicollis and the Grey-headed Parrot P. f. ... Chestnut Weaver Ploceus rubiginosus biometrics and primary moult in ...

  14. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Akshaya Rane1 2 Duncan Lorimer1 2. Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA. Center for Gravitational Waves and Cosmology, Chestnut Ridge Research Building, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA.

  15. 75 FR 4560 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ...., President/Chairman of the Board. Cesar A. Benoit and Hadee Benoit dba Cesar Cargo Express 532 Chestnut Street, Lynn, MA 01904, Officers: Cesar Augusto Benoit, Partner (Qualifying Individual), Hadee Benoit...

  16. 76 FR 40930 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... COLUMBIA District of Columbia Saint Paul African Union Methodist Church, 401 I St. SE., Washington... Marion Historic District (Boundary Increase), W. Cherry, E. Main, N. Main, Maple, N. Chestnut, Broad & N...

  17. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... elongated and has a smooth, hard exterior rind (exocarp) which range from light to dark green ... physicochemical and functional properties of this flour. ...... morphological and chemical properties of dried chestnuts flours.

  18. 76 FR 55404 - Announcement of Funding Awards Resident Opportunity and Self-Sufficiency (ROSS)-Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Housing 5446 Jenkins Drive... Juneau AK 99801 240,000 Authority. Opelika Housing Authority......... 1706... Authority of Henry County. 125 North Chestnut Kewanee IL 61443 176,493 Street. Knox County Housing Authority...

  19. The Effects of Intermittent Flooding on Seedlings of Three Forest Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.H. Anderson; S.R. Pezeshki

    1999-01-01

    Under greenhouse conditions, seedlings of three forest species, baldcypress (Taxodium distichum), nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii), and swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii) were subjected to an intermittent flooding and subsequent physiological and growth responses to such conditions were evaluated....

  20. Two methods of assessing the mortality factors affecting the larvae and pupae of Cameraria ohridella in the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum in Switzerland and Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Girardoz, S.; Tomov, R.; Eschen, R.; Quicke, D.L.J.; Kenis, M.

    2017-01-01

    The horse-chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella, is an invasive alien species defoliating horse-chestnut, a popular ornamental tree in Europe. This paper presents quantitative data on mortality factors affecting larvae and pupae of the leaf miner in Switzerland and Bulgaria, both in urban and forest environments. Two sampling methods were used and compared: a cohort method, consisting of the surveying of pre-selected mines throughout their development, and a grab sampling method, consistin...

  1. Identification of sweet chesnut pollen in bee pollen pellet using using molecular analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Žiarovská

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Castanea sativa posses many characteristics that are used by human for different purposes, not only as a part of the food. One of them is the utilization of the sweet chesnut pollen for its pharmacological benefits. Actually, no information about the DNA based identification of the sweet chesnut exist. Here, an identification of Castanea sativa based on the specific DNA fragment amplification is described for the first time. Sweet chesnut identification was performed in the very complex sample of bee pollen pellets that were identified as to contain sweet chesnut pollen grains by morphological analysis. First, bioinformatic analysis was performed to find a Castanea sativa conservative part of galactol synthase gene. BLAST alignment of the CDS of GolS1 gene was performed by BLASTtn against plants nucleotide sequences in the NCBI database to ensure for the specifity or existing nucleotide differences. Then, specific primers were subsequently designed and PCR amplification was performed. All the PCRs have run in duplicates for pollen pellet sample and two independent samples of Castanea sativa pure pollen. Restriction cleavage of the PCR amplified fragment was performed to confirm the specifity of the obtained PCR product with the positive confirmation as the predicted three restriction fragments were obtained that fully correspond by the length to those from virtual clevage. Restriction endonuclease Hpy166II was used in restriction cleavage analysis. Castanea sativa pollen grains were confirmed reliable in multifloral pollen pellet by PCR and this approach has the potential to be used effectively for the authentication purposes of sweet chesnut.

  2. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  3. Tree branching: Leonardo da Vinci's rule versus biomechanical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule.

  4. Gastropod growth and survival as bioindicators of stress associated with high nutrients in the intertidal of a shallow temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Islay D.; Baharuddin, Nursalwa

    2015-04-01

    The effects of multiple stressors on estuarine organisms are not well understood. Using cage experiments we measured the survival and growth of the pulmonate gastropod Amphibola crenata at five locations which differed contaminant levels. Water nutrients came from a nearby sewage treatment works and the sediment contained low levels of trace metals. Over 6 weeks of exposure, sediment surface chlorophyll levels varied amongst locations. The Chl a values were positively correlated with sediment N and P and trace metals As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Pulmonate survival depended on location, highest mortality was from a site close to the treatment plant and mortality rate of large individuals decreased significantly with distance away from it. For four locations, medium A. crenata had higher survival than small (juveniles) or adults. Growth rates of small individuals exceeded those for medium and large A. crenata. The mean length increment/week for medium gastropods ranged between 0.49 and 1.11 mm and was negatively correlated with the amount of Chl a in the surface sediment, suggesting the negative effects of eutrophication on gastropod growth. Growth rate of the pulmonate was not correlated with nutrient concentration or trace metal concentrations in the sediment. The dry weight condition index (CI) did not correlate with the growth rate, and for medium individuals, was unaffected by any of the environmental variables. The CI of small individuals was negatively affected by increasing water nutrient levels and the CI of large individuals negatively affected by increasing sediment nutrients and trace metal concentrations. The results from this study suggest that gastropod growth and survival could be used as tools to monitor the effects of changing nutrient levels and recovery from eutrophication within temperate estuaries.

  5. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Tuscan bee pollen of different botanic origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Domenici

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the apicultural products, the honey bee-pollen is growing in commercial interest due to its high nutritional properties. For the first time, bee-pollen samples from Tuscany (Italy were studied to evaluate botanical origin, phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity. The investigated pollen loads were composed of three botanical families: Castanea, Rubus and Cistus.The highest levels of proteins and lipids were detected in Rubus pollen. Castanea pollen contained greater polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins content, while the highest flavonols level wasdetected in Cistus pollen. These results were also confirmed by front-face fluorescence spectroscopy, used here, for the first time, as a fast tool to characterize bee-pollens.

  6. Multiple, Distinct Intercontinental Lineages but Isolation of Australian Populations in a Cosmopolitan Lichen-Forming Fungal Taxon, Psora decipiens (Psoraceae, Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Leavitt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple drivers shape the spatial distribution of species, including dispersal capacity, niche incumbency, climate variability, orographic barriers, and plate tectonics. However, biogeographic patterns of fungi commonly do not fit conventional expectations based on studies of animals and plants. Fungi, in general, are known to occur across exceedingly broad, intercontinental distributions, including some important components of biological soil crust communities (BSCs. However, molecular data often reveal unexpected biogeographic patterns in lichenized fungal species that are assumed to have cosmopolitan distributions. The lichen-forming fungal species Psora decipiens is found on all continents, except Antarctica and occurs in BSCs across diverse habitats, ranging from hot, arid deserts to alpine habitats. In order to better understand factors that shape population structure in cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal species, we investigated biogeographic patterns in the cosmopolitan taxon P. decipiens, along with the closely related taxa P. crenata and P. saviczii. We generated a multi-locus sequence dataset based on a worldwide sampling of these taxa in order to reconstruct evolutionary relationships and explore phylogeographic patterns. Both P. crenata and P. decipiens were not recovered as monophyletic; and P. saviczii specimens were recovered as a monophyletic clade closely related to a number of lineages comprised of specimens representing P. decipiens. Striking phylogeographic patterns were observed for P. crenata, with populations from distinct geographic regions belonging to well-separated, monophyletic lineages. South African populations of P. crenata were further divided into well-supported sub-clades. While well-supported phylogenetic substructure was also observed for the nominal taxon P. decipiens, nearly all lineages were comprised of specimens collected from intercontinental populations. However, all Australian specimens representing

  7. Neural network modelling of rainfall interception in four different forest stands

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Yurtseven; Mustafa Zengin

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal whether it is possible to predict rainfall, throughfall and stemflow in forest ecosystems with less effort, using several measurements of rainfall interception (hereafter interception) and an artificial neural network based linear regression model (ANN model). To this end, the Kerpe Research Forest in the province of Kocaeli, which houses stands of mixed deciduous-broadleaf forest (Castanea sativa Mill., Fagus orientalis Lipsky, Quercus spp.), black pi...

  8. The Buffalo Creek Archaeological Project. Volume 1: Background and Testing at 3MS346 and 3CG847 Mississippi and Craighead Counties, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    shagbark hickory ( Carya ovata), and pecan ( Carya illinoensis ). These trees dominate the vegetation on well-drained elevated land such as tho-se areas...strongly acidic soil (Steyermark 1959:95, 120). Chinquapin (Castanea ozarkensis), black or sourgum (Nyssa sylvatica), black hickory ( Carya texana...white oak, mockernut hickory ( Carya tomentosa), black hickory, white hickory ( Carya alba), flowering dogwoo-T-,whiT𔃻eFash(Fraxinus americana

  9. Genetic variation in foundation species governs the dynamics of trophic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Cuevas, Leticia; Mussali-Galante, Patricia; Cano-Santana, Zenón; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Equihua-Martínez, Armando

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Various studies have demonstrated that the foundation species genetic diversity can have direct effects that extend beyond the individual or population level, affecting the dependent communities. Additionally, these effects may be indirectly extended to higher trophic levels throughout the entire community. Quercus castanea is an oak species with characteristics of foundation species beyond presenting a wide geographical distribution and being a dominant element of Mexican temperate forests. In this study, we analyzed the influence of population (He) and individual (HL) genetic diversity of Q. castanea on its canopy endophagous insect community and associated parasitoids. Specifically, we studied the composition, richness (S) and density of leaf-mining moths (Lepidoptera: Tischeridae, Citheraniidae), gall-forming wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), and canopy parasitoids of Q. castanea. We sampled 120 trees belonging to six populations (20/site) through the previously recognized gradient of genetic diversity. In total, 22 endophagous insect species belonging to three orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera) and 20 parasitoid species belonging to 13 families were identified. In general, we observed that the individual genetic diversity of the host plant (HL) has a significant positive effect on the S and density of the canopy endophagous insect communities. In contrast, He has a significant negative effect on the S of endophagous insects. Additionally, indirect effects of HL were observed, affecting the S and density of parasitoid insects. Our results suggest that genetic variation in foundation species can be one of the most important factors governing the dynamics of tritrophic interactions that involve oaks, herbivores, and parasitoids. PMID:29492034

  10. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1998 by the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 was performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), and the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV), and the Chestnut Ridge Regime which is located south of the Y-12 Plant.

  11. Paleoecological crisis in the steppes of the Lower Volga region in the Middle of the Bronze Age (III-II centuries BC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkina, T. S.; Borisov, A. V.; Demkin, V. A.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kuznetsova, T. V.; El'tsov, M. V.; Udal'tsov, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    Diagnostic features of a catastrophic aridization of climate, desertification, and paleoecological crisis in steppes of the Lower Volga region have been identified on the basis of data on the morphological, chemical, and microbiological properties of paleosols under archeological monuments (burial mounds) of the Middle Bronze Age. These processes resulted in a certain convergence of the soil cover with transformation of zonal chestnut (Kastanozems) paleosols and paleosolonetzes (Solonetz Humic) into specific chestnut-like eroded saline calcareous paleosols analogous to the modern brown desert-steppe soils (Calcisols Haplic) that predominated in this region 4300-3800 years ago.1 In the second millennium BC, humidization of the climate led to the divergence of the soil cover with secondary formation of the complexes of chestnut soils and solonetzes. This paleoecological crisis had a significant effect on the economy of the tribes in the Late Catacomb and Post-Catacomb time stipulating their higher mobility and transition to the nomadic cattle breeding.

  12. Development of methodology for identification the nature of the polyphenolic extracts by FTIR associated with multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasel, Fábio dos Santos; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Wolf, Carlos Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Tannins are polyphenolic compounds of complex structures formed by secondary metabolism in several plants. These polyphenolic compounds have different applications, such as drugs, anti-corrosion agents, flocculants, and tanning agents. This study analyses six different type of polyphenolic extracts by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with multivariate analysis. Through both principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), we observed well-defined separation between condensed (quebracho and black wattle) and hydrolysable (valonea, chestnut, myrobalan, and tara) tannins. For hydrolysable tannins, it was also possible to observe the formation of two different subgroups between samples of chestnut and valonea and between samples of tara and myrobalan. Among all samples analysed, the chestnut and valonea showed the greatest similarity, indicating that these extracts contain equivalent chemical compositions and structure and, therefore, similar properties.

  13. [Isolation of Actinomycetales from the soil of Kazakhstan on selective media with antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetlugina, L A; Adiiatova, Zh F; Khozhamuratova, S Sh; Rymzhanova, Z A; Trenozhnikova, L P; Kopytina, M N

    1990-02-01

    About 3000 actinomycetes were isolated from various soil samples collected in 11 regions of Kazakhstan. 62.7 per cent of them proved to be antagonists. For isolation of the strains, selective media supplemented with antibiotics were used. Kanamycin promoted growth of Actinomadura and Nocardia. Rubomycin promoted growth of Actinomadura. Tavromycetin and roseofungin were used as selective agents for the first time. Tavromycetin favoured isolation of Actinomadura and Nocardia. Roseofungin favoured isolation of Actinomadura. Light chestnut and serozemic soils were the most rich in antagonists (67.1 and 61.3 per cent, respectively) while saline and chestnut soils were the poorest in antagonists (32.2 and 30.6 per cent, respectively). Actinomadura were more frequent in light-chestnut light-loamy and serozemic soils. Half of the antibiotics isolated in the form of concentrates were identified with the known antibiotics or classified as belonging to various groups. A culture producing a novel antibiotic was isolated.

  14. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1998 by the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 was performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), and the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV), and the Chestnut Ridge Regime which is located south of the Y-12 Plant

  15. Effect of tannins on the in vitro growth of Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo, Ana M; Mercado, Elsa C; Rabinovitz, Bettina C; Fernandez-Miyakawa, Mariano E

    2010-10-26

    Vegetable tannins are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds of varying molecular weights that occur abundantly in nature. The diet of many free-ranging wild animals contains significant amounts of tannins. Also, commercial tannins are used in animal industry as food additives to improve animal performance. In order to further determine the capacity of tannins to inhibit the development of intestinal diseases produced by Clostridium pefringens, we evaluated here the effect of tannins from quebracho, chestnut or combinations of both on C. perfringens and their toxins. The C. perfringens (types A, B, C, D and E) growth obtained from the intestine of healthy and diseased animals was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of quebracho tannins, chestnut tannins, combinations of both or a commercial formula based in these tannins. Although the minimal inhibitory concentration of both tannins varied between isolates, no statistically significant differences were observed between isolates from healthy or sick animals. Comparative analysis showed that the concentrations of quebracho tannin inhibiting the growth of C. perfringens were higher than chestnut tannin. In fact, antibacterial effect of quebracho tannin was increased up to 20 times with the addition of 25% of chestnut tannin and 85 times with 75% of chestnut tannin. Antibacterial activity of the commercial product was up to ~50 times higher than quebracho tannin alone. Quebracho tannin showed partial bactericidal activity, whereas chestnut tannin activity was stronger. Both tannins were able to reduce the alpha toxin lecithinase activity and epsilon toxin cytotoxicity in MDCK cells. These results suggest that tannin-supplemented diet could be useful to prevent some clostridial diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Phylogeny and character evolution of the fern genus Tectaria (Tectariaceae) in the Old World inferred from chloroplast DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hui-Hui; Chao, Yi-Shan; Callado, John Rey; Dong, Shi-Yong

    2014-11-01

    In this study we provide a phylogeny for the pantropical fern genus Tectaria, with emphasis on the Old World species, based on sequences of five plastid regions (atpB, ndhF plus ndhF-trnL, rbcL, rps16-matK plus matK, and trnL-F). Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference are used to analyze 115 individuals, representing ca. 56 species of Tectaria s.l. and 36 species of ten related genera. The results strongly support the monophyly of Tectaria in a broad sense, in which Ctenitopsis, Hemigramma, Heterogonium, Psomiocarpa, Quercifilix, Stenosemia, and Tectaridium should be submerged. Such broadly circumscribed Tectaria is supported by the arising pattern of veinlets and the base chromosome number (x=40). Four primary clades are well resolved within Tectaria, one from the Neotropic (T. trifoliata clade) and three from the Old World (T. subtriphylla clade, Ctenitopsis clade, and T. crenata clade). Tectaria crenata clade is the largest one including six subclades. Of the genera previously recognized as tectarioid ferns, Ctenitis, Lastreopsis, and Pleocnemia, are confirmed to be members in Dryopteridaceae; while Pteridrys and Triplophyllum are supported in Tectariaceae. To infer morphological evolution, 13 commonly used characters are optimized on the resulting phylogenetic trees and in result, are all homoplastic in Tectaria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Induction of Haustorium Development by Sphaeropsidones in Radicles of the Parasitic Weeds Striga and Orobanche. A Structure-Activity Relationship Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Masi, Marco; Maddau, Lucia; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Marco; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2016-06-29

    Crop attack by parasitic weeds such as Striga and Orobanche occurs through developmental processes triggered by host chemodetection. Seeds of those weed species remain dormant in the soil until germination is triggered by host root exudates. The development of haustorium, a parasitic plant organ that invades the host to withdraw its nutrients, is also initiated in Orobanchaceae by host molecular cues. The induction of haustorium development by exogenous signals has previously been reported for Striga but not for Orobanche species. In this work, we demonstrate that sphaeropsidone and epi-sphaeropsidone, two phytotoxic cyclohexene oxides isolated from the fungus Diplodia cupressi, a causal agent of cypress canker, induce haustorium development in radicles of the parasitic weeds Striga hermonthica, Orobanche crenata, and Orobanche cumana. This is the first report of chemical stimulation of haustorium development in radicles of Orobanche in the absence of host. In addition, SAR studies were carried out by testing the haustorium-inducing activity of the natural cyclohexene oxides, seven already known and four new hemisynthetic derivatives, in O. cumana, O. crenata, and S. hermonthica, to find a molecular specificity model required for haustorium induction. The results suggested that the haustorium-inducing activity is due to the possibility to convert the natural sphaeropsidone and natural and hemisynthetic derivatives in the corresponding 3-methoxyquinone and that the stereochemistry at C-5 also seems to affect this activity.

  18. Low strigolactone root exudation: a novel mechanism of broomrape (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) resistance available for faba bean breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Kisugi, Takaya; Xie, Xiaonan; Rubiales, Diego; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2014-07-23

    Faba bean yield is severely constrained in the Mediterranean region and Middle East by the parasitic weeds Orobanche crenata, O. foetida, and Phelipanche aegyptiaca. Seed germination of these weeds is triggered upon recognition of host root exudates. Only recently faba bean accessions have been identified with resistance based in low induction of parasitic seed germination, but the underlying mechanism was not identified. Strigolactones are a group of terpenoid lactones involved in the host recognition by parasitic plants. Our LC-MS/MS analysis of root exudates of the susceptible accession Prothabon detected orobanchol, orobanchyl acetate, and a novel germination stimulant. A time course analysis indicated that their concentration increased with plant age. However, low or undetectable amounts of these germination stimulants were detected in root exudates of the resistant lines Quijote and Navio at all plant ages. A time course analysis of seed germination induced by root exudates of each faba bean accession indicated important differences in the ability to stimulate parasitic germination. Results presented here show that resistance to parasitic weeds based on low strigolactone exudation does exist within faba bean germplasm. Therefore, selection for this trait is feasible in a breeding program. The remarkable fact that low induction of germination is similarly operative against O. crenata, O. foetida, and P. aegyptiaca reinforces the value of this resistance.

  19. Genetic relationships among Orobanche species as revealed by RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, B; Alfaro, C; Torres, A M; Moreno, M T; Satovic, Z; Pujadas, A; Rubiales, D

    2003-05-01

    RAPD markers were used to study variation among 20 taxa in the genus OROBANCHE: O. alba, O. amethystea, O. arenaria, O. ballotae, O. cernua, O. clausonis, O. cumana, O. crenata, O. densiflora, O. foetida, O. foetida var. broteri, O. gracilis, O. haenseleri, O. hederae, O. latisquama, O. mutelii, O. nana, O. ramosa, O. rapum-genistae and O. santolinae. A total of 202 amplification products generated with five arbitrary RAPD primers was obtained and species-specific markers were identified. The estimated Jaccard's differences between the species varied between 0 and 0.864. The pattern of interspecific variation obtained is in general agreement with previous taxonomic studies based on morphology, and the partition into two different sections (Trionychon and Orobanche) is generally clear. However, the position in the dendrogram of O. clausonis did not fit this classification since it clustered with members of section TRIONYCHON: Within this section, O. arenaria was relatively isolated from the other members of the section: O. mutelii, O. nana and O. ramosa. Within section Orobanche, all O. ramosa populations showed a similar amplification pattern, whereas differences among O. crenata populations growing on different hosts were found. Orobanche foetida and O. densiflora clustered together, supporting the morphological and cytological similarities and the host preferences of these species.

  20. Ecophysiological Traits of Leaves of Three Marsilea Species Distributed in Different Geographical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Chung Wu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Marsilea, an amphibian fern genus (containing ca. 80 species characterized by their unusual leaves and reproductive structures, is distributed over the five continents. To investigate the adaptation traits of three Marsilea species (M. crenata, M. quadrifolia, and M. schelpiana, distributed in different geographic regions, to terrestrial conditions, we compared morphological features, optical properties and photosynthetic performance of leaflets of the three species grown in terrestrial environment. The results showed that leaflets of the three species had significant differences in some of the ecophysiogical traits. Among the three species, M. quadrifolia (distributed in temperate region where receiving low precipitation had the highest trichome density on its leaflet surface and the highest water use efficiency, M. schelpiana (mainly in southern Africa where accepting high level of solar irradiance had the tallest petiole and the highest leaf dissection index, total stomatal pore area index, PSII electron transport rate and photosaturated photosynthetic rate, M. crenata (mainly in southeastern Asia region where receiving high precipitation and with high humidity had the lowest leaf dissection index and water use efficiency. Accordingly, leaf characteristics of the three Marsilea species reflect the climate pattern of their habitats. The results also suggest that water availability and light intensity are two of the important factors contributing to the geographic distribution of the three species.

  1. Spotted phenotypes in horses lost attractiveness in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wutke, Saskia; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson

    2016-01-01

    were influenced by humans. Our results from genotype analyses show a significant increase in spotted coats in early domestic horses (Copper Age to Iron Age). In contrast, medieval horses carried significantly fewer alleles for these phenotypes, whereas solid phenotypes (i.e., chestnut) became dominant...

  2. 75 FR 8031 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... will collect information from the permit application regarding the type, number, and identification of... hardwood trees. It attacks many healthy hardwood trees, including maple, horse chestnut, birch, popular, willow, and elm. The beetle bores into the heartwood of a host tree, eventually killing the tree. The U.S...

  3. Photosynthetic Characteristics of Five Hardwood Species in a Mixed Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, photosythesis (Pn) was measured in cherrybark oak, green ash, swamp chestnut oak, sweetgum, and water hickory in a mixed stand established in February 1994. Based on the apparent quantum yield obtained from light response curves, cherrybark oak had the lowest Pn in August whereas sweetgum, green ash, and water hickory were equally active in Pn. Daily August...

  4. Weight, Volume, and Physical Properties of Major Hardwood Species in the Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Clark; Douglas R. Phillips; Douglas J. Frederick

    1986-01-01

    Weight, volume, and physical properties of trees 1 to 20 inches d.b.h.were determined for red maple, sweetgum, sycamore, yellow-poplar, elm, hickory, chestnut oak, scarlet oak, southern red oak, and white oak in the Piedmont of the Southeastern United States. A total of 772 trees were destructively sampled at 16 locations from Viryinia to Alabama. Hard hardwoods, soft...

  5. 76 FR 47210 - Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... placed on the Internet. Section 10.33(b) provides that FDA may, for good cause, extend this 30-day period.......... Chestnut Medical Pipeline embolization device.... April 6, 2011. Technologies, Inc. P100034 FDA-2011-M-0295... Scientific Corp ION paclitaxel-eluting coronary April 22, 2011. stent system (monorail and over- the-wire...

  6. Using fire to restore pine/hardwood ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Barton D. Clinton; Ronald L. Hendrick; Amy E. Major

    1997-01-01

    In the Southern Appalachians, mixed pine/hardwood ecosystems occupy the most xeric sites (i.e., south/west aspect ridge sites). They are typically comprised of varying proportions of pitch pine (Pinus rigida), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and/or shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and a mixture of hardwoods, including scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea), chestnut oak (...

  7. Gypsy moth IPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. McManus; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, North American forests have been inundated by a multitude of alien pest invasions. Among these, noteworthy invaders include the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), chestnut blight and Dutch elm disease. These species have greatly altered both the ecological and...

  8. Economic impacts of invasive species in forest past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Juliann E. Aukema; Betsy Von Holle; Andrew Liebhold; Erin Sills

    2009-01-01

    Biological invasions by nonnative species are a by-product of economic activities, with the vast majority of nonnative species introduced by trade and transport of products and people. Although most introduced species are relatively innocuous, a few species ultimately cause irreversible economic and ecological impacts, such as the chestnut blight that functionally...

  9. Unwelcome Guests: Extoic Forest Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun Jiang-Hua

    2002-01-01

    Exotic forest pests cost China and the United States billions of dollars each year. Current regulatory systems worldwide are over-whelmed with the increasing volume of international trade. Trade in nursery stock, wood products, pallets and dunnage have proven the most common means of transport for exotic forest pests. Despite our best efforts, pests such as chestnut...

  10. Effects of prescribed fire in a central Appalachian oak-hickory stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.W. Wendel; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1986-01-01

    A prescribed fire in a central Appalachian mixed hardwood stand caused considerable damage to the butt logs of many overstory trees. Although there were increases in the abundance and distribution of several species of hardwoods, advanced red and chestnut oaks were poorly distributed 5-years after burning. An abundance of striped maple and other shrubs in the...

  11. Leaf gas exchange of mature bottomland oak trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico M. Gazal; Mark E. Kubiske; Kristina F. Connor

    2009-01-01

    We determined how changes in environmental moisture affected leaf gas exchange in Nuttall (Quercus texana Buckley), overcup (Q. lyrata Walt.), and dominant and codominant swamp chestnut (Q. michauxii Nutt.) oak trees in Mississippi and Louisiana. We used canopy access towers to measure leaf level gas...

  12. Fingerprinting of Fagaceae individuals using intermicrosatellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (sweet chestnut). 10. HVR20157 ... products were visualized after electrophoresis on 1.8% w/v agarose gels .... did not overestimate the heterozygosity, proving the ISSRs ability to ..... genus. In this study and in a previous work (Coutinho et al.

  13. The Conway Water Supply: Results of Archeological Survey and Testing and a Historical Survey of a Proposed Reservoir Area in Conway County, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    walnuts, butternuts, chestnuts, acorns, and pecans became available and provided a new supply of protein over much of the East. Shellfish now flourished in... Italy were readily available to the miner (Toulouse 1970:59). While the written resources would describe a life of hardship, the archeologist

  14. Microencapsulation of Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    nuts, chestnuts, f ilberts, hazelnuts, pecans , walnuts (all nuts, in %hells). In other countries, the appropriate government regulatory agencies...75012 Paris, France, 10 Rue Villiot .. ...... . . . . . . 347.87-45 NEAR EAST 20124 Milan, Italy , Via Rosellini 12 ... ...... ...... 688.4563 Hemel

  15. Impact of Market-Based Disturbance on the Composition of West Virginia's Forest Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; John E. Baumgras; John E. Baumgras

    2000-01-01

    The eastern hardwood resource has been shaped by a combination of human and natural disturbances. This impact on the forest resources of West Virginia has been especially dramatic. This resource has changed from a virgin forest dominated white oak, chestnut, spruce, white pine, and hemlock in the late 19th century, to one dominated by red oak in the 1950's, to...

  16. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY SUPPOSITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Chahirova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study for the development of dual-layer suppositories with the oil extract of mountain ash and liquid extract of a horse chestnut. The technology of suppositories is based on extracts prepared from the test materials. 

  17. 40 CFR 81.308 - Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: College Avenue, CONRAIL tracks, South Chapel Street and Chestnut Hill Road X Remainder of New Castle County X Kent County X Sussex County X Delaware—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does... Kent County X Sussex County X Delaware—Carbon Monoxide Designated Area Designation Date 1 Type...

  18. 78 FR 59922 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Docket Nos. Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC EG13-38-000 Osprey Energy Center, LLC EG13... 2013, the status of the above-captioned entities as Exempt Wholesale Generators became effective by...

  19. Effect of activated charcoal, abscisic acid and polyethylene glycol on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Generation of horse chestnut somatic embryos is commonly achieved by transferring embryo- genic tissue onto an ABA, PEG and manitol-containing maturation media (Capuana and Deberg, 1997). Activated charcoal is commonly used in tissue culture media to darken the immediate media surroundings ...

  20. Potential of the strain of entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea CCM 8637 as a biological control agent against Cameraria ohridella and other pests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, Rostislav; Prenerová, Eva; Awad, Mona; Hussein, Hany

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2012), s. 79-80 ISSN 1335-258X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06005 Grant - others:European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.4.00/12.0082 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biological control * horse chestnut leaf miner * Colorado potato beatle

  1. 77 FR 34404 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... St, 703 S. Main St., Little Rock, 12000355 CONNECTICUT Fairfield County Kellogg, Enos, House, 210 Ponus Ave. Ext., Norwalk, 12000356 LeRoy Shirt Company Factory, 11 Chestnut St., Norwalk, 12000357..., Sarasota High School Addition, (Sarasota School of Architecture MPS) 1000 School Ave., S., Sarasota...

  2. EDITORIALS Latex allergy: 'Plight, rights and fights'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anaphylaxis and life-threatening food allergies to cross-reacting fruit allergens such as kiwi, banana, tomato and chestnuts). Latex allergy is also encountered more frequently in children with spina bifida than in other hospitalised children.[7] Sensitisation is usually confirmed by commercial latex allergy skinprick testing or by ...

  3. Labor Law Reform: The Regulation of Free Speech and Equal Access in NLRB Representational Elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    After examining the existing legal standards governing free speech and equal access in representation elections, the author analyzes various reform possibilities and suggests a unified approach for legislative action. Available from the University of Pennsylvania Law School, 3400 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; $3.00 sc.…

  4. Effects of shading on Vallisneria natans (Lour.) H. Hara growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Meng, F; Shen, X

    2013-01-01

    , but dry weight fruit production was significantly reduced at 90% shading. We conclude that above 50% surface shading, V. natans plants suffer reductions in accumulated biomass and investment in sexual reproduction. We contend that recent expansions in the extent of the native floating water chestnut Trapa...

  5. Tic-Tac-Toe Performance as a Function of Maturational Level of Retarded Adolescents and Nonretarded Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Herman H.; Winters, Emilia A.

    1977-01-01

    Available from: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, New Jersey 07648. Two groups (36 Ss) of educable and trainable mentally retarded adolescents in an institution were compared with two groups (38 Ss) of nonretarded children (ages 8-9 years old) on a modified tic-tac-toe game for foresight in logical problem solving. (MH)

  6. [Environmental geochemical baseline of heavy metals in soils of the Ili river basin and pollution evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Ru; Nasier, Telajin; Cheng, Yong-Yi; Zhan, Jiang-Yu; Yang, Jian-Hong

    2014-06-01

    Environmental geochemical baseline models of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Hg were established by standardized method in the ehernozem, chestnut soil, sierozem and saline soil from the Ili river valley region. The theoretical baseline values were calculated. Baseline factor pollution index evaluation method, environmental background value evaluation method and heavy metal cleanliness evaluation method were used to compare soil pollution degrees. The baseline factor pollution index evaluation showed that As pollution was the most prominent among the four typical types of soils within the river basin, with 7.14%, 9.76%, 7.50% of sampling points in chernozem, chestnut soil and sierozem reached the heavy pollution, respectively. 7.32% of sampling points of chestnut soil reached the permitted heavy metal Pb pollution index in the chestnut soil. The variation extent of As and Pb was the largest, indicating large human disturbance. Environmental background value evaluation showed that As was the main pollution element, followed by Cu, Zn and Pb. Heavy metal cleanliness evaluation showed that Cu, Zn and Pb were better than cleanliness level 2 and Hg was the of cleanliness level 1 in all four types of soils. As showed moderate pollution in sierozem, and it was of cleanliness level 2 or better in chernozem, chestnut soil and saline-alkali soil. Comparing the three evaluation systems, the baseline factor pollution index evaluation more comprehensively reflected the geochemical migration characteristics of elements and the soil formation processes, and the pollution assessment could be specific to the sampling points. The environmental background value evaluation neglected the natural migration of heavy metals and the deposition process in the soil since it was established on the regional background values. The main purpose of the heavy metal cleanliness evaluation was to evaluate the safety degree of soil environment.

  7. Assessing the effects of management on forest growth across France: insights from a new functional-structural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, Joannès; Delpierre, Nicolas; Vallet, Patrick; François, Christophe; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K; Soudani, Kamel; Nicolas, Manuel; Badeau, Vincent; Dufrêne, Eric

    2014-09-01

    The structure of a forest stand, i.e. the distribution of tree size features, has strong effects on its functioning. The management of the structure is therefore an important tool in mitigating the impact of predicted changes in climate on forests, especially with respect to drought. Here, a new functional-structural model is presented and is used to assess the effects of management on forest functioning at a national scale. The stand process-based model (PBM) CASTANEA was coupled to a stand structure module (SSM) based on empirical tree-to-tree competition rules. The calibration of the SSM was based on a thorough analysis of intersite and interannual variability of competition asymmetry. The coupled CASTANEA-SSM model was evaluated across France using forest inventory data, and used to compare the effect of contrasted silvicultural practices on simulated stand carbon fluxes and growth. The asymmetry of competition varied consistently with stand productivity at both spatial and temporal scales. The modelling of the competition rules enabled efficient prediction of changes in stand structure within the CASTANEA PBM. The coupled model predicted an increase in net primary productivity (NPP) with management intensity, resulting in higher growth. This positive effect of management was found to vary at a national scale across France: the highest increases in NPP were attained in forests facing moderate to high water stress; however, the absolute effect of management on simulated stand growth remained moderate to low because stand thinning involved changes in carbon allocation at the tree scale. This modelling approach helps to identify the areas where management efforts should be concentrated in order to mitigate near-future drought impact on national forest productivity. Around a quarter of the French temperate oak and beech forests are currently in zones of high vulnerability, where management could thus mitigate the influence of climate change on forest yield.

  8. Evaluación del secuestro de carbono con diferentes alternativas de gestión selvícola en monte bajo de castaño en el Norte de España

    OpenAIRE

    Prada Monteagudo, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Las masas forestales y las actividades de manejo forestal juegan un papel importante en la fijación del carbono. Los objetivos del estudio fueron determinar la línea base de almacenamiento de carbono en monte bajo de castaño (Castanea sativa Mill.), evaluar el efecto de la gestión forestal y validar los resultados del modelo. El área de estudio se localiza en el norte de España. El modelo CO2FIX se utilizó para estimar el contenido de carbono en la biomasa, suelo y productos, evaluándose 5 al...

  9. Određivanje kupnih ugljikohidrata u plodu kestena

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačec, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Pitomi kesten (Castanea sativa Mill) pripada u skupinu listopadnog drveća, rjeđe grmova iz porodice Fagaceae. U ovom radu je analizirano je 7 uzoraka od tri francuska kultivara pitomog kestena: Maraval, Marsol i Bouche de Betizac, sakupljenih na području U.Š. Sisak, s ciljem određivanja ukupnog udjela ugljikohidrata u pojedinom uzorku. Za analizu je korištena spektrofotometrijska metoda određivanja ukupnog udjela ugljikohidrata u plodu kestena temeljena na korištenju Anthrona. Dobiveni re...

  10. Estudio comparativo de los mapas forestales de España a escala 1:200.000, 1:50.000 y 1:25.000 para las principales especies forestales en Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Huerta, Diego

    2013-01-01

    El Mapa Forestal de España (MFE) es una herramienta fundamental en diversos campos relacionados con el medioambiente (incendios forestales, cambio climático, sumideros de CO2, usos de suelo y ordenación del territorio). Se analiza aquí la evolución en Galicia de la superficie de Castanea sativa, Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris y Quercus pyrenaica en los tres Mapas Forestales (MFE200, MFE50 y MFE25) disponibles en formato digital hoy en día, así como la evolución del estado de la masa de Pinu...

  11. Differences in crenate broomrape parasitism dynamics on three legume crops using a thermal time model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pérez-De-Luque

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Root parasitic weeds are a major limiting production factor in a number of crops, and control is difficult. Genetic resistance and chemical control lead the fight, but without unequivocal success. Models that help to describe and even predict the evolution of parasitism underground are a valuable tool for herbicide applications, and even could help in breeding programs. Legumes are heavily affected by Orobanche crenata (crenate broomrape in the Mediterranean basin. This work presents a descriptive model based on thermal time and correlating growing day-degrees (GDD with the different developmental stages of the parasite. The model was developed in three different legume crops (faba bean, grass pea and lentil attacked by crenate broomrape. The developmental stages of the parasite strongly correlated with the GDD and differences were found depending on the host crop.

  12. Physical properties of wood-polymer composites prepared by an electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, S.; Handa, T.; Fukuoka, M.; Hashizume, Y.; Nakamura, T.

    1981-01-01

    The dual characteristics in the performance of polymers in wood-polymer composites systems have been pursued with regard to the resolution of mechanical anisotropy of wood and the improvement in dimensional stability. The objective of the present study is to pursue the polymerization mechanism in wood under electron beam irradiation and the temperature dependence of polymer-wood interactions induced at various levels of higher order structure of wood in order to understand the polymer performance. Veneers used in the study were of rotary-cut beech (Fagus crenata Blume) 0.65 mm thick. All samples were oven-dried in vacuo at 80 0 C for 30 hr. The monomers used in the study were methyl methacrylate, styrene, acrylic acid, acrylonitrile, and unsaturated polyester. Experimental details are given. Results are given and discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis of wood. III. Pretreatment of woods with acidic methanol-water mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K; Usami, K

    1980-01-01

    Wood meal of Pinus densiflora (I) and Fagus crenata (II) was heated in aqueous methanol containing 0.1-0.6% HCl for 15-90 minutes at 120-170 degrees Centigrade to remove lignin and hydrolyse hemicelluloses. About 75% of the lignin could be removed from (I) and 90% from (II) under appropriate conditions. The cellulosic residues were hydrolysed with Trichoderma viride; it was necessary to remove more than 70% of the lignin from (I) and 80% from (II) for complete hydrolysis of the cellulose. Lignin was precipitated from the hydrolysis liquor by distilling off the methanol. The effects of composition of the MeOH-H/sub 2/O mixture, temperature, reaction time and HC1 concentration were studied.

  14. Revision of Bondariella Hustache & Bondar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with descriptions of the first species from the Amazon and notes on natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Roberta De Melo; Cordeiro Júnior, Mariano Brandão

    2015-09-15

    Bondariella Hustache & Bondar, 1942 is revised. In addition to the redescription of the genus and its four previously known species, we report and describe the first species from the Amazonian region: Bondariella rudicula sp. nov. and Bondariella crenata sp. nov. We also provide a key to the species, illustrations and notes on natural history. All six species of Bondariella have been collected on palm flowers from Brazil, with the previously known species having only been recorded from species of Syagrus Mart. from the Atlantic Forest and Caatinga biomes. The two new species have only been recorded from species of Euterpe Mart. from the Amazon biome. Future work may prove if the associations with Syagrus and Euterpe are specific to the biomes.

  15. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas popularmente utilizadas como antiúlceras e antiinflamatórias pela comunidade de Pirizal, Nossa Senhora do Livramento-MT, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyres Zínia Taveira de Jesus

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo proceder o levantamento etnobotânico das espécies vegetais utilizadas popularmente no Distrito de Pirizal - MT, no pantanal mato-grossense, como antiúlceras e antiinflamatórias. A entrevista aberta foi realizada através da aplicação de um roteiro base a 38 informantes adultos, na faixa etária de 25 a 75 anos. Indagou-se o nome popular das plantas, partes utilizadas, preparados e vias de administração, e realizou-se a revisão bibliográfica das plantas mais citadas no estudo, utilizando-se as bases de dados convencionais. Foram citadas 49 espécies pertencentes a 47 gêneros e 32 famílias, destacando-se a família Fabaceae. As plantas mais citadas simultaneamente como antiúlceras e antiinflamatórias foram Lafoensia pacari St. Hil. (9,2%, Hyptis crenata Pohl (8,8%, Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit (6,7%, Stachytarpheta cayenensis (L.C.Rich Vahl (5,8%, Waltheria indica L. (5%, Strychnos pseudoquina St. Hil. (4,2% e Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth. Ducke (3,3%. A parte da planta mais citada foi a folha (57,1%, a via de administração mais utilizada no tratamento das úlceras gástricas foi a oral (100%, com preferência para os chás (75%, enquanto nas inflamações foram os banhos tópicos (60%.. A revisão bibliográfica apontou a necessidade de aprofundar os estudos químico-farmacológicos para Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth. Ducke e Hyptis crenata Pohl.

  16. Morphological and genetic divergence between Agave inaequidens, A. cupreata and the domesticated A. hookeri. Analysis of their evolutionary relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen J Figueredo-Urbina

    Full Text Available Agave inaequidens and A. cupreata are wild species with some populations under incipient management, while A. hookeri is exclusively cultivated, used for producing the fermented beverage pulque. These species are closely related and sympatric members of the Crenatae group, but taxonomists have previously hypothesized that A. inaequidens is the most probable ancestor of A. hookeri. Our study aims at evaluating patterns of morphological and genetic divergence among populations of the three species, in order to analyze their ecological and possible evolutionary relationships. We studied 24 agave populations, 16 of them of Agave inaequidens, four of A. cupreata and four of A. hookeri. Population morphometric and genetics studies were performed using 39 morphological characters and 10 nuclear microsatellites, respectively. We estimated levels of morphological and genetic diversity and dissimilarity, as well as genetic structure and gene flow among populations and species. The three species were clearly differentiated by general plant size, lateral teeth, terminal spines, flowers and fruit size. The largest plants were those of A. hookeri followed by A. inaequidens and the smallest were A. cupreata. Multivariate analyses indicated greater morphological similarity between A. hookeri and cultivated A. inaequidens, while A. cupreata consistently appeared as a separate group. We identified similar levels of morphological diversity index (MDI in the three species, but higher genetic diversity in A. inaequidens (MDI = 0.401-0.435; HE = 0.704-0.733, than in A. cupreata (MDI = 0.455-0.523; HE = 0.480-0.510 and the predominantly vegetative propagated crop A. hookeri (MDI = 0.335-0.688; HE = 0.450-0.567, a pattern consistent with our expectations. The morphological and genetic similarities between cultivated A. inaequidens and A. hookeri support the hypothetical evolutionary relationships among these species, but studies with cpDNA and SNPs, and including other

  17. Morphological and genetic divergence between Agave inaequidens, A. cupreata and the domesticated A. hookeri. Analysis of their evolutionary relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo-Urbina, Carmen J; Casas, Alejandro; Torres-García, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Agave inaequidens and A. cupreata are wild species with some populations under incipient management, while A. hookeri is exclusively cultivated, used for producing the fermented beverage pulque. These species are closely related and sympatric members of the Crenatae group, but taxonomists have previously hypothesized that A. inaequidens is the most probable ancestor of A. hookeri. Our study aims at evaluating patterns of morphological and genetic divergence among populations of the three species, in order to analyze their ecological and possible evolutionary relationships. We studied 24 agave populations, 16 of them of Agave inaequidens, four of A. cupreata and four of A. hookeri. Population morphometric and genetics studies were performed using 39 morphological characters and 10 nuclear microsatellites, respectively. We estimated levels of morphological and genetic diversity and dissimilarity, as well as genetic structure and gene flow among populations and species. The three species were clearly differentiated by general plant size, lateral teeth, terminal spines, flowers and fruit size. The largest plants were those of A. hookeri followed by A. inaequidens and the smallest were A. cupreata. Multivariate analyses indicated greater morphological similarity between A. hookeri and cultivated A. inaequidens, while A. cupreata consistently appeared as a separate group. We identified similar levels of morphological diversity index (MDI) in the three species, but higher genetic diversity in A. inaequidens (MDI = 0.401-0.435; HE = 0.704-0.733), than in A. cupreata (MDI = 0.455-0.523; HE = 0.480-0.510) and the predominantly vegetative propagated crop A. hookeri (MDI = 0.335-0.688; HE = 0.450-0.567), a pattern consistent with our expectations. The morphological and genetic similarities between cultivated A. inaequidens and A. hookeri support the hypothetical evolutionary relationships among these species, but studies with cpDNA and SNPs, and including other member of the

  18. Molecular identification of broomrape species from a single seed by High Resolution Melting analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Rolland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Broomrapes are holoparasitic plants spreading through seeds. Each plant produces hundreds of thousands of seeds which remain viable in the soils for decades. To limit their spread, drastic measures are being taken and the contamination of a commercial seed lot by a single broomrape seed can lead to its rejection. Considering that broomrapes species identification from a single seed is extremely difficult even for trained botanists and that among all the described species, only a few are really noxious for the crops, numerous seed lots are rejected because of the contamination by seeds of non-noxious broomrape species. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a High Resolution Melting assay identifying the eight most noxious and common broomrape species (P. aegyptiaca, O. cernua, O. crenata, O. cumana, O. foetida, O. hederae, O. minor, and P. ramosa from a single seed. Based on trnL and rbcL plastidial genes amplification, the designed assay successfully identifies O. cumana, O. cernua, O. crenata, O. minor, O. hederae, and O. foetida; P. ramosa and P. aegyptiaca can be differentiated from other species but not from each other. Tested on 50 seed lots, obtained results perfectly matched identifications performed by sequencing. Through the analysis of common seed lots by different analysts, the reproducibility of the assay was evaluated at 90 %. Despite an original sample preparation process it was not possible to extract enough DNA from some seeds (10% of the samples. The described assay fulfils its objectives and allows an accurate identification of the targeted broomrape species. It can be used to identify contaminants in commercial seed lots or for any other purpose. The assay might be extended to vegetative material.

  19. Ryecyanatines A and B and ryecarbonitrilines A and B, substituted cyanatophenol, cyanatobenzo[1,3]dioxole, and benzo[1,3]dioxolecarbonitriles from rye (Secale cereale L.) root exudates: Novel metabolites with allelopathic activity on Orobanche seed germination and radicle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Avolio, Fabiana; Yoneyama, Koichi; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche and Phelipanche species (the broomrapes) are root parasitic plants, some of which represent serious weed problems causing heavy yield losses on important crops. Current control relies on the use of certain agronomic practices, resistant crop varieties, and herbicides, albeit success has been marginal. Agronomic practices such as the use of allelopathic species in intercropping or cover crops, or the use of direct seedling over residues of allelopathic species incorporate the principle of allelopathy exerted by molecules exuded from roots or released by crop residues to control broomrapes. In addition, the isolation of natural substances from root exudates of plants with potential to inhibit broomrape development opens the door to the design of new herbicides based on natural and benign sources. Ryecyanatines A and B and ryecarbonitrilines A and B, the first new substituted cyanatophenol, substituted cyanatobenzo[1,3]dioxole, and the latter two new substituted benzo[1,3]dioxolecarbonitriles were isolated from rye (Secale cereale L.) root exudates. They were characterized as 4-cyanato-2-methoxyphenol, 2-cyanato-benzo[1,3]dioxole, 2-methoxybenzo[1,3]dioxole-5-carbonitrile and benzo[1,3]dioxole-2-carbonitrile by spectroscopic (essentially NMR and HRESI MS spectra) methods. These compounds were investigated for allelopathic activity on Orobanche germination and development. Ryecarbonitriline A induced germination of Orobanche cumana seeds, and this germination can be considered as suicidal because O. cumana does not parasite rye roots and cannot survive without host resources beyond germination stage. In addition, ryecyanatine A promotes a rapid cessation of O. cumana, Orobanche crenata and Orobanche minor radicle growth with the promotion of a layer of papillae at the radicle tip in O. cumana and O. crenata hampering the contact of the parasite to the host. Ryecarbonitriline B also displayed the same activity although being less active than ryecyanatine A and

  20. Cranial and mandibular shape variation in the genus Carollia (Mammalia: Chiroptera from Colombia: biogeographic patterns and morphological modularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo López-Aguirre

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neotropical bats of the genus Carollia are widely studied due to their abundance, distribution and relevance for ecosystems. However, the ecomorphological boundaries of these species are poorly differentiated, and consequently correspondence between their geographic distribution, ecological plasticity and morphological variation remains unclear. In this study, patterns of cranial and mandibular morphological variation were assessed for Carollia brevicauda, C. castanea and C. perspicillata from Colombia. Using geometric morphometrics, morphological variation was examined with respect to: differences in intraspecific variation, morphological modularity and integration, and biogeographic patterns. Patterns of intraspecific variation were different for each species in both cranial and mandibular morphology, with functional differences apparent according to diet. Cranial modularity varied between species whereas mandibular modularity did not. High cranial and mandibular correlation reflects Cranium-Mandible integration as a functional unit. Similarity between the biogeographic patterns in C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata indicates that the Andes do not act as a barrier but rather as an independent region, isolating the morphology of Andean populations of larger-bodied species. The biogeographic pattern for C. castanea was not associated with the physiography of the Andes, suggesting that large body size does not benefit C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata in maintaining homogeneous morphologies among populations.

  1. Cranial and mandibular shape variation in the genus Carollia (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Colombia: biogeographic patterns and morphological modularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aguirre, Camilo; Pérez-Torres, Jairo; Wilson, Laura A B

    2015-01-01

    Neotropical bats of the genus Carollia are widely studied due to their abundance, distribution and relevance for ecosystems. However, the ecomorphological boundaries of these species are poorly differentiated, and consequently correspondence between their geographic distribution, ecological plasticity and morphological variation remains unclear. In this study, patterns of cranial and mandibular morphological variation were assessed for Carollia brevicauda, C. castanea and C. perspicillata from Colombia. Using geometric morphometrics, morphological variation was examined with respect to: differences in intraspecific variation, morphological modularity and integration, and biogeographic patterns. Patterns of intraspecific variation were different for each species in both cranial and mandibular morphology, with functional differences apparent according to diet. Cranial modularity varied between species whereas mandibular modularity did not. High cranial and mandibular correlation reflects Cranium-Mandible integration as a functional unit. Similarity between the biogeographic patterns in C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata indicates that the Andes do not act as a barrier but rather as an independent region, isolating the morphology of Andean populations of larger-bodied species. The biogeographic pattern for C. castanea was not associated with the physiography of the Andes, suggesting that large body size does not benefit C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata in maintaining homogeneous morphologies among populations.

  2. The Palaeoenvironmental Impact of Prehistoric Settlement and Proto-Historic Urbanism: Tracing the Emergence of the Oppidum of Corent, Auvergne, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, Paul M.; Miras, Yannick; Poux, Matthieu; Milcent, Pierre Yves

    2015-01-01

    Early human societies and their interactions with the natural world have been extensively explored in palaeoenvironmental studies across Central and Western Europe. Yet, despite an extensive body of scholarship, there is little consideration of the environmental impacts of proto-historic urbanisation. Typically palaeoenvironmental studies of Bronze and Iron Age societies discuss human impact in terms of woodland clearance, landscape openness and evidence for agriculture. Although these features are clearly key indicators of human settlement, and characterise Neolithic and early to Middle Bronze Age impacts at Corent, they do not appear to represent defining features of a protohistoric urban environment. The Late Iron Age Gallic Oppidum of Corent is remarkable for the paucity of evidence for agriculture and strong representation of apophytes associated with disturbance. Increased floristic diversity – a phenomenon also observed in more recent urban environments – was also noted. The same, although somewhat more pronounced, patterns are noted for the Late Bronze Age and hint at the possibility of a nascent urban area. High percentages of pollen from non-native trees such as Platanus, Castanea and Juglans in the late Bronze Age and Gallic period also suggest trade and cultural exchange, notably with the Mediterranean world. Indeed, these findings question the validity of applying Castanea and Juglans as absolute chronological markers of Romanisation. These results clearly indicate the value of local-scale palaeoecological studies and their potential for tracing the phases in the emergence of a proto-historic urban environment. PMID:25853251

  3. The palaeoenvironmental impact of prehistoric settlement and proto-historic urbanism: tracing the emergence of the Oppidum of Corent, Auvergne, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, Paul M; Miras, Yannick; Poux, Matthieu; Milcent, Pierre Yves

    2015-01-01

    Early human societies and their interactions with the natural world have been extensively explored in palaeoenvironmental studies across Central and Western Europe. Yet, despite an extensive body of scholarship, there is little consideration of the environmental impacts of proto-historic urbanisation. Typically palaeoenvironmental studies of Bronze and Iron Age societies discuss human impact in terms of woodland clearance, landscape openness and evidence for agriculture. Although these features are clearly key indicators of human settlement, and characterise Neolithic and early to Middle Bronze Age impacts at Corent, they do not appear to represent defining features of a protohistoric urban environment. The Late Iron Age Gallic Oppidum of Corent is remarkable for the paucity of evidence for agriculture and strong representation of apophytes associated with disturbance. Increased floristic diversity - a phenomenon also observed in more recent urban environments - was also noted. The same, although somewhat more pronounced, patterns are noted for the Late Bronze Age and hint at the possibility of a nascent urban area. High percentages of pollen from non-native trees such as Platanus, Castanea and Juglans in the late Bronze Age and Gallic period also suggest trade and cultural exchange, notably with the Mediterranean world. Indeed, these findings question the validity of applying Castanea and Juglans as absolute chronological markers of Romanisation. These results clearly indicate the value of local-scale palaeoecological studies and their potential for tracing the phases in the emergence of a proto-historic urban environment.

  4. The palaeoenvironmental impact of prehistoric settlement and proto-historic urbanism: tracing the emergence of the Oppidum of Corent, Auvergne, France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Ledger

    Full Text Available Early human societies and their interactions with the natural world have been extensively explored in palaeoenvironmental studies across Central and Western Europe. Yet, despite an extensive body of scholarship, there is little consideration of the environmental impacts of proto-historic urbanisation. Typically palaeoenvironmental studies of Bronze and Iron Age societies discuss human impact in terms of woodland clearance, landscape openness and evidence for agriculture. Although these features are clearly key indicators of human settlement, and characterise Neolithic and early to Middle Bronze Age impacts at Corent, they do not appear to represent defining features of a protohistoric urban environment. The Late Iron Age Gallic Oppidum of Corent is remarkable for the paucity of evidence for agriculture and strong representation of apophytes associated with disturbance. Increased floristic diversity - a phenomenon also observed in more recent urban environments - was also noted. The same, although somewhat more pronounced, patterns are noted for the Late Bronze Age and hint at the possibility of a nascent urban area. High percentages of pollen from non-native trees such as Platanus, Castanea and Juglans in the late Bronze Age and Gallic period also suggest trade and cultural exchange, notably with the Mediterranean world. Indeed, these findings question the validity of applying Castanea and Juglans as absolute chronological markers of Romanisation. These results clearly indicate the value of local-scale palaeoecological studies and their potential for tracing the phases in the emergence of a proto-historic urban environment.

  5. Purified phenolics from hydrothermal treatments of biomass: ability to protect sunflower bulk oil and model food emulsions from oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Enma; Moure, Andrés; Domínguez, Herminia; Gordon, Michael H; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2011-09-14

    The phenolic fractions released during hydrothermal treatment of selected feedstocks (corn cobs, eucalypt wood chips, almond shells, chestnut burs, and white grape pomace) were selectively recovered by extraction with ethyl acetate and washed with ethanol/water solutions. The crude extracts were purified by a relatively simple adsorption technique using a commercial polymeric, nonionic resin. Utilization of 96% ethanol as eluting agent resulted in 47.0-72.6% phenolic desorption, yielding refined products containing 49-60% w/w phenolics (corresponding to 30-58% enrichment with respect to the crude extracts). The refined extracts produced from grape pomace and from chestnut burs were suitable for protecting bulk oil and oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions. A synergistic action with bovine serum albumin in the emulsions was observed.

  6. Development of sample preparation method for honey analysis using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Katsumi; Chiba, Keiko; Sera, Koichiro

    2008-01-01

    We developed an original preparation method for honey samples (samples in paste-like state) specifically designed for PIXE analysis. The results of PIXE analysis of thin targets prepared by adding a standard containing nine elements to honey samples demonstrated that the preparation method bestowed sufficient accuracy on quantitative values. PIXE analysis of 13 kinds of honey was performed, and eight mineral components (Si, P, S, K, Ca, Mn, Cu and Zn) were detected in all honey samples. The principal mineral components were K and Ca, and the quantitative value for K accounted for the majority of the total value for mineral components. K content in honey varies greatly depending on the plant source. Chestnuts had the highest K content. In fact, it was 2-3 times that of Manuka, which is known as a high quality honey. K content of false-acacia, which is produced in the greatest abundance, was 1/20 that of chestnuts. (author)

  7. Effet de l'addition des tannins de châtaigniers sur la rétention azotée et la digestibilité chez les ruminants ingérant des produits herbagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriaa, S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Influence of the Addition of Extract of Chestnut Tannin on the Nitrogen Balance and the Digestibility of Fresh Grass in Ruminant. The use of chestnut tannin (CT (hydrolysable Tannins, added at a low concentration (4 g CT/100 g of total nitrogen (TN = 0, 8 g cT/kg of DM distribute to a grass forage for growing sheep, improves the N retention (P <0, 01. The improvement of N retention is explained by the decrease of nitrogen in the urine, indicating a better use of absorbed nitrogen. Moreover, the addition at these low concentrations of CT to fresh grass does not alter neither the digestibility of its constituents (OM, TN, ADF nor the rate of ingestion.

  8. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed

  9. Accelerated Aging of the Traditional Greek Distillate Tsipouro Using Wooden Chips. Part I: Effect of Static Maceration vs. Ultrasonication on the Polyphenol Extraction and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Taloumi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Greek traditional grape marc distillate Tsipouro was subjected to accelerated aging, using wooden chips from acacia, cherry, chestnut and oak wood. The processes included treatments under static maceration and ultrasonication and the evolution of the total polyphenol concentration was monitored over a period of 30 days. During this period, leaching of polyphenols from the chips into the distillate was found to obey first-order kinetics, but no statistical differences were shown between the two treatments regarding the enrichment of the liquid in polyphenolic substances. The determination of the antioxidant activity demonstrated that aging with chestnut chips may provide Tsipouro with particularly strong radical scavenging and reducing effects, highlighting its importance as a material that could be used to turn distillates into foods with functional properties.

  10. Influence of aging conditions on the quality of red Sangiovese wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellari, M; Piermattei, B; Arfelli, G; Amati, A

    2001-08-01

    A red Sangiovese wine was stored in barrels of different woods (oak and chestnut) and types (225-L "barriques" and 1000-L barrels) at 12 and 22 degrees C for 320 days to evaluate the effects of different aging conditions on wine quality. Chestnut barrels led to wines richer in phenolics, and which were more tannic, colored, and fruity. Oak barrels gave wines with more monomeric phenolics, but less astringent, with higher vanilla smell, and more harmonious. The type of barrel could be used as a parameter to regulate the extraction of wood components and the polymerization of monomeric phenolics. Storage at 22 degrees C favored the formation of polymerized phenolics and the increase of color density and color hue. The temperature produced less pronounced effects on aroma and taste, even if wines stored at 12 degrees C showed more harmony.

  11. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T. [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1986-03-15

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed.

  12. Radionuclides in plants in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, D.; Ajtic, J.; Popovic, D.; Nikolic, J.

    2009-01-01

    The results of a long-term study (from 2002 to 2008) on the concentrations of natural ( 7 Be, 210 Pb, 40 K) and fission ( 137 Cs) radionuclides in leaves of higher plants (linden and chestnut) in an urban area (city of Belgrade) are presented. The activity of the radionuclides was determined on an HPGe detector by standard gamma spectrometry. The study is a part of the ongoing air quality monitoring programme in urban areas in the Republic of Serbia. (author) [sr

  13. Evaluation of the original dose in irradiated dried fruit by EPR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Oca, Maria Cristina, E-mail: mcristina.doca@unipa.it [Dipartimento Farmacochimico, Tossicologico e Biologico, Universita di Palermo, via Archirafi 32, 90123 Palermo (Italy); Bartolotta, Antonio [Dipartimento Farmacochimico, Tossicologico e Biologico, Universita di Palermo, via Archirafi 32, 90123 Palermo (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    The electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) is one of the physical methods, recommended by the European Committee for Standardization, for the identification of irradiated food containing cellulose, such as dried fruit. In this work the applicability of EPR as identification method of irradiated pistachios, hazelnuts, peanuts, chestnuts, pumpkin seeds is evaluated; the time stability of the radiation induced signal is studied and the single aliquot additive dose method is used to evaluate the dose in the product.

  14. Evaluation of the original dose in irradiated dried fruit by EPR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Oca, Maria Cristina; Bartolotta, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) is one of the physical methods, recommended by the European Committee for Standardization, for the identification of irradiated food containing cellulose, such as dried fruit. In this work the applicability of EPR as identification method of irradiated pistachios, hazelnuts, peanuts, chestnuts, pumpkin seeds is evaluated; the time stability of the radiation induced signal is studied and the single aliquot additive dose method is used to evaluate the dose in the product.

  15. Biological Control of the Invasive Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae - an Overview and the First Trials in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka Matošević

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Dryocosmus kuriphilus is a globally invasive insect pest, spreading very quickly in new habitats and making serious damage to sweet chestnut forests in Croatia and in several other European countries. Indigenous parasitoid species trophically associated with oak gallwasps have adapted to this new host but cannot effectively regulate its population density. Classical biological control using parasitoid Torymus sinensis has been proven to be the only effective method of controlling the populations of D. kuriphilus and has been successfully applied in Japan, South Korea, the USA and Italy. The aim of this review paper is to provide overview and up-to date knowledge about biological control of D. kurphilus and to describe first steps of introduction of T. sinensis to sweet chestnut forests in Croatia. Conclusions and Future Prospects: Results presented in this paper show adapted biology and behavioural traits of T. sinensis to its host D. kuriphilus. The history and results of introductions of T. sinensis to Japan, the USA, Italy, France and Hungary are shown. The first report of release of T. sinensis to sweet chestnut forests in Croatia is given with discussion on native parasitoids attacking D. kuriphilus. Possible negative effects of T. sinensis on native parasitoid fauna and risks that could influence the successful establishment of T. sinensis in Croatia are discussed. Previous experiences have shown that T. sinensis can successfully control the population density of D. kuriphilus, slowing down the spread and mitigating negative impact of this invasive chestnut pest and keeping the damage of D. kuriphilus at acceptable level. High specificity of T. sinensis suggests that it has limited potential of exploiting native hosts but further detailed monitoring of native parasitoid and possible interactions with introduced T. sinensis is strongly suggested.

  16. Installation Assessment of Headquarters, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC and Noncontiguous Sections Forest Glen, Silver Spring, Maryland and Glen Haven, Wheaton, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    tulipifera), smoothbark hickories (Carya sp.), and occasional chestnut oak (Q. prinus), scarlet oak (Q. coccinea), scrub pine ( Pinus virginiana), and pitch...Hydroxylbenzoate 1 lb 1 lb methyl P Hydroxybenzoate 1 lb 100 gms calcium chloride, injectable cc 8 epinephrine injectiable cc 9 boxes S0 polyethylmethaexylate 5...of lssue Quantity Chemical /concentration gal. can 2½ gal methyl methacrylate, 35 pp. BHT liquid pint 6 pints benzene pound I pound phenol, USP 4 oz

  17. Разработка технологии получения сухого экстракта семян конского каштана обыкновенного (Aesculus hippocastanum L. ) и его стандартизация

    OpenAIRE

    О.Г. Жарова; Т.Б. Шемерянкина; Т.А. Сокольская; А.А. Савина,

    2008-01-01

    The plants of Aesculus genus (Family Hippocastanaceae) have attracted much interests of phytochemists for many years due to the discovery of triterpene glycosides — escin with extraordinary antiinflammatory activity from horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) seeds and the successful applications of its seeds extract for treatment of peripheral chronic venous insufficiency now. The powdered seeds (with reduction range 3 mm) were extracted three times with 70% (v/v) aqueous EtOH under refl...

  18. Determination of neonicotinoid pesticides residues in agricultural samples by solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Han, Chao; Qian, Yan; Ding, Huiying; Chen, Xiaomei; Xi, Junyang

    2011-07-15

    This work reports a new sensitive multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for detection, confirmation and quantification of six neonicotinoid pesticides (dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, clothiandin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiacloprid) in agricultural samples (chestnut, shallot, ginger and tea). Activated carbon and HLB solid-phase extraction cartridges were used for cleaning up the extracts. Analysis is performed by LC-MS/MS operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, acquiring two specific precursor-product ion transitions per target compound. Quantification was carried by the internal standard method with D(4)-labeled imidacloprid. The method showed excellent linearity (R(2)≥0.9991) and precision (relative standard deviation, RSD≤8.6%) for all compounds. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.01 mg kg(-1) for chestnut, shallot, ginger sample and 0.02 mg kg(-1) for tea sample. The average recoveries, measured at three concentrations levels (0.01 mg kg(-1), 0.02 mg kg(-1) and 0.1 mg kg(-1) for chestnut, shallot, ginger sample, 0.02 mg kg(-1), 0.04 mg kg(-1) and 0.2 mg kg(-1) for tea sample), were in the range 82.1-108.5%. The method was satisfactorily validated for the analysis of 150 agricultural samples (chestnut, shallot, ginger and tea). Imidacloprid and acetamiprid were detected at concentration levels ranging from 0.05 to 3.6 mg kg(-1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autoecologı´a de los castan ˜ares de Castilla (Espan˜a) (au- toecology of Chestnut Tree Forest in Castilla,. Spain). Investigacio´nAgraria: Sistemas de. RecursosForestales 11 (2): 373–393. Sa´nchez, P. O., Rubio, A., Blanco, A., Elena,. R and Go´mez, V., (2003). Autoecologı ´a parame´trica de los hayedos de CastillayLeo´n.

  20. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2000 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant that will be managed by tie Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2000 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant GWPP during CY 2000 will comply with: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (SWDF); and DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring. Some of the data collected for these monitoring drivers also will be used to meet monitoring requirements of the Integrated Water Quality Program, which is managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC. Data from five wells that are monitored for SWDF purposes in the Chestnut Ridge Regime will be used to comply with requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act post closure permit regarding corrective action monitoring. Modifications to the CY 2000 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in regulatory or programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  1. The War Horse: A Bibliography of Periodical Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    breeding," AMCAVJ, 55:62, Nov 1946. 10. "Artillery, Chestnut Stallion , 16 hands, 7 years old; weight, 1100 lbs.," FAJ, 1:51, Apr 1911. 11. "The...Licart. "The Barb ," CAVJ, 38:559-579, 1929. 142. McClure, Albert N. "Military horses in General and Cavalry Horses in Particular," CAVJ, 24:567-573

  2. National Dam Safety Program. Seeley’s Pond Dam (NJ00368) Raritan River Basin, Blue Brook, Union County, New Jersey. Phase I Inspection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Engineer District, Philadelphia Custom House, 2d & Chestnut Streets Unclassified Philadelphia, PA 19106 ISo . OECLASSIFICATION/OOWNGRADING SCHEDULE Is...57. ... 81. 49 206.0 - 1.02 3.00 81 27000 54a 75. 48. 206.0 1o02 3.20 82 27.33 50. 700 4?0 205.9 1.02 3*04 83 27.67 470 65. 47. 205.9 :.02 4*00

  3. The first record of entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) on the hibernating pupae of Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, Rostislav; Prenerová, E.; Weyda, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, suppl. 1 (2007), s. 135-136 ISSN 1738-2297. [International Congress of Insect Biotechnology and Industry. 19.08.2007-24.08.2007, Daegu] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : horse chestnut leaf-miner * entomopathogenic fungi * biological control Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. Mathematical modelling of agrochemical use of deposits of sewage of Semey city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolyov, A.N.; Ismailova, I.K.

    2008-01-01

    Deposits of sewage of a city of Semey are investigated. Deposits differ high concentration of heavy metals. In all deposits very high concentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, chrome are found out. For the economy, engaged active agriculture on dark-chestnut soils with a view of increase of crops on intensive technologies it is possible to recommend entering Deposits of sewage Open Company 'Semgorvodokanal' the next 10 years in the doses which are not exceeding 0,27 t/hectares year.

  5. Occurrence of Elymnias obnubila Marshall and de Nicéville, 1883 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in southern Mizoram: Range extension of the species and an addition to the Indian butterfly fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kunte

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a recent sighting of the Chestnut Palmfly Butterfly, Elymnias obnubila Marshall & de Nicéville, 1883 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae from Ngenpui Wildlife Sanctuary in southern Mizoram. It represents a range extension of the species by 1,500km north of its previously known range in southern Myanmar and Thailand, and an addition to the Indian butterfly fauna.

  6. Modeling of Thermal Treatment of Hazardous Solid Wastes in a DC Arc Melter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Ashley; Farouk, Bakhtier; Wittle, Kenneth

    1996-12-01

    Ashley Wenger is a graduate student in the Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics (MEM) Department at Drexel University. Dr. Bakhtier Farouk is a professor in the MEM Department at Drexel University, 32nd and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Dr. J. Kenneth Wittle is the vice president of Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc., Suite 1118, 996 Old Eagle School Road, Wayne, PA 19087. Please address all correspondence to Dr. Bakhtier Farouk.

  7. Sampling and analysis plan for groundwater and surface water monitoring at the Y-12 Plant during calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 1995 at the Department of Energy Y-12 Plant. Included in this plan are the monitoring activities managed by the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization through the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Other groundwater and surface water monitoring activities (e.g. selected Environmental Restoration Program activities, National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) monitoring) not managed through the Y-12 Plant GWPP are not addressed in this report. Several monitoring programs will be implemented in three hydrogeologic regimes: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located within Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant. For various reasons, modifications to the 1995 monitoring programs may be necessary during implementation. For example, changes in regulatory requirements may alter the parameters specified for selected wells, or wells could be added to or deleted from the monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring programs will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  8. Monitoring wine aging with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basalekou Marianthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oak wood has commonly been used in wine aging but recently other wood types such as Acacia and Chestnut, have attracted the interest of the researchers due to their possible positive contribution to wine quality. However, only the use of oak and chestnut woods is approved by the International Enological Codex of the International Organisation of Vine and Wine. In this study Fourier Transform (FT-mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with Discriminant Analysis was used to differentiate wines aged in barrels made from French oak, American oak, Acacia and Chestnut and in tanks with oak chips, over a period of 12 months. Two red (Mandilaria, Kotsifali and two white (Vilana, Dafni native Greek grape varieties where used to produce four wines. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectra of the samples were recorded on a Zinc Selenide (ZnSe window after incubation at 40 °C for 30 min. A complete differentiation of the samples according to both the type of wood used and the contact time was achieved based on their FT-IR spectra.

  9. Use of Soy Flour-Tannin Adhesive for Particleboard (Dry Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Ghahri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research soy flour- tannin adhesives were used in particleboard preparation, successfully. Tow type of different tannins Mimosa (as condensed tannin and Chestnut (as hydrolysable tannins were used for soy resin modification. For this purpose, mimosa and chestnut tannin were added to soy adhesive with 5, 10 and 15 percent based on dry weight of soy flour. 9 percent Glyoxal was used based on dry weight of tannin for accelerate tannin reaction’s with soyflour components. Prepared soy-tannin adhesives were used in particle board manufacturing with 350×300×14 mm3 dimansion and 0.7 g/cm3 nominal density. Results of viscosity measurment showed that addition of each of tannins decreased visocosity of soy adhesive. In this study, result of thermo-mechanical analyze indicated that chestnut cloud improve adhesion behavior of soy adhesive better than mimosa. Also, Using of tannins in soy adhesive composition increase internal bonding and bending properties in manufactured particleboards.

  10. Sensory profiling and consumer acceptability of new dark cocoa bars containing Tuscan autochthonous food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantini, Claudio; Salusti, Patrizia; Romi, Marco; Francini, Alessandra; Sebastiani, Luca

    2018-03-01

    A new set of cocoa bars named Toscolata ® were developed containing top-quality extra virgin olive oil, dried apples cultivars, and chestnut flour. The present work has been conducted to define the sensory profile of these products through tasting by trained experts and consumers to study the acceptability, preference, and quality perception. The four sensorial profiles of the bars differed in the level of persistence, bitterness, aromaticity, acidity, astringency, and tastiness. In particular, the sour attribute could be traced to the presence of dried apple. Bars containing apple and chestnut flour obtained higher acceptance ratings, compared to those with extra virgin olive oil. The bar with chestnut flour was preferred by consumers who considered it to be sweeter due to the presence of natural sugars, which lowered the bitter sensation of cocoa. These results showed that the selection of the preferred bar by consumers was mainly based on the level of bitterness and, in particular, elderly consumers expressed a strong preference for the sweetest product. As far as we know, this is the first study comparing the results of a panel of expert tasters with that of consumers in the tasting of dark chocolate.

  11. Calendar Year 2007 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Annual Monitoring Report for the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - RCRA Post-Closure Permit Nos. TNHW-113, TNHW-116, and TNHW-128

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental

    2008-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 2007 at the following hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units located at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; this S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm, Bear Creek Burial Grounds/Walk-In Pits (BCBG/WIP), Eastern S-3 Site Plume, Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP), Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Baste (CRSDB), few Hollow Quarry (KHQ), and East Chestnut Ridge Waste Pile (ECRWP). Hit monitoring data were obtained in accordance with the applicable Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) hazardous waste post-closure permit (PCP). The Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) - Division of Solid Waste Management issued the PCPs to define the requirements for RCRA post-closure inspection, maintenance, and groundwater monitoring at the specified TSD units located within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (PCP no. TNHW-116), Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (PCP no. TNHW-113), and Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (PCP no. TNHW-128). Each PCP requires the Submittal of an annual RCRA groundwater monitoring report containing the groundwater sampling information and analytical results obtained at each applicable TSD unit during the preceding CY, along with an evaluation of groundwater low rates and directions and the analytical results for specified RCRA groundwater target compounds; this report is the RCRA annual groundwater monitoring report for CY 2007. The RCRA post-closure groundwater monitoring requirements specified in the above-referenced PCP for the Chestnut Ridge Regime replace those defined in the previous PCP (permit no. TNHW-088), which expired on September 18, 2005, but remained effective until the TDEC issued the new PCP in September 2006. The new PCP defines site-specific groundwater sampling and analysis requirements for the

  12. [Control of Soil Nutrient Loss of Typical Reforestation Patterns Along the Three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Huang, Zhi-lin; Xiao, Wen-fa; Zeng, Li-xiong

    2015-10-01

    Annual soil nutrient loss characteristics on typical reforestation patterns in watershed along the Three Gorges Reservoir Area were studied based on runoff plot experiment. Runoff and sediment nutrition content from May to October 2014 of typical reforestation patterns including garden plot (tea garden), forest land (Chinese chestnut) and the original slope farmland were determined and then analyzed. The results showed that: (1) After the Returning Farmland to Forest Project the quantity of annual soil nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus, the sum of them in sediment and runoff) loss decreased. The output of total nitrogen (TN) was in the order of slope farmland (2 444.27 g x hm(-2)) > tea garden (998.70 g x hm(-2)) > Chinese chestnut forest (532.61 g x hm(-2)), and for total phosphorus (TP) loss was slope farmland (1 690.48 g x hm(-2)) > tea garden (488.06 g x hm(-2)) > Chinese chestnut forest (129.00 g x hm(-2)) . Compared with slope farmland, the load of TN and TP output of reforestation patterns decreased 68.68% and 81.75%, respectively. (2) Compared with slope farmland, available nitrogen loss decreased in reforestation patterns. Total nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) loss ranked in the order of slope farmland (113.79 g x hm(-2)) > tea garden (73.75 g x hm(-2)) > Chinese chestnut forest (56.06 g x hm(-2)) The largest amount of ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) was found in tea garden (69.34 g x hm(-2)), then in farmland (52.45 g x hm(-2)), and the least in Chinese chestnut forest (47.23 g x hm(-2)). (3) The main route of NO3(-)-N and NH4(+)-N loss was both through runoff, the quantity of NO3(-)-N and NH4(+)-N output in which accounted for 91.4% and 92.2% of the total, respectively. The quantity of TN and TP in sediment accounted for 86.6% and 98.4% of the total. TN and TP loss showed an extremely significant correlation with sediments, which showed that sediment output was the main approach of TN and TP loss.

  13. Comparison between mycocenosis living in forest of Cestnut reforested with Douglas Fir; Confronto tra micocenosi presenti nei boschi di latifoglie e rimboschimenti di Douglasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreotti, A.; Serra, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brasimone, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Dalla Valle, E.; Govi, G. [Bologna, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Protezione e Valorizzazione Agroalimentare. Centro di Micologia

    1997-05-01

    In this technical report the results of a first mycological research carried out from 1989 to 1990 in Brasimone in the high Bolognan Appennines (Northern Italy) are shown. The study was taken up by making a comparison between the fungus community living in forest plots with different vegetation; in particular, the mycocenosis of plots reforested with Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga (Mirb.) Franco) with those of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Cestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) woods were compared. The results show that the specific richness clearly decreases form mixed broad-leaved forest (90 species) to the mono specific plantation of P. menziesii (41 species). Particularly in the artificial plantation with exotic trees, there are few symbiont species while the saprophytic wood and litter fungi abound in relationship with the large bulk of undecomposed vegetable material present in these habitats.

  14. Melissopalynological and volatile analysis of honeys from Corsican Arbutus unedo habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yin; Battesti, Marie-José; Costa, Jean; Paolini, Julien

    2014-10-01

    Thirty Corsican "autumn maquis" honeys were characterized by the typical combination of autumnal taxa: Arbutus unedo, Hedera helix, Smilax aspera, Rosmarinus officinalis, and two Asteraceae pollen forms. Corsican origin was characterized by the diversity of the taxa's biogeographical origins and significant presence of Castanea sativa and Quercus sp. Volatile fractions of "autumn maquis" honeys were dominated by isophorone and 3,4,5-trimethylphenol. The latter is reported in A. unedo honey for the first time. Otherwise, both A. unedo flower and "autumn maquis" honeys exhibited high contents of isophorone derivatives. H. helix honey exhibited phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl nitrile, 3-hydroxy-4-phenylbutan-2-one and nonanal as major compounds, which were scarcely represented in the studied "autumn maquis" honey samples.

  15. The use of tree-rings and foliage as an archive of volcanogenic cation deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, Sebastian F.L. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sebastian.watt@earth.ox.ac.uk; Pyle, David M. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); Mather, Tamsin A. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); Day, Jason A. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); Aiuppa, Alessandro [CFTA - Dipt. Chimica e Fisica della Terra e Applicazioni alle Georisorse, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    Tree cores (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio) and leaves (Castanea sativa) from the flanks of Mount Etna, Sicily were analysed by ICP-MS to investigate whether volcanogenic cations within plant material provide an archive of a volcano's temporal and spatial depositional influence. There is significant compositional variability both within and between trees, but no systematic dendrochemical correlation with periods of effusive, explosive or increased degassing activity. Dendrochemistry does not provide a record of persistent but fluctuating volcanic activity. Foliar levels of bioaccumulated cations correspond to modelled plume transport patterns, and map short-term volcanic fumigation. Around the flanks of the volcano foliar variation is greater for volatile cations (Cs, Cd, Pb) than for lithophilic cations (Ba, Sr), consistent with trace-metal supply from volcanic aerosol during quiescent periods. - Dendrochemistry does not provide an archive of persistent volcanic activity.

  16. The use of tree-rings and foliage as an archive of volcanogenic cation deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, Sebastian F.L.; Pyle, David M.; Mather, Tamsin A.; Day, Jason A.; Aiuppa, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Tree cores (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio) and leaves (Castanea sativa) from the flanks of Mount Etna, Sicily were analysed by ICP-MS to investigate whether volcanogenic cations within plant material provide an archive of a volcano's temporal and spatial depositional influence. There is significant compositional variability both within and between trees, but no systematic dendrochemical correlation with periods of effusive, explosive or increased degassing activity. Dendrochemistry does not provide a record of persistent but fluctuating volcanic activity. Foliar levels of bioaccumulated cations correspond to modelled plume transport patterns, and map short-term volcanic fumigation. Around the flanks of the volcano foliar variation is greater for volatile cations (Cs, Cd, Pb) than for lithophilic cations (Ba, Sr), consistent with trace-metal supply from volcanic aerosol during quiescent periods. - Dendrochemistry does not provide an archive of persistent volcanic activity

  17. AMS radiocarbon dating of wood trunks in the pumiceous deposits of the Kikai-Akahoya eruption in Yakushima Island, SW Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Toshio; Geshi, Nobuo; Kimura, Katsuhiko; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was performed on numerous wood trunks from pumiceous deposits along the Nagata, Isso and Miyanoura rivers on the northern side of Yakushima Island, 60 km south of Kyushu Island. The obtained 14C dates were around 6.5 ka BP, which, in combination with the geological characteristics of the pumiceous deposits indicates that these specimens were buried during the Kikai-Akahoya (K-Ah) eruption from the Kikai caldera. However, the fact that they are not charred suggests that the origin of these deposits are not pyroclastic flows. Fourteen taxa (Pinus subgen. Diploxylon, Tsuga, Cryptomeria, Chamaecyparis, Myrica, Castanea, Castanopsis, Quercus subgen. Cyclobalanopsis, Trochodendron, Phellodendron, Lagerstroemia, Rhododendron, Myrsine and Symplocos) were identified through anatomical characteristics. This is the first discovery of forest species on the Yakushima Island before the devastating eruption.

  18. AMS radiocarbon dating of wood trunks in the pumiceous deposits of the Kikai-Akahoya eruption in Yakushima Island, SW Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Mitsuru, E-mail: okuno@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth System Science, Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, 814-0180 Fukuoka (Japan); AIG Collaborative Research Institute for International Study on Eruptive History and Informatics, Fukuoka University, 814-0180 Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, 464-8602 Nagoya (Japan); Geshi, Nobuo [Geological Survey of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, 305-8567 Tsukuba (Japan); Kimura, Katsuhiko [Division of Environment System Management, Faculty of Symbiotic System Science, Fukushima University, 960-1296 Fukushima (Japan); Saito-Kokubu, Yoko [Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 959-31 Jorinji, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan); Kobayashi, Tetsuo [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 890-0065 Kagoshima (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Radiocarbon dating using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was performed on numerous wood trunks from pumiceous deposits along the Nagata, Isso and Miyanoura rivers on the northern side of Yakushima Island, 60 km south of Kyushu Island. The obtained {sup 14}C dates were around 6.5 ka BP, which, in combination with the geological characteristics of the pumiceous deposits indicates that these specimens were buried during the Kikai-Akahoya (K-Ah) eruption from the Kikai caldera. However, the fact that they are not charred suggests that the origin of these deposits are not pyroclastic flows. Fourteen taxa (Pinus subgen. Diploxylon, Tsuga, Cryptomeria, Chamaecyparis, Myrica, Castanea, Castanopsis, Quercus subgen. Cyclobalanopsis, Trochodendron, Phellodendron, Lagerstroemia, Rhododendron, Myrsine and Symplocos) were identified through anatomical characteristics. This is the first discovery of forest species on the Yakushima Island before the devastating eruption.

  19. Nuts and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlinger, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Work on attempts to induce desirable genetic changes in various species, notably Carya illinoensis, Castanea mollissima and Corylus americana, is reported. Material surviving from an experiment begun in 1988 is briefly characterized. Of the C. mollissima trees, 3 appear promising (including one of short stature and a vigorous one with short internodes and narrow crown). Four C. americana trees are of the compact type. A pecan tree which survived the 1989-90 winter with no tip kill has fused leaflets and good early development. Seeds of 8 pecan selections were irradiated in further work in 1990. A 7.5 krad dose exceeded the tolerance of several varieties and a dose below 5 krad appeared the most useful

  20. Riqueza de formigas de solo na praia da Pedreira, Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS, Brasil Richness of ground-dwelling ants in the Praia da Pedreira, Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Diehl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são listadas as espécies de formigas de solo encontradas em três ambientes (mata nativa, barreira pedregosa e areias da orla na praia da Pedreira, localizada na Zona de Uso Intensivo do Parque Estadual de Itapuã, município de Viamão, RS. No total, foram identificadas 60 espécies representantes de 24 gêneros, 18 tribos e oito subfamílias (Dolichoderinae, Ecitoninae, Ectatomminae, Formicinae, Heteroponerinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae e Pseudomyrmecinae. Dos três ambientes amostrados, de acordo com o estimador de riqueza jackknife de primeira ordem, a mata nativa apresentou a maior riqueza (Sest= 37,5, seguindo-se a barreira pedregosa (Sest= 8,9 e as areias da orla (Sest= 5,9. Apenas Acromyrmex laticeps, Crematogaster sp. e Solenopsis invicta foram comuns aos três ambientes. Neste trabalho é feito o primeiro registro de ocorrência de Pachycondyla crenata e Pachycondyla laevigata (Ponerinae para o Rio Grande do Sul.Aiming to improve the knowledge on the Brazilian biodiversity, especially the ant fauna of Rio Grande do Sul State (Southern Brazil, this survey was conducted in the Praia da Pedreira, a site of Intensive Use of the Parque Estadual de Itapuã. Ground-dwelling ant species were surveyed for three environments in the beach (native forest, rock bar and sand bar, during 12 months (April/2000 - March/2001. Collections resulted in 60 species belonging to 24 genera, 18 tribes and eight subfamilies (Dolichoderinae, Ecitoninae, Ectatomminae, Formicinae, Heteroponerinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae and Pseudomyrmecinae. According to the first order jackknife estimator, the native forest area presented the greatest richness (Sest= 37.5, followed by rock bar (Sest= 8.9 and sand bar (Sest= 5.9. Only Acromyrmex laticeps, Crematogaster sp. and Solenopsis invicta were common to all three environments. This paper presents the first record of Pachycondyla crenata and Pachycondyla laevigata (Ponerinae occurrence in the Rio Grande do Sul

  1. Medicinal plants used by Burundian traditional healers for the treatment of microbial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngezahayo, Jérémie; Havyarimana, François; Hari, Léonard; Stévigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre

    2015-09-15

    Infectious diseases represent a serious and worldwide public health problem. They lead to high mortality, especially in non-developed countries. In Burundi, the most frequent infectious diseases are skin and respiratory (mainly in children) infections, diarrhea, added to malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. Local population used mostly traditional herbal medicines, sometimes animal and mineral substances, to fight against these plagues. To survey in different markets and herbal shops in Bujumbura city, medicinal plants sold to treat microbial infections, with particular emphasis on the different practices of traditional healers (THs) regarding plant parts used, methods of preparation and administration, dosage and treatment duration. The ethnobotanical survey was conducted by interviewing, using a pre-set questionnaire, sixty representative healers, belonging to different associations of THs approved and recognised by the Ministry of Health. Each interviewed herbalist also participated in the collection of samples and the determination of the common names of plants. The plausibility of recorded uses has been verified through an extensive literature search. Our informants enabled us to collect 155 different plant species, distributed in 51 families and 139 genera. The most represented families were Asteraceae (20 genera and 25 species), Fabaceae (14 genera and 16 species), Lamiaceae (12 genera and 15 species), Rubiaceae (9 genera and 9 species), Solanaceae (6 genera and 6 species) and Euphorbiaceae (5 genera and 6 families). These plants have been cited to treat 25 different alleged symptoms of microbial diseases through 271 multi-herbal recipes (MUHRs) and 60 mono-herbal recipes (MOHRs). Platostoma rotundifolium (Briq.) A. J. Paton (Lamiaceae), the most cited species, has been reported in the composition of 41 MUHRs, followed by Virectaria major (Schum.) Verdc (Rubiaceae, 39 recipes), Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haw. (Crassulaceae, 37 recipes), Stomatanthes

  2. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  3. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program: Groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis plan for Calendar Year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 1998 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant. These monitoring activities are managed by the Y-12 Plant Environmental Compliance Organization through the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located within Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed during CY 1998 to comply with: (1) requirements specified in Resource Conservation and Recover Act (RCRA) post-closure permits regarding RCRA corrective action monitoring and RCRA detection monitoring; (2) Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste management facilities; and (3) DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway monitoring. Data from some of the sampling locations in each regime will be used to meet the requirements of more than one of the monitoring drivers listed above. Modifications to the CY 1998 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. For example, changes in regulatory requirements may alter the parameters specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  4. Agricultural non-point source pollution management in a reservoir watershed based on ecological network analysis of soil nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Cai, Yanpeng; Rong, Qiangqiang; Yang, Zhifeng; Li, Chunhui; Wang, Xuan

    2018-03-01

    The Miyun Reservoir plays a pivotal role in providing drinking water for the city of Beijing. In this research, ecological network analysis and scenario analysis were integrated to explore soil nitrogen cycling of chestnut and Chinese pine forests in the upper basin of the Miyun Reservoir, as well as to seek favorable fertilization modes to reduce agricultural non-point source pollution. Ecological network analysis results showed that (1) the turnover time was 0.04 to 0.37 year in the NH 4 + compartment and were 15.78 to 138.36 years in the organic N compartment; (2) the Finn cycling index and the ratio of indirect to direct flow were 0.73 and 11.92 for the chestnut forest model, respectively. Those of the Chinese pine forest model were 0.88 and 29.23, respectively; and (3) in the chestnut forest model, NO 3 - accounted for 96% of the total soil nitrogen loss, followed by plant N (2%), NH 4 + (1%), and organic N (1%). In the Chinese pine forest, NH 4 + accounted for 56% of the total soil nitrogen loss, followed by organic N (34%) and NO 3 - (10%). Fertilization mode was identified as the main factor affecting soil N export. To minimize NH 4 + and NO 3 - outputs while maintaining the current plant yield (i.e., 7.85e0 kg N/year), a fertilization mode of 162.50 kg N/year offered by manure should be adopted. Whereas, to achieve a maximum plant yield (i.e., 3.35e1 kg N/year) while reducing NH 4 + and NO 3 - outputs, a fertilization mode of 325.00 kg N/year offered by manure should be utilized. This research is of wide suitability to support agricultural non-point source pollution management at the watershed scale.

  5. Thermal Death Kinetics of Conogethes Punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as Influenced by Heating Rate and Life Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lixia; Du, Yanli; Johnson, Judy A; Wang, Shaojin

    2015-10-01

    Thermal death kinetics of Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different life stages, heating rate, and temperature is essential for developing postharvest treatments to control pests in chestnuts. Using a heating block system (HBS), the most heat-tolerant life stage of C. punctiferalis and the effects of heating rate (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10°C/min) on insect mortality were determined. The thermal death kinetic data of fifth-instar C. punctiferalis were obtained at temperatures between 44 and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C/min. The results showed that the relative heat tolerance of C. punctiferalis was found to be fifth instars>pupae> third instars> eggs. To avoid the enhanced thermal tolerance of C. punctiferalis at low heating rates (0.1 or 0.5°C/min), a high heating rate of 5°C/min was selected to simulate the fast radio frequency heating in chestnuts and further determine the thermal death kinetic data. Thermal death curves of C. punctiferalis followed a 0th-order kinetic reaction model. The minimum exposure time to achieve 100% mortality was 55, 12, 6, and 3 min at 44, 46, 48, and 50°C, respectively. The activation energy for controlling C. punctiferalis was 482.15 kJ/mol with the z value of 4.09°C obtained from the thermal death-time curve. The information provided by thermal death kinetics for C. punctiferalis is useful in developing effective postharvest thermal treatment protocols for disinfesting chestnuts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Composting of pig manure and forest green waste amended with industrial sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, O; Viña, S; Uzal, M; Soto, M

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this research was to study the composting of chestnut forest green waste (FGW) from short rotation chestnut stands amended with sludge resulting from the manufacture of Medium Density Fibreboard (MDFS) and pig manure (PM). Both FGW and MDFS presented low biodegradation potential but different characteristics in granulometry and bulk density that make its mixture of interest to achieve high composting temperatures. PM decreased the C/N ratio of the mixture and increased its moisture content (MC). Three mixtures of MDFS:FGW at volume ratios of 1:1.3 (M2), 1:2.4 (M3) and 0:1 (M4) were composted after increasing its MC to about 70% with PM. A control with food waste (OFW) and FGW (1:2.4 in volume) (M1) was run in parallel. Watering ratios reached 0.25 (M1), 1.08 (M2) 1.56 (M3) and 4.35 (M4) L PM/kg TS of added solids wastes. Treatments M2 and M3 reached a thermophilic phase shorter than M1, whilst M4 remained in the mesophilic range. After 48days of composting, temperature gradients in respect to ambient temperature were reduced, but the mineralization process continued for around 8months. Final reduction in total organic carbon reached 35-56%, depending mainly on the content in MDFS. MDFS addition to composting matrices largely reduced nitrogen losses, which range from 22% (M2) to 37% (M3) and 53% (M4). Final products had high nutrient content, low electrical conductivity and low heavy metal content which make it a valuable product for soil fertilization, right to amend in the chestnut forests and as a pillar of their sustainable management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative genome analysis provides insights into the evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Green

    Full Text Available A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae, is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae. On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains were identical to the Pae type-strain (I-Pae, isolated from leaf spots on Indian horse chestnut in India in 1969. The phylogenetic analyses also showed that Pae belongs to a distinct clade of P. syringae pathovars adapted to woody hosts. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from the three E-Pae strains and one strain of I-Pae. Comparative genomic analyses revealed pathovar-specific genomic regions in Pae potentially implicated in virulence on a tree host, including genes for the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds and enterobactin synthesis. Several gene clusters displayed intra-pathovar variation, including those encoding type IV secretion, a novel fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and a sucrose uptake pathway. Rates of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the four Pae genomes indicate that the three E-Pae strains diverged from each other much more recently than they diverged from I-Pae. The very low genetic diversity among the three geographically distinct E-Pae strains suggests that they originate from a single, recent introduction into Britain, thus highlighting the serious environmental risks posed by the spread of an exotic plant pathogenic bacterium to a new geographic location. The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree.

  8. Mössbauer and infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for the characterization of ferric tannates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, Juan A.; Navarro, César

    2009-07-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy are use for the characterization and qualitative analysis of hydrolysable and condensed tannates. The two classes of tannates may be differentiated from the characteristic IR pattern. Mössbauer proof that a mixture of mono- and bis-type ferric tannate complexes, and an iron(II)-tannin complex are obtained from the interaction of hydrolysable tannins (tannic acid and chestnut tannin) and condensed tannins (mimosa and quebracho) with a ferric nitrate solution. At pH 7, a partially hydrolyzed ferric tannate complex was also obtained.

  9. Moessbauer and infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for the characterization of ferric tannates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaen, Juan A.; Navarro, Cesar

    2009-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy are use for the characterization and qualitative analysis of hydrolysable and condensed tannates. The two classes of tannates may be differentiated from the characteristic IR pattern. Moessbauer proof that a mixture of mono- and bis-type ferric tannate complexes, and an iron(II)-tannin complex are obtained from the interaction of hydrolysable tannins (tannic acid and chestnut tannin) and condensed tannins (mimosa and quebracho) with a ferric nitrate solution. At pH 7, a partially hydrolyzed ferric tannate complex was also obtained.

  10. Anatolian honey is not only sweet but can also protect from breast cancer: Elixir for women from artemis to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan, Mehmet Fatih; Yılmaz, Eren; Timirci-Kahraman, Özlem; Saygılı, Neslihan; Kısakesen, Halil İbrahim; Eronat, Allison Pınar; Ceviz, Ayşe Begüm; Bilgiç Gazioğlu, Sema; Yılmaz-Aydoğan, Hülya; Öztürk, Oğuz

    2017-09-01

    Natural products with bioactive components are widely studied on various cancer cell lines for their possible cytotoxic effects, recently. Among these products, honey stands out as a valuable bee product containing many active phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Numerous types of multifloral honey and honeydew honey are produced in Turkey owing to its abundant vegetation. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of particular tree-originated honeys from chestnut, cedar, pine, and multifloral honey on cell lines representing different types of the most common cancer of women, breast cancer, MCF7, SKBR3, and MDAMB-231, and fibrocystic breast epithelial cell line, MCF10A as a control. All honey samples were analyzed biochemically. The dose- (1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 µg/mL) and time (24th, 48th, and 72nd hours)-dependent effects of ethanol/water solutions of the honey samples were scrutinized. Cell viability/cytotoxicity was evaluated by the water soluble tetrazolium Salt-1 (WST-1) method. Apoptotic status was detected by Annexin V-PI assay using FACSCalibur. The statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 6 and the clustering data analysis with the R programming language. The biochemical analyses of the honey samples showed that the tree-originated honey samples contained more total phenolic compounds than the multifloral honey. Phenolic content of the honey types increases in order of multifloral, pine, cedar, and chestnut, respectively, which is compatible with their cytotoxic affectivity and dark color. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of the studied honey types was observed to increase in order of multifloral  pine> cedar> multifloral in the Annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) analysis. Chestnut, cedar, and pine honey displayed a remarkably cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cell lines, MCF7, SKBR3, and even on the most aggressive MDAMB 231, representing the triple negative breast cancer, which lacks of targeted anticancer

  11. Moessbauer and infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for the characterization of ferric tannates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, Juan A., E-mail: jjaen@ancon.up.ac.p [Universidad de Panama, Depto. de Quimica Fisica, CITEN, Lab. No. 105, Edificio de Laboratorios Cientificos-VIP (Panama); Navarro, Cesar [Universidad de Panama, Escuela de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Exactas y Tecnologia (Panama)

    2009-07-15

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy are use for the characterization and qualitative analysis of hydrolysable and condensed tannates. The two classes of tannates may be differentiated from the characteristic IR pattern. Moessbauer proof that a mixture of mono- and bis-type ferric tannate complexes, and an iron(II)-tannin complex are obtained from the interaction of hydrolysable tannins (tannic acid and chestnut tannin) and condensed tannins (mimosa and quebracho) with a ferric nitrate solution. At pH 7, a partially hydrolyzed ferric tannate complex was also obtained.

  12. High Efficient Nanocomposite for Removal of Heavy Metals (Hg2+ and Pb2+ from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ebadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In current work, CdS/black carbon nanocomposites were successfully synthesized with the aid of chestnut and cadmium nitrate as the starting reagents. Besides, the effects of preparation parameters such as reaction time, and precursor concentration on the morphology of products and removal of heavy metals (Hg+2, Pb+2 were studied by scanning electron microscopy images and batch adsorption mode. CdS/black carbon nanocomposite introduced as new and high efficient system for removal of heavy metal ions. The as-synthesized products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and spectra energy dispersive analysis of X-ray.

  13. CONTEMPORARY CHANGES OF THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF THE CASPIAN SEMI-DESERT LANDSCAPES OF THE EASTERN CISCAUCASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Ataev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the changes in the hydrothermal conditions within the pricaspian littoral plains accumulation and denudation-accumulative in places aeolian landscapes saltwort, saltwort-sagebrush deserts and semi-deserts in light chestnut soils based on data from weather stations "Makhachkala" for years 1945-2005.Tendencies of changes in temperature, precipitation, and hydrothermal coefficient and coefficient of moisture are shown. Tendency of modern fluctuations suggests that the climatic conditions of the last period contribute to the development of dry steppes and significant deviations from the conditions of the previous period do not occur.

  14. Factors that have contributed to the destruction of the arboreal vegetation from the Mihai Eminescu Boulevard areal – Botosani Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieru Paul-Narcis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Botosani Municipality faces since 2008 to massive trees drying, in areas such as Mihai Eminescu Boulevard, Calea Nationala Street, Marchian Street. In many cases, although the trees have been toileted, treated with substances used for pest control, there couldn’t be saved but very few specimens, but most of them have been cut down. Furthermore, on Mihai Eminescu Boulevard, there no longer leaf out for a few years the chestnut trees, sycamore trees, linden trees, cherry trees, acacia, maple trees, which probably will be cut down eventually.

  15. Tannin Fingerprinting in Vegetable Tanned Leather by Solid State NMR Spectroscopy and Comparison with Leathers Tanned by Other Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jan H. van der Westhuizen; David G. Reid; Melinda J. Duer; Susan L. Bonnet; Frederik H. Romer; Andrew P. Underwood; Nadine D. Senekal

    2011-01-01

    Solid state 13C-NMR spectra of pure tannin powders from four different sources – mimosa, quebracho, chestnut and tara – are readily distinguishable from each other, both in pure commercial powder form, and in leather which they have been used to tan.  Groups of signals indicative of the source, and type (condensed vs. hydrolyzable) of tannin used in the manufacture are well resolved in the spectra of the finished leathers.  These fingerprints are compared with those arising from leathers tann...

  16. Caraboidea distribution in different forest stands Chrea National Park, Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhadid, Z.; Gahdeb, C.; Ghalem, M.; Haddar, L.; Boughrara, H.

    2013-01-01

    T he distribution of the ground beetles in different forests of the national park of Chrea (Blida, Algerie) using pitfall traps was investigated . A total of 29 species of Caraboidea , in seven families, were collected, with the chestnut and holm oak forests were the most diversified sites with 16 species each. The family Pterostichidae is the richest with nine specie s. The distribution of the species of Caraboidea was influenced by the site altitude, since the site vegetation composition and fluctuations are dependent on several ecological parameters. (author)

  17. Chemical fingerprinting applied to the evaluation of marine oil pollution in the coasts of Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Méndez, E M; Astorga-España, M S; García-Montelongo, F J

    2001-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting approach to environmental assessment is illustrated in the evaluation of marine oil pollution in the coasts using two limpet species as bioindicator organisms, and based on profiles and concentrations of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons in their tissues. Accidental and chronic releases of hydrocarbons can contaminate the marine environment of the Canary Islands not only because of their geographical situation but also because of the very dense tanker traffic around. This situation affects coastal areas, fishing activities, tourism resort, etc. Concentrations of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the soft tissues of the marine intertidal and subtidal limpets, Patella crenata and Patella ullysiponensis aspera, were evaluated. Limpet samples were collected at monthly intervals, at three locations on the southeast coast of Tenerife over a 3-year period (1991-93). Levels of hydrocarbons found in limpets are similar to concentrations found in unpolluted areas around the world. From application of principal component analysis, the interpretation of variable loading plots gives information on variable correlation and can be used to distinguish among potential sources of pollution and the ability of studied molluscs to be used as bioindicator organisms.

  18. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Masamitsu; Meshitsuka, Gyosuke; Nakano, Junzo

    1979-01-01

    Studies have been made of kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood. Beech (Fagus crenata Blume) wood meal suspended in aqueous alkaline alcohol was irradiated up to 1.5 KGy (0.15 Mrad) with gamma rays from a Co-60 source in the presence or absence of oxygen. The irradiated wood meals were washed thoroughly with fresh water, air dried and cooked under the ordinary cooking conditions. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Pre-irradiation in aqueous alkali have negligible effect on kraft cooking. (2) In the case of ethanol addition (50 g/l), pre-irradiation in vacuo shows acceleration of delignification and stabilization of carbohydrates during kraft cooking. Cooked yield gain by pre-irradiation was about 1.2% in all over the range of delignification from 80 to 90%. Aqueous ethanol without alkali also shows positive but smaller effect than that with alkali. (3) Propanol, iso-propanol and butanol show positive but smaller effects than ethanol. However, methanol does not show any positive effect. (4) Irradiation in the presence of oxygen does not show any attractive effect on kraft cooking. (author)

  19. Polymerization of impregnated monomer in wood by microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Kaoru; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi

    1976-01-01

    The manufacturing of a wood-plastic combination (WPC) by irradiation of microwave (2,450 and 915 +- 50 MHz) or gamma-ray was carried out. After the impregnation of dry woods (Hinoki: Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl., Buna: Acer mono Maxim., and Kaede: Fagus crenata Blume) with the mixture of the vinyl monomers and chemical reagents, the monomer in wood was polymerized by irradiation. In case of polymerization with microwave (2,450 MHz) the effect of oxygen was not recognized, but in the case of gamma-ray the rate of polymerization remarkably decreased in the presence of oxygen. The polymerization of various monomers was carried out also in the air, and the conversions of styrene, methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, and n-butyl-methacrylate were 51.8 -- 89.1%, but that of vinyl acetate was lower (4.3 -- 8.2%). The conversion of monomers with irradiation of 915 MHz microwave was very low (2.6 -- 33.5%). The conversion of monomers increased when toluylene diisocyanate was added in the monomers. The percentage of extraction with hot benzene of WPC (chip) decreased by the addition of toluylene diisocyanate. It was concluded from C.H.N. analyses that the reaction took place among the wood, toluylene diisocyanate and methyl methacrylate. (auth.)

  20. Strigolactone analogs derived from ketones using a working model for germination stimulants as a blueprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakaboko, Alinanuswe S; Zwanenburg, Binne

    2011-04-01

    Strigolactones are important signaling compounds in the plant kingdom. Here we focus on their germination stimulatory effect on seeds of the parasitic weeds Striga and Orobanche spp. and more particularly on the design and synthesis of new active strigolactone analogs derived from simple cyclic ketones. New analogs derived from 1-indanone, 1-tetralone, cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone and a series of substituted cyclohexanones (including carvone and pulegone) are prepared by formylation of the ketones with ethyl formate followed by coupling with a halo butenolide. Both enantiomers of the analog derived from 1-tetralone have been prepared by employing a homochiral synthon for the coupling reaction. For three other strigolactone analogs the antipodes have been obtained by chromatography on a chiral column. All analogs have an appreciable germinating activity towards seeds of Striga hermomonthica and Orobanche crenata and O. cernua. Stereoisomers having the same configuration at the D-ring as in naturally occurring strigol have a higher stimulatory effect than the corresponding antipodes. The analogs obtained from 1-indanone and 1-tetralone have an activity comparable with that of the well known stimulant GR 24. Analogs derived from 2-phenyl-cylohexanone, carvone and pulegone also have a good germinating response. The results show that the working model for designing new bioactive strigolactones is applicable.

  1. Chemical fingerprinting applied to the evaluation of marine oil pollution in the coasts of Canary Islands (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena-Mendez, E.Ma.; Garcia-Montelongo, F.J.; Astorga-Espana, Ma.S.

    2001-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting approach to environmental assessment is illustrated in the evaluation of marine oil pollution in the coasts using two limpet species as bioindicator organisms, and based on profiles and concentrations of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons in their tissues. Accidental and chronic releases of hydrocarbons can contaminate the marine environment of the Canary Islands not only because of their geographical situation but also because of the very dense tank traffic around. This situation affects coastal areas, fishing activities, tourism resort, etc. Concentrations of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the soft tissues of the marine intertidal and subtidal limpets, Patella crenata and Patella ullysiponensis aspera, were evaluated. Limpet samples were collected at monthly intervals, at three locations on the southeast coast of Tenerife over a 3-year period (1991-93). Levels of hydrocarbons found in limpets are similar to concentrations found in unpolluted areas around the world. From application of principal component analysis, the interpretation of variable loading plots gives information on variable correlation and can be used to distinguish among potential sources of pollution and the ability of studied molluscs to be used as bioindicator organisms. (Author)

  2. Heliolactone, a non-sesquiterpene lactone germination stimulant for root parasitic weeds from sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Kotomi; Furumoto, Toshio; Umeda, Shuhei; Mizutani, Masaharu; Takikawa, Hirosato; Batchvarova, Rossitza; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2014-12-01

    Root exudates of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) line 2607A induced germination of seeds of root parasitic weeds Striga hermonthica, Orobanche cumana, Orobanche minor, Orobanche crenata, and Phelipanche aegyptiaca. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of a germination stimulant designated as heliolactone. FT-MS analysis indicated a molecular formula of C20H24O6. Detailed NMR spectroscopic studies established a methylfuranone group, a common structural component of strigolactones connected to a methyl ester of a C14 carboxylic acid via an enol ether bridge. The cyclohexenone ring is identical to that of 3-oxo-α-ionol and the other part of the molecule corresponds to an oxidized carlactone at C-19. It is a carlactone-type molecule and functions as a germination stimulant for seeds of root parasitic weeds. Heliolactone induced seed germination of the above mentioned root parasitic weeds, while dehydrocostus lactone and costunolide, sesquiterpene lactones isolated from sunflower root exudates, were effective only on O. cumana and O. minor. Heliolactone production in aquacultures increased when sunflower seedlings were grown hydroponically in tap water and decreased on supplementation of the culture with either phosphorus or nitrogen. Costunolide, on the other hand, was detected at a higher concentration in well-nourished medium as opposed to nutrient-deficient media, thus suggesting a contrasting contribution of heliolactone and the sesquiterpene lactone to the germination of O. cumana under different soil fertility levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diversity and evolution of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retroelements in the non-photosynthetic flowering plants Orobanche and Phelipanche (Orobanchaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Mi; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2007-01-31

    We present the first study on the diversity and evolution of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retroelements in a group of non-photosynthetic flowering plants. To this end partial sequences of the reverse transcriptase (rt) gene were obtained from 20 clones for each retroelement type from seven and six accessions of Orobanche and Phelipanche (Orobanchaceae), respectively. Overall sequence similarity is higher in Ty3-gypsy elements than in Ty1-copia elements in agreement with the results from other angiosperm groups. Higher sequence diversity and stronger phylogenetic structure, especially of Ty1-copia sequences, in Orobanche species compared to Phelipanche species support the previously suggested hypothesis (based on karyological and cytological data) that genomes of Orobanche species are more dynamic than those of Phelipanche species. No evidence was found for intraspecific differences of retroelement diversity nor for differences between pest taxa and their putative wild relatives, e.g., O. crenata and O. owerini. The occurrence of a few sequences from Phelipanche species in clades otherwise comprising sequences from Orobanche species might be due to horizontal gene transfer, but the alternative of vertical transmission cannot be rejected unambiguously.

  4. Next-Generation Sequencing Reveals the Impact of Repetitive DNA Across Phylogenetically Closely Related Genomes of Orobanchaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piednoël, Mathieu; Aberer, Andre J.; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Macas, Jiri; Novak, Petr; Gundlach, Heidrun; Temsch, Eva M.; Renner, Susanne S.

    2013-01-01

    We used next-generation sequencing to characterize the genomes of nine species of Orobanchaceae of known phylogenetic relationships, different life forms, and including a polyploid species. The study species are the autotrophic, nonparasitic Lindenbergia philippensis, the hemiparasitic Schwalbea americana, and seven nonphotosynthetic parasitic species of Orobanche (Orobanche crenata, Orobanche cumana, Orobanche gracilis (tetraploid), and Orobanche pancicii) and Phelipanche (Phelipanche lavandulacea, Phelipanche purpurea, and Phelipanche ramosa). Ty3/Gypsy elements comprise 1.93%–28.34% of the nine genomes and Ty1/Copia elements comprise 8.09%–22.83%. When compared with L. philippensis and S. americana, the nonphotosynthetic species contain higher proportions of repetitive DNA sequences, perhaps reflecting relaxed selection on genome size in parasitic organisms. Among the parasitic species, those in the genus Orobanche have smaller genomes but higher proportions of repetitive DNA than those in Phelipanche, mostly due to a diversification of repeats and an accumulation of Ty3/Gypsy elements. Genome downsizing in the tetraploid O. gracilis probably led to sequence loss across most repeat types. PMID:22723303

  5. Is seed conditioning essential for Orobanche germination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhine, Dina; Ziadna, Hammam; Joel, Daniel M

    2009-05-01

    Parasitic Orobanchaceae germinate only after receiving a chemical stimulus from roots of potential host plants. A preparatory phase of several days that follows seed imbibition, termed conditioning, is known to be required; thereafter the seeds can respond to germination stimulants. The aim of this study was to examine whether conditioning is essential for stimulant receptivity. Non-conditioned seeds of both Orobanche cumana Wallr. and O. aegyptiaca Pers. [syn. Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Pers.) Pomel] were able to germinate in response to chemical stimulation by GR24 even without prior conditioning. Stimulated seeds reached maximal germination rates about 2 weeks after the onset of imbibition, no matter whether the seeds had or had not been conditioned before stimulation. Whereas the lag time between stimulation and germination response of non-conditioned seeds was longer than for conditioned seeds, the total time between imbibition and germination was shorter for the non-conditioned seeds. Unlike the above two species, O. crenata Forsk. was found to require conditioning prior to stimulation. Seeds of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca are already receptive before conditioning. Thus, conditioning is not involved in stimulant receptivity. A hypothesis is put forward, suggesting that conditioning includes (a) a parasite-specific early phase that allows the imbibed seeds to overcome the stress caused by failing to receive an immediate germination stimulus, and (b) a non-specific later phase that is identical to the pregermination phase between seed imbibition and actual germination that is typical for all higher plants.

  6. The Strigolactone Germination Stimulants of the Plant-Parasitic Striga and Orobanche spp. Are Derived from the Carotenoid Pathway1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusova, Radoslava; Rani, Kumkum; Verstappen, Francel W.A.; Franssen, Maurice C.R.; Beale, Michael H.; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

    2005-01-01

    The seeds of parasitic plants of the genera Striga and Orobanche will only germinate after induction by a chemical signal exuded from the roots of their host. Up to now, several of these germination stimulants have been isolated and identified in the root exudates of a series of host plants of both Orobanche and Striga spp. In most cases, the compounds were shown to be isoprenoid and belong to one chemical class, collectively called the strigolactones, and suggested by many authors to be sesquiterpene lactones. However, this classification was never proven; hence, the biosynthetic pathways of the germination stimulants are unknown. We have used carotenoid mutants of maize (Zea mays) and inhibitors of isoprenoid pathways on maize, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and assessed the effects on the root exudate-induced germination of Striga hermonthica and Orobanche crenata. Here, we show that for these three host and two parasitic plant species, the strigolactone germination stimulants are derived from the carotenoid pathway. Furthermore, we hypothesize how the germination stimulants are formed. We also discuss this finding as an explanation for some phenomena that have been observed for the host-parasitic plant interaction, such as the effect of mycorrhiza on S. hermonthica infestation. PMID:16183851

  7. The strigolactone germination stimulants of the plant-parasitic Striga and Orobanche spp. are derived from the carotenoid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusova, Radoslava; Rani, Kumkum; Verstappen, Francel W A; Franssen, Maurice C R; Beale, Michael H; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2005-10-01

    The seeds of parasitic plants of the genera Striga and Orobanche will only germinate after induction by a chemical signal exuded from the roots of their host. Up to now, several of these germination stimulants have been isolated and identified in the root exudates of a series of host plants of both Orobanche and Striga spp. In most cases, the compounds were shown to be isoprenoid and belong to one chemical class, collectively called the strigolactones, and suggested by many authors to be sesquiterpene lactones. However, this classification was never proven; hence, the biosynthetic pathways of the germination stimulants are unknown. We have used carotenoid mutants of maize (Zea mays) and inhibitors of isoprenoid pathways on maize, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and assessed the effects on the root exudate-induced germination of Striga hermonthica and Orobanche crenata. Here, we show that for these three host and two parasitic plant species, the strigolactone germination stimulants are derived from the carotenoid pathway. Furthermore, we hypothesize how the germination stimulants are formed. We also discuss this finding as an explanation for some phenomena that have been observed for the host-parasitic plant interaction, such as the effect of mycorrhiza on S. hermonthica infestation.

  8. Granular formulation of Fusarium oxysporum for biological control of faba bean and tomato Orobanche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemat Alla, Mamdouh M; Shabana, Yasser M; Serag, Mamdouh M; Hassan, Nemat M; El-Hawary, Mohamed M

    2008-12-01

    Orobanche spp. represent a serious threat to a wide range of crops. They are difficult targets for herbicides, and biological control could provide a possible solution. This work therefore aimed to formulate mycoherbicides of Fusarium with adequate shelf life and virulence against Orobanche but safe to faba bean and tomato. Only two isolates of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. (Foxy I and Foxy II) obtained from diseased Orobanche shoots were found to be pathogenic to Orobanche crenata Forsk. and Orobanche ramosa L. Conidial suspension of both isolates significantly decreased germination, attachments and tubercles of Orobanche. Microconidia and chlamydospores of both isolates were formulated as mycoherbicides encapsulated in a wheat flour-kaolin matrix (four different formulations). All formulations greatly diminished Orobanche emerged shoots, total shoot number, shoot height, attachment of emerged shoots, the germinated seeds that succeeded in emerging above the soil surface and dry weight. Meanwhile, disease incidence and disease severity of emerged shoots were enhanced. The shelf life was adequate, particularly for coarse, freshly prepared, low-temperature-stored, microconidia-rich formulations. The induced growth reduction of Orobanche-infected host plants seemed to be nullified by formulations, particularly at the highest dose. These formulations seemed to destroy Orobanche but appeared harmless to host plants. Hence, they could be efficiently used as mycoherbicides for biological control of Orobanche in faba bean and tomato.

  9. Taxonomic study on Japanese Salvia (Lamiaceae): Phylogenetic position of S. akiensis, and polyphyletic nature of S. lutescens var. intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Both Salvia akiensis and S. lutescens (Lamiaceae) are endemic to Japan. Salvia akiensis was recently described in 2014 in the Chugoku (= SW Honshu) region, and each four varieties of S. lutescens distributed allopatrically. Among varieties in S. lutescens , var. intermedia show a disjunctive distribution in the Kanto (=E Honshu) and Kinki (= W Honshu) regions. Recent field studies of S. lutescens var. intermedia revealed several morphological differences between the Kanto and Kinki populations. Here, I evaluated these differences among Salvia lutescens var. intermedia and its allies with morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal and external transcribed spacer regions) and plastid DNA ( ycf1-rps15 spacer, rbcL , and trnL-F ) sequences. Both morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that S. lutescens var. intermedia from the Kinki region and var. lutescens were closely related to each other. However, var. intermedia from the Kanto region exhibited an association with S. lutescens var. crenata and var. stolonifera, which also grew in eastern Japan, rather than var. intermedia in the Kinki region. These results indicated that S. lutescens var. intermedia is not a taxon with a disjunctive distribution, but a combination of two or more allopatric taxa. Present study also suggested that S. akiensis was most closely related to S. omerocalyx .

  10. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (1). Effect of alcohol additives on pre-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, M; Meshitsuka, G; Nakano, J [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1979-12-01

    Studies have been made of kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood. Beech (Fagus crenata Blume) wood meal suspended in aqueous alkaline alcohol was irradiated up to 1.5 KGy (0.15 Mrad) with gamma rays from a Co-60 source in the presence or absence of oxygen. The irradiated wood meals were washed thoroughly with fresh water, air dried and cooked under the ordinary cooking conditions. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Pre-irradiation in aqueous alkali have negligible effect on kraft cooking. (2) In the case of ethanol addition (50 g/l), pre-irradiation in vacuo shows acceleration of delignification and stabilization of carbohydrates during kraft cooking. Cooked yield gain by pre-irradiation was about 1.2 in all, over the range of delignification from 80 to 90%. Aqueous ethanol without alkali also shows positive but smaller effect than that with alkali. (3) Propanol, iso-propanol and butanol show positive but smaller effects than ethanol. However, methanol does not show any positive effect. (4) Irradiation in the presence of oxygen does not show any attractive effect on kraft cooking.

  11. FY 1998 annual report on the geothermal development promotion survey. Report on landscape survey; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Shizen kankyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are results of the natural environment surveys, carried out in the Shitanotai Region in Yuzawa City, Akita Pref., where Geothermal Development Promotion Survey C is scheduled. On-the-spot surveys, conducted from June to November, covered 3 items of landscape, vegetation and animals. The Shimonotai Region has a number of ponds and swamps, some of which are used as fields for Brasenia shreberi, and wet shield plant communities in places reflecting these environments. The zoological survey results show that moderate to dry deciduous forests of Japanese beeches (Fagus crenata) and Mongolian oaks (Quercus mongolica var. grossesserrata) in this region provide sound habitats for large mammalian wild animals, e.g., moon bears (Selenarctos thibetanus). For birds, there are some areas extracted indicating high possibility of being inhabited by honey buzzards (Pernis ptilorhyncus), which are listed as a near threatened species by the Environment Agency. Geologically, traces of landslide occurrence in the past have been detected widely, indicating need for more detailed investigation for land stability. These surveys have extracted several areas whose natural environments and landscapes are damaged relatively little by geothermal development. (NEDO)

  12. Taxonomic relationships of some species of orobanche l. evidence from rapd-pcr and issr markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharawy, S.; Karakish, E.

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic relationships among 25 samples representing nine species of Orobanche L. (Orobanchaceae) were determined by the analysis of morphological characters and molecular polymorphism using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR). In order to construct dendrogram elucidating the relationships among the examined taxa, the coded data were analyzed using the software package NTSYS-pc 2.1 based on the Neighbor-joining (NJ) tree building method based on a distance matrix. The aim of this study is to develop taxonomic relationship based on morphological and molecular data, in order to obtain a more reliable taxonomic relationship of Orobanche species under study. The dendrogram produced by the analysis of the molecular data (RAPD and ISSR) resembled that constructed by NJ dendrogram for the morphological variation. The studied taxa were separated in two groups, the first comprised of the five species of section Trionychon (O. purpurea, O.lavandulacea, O. ramosa, O. mutelii and O. aegyptiaca) and the second comprised of the four species of section Orobanche (O.cernua, O. crenata, O. minor and O. pubescens). High similarity was detected between O. pubescens and O. minor. The results confirmed the close relationship between O. ramosa and O. mutelii. Moreover, this study demonstrated the grouping of the studied taxa in most cases by geographically isolated population. (author)

  13. Effect of wood type and thickness on acetification kinetics in traditional vinegar production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Jesús Torija

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Maria-Jesús Torija1, Estibaliz Mateo1, Carlos-Alfredo Vegas1, Carla Jara1, Angel González1, Montse Poblet1, Cristina Reguant1, Jóse-Manuel Guillamon2, Albert Mas11Biotecnología enológica. Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Facultat d’enologia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain; 2Departamento de Biotecnología de los Alimentos, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (CSIC, Burjassot, València, SpainAbstract: Traditional vinegar production is a lengthy process which implies high operational risks and jeopardizes the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. In an effort to solve these problems without changing the traditional model, we modified the wood type and thickness of vinegar barrels. We acetified in triplicate in barrels made of acacia, cherry, chestnut, and oak and in three wood thicknesses (15, 20, and 25 mm in two different vinegar plants. The operating volume was set at 60 L. Reducing wood thickness improved neither maximum acetification velocity or the total length of the process, and in some cases even worsened them. The process took longer in oak barrels than in other types of wood barrel in one of the vinegar plants. Therefore, the choice of wood is a parameter to be considered in the wine vinegar production. Keywords: acacia, cherry, chestnut, oak, acetic acid bacteria

  14. The effects of short- and long-term air pollutants on plant phenology and leaf characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochner, Susanne; Markevych, Iana; Beck, Isabelle; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Pollution adversely affects vegetation; however, its impact on phenology and leaf morphology is not satisfactorily understood yet. We analyzed associations between pollutants and phenological data of birch, hazel and horse chestnut in Munich (2010) along with the suitability of leaf morphological parameters of birch for monitoring air pollution using two datasets: cumulated atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone derived from passive sampling (short-term exposure) and pollutant information derived from Land Use Regression models (long-term exposure). Partial correlations and stepwise regressions revealed that increased ozone (birch, horse chestnut), NO_2, NO_x and PM levels (hazel) were significantly related to delays in phenology. Correlations were especially high when rural sites were excluded suggesting a better estimation of long-term within-city pollution. In situ measurements of foliar characteristics of birch were not suitable for bio-monitoring pollution. Inconsistencies between long- and short-term exposure effects suggest some caution when interpreting short-term data collected within field studies. - Highlights: • We present results of a field survey examining pollution effects on vegetation. • Particularly ozone was significantly associated with delays in spring phenology. • Leaf morphology of birch was found to be inadequate for bio-monitoring pollution. • Inconsistencies between long-/short-term exposure effects suggest caution. - Pollutants were significantly associated with delays in spring phenology. However, inconsistencies between long- and short-term exposure effects suggest some caution when interpreting results.

  15. Preparation of hydrogel by radiation for the healing of diabetic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Young-Chang; Park, Jong-Seok; Lim, Youn-Mook

    2014-01-01

    Honey has been used in wound care for thousands of years. The major advantage of honey in wound care is the high osmotic activity, which accelerates the debridement of necrotic tissue and procures an antibacterial effect. It has been reported that the ancient Greeks and Romans used honey as a topical antiseptic for sores and skin ulcers. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antibacterial activities and the healing effect for diabetic ulcers from carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) hydrogel involving honey. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and honey were dissolved in deionized (DI) water, and then irradiated by a gamma-ray to make a honey hydrogel dressing. The physical properties such as gelation and swelling were examined to evaluate the hydrogel for wound dressing. The antibacterial activities were investigated in detail against the Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains. Antibacterial tests indicated that honey hydrogel dressings have a good antibacterial activity. Female db/db mice (weight between 18 and 24 g, aged 5 weeks) were given an in vivo wound healing assessment. The wound dressing was changed every 2 days, and the rate of wound contraction and microscopic observations were observed. The honey hydrogel dressings displayed a prominent healing effect for diabetic ulcers. - Highlights: • The CMC hydrogel involving chestnut honey was prepared by gamma radiation. • The physical properties such as swelling percent and gelation were examined. • The chestnut hydrogel dressings displayed a prominent healing effect for diabetic ulcers

  16. Soil mechanics and analysis of soils overlying cavitose bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumm, E.C.

    1987-08-01

    The stability of the residual soils existing at the West Chestnut Ridge Site, Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, was evaluated. The weathered bedrock below this residual soil contains numerous solution cavities, and several karst features were identified. The West Chestnut Ridge site was evaluated with respect to deformation and collapse of the residual soil into the bedrock cavities. A finite element analysis investigated the effects of bedrock cavity radius, thickness of soil overburden, and surface surcharge upon the deformational and stability characteristics of the residual soil. The results indicate that for small cavity radii, the thickness of the soil cover has little effect on the zone of yielded soil. For large cavity radii, a smaller zone of distressed soil occurs under thick soil cover than under thin soil cover. Dimensionless curves are presented to enable the prediction of the vertical extent of the zone of yielded soil for a range of site geometries. Although the thick soil deposits (100 feet or greater) typically found on the ridges result in high stresses adjacent to the cavity, the area of the distressed or yielded soil is small and unlikely to extend to the surface. In addition, the surface deformation or subsidence is expected to be minimal. Thus, the siting of waste facilities on the ridges where the overburden is maximum would tend to reduce the effects of deformation into the cavities. 29 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Higher plants as biomonitors of radionuclides in urban air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajtic, J.; Todorovic, D.; Popovic, D.; Nikolic, J.

    2011-01-01

    Two deciduous tree genera, linden (Tilia tomentosa L. and Tilia cordata Mill.) and chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), are analysed as biomonitors of 210 Pb and 7 Be in air. In a multi year study (2002 - 2009), conducted in three city parks in Belgrade, the content of 210 Pb and 7 Be in samples of leaves of linden and chestnut trees, and aerosols was determined on an HPGe detector by standard gamma spectrometry. The differences seen in the radionuclides' activities across the measurement sites and between the tree genera are not significant, suggesting that the micro climate, level of air pollution and physiological characteristics of the trees have a negligible effect on the radionuclides' activities in leaves. Linear Pearson's correlation coefficients are used to correlate the 210 Pb and 7 Be activities in aerosols and in leaves. The results show that linden could be used as a 210 Pb biomonitor which provides information on the recent history of exposure. No large positive correlation is found for the 7 Be activities in leaves and aerosols, indicating that higher plants are not a suitable biomonitor for this radionuclide. [sr

  18. Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Roh, M.J.; Chung, H.W.; Lee, J.E.; Park, N.Y.; Kwon, Y.J.; Seo, S.J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnut, acorn, red bean and mung bean, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in chestnut and acorn, Curculio skkimensis Heller, Curculio dentipes Roelofs, and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee showed an increased mortality when exposed to above 0.5 kGy irradiation, resulting in 100% of mortality three weeks later. Callosobruchus chinensis Linne from both red and mung beans revealed a apparent mortality at around 10 days after irradiation of 1 to 3 kGy. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. (author). 53 refs., 74 figs., 138 tabs.

  19. Grindability and combustion behavior of coal and torrefied biomass blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, M V; García, R; Pevida, C; Rubiera, F

    2015-09-01

    Biomass samples (pine, black poplar and chestnut woodchips) were torrefied to improve their grindability before being combusted in blends with coal. Torrefaction temperatures between 240 and 300 °C and residence times between 11 and 43 min were studied. The grindability of the torrefied biomass, evaluated from the particle size distribution of the ground sample, significantly improved compared to raw biomass. Higher temperatures increased the proportion of smaller-sized particles after grinding. Torrefied chestnut woodchips (280 °C, 22 min) showed the best grinding properties. This sample was blended with coal (5-55 wt.% biomass). The addition of torrefied biomass to coal up to 15 wt.% did not significantly increase the proportion of large-sized particles after grinding. No relevant differences in the burnout value were detected between the coal and coal/torrefied biomass blends due to the high reactivity of the coal. NO and SO2 emissions decreased as the percentage of torrefied biomass in the blend with coal increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Migration and winter distribution of the Chestnutcollared Longspur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison Kevin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus is one of five grassland songbirds, endemic within North America, with populations that have declined >65% since the 1960s. These species breed and winter in the northern and southern Great Plains, respectively. Identifying migration routes, wintering sites, and the timing of their habitat use is key for understanding the relative magnitude of threats across the annual cycle and effectively targeting habitats for conservation. We tracked migratory movements of seven Chestnut-collared Longspurs with light-level geolocators deployed in Canada. Individuals wintered up to 112-1,200km apart. All followed the Central Flyway, circumvented high-elevation terrain, and traveled east of the breeding location. Unlike most songbirds, the durations of spring and fall migrations were similar; on average 42 ± 7d and 41 ± 5d during fall and spring migrations, respectively, for an approximately 2,000km migration; this highlights the need to better understand habitat requirements during migration for grassland songbirds. Using geospatial habitat data, we assessed winter distribution overlap with four other endemic grassland songbirds; wintering range overlapped 63-99%. Future studies should use more precise devices (e.g., archival GPS units, programmed for data collection dates from this study, to identify specific migratory sites for better conserving this and associated grassland species.