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Sample records for chestnut blight infection

  1. Biological control of chestnut blight in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Luís; Castro, João Paulo; Gouveia, Eugénia

    2013-01-01

    Plant protection is a multi-disciplinary subject and different strategies need to be addressed for sustainable plant health management Biological control is an ecosystem-based approach extending from lab based investigation to fie ld applications. Hipovirulence is a specific method for biological control of Chestnut Blight a lethal disease of the American and European chestnut. The causal pathogen of Chestnut Blight is Cryphonectria parasitica a fungus of Asian origin which ...

  2. Chestnut resistance to the blight disease: insights from transcriptome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat Abdelali

    2012-03-01

    genes are candidates for host resistance to the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Conclusions Our data allowed the identification of many genes and gene network candidates for host resistance to the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. The similar set of GDTAs in American chestnut and Chinese chestnut suggests that the variation in sensitivity to this pathogen between these species may be the result of different timing and amplitude of the response of the two to the pathogen infection. Resources developed in this study are useful for functional genomics, comparative genomics, resistance breeding and phylogenetics in the Fagaceae.

  3. Chestnut blight in Portugal : spread and populational structure of Cryphonectria parasitica

    OpenAIRE

    Bragança, Maria Helena Pires, 1964-

    2007-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Biologia (Microbiologia), apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2008 Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight, has been considered one of the most important mortality factors of the sweet chestnut Castanea sativa all over the world. To evaluate the current distribution of chestnut blight in Portugal, all chestnut growing regions across the entire country were screened, a total of 191 chestnut stands were surveyed...

  4. Variations in Disease Resistance of Chestnut Cultivars against Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Sanghyun; KIM Kyunghee; PIAO Chungen; MOON Byungju

    2006-01-01

    Chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica is one of the major chestnut diseases occurred on stems and branches. Oriental chestnut has more resistance than American one. Twenty-five cultivars of chestnut tree including various cultivars such as Tsukuba, Okkwang, Rihei, Ginyose, Eunsan, etc. Were tested with a rapid, simple and reliable method. The cultivar Banseki is one of the most resistant cultivars tested and has the necrotic area of 0.40 cm2. However, the necrotic areas of the cultivars of American chestnut, Eunsan, Kwangjujoyul and Eaton, ranges from 3.35 to 2.61 cm2 and these cultivars are relatively susceptible to this pathogen. Many pycnidia of this pathogen were observed on the inner and outer bark tissues after incubating for 3 weeks.

  5. A cytoplasmically transmissible hypovirulence phenotype associated with mitochondrial DNA mutations in the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica.

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro-Vitorello, C B; Bell, J. A.; Fulbright, D W; Bertrand, H

    1995-01-01

    Mutations causing mitochondrial defects were induced in a virulent strain of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. Virulence on apples and chestnut trees was reduced in four of six extensively characterized mutants. Relative to the virulent progenitor, the attenuated mutants had reduced growth rates, abnormal colony morphologies, and few asexual spores, and they resembled virus-infected strains. The respiratory defects and attenuated virulence phenotypes (hypovirul...

  6. PHYSICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF CHESTNUT BLIGHT DISEASED CASTANEA SATIVA MILL. WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhan Gunduz,; Mehmet Ali Oral; Mehmet Akyuz; Deniz Aydemir; Barbaros Yaman; Nejla Asik; Ali Savas Bulbul; Surhay Allahverdiyev

    2016-01-01

    In this study, some of the physical and anatomical properties of Chestnut Blight Diseased (CBD) wood were investigated, and the study also included observations using Raman spectroscopy. The objective of these investigations was to determine the extent of the damage that is done to the wood of the diseased chestnut trees, which must be removed from the forest and used in the manufacture of industrial products. It was indicated that most of the adverse effects of the disease were in the vascu...

  7. Genetic control of horizontal virus transmission in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica.

    OpenAIRE

    Cortesi, P; McCulloch, C.E.; Song, H; H. Lin; Milgroom, M G

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative incompatibility in fungi has long been known to reduce the transmission of viruses between individuals, but the barrier to transmission is incomplete. In replicated laboratory assays, we showed conclusively that the transmission of viruses between individuals of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica is controlled primarily by vegetative incompatibility (vic) genes. By replicating vic genotypes in independent fungal isolates, we quantified the effect of heteroallelism ...

  8. PHYSICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF CHESTNUT BLIGHT DISEASED CASTANEA SATIVA MILL. WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Gunduz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some of the physical and anatomical properties of Chestnut Blight Diseased (CBD wood were investigated, and the study also included observations using Raman spectroscopy. The objective of these investigations was to determine the extent of the damage that is done to the wood of the diseased chestnut trees, which must be removed from the forest and used in the manufacture of industrial products. It was indicated that most of the adverse effects of the disease were in the vascular cambium. There was a clear indication of deterioration of the wood in the last growth ring next to vascular cambium. In the diseased secondary xylem region next to vascular cambium; vessel diameter, vessel frequency and vessel element length had a decrease, and vessel and other cells were irregular compared to healthy wood. Spores were detected and identified as Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill. Annual ring properties (annual growth ring width, latewood percentage, etc. were similar in diseased wood compared to healthy wood. The Raman spectroscopy results showed no significant changes in the structure of the cell wall or its components. After removing the diseased parts, unlimited usage of formerly wood is possible. Heat treatment of the wood is suggested before use in the interest of sanitation and dimensional stability.

  9. Hypovirus papain-like protease p48 is required for initiation but not for maintenance of virus RNA propagation in the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fuyou; Nuss, Donald L

    2008-07-01

    The prototypic hypovirus CHV1-EP713, responsible for virulence attenuation (hypovirulence) of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, encodes two papain-like proteases, p29 and p48. Protein p29 has been shown to be dispensable for hypovirus RNA replication and to act as a suppressor of RNA silencing. Here we describe a role for p48 in hypovirus RNA propagation. CHV1-EP713 infectious cDNA clones in which the p48 coding region was deleted, Delta p48, were unable to establish infection in C. parasitica when introduced as a DNA form by transformation or as a coding strand transcript by electroporation. However, the Delta p48 mutant virus RNA was rescued when p48 was provided in trans. Surprisingly, the Delta p48 mutant viruses retained replication competence in the apparent absence of p48 following transmission to wild-type C. parasitica and successive subculturing. The replicating Delta p48 mutant virus was reduced in RNA accumulation by 60% both in the absence and presence of p48 provided in trans and was transmitted through asexual spores (conidia) at a rate 3 to 8% of that for full-length CHV1-EP713. Complementary analysis of strains expressing p48 or containing the replicating Delta p48 mutant virus showed that like p29, p48 contributes to virus-mediated suppression of host pigmentation and conidiation, although to a lesser extent, and is dispensable for hypovirus-mediated hypovirulence. The combined results suggest that papain-like protease p48 plays an essential role in the initiation but not the maintenance of virus RNA propagation and also contributes to the regulation of viral RNA accumulation and vertical transmission. PMID:18448523

  10. Cougarblight EZ, a substantial update of the Cougarblight fire blight infection risk model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of practical, but reasonably accurate fire blight infection risk models is considered a critical factor in the management of fire blight. Cougarblight, an empirically designed fire blight infection risk assessment model, was originally developed prior to significant recent advances ...

  11. Modelling chestnut biogeography for American chestnut restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Songlin; Liang, Liang; Paillet, Frederick L.;

    2012-01-01

    of American chestnut [C. dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.] by incorporating blight-resistant genes from Asiatic species. Location North America, Europe and East Asia. Methods General chestnut biology was reviewed on the basis of published literature and field observations. Chestnut distributions were......Aim Chestnuts (Castanea spp.) are ecologically and economically important species. We studied the general biology, distribution and climatic limits of seven chestnut species from around the world. We provided climatic matching of Asiatic species to North America to assist the range-wide restoration...... of chestnut distribution. Climatic spaces of different species overlap with one another to different degrees, but strong similarities are shown especially between Chinese species and American species. Climatic envelope matching suggested that large areas in eastern North America have a favourable...

  12. Horse Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Horse Chestnut Share: On This Page Introduction What the ... More Information Key References © Steven Foster Common Names: horse chestnut, buckeye, Spanish chestnut Latin Name: Aesculus hippocastanum ...

  13. Main source of stem blight infections and possibilities of reducing symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Zellner, Michael; Hofbauer, Johann; Keil, Sven; Benker, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Symptomless seed tubers are no guarantee for them being free of tuber blight, therefore they bear the risk of bringing P. infestans to the fields. Because of the high risk of using infected seed tubers control measures are highly recommended. Systemic fungicides spread into the plant tissue and can reduce the growth of the fungus from within the plant. Treating seed tubers with copper is another possibility especially in organic farming. Further research should deal with possibilities to redu...

  14. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, de J.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Ketelaar, T.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phl

  15. Infectivity and sporulation of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branches from northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia production, while the other three plants w...

  16. Gene expression in response to bacterial blight infection in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@After a comprehensive screening of 47 rice lines inoculat_ed at different development stages with 7 different strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae , we selected 2 strains CR1 and CR7 from CNRRI,China. They gave a resistant and susceptible interaction respectively, when they were used to infect 15 d old seedlings of C101PKT.

  17. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression

    OpenAIRE

    Keijzer, de, Ander; Broek, van den, W.; Ketelaar, T.; Lammeren, van, R.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is inv...

  18. Differential expression of biphenyl synthase gene family members in fire-blight-infected apple 'Holsteiner Cox'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Gaid, Mariam M; Belkheir, Asma K; Hänsch, Robert; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-02-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a devastating disease of apple (Malus × domestica). The phytoalexins of apple are biphenyls and dibenzofurans, whose carbon skeleton is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS), a type III polyketide synthase. In the recently published genome sequence of apple 'Golden Delicious', nine BIS genes and four BIS gene fragments were detected. The nine genes fall into four subfamilies, referred to as MdBIS1 to MdBIS4. In a phylogenetic tree, the BIS amino acid sequences from apple and Sorbus aucuparia formed an individual cluster within the clade of the functionally diverse type III polyketide synthases. cDNAs encoding MdBIS1 to MdBIS4 were cloned from fire-blight-infected shoots of apple 'Holsteiner Cox,' heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and functionally analyzed. Benzoyl-coenzyme A and salicoyl-coenzyme A were the preferred starter substrates. In response to inoculation with E. amylovora, the BIS3 gene was expressed in stems of cv Holsteiner Cox, with highest transcript levels in the transition zone between necrotic and healthy tissues. The transition zone was the accumulation site of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins. Leaves contained transcripts for BIS2 but failed to form immunodetectable amounts of BIS protein. In cell cultures of apple 'Cox Orange,' expression of the BIS1 to BIS3 genes was observed after the addition of an autoclaved E. amylovora suspension. Using immunofluorescence localization under a confocal laser-scanning microscope, the BIS3 protein in the transition zone of stems was detected in the parenchyma of the bark. Dot-shaped immunofluorescence was confined to the junctions between neighboring cortical parenchyma cells. PMID:22158676

  19. The Differences among Pear Genotypes to Fire Blight (Erwinia amylovora Attack, Based on Observations of Natural Infection

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    Adriana F. SESTRAS

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most damaging diseases of pear in the world. In Cluj-Napoca area, situated in central Transylvania, Romania, fire blight was observed first in 1994, very late comparative with the other countries from occidental Europe. The response of the pear cultivars and species from National Pear Collection from Cluj-Napoca to fire blight attack, assessed in natural conditions of infection, range on a large scale of variability, which denotes a strong influence of the genotype in expression of resistance or sensitivity to disease. From all genotypes, about 20.5% have not presented symptoms of attack, among them being the following: 'Blanquet precoce', 'Klementinka', 'Severianka', 'Beurre Bachelier', 'Kieffer Seedling', 'Er Shi Shinge', 'Beurre Amanlis', 'Bristol Cross', 'Beurre Liegel', 'Beurre Lucon', 'Grand Champion', 'Magness', 'Mericourt' etc. and several ancient autochthonous cultivars ('Pere malaiete', 'De zahar de Bihor', 'Cu miez rosu', 'Clopotele', 'Garoafa mare', 'Craiese', 'Para de apa'. Also, there were identified several species of Pyrus with no attack, as P. pollveria, P. common pear, P. lindlezi, P. malifolia, P. persica, P. ussuriensis, P. variolosa. The remarked genotypes could be potential sources for further breeding programmes and increase the number of genotypes available for breeding new pear cultivars resistant to Erwinia attack.

  20. Potential impact of a hybrid leaf blight disease that infects both carrot and potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria dauci and Alternaria solani are two forms of necrotrophic fungi. A. dauci targets carrot crops, while A. solani mainly targets potato. Both species of Alternaria have been able to produce blight on their respective target plants. Recently, an A. dauci hybrid has appeared that is able to i...

  1. Biological control of chestnut canker, caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, by antagonistic organisms and hypovirulent isolates

    OpenAIRE

    AKILLI, Seçil; KATIRCIOĞLU, Yakup Zekai; MADEN, Salih

    2011-01-01

    Biological control of chestnut blight was investigated by using 3 hypovirulent isolates of Cryphonectria parasitica, 5 Trichoderma sp., 4 Penicillium sp., and 4 Bacillus sp. isolates. Hypovirulent isolates and antagonistic organisms were obtained from samples collected from the Black Sea region of Turkey, in 2008 and 2009. Effectiveness of the hypovirulent isolates and antagonistic microorganisms was tested on 3-year-old chestnut saplings. In the tests, bark disks of 6 mm were removed from th...

  2. Alterations in Kernel Proteome after Infection with Fusarium culmorum in Two Triticale Cultivars with Contrasting Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlikowski, Dawid; Wiśniewska, Halina; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Góral, Tomasz; Ochodzki, Piotr; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Augustyniak, Adam; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: The level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to Fusarium head blight. Triticale was used here as a model to recognize new components of molecular mechanism of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals. Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) of two lines distinct in levels of resistance to FHB were applied into a proteome profiling using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to create protein maps and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the proteins differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines. This proteomic research was supported by a measurement of alpha- and beta-amylase activities, mycotoxin content, and fungal biomass in the analyzed kernels. The 2-DE analysis indicated a total of 23 spots with clear differences in a protein content between the more resistant and more susceptible triticale lines after infection with Fusarium culmorum. A majority of the proteins were involved in a cell carbohydrate metabolism, stressing the importance of this protein group in a plant response to Fusarium infection. The increased accumulation levels of different isoforms of plant beta-amylase were observed for a more susceptible triticale line after inoculation but these were not supported by a total level of beta-amylase activity, showing the highest value in the control conditions. The more resistant line was characterized by a higher abundance of alpha-amylase inhibitor CM2 subunit and simultaneously a lower activity of alpha-amylase after inoculation. We suggest that the level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to FHB. PMID:27582751

  3. Alterations in Kernel Proteome after Infection with Fusarium culmorum in Two Triticale Cultivars with Contrasting Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlikowski, Dawid; Wiśniewska, Halina; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Góral, Tomasz; Ochodzki, Piotr; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Augustyniak, Adam; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: The level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to Fusarium head blight. Triticale was used here as a model to recognize new components of molecular mechanism of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals. Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) of two lines distinct in levels of resistance to FHB were applied into a proteome profiling using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to create protein maps and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the proteins differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines. This proteomic research was supported by a measurement of alpha- and beta-amylase activities, mycotoxin content, and fungal biomass in the analyzed kernels. The 2-DE analysis indicated a total of 23 spots with clear differences in a protein content between the more resistant and more susceptible triticale lines after infection with Fusarium culmorum. A majority of the proteins were involved in a cell carbohydrate metabolism, stressing the importance of this protein group in a plant response to Fusarium infection. The increased accumulation levels of different isoforms of plant beta-amylase were observed for a more susceptible triticale line after inoculation but these were not supported by a total level of beta-amylase activity, showing the highest value in the control conditions. The more resistant line was characterized by a higher abundance of alpha-amylase inhibitor CM2 subunit and simultaneously a lower activity of alpha-amylase after inoculation. We suggest that the level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to FHB. PMID:27582751

  4. Expression of Biphenyl Synthase Genes and Formation of Phytoalexin Compounds in Three Fire Blight-Infected Pyrus communis Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Swiddan, Asya K.; Abdelaziz, Sahar; Gaid, Mariam; Richter, Klaus; Fischer, Thilo C.; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    Pear (Pyrus communis) is an economically important fruit crop. Drops in yield and even losses of whole plantations are caused by diseases, most importantly fire blight which is triggered by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In response to the infection, biphenyls and dibenzofurans are formed as phytoalexins, biosynthesis of which is initiated by biphenyl synthase (BIS). Two PcBIS transcripts were cloned from fire blight-infected leaves and the encoded enzymes were characterized regarding substrate specificities and kinetic parameters. Expression of PcBIS1 and PcBIS2 was studied in three pear cultivars after inoculation with E. amylovora. Both PcBIS1 and PcBIS2 were expressed in ‘Harrow Sweet’, while only PcBIS2 transcripts were detected in ‘Alexander Lucas’ and ‘Conference’. Expression of the PcBIS genes was observed in both leaves and the transition zone of the stem; however, biphenyls and dibenzofurans were only detected in stems. The maximum phytoalexin level (~110 μg/g dry weight) was observed in the transition zone of ‘Harrow Sweet’, whereas the concentrations were ten times lower in ‘Conference’ and not even detectable in ‘Alexander Lucas’. In ‘Harrow Sweet’, the accumulation of the maximum phytoalexin level correlated with the halt of migration of the transition zone, whereby the residual part of the shoot survived. In contrast, the transition zones of ‘Alexander Lucas’ and ‘Conference’ advanced down to the rootstock, resulting in necrosis of the entire shoots. PMID:27410389

  5. Pathogenicity and infection strategies of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora in Rosaceae: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, K; Holtappels, M; Schoofs, H; Deckers, T; Valcke, R

    2013-05-01

    Plants are host to a large amount of pathogenic bacteria. Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is an important disease in Rosaceae. Pathogenicity of E. amylovora is greatly influenced by the production of exopolysaccharides, such as amylovoran, and the use of the type III secretion system, which enables bacteria to penetrate host tissue and cause disease. When infection takes place, plants have to rely on the ability of each cell to recognize the pathogen and the signals emanating from the infection site in order to generate several defence mechanisms. These mechanisms consist of physical barriers and the production of antimicrobial components, both in a preformed and an inducible manner. Inducible defence responses are activated upon the recognition of elicitor molecules by plant cell receptors, either derived from invading micro-organisms or from pathogen-induced degradation of plant tissue. This recognition event triggers a signal transduction cascade, leading to a range of defence responses [reactive oxygen species (ROS), plant hormones, secondary metabolites, …] and redeployment of cellular energy in a fast, efficient and multiresponsive manner, which prevents further pathogen ingress. This review highlights the research that has been performed during recent years regarding this specific plant-pathogen interaction between Erwinia amylovora and Rosaceae, with a special emphasis on the pathogenicity and the infection strategy of E. amylovora and the possible defence mechanisms of the plant against this disease. PMID:23493063

  6. Species-specific duplications of NBS-encoding genes in Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yan; Li, Yingjun; Huang, Kaihui; Cheng, Zong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The disease resistance (R) genes play an important role in protecting plants from infection by diverse pathogens in the environment. The nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) class of genes is one of the largest R gene families. Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is resistant to Chestnut Blight Disease, but relatively little is known about the resistance mechanism. We identified 519 NBS-encoding genes, including 374 NBS-LRR genes and 145 NBS-only genes. The majority of Ka/Ks were less than 1, suggesting the purifying selection operated during the evolutionary history of NBS-encoding genes. A minority (4/34) of Ka/Ks in non-TIR gene families were greater than 1, showing that some genes were under positive selection pressure. Furthermore, Ks peaked at a range of 0.4 to 0.5, indicating that ancient duplications arose during the evolution. The relationship between Ka/Ks and Ks indicated greater selective pressure on the newer and older genes with the critical value of Ks = 0.4-0.5. Notably, species-specific duplications were detected in NBS-encoding genes. In addition, the group of RPW8-NBS-encoding genes clustered together as an independent clade located at a relatively basal position in the phylogenetic tree. Many cis-acting elements related to plant defense responses were detected in promoters of NBS-encoding genes. PMID:26559332

  7. Survival and growth of chestnut backcross seeds and seedlings on surface mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skousen, J; Cook, T; Wilson-Kokes, L; Pena-Yewtukhiw, E

    2013-01-01

    Some scientists consider the loss of the American chestnut from forests in the eastern United States as one of the greatest forest ecological disasters in the 20th century. The American Chestnut Foundation has been attempting to restore chestnut by backcrossing blight-resistant Chinese chestnut to American chestnut and selecting those strains with blight resistance. Third-generation backcross seeds and seedlings have been produced and planted by researchers. Surface-mined lands provide a land base where these backcross chestnut seedlings may be introduced back into forests. In 2008, seeds of two parent species of chestnut (100% American and 100% Chinese) and three breeding generations (BF, BF, and BF backcrosses) were planted into loosely graded mine soils with and without tree shelters. First-year establishment from seeds averaged 81%. After the fourth year, survival without shelters declined for all chestnut stock types except for Chinese (80%): American 40%, BF 70%, BF 40%, and BF 55%. Survival with shelters was only slightly better after the fourth year (average, 60% with shelters and 57% without). Height growth was not different among stock types, and average height after the fourth year was 43 cm without shelters and 56 cm with shelters. In 2009, seeds and seedlings of the same chestnut stock types were planted into brown (pH 4.5) or gray (pH 6.6) mine soils. Only six out of 250 seeds germinated, which was very poor considering 81% average seed germination in 2008. Transplanted chestnut seedling survival was much better. After the third year, seedling survival was 85% in brown and 80% in gray soil, but significant differences were found with stock types. Survival was significantly higher with American, Chinese, and BF stock types (75%) than with BF and BF (60%). Height after the third season averaged 90 cm on brown and 62 cm on gray soil. Chestnut backcrosses displayed no hybrid vigor and were not better in survival and growth than the parent stock. All five

  8. Alternaria blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria blight of chickpea is caused by the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata. The pathogen has wide host range, and affects all above ground parts of the plant. The disease occurs sporadically and occasionally could be economically important and causes significant damage. The pathogen can ...

  9. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A M

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39 °C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens. PMID:22808044

  10. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen de Keijzer

    Full Text Available Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39 °C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens.

  11. HISTOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight re-emerged as a devastating disease of wheat and barley in the 1990s in the midwestern U.S. Research efforts to control the disease have been hampered by limited knowledge of how the fungal head blight pathogens infect and damage head tissue and what natural defenses the plant h...

  12. Detection of irradiated chestnuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ionizing radiation treatment of food is growing acceptance and application to ever increasing variety of products. The method has indeed proved efficient in reducing food losses and in improving safety of products. Among vegetable products of interest for radiation treatment, chestnuts have recently been considered. Irradiation treatment of chestnuts has been authorized in countries such as Korea as a valid and safe alternative to the widespread use of fumigants. At the Italian level, Montella chestnut is a typical variety recognized as a PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) product and widely used in confectionery industry. In view of an extension of radiation treatment to this kind of product, to permit legal controls and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed and validated. The task of finding detection methods for irradiated chestnuts can be in principle afforded with different methods. The cellulose and sugar contained in the skin and pulp, respectively, might suggest the use of the protocol EN 1787 and EN 13708, relative to ESR spectroscopy. In particular, the protocol EN 1787, based on ESR technique, is applied to detect cellulose radicals radio-induced in outer shell part of the sample as well as in the seed present in the inner part of the fruit. It is known that ionizing radiation may induce two different ESR signals: cellulose signal and a single line signal centered at g = 2. The protocol EN 1787 uses the low intensity cellulose signal for identification. In the present study, in case of low cellulose content, even the g = 2 is analyzed for setting up an alternative identification procedure. Protocol EN 13708, used to identify food containing crystalline sugar by ESR spectroscopy, is applied to the pulp of fruit. As for luminescence measurements, mineral isolation of silicates and TL measurements is done according to European Standard EN 1788. Preliminary test showed that the

  13. Fire blight disease reactome: RNA-seq transcriptional profile of apple host plant defense responses to Erwinia amylovora pathogen infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamber, Tim; Buchmann, Jan P; Pothier, Joël F; Smits, Theo H M; Wicker, Thomas; Duffy, Brion

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility of host plants to fire blight, a major disease threat to pome fruit production globally, is largely unknown. RNA-sequencing data from challenged and mock-inoculated flowers were analyzed to assess the susceptible response of apple to the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In presence of the pathogen 1,080 transcripts were differentially expressed at 48 h post inoculation. These included putative disease resistance, stress, pathogen related, general metabolic, and phytohormone related genes. Reads, mapped to regions on the apple genome where no genes were assigned, were used to identify potential novel genes and open reading frames. To identify transcripts specifically expressed in response to E. amylovora, RT-PCRs were conducted and compared to the expression patterns of the fire blight biocontrol agent Pantoea vagans strain C9-1, another apple pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans, and mock inoculated apple flowers. This led to the identification of a peroxidase superfamily gene that was lower expressed in response to E. amylovora suggesting a potential role in the susceptibility response. Overall, this study provides the first transcriptional profile by RNA-seq of the host plant during fire blight disease and insights into the response of susceptible apple plants to E. amylovora. PMID:26883568

  14. Effective marker alleles associated with type II resistance of wheat to Fusarium head blight infection in fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular markers associated with known quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for type 2 resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in bi-parental mapping populations usually have more than two alleles in breeding populations. Therefore, understanding the association of each allele with FHB response is parti...

  15. Somatic Embryogenesis in Chestnut

    OpenAIRE

    CORREDOIRA, E.; Ballester, A.; Viéitez Madriñán, Francisco Javier; Viéitez Martín, Ana María

    2005-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is an important biotechnological tool that demonstrates significant benefits when applied to forest tree species; clonal propagation, cryostorage of valuable germoplasm and genetic transformation are among the most promising of its applications. In this chapter, the state of the art of somatic embryogenesis in chestnut (an important economical tree species of the genus Castanea) is assessed and discussed. The factors affecting the induction (type of explant, growth condi...

  16. Differential transcriptomic responses to Fusarium graminearum infection in two barley quantitative trait loci associated with Fusarium head blight resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yadong; Li, Lin; Smith, Kevin P.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB), a major disease problem worldwide. Resistance to FHB is controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL) of which two are located on barley chromosomes 2H bin8 and 6H bin7. The mechanisms of resistance mediated by FHB QTL are poorly defined. Results Near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying Chevron-derived resistant alleles for the two QTL were developed and exhibited FHB resistance in field trials. To understand the molecular responses ...

  17. Chemical and Cultural Approaches to Enhance Host Resistance to Fire Blight: Growth Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora [(Burrill) Winslow et al.] is one of the most destructive diseases in apple. Infection is initiated in the spring on flowers and with a second stage in late spring and summer termed shoot blight. Vigorous succulent growth favors fire blight inf...

  18. Assessing zoospore Phytophthora activity to enhance disease management and promote ecological surveillance of chestnut ink disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Eugénia; Nunes, Luís

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. cambivora are soil borne Oomycetes that cause Chestnut Ink Disease, a lethal and widespread disease of the European chestnut (Castanea saliva Mill. Zoospores are the main infective propagules that actively swimming in liquid environments, reach the roots, encyst and infect the host. Gathering these biological characteristics we studied, on potting mix previously infested with P. cinnamomi, zoospore re lease and environmental conditions that prom...

  19. Assessing phytophtora zoospore a to enhance disease management and promote ecological surveillance of chestnut ink disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Eugénia; Nunes, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. cambivora are soil borne oomycetes that cause Chestnut Ink Disease, a lethal and widespread disease of the European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.). Soil moisture is a key factor for the onset of Phytophthora root rot epidemics. Zoospores are the main infective propagules that reach the roots by swimming in liquid environments, become encysted and after that infect the host. Considering this biological uniqueness, we studied zoospore release an...

  20. Ascochyta Blight of Chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Ali; Ozkan, Zuhal

    2016-01-01

    Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) which is also called as anthracnose is the most important yield increasing fungal disease in chickpea production over the world and usually depends on winter rains. Symptoms of disease usually appear around flowering and podding time as patches of blighted plants in the field. Typical circular spots appear on leaves and pods, elongated lesions on stem, and deep cankerous lesions on seeds. Present research was made to an evaluation of ascochyta blight, main ...

  1. Rhizoctonia web blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia web blight, caused by several Rhizoctonia spp., is an important disease of evergreen azaleas and other ornamental plants in nurseries. The primary pathogens causing web blight are binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AG) (= Ceratobasidium D.P. Rogers, teleomorph). In southern AL an...

  2. The early days of late blight

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Paul RJ; Cooke, David EL

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale DNA sequencing of samples of foliage collected in the 19th century from plants infected with late blight has shown that the potato famines of the 1840s were triggered by a single clonal lineage of Phytophthora infestans, called HERB-1, which persisted for at least 50 years.

  3. XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

  4. Transcriptome dynamics of a susceptible wheat upon Fusarium head blight reveals that molecular responses to Fusarium graminearum infection fit over the grain development processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetouhi, Cherif; Bonhomme, Ludovic; Lasserre-Zuber, Pauline; Cambon, Florence; Pelletier, Sandra; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Langin, Thierry

    2016-03-01

    In many plant/pathogen interactions, host susceptibility factors are key determinants of disease development promoting pathogen growth and spreading in plant tissues. In the Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease, the molecular basis of wheat susceptibility is still poorly understood while it could provide new insights into the understanding of the wheat/Fusarium graminearum (Fg) interaction and guide future breeding programs to produce cultivars with sustainable resistance. To identify the wheat grain candidate genes, a genome-wide gene expression profiling was performed in the French susceptible wheat cultivar, Recital. Gene-specific two-way ANOVA of about 40 K transcripts at five grain developmental stages identified 1309 differentially expressed genes. Out of these, 536 were impacted by the Fg effect alone. Most of these Fg-responsive genes belonged to biological and molecular functions related to biotic and abiotic stresses indicating the activation of common stress pathways during susceptibility response of wheat grain to FHB. This analysis revealed also 773 other genes displaying either specific Fg-responsive profiles along with grain development stages or synergistic adjustments with the grain development effect. These genes were involved in various molecular pathways including primary metabolism, cell death, and gene expression reprogramming. An increasingly complex host response was revealed, as was the impact of both Fg infection and grain ontogeny on the transcription of wheat genes. This analysis provides a wealth of candidate genes and pathways involved in susceptibility responses to FHB and depicts new clues to the understanding of the susceptibility determinism in plant/pathogen interactions. PMID:26797431

  5. Effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Lina; Li, Qian; Xie, Shuangshuang; Hu, Jiaqi; Wu, Yanwen; Ouyang, Jie

    2016-10-20

    The present study focused on the effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel. After thermal processing, the total starch content in both boiled and roasted chestnuts decreased significantly (Pstarch in cooked chestnut was gradually destroyed during the thermal processing. The starch in cooked chestnut still exhibited C-type X-ray diffraction patterns, but the intensity of diffraction peaks and the crystallinity were obviously declined compared with those of fresh chestnut. Textural profile analysis of chestnut starch gel and chestnut kernel showed that the main textural characterizations of roasted chestnut were higher than those of boiled chestnuts. These results are helpful for better understanding the texture change in fresh, boiled and roasted chestnuts, which indicated that roasting is an alternative industrial thermal processing method for chestnut kernel. PMID:27474607

  6. Practices to manage chestnut orchards infested by the Chinese gall wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchetti T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of the Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in Italian chestnut growing areas is causing new criticisms. In this context, in addition to a clear plant suffering due to the wasp infestation, the dangerous recurrence of chestnut blight and the sudden spread of Gnomoniopsis sp., a coloniser of galls but also the etiological agent of nut brown rot, must be considered. Therefore, it is very important to increase the plants’ vigour and prevent their decline. Preliminary experiments were carried out in different Italian regions between 2010 and 2011. Organic plant fertilizers were applied to plants showing middle or high defoliation levels caused by the wasp attacks. The observations carried out during the growing season indicate a good vegetative restart in the treated plants compared to the untreated controls, in all the situations and independently of the fertilizers applied. Most of the treated plants (between the 75% and the 100% showed an evident improvement in the canopy vegetation, while the untreated controls were always classified in the worse classes of crown condition. These preliminary results highlight the efficacy of this kind of treatments for infested chestnut stands. This strategy, which is based on the preliminary evaluation of the plant vigour (following the proposed scale of attack severity and lack of foliage, consists in a manuring treatment at vegetative restart, which can be repeated in the following years in dependence on the results obtained. Moreover, pruning may be suggested only to manage the development of plants showing a definite recovery. The gall wasp pullulation requires new management strategies aimed at preserving the chestnut orchards, in order to avoid the chestnut cultivation to be marginalized or abandoned.

  7. Studies on fire blight.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    Part 1Effects of water potential and temperature on multiplication of and pressure by Erwinia amylovora in host plantsAnalysis of field data from Eve Billing, England, on the duration of the incubation period of fire blight revealed that temperature and rainfall wer

  8. Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi causes chestnut canker symptoms in Castanea sativa shoots in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Sabrina; Calmin, Gautier; Auderset, Guy; Crovadore, Julien; Pelleteret, Pegah; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Barja, François; Paul, Bernard; Jermini, Mauro; Lefort, François

    2016-02-01

    A screening of Castanea sativa scions for grafting for the presence of endophytes showed that the opportunistic fungal pathogen Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi was the most abundant member of the endophytic flora. This fungus is known as a pathogen affecting chestnut fruits in Italy and Australia. Here, we present evidence that it causes cankers very similar to the ones due to Cryphonectria parasitica infection on twigs and scions of chestnut trees. We found natural infections of G. smithogilvyi in healthy grafted plants as well as in scions from chestnut trees. The identity of the fungus isolated from asymptomatic tissues was verified by applying Koch's postulates and corroborated by DNA sequencing of four different gene regions. In contrast to C. parasitica that appears on the bark as yellow to orange pycnidia, stromata and slimy twisted tendrils, G. smithogilvyi forms orange to red and black pycnidia, gray stromata and cream-colored to beige slimy twisted tendrils on the bark. These Swiss strains are closely related to G. smithogilvyi strains from Australia and from New Zealand, Gnomoniopsis sp. and Gnomoniopsis castanea from New Zealand, Italy, France and Switzerland. While the strains from Ticino are genetically very close to G. smithogilvyi and G. castanea from Italy, the differences between the strains from Ticino and Geneva suggest two different origins. The present study supports the hypothesis that a single species named G. smithogilvyi, which is known to be the agent of chestnut rot, also causes wood cankers on chestnut. PMID:26768710

  9. Response of germinating barley seeds to Fusarium graminearum: The first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium seedling blight in cereals can result in significant reductions in plant establishment but has not received much attention. The disease often starts during seed germination due to sowing of the seeds infected by Fusarium spp. including Fusarium graminearum. In order to gain the first...... provides the first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight....

  10. Assessment of weather risk on chestnut production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. G.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Caramelo, L.

    2009-04-01

    Meteorological conditions play a fundamental role during entire chestnut tree vegetative cycle. Chestnut trees are well adapted to mean year temperatures of 8-15°C, requires monthly mean temperatures greater than 10°C during 6 months (Gomes-Laranjo et al. 2008) and its pollen only germinates at relatively high temperatures of 27-30°C (Bounous, 2002). Photosynthesis of an adult tree is highly dependent of temperature. Photosynthesis is maximal at 24-28°C but it is inhibited for temperatures greater than 32°C (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). Furthermore, there are significant differences between chestnut trees cultivated in northfaced orchads in relation to those cultivated in the southfaced and between leaves from different sides of the chestnut canopy because they receive different amounts of radiant energy and consequently they grow under different mean daily air temperature. The objective of this work was to assess the role of weather on chestnut production variability. This study was performed for the 28 years period defined between 1980 and 2007 and it was based on annual values of chestnut production and total area of production, at national level, provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal. The meteorological data used was provided by Meteored (http://www.meteored.com/) and includes daily values of precipitation, wind speed, and mean, maximum and minimum air temperature. All meteorological variables were tested as potential predictors by means of a simple correlation analysis. Multiple time intervals were considered in this the analysis, which consist in moving intervals of constant length and forward and backward evolutionary intervals. Results show that some meteorological variables present significant correlation with chestnut productivity particularly in the most relevant periods of the chestnut tree cycle, like the previous winter, the flushing phase and the maturation period. A regression model based on the winter (January

  11. Influence of hypholoma fasciculare in portuguese chestnut groves sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, F.; Pereira, Eric; Tavares, R. M.; Baptista, Paula; Neto, T. Lino

    2011-01-01

    The chestnut tree (Castanea sativa) has an enormous economic importance at national level, mainly due to the value of the fruit (chestnut) and the high quality of the wood. The presence of the fungus Hypholoma fasciculare has been observed in chestnut orchard soils of Trás-os-Montes (Portugal). Although it is described as being a saprophyte, preliminary studies have demonstrated that H. fasciculare could cause serious damage to the chestnut trees. On the other hand, it has an expressive antag...

  12. Transcriptional response in apple to fire blight disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pear, and other plants in the subfamily Maloideae of the Rosaceae. The goal of this study was to use a global analysis of gene expression to characterize the temporal response of apple to infection by E. amyl...

  13. Systems and models of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kielak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents fire blight prediction models and systems, developed in Europe (system Billing - versions: BOS, BRS, BIS95 and originated from this system: Firescreen, FEUERBRA and ANLAFBRA and in United States (Californian system, model Maryblyt and system Cougarblight. Use of above models and systems in various climatic-geographic conditions and comparison of obtained prognostic data to real fire blight occurrence is reviewed. The newest trends in research on improvement of prognostic analyses parameters with their adjustment to particular conditions and consideration of infection source occurrence are also presented.

  14. The Content of Phenolic Compounds in Leaf Tissues of White (Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Red Horse Chestnut (Aesculus carea H. Colonized by the Horse Chestnut Leaf Miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Oszmiański

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normally, plant phenolics are secondary metabolites involved in the defense mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens. Therefore, in this study we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in leaves of white and red horse chestnut with leaf miner larvae before and after Cameraria ohridella attack. A total of 17 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in white and red horse chestnut leaf extracts. Significantly decreased concentrations of some phenolic compounds, especially of flavan-3-ols, were observed in infected leaves compared to the non-infected ones. Additionally, a higher content of polyphenolic compounds especially (−-epicatechin and procyanidins in leaves of red-flowering than in white-flowering horse chestnut may explain their greater resistance to C. ohridella insects.

  15. The content of phenolic compounds in leaf tissues of white (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and red horse chestnut (Aesculus carea H.) colonized by the horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmiański, Jan; Kalisz, Stanisław; Aneta, Wojdyło

    2014-01-01

    Normally, plant phenolics are secondary metabolites involved in the defense mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens. Therefore, in this study we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in leaves of white and red horse chestnut with leaf miner larvae before and after Cameraria ohridella attack. A total of 17 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in white and red horse chestnut leaf extracts. Significantly decreased concentrations of some phenolic compounds, especially of flavan-3-ols, were observed in infected leaves compared to the non-infected ones. Additionally, a higher content of polyphenolic compounds especially (-)-epicatechin and procyanidins in leaves of red-flowering than in white-flowering horse chestnut may explain their greater resistance to C. ohridella insects. PMID:25225723

  16. Formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in the transition zones of fire blight-infected stems of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-05-01

    In the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), pathogen attack leads to formation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Accumulation of these phytoalexins was studied in greenhouse-grown grafted shoots of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference' after inoculation with the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. No phytoalexins were found in leaves. However, both classes of defence compounds were detected in the transition zone of stems. The flanking stem segments above and below this zone, which were necrotic and healthy, respectively, were devoid of detectable phytoalexins. The transition zone of apple stems contained the biphenyls 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyaucuparin, aucuparin, noraucuparin and 2'-hydroxyaucuparin and the dibenzofurans eriobofuran and noreriobofuran. In pear, aucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin, noreriobofuran and in addition 3,4,5-trimethoxybiphenyl were detected. The total phytoalexin content in the transition zone of pear was 25 times lower than that in apple. Leaves and stems of mock-inoculated apple and pear shoots lacked phytoalexins. A number of biphenyls and dibenzofurans were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Erwinia amylovora strains. The most efficient compound was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (MIC=115 μg/ml), the immediate product of biphenyl synthase which initiates phytoalexin biosynthesis. PMID:22377689

  17. First Occurence of Fire Blight on Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Végh, Anita; László PALKOVICS

    2013-01-01

    During July 2012, a severe unusual disease symptom was observed on young shoots on apricot (Prunus armeniaca 10/13 hybrid) in the city of Pomáz, near Budapest. The naturally infected shoots showed typical symptoms of fire blight including terminal shoots with brown to black necrotic lesions. Symptoms were the same as fire blight symptoms reported from other hosts and locations. The first occurrence of fire blight on an apricot tree in Europe was recorded in Czech Republic in 2011. Samples of ...

  18. Assessment of the chestnut production weather dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mário; Caramelo, Liliana; Gouveia, Célia; Gomes-Laranjo, José

    2010-05-01

    The vegetative cycle of chestnut trees is highly dependent on weather. Photosynthesis and pollen germination are mainly conditioned by the air temperature while heavy precipitation and strong wind have significant impacts during the flushing phase period (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). In Portugal, chestnut tree orchads are located in mountainous areas of the Northeast region of Trás-os-Montes, between 600 and 1000 m of altitude. Topography controls the atmospheric environment and assures adequate conditions for the chestnut production. In the above mentioned context, remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise vegetation dynamics. A number of studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in Europe to analyse the year-to-year variations in European vegetation greenness as a function of precipitation and temperature (Gouveia et al., 2008). A previous study focusing on the relationship between meteorological variables and chestnut productivity provides indication that simulation models may benefit from the incorporation of such kind of relationships. The aim of the present work is to provide a detailed description of recent developments, in particular of the added value that may be brought by using satellite data. We have relied on regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset, at 8-km resolution, provided by the Global Inventory Monitoring and Modelling System (GIMMS) group. The data are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR), and cover the period from 1982 to 2006. Additionally we have used the chestnut productivity dataset, which includes the annual values of chestnut production and area of production provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal and the meteorological dataset which includes values of several variables from different providers (Meteorod, NCEP/NCAR, ECA&D and national Meteorological Institute). Results show that

  19. Cost-benefit Analysis of Chestnut Production in Xingtai County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuji; JIN

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of market demand survey of chestnut,this article carries out cost-benefit analysis of the chestnut production in Xingtai County,to understand the profitability and payback period of local chestnut production.It points out that chestnut production has a high rate of return on investment,and chestnut can be promoted on a large scale in Xingtai County.However,there are still some problems in the production and marketing of chestnut in Xingtai County,such as low level of technology,extensive management,low level of organization,market imperfections and weak brand consciousness.Based on these problems,corresponding recommendations are put forth.

  20. Effects of Crop Sanitation and Ridomil MZ Applications on Late Blight Severity and Tomato Yields in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younyi, PC.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum production in Cameroon is usually handicapped by late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans. A field trial was conducted during 1997 in Dschang, Cameroon, to assess the effect of Ridomil MZ (8% metalaxyl + 64% mancozeb sprays, and sanitation (a weekly picking of diseased leaves on late blight development and yield of five tomato varieties. Plots received Ridomil MZ (2.5 kg/ha and sanitation singly or combined. Control plots were neither sprayed nor cleaned from diseased leaves. All treatments were applied ten times in a weekly schedule. Late blight intensity was assessed every 7 days and marketable fruit yields were obtained at maturity. Differences in late blight intensity between sanitation and control plots were not significant (P= 0,05. Fungicide treatments were more effective than sanitation in reducing late blight severity. Percent fruit infection was 100% in control or sanitation plots of ARP I366-1, ARP D1, ARP D2, Roma, and no marketable fruits were harvested on these treatments. Late blight was less severe on Mecline compared to the other varieties. Consequently, Mecline out-yielded Roma, ARP I366-1, ARP D1 and ARP D2 varieties. Results suggest that the fungicide-alternative method of late blight control, using sanitation is not as effective in tomato late blight management as appropriate fungicide sprays.

  1. Effects of irradiation on physiology of chestnut under cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality characteristics of irradiated chestnut at dose of 0.5 kGy after 8 months storage at 0 degree C-4 degree C were studied. Results showed that cold storage shelf life could be effectively prolonged by irradiation. After 8 months storage, the water contents, total sugars, starch and respiratory rate of irradiated chestnut were significantly higher than control. (authors)

  2. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Tian; Zheng, Fu-Shan; Qin, Jing; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby) is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.). To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb) and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC), central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC) and southwestern China (SWC) based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900-126,500 years ago. PMID:27459279

  3. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tian Tang

    Full Text Available Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.. To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC, central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC and southwestern China (SWC based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900-126,500 years ago.

  4. Late blight and early blight resistance from Solanum hougasii introgressed into Solanum tuberosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, and early blight, incited by Alternaria solani,are the two most widely occurring foliar diseases of potato in the U.S. Resistance to both diseases is necessary if growers are to reduce fungicide applications. Field resistance to late blight has previous...

  5. Mechanical characterization of old chestnut beams

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Jorge M.; Peixoto, Tiago; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Medeiros, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate, by non-destructive techniques, seven old Chestnut beams. For that, after the geometric assessment and the detailed visual inspection that allowed to strength grade the beams, a series of non-destructive tests was setup. In a first step, non-destructive bending tests, under the elastic limit, were performed to quantify the modulus of elasticity in bending (MoE) of the seven beams. Then, Resistograph® and Pilodyn® tests were done to...

  6. Electrochemical Determination of Low Molecular Mass Thiols Content in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum Cultivated in the Presence of Various Sulphur Forms and Infected by Late Blight (Phytophora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper potato plants were cultivated in the presence of ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur supplementation into the soil to reveal the effects of different sulphur forms on content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur, and yield of tubers. During the investigation of the influence of different sulphur forms on yield of potato tubers we did not observe significant changes. Average weight of tubers of control plants per one experimental pot was 355 g. Application of sulphur in both forms resulted in moderate potato tubers weight reduction per one experimental pot compared to control group; average value ranged from 320 to 350 g per one experimental pot. Further we treated the plants with two different supplementation of sulphur with cadmium(II ions (4 mg of cadmium(II acetate per kilogram of the soil. The significantly lowest cadmium content (p < 0.05 was determined in tissues of plants treated with the highest dosage of elemental sulphur (0.64 mg Cd/kg compared to control plants (0.82 mg Cd/kg. We also aimed our attention on the cadmium content in proteins, lipids or soluble carbohydrates and ash. Application of sulphate as well as elemental sulphur resulted in significant cadmium content reduction in lipid fraction compared to control plants. In addition to this we quantified content of low molecular mass thiols in potatoes tissues. To determine the thiols content we employed differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. After twelve days of the treatment enhancing of thiols level was observed in all experimental groups regardless to applied sulphur form and its concentration. Finally we evaluated the effect of sulphur supplementation on Phytophora infestans infection of potato plants.

  7. Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i a simulation model (R2-value = 87% based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63% with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.

  8. Consequences of Shifts in Abundance and Distribution of American Chestnut for Restoration of a Foundation Forest Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmony J. Dalgleish

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of foundation species, such as the American chestnut (Castanea dentata that was devastated by an introduced fungus, can restore ecosystem function. Understanding both the current distribution as well as biogeographic patterns is important for restoration planning. We used United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis data to quantify the current density and distribution of C. dentata. We then review the literature concerning biogeographic patterns in C. dentata. Currently, 431 ± 30.2 million stems remain. The vast majority (360 ± 22 million are sprouts <2.5 cm dbh. Although this number is approximately 10% of the estimated pre-blight population, blight has caused a major shift in the size structure. The current-day population has a larger range, particularly west and north, likely due to human translocation. While climate change could facilitate northward expansion, limited seed reproduction makes this unlikely without assisted migration. Previous research demonstrates that the current, smaller population contains slightly higher genetic diversity than expected, although little information exists on biogeographic patterns in the genetics of adaptive traits. Our research provides a baseline characterization of the contemporary population of C. dentata, to enable monitoring stem densities and range limits to support restoration efforts.

  9. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jing; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby) is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.). To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb) and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC), central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC) and southwestern China (SWC) based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900–126,500 years ago. PMID:27459279

  10. Biochemical composition of the horse chestnut seed (Aesculus hippocastanum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Čukanović Jelena; Ninić-Todorović Jelena; Ognjanov V.; Mladenović Emina; Ljubojević Mirjana; Kurjakov A.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents research on the chemical composition of 15 horse chestnut seed genotypes (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) conducted on three different sites. The seeds were picked from selected trees in Bačka Palanka, Novi Sad and Sremski Karlovci at the end of September 2010. The statistical parameters point out the variables of the examined features of the seed. On the basis of the moisture, starch, fat and protein contents in the horse chestnut seeds, the genotypes, the reproductive m...

  11. Physical characteristics and drying kinetics of Portuguese "Longal" chestnut

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalhosa, Elsa; Lamas, Hugo; Pereira, J.A.; Morais, A. M. M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Chestnut is a fruit of great importance in Portugal, being generally sold fresh or frozen. Alternative products may be obtained by hot air drying. The present work is on the dehydration behavior of Portuguese ‘Longal’ chestnut, that is the most used in industry. Different models for representing the variations of water content and drying rate along time were tested successfully. As expected, higher temperatures correspond to faster drying processes. The apparent diffusivity was predicted b...

  12. Analysis of rice PDR-like ABC transporter genes in sheath blight resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most damaging diseases of rice worldwide. To understand the molecular mechanism of resistance, we identified 450 differentially expressed genes in a resistant rice cultivar Jasmine 85 after R. solani infection with a combination of DNA microar...

  13. Fire blight incidence on Malus sieversii grown in New York and Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malus sieversii, a wild apple species native to Central Asia, has been recognized as the major progenitor of the domestic apple. This investigation summarizes the natural infection by Erwinia amylovora (fire blight) on 2590 M. sieversii seedlings grown as own-rooted trees. At a USDA orchard in Gen...

  14. DIFFERENTIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TO FIRE BLIGHT IN COMMERCIAL AND EXPERIMENTAL APPLE ROOTSTOCK CULTIVARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geneva rootstock breeding program has developed several new rootstocks that exhibit disease resistance to Erwinia amylovora. Utilization of disease resistant apple rootstocks increases the survivability of young trees infected by fire blight. The goal of this experiment was to further investigat...

  15. Quantitative Effects of Early and Late Blights on Tomato Yields in Cameroon

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    Fontem, DA.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Early blight caused by Alternaria solani and late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans are the major diseases of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum in Cameroon. The effect of both diseases on fruit yield was evaluated during the 1995 growing season in Dschang, Cameroon.Ten varieties were planted in the first trial (March-July and nine in the second (July- November. In both trials, plots were sprayed weekly with Ridomil Plus (2.0 kg/ha before flowering and with maneb (1.6 kg/ha after flowering. Early blight was more severe in the early part of the first trial, while late blight caused most damage during the second. Marketable yields varied according to variety. High yields in sprayed plots were obtained in Dona F1 (61.63 t/ha and Heinz 1370 (68.24 t/ha during the first trial, and in Fline (58.35 t/ha, Mecline (64.25 t/ha, and Moboline (55.16 t/ha during the second trial. Percent fruit infection in sprayed plots caused by both diseases varied according to variety from 12 to 65% in the first season and from 14 to 52% in the second, while losses in marketable yields for both blights were as high as 100% in unsprayed plots.

  16. Review of World literature on Water Chestnut with implications for management in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, Meredith; Kiviat, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa natans L.,sensu lato) is an annual, floating-leaved aquatic plant of temperate and tropical freshwater wetlands, rivers, lakes, ponds, and estuaries. Native to Eurasia and Africa, water chestnut has been widely gathered for its large nutritious seed since the Neolithic and is cultivated for food in Asia. Water chestnut is now a species of conservation concern in Europe and Russia. Introduced to the northeastern United States in the mid-1800s, the spread of water chestnut...

  17. Effectiveness of selected preparations used in the fight against alternaria blight and late blight on potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Maciejewski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In experiments carried out in 2007-2008 the effect was explored of performance of preparations Gwarant 500 SC and Bravo 500 SC in alternaria blight and potato late blight. Both tested formulations limited the illnesses and had no significant effect on the tuber yield obtained, its structure and content of starch.

  18. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of 'Montella' chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  19. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangiacotti, Michele [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Foggia (Italy)], E-mail: izsfgchimica@infinito.it; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Foggia (Italy); De Sio, Antonio [La Dolce Irpinia Srl - Montella (AV) (Italy); Boniglia, Concetta [Department of Public Veterinary Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro [Department of Technology and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of 'Montella' chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  20. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana; De Sio, Antonio; Boniglia, Concetta; Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro

    2009-07-01

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [ European Parliament and Council Directive, 1999/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of "Montella" chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  1. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill) starch for industrial utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Demiate Ivo Mottin; Oetterer Marília; Wosiacki Gilvan

    2001-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g), lipid (5.39 g/100g), crude fiber (2.34 g/100g) and ash (2.14 g/100g). Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and...

  2. Biochemical composition of the horse chestnut seed (Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čukanović Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents research on the chemical composition of 15 horse chestnut seed genotypes (Aesculus hippocastanum L. conducted on three different sites. The seeds were picked from selected trees in Bačka Palanka, Novi Sad and Sremski Karlovci at the end of September 2010. The statistical parameters point out the variables of the examined features of the seed. On the basis of the moisture, starch, fat and protein contents in the horse chestnut seeds, the genotypes, the reproductive material which would be used for the intensive production of the high grade seedlings for the greening of the different area categories in urban areas, are distinguished.

  3. Selection for bacterial leaf-blight (Xanthomonas oryzae) and sheath-blight (Rhizoctonia oryzae) resistant mutants in a collection of early rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two of the most important and common rice diseases in Indonesia are bacterial leaf blight (BLB) and sheath blight (SB). The best rice yielding varieties in Indonesia, Pelita I/1 and IR5, were treated with gamma radiation and EMS. All the early maturing mutants which were selected from M2 and M3 generations, and afterwards in the M8 generation we tested for their reaction to bacterial leaf blight and sheath blight. Pelita I/1 is moderately resistant to BLB and moderately susceptible to SB, but IR5 is susceptible to BLB or SB. At 30 and 60 days after transplanting, 107 early maturing mutants were inoculated with BLB. The bacteria were isolated from three different rice fields, and grown into Wakimoto media. Inoculation was done by the cutting method with suspension of 10-7-10-8cell/cm3. The virulence of bacteria isolated from the three fields was different. Resistant mutants were only observed in the Pelita I/1 early mutant collection; however, moderate resistance was found in the IR5 early mutants collection. At late growth stage the plant seems relatively more resistant to BLB. Early mutants of Pelita I/1 were inoculated with fungus SB following the procedure of the International Rice Sheath Blight Nursery (IRSHBN). Of 96 mutants, 55 were susceptible and 41 were moderately susceptible. Pelita I/1 was moderately susceptible with 48% damage and, compared with this, 9 mutant lines showed less than 40% damage. Selection was also carried out by natural infection; however, owing to ecoclimatic conditions the result was not convincing. (author)

  4. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight

  5. Acute Effusive Pericarditis due to Horse Chestnut Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Edem, Efe; Kahyaoğlu, Behlül; Çakar, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 32 Final Diagnosis: Pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal product Symptoms: Dyspnea Medication: Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) Clinical Procedure: Pericardial and pleural effusions were drained through a pericardiopleural window Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: There are many well-known causes of pericardial effusion, such as cancer metastasis, bacterial or viral pericarditis, and uremic pericarditis; however, n...

  6. Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables

  7. Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. C. Nyaka Ngobisa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations – Selangor, Perak, and Johor states – in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15 containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis.

  8. Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. C. Nyaka Ngobisa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations - Selangor, Perak, and Johor states - in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15 containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis.

  9. FARMERS AWARENESS AND PERCEPTIONS OF ALTERNARIA LEAF PETIOLE AND STEM BLIGHT AND THEIR PREFERRED SWEETPOTATO TRAITS IN UGANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Sseruwu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A participatory rural appraisal was conducted in Kabale district in south-western Uganda and Luwero district in central Uganda to establish farmers’ awareness and perceptions of Alternaria leaf petiole and stem blight (commonly referred to as Alternaria blight and their varietal preferences. The study revealed that the two regions had similar production constraints but the degree of importance of the constraints varies between each region. Diseases, pests and drought are the most important production constraints in both regions. Among the diseases, Alternaria blight is the most important disease constraint in Kabale whereas sweetpotato virus disease is the most important in Luwero. Among the pests, caterpillars (Acraea acerata are a bigger problem in Luwero than in Kabale, while vermin, especially mole rats (Tachyoryctes splendens, are a bigger problem in Kabale than in Luwero. Healthy planting material availability and distribution are important constraints. Among the most desired sweetpotato attributes in both districts are high yield, early maturity, high dry mass, and storability in the soil after maturity to enable sequential harvesting. Most of the farmers consider Alternaria blight to be a serious production constraint and estimate the yield loss in severely infected fields to be above 50%. However, Alternaria blight incidence has seasonal variations with higher incidences in the wet and very wet seasons in Kabale. On the other hand, Alternaria blight is most severe during the dry season in Luwero. Most of the farmers are not aware of any control measures for these diseases. However, some of them use rogueing as a control measure and others cultivate resistant genotypes like Rwabafuruki and Nyinakamanzi in Kabale, and Kakamega in Luwero. Since most of the existing genotypes are susceptible, breeding for Alternaria blight is a priority in both districts combined with an effective seed distribution system to increase utilization of the

  10. Mummy Berry Fruit Rot and Shoot Blight Incidence in Blueberry: Prediction, Ranking, and Stability in a Long-term Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated blueberry cultivar resistance to both phases of the disease and, utilizing ‘stan...

  11. New Breeding Parents Containing Novel QTL for Rice Sheath Blight Resistance Identified by Combining Phenotypic and Molecular Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice Sheath Blight (SB) disease, caused by the necrotrophic Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, is a global and annual cause of rice yield losses. Several QTL with small individual impact must be combined to create rice varieties tolerant of SB infection because no single gene confers complete resistance. Mo...

  12. Palisade Russet: A late blight resistant potato cultivar having a low incidence of sugar ends and high specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisade Russet is a medium-late maturing, lightly russeted potato breeding clone notable for its resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) infection of foliage and tuber. Palisade Russet is suitable for processing with low tuber glucose concentrations observed following long-term storage ...

  13. Capability of Streptomyces spp. in Controlling Bacterial Leaf Blight Disease in Rice Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ratih D. Hastuti; Yulin Lestari2); Rasti Saraswati; Antonius Suwanto; Chaerani

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the most damaging disease in lowland rice growing areas in Indonesia. Streptomyces spp. have been known as a producer of antimicrobial compounds that can be used as biocontrol agents. This study examined the ability of three promising indigenous Streptomyces isolates which were previously selected from in vitro agar media and greenhouse test to suppress natural infection of Xoo during dry and wet s...

  14. [Erwinia amylovora--the fire blight pathogen of trees in Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, L M; Moroz, S N; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E; Gvozdiak, R I; Patyka, V F

    2014-01-01

    Niduses of fire blight of fruit and ornamental trees have been found in the Kyiv and Vinnitsa regions of Ukraine. Pathogen Erwinia amylovora was isolated between April and October. The pathogen was often accompanied by bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Artificial infection with a mixture of bacteria E. amylovora and P. syringae pv. syringae accelerates and enhances the disease process in the laboratory. PMID:25199342

  15. Chemical Control of Septoria Blight of Parsley Caused by Septoria petroselini

    OpenAIRE

    TOK, Fatih Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    The effects of various fungicides on spore germination, mycelial growth, seed transmission, and infection by Septoria petroselini Desm., the causal agent of Septoria blight of parsley, were determined in this study. Eleven fungicides (azoxystrobin, benomyl, captan, copper oxychloride, kresoxim-methyl mancozeb, maneb, propineb, tebuconazole, thiram, and trifloxystrobin) were tested at various concentrations ranging from 0.025 to 50 mg l-1 in spore germination and mycelial growth assays. Tebuco...

  16. The Role of Antioxidant Enzymes in Adaptive Responses to Sheath Blight Infestation under Different Fertilization Rates and Hill Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheath blight of rice, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. No rice cultivar has been found to be completely resistant to this fungus. Identifying antioxidant enzymes activities (activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, and catalase (CAT and malondialdehyde content (MDA responding to sheath blight infestation is imperative to understand the defensive mechanism systems of rice. In the present study, two inoculation methods (toothpick and agar block method were tested in double-season rice. Toothpick method had greater lesion length than agar block method in late season. A higher MDA content was found under toothpick method compared with agar block method, which led to greater POD and SOD activities. Dense planting caused higher lesion length resulting in a higher MDA content, which also subsequently stimulated higher POD and SOD activity. Sheath blight severity was significantly related to the activity of antioxidant enzyme during both seasons. The present study implies that rice plants possess a system of antioxidant protective enzymes which helps them in adaptation to sheath blight infection stresses. Several agronomic practices, such as rational use of fertilizers and optimum planting density, involved in regulating antioxidant protective enzyme systems can be regarded as promising strategy to suppress the sheath blight development.

  17. The role of antioxidant enzymes in adaptive responses to sheath blight infestation under different fertilization rates and hill densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Wan, Xuejie; Shah, Farooq; Fahad, Shah; Huang, Jianliang

    2014-01-01

    Sheath blight of rice, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. No rice cultivar has been found to be completely resistant to this fungus. Identifying antioxidant enzymes activities (activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT)) and malondialdehyde content (MDA) responding to sheath blight infestation is imperative to understand the defensive mechanism systems of rice. In the present study, two inoculation methods (toothpick and agar block method) were tested in double-season rice. Toothpick method had greater lesion length than agar block method in late season. A higher MDA content was found under toothpick method compared with agar block method, which led to greater POD and SOD activities. Dense planting caused higher lesion length resulting in a higher MDA content, which also subsequently stimulated higher POD and SOD activity. Sheath blight severity was significantly related to the activity of antioxidant enzyme during both seasons. The present study implies that rice plants possess a system of antioxidant protective enzymes which helps them in adaptation to sheath blight infection stresses. Several agronomic practices, such as rational use of fertilizers and optimum planting density, involved in regulating antioxidant protective enzyme systems can be regarded as promising strategy to suppress the sheath blight development. PMID:25136671

  18. Effect of cooking methods on nutritional quality and volatile compounds of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Shi, Xianhe; Zhao, Qiaojiao; Cui, Yahui; Ouyang, Jie; Xu, Fang

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods on the content of important nutrients and volatiles in the fruit of Chinese chestnut. The nutritional compounds, including starch, water-soluble protein, free amino acids, reducing sugar, sucrose, organic acids and total flavonoids, of boiled, roasted and fried chestnuts were significantly (P0.05). L-Aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and L-arginine were found to be the main reduced free amino acids in cooked chestnuts. The main aromatic compositions in fresh chestnuts were aldehydes and esters, while ketones, furfural and furan were formed in cooked chestnuts due to the Maillard reaction and degradation of saccharides, amino acids and lipids. Principle component analysis demonstrated that roasting and frying had a similar effect on the nutritional composition of chestnuts, which differed from that of the boiling process. PMID:26868551

  19. Litterfall and litter decomposition in chestnut high forest stands in northern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Patrício, Maria do Sameiro; Pereira, Ermelinda; Claro, Ana Marília; Fernandes, Maria José; Nunes, Luís; Monteiro, Maria do Loreto

    2010-01-01

    Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) is an important species in Northern Portugal as for fruit as well as for timber. Today, the role of the chestnut areas is not limited to production of fruit and timber but also to other aspects such as landscape, environmental and ecological protection, which are very important. Consequently, its sustainable management is essential in maintaining the health and vitality of the chestnut areas, therefore increasing the economical and social benefits of the...

  20. Population genetic characteristics of horse chestnut in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocokoljić Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The general population genetic characteristics of cultivated horse chestnut trees excelling in growth, phenotype characteristics, type of inflorescence, productivity and resistance to the leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimić were analyzed in Serbia. The analyzed population genetic parameters point to fundamental differences in the genetic structure among the cultivated populations in Serbia. The study shows the variability in all properties among the populations and inter-individual variability within the populations. The variability and differential characteristics were assessed using statistical parameters, taking into account the satisfactory reflection of the hereditary potential. The assessed differences in the vitality and evolution potential of different populations can determine the methods of horse chestnut gene pool collection, reconstruction and improvement. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041: Establishment of Wood Plantations Intended for a forestation of Serbia

  1. Bacteriocin Serratine-P as a biological tool in the control of fire blight Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoofs, H; Vandebroek, K; Pierrard, A; Thonart, P; Lepoivre, P; Beaudry, T; Deckers, T

    2002-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Burill Winslow et al.), is the most important bacterial disease in European pear growing. It can cause a lot of damage in some countries on apple and on pear trees in orchards and also in the fruit tree nurseries. In Belgium, the disease is present since 1972. Control of fire blight in Belgian fruit orchards is made on a broad basis of measurements in and around the fruit trees. The use of an antibiotic is allowed for application only during the primary blossom period under strict controlled regulations. The use of antobiotics in agriculture is strongly discussed on the European level today and will probably disappear in the near future. Therefore, the research on fire blight control concentrates on the possibilities of biological control with antagonistic bacteria such as Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola), Bacillus subtilis or Pseudomonas syringae strain A 506. The use of Serratine-P, a phage tail-like bacteriocin, produced by Serratia plymiticum, shows an interesting antibacterial activity against Erwinia amylovora. Its mode of action consists in the perforation of the cytoplasmic membrane of the target cell, inducing perturbations in cellular exchanges and a final lysis of the bacterial cell. In this paper some trials are discussed on the use of Serratine-P at different doses and on different infection types on pear trees. The results indicate interesting protection possibilities on blossom- and fruit infections. PMID:12701444

  2. [Micrococcus sp.--the pathogen of leaf necrosis of horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.) in Kiev].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, L M; Makhinia, L V; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2013-01-01

    A group of phytopathogenic bacteria was isolated from patterns of drying horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.), which grow in Kyiv. The properties of slowly growing, highly aggressive microorganisms have been described in the paper. They grow up on the 8-10th day after sowing. The investigated microorganisms form very small (0.5-1 mm in diameter) colonies on the potato agar. Bacteria are protuberant, shining, smooth with flat edges, they are pale yellow, yellow, or pink. The bacteria are Gram-positive, spherical, are disposed in smears singly, in pairs, as accumulations, or netting. They are aerobes, do not form spores, are not mobile. They are inert in respect of different sources of carbon. They reduce nitrates, do not dilute gelatin, do not hydrolyze starch, do not release hydrogen sulphide and indole. The bacteria are catalase-positive, oxidase-negative. They do not cause potato and carrot rot. They lose quickly their viability under the laboratory conditions. The saturated acids C 14:0; C 15:0; C16:0; C18:0 have been revealed in the composition of cellular fatty acids. Microorganisms are identified as Micrococcus sp. Under artificial inoculation this highly aggressive pathogen causes drying of the horse-chestnut buds and necrosis, which occupies 1/3-1/2 of the leaf plate. A wide zone of chlorosis, surrounding necrosis, may occupy the whole leaf surface. The infected leaves use to twist up from the top (apex) or along a midrib and to dry. PMID:23866588

  3. Variability of Different Pear Hybrid Populations in Terms of Hybridization Performance and the Response to Fire Blight (Erwinia amylovora Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin EVRENOSOĞLU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of pear, which is one of the most important fruits in Turkey, was restricted by the occurrence of the fire blight disease. There isn’t a certain chemical management against fire blight, although plant activators have been used, at present. It’s very important to improve resistant varieties in terms of an integrated management of bacterial diseases. With this purpose, different crosses have been made between resistant cultigens and P. communis varieties that have good fruit characteristics. Besides, self-pollination and open pollination treatments have been carried out in parental plants. Pollen viability and germination ratio, fruit set ratio, total and mean seed number, seed germination ratio, the ratio of hybrid losses by root rot at early stage and the ratio of hybrid losses by natural fire blight infection were determined. The highest values of the properties such as pollen viability and germination ratio, fruit set ratio, mean and total seed number were obtained from the crosses with ‘Kaiser Alexandre’, ‘Ankara’, ‘Akça’, ‘Conference’ and ‘Santa Maria’ cultivars, in general. As a result of natural fire blight infection in Izmir-Turkey conditions, the resistance level of the hybrids from various combinations differed through the cultivars used for cross pollination, and it is very important to evaluate these hybrid pear populations through their response to fireblight disease in terms of obtaining new resistant cultivars and using these populations as disease resistant genetic resources in the future.

  4. Scientifically advanced solutions for chestnut ink disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choupina, Altino Branco; Estevinho, Letícia; Martins, Ivone M

    2014-05-01

    On the north regions of Portugal and Spain, the Castanea sativa Mill. culture is extremely important. The biggest productivity and yield break occurs due to the ink disease, the causal agent being the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi. This oomycete is also responsible for the decline of many other plant species in Europe and worldwide. P. cinnamomi and Phytophthora cambivora are considered, by the generality of the authors, as the C. sativa ink disease causal agents. Most Phytophthora species secrete large amounts of elicitins, a group of unique highly conserved proteins that are able to induce hypersensitive response (HR) and enhances plant defense responses in a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) manner against infection by different pathogens. Some other proteins involved in mechanisms of infection by P. cinnamomi were identified by our group: endo-1,3-beta-glucanase (complete cds); exo-glucanase (partial cds) responsible by adhesion, penetration, and colonization of host tissues; glucanase inhibitor protein (GIP) (complete cds) responsible by the suppression of host defense responses; necrosis-inducing Phytophthora protein 1 (NPP1) (partial cds); and transglutaminase (partial cds) which inducts defense responses and disease-like symptoms. In this mini-review, we present some scientifically advanced solutions that can contribute to the resolution of ink disease. PMID:24622889

  5. Changes in leaf tissues of common horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) colonised by the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ochridella Deschka and Dimić)

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Weronika Haratym

    2012-01-01

    The present study, conducted during the period 2010- 2011, involved morphological observations and anatomical investigations of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) leaves with symptoms of damage caused by feeding of larvae of the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić). Leaves were collected from trees growing in the city of Lublin (Poland). Microscopic slides were prepared from fresh and fixed plant material. Leaf anatomical features were examined by light micr...

  6. Examination of Early Blight Resistance Derived From S. Raphanifolium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by Alternaria solani is a major cause of economic losses in many potato growing regions. Growers and breeders are interested in the development of potato cultivars with resistance to early blight as a means to decrease usage of fungicide applica...

  7. Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manetti MC

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement? This paper aims at evaluating the role of standards in chestnut coppices from a biological and functional perspective. In addition to a detailed analysis of Italian regulations on the issue, the technical definition of the term is analysed: (i as for the functional role of standards; (ii to assess whether the required functions are technically necessary and are being actually performed. In this contex, the results of an experimental trial are reported. The goal of the trial were to assess the shoots’ parameters, the stand productivity, the dynamics of canopy cover in coppices with or without standards. In 2001, at harvesting operations in a coppice aged 30 with standards managed by the local community, two experimental plots 2500 m2 each were established. The two theses being compared were: simple coppice and coppixce with standards (100 standards per hectare. The released standards were qualified immediately after final harvesting. Sprouting ability, growth pattern and stool vitality were surveyed in March 2004 (at age 2, in May 2008 (at age 6 and in April 2010 (at age 8. First results highlighted the evidence of statistically significant differences between the two thesis. The high number of standards effected negatively both vitality and growth pattern of the stools. Simple coppice recorded a lower shoot mortality, a higher diametrical growth and canopy cover degree as well; the heigth growth was, on the opposite, significantly lower. These results, although referred to a limited lifespan (1/3 of the rotation time and to one site only, underline productive, ecological and environmental benefits and as a consequence suggest the widening of the experimental network and the development of new, more relevant and consistent rules, making acceptable the simple coppice as a possible silvicultural choice to be applied to chestnut coppices.

  8. Somatic Embryogenesis in Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuana, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Embryogenic cultures of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) can be obtained from different organs and tissues. We describe here the induction from stamen filaments and the procedures applied for the successive phases of somatic embryo development and maturation. Embryogenic tissues are obtained on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 9.0 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Somatic embryos develop after transfer to hormone-free medium enriched with glutamine. Maturation and germination of isolated embryos are achieved by transfer to medium containing polyethylene glycol 4000 and activated charcoal, successive desiccation treatment, and cold storage at 4 °C for 8 weeks. PMID:26619878

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p < 0.0001) between disease rating group means. In the majority of the experiments, comparisons of diseased plants with healthy plants using Fisher's LSD revealed more heavily diseased plants were significantly different from healthy plants. PLS analysis demonstrated the feasibility of detecting early blight infected plants, finding four optimal factors for raw spectra with the predictor variation explained ranging from 93.4% to 94.6% and the response variation explained ranging from 42.7% to 64.7%. Cluster analysis successfully distinguished healthy plants from all diseased plants except for the most mildly diseased plants, showing clustering analysis was an effective method for detection of early blight. Analysis of the reflectance spectra using the simple ratio (SR) and the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) was effective at differentiating all diseased plants from healthy plants, except for the

  10. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of the Fire Blight Pathogen, Erwinia amylovora, Isolated from Apple and Pear Orchards in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader A. Ashmawy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven Erwinia amylovora isolates, the causal agent of the fire blight disease, were isolated from apple orchards adjacent to those of pears showing fire blight disease symptoms. Initial characterization concerning morphological and biochemical traits revealed that all isolates were typical to those of E. amylovora. Furthermore, all bacterial isolates showed typical symptoms of the fire blight disease upon infection of unripe pear fruits. Molecular characterization of these isolates via PCR utilizing specific primers based on a region of plasmid pEA29 and chromosomal DNA ams–region was performed. PCR products were positive and represented the expected length 1.1 and 1.6 kb, respectively. Moreover, PCR reactions utilizing the 16S rRNA universal primers were carried out. DNA sequence of PCR products and analysis via blast and Genbank data showed that, the bacterial isolates actually belonging to E. amylovora. Moreover, there are interference between these Erwinia isolates and identified E. amylovora strains based on constructed phylogenetic analysis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of fire blight of apples caused by E. amylovora in Egypt.

  11. In vitro antiviral activity of chestnut and quebracho woods extracts against avian reovirus and metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupini, C; Cecchinato, M; Scagliarini, A; Graziani, R; Catelli, E

    2009-12-01

    Field evidences have suggested that a natural extract, containing tannins, could be effective against poultry enteric viral infections. Moreover previous studies have shown that vegetable tannins can have antiviral activity against human viruses. Based on this knowledge three different Chestnut (Castanea spp.) wood extracts and one Quebracho (Schinopsis spp.) wood extract, all containing tannins and currently used in the animal feed industry, were tested for in vitro antiviral activity against avian reovirus (ARV) and avian metapneumovirus (AMPV). The MTT assay was used to evaluate the 50% cytotoxic compounds concentration (CC(50)) on Vero cells. The antiviral properties were tested before and after the adsorption of the viruses to Vero cells. Antiviral activities were expressed as IC(50) (concentration required to inhibit 50% of viral cytopathic effect). CC(50)s of tested compounds were > 200 microg/ml. All compounds had an extracellular antiviral effect against both ARV and AMPV with IC(50) values ranging from 25 to 66 microg/ml. Quebracho extract had also evident intracellular anti-ARV activity (IC(50) 24 microg/ml). These preliminary results suggest that the examined vegetable extracts might be good candidates in the control of some avian virus infections. Nevertheless further in vivo experiments are required to confirm these findings. PMID:19435637

  12. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill starch for industrial utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g, lipid (5.39 g/100g, crude fiber (2.34 g/100g and ash (2.14 g/100g. Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and corn. This fraction showed more lipids and proteins than the other starches. Chestnut starch granules showed peculiar shape, smaller than the control starches and low amount of damaged units. Chemical composition concerning amylose : amylopectin ratio was intermediate to that presented by cassava and corn starch granules. Water absorption at different temperatures as well as solubility were also intermediate but closer to that presented by cassava granules. The same behavior was observed in the interaction with dimethyl-sulfoxide. Native starch granules and those submitted to enzymatic treatment with commercial alpha-amylase and also with enzymes from germinated wheat were observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Water suspensions of chestnut starch granules were heated to form pastes that were studied comparatively to those obtained with cassava and corn starches. Viscographic pattern of chestnut starch pastes showed a characteristic profile with high initial viscosity but peak absence, high resistance to mechanical stirring under hot conditions and high final viscosity. There was no way to compare it with the paste viscographic profiles obtained with the control starches. Chestnut starch pastes were stable down to pH 4 but unstable at pH 3. The water losses observed in the chestnut starch pastes after freeze-thaw cycles showed more similarity to the pattern observed in corn starch pastes as well as clarity and strength of the gel. In general the results

  13. Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estonba Andone

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E allele produces black or bay coat horses. Because black or bay colored coats are considered as the purebred phenotype for most of the breeds from this region, it is important to have a fast and reliable method to detect alleles causing chestnut coat color in horses. Findings In order to assess coat color genotype in reproductive animals with a view to avoiding those bearing chestnut alleles, we have developed a reliable, fast and cost-effective screening device which involves Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP detection based on SNaPshot® (Applied Biosystems methodology. We have applied this method to four native breeds from the Iberian Cantabrian Coast: Pottoka and Jaca Navarra pony breeds, in which only black or bay coats are acceptable, and Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia and Burguete heavy breeds, in which chestnut coats are acceptable. The frequency of the chestnut alleles ranged between f = 0.156-0.322 in pony breeds and between f = 0.604-0.716 in heavy breeds. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of the DNA methodology reported herein as a device for identifying chestnut alleles; the methodology constitutes a valuable tool for breeders to decrease the incidence of chestnut animals among Cantabrian Coast pony breeds.

  14. Reduction of lesion growth rate of late blight plant disease in transgenic potato expressing harpin protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汝刚; 范云六

    1999-01-01

    Using harpin protein gene from apple fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylavora and potato prp1-1 promoter as main DNA elements, the feasibility of using pathogen infection-induced hypersensitive response was explored as a new strategy of engineering fungal disease resistance. Three plant transformation vectors were constructed and 68 transgenic potato plants were produced through Agrobacterium mediated transformation method. Southern, Northern and Western blot analysis demonstrated the insertion, transcription and protein expression of harpin protein gene in transgenic plants. Disease resistance test using a complex race of Phytophthora infestans as challenging pathogen showed that both constitutive and pathogen infection-induced expression of harpin protein gene in transgenic potato reduced the lesion growth rate of fungus. Among plants where harpin protein gene expression was induced only by fungus infection, two plants were found to be highly resistant to P. infestans infection. Fungal hyphae were not pr

  15. Short communication. Inheritance of cotyledon storage proteins in European sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M. A.; Alvarez, J. B.; Gutierrez, J. C.; Martin, L. M.

    2012-11-01

    A first approximation to the inheritance of cotyledon storage proteins was studied in European sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) by evaluating the offspring of a controlled cross between two local chestnut varieties (Corriente and Pilonga) from southern Spain. The analysis was carried out in 15 polymorphic bands corresponding to the albumin fraction of the storage proteins. The relationship between bands displayed one case of allelism and four of linkage. These results should be considered as the baseline of the genetics of these proteins and suggest that they could be useful for the evaluation of the genetic variability in chestnut. (Author) 13 refs.

  16. Control of plant defense mechanisms and fire blight pathogenesis through the regulation of 6-thioguanine biosynthesis in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sébastien; Litomska, Agnieszka; Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Richter, Klaus; Beerhues, Ludger; Hertweck, Christian

    2014-02-10

    Fire blight is a devastating disease of Rosaceae plants, such as apple and pear trees. It is characterized by necrosis of plant tissue, caused by the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora. The plant pathogen produces the well-known antimetabolite 6-thioguanine (6TG), which plays a key role in fire blight pathogenesis. Here we report that YcfR, a member of the LTTR family, is a major regulator of 6TG biosynthesis in E. amylovora. Inactivation of the regulator gene (ycfR) led to dramatically decreased 6TG production. Infection assays with apple plants (Malus domestica cultivar Holsteiner Cox) and cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia (mountain ash, rowan) revealed abortive fire blight pathogenesis and reduced plant response (biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexin production). In the presence of the ΔycfR mutant, apple trees were capable of activating the abscission machinery to remove infected tissue. In addition to unveiling the regulation of 6TG biosynthesis in a major plant pathogen, we demonstrate for the first time that this antimetabolite plays a pivotal role in dysregulating the plant response to infection. PMID:24449489

  17. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songlin Fei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaTScan and ClusterSeer and a nonspatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moderate level of conformity and revealed similar chestnut oak regeneration site affinity. Chestnut oak regeneration hotspots were positively associated with the abundance of chestnut oak trees in the overstory and a moderate cover of heather species (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia spp. but were negatively associated with the abundance of hayscented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula and mountain laurel (Kalmia latiforia. In general, hotspot detection is a viable tool for assisting natural resource managers with identifying areas possessing significantly high or low tree regeneration.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Chestnut-flanked white-eye (Zosterops erythropleurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yumei; Yao, Jiyuan; Zhao, Xin; Li, Lingyu; Yan, Shouqing

    2016-09-01

    The Chestnut-flanked white-eye (Zosterops erythropleurus) is a species of family Zosteropidae, which is distributed widely in the world. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Chestnut-flanked white-eye was determined. It has a total length of 17 811 bp, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosome RNA genes and 2 control regions. The total base composition was 30.2% for A, 31.0% for C, 14.2% for G and 24.6% for T. The phylogenetic tree of Chestnut-flanked white-eye and 13 other species belonging to the order Passeriformes was built. The molecular data presented here will be useful to study the evolutionary relationships and genetic diversity of Chestnut-flanked white-eye. PMID:26260179

  19. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant properties of edible chestnuts

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio, Amilcar L.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Bento, Albino; Teubig, P.; Botelho, M. Luísa

    2010-01-01

    As seasonal products chestnut have to be postharvest treated to increase the shelf-life. Several problems are associated with traditional preservation methods. These are a decreasing in quality due to dehydration and contamination with insects and microbes including secondary metabolites, e.g.: mycotoxin. The most common preservation method for chestnuts is the use of chemical fumigation with methyl bromide. Methyl bromide is a toxic agent and has been banned according to the M...

  20. Influence of e-beam irradiation processing on chestnuts color and texture

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio, Amilcar L.; Elsa RAMALHOSA; Kałuska, Iwona; Quintana, Begoña; Trigo, M.J.; Ferreira, Armando; Bento, Albino

    2012-01-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruit is a seasonal product with some storage problems, such as those related with the infestation by insects and developing of moulds. This fact makes that chestnut must be post-harvested treated, in order to meet the international trade fitossanitary regulations. Fumigation with methyl bromide, performed in closed chambers, was commonly used. Recently, March 2010, this treatment process was forbidden by the European Commission [1], given no or few alternativ...

  1. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Du

    Full Text Available Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng, we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant

  2. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis) on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yanli; Zhang, Jiaxin; Yan, Zengguang; Ma, Yongqiang; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Minzhao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qin, Ling; Cao, Qingqin

    2016-01-01

    Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng), we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant-volatile-mediated host

  3. Horse chestnut – efficacy and safety in chronic venous insufficiency: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Marlena Dudek-Makuch; Elżbieta Studzińska-Sroka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe extract from horse chestnut seeds (Aesculus hippocastanumL., Sapindaceae), standardised for the content of aescin, is used as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-oedematous properties and indicates a positive effect on the venous tone, rheological properties, and blood coagulability. The mechanism of horse chestnut seed extract/aescin activity was proposed on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies, and its effectiveness was document...

  4. Carbon sequestration for different management alternatives in sweet chestnut coppice in northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Prada, Marta; Bravo Oviedo, Felipe; Berdasco, Lorena; Canga, Elena; Martínez Alonso, Celia

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an innovative approach to assessing carbon sequestration in sweet chestnut coppice taking into account the importance of carbon fluxes in the whole forest-industry value chain in the mitigation of climate change. The goals of this study were: to evaluate the baseline carbon capture of sweet chestnut forest in the north of Spain; to assess the effect of thinning and extending the rotation period on carbon storage; and to evaluate the substitution effect of using...

  5. A Morphological and Histological Characterization of Male Flower in Chestnut (Castanea) Cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Zou; Su-Juan Guo; Huan Xiong; Peng Xie; Wen-Jun Lv; Guang-Hui Li

    2013-01-01

    Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume.) is a widely distributed fruit tree and well known for its ecological and economic value. In order to evaluate obstacles to male reproductive in the C. mollissima, a morphological and histological characterization of male flower of chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ were examined by paraffin section technique and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that male catkins with floral primordia were formed in the buds of one-year olds shoots ...

  6. Molecular tools to improve chestnut management: El Bierzo as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana González, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) is a multipurpose species that has been widely cultivated around the Mediterranean basin since ancient times. New varieties were brought to the Iberian Peninsula during the Roman Empire, which coexist since then with native populations that survived the last glaciation. The relevance of chestnut cultivation has being steadily growing since the Middle Ages, until the rural decline of the past century put a stop to this trend. Forest fires and disea...

  7. Macrofungi associated with sweet chestnut: a source of income for rural populations in Northeast of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Paula; Martins, Anabela; Tavares, Rui Manuel; Lino-Neto, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    European chestnut tree (Castanea sativa Mill.) has a great economic interest for wood and fruit production in northeast of Portugal. Over the last decade another important income associated with this culture has emerged - the collection and commercialization of wild edible mushrooms growing in chestnut orchards. Actually, despite the low knowledge of their biodiversity, ecology or sustainable management in those regions, mushrooms harvesting have been increasing, mainly due to their economic ...

  8. Parasitoid recruitment to the globally invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus

    OpenAIRE

    Aebi Alexandre; Schönrogge, Karsten; Melika, George; Alma, Alberto; Bosio, Giovanni; Quacchia, Ambra; Picciau, Luca; Abe, Yoshihisa; Moriya, Seichii; Yara, Kaori; Stone, Graham N.

    2015-01-01

    The chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus is a global pest of chestnut (Castanea). Established as a pest in the mid 20th century in Japan, Korea and the USA, this species has now reached Europe. Successful deployment of a biocontrol agent, Torymus sinensis, in Japan has led to its early release in Italy. Here we provide the first overview of the natural enemies associated with D. kuriphilus in its native and invaded ranges, and discuss general patterns in community development. We then use...

  9. Acute Effusive Pericarditis due to Horse Chestnut Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edem, Efe; Kahyaoğlu, Behlül; Çakar, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 32 Final Diagnosis: Pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal product Symptoms: Dyspnea Medication: Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) Clinical Procedure: Pericardial and pleural effusions were drained through a pericardiopleural window Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: There are many well-known causes of pericardial effusion, such as cancer metastasis, bacterial or viral pericarditis, and uremic pericarditis; however, no reports exist in the literature demonstrating a pericardial effusion that led to cardiac tamponade following consumption of an herbal remedy. Case Report: A 32-year-old male patient was referred to our cardiology outpatient clinic with a complaint of dyspnea. The patient’s medical history was unremarkable; however, he had consumed 3 boxes of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) paste over the previous 1.5 months. His chest x-ray examination revealed an enlarged cardiac shadow and bilateral pleural effusion. On transthoracic echocardiographic examination, his ejection fraction was found to be 55% with circumferentially extended pericardial effusion that reached 3.9 cm at its maximal thickness. No growth had been detected in the pericardial and pleural biopsies or blood samples; there was no evidence of an infectious process in the physical examination. Based on this information, we diagnosed pericarditis resulting from the use of herbal remedies. This is the first report to demonstrate that herbal remedy consumption may cause this type of clinical condition. Conclusions: Besides other well-known causes, pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal remedies should always be considered when treating patients with pericardial effusion caused by unclear etiologies. PMID:27141926

  10. Niclosamide inhibits leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-Il Kim; Jong Tae Song; Jin-Yong Jeong; Hak Soo Seo

    2016-01-01

    Rice leaf blight, which is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), results in huge losses in grain yield. Here, we show that Xoo-induced rice leaf blight is effectively controlled by niclosamide, an oral antihelminthic drug and molluscicide, which also functions as an anti-tumor agent. Niclosamide directly inhibited the growth of the three Xoo strains PXO99, 10208 and K3a. Niclosamide moved long distances from the site of local application to distant rice tissues...

  11. Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahamadou E.GOUNGA; Shi-ying XU; Zhang WANG

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption.Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample's protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal.

  12. Horse chestnut – efficacy and safety in chronic venous insufficiency: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Dudek-Makuch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe extract from horse chestnut seeds (Aesculus hippocastanumL., Sapindaceae, standardised for the content of aescin, is used as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-oedematous properties and indicates a positive effect on the venous tone, rheological properties, and blood coagulability. The mechanism of horse chestnut seed extract/aescin activity was proposed on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies, and its effectiveness was documented with numerous randomised clinical trials. The results of the studies have proven that horse chestnut seed extract not only significantly improves subjective symptoms in patients with chronic venous insufficiency like calf spasm, leg pain, pruritus, fatigue, but it also reduced leg volume, the ankle and calf circumference. The preparations containing horse chestnut seed extract are very popular and they have similar effectiveness as compression therapy and a preparation with O-(β-hydroxyethyl-rutosides. Moreover, horse chestnut seed extract has been proven to be safe and very well tolerated. The study was to present the results of the studies that have been conducted so far and that have confirmed the effectiveness of use of horse chestnut seed extract or aescin as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency.

  13. Effect of Different Hydrocolloids on Pasting Behavior of Native Water Chestnut (Trapa bispinosa Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubala Lutfi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The pasting behavior of native Water Chestnut Starch – hydrocolloids mixtures was studied. The effect of Xanthan, Guar, Carboxy Methyl Cellulose and Acacia on Water Chestnut Starch was examined by using micro Viscoamylograph. It was noticed that all hydrocolloids greatly modify the pasting properties of water chestnut starch. Results showed that gelatinization temperature of water chestnut starch was increased by the addition of gum acacia at 0.3 % concentration, whereas guar gum decreased at the same concentration as compared to native water chestnut starch. Xanthan gum and guar gum significantly increased peak viscosity at 0.1 – 0.3 %, but gum acacia at only 0.3 % addition. The breakdown was greatly enhanced by the addition of xanthan gum at 0.1-0.3 % concentrations, but the retrogradation was mostly influenced due to the presence of guar gum at 0.3 %. These results showed that hydrocolloids modify the properties of native water chestnut starch, which can provide a great potential for use in different food products.

  14. Influence of e-beam postharvest irradiation in the colour of four European chestnut fruit varieties of Castanea sativa Mill.

    OpenAIRE

    Amilcar L. Antonio; Carocho, Márcio; Bento, Albino; Rafalski, Andrzej; Quintana, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    In this study we characterized the physical dimensions of four European chestnut varieties of Castanea sativa, 3 from Portugal (Cota, Longal and Judia) and 1 from Italy (Palummina). The typical physical dimensions of the different chestnut fruit varieties could be used to optimize the process in an irradiation preservation treatment. The chestnut fruits were submitted to an irradiation preservation treatmen with electron beam, at 1 kGy, and the colour parameters (CIE L*, a*, b*) of the skins,...

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Water Chestnut Extract on Cytokine Responses via Nuclear Factor-κB-signaling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bora; Kim, Jin Eun; Choi, Byung-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa japonica Flerov.) is an annual aquatic plant. In the present study, we showed that the treatment of water chestnut extracted with boiling water resulted in a significant increase 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and decrease the intracellular H2O2-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, water chestnut extract (WCE) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production and suppressed mRNA and protein expre...

  16. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p potato plants.

  17. Potent and specific bactericidal effect of juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) on the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thilo Christopher; Gosch, Christian; Mirbeth, Beate; Gselmann, Markus; Thallmair, Veronika; Stich, Karl

    2012-12-12

    A screening of plant quinones for inhibiting effects on the bacterial fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora was performed. The most active compound, juglone from walnuts, has a potent and specific bactericidal effect on E. amylovora and minimal inhibitory concentrations of only 2.5-10 μM, with stronger effects at lower, but still physiological, pH values. In vitro tests with juglone and inoculated flowers of apple (Malus domestica) showed an efficacy of 67% in preventing infection. In two years of field tests juglone had variable degrees of efficacy ranging from 40 to 82%, seemingly due to environmental conditions. A phytotoxic reaction to juglone, which is known for its allelopathic effect on plants, was restricted to browning of petals; later fruit russeting was not observed. Juglone is a promising candidate for the development of a new environmentally friendly plant protectant to replace the antibiotic streptomycin currently used in fire blight control. PMID:23163769

  18. Controlling Botrytis elliptica Leaf Blight on Hybrid Lilies through the Application of Convergent Chemical X-ray Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jun Hong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available X-ray irradiation with convergent chemicals such as nano-silver particles or sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC has been used to control leaf blight on cut lilies. The oriental hybrid lily cultivars Siberia, Le Reve, and Sorbonne were irradiated five times by 200 Gy of X-rays in 2014. In 2015, Siberia and Sorbonne were irradiated three times by 150 Gy of X-rays. After artificial infection with Botrytis elliptica on the leaves and petals of cut lilies, this study used convergent chemical X-ray irradiation of 200 Gy or 150 Gy. Leaf and petal blight was measured in terms of incidence and severity at 8 days after infection using total 552 cuttings. Results indicate that the treatments of X-ray irradiation and NaDCC in 2014 and 2015 slightly decreased the severity of petal blight on Siberia and Sorbonne. However, the results were not significant and severity did not decrease as NaDCC concentration increased. Vase-life was observed separately after X-ray irradiation of 270 cut lilies in 2014 and 108 cut lilies in 2015. Chlorophyll content was not affected by either 200 Gy or 150 Gy of X-rays. The number of days of fully opened flowers at Siberia of 150 Gy and Le Revu of 200 Gy increased by 1–2 days. In addition, the relative fresh weights of the X-rayed flowers were 10% drier than the non-irradiated controls. Overall, leaf blight control by X-ray was inferior to the control by gamma rays, and petal color was bleached in Sorbonne and Le Reve cvs. by 150 Gy of X-rays.

  19. Controlling Botrytis elliptica Leaf Blight on Hybrid Lilies through the Application of Convergent Chemical X-ray Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Jun; Koo, Tae-Hoon; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    X-ray irradiation with convergent chemicals such as nano-silver particles or sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) has been used to control leaf blight on cut lilies. The oriental hybrid lily cultivars Siberia, Le Reve, and Sorbonne were irradiated five times by 200 Gy of X-rays in 2014. In 2015, Siberia and Sorbonne were irradiated three times by 150 Gy of X-rays. After artificial infection with Botrytis elliptica on the leaves and petals of cut lilies, this study used convergent chemical X-ray irradiation of 200 Gy or 150 Gy. Leaf and petal blight was measured in terms of incidence and severity at 8 days after infection using total 552 cuttings. Results indicate that the treatments of X-ray irradiation and NaDCC in 2014 and 2015 slightly decreased the severity of petal blight on Siberia and Sorbonne. However, the results were not significant and severity did not decrease as NaDCC concentration increased. Vase-life was observed separately after X-ray irradiation of 270 cut lilies in 2014 and 108 cut lilies in 2015. Chlorophyll content was not affected by either 200 Gy or 150 Gy of X-rays. The number of days of fully opened flowers at Siberia of 150 Gy and Le Revu of 200 Gy increased by 1–2 days. In addition, the relative fresh weights of the X-rayed flowers were 10% drier than the non-irradiated controls. Overall, leaf blight control by X-ray was inferior to the control by gamma rays, and petal color was bleached in Sorbonne and Le Reve cvs. by 150 Gy of X-rays. PMID:27147927

  20. Controlling Botrytis elliptica Leaf Blight on Hybrid Lilies through the Application of Convergent Chemical X-ray Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Jun; Koo, Tae-Hoon; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2016-04-01

    X-ray irradiation with convergent chemicals such as nano-silver particles or sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) has been used to control leaf blight on cut lilies. The oriental hybrid lily cultivars Siberia, Le Reve, and Sorbonne were irradiated five times by 200 Gy of X-rays in 2014. In 2015, Siberia and Sorbonne were irradiated three times by 150 Gy of X-rays. After artificial infection with Botrytis elliptica on the leaves and petals of cut lilies, this study used convergent chemical X-ray irradiation of 200 Gy or 150 Gy. Leaf and petal blight was measured in terms of incidence and severity at 8 days after infection using total 552 cuttings. Results indicate that the treatments of X-ray irradiation and NaDCC in 2014 and 2015 slightly decreased the severity of petal blight on Siberia and Sorbonne. However, the results were not significant and severity did not decrease as NaDCC concentration increased. Vase-life was observed separately after X-ray irradiation of 270 cut lilies in 2014 and 108 cut lilies in 2015. Chlorophyll content was not affected by either 200 Gy or 150 Gy of X-rays. The number of days of fully opened flowers at Siberia of 150 Gy and Le Revu of 200 Gy increased by 1-2 days. In addition, the relative fresh weights of the X-rayed flowers were 10% drier than the non-irradiated controls. Overall, leaf blight control by X-ray was inferior to the control by gamma rays, and petal color was bleached in Sorbonne and Le Reve cvs. by 150 Gy of X-rays. PMID:27147927

  1. Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2012-04-01

    The European chestnut is cultivated for its nuts and wood. Several studies point to the dependency of chestnut productivity on specific soil and climate characteristics. For instance, this species dislikes chalky and poorly drained soils, appreciates sedimentary, siliceous and acidic to neutral soils. Chestnut trees also seems to appreciate annual mean values of sunlight spanning between 2400 and 2600 h, rainfall ranging between 600 and 1500 mm, mean annual temperature between 9 and 13°C, 27°C being the mean of the maximum temperature (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992; Gomes-Laranjo et al.,2008). The amount of heat between May and October must range between 1800°D and 2400°D (Dinis et al., 2011) . In Poland, the growing season is defined as the period of time when the mean 24-h temperature is greater than 5°C (Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007). In Portugal, maximum photosynthetic activity occurs at 24-28°C for adult trees, but exhibits more than 50% of termoinhibition when the air temperature is above 32°C, which is frequent during summer (Gomes- Laranjo et al., 2006, 2008). Recently Pereira et al (2011) identified a set of meteorological variables/parameters with high impact on chestnut productivity. The main purpose of this work is to assess the potential impacts of future climate change on chestnut productivity in Portugal as well as on European chestnut orchards. First, observed data from the European Climate assessment (ECA) and simulations with the Regional Circulation Model (RCM) COSMO-CLM for recent climate conditions are used to assess the ability of the RCM to model the actual meteorological conditions. Then, ensemble projections from the ECHAM5/COSMO-CLM model chain for two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) are used to estimate the values of relevant meteorological variables and parameters und future climate conditions. Simulated values are then compared with those obtained for present climate. Results point to changes in the spatial and temporal

  2. Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum Cause Blossom Blight in Strawberry in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Myeong Hyeon; Park, Myung Soo; Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Hong Gi

    2015-09-01

    Blossom blight in strawberry was first observed in a green house in Nonsan, Damyang, and Geochang areas of Korea, between early January to April of 2012. Disease symptoms started as a grey fungus formed on the stigma, which led to the blossom blight and eventually to black rot and necrosis of the entire flower. We isolated the fungi purely from the infected pistils and maintained them on potato dextrose agar (PDA) slants. To test Koch's postulates, we inoculated the fungi and found that all of the isolates caused disease symptoms in the flower of strawberry cultivars (Seolhyang, Maehyang, and Kumhyang). The isolates on PDA had a velvet-like appearance, and their color ranged between olivaceous-brown and smoky-grey to olive and almost black. The intercalary conidia of the isolates were elliptical to limoniform, with sizes ranging from 5.0~10.5 × 2.5~3.0 µm to 4.0~7.5 × 2.0~3.0 µm, respectively. The secondary ramoconidia of these isolates were 0- or 1-septate, with sizes ranging betweem 10.0~15.0 × 2.5~3.7 µm and 8.7~11.2 × 2.5~3.2 µm, respectively. A combined sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions, partial actin (ACT), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF) genes revealed that the strawberry isolates belonged to two groups of authentic strains, Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum. Based on these results, we identified the pathogens causing blossom blight in strawberries in Korea as being C. cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum. PMID:26539056

  3. Integrating Cultivar Resistance and Seed Treatment with Planting Dates to Manage Chickpea Ascochyta Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Akem

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of chickpea (Cicer arietinum planting date on seasonal epidemics of Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass. Labrousse and on grain yield was evaluated during the 1997 and 1998 cropping seasons. Two chickpea cultivar (Ghab 1 and Ghab 3 and 2 breeding lines (FLIP 90-96 and F 88-85 were used in the field trials at 3 different locations representing the different agro ecological zones in which winter chickpea is grown in Syria and in most of the Mediterranean countries. Four field plantings were made at 14-day intervals from mid November to mid March. All plots were initially inoculated with infected debris and disease development followed natural prevailing environmental conditions. Ascochyta blight disease severity ratings were taken at early flowering and again at podding and grain yield for each plot was measured at harvest. There was a significant (p<0.05 increase in disease severity between the first and third planting in all the entries at all the locations and for both years. The difference in disease severity resulted in significant yield differences but not in differences in seed quality. Under Syrian and Mediterranean conditions, an increase in Ascochyta blight severity can be expected with early planting of chickpea before January and this can result in a corresponding big loss in crop yield. The loss in yield from disease through early plantings however, is more than compensated for, by the reduction in yield due to other environmental parameters in late spring planting, if moderate resistant cultivars are planted.

  4. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

  5. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located ∼800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1

  6. Impact of new populations of Phytophthora infestans on integrated late blight management

    OpenAIRE

    Flier, W. G.; Kessel, G.J.T.; Bosch, van den, F.J.P.; Turkensteen, L.J.

    2002-01-01

    A recent migration of a variable population of P. infestans has largely displaced the clonal A1 population in Western Europe. Sexual reproduction in European late blight populations is now possible and has been reported. The increased levels of aggressiveness form an important epidemiological feature of this new blight population. The impact of `new blight¿ on crop protection strategies based on late blight resistant cultivars and fungicides is discussed

  7. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Hazards Exposure of employees to community and nosocomial infections, e.g., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) . Nosocomial infections are infections that occur from exposure to infectious ...

  8. Physico-chemical, morphological and pasting properties of starches extracted from water Chestnuts (Trapa natans) from three Lakes of Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Adil Gani; Sham Sul Haq; F.A. Masoodi; A. A. Broadway; Asir Gani

    2010-01-01

    Studies on physicochemical, morphology and pasting properties of starches extracted from water chestnuts of three Lakes of Kashmir valley (Wular, Anchar and Dal Lakes) were conducted to determine their application in different food products. The water chestnut starch from Dal Lake had more oval shaped granules than water chestnut starches from the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.The unique feature of the water chestnut starches were shape of starch granules which looked like horn(s) protruding fro...

  9. Flavonoids in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds and powdered waste water byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, Ireneusz; Janda, Bogdan; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo; Franceschi, Federico; Franz, Chlodwig; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2007-10-17

    Horse chestnut extracts are widely used in pharmacy and cosmetic industries. The main active constituents are saponins of oleane type, but seeds of horse chestnut also contain flavonoids, being glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. Their contribution to the overall activity of the extracts was not clear. In the present work, the main flavonoids from horse chestnut seeds were isolated and their structures established with spectral methods. Seven glycosides were isolated, out of which six ( 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 13) were previously reported and one ( 9) was identified as a new tamarixetin 3- O- [beta- d-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)]- O-beta- d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)- O-beta- d-glucopyranoside. The structures of three additional compounds 1, 10, and 12, not previously reported, were deduced on the basis of their LC-ESI/MS/MS fragmentation characteristics. A new ultraperformance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method has been developed for profiling and quantitation of horse chestnut flavonoids. The method allowed good separation over 4.5 min. Thirteen compounds could be identified in the profile, out of which di- and triglycoisdes of quercetin and kaempferol were the dominant forms and their acylated forms occurred in just trace amounts. The total concentration of flavonoids in the powdered horse chestnut seed was 0.88% of dry matter. The alcohol extract contained 3.46%, and after purification on C18 solid phase, this concentration increased to 9.40% of dry matter. The flavonoid profile and their content were also measured in the horse chestnut wastewater obtained as byproduct in industrial processing of horse chestnut seeds. The total flavonoid concentration in the powder obtained after evaporation of water was 2.58%, while after purification on solid phase, this increased to 11.23% dry matter. It was concluded that flavonoids are present in a horse chestnut extract in a relatively high amount and have the potential to contribute to the overall activity of these extracts

  10. Competitiveness of gamma irradiation with fumigation for chestnuts associated with quarantine and quality security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and methyl bromide (MeBr) fumigation were determined for fresh chestnut on mortality of pests and quality stability. Chestnut was exposed to both irradiation at 0-10 kGy and MeBr fumigation in commercial conditions, and then subjected to the corresponding study during storage at 5 deg. C for 6 months. Pests with quarantine importance for chestnut were found Curculio sikkimensis Heller and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee, which showed 100% mortality by MeBr at the 3rd day after fumigation and by irradiation at 0.5 kGy in about 4 weeks. Sprouting was controlled for 6 months with treatments of 0.25 kGy or more and of MeBr, but rotting rate dramatically increased from 2 months after fumigation. Irradiation over 1 kGy as well as fumigation significantly caused changes in the color of stored chestnut. Considering the cumulative mortality of chestnut pests, irradiation at the range of 0.5 kGy is recommendable as one of alternatives to MeBr fumigation for both quarantine and sprout control purposes

  11. Acute Effusive Pericarditis due to Horse Chestnut Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edem, Efe; Kahyaoğlu, Behlül; Çakar, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND There are many well-known causes of pericardial effusion, such as cancer metastasis, bacterial or viral pericarditis, and uremic pericarditis; however, no reports exist in the literature demonstrating a pericardial effusion that led to cardiac tamponade following consumption of an herbal remedy. CASE REPORT A 32-year-old male patient was referred to our cardiology outpatient clinic with a complaint of dyspnea. The patient's medical history was unremarkable; however, he had consumed 3 boxes of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) paste over the previous 1.5 months. His chest x-ray examination revealed an enlarged cardiac shadow and bilateral pleural effusion. On transthoracic echocardiographic examination, his ejection fraction was found to be 55% with circumferentially extended pericardial effusion that reached 3.9 cm at its maximal thickness. No growth had been detected in the pericardial and pleural biopsies or blood samples; there was no evidence of an infectious process in the physical examination. Based on this information, we diagnosed pericarditis resulting from the use of herbal remedies. This is the first report to demonstrate that herbal remedy consumption may cause this type of clinical condition. CONCLUSIONS Besides other well-known causes, pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal remedies should always be considered when treating patients with pericardial effusion caused by unclear etiologies. PMID:27141926

  12. Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables

  13. Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Melanin Fractions from Chestnut Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Yu Yao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut shell melanin can be used as a colorant and antioxidant, and fractionated into three fractions (Fr. 1, Fr. 2, and Fr. 3 with different physicochemical properties. Antioxidant activities of the fractions were comparatively evaluated for the first time. The fractions exhibited different antioxidative potential in different evaluation systems. Fr. 1, which is only soluble in alkaline water, had the strongest peroxidation inhibition and superoxide anion scavenging activity; Fr. 2, which is soluble in alkaline water and hydrophilic organic solvents but insoluble in neutral and acidic water, had the greatest power to chelate ferrous ions; and Fr. 3, which is soluble both in hydrophilic organic solvents and in water at any pH conditions, had the greatest hydroxyl (·OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH· radicals scavenging abilities, reducing power, and phenolic content. The pigment fractions were superior to butylated hydroxytolune (BHT in ·OH and DPPH· scavenging and to ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA in the Fe2+–chelation. They were inferior to BHT in peroxidation inhibition and O2·− scavenging and reducing power. However, BHT is a synthetic antioxidant and cannot play the colorant role. The melanin fractions might be used as effective biological antioxidant colorants.

  14. Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Melanin Fractions from Chestnut Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zeng-Yu; Qi, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Chestnut shell melanin can be used as a colorant and antioxidant, and fractionated into three fractions (Fr. 1, Fr. 2, and Fr. 3) with different physicochemical properties. Antioxidant activities of the fractions were comparatively evaluated for the first time. The fractions exhibited different antioxidative potential in different evaluation systems. Fr. 1, which is only soluble in alkaline water, had the strongest peroxidation inhibition and superoxide anion scavenging activity; Fr. 2, which is soluble in alkaline water and hydrophilic organic solvents but insoluble in neutral and acidic water, had the greatest power to chelate ferrous ions; and Fr. 3, which is soluble both in hydrophilic organic solvents and in water at any pH conditions, had the greatest hydroxyl (·OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals scavenging abilities, reducing power, and phenolic content. The pigment fractions were superior to butylated hydroxytolune (BHT) in ·OH and DPPH· scavenging and to ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) in the Fe(2+)-chelation. They were inferior to BHT in peroxidation inhibition and O₂·(-) scavenging and reducing power. However, BHT is a synthetic antioxidant and cannot play the colorant role. The melanin fractions might be used as effective biological antioxidant colorants. PMID:27110763

  15. First Occurence of Fire Blight on Apricot (Prunus armeniaca in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita VÉGH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During July 2012, a severe unusual disease symptom was observed on young shoots on apricot (Prunus armeniaca 10/13 hybrid in the city of Pomáz, near Budapest. The naturally infected shoots showed typical symptoms of fire blight including terminal shoots with brown to black necrotic lesions. Symptoms were the same as fire blight symptoms reported from other hosts and locations. The first occurrence of fire blight on an apricot tree in Europe was recorded in Czech Republic in 2011. Samples of the leaves and shoots with symptoms were macerated and spread on King’s medium B. After 24 hours of incubation at 26 °C, bacteria morphologically similar to E. amylovora were detected. Isolate induced hypersensitive reaction on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. ‘White Burley’ leaves. Biochemical test was also used for identification, and the result of API 20E kit (Biomérieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France, demonstrate that the bacterium belongs to Enterobacteriaceae family. A pathogenicity tests were positive on young apricot shoots and immature fruits. For molecular identification of the pathogen the 16S rDNA region was amplified from isolate Ea-ApricotPo1 with a general bacterial primer pair (63f forward and 1389r reverse. The PCR products were cloned into a pGEM T-Easy plasmid vector (Promega, Madison, WI USA and were transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α cells. A recombinant plasmid (2A2.5 was sequenced by M13 forward and reverse primers. The sequence was deposited in GenBank (Accession No. HF546214 and showed 99-100% sequence homology with a number of E. amylovora isolates, including type strain FN666575 with 100% similarity. On the basis of the symptoms, colony morphology, biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA sequence homology, the pathogen was identified as E. amylovora. This is a first record of a natural outbreak of fire blight on apricot in Hungary.

  16. Screening of chickpea advanced lines for sources of resistance against blight and wilt two major diseases of chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) an important food legume, ranks third in the world. In Pakistan yield of chickpea is low due to the prevalence of wilt and blight diseases - the two destructive diseases. The control measures available are not feasible and economical, except to exploit host plant resistance mechanism to identify the sources of resistance in existing chickpea germplasm. Fifty four advance chickpea genotypes were screened in blight screening nursery and wilt sick plot. Out of total 54 genotypes 23 were resistant and 16 were moderately resistant to Ascochyta blight disease. Among 23 resistant genotypes; K0058-09, K0062-09, K0066-09, D095-09, K07A005, BK05A015 and BK04A013 had disease rating mean of 3. The results of early wilt showed 19 genotypes as highly resistant and 15 as resistant. The genotypes K0070-09, BKK17106, CH 65/02 and BK04A013 were highly susceptible to wilt during early pathogen infection at seedling stage while the genotypes K0063-09, BKK17106 and BK04A013 were susceptible during late season. Resistance sources identified could be exploited directly and also may be transferred through hybridization to high yielding disease susceptible genotypes. (author)

  17. Niclosamide inhibits leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Il; Song, Jong Tae; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Seo, Hak Soo

    2016-01-01

    Rice leaf blight, which is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), results in huge losses in grain yield. Here, we show that Xoo-induced rice leaf blight is effectively controlled by niclosamide, an oral antihelminthic drug and molluscicide, which also functions as an anti-tumor agent. Niclosamide directly inhibited the growth of the three Xoo strains PXO99, 10208 and K3a. Niclosamide moved long distances from the site of local application to distant rice tissues. Niclosamide also increased the levels of salicylate and induced the expression of defense-related genes such as OsPR1 and OsWRKY45, which suppressed Xoo-induced leaf wilting. Niclosamide had no detrimental effects on vegetative/reproductive growth and yield. These combined results indicate that niclosamide can be used to block bacterial leaf blight in rice with no negative side effects. PMID:26879887

  18. Investigation of the effect of nitrogen on severity of Fusarium Head Blight in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Spliid, N.H.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in a susceptible barley cultivar was investigated using gel-based proteomics. Barley grown with either 15 or 100 kg ha(-1)N fertilizer was inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (Fg). The storage protein fraction did not change significantly in r...... indicated that increased Fusarium infection occurred in barley with low N and suggests control of N fertilization as a possible way to minimise FHB in barley.......The effect of nitrogen on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in a susceptible barley cultivar was investigated using gel-based proteomics. Barley grown with either 15 or 100 kg ha(-1)N fertilizer was inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (Fg). The storage protein fraction did not change significantly in...... degraded by fungal proteases. Greater spot volume changes occurred in response to Fg in plants grown with low nitrogen, although proteomes of uninfected plants were similar for both treatments. Correlation of proteome changes with measurement of Fusarium-damaged kernels, fungal biomass and mycotoxin levels...

  19. [Polyvalence of bacteriophages isolated from fruit trees, affected by bacterial fire blight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovkach, F I; Moroz, S N; Korol', N A; Faĭdiuk, Iu V; Kushkina, A I

    2013-01-01

    Phage populations appearing as a result of a pathogenic process caused by Erwinia amylovora have been discovered and described. They accompany bacterial fire blight development in the process of quince, pear and apple trees vegetation in Zakarpattya region of Ukraine. Phage isolates of the affected pear and quince include polyvalent virulent phages able to develop on bacterial strains associated with plants--E. amylovora. E. "horticola" and Pantoea agglomerans. E. amylovora isolated from the plant tissues affected by the fire blight and detected at the same time as phages proved to be resistant to the viral infection. It is hard to explain now this characteristic however it was noticed that resistance to phages can change drastically in case of dissociation, lysogenization and mutagenesis of erwinia in laboratory conditions. Phage population study shows that they are heterogeneous and can obviously include not only polyvalent but also specific viruses. Further studies of biology and molecular genetics of pure lines of isolated phages will help to get closer to understanding the place and role of bacteriophages in the complicated network of relations between bacterial pathogens and plants. PMID:23720968

  20. Effects of γ-irradiation on the embryonic bud structure of chestnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of γ-irradiation on the structure of the embryonic bud in chestnut seed were investigated by using electronic transmittance microscope. The results indicated that γ-irradiation had great effects on the starch granules in the embryo of chestnut. No significant effects were found under the irradiation dose of 0.5 kGy; the outside of starch granule began to gelatinize at 1 kGy treatment, while significant gelatinization happened with the dose higher than 6 kGy. Correspondingly, the viscosity of the wholemeal flour of the chestnut seeds decreased with the increasing dose of irradiation. It was also found the thickness of the cell wall in the embryonic bud became thinner with the irradiation

  1. Induction of variability for low vicine content and resistance to Sclerotinia stem blight in a Greek faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivar by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early results of a breeding programme aiming to develop strains of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) resistant to Sclerotinia stem blight (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) and strains with low vicine content using mutagenesis are reported. Seeds (7452) of the Greek cultivar Polycarpe (V. faba var. minor) were irradiated with gamma rays. Eight doses of gamma rays have been used: 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 15 krad. All doses produced survival rates below 40%. Doses higher than 10 krad practically destroyed the germination ability of the seeds. The mean vicine content observed in the progeny of the irradiated seeds was not significantly different from the control (0.69%). However, individual seeds in which the vicine content was less than 40% of the amount observed in the control seeds with the lowest content were isolated. None of the 70 M3 faba bean plants grown in the greenhouse and artificially inoculated with Sclerotinia stem blight were infected. The level of infection was low even in the field. Only 43 plants out of 4067 grown in the field were infected. This was not the case, however, when the M3 plants were grown in a growth chamber at 20 deg. C and 16 h illumination. The 315 plants tested so far were all infected and only one has survived. The results indicate that it may be possible to breed faba bean strains resistant to Sclerotinia stem blight and strains with low vicine content. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs

  2. Mutation breeding of rice for bacterial leaf-blight resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seedlings of controls and of M2 generation originating from the irradiation treatment of seeds of four rice varieties with thermal neutrons, 60Co gamme-ray, ethylene-imine (EI), were inoculated with some isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae. The variability of the disease reaction in the populations arising from irradiation and chemical treatment increased both resistance and susceptibility compared with the control average, irrespective of chlorophyll mutations in M2. The increased variability was assumed to be due to polygenic mutations giving both germ types more resistance and more susceptibility to bacterial leaf blight. The value of the induced polygenic mutations in resistance breeding for bacterial leaf blight is briefly discussed. (author)

  3. Post-cultural stand dynamics in an abandoned chestnut coppice at its ecological border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the be­ginning of the last century, chestnut has played an important role as staple food and primary wood source. In many cases it was cultivated at the border of its ecological limits where it was planted by man in place of the original and more site-adapted tree species. However, with the abandonment of the rural activities, ma­nagement of chestnut forests was progressively left starting from more marginal areas, usually occupied by coppice stands. After the interruption of the traditional coppice management system (usual rotation periods of 10-25 years, natural intra- and interspecific competition dynamics have become the driving force of the stand evolution. This may lead to dramatic changes in both structure and species composition of the stands. The aim of this study is to analyse the post-cultural evolution of an abandoned chestnut coppice in the Pesio Valley (Piedmont, Italy in order to highlight the competition among different "basic silvi­cultural components" of the forest using a dendroecological approach. The "basic silvicultural components" are intended as the elements defined as groups of trees of the stand that have similar features such as silvi­culturally relevant attributes: species (chestnut, beech, fir, origin (seed, sprout and cultural age and function (standard/reserve, maiden, shoot, regeneration, dead tree. The mean growth curves of the compo­nents show the different fitness of each category. From a general point of view, the beech and fir components show a better competitive potential in comparison with chestnut. Among chestnut components, maidens from seeds reveal a better growth trend compared to coppice shoots and standards.

  4. Assessment of biomass and carbon litterfall in three chestnut high forest stands in Northern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Patrício, Maria do Sameiro; Fernandes, Maria José; Pereira, Ermelinda; Lopes, Domingos

    2009-01-01

    Litterfall in three high forest chestnut stands, located in different soil types, of 53, 71 and 64 years old, in Marão, Padrela and Bornes, respectively (northern Portugal), was collected last Autumn. Circular litter traps which cover a surface area of 1 m2 each were installed in these chestnut stands. The litterfall was separated into leaves, branches, fruits and burs. All litter fractions were dried to constant weight at 70ºC. The total amount of litter in the three stands was 4.2, 4.6 and ...

  5. Gamma irradiation of chestnuts: dosimetric study and its influence in drying

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio, Amilcar L.; Botelho, M. Luísa; Quintana, Begoña; Bento, Albino; Ramalhosa, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    Food irradiation is a process that has been regaining an increasing interest for different food products to increase shelf life, for disinfestation or sterilization. In industry the drying of chestnuts is used to produce other sub-products, such as flour. So far as we know this is the first time that the influence of gamma irradiation in drying behaviour of an european chestnuts variety was performed. First the dose rate distribution was measured in one of the four levels of a Cobalt-60 irrad...

  6. Triazole induced drought tolerance in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Glynn C; Noviss, Kelly

    2008-11-01

    We determined the influence of the triazole derivatives paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole, propiconazole and myclobutanil on the drought tolerance and post drought recovery of container-grown horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) saplings. Myclobutanil neither conferred drought resistance, as assessed by its effects on a number of physiological and biochemical parameters, nor affected growth parameters measured after recovery from drought. Chlorophyll fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)), photosynthetic rates, total foliar chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, foliar proline concentration and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were consistently higher and leaf necrosis and cellular electrolyte leakage was lower at the end of a 3-week drought in trees treated with paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole or propiconazole than in control trees. Twelve weeks after drought treatment, leaf area and shoot, root and total plant dry masses were greater in triazole-treated trees than in control trees with the exception of those treated with myclobutanil. In a separate study, trees were subjected to a 2-week drought and then sprayed with paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole, propiconazole or myclobutanil. Chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic rate, foliar chlorophyll concentration and catalase activity over the following 12 weeks were 20 to 50% higher in triazole-treated trees than in control trees. At the end of the 12-week recovery period, leaf area and shoot, root and total plant dry masses were higher in triazole-treated trees than in control trees, with the exception of trees treated with myclobutanil. Application of triazole derivatives, with the exception of myclobutanil, enhanced tolerance to prolonged drought and, when applied after a 2-week drought, hastened recovery from drought. The magnitude of treatment effects was in the order epixiconazole approximately propiconazole > penconazole > paclobutrazol > myclobutanil. PMID:18765373

  7. Biological Control of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, the Causal Agent of Basal Kernel Blight of Barley, by Antagonistic Pantoea agglomerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun-Kiewnick, A; Jacobsen, B J; Sands, D C

    2000-04-01

    ABSTRACT Strains of Pantoea agglomerans (synanamorph Erwinia herbicola) suppressed the development of basal kernel blight of barley, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, when applied to heads prior to the Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae infection window at the soft dough stage of kernel development. Field experiments in 1994 and 1995 revealed 45 to 74% kernel blight disease reduction, whereas glasshouse studies resulted in 50 to 100% disease control depending on the isolate used and barley cultivar screened. The efficacy of biocontrol strains was affected by time and rate of application. Percentage of kernels infected decreased significantly when P. agglomerans was applied before pathogen inoculation, but not when coinoculated. A single P. agglomerans application 3 days prior to the pathogen inoculation was sufficient to provide control since populations of about 10(7) CFU per kernel were established consistently, while Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae populations dropped 100-fold to 2.0 x 10(4) CFU per kernel. An application to the flag leaf at EC 49 (before heading) also reduced kernel infection percentages significantly. Basal blight decreased with increasing concentrations (10(3) to 10(7) CFU/ml) of P. agglomerans, with 10(7) CFU/ml providing the best control. For long-term preservation and marketability, the survival of bacterial antagonists in several wettable powder formulations was tested. Over all formulations tested, the survival declined between 10- to >100-fold over a period of 1.5 years (r = -0.7; P = 0.000). Although not significant, storage of most formulations at 4 degrees C was better for viability (90 to 93% survival) than was storage at 22 degrees C (73 to 79%). However, long-term preservation had no adverse effect on biocontrol efficacy. PMID:18944586

  8. The relationship between anatomical and morphological characteristics of green tomato fruit and their susceptibility to late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Horodecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the studies carried out in 1983-1985 was to determine the relationships between the degree of susceptibility of green tomato fruit to late blight and several of the anatomical and morphological features of these fruits. It was found that in the studied material representing a wide range of susceptibility (from various degrees of resistance to susceptible the extent of infection was dependent on the covering layer thickness (with cuticle and number of hairs on the skin.

  9. Studies on the Control of Ascochyta Blight in Field Peas (Pisum sativum L.) Caused by Ascochyta pinodes in Zhejiang Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Na; Xu, Shengchun; Yao, Xiefeng; Zhang, Guwen; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Feng, Zhijuan; Gong, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    Ascochyta blight, an infection caused by a complex of Ascochyta pinodes, Ascochyta pinodella, Ascochyta pisi, and/or Phoma koolunga, is a destructive disease in many field peas (Pisum sativum L.)-growing regions, and it causes significant losses in grain yield. To understand the composition of fungi associated with this disease in Zhejiang Province, China, a total of 65 single-pycnidiospore fungal isolates were obtained from diseased pea samples collected from 5 locations in this region. Thes...

  10. Characterization of Novel Bacteriophages for Biocontrol of Bacterial Blight in Leek Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri

    OpenAIRE

    Rombouts, Sofie; Volckaert, Anneleen; Venneman, Sofie; Declercq, Bart; Allonsius, Camille N.; Van Malderghem, Cinzia; Jang, HB; Briers, Yves; Noben, Jean-Paul; Klumpp, Jochen; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Maes, Martine; Lavigne, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri, the causative agent of bacterial blight in leek (Allium porrum), is increasingly frequent causing problems in leek cultivation. Because of the current lack of control measures, novel bacteriophages were isolated to control this pathogen using phage therapy. Five novel phages were isolated from infected fields in Flanders (vB_PsyM_KIL1, vB_PsyM_KIL2, vB_PsyM_KIL3, vB_PsyM_KIL4, and vB_PsyM_KIL5), and were complemented with one selected host range mutant phage (v...

  11. BIS(4-FLUOROPHENYLSULFONYLDITHIOCARBIMATO)ZINCATE(II) SALTS: NEW ANTIFUNGALS FOR THE CONTROL OF Botrytis BLIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Alexandre A; Oliveira, Marcelo R. L.; Mayura M. M. Rubinger; Elisa L. Piló; Daniele C. Menezes; Laércio Zambolim

    2015-01-01

    Botrytis blight or gray mold is a highly destructive disease caused by Botrytis spp., that infects flowers, trees vegetables, fruit, especially grapevines and strawberry. Three new compounds with general formula (A)2[Zn(4-FC6H4SO2N=CS2)2], where A = PPh3CH3 (2a), PPh3C2H5 (2b), PPh3C4H9 (2c), and the previously published compounds where A = PPh4 (2d) and NBu4 (2e), were synthesized by the reaction of 4-fluorophenylsulfonyldithiocarbimate potassium dihydrate and zinc(II) acetate dihydrate with...

  12. Genetic variability in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata, was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the rDNA region. Southern hybridization of EcoRI, HindIII, and Xbal digested fungal DNA with a RNA probe derived from Alt1, an rDNA clone isolated from ...

  13. Quince (Cydonia oblonga) emerges from the ashes of fire blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two-decade history of fire blight in Bulgaria revealed quince as one of the most frequently attacked hosts and its production on a large scale has almost been entirely eliminated. Nevertheless, this species will play an important epidemiological role as a permanent source of inoculum for other p...

  14. Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Bacterial Antagonists and Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora were prevalent. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory acti...

  15. Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Antagonists and Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora arose. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory activity of o...

  16. Budagovsky 9 rootstock: uncovering a novel resistance to fire blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagovsky 9 (B.9) apple rootstock, displayed a high level of susceptibility (similar to M.9 rootstock) to fire blight bacteria (Erwinia amylovora) when leaves of non-grafted B.9 plants were inoculated. However, when older B.9 rootstock tissue was inoculated directly with E. amylovora, rootstock tis...

  17. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...

  18. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI

  19. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  20. The evolution and pathogenic mechanisms of the rice sheath blight pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Aiping; Lin, Runmao; Zhang, Danhua; Qin, Peigang; Xu, Lizhi; Ai, Peng; Ding, Lei; Wang, Yanran; Chen, Yao; Liu, Yao; Sun, Zhigang; Feng, Haitao; Liang, Xiaoxing; Fu, Rongtao; Tang, Changqing; Li, Qiao; Zhang, Jing; Xie, Zelin; Deng, Qiming; Li, Shuangcheng; Wang, Shiquan; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Lingxia; Liu, Huainian; Li, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a major fungal pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa L.) that causes great yield losses in all rice-growing regions of the world. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the rice sheath blight disease pathogen, R. solani AG1 IA, assembled using next-generation Illumina Genome Analyser sequencing technologies. The genome encodes a large and diverse set of secreted proteins, enzymes of primary and secondary metabolism, carbohydrate-active enzymes, and transporters, which probably reflect an exclusive necrotrophic lifestyle. We find few repetitive elements, a closer relationship to Agaricomycotina among Basidiomycetes, and expand protein domains and families. Among the 25 candidate pathogen effectors identified according to their functionality and evolution, we validate 3 that trigger crop defence responses; hence we reveal the exclusive expression patterns of the pathogenic determinants during host infection. PMID:23361014

  1. Isolation and identification of nystose from seeds of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Kamerling, J.P.; Kahl, W.; Roszkowski, A.; Zurowska, A.

    1972-01-01

    From the seeds of the-horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanm L.), a tetrasaccharide containing 1 mol. of glucose and 3 mol. of fructose has been isolated and shown to be nystose Ip-D-Fruf-(2+ 1)-/?-D-Fruf-(2+ l)-B-D-Fruf-(2-l)a-D-Glcp - J3201.

  2. [Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) used nasally as snuff - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    There are only few reports in the medical literature about side effects and toxicity of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum). We report a 15-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital because of symptoms including: vomiting, dyspnea, burning in the nose and throat, and syncope, after intranasal snuff of powdered horse chestnut seeds. Laboratory tests showed no abnormalities. After 2 days of hospitalization the female was discharged home with subjective and objective improvement. Preparation and use of snuff is related to the tradition of the kashubian region. The powder formed from horse chestnuts, which is white in color, effects after about 5-10 minutes, and causes severe irritation of the nasal mucous membranes, which results in sneezing. Responsible for side effects is mainly aescin. The most frequently observed aescin intoxication symptoms were gastrointestinal irritation and allergic reactions. Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut used nasally as snuff may lead, as it was in our case, to sudden and self-limiting clinical symptoms. Supportive therapy and a short hospital observation seems to be sufficient in such cases. PMID:25632792

  3. Coumarins in horse chestnut flowers: isolation and quantification by UPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek-Makuch, Marlena; Matławska, Irena

    2013-01-01

    The coumarins: scopoletin, esculetin and fraxetin were isolated from the flowers of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae) and identified by spectrophotometric methods (UV, 1H, 13C NMR, ESI-MS). Their content, determined using the Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), was 0.41, 0.13 and 0.05%, respectively. PMID:23757942

  4. Horse chestnut extract induces contraction force generation in fibroblasts through activation of Rho/Rho kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2006-06-01

    Contraction forces generated by non-muscle cells such as fibroblasts play important roles in determining cell morphology, vasoconstriction, and/or wound healing. However, few factors that induce cell contraction forces are known, such as lysophosphatidic acid and thrombin. Our study analyzed various plant extracts for ingredients that induce generation of cell contraction forces in fibroblasts populating collagen gels. We found that an extract of Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is able to induce such contraction forces in fibroblasts. The involvement of actin polymerization and stress fiber formation in the force generation was suggested by inhibition of this effect by cytochalasin D and by Rhodamine phalloidin. Rho kinase inhibitors (Y27632 and HA1077) and a Rho inhibitor (exoenzyme C3) significantly inhibited the force generation induced by the Horse chestnut extract. H7, which inhibits Rho kinase as well as other protein kinases, also significantly inhibited induction of force generation. However, inhibitors of other protein kinases such as myosin light chain kinase (ML-9), protein kinase C (Calphostin), protein kinase A (KT5720), and tyrosine kinase (Genistein, Herbimycin A) had no effect on force generation induced by Horse chestnut extract. These results suggest that the Horse chestnut extract induces generation of contraction forces in fibroblasts through stress fiber formation followed by activation of Rho protein and Rho kinase but not myosin light chain kinase or other protein kinases. PMID:16754996

  5. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  6. Maize seedling blight induced by Fusarium verticillioides: accumulation of fumonisin B₁ in leaves without colonization of the leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Thomas T; Zitomer, Nicholas C; Mitchell, Trevor R; Zimeri, Anne-Marie; Bacon, Charles W; Riley, Ronald T; Glenn, Anthony E

    2014-03-01

    Fusarium verticillioides produces fumonisin mycotoxins during the colonization of maize, and fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) production is necessary for manifestation of maize seedling blight disease. The objective of this study was to address FB₁ mobility and accumulation in seedlings to determine if proximal infection by F. verticillioides is necessary for FB₁ accumulation. Taking advantage of an aconidial mutant known to have limited capability for seedling infection, tissue and soil samples were analyzed to compare wild-type F. verticillioides against the mutant. Inoculation with either strain caused accumulation of FB₁ in the first and second leaves, but the mutants were unable to colonize aerial tissues. FB₁, FB₂, and FB₃ were detected in the soil and seedling roots, but only FB₁ was detected in the leaves of any treatment. These data suggest root infection by F. verticillioides is necessary for accumulation of FB₁ in leaves, but the mechanism for accumulation does not require colonization of the leaf. PMID:24524621

  7. The Content of Phenolic Compounds in Leaf Tissues of White (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and Red Horse Chestnut (Aesculus carea H.) Colonized by the Horse Chestnut Leaf Miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić)

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Oszmiański; Stanisław Kalisz; Wojdyło Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Normally, plant phenolics are secondary metabolites involved in the defense mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens. Therefore, in this study we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in leaves of white and red horse chestnut with leaf miner larvae before and after Cameraria ohridella attack. A total of 17 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in white and red horse chestnut leaf extra...

  8. Effect of sun-exposure of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) on the occurrence and number of parasitoids of the horse chestnut leafminer (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic) in central Poland in 2004– 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tarwacki, Grzegorz; Bystrowski, Cezary; Celmer-Warda, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    The research on parasitoids of the horse chestnut leafminer (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dymić, 1986) of the order Hymenoptera was conducted in the years 2004– 2006 in six locations in central Poland. The complex of para-sitoids was composed of 14 species. Minotetrastrichus frontalis (Nees) and Pnigalio agraules (Walker), (Hyme-noptera: Eulophidae) were the dominant species in all locations. It was noted that sun-exposure of the horse chest-nut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) had asignificant e...

  9. Late blight in organic potato growing: managing resistance and early tuber growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hospers - Brands, Monique; Timmermans, Bart; van der Putten, Peter; Struik, Paul; Tiemens-Hulscher, Marjolein; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith

    2008-01-01

    In organic potato production yields are often reduced by potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans). Two aspects are important in late blight management: a sufficiently high (field) resistance to late blight, and early tuber formation. With early tuber formation the period of tuber growth is extended at the beginning, and with a high resistance level at the end. In 2006 and 2007 experiments were carried out in which the effects of the physiological age of seed tubers on field resistance ...

  10. Eulophid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), from İstanbul, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    CEBECİ, Hacı Hüseyin; Grabenweger, Giselher; Ayberk, Hamit

    2011-01-01

    The eulophid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnuts (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in İstanbul were determined for the first time. Horse chestnut leaves infested with leafminers were collected in 2008 and adult parasitoids were obtained in emergence cages in the laboratory. A total of 10 eulophid parasitoid species were identified, 5 of which, namely Cirrospilus viticola (Rondani), Pnigalio mediterraneus (Fe...

  11. Seasonal Variation in Phenolic Constituents of Hazelnut (Coryllus avellana L.) and Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Leaves and Shoots

    OpenAIRE

    BİLGENER, Şükriye Kurnaz

    1998-01-01

    In this research, the seasonal variation in total phenolic contents in hazelnut and chestnut leaves and shoots was determined. In addition, the phenolic compounds extracted by aqueous alcohol or obtained by acid hydrolysis of the leaves and shoots were separated by paper chromatography (PC). The total phenolic contents of the chestnut leaves and shoots were higher than the hazelnut. In both species, the young shoots had higher total phenolic contents than one year old shoots. The total phen...

  12. Comparative effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the antioxidant potential of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Barros, Lillian; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M. Luísa; Kałuska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-01-01

    Chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been recently studied for their antioxidant potential. The present study reports the effect of e-beam and gamma radiation (doses of 0, 0.5, 1 and 3 kGy) on the antioxidant potential of Portuguese chestnuts. Irradiation might be an alternative preservation method, since Methyl Bromide, a widely used fumigant, was banished by the European Union in 2010 due to its toxicity. The antioxidant activity ...

  13. Biological Control Activities of Rice-Associated Bacillus sp. Strains against Sheath Blight and Bacterial Panicle Blight of Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bishnu K; Karki, Hari Sharan; Groth, Donald E; Jungkhun, Nootjarin; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Potential biological control agents for two major rice diseases, sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight, were isolated from rice plants in this study. Rice-associated bacteria (RABs) isolated from rice plants grown in the field were tested for their antagonistic activities against the rice pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Burkholderia glumae, which cause sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight, respectively. Twenty-nine RABs were initially screened based on their antagonistic activities against both R. solani and B. glumae. In follow-up retests, 26 RABs of the 29 RABs were confirmed to have antimicrobial activities, but the rest three RABs did not reproduce any observable antagonistic activity against R. solani or B. glumae. According to16S rDNA sequence identity, 12 of the 26 antagonistic RABs were closest to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, while seven RABs were to B. methylotrophicus and B, subtilis, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequences of the three non-antagonistic RABs were closest to Lysinibacillus sphaericus (RAB1 and RAB12) and Lysinibacillus macroides (RAB5). The five selected RABs showing highest antimicrobial activities (RAB6, RAB9, RAB16, RAB17S, and RAB18) were closest to B. amyloliquefaciens in DNA sequence of 16S rDNA and gyrB, but to B. subtilis in that of recA. These RABs were observed to inhibit the sclerotial germination of R. solani on potato dextrose agar and the lesion development on detached rice leaves by artificial inoculation of R. solani. These antagonistic RABs also significantly suppressed the disease development of sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight in a field condition, suggesting that they can be potential biological control agents for these rice diseases. However, these antagonistic RABs showed diminished disease suppression activities in the repeated field trial conducted in the following year probably due to their reduced antagonistic activities to the pathogens during the long-term storage in -70C, suggesting that

  14. Assessing potential changes of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mário; Calheiros, Tomas; Pinto, Joaquim; Caramelo, Liliana

    2013-04-01

    Weather conditions play an important role during different phases of the vegetative cycle of the chestnut trees and, consequently, several meteorological parameters seem to be associated chestnut productivity (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992, Cesaraccio et al., 2001, Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007, Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008, Dinis et al., 2011, Pereira et al., 2011). Observed data from European Climate Assessment and simulated data by COSMO-CLM model for the actual (C20) and future (A1B and B1) climate scenarios were used in this study to: (i) assess the model ability to reproduce weather parameters distribution; and, (ii) to assess future changes in the distribution of meteorological parameters which play an important role in the productivity of chestnut for different future periods. Results points to statistical significant changes in the mean and in variance in the future, more prominent in temperature than in precipitation based parameters. Changes in precipitation will be more significant in Northwestern Iberian Peninsula and France in the end of the 21st century for A1B scenario conditions. As expected, more significant changes will be expected to occur during spring and summer, in the Mediterranean areas and in the later period. The number of days with TmaxAesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland", J.For.Res., 12, 24-23. Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: "Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy", Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Dinis, L.T,Peixoto, F., Pinto, T., Costa, R.Bennett, R. N., and Gomes-Laranjo,J., 2011: "Study of morphological and phonological diversity in chestnut trees (Judia variety) as a function of temperature sum". Environ. Exp Bot., 70, 110-120. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhães, M., 2011: "Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity". Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. This work

  15. Research Progress on Northern Leaf Blight in Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yingnan; WANG Zhenhua

    2009-01-01

    The northern corn leaf blight is one of the most serious diseases in maize production. The research progress on etiology, generation law and control strategy, antigen identification, resistance mechanism and inheritance of this disease was discussed. And the research work which should be enhanced in China was pointed out, such as mechanism of resistance inheritance, developing function marker, gene mining, screening resistance resource and dominant physiological race in different areas.

  16. Gene expression analysis during cassava defense response to bacterial blight disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto-Suárez Mauricio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava bacterial blight (CBB caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam is a destructive disease in the South América and África and yield losses range between 12 and 100%. Cytochemistry and biochemistry of defense response to CBB have been well studied. However, the response of the plant to pathogen attack at the molecular and cellular level remains uncharacterized. Identification of genes associated with defense responses is one of most critical steps leading to the elucidation of disease resistance mechanisms in cassava. In this study, we identified differentially expressed genes during pathogen attack by subtractive hybridization, using the Differential Subtraction Chain method (DSC. A population of cDNA obtained from infected plants was used as ";treatment"; and a population of cDNA obtained from healthy plants was used as ";control";. 1536 clones were isolated from the resistant varieties (MBRA 685 and SG 107-35. Of these, 110 randomly selected clones were sequenced and a homology search was conducted. The sequence analysis showed that 14 cDNA clones shared homology with plant genes involved in defense responses, 70 clones were either homologous to plant genes of unknown function or showed no homology, representing new genes potentially involved in cassava defense responses. A cDNA microarray was constructed by spotting the clones identified from our subtractive libraries. Other clones potentially involved in cassava defense responses were also included. The cassava defense cDNA microarray was used to confirm the differential expression of the clones. Keywords: cassava, bacterial blight, gene expression, subtractive library, microarrays.

  17. Biological Efficacy of Streptomyces sp. Strain BN1 against the Cereal Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boknam Jung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB caused by the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is one of the most severe diseases threatening the production of small grains. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as zearalenone and trichothecences. During survey of contamination by FHB in rice grains, we found a bacterial isolate, designated as BN1, antagonistic to F. graminearum. The strain BN1 had branching vegetative hyphae and spores, and its aerial hyphae often had long, straight filaments bearing spores. The 16S rRNA gene of BN1 had 100% sequence identity with those found in several Streptomyces species. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS regions showed that BN1 grouped with S. sampsonii with 77% bootstrap value, suggesting that BN1 was not a known Streptomyces species. In addition, the efficacy of the BN1 strain against F. graminearum strains was tested both in vitro and in vivo. Wheat seedling length was significantly decreased by F. graminearum infection. However, this effect was mitigated when wheat seeds were treated with BN1 spore suspension prior to F. graminearum infection. BN1 also significantly decreased FHB severity when it was sprayed onto wheat heads, whereas BN1 was not effective when wheat heads were point inoculated. These results suggest that spraying of BN1 spores onto wheat heads during the wheat flowering season can be efficient for plant protection. Mechanistic studies on the antagonistic effect of BN1 against F. graminearum remain to be analyzed.

  18. Resistance of Antimicrobial Peptide Gene Transgenic Rice to Bacterial Blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WU Chao; LIU Mei; LIU Xu-ri; Hu Guo-cheng; SI Hua-min; SUN Zong-xiu; LIU Wen-zhen; Fu Ya-ping

    2011-01-01

    Antimierobial peptide is a polypeptide with antimicrobial activity.Antimicrobial peptide genes Np3 and Np5 from Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus Chinensis) were integrated into Oryza sativa L.subsp.japonica cv.Aichi ashahi by Agrobacterium mediated transformation system.PCR analysis showed that the positive ratios of Np3 and Np5 were 36% and 45% in T0 generation,respectively.RT-PCR analysis showed that the antimicrobial peptide genes were expressed in T1 generation,and there was no obvious difference in agronomic traits between transgenic plants and non-transgenic plants.Four Np3 and Np5 transgenic lines in T1 generation were inoculated with ×anthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae strain CR4,and all the four transgenic lines had significantly enhanced resistance to bacterial blight caused by the strain CR4.The Np5 transgenic lines also showed higher resistance to bacterial blight caused by strains JS97-2,Zhe 173 and OS-225.It is suggested that transgenic lines with Np5 gene might possess broad spectrum resistance to rice bacterial blight.

  19. Biological control of late blight of potatoes: In vivo and in vitro evaluation of microbial antagonists against tuber blight.

    OpenAIRE

    Hollywood, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    The cost of losses and control measures attributed to late blight of potatoes caused by Phytophthora infestans, are estimated to exceed {dollar}5 billion annually. Breeding for resistance is difficult owing to the tetraploid genotype of potato and current strains of the pathogen have developed resistance to chemical control. Consequently the search for biological control has assumed greater importance. In this investigation an in vivo bioassay was used to select soils antagonistic to late bli...

  20. Alcoholic chestnut fermentation in mixed culture. Compatibility criteria between Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murado, Miguel Anxo; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Vázquez, José Antonio; Mirón, Jesús; González, María Pilar

    2008-10-01

    The main objective of the present work consisted in the transfer to the case of the chestnut of a rice fermentative process that carried out to the Japanese traditional way to lead to an alcoholic bagasse, the moromi, capable of obtaining distilled. This way, selection assays of amylolitic Aspergillus oryzae strains and studies of compatibility between microfungi and yeast were carried out. These mixed cultivations were performed operating in batch submerged culture. Later on, using solid state system (chestnut, microfungi, yeast), a fermentative fed-batch process (koji, moto, moromi) was defined. By means of this approach a yield of 70% was reached in the conversion of total carbohydrates in ethanol. Also, the time required by the traditional operation was reduced in half. PMID:18289846

  1. Insolubilization of Chestnut Shell Pigment for Cu(II Adsorption from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Yu Yao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut shell pigment (CSP is melanin from an agricultural waste. It has potential as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment but cannot be used in its original state because of its solubility in water. We developed a new method to convert CSP to insolubilized chestnut shell pigment (ICSP by heating, and the Cu(II adsorption performance of ICSP was evaluated. The conversion was characterized, and the thermal treatment caused dehydration and loss of carboxyl groups and aliphatic structures in CSP. The kinetic adsorption behavior obeyed the pseudo-second-order rate law, and the equilibrium adsorption data were well described with both the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. ICSP can be used as a renewable, readily-available, easily-producible, environmentally-friendly, inexpensive and effective adsorbent to remove heavy-metal from aquatic environments.

  2. Insolubilization of Chestnut Shell Pigment for Cu(II) Adsorption from Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zeng-Yu; Qi, Jian-Hua; Hu, Yong; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Chestnut shell pigment (CSP) is melanin from an agricultural waste. It has potential as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment but cannot be used in its original state because of its solubility in water. We developed a new method to convert CSP to insolubilized chestnut shell pigment (ICSP) by heating, and the Cu(II) adsorption performance of ICSP was evaluated. The conversion was characterized, and the thermal treatment caused dehydration and loss of carboxyl groups and aliphatic structures in CSP. The kinetic adsorption behavior obeyed the pseudo-second-order rate law, and the equilibrium adsorption data were well described with both the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. ICSP can be used as a renewable, readily-available, easily-producible, environmentally-friendly, inexpensive and effective adsorbent to remove heavy-metal from aquatic environments. PMID:27043502

  3. EFFECT of hydrocolloids on the quality evaluation of flour based noodles from Horse Chestnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiq Syed Insha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused to investigate the effects of hydrocolloids (guar gum and xanthan gum at additional levels (1%, 2% and 3% on the noodle characteristics prepared from horse chestnut flour. The qualities of noodles prepared from horse chestnut flour were compared with wheat flour based noodles in terms of cooking characteristics, textural and sensory properties. The hydrocolloid addition in noodles resulted in improvement of cooking and textural qualities in consistent to control sample. The incorporation of 3% gum significantly increased cooking properties and the firmness of cooked noodles. The results of the sensory evaluation based on a nine point hedonic scale revealed that apart from the control, noodles with 3% gum were acceptable to the panellists.

  4. Effect of Morphological Traits on Sheath Blight Resistance in Rice%水稻株形对纹枯病抗性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩月澎; 邢永忠; 顾世梁; 陈宗祥; 潘学彪; 陈秀兰

    2003-01-01

    Sheath blight, caused by the Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, is one of the most serious diseasesof rice (Oryza sativa L.). The relationship between morphological traits and sheath blight resistance wasinvestigated in 1999 and 2000 by using a segregant population consisting of 240 inbred recombinationlines, derived from an elite combination of Zhenshan 97 × Minghui 63. Partial correlation analysis betweenphenotypic data (morphological characteristics and heading date (HD)) and sheath blight ratings (SBR)showed that only one trait, plant compactness, was significantly correlated with resistance to sheath blightin both 1999 and 2000, eight traits, such as plant height, heading date, and penultimate leaf angle, weresignificantly correlated with SBR in either of the two years, and the remaining 10 morphological traits werenot consistently associated with SBR in the two years. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controllingplant compactness was found to be in the site on chromosome 9 adjacent to the region responsible forqSB9, a major QTLs conferring sheath blight resistance. One out of the three QTLs contributing to apenultimate leaf angle was mapped approximately on the same region as another sheath blight resistanceQTL, qSB5, located on chromosome 5. Whereas, no QTLs underlying most other traits was detected onthe chromosomal region correlated with sheath blight resistance QTL. The results in the present studysuggested that the morphological traits were not the main factors responsible for the SBR separationamong the recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population. Nevertheless, some morphological characteristicshad some indirect influence on expression of sheath blight resistance genes through altering a microcli-mate on paddy field so as to influence the infection of the pathogen and development of the disease. Anefficient approach in resistance breeding to sheath blight was recommended by pyramiding major QTLs forsheath blight resistance and selecting those morphological

  5. The effects of e-beam radiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Kałuska, Iwona; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M. Luísa; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Chestnut fruits (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been studied in terms of nutritional value and also for their antioxidant potential [1]. In Europe, Portugal is a leading producer of this nut, along with Italy, and the conservation of the chestnut’s properties is essential, especially for export [2]. Irradiation might be an alternative conservation method, since Methyl Bromide, a widely used fumigant, was prohibited as a conservation technique by the Eu...

  6. The effects of e-beam radiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Kałuska, Iwona; Bento, Albino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Chestnut fruits (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been studied in terms of nutritional value and also for their antioxidant potential. In Europe, Portugal is one of the leading producers of this nut, and its conservation is essential. Irradiation might be an alternative conservation method, since methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant, was prohibited as post-harvest technique by the European Union in 2010 due to its toxicity. The alternati...

  7. Electron beam irradiator for post-harvest processing of chestnut fruits: technical parameters and feasibility

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio, Amilcar L.; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M. Luísa; Quintana, Begoña; Zimek, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    In a recent worldwide estimation, food irradiation processing represents about 400 000 ton, from which almost half (186 000 ton) were to eliminate insects. In EU Mediterranean countries chestnut fruits production represents a market of more than 100 000 ton, being Portugal the third producer with an amount of 20 000 ton, exporting 25% of the production, representing an income of about 15 million Euros. In March 2010, a European Union commission decision prohibited the use of methyl bromide (M...

  8. Dosimetric study for irradiation processing of chestnut fruits: experimental setup and dose validation

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio, Amilcar L.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M. Luísa; Quintana, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    Food irradiation is being used as a feasible alternative in several countries for insects’s disinfestation, food decontamination or to increase shelf-life1. Therefore our research group developing studies for the preservation of European varieties of chestnut fruits by gamma and e-beam irradiation, reporting its positive influence in some bioactive compounds2,3. During irradiation, the estimated dose is usually monitored with routine dosimeters (previously calibrated by standard d...

  9. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Songlin Fei

    2010-01-01

    Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaTScan and ClusterSeer) and a nonspatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana) regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moder...

  10. Phenolic and furanic compounds of Portuguese chestnut and French, American and Portuguese oak wood chips

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Raquel; Soares, Bruno; Barrocas Dias, Cristina; Ana Maria, Costa Freitas; Cabrita, Maria joao

    2012-01-01

    Botanical species used on aging process must be wisely and judiciously chosen, and for this selection, a basic knowledge of the chemical composition of woods is warranted. Aiming to contribute to extend the knowledge of the chemical composition of several wood species useful for enological purposes, we have focused our studies on Portuguese chestnut and French, American and Portuguese oak chips. The profile of low molecular weight phenolic composition of these chips wa...

  11. Acute urticaria and angioedema caused by horse-chestnut (aesculus hippocastanum) ingestion: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Akinci, Emine; OĞUZTÜRK, Oğuzhan; Coşkun, Figen

    2012-01-01

    Acute urticaria and angioedema, which can develop due to various causes, are common life threatening condition seen in emergency departments (EDs). The literature includes reports of angioedema cases developing after contacting various plants and seeds. We present the case of a 47-year-old male patient who developed acute urticaria and angioedema after eating horse-chestnut (aesculus hippocastanum). The patient presented to the ED with redness and irritation spread around the body and swellin...

  12. Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) Urban Habitat - Pollution Influence on Some Phenotypic and Morphological Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Fran Poštenjak; Karmelo Poštenjak

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) may be found in most urban areas in Croatia. Over the years it showed to be resistant to various negative urban influences. In this research we tested trees on randomly selected streets with intense traffic in smaller towns. The main goal of this research was to establish the link between pollution and tree growth and to analyze to what extent pollution influences the increase in the measured parameters. Materials and metho...

  13. Micromorphology of trichomes in the flowers of the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosława Chwil; Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Aneta Sulborska; Magdalena Michońska

    2014-01-01

    Aesculus hippocastanum L. is an ornamental tree appreciated for its beautiful flowers and leaves. The flowers of this species contain secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacological activity. They also produce essential oils and coloured “nectar guides”, which enable insects to reach nectar and pollen. The aim of the study was to investigate the types and characteristics of chestnut flower trichomes, which may contain biologically active substances. The analyses were performed using light, f...

  14. Thermorheological and textural behaviour of gluten-free gels obtained from chestnut and rice flours

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Maria D.; Fradinho, Patricia; Raymundo, Anabela; Sousa, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, as celiac disease is becoming more common the consumers’ demand for gluten-free products with high nutritional and taste quality is increasing. This work deals with the study of the impact of four novelty gluten-free sources: chestnut flour (Cf), whole rice flour (Rw), Carolino rice flour (Rc) and Agulha rice flour (Ra). Textural, thermorheological and stability performance of gluten-free gels using different experimental techniques were evaluated. Mixed gels...

  15. Gamma and electron beam irradiation as an alternative for postharvest treatment: a case study with chestnuts

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Barreira, João C.M.; Barros, Lillian; Rafalski, Andrzej; Bento, Albino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Chestnut fruits are an important food commodity in the Northeast region of "Trás-osMontes", representing an income of approximately 17 M€ and being Porn1gal one of the: world's biggest producer. Due to environmental concerns a broad spectrum fumigant, methyl bromide, was banned in 20 I 0 by the European Union. Since then, no adequate postharvest treatment has been implemented, fostering research on suitable alteratives. Our research group has been testing gamma and electron bea...

  16. Effects of gamma irradiation in Castanea sativa tocopherols profile: study extended to four different chestnut varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Amilcar L. Antonio; Barreira, João C. M.; Botelho, M. Luísa; Bento, Albino; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2013-01-01

    In the region of Trás-os-Montes, chestnut production represents a significant income, estimated to be about 15 M€ in 2010. It is therefore, mandatory to develop a safe, reliable and cheap disinfestation alternative to post-harvest fumigation with methyl bromide, since its eradication in 2010 by the European Union, due to environmental concerns and danger for the operators. Hot water dip is being used as a replacement, but still display con...

  17. Incidence and diversity of the fungal genera Aspergillus and Penicillium in Portuguese almonds and chestnuts

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Paula; Venâncio, Armando; Lima, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Almonds (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) and European (sweet) chestnuts (Castanea sativa Miller) are of great economic and social impact in Mediterranean countries, and in some areas they constitute the main income of rural populations. Despite all efforts to control fungal contamination, toxigenic fungi are ubiquitous in nature and occur regularly in worldwide food supplies, and these nuts are no exception. This work aimed to provide knowledge on the general mycobiota of Portuguese almonds...

  18. Adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue onto activated carbon obtained from horse chestnut kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Momčilović Milan Z.; Purenović Milovan M.; Miljković Milena N.; Bojić Aleksandar Lj.; Ranđelović Marjan S.

    2011-01-01

    Horse chestnut kernel was used as the precursor for the preparation of powdered activated carbon using phosphoric acid as the activating agent. Batch adsorption experiments for the adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue from aqueous solutions were carried out using the obtained carbon as adsorbent. Equilibrium and kinetic experiments were conducted. The equilibrium data were fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin theoretical isotherm models. The best results was obtained in ...

  19. A Statistical Comparison of the Blossom Blight Forecasts of MARYBLYT and Cougarblight with Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossom blight forecasting is an important aspect of fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, management for both apple and pear. A comparison of the forecast accuracy of two common fire blight forecasters, MARYBLYT and Cougarblight, was performed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve ...

  20. Thickness of Knox Group overburden on Central Chestnut Ridge, Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thickness of residual soil overlying the Knox Group along Central Chestnut Ridge was estimated by a conventional seismic refraction survey. The purpose of this survey was to identify sites on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation where ample overburden exists above the water table for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste. The results of the survey suggest that the upper slopes of the higher ridges in the area have a minimum of 16 to 26 m (52 to 85 ft) of overburden and that the crests of these ridges may have more than 30 m (100 ft). Therefore, it is unlikely that sound bedrock would be encountered during trench excavation [maximum of 10 m (32 ft)] along Central Chestnut Ridge. Also, the relatively low seismic wave velocities measured in the overburden suggest that the water table is generally deep. On the basis of these preliminary results, Central Chestnut Ridge appears to be suitable for further site characterization for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste. 3 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  1. Induced mutation for disease resistance in rice with special reference to blast, bacterial blight and tungro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice varieties Ratna, Pusa 2-21, Vijaya and Pankaj have been treated with gamma rays, EMS or sodium azide to improve their resistance against blast, bacterial leaf blight or tungro virus. For blast and tungro, mutants with improved resistance were selected. Variation in reaction to bacterial leaf blight has been used in crossbreeding to accumulate genes for resistance. (author)

  2. Estimating the global severity of potato late blight with GIS-linked disease forecast models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.; Forbes, G.A.; Walker, T.S.

    2000-01-01

    Global severity of potato late blight was estimated by linking two disease forecast models, Blitecast and Simcast, to a climate data base in a geographic information system (GIS). The disease forecast models indirectly estimate late blight severity by determining how many sprays are needed during a

  3. Confirming QTLs and finding additional loci responsible for resistance to rice sheath blight disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice sheath blight disease (Rhizoctonia solani AG1-1AKühn) is one of the most destructive rice diseases worldwide. Utilization of host resistance is the most economical and environmentally sound strategy in managing sheath blight (ShB). Ten ShB-QTLs were previously mapped in a LJRIL population using...

  4. Development and characterization of RiceCAP QTL mapping population for sheath blight resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    RiceCAP is a USDA CSREES funded project that has as one of its main objectives developing genetic markers associated with sheath blight resistance. Sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is an important disease of rice in the southern US. Tolerance to the disease is quantitatively inherited an...

  5. Analysing potato late blight control as a social-ecological system using fuzzy cognitive mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacilly, Francine C.A.; Groot, Jeroen C.J.; Hofstede, Gert Jan; Schaap, Ben F.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is one of the main diseases in potato production, causing major losses in yield. Applying environmentally harmful fungicides is the prevailing and classical method for controlling late blight, thus contaminating food and water. There is theref

  6. Leaf Petiole and Stem Blight Disease of Sweet Potato Caused by Alternaria Bataticola in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria leaf petiole and stem blight is an important disease of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus (L.) Lam.) in tropical and sub-tropical regions. In surveys conducted in Uganda from 2001 to 2003, disease incidence ranged from 0-49%. Symptoms of Alternaria leaf and stem blight disease consisted of sm...

  7. Candidate fire blight resistance genes in Malus identified with the use of genomic tools and approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this research is to utilize current advances in Rosaceae genomics to identify DNA markers for use in marker-assisted selection of durable resistance to fire blight. Candidate fire blight resistance genes were selected and ranked based upon differential expression after inoculation with ...

  8. Rice WRKY4 acts as a transcriptional activator mediating defense responses toward Rhizoctonia solani, the causing agent of rice sheath blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haihua; Meng, Jiao; Peng, Xixu; Tang, Xinke; Zhou, Pinglan; Xiang, Jianhua; Deng, Xiaobo

    2015-09-01

    WRKY transcription factors have been implicated in the regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with various plant processes but most notably with plant defense responses to pathogens. Here we demonstrate that expression of rice WRKY4 gene (OsWRKY4) was rapidly and strongly induced upon infection of Rhizoctonia solani, the causing agent of rice sheath blight, and exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET). OsWRKY4 is localized to the nucleus of plant cells and possesses transcriptional activation ability. Modulation of OsWRKY4 transcript levels by constitutive overexpression increases resistance to the necrotrophic sheath blight fungus, concomitant with elevated expression of JA- and ET-responsive pathogenesis-related (PR) genes such as PR1a, PR1b, PR5 and PR10/PBZ1. Suppression by RNA interference (RNAi), on the other hand, compromises resistance to the fungal pathogen. Yeast one-hybrid assay and transient expression in tobacco cells reveal that OsWRKY4 specifically binds to the promoter regions of PR1b and PR5 which contain W-box (TTGAC[C/T]), or W-box like (TGAC[C/T]) cis-elements. In conclusion, we propose that OsWRKY4 functions as an important positive regulator that is implicated in the defense responses to rice sheath blight via JA/ET-dependent signal pathway. PMID:26275661

  9. Altered Gene Expression Profiles of Wheat Genotypes against Fusarium Head Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Kosaka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum is responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB, which is a destructive disease of wheat that makes its quality unsuitable for end use. To understand the temporal molecular response against this pathogen, microarray gene expression analysis was carried out at two time points on three wheat genotypes, the spikes of which were infected by Fusarium graminearum. The greatest number of genes was upregulated in Nobeokabouzu-komugi followed by Sumai 3, whereas the minimum expression in Gamenya was at three days after inoculation (dai. In Nobeokabouzu-komugi, high expression of detoxification genes, such as multidrug-resistant protein, multidrug resistance-associated protein, UDP-glycosyltransferase and ABC transporters, in addition to systemic defense-related genes, were identified at the early stage of infection. This early response of the highly-resistant genotype implies a different resistance response from the other resistant genotype, Sumai 3, primarily containing local defense-related genes, such as cell wall defense genes. In Gamenya, the expression of all three functional groups was minimal. The differences in these molecular responses with respect to the time points confirmed the variation in the genotypes. For the first time, we report the nature of gene expression in the FHB-highly resistant cv. Nobeokabouzu-komugi during the disease establishment stage and the possible underlying molecular response.

  10. Screening low fire blight susceptible Crataegus species for host suitability to hawthorn leaf-curling aphids (Dysaphis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bribosia, E; Bylemans, D; Van Impe, G; Migon, M

    2002-01-01

    The group of hawthorn leaf-curling aphids (Dysaphis spp.) hosted by the common hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq. may play an important role in the biological control of the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini), by increasing reproduction opportunities for the indigenous hymenopteran parasitoid Ephedrus persicae Froggatt. Unfortunately, most fruitgrowers hesitate to introduce the common hawthorn in their orchards because they fear fire blight infections which may be transmitted by this highly susceptible hawthron species. This potential hazard led us to investigate the suitability to leaf-curling aphids of alternative Crataegus species. As representative for these closely-related aphids, the species Dysaphis apiifolia petroselini (Börner) was used in the trials. Ten Crataegus species characterized by their very low susceptibility to fire blight were examined from two angles. Firstly, aphid sexuals were introduced in autumn onto the different species to verify whether egg laying could take place. Secondly, the development of fundatrices and gall formation were followed the next spring. Although eggs and mature fundatrices could be obtained on almost all species, no fundatrice-hosting galls were recorded in spring. The possible causes of these negative results with respect to the geographical origin of the particular Crataegus species involved in this work are discussed. PMID:12696414

  11. Fire Blight Control: The Struggle Goes On. A Comparison of Different Fire Blight Control Methods in Switzerland with Respect to Biosafety, Efficacy and Durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusberti, Michele; Klemm, Urs; Meier, Matthias S; Maurhofer, Monika; Hunger-Glaser, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    Fire blight (FB), caused by Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most important pome fruit pathogens worldwide. To control this devastating disease, various chemical and biological treatments are commonly applied in Switzerland, but they fail to keep the infection at an acceptable level in years of heavy disease pressure. The Swiss authorities therefore currently allow the controlled use of the antibiotic streptomycin against FB in years that are predicted to have heavy infection periods, but only one treatment per season is permitted. Another strategy for controlling Erwinia is to breed resistant/tolerant apple cultivars. One way of accelerating the breeding process is to obtain resistant cultivars by inserting one or several major resistance genes, using genetic engineering. To date, no study summarizing the impact of different FB control measures on the environment and on human health has been performed. This study consequently aims to compare different disease-control measures (biological control, chemical control, control by antibiotics and by resistant/tolerant apple cultivars obtained through conventional or molecular breeding) applied against E. amylovora, considering different protection goals (protection of human health, environment, agricultural diversity and economic interest), with special emphasis on biosafety aspects. Information on each FB control measure in relation to the specified protection goal was assessed by literature searches and by interviews with experts. Based on our results it can be concluded that the FB control measures currently applied in Switzerland are safe for consumers, workers and the environment. However, there are several gaps in our knowledge of the human health and environmental impacts analyzed: data are missing (1) on long term studies on the efficacy of most of the analyzed FB control measures; (2) on the safety of operators handling streptomycin; (3) on residue analyses of Equisetum plant extract, the copper and aluminum

  12. Controlling rice bacterial blight in Africa : needs and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Verdier, Valérie; Cruz, C.V.; Leach, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Rice cultivation has drastically increased in Africa over the last decade. During this time, the region has also seen a rise in the incidence of rice bacterial blight caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The disease is expanding to new rice production areas and threatens food security in the region. Yield losses caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzae range from 20 to 30% and can be as high as 50% in some areas. Employing resistant cultivars is the most economical and effective way to...

  13. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry

  14. Physico-chemical, morphological and pasting properties of starches extracted from water Chestnuts (Trapa natans from three Lakes of Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Gani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on physicochemical, morphology and pasting properties of starches extracted from water chestnuts of three Lakes of Kashmir valley (Wular, Anchar and Dal Lakes were conducted to determine their application in different food products. The water chestnut starch from Dal Lake had more oval shaped granules than water chestnut starches from the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.The unique feature of the water chestnut starches were shape of starch granules which looked like horn(s protruding from the surface which did not appear in other starches already studied. Proximate analysis of water chestnut starches showed that average protein content were 0.4%, amylose 29.5 % and ash 0.007 on dry weight basis. Increase in water binding capacity, swelling power and solubility was found over a temperature range of 50-90ºC. Water chestnut starches showed an increase in syneresis during freeze thaw cycles and decline in paste clarity upon storage. Starch extracted from the water chestnuts of the Dal Lake showed higher water binding capacity, swelling, solubility, past clarity, freeze thaw stability, peak viscosity, final viscosity and lower protein content, amylose content, pasting temperature and gel firmness than starches extracted from water chestnuts of the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.

  15. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry.

  16. Spoilage fungi and their mycotoxins in commercially marketed chestnuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overy, David Patrick; Seifert, K.A.; Savard, M.E.;

    2003-01-01

    nut tissue. Three mycotoxigenic fungi dominated (Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium glabrum/spinulosum and Penicillium discolor) and were isolated at frequencies of 67.1%, 18.6% and 17.7%, respectively, from a total sample size of 350 nuts. Another mycotoxin producer, Aspergillus ochraceus was also...... isolated, but at a much lower frequency. HPLC and diode array detection were used to confirm the suspected presence of the mycotoxins penitrem A, chactoglobosin A and C, emodin and ochratoxin A in extracts prepared from naturally infected nut tissue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time...

  17. The effect of microclimatic conditions on Guignardia aesculi infecting horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopačka, M.; Zemek, Rostislav

    Bratislava: Slovac Academy of Sciences, 2012, s. 44-50. ISBN 978-80-971113-1-1. [International Scientific Conference “Dendrological Days in Mlyňany Arboretum SAS 2012". Vieska nad Žitavou (SK), 18.09.2012-19.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06005 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aesculus hippocastanum * Guignardia aesculi * diseases Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. Changes in leaf tissues of common horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. colonised by the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ochridella Deschka and Dimić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study, conducted during the period 2010- 2011, involved morphological observations and anatomical investigations of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. leaves with symptoms of damage caused by feeding of larvae of the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić. Leaves were collected from trees growing in the city of Lublin (Poland. Microscopic slides were prepared from fresh and fixed plant material. Leaf anatomical features were examined by light microscopy in order to determine the mechanical barrier for feeding pests. Changes were also observed during the progressive damage of the leaf tissues caused by the larvae. Selected developmental stages of the pest are presented in the paper. It has been shown that very thin blades of the mesomorphic leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum produce a poorly developed mechanical barrier in which the following elements can be included: the presence of collenchyma and idioblasts with druses of calcium oxalate, few non-glandular trichomes found close to the leaf veins as well as relatively thin outer walls of the epidermal cells. The cells containing tannins and the oil cells found in the mesophyll may form a physiological barrier. However, foraging leaf miner larvae feed only on the palisade and spongy parenchyma cells, leaving undamaged the cells with tannins as well as the idioblasts with calcium oxalate crystals and oils. The feeding of the pest in the leaf mesophyll leads to the death of the epidermis on both sides of the lamina and to drying of the parts of the leaves in the area of the mines.

  19. Spoilage fungi and their mycotoxins in commercially marketed chestnuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overy, David Patrick; Seifert, K.A.; Savard, M.E.;

    2003-01-01

    A nationwide survey was carried out to assess mould spoilage of Castanea sativa nuts sold in Canadian grocery stores in 1998-99. Morphological and cultural characters, along with secondary metabolite profiles derived from thin-layer chromatography, were used to sort and identify fungi cultured fr...... emodin has been found in a naturally contaminated food source....... nut tissue. Three mycotoxigenic fungi dominated (Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium glabrum/spinulosum and Penicillium discolor) and were isolated at frequencies of 67.1%, 18.6% and 17.7%, respectively, from a total sample size of 350 nuts. Another mycotoxin producer, Aspergillus ochraceus was also...... isolated, but at a much lower frequency. HPLC and diode array detection were used to confirm the suspected presence of the mycotoxins penitrem A, chactoglobosin A and C, emodin and ochratoxin A in extracts prepared from naturally infected nut tissue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time...

  20. Antifungal Action of Ginkgo biloba Outer Seedcoat on Rice Sheath blight

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Tae-Seok; Koo, Han-Mo; Yoon, Hei-Ryeo; Jeong, Nam-Su; Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Chang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    From study of antifungal actions on the rice sheath blight by using the extract of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats, we found that the extracts of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats of all treatment concentrations had inhibited the rice sheath blight. Among them, the most effective concentration was 250 mg/l at which the growth of microbe was 26 mm and even at the packaging test, when sprayed the G. biloba outer seedcoats at the level of 250 mg/l, the damage rate of the rice sheath blight was identif...

  1. Cultivation and Management Techniques of Chestnut Mushroom%栗蘑栽培管理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓娜

    2014-01-01

    总结了栗蘑栽培管理技术,包括选地、做畦、码放菌袋、搭遮荫棚、生长期管理、主要病虫害防治、适时采摘等内容,以供参考。%Cultivation and management techniques of chestnut mushroom were summarized,including selection of land,furrowing,block pattern row pattern of cultivated bag,setting up shed shelter,growth management,main prevention and control of plant diseases and insect pests,timely harvest and etc.,so as to provide the reference.

  2. Spectroscopy analysis of phenolic and sugar patterns in a food grade chestnut tannin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, A; Lagel, M-C; Parpinello, G P; Pizzi, A; Kilmartin, P A; Versari, A

    2016-07-15

    Tannin of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood, commonly used in winemaking was characterised with a spectroscopy qualitative approach that revealed its phenolic composition: several vibrational diagnostic bands assigned using the Attenuated Total Reflectance-Infrared Spectroscopy, and fragmentation patterns obtained using the Laser-Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight technique evidenced polygalloylglucose, e.g. castalagin/vescalagin-like structures as the most representative molecules, together with sugar moieties. The implication of these findings on winemaking application and the potential influence of the chemical structure on the sensory properties of wine are discussed. PMID:26948634

  3. Hydrologic study and evaluation of Ish Creek watershed (West Chestnut Ridge proposed disposal site)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of site characterization work for the proposed West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility, hydrologic information has been assembled from literature sources and direct field measurements. Earlier studies provide the basis for estimating flow frequency and expected high and low flows for catchments on Knox Group formations. Seven waterflow-gaging installations were established and used to characterize runoff patterns in the study area. Based on findings of this study, a practical design capacity for a flume to measure site runoff would range between 1 and 3000 L/s, although flows up to 4500 L/s (10-year recurrence interval) may be encountered. 7 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  4. THE PESTS OF HORSE CHESTNUT TREE – AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    PERJU, T.; I OLTEAN; OPREAN, I.; Monica ECOBICI

    2005-01-01

    In 1998 the presence of the horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka-Dimic was reported in Cluj- Napoca. During 2000 – 2003 research concerning the extent, biology, ecology at this micro-lepidopteron, a new pest in our country, was performed. Signaled for the fi rst time in Western area of our country (1998), then in Central (1998), Southern (1999), and Eastern (2003) part of the country, the spread year by year conquering new territories. In the clime conditions of our country,...

  5. HPLC Analysis of Esculin and Fraxin in Horse-Chestnut Bark (Aesculus hippocastanum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Stanić, Gordana; Juričić, Blaženka; Brkić, Dragomir

    1999-01-01

    Selective and sensitive HPLC method was used for simultaneous determination of esculin and fraxin in a methanolic extract of horse-chestnut bark (A. hippocastanum L.). The samples were separated on a LiChrospher RP 18 column (150 4 mm i.d.) with the mobile phase consisting of acetic acid, 1%, and methanol (84:16 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and quantified by measuring the UV absorbance at 340 nm. The assay of esculin and fraxin is linear over the range 0.02–2 mg/mL. It was shown that t...

  6. Entomopathogenic fungi isolated from soil in the vicinity of Cameraria ohridella infested horse chestnut trees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prenerová, E.; Zemek, Rostislav; Weyda, František; Volter, Lubomír

    Vol. 45. Montfavet: IOBC/WPRS, 2009 - (Ehlers, R.; Crickmore, N.; Enkerli, J.; Glazer, I.; Lopez-Ferber, M.; Tkaczuk, C.), s. 321-324 ISBN 978-92-9067-219-7. [Meeting "Future Research and Development in the Use of Microbial Agents and Nematodes for Biological Insect Control" /12./. Pamplona (ES), 22.06.2009-25.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : horse chestnut leaf-miner * Cameraria ohridella * Aesculus hippocastanum Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  7. Biological control of the chestnut gall wasp with \\emph{T. sinensis}: a mathematical model

    OpenAIRE

    Paparella, Francesco; Ferracini, Chiara; Portaluri, Alessandro; Manzo, Alberto; Alma, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp \\emph{Dryocosmus kuriphilus}, native of China, has become a pest when it appeared in Japan, Korea, and the United States. In Europe it was first found in Italy, in 2002. In 1982 the host-specific parasitoid \\emph{Torymus sinensis} was introduced in Japan, in an attempt to achieve a biological control of the pest. After an apparent initial success, the two species seem to have locked in predator-prey cycles of decadal length. We have developed a spatially explicit ...

  8. Complete genome sequence and construction of infectious full-length cDNA clones of tobacco ringspot Nepovirus, a viral pathogen causing bud blight in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fumei; Hwang, Un Sun; Lim, Seungmo; Yoo, Ran Hee; Igori, Davaajargal; Lee, Su-Heon; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2015-08-01

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV, genus Nepovirus), causes severe diseases in soybean and tobacco plants. TRSV-induced bud blight disease significantly reduced both the yield and quality of soybeans. The function of the encoded viral gene product involved in TRSV infection was unclear due to the limitation of reverse genetics studies on the viral genome. Here, we represent the successful construction of infectious full-length cDNA clones of TRSV genome (RNA1 and RNA2). The cDNAs of TRSV RNA1 and RNA2 were cloned into the binary vector pPZP211 immediately downstream of a double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and upstream of the nopaline synthase terminator. Seven days after agrobacterium-mediated co-inoculation of these two constructs, Nicotiana benthamiana plants developed a systemic infection with necrotic ringspot symptoms and weak stunting of the leaves, similar to that induced by natural TRSV. The systemic infection was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Western blot analysis. Simultaneously, soybean, tomato, and Arabidopsis ecotype Estland were mechanically inoculated with sap prepared from TRSV-agroinfiltrated N. benthamiana leaves, showing typical symptoms of bud blight, necrotic spots, and lethal systemic necrosis, respectively. The system developed herein will be an appealing way to determine TRSV viral gene functions and study host-TRSV interactions. PMID:26159876

  9. Effect of simulated rain on the efficiency of fungicides in potato late blight and early blight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Guerino Tofoli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfastness of fungicides used in the control of late blight (Phytophthora infestans and early blight (Alternaria solani of potato was evaluated under green house and laboratory conditions. ‘Agata’ and ‘Monalisa’ plants treated with fungicides against both diseases were subjected to 20 mm controlled rain simulation for 6 min at 30 min, 1, 2, and 4 h after application. Once all leaves had dried, foliar discs were transferred to Petri dishes and inoculated with the respective pathogens. The plates were then incubated in a BOD chamber for a 12-h photoperiod at 18°C and 25°C, respectively. Disease severity was evaluated by determining the area (% of the foliar discs affected by disease on 5 and 7 days post-inoculation. The results suggest that systemic or inherent tenacity fungicides were less influenced by the simulated rain as compared to contact fungicides. An increase in drying time promoted higher control levels of both diseases, indicating a better retention and absorption of the tested fungicides.

  10. Southern blight disease of tomato control by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase producing Paenibacillus lentimorbus B-30488.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Ritu; Agrawal, Lalit; Gupta, Swati; Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Sumit; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-02-01

    Tomato cultivation is highly susceptible for soil born diseases and among them southern blight disease caused by Scelerotium rolfsii is very common. For its management use of chemical fungicides is not very successful as their spores are able to survive for many years in the soil. As an alternative eco-friendly approach to control the disease antagonistic microbes are being characterized.Among them plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Paenibacillus lentimorbus B-30488 (B-30488) with antagonistic properties, multiple PGP attributes stress tolerance and ACC deaminase enzyme activity is characterized to decipher its mode of action against S. rolfsii under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In vitro results obtained from this study clearly demonstrate that B-30488 has ability to show antagonistic properties under different abiotic stresses against S. rolfsii. Similar results were also obtained from in vivo experiments where B-30488 inoculation has efficiently controlled the disease caused by S. rolfsii and improve the plant growth. Deleterious enhanced ethylene level in S. rolfsii infected plants was also ameliorated by inoculation of ACC deaminase producing B-30488. The ACC accumulation, ACO and ACS activities were also modulated in S. rolfsii infected plants. Results from defense enzymes and other biochemical attributes were also support the role of B-30488 inoculation in ameliorating the biotic stress caused by S. rolfsii in tomato plants. These results were further validated by pathogen related gene expression analysis by real time PCR. Overall results from the present study may be concluded that ACC deaminase producing B-30488 has ability to control the southern blight disease caused by S. rolfsii and commercial bioinoculant package may be developed. PMID:26825539

  11. BIS(4-FLUOROPHENYLSULFONYLDITHIOCARBIMATOZINCATE(II SALTS: NEW ANTIFUNGALS FOR THE CONTROL OF Botrytis BLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre A. Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis blight or gray mold is a highly destructive disease caused by Botrytis spp., that infects flowers, trees vegetables, fruit, especially grapevines and strawberry. Three new compounds with general formula (A2[Zn(4-FC6H4SO2N=CS22], where A = PPh3CH3 (2a, PPh3C2H5 (2b, PPh3C4H9 (2c, and the previously published compounds where A = PPh4 (2d and NBu4 (2e, were synthesized by the reaction of 4-fluorophenylsulfonyldithiocarbimate potassium dihydrate and zinc(II acetate dihydrate with the appropriate counter cations (A halides. The new compounds were characterized by infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies. All these salts inhibited the growth of Botrytis cinerea, with compounds 2c and 2d showing greater antifungal activity than zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate, the active principle of the fungicide Ziram. The bis(dithiocarbimatezincate(II salts are also active against the bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. A method for the rapid detection and identification of halo blight pathogen on common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A diagnostic method based on nested-PCR, followed by ELISA and conventional bacteriology tests, for the rapid and reliable detection of halo blight pathogen Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola (Psp collected from infected bean leaves and seeds is described. Psp formed white, small and flat colonies on nutrient agar medium, creamy white, flat and circular on Milk-Tween agar medium and light yellow, convex and shiny on modified sucrose peptone agar medium. Eighteen Gram-negative, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative strains were subjected to nested PCR with primers P 5.1/P 3.1 and P 5.2/P 3.2, which directed the amplification of the 450 bp target DNA fragment in all tested strains. According to the results of DAS- and PTA-ELISA with respect to reactivity to specific antibodies, all analyzed strains belonged to Psp bacterium. Pathogenicity was tested on bean pods and cotyledon leaves, on which greasy spots were formed. Psp did not cause hypersensitive reaction on the leaves of tobacco and geranium. Strains produced levan, fluorescent pigment, oxidative metabolism of glucose, did not reduce nitrate, did not produce indole and H2S, did not hydrolyze starch, gelatin and esculin; they produced acid from glucose, mannose, sucrose and glycerol, and did not produce acid from maltose, starch, esculin, dulcite, sorbitol, inositol and erythritol.

  13. Leaf blight and defoliation of Eugenia spp. caused by Cylindrocladium candelabrum and C. spathiphylli in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Sebastião Poltronieri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf blight and defoliation of Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh and Eugenia patrisii Vahl, caused respectively by Cylindrocladium candelabrum (Calonectria scoparia and C. spathiphylli (Calonectria spathiphylli are reported in the state of Pará, Brazil. On both host species, the disease is characterized by dark brown lesions of different sizes and shapes. A whitish bright sporulation, resembling Cylindrocladium is observed on the necrotic lesions by using a stereomycroscope or a pocket lense (10-20 X. Under favorable conditions and depending on the level of infection, intense premature tree defoliation may also be found.Although the conidial germination and mycelial growth were higher at 25ºC for both species, C. candelabrum was more sensitive to the variation of temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40 ºC than C. spathiphylli. This is the first report of C. candelabrum and C. spathiphylli on Eugenia stipitata (araçá-boi and on Eugenia patrisii (ubaia-da-amazônia, respectively in Brazil.

  14. Development of late blight resistance and heat tolerance through gamma irradiation of shoot cultures in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro shoot cultures of two potato varieties viz., Kufri jyoti and Kufri Chandramukhi were gamma irradiated at 20 Gy and 40 Gy. Micro tubers were induced in micro propagated M1V3 generation. For heat tolerance micro tubers were induced at elevated (28C) incubation temperature (optimum being 201C) and were characterized by early sowing, chlorophyll persistence and harvest index. The number of micro tubers/plant was highly reduced at elevated temperature and the resulting tubers exhibited distorted shapes and growth of apical buds. Thus obtained micro tubers exhibited better germination (62.3%) even in early sowing at relatively higher temperature. The progenies from putative heat tolerant plants were grown in the field by sowing at higher temperature for four subsequent generations. Heat tolerant plants segregated in each generation but the frequency of heat tolerant plants increased in the advanced generation. For developing late blight resistance micro tubers produced from irradiated shoot cultures were sown in pots and resulting plants were screened using detached leaf method. The progenies of putative resistant plants grown in the field were artificially inoculated with sporangial inoculum of Phytophthora infection's. Field grown plants exhibited segregation with respect to disease reaction and about 56 per cent plants showed resistance. Segregation was reduced during following generation and the frequency of resistant plants was increased up to 72.3 per cent. Thus, repeated selections has helped in developing stable mutants in both the varieties

  15. Iturin levels on wheat spikes linked to biological control of Fusarium head blight by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, J M; Gibson, D M; Vaughan, R H; Bergstrom, G C

    2013-02-01

    The TrigoCor strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens provides consistent control against Fusarium head blight of wheat in controlled settings but there is a lack of disease and deoxynivalenol suppression in field settings. Since production of antifungal compounds is thought to be the main mode of action of TrigoCor control, we quantified levels of a key family of antifungal metabolites, iturins, as well as monitored Bacillus populations on wheat spikes over 14 days post-application in both the greenhouse and the field. We found that initial iturin levels on spikes in the greenhouse were three times greater than on spikes in the field, but that by 3 days post-application, iturin levels were equivalent and very low in both settings. We also determined that iturins declined rapidly over a 3-day post-application period on wheat spikes in both environments, despite the presence of significant Bacillus populations. Greenhouse trials and antibiosis tests indicated that the lower iturin levels on wheat spikes in the field could be a major factor limiting disease control in field settings. Future efforts to improve Bacillus disease control on wheat spikes and in the phyllosphere of various plants should focus on maintaining higher levels of iturins over critical infection periods. PMID:23075168

  16. Antifungal Action of Ginkgo biloba Outer Seedcoat on Rice Sheath blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tae-Seok; Koo, Han-Mo; Yoon, Hei-Ryeo; Jeong, Nam-Su; Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Chang-Ho

    2015-03-01

    From study of antifungal actions on the rice sheath blight by using the extract of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats, we found that the extracts of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats of all treatment concentrations had inhibited the rice sheath blight. Among them, the most effective concentration was 250 mg/l at which the growth of microbe was 26 mm and even at the packaging test, when sprayed the G. biloba outer seedcoats at the level of 250 mg/l, the damage rate of the rice sheath blight was identified as 13%. As a result investigating the antifungal activity by separating polysaccharides from G. biloba outer seedcoats, it showed that the clear zone of 14 mm or more was formed at the concentration of 250 mg/l or higher. Based on these results, we concluded that the G. biloba outer seedcoat is a natural substance with the antifungal activity on the rice sheath blight. PMID:25774111

  17. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....

  18. Antifungal Action of Ginkgo biloba Outer Seedcoat on Rice Sheath blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Seok Oh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available From study of antifungal actions on the rice sheath blight by using the extract of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats, we found that the extracts of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats of all treatment concentrations had inhibited the rice sheath blight. Among them, the most effective concentration was 250 mg/l at which the growth of microbe was 26 mm and even at the packaging test, when sprayed the G. biloba outer seedcoats at the level of 250 mg/l, the damage rate of the rice sheath blight was identified as 13%. As a result investigating the antifungal activity by separating polysaccharides from G. biloba outer seedcoats, it showed that the clear zone of 14 mm or more was formed at the concentration of 250 mg/l or higher. Based on these results, we concluded that the G. biloba outer seedcoat is a natural substance with the antifungal activity on the rice sheath blight.

  19. Disease-reducing effect of Chromolaena odorata extract on sheath blight and other rice diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoa, Nguyen Đac; Thuy, Phan Thi Hong; Thuy, Tran Thi Thu; Collinge, David B; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

    2011-02-01

    Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a major cause of crop loss in intensive rice production systems. No economically viable control methods have been developed. We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions. The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C. odorata and rice cultivar. The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity. Under semi-field conditions, extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases, i.e., blast (Pyricularia oryzae) using foliar spray (up to 45%), brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae) using seed treatment (up to 57%), and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) using both application methods (up to 50%). PMID:20839964

  20. Performance of resistance gene pyramids to races of rice bacterial blight in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGKangle; ZHUANGJieyun; WANGHanrong

    1998-01-01

    The effect of gene pyramiding on resistance to bacterial blight (BB) in rice was evahlated among the IR24-based near isogenic lines conraining single resistance gene and gene pyramids containing two, three or lour resistancegenes (see table).

  1. Comparative transcript profiling by SuperSAGE identifies novel candidate genes for controlling potato quantitative resistance to late blight not compromised by late maturity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid M. Draffehn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to pathogens is essential for survival of wild and cultivated plants. Pathogen susceptibility causes major losses of crop yield and quality. Durable field resistance combined with high yield and other superior agronomic characters are therefore important objectives in every crop breeding program. Precision and efficacy of resistance breeding can be enhanced by molecular diagnostic tools, which result from knowledge of the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility. Breeding uses resistance conferred by single R genes and polygenic quantitative resistance. The latter is partial but considered more durable. Molecular mechanisms of plant pathogen interactions are elucidated mainly in experimental systems involving single R genes, whereas most genes important for quantitative resistance in crops like potato are unknown. Quantitative resistance of potato to Phytophthora infestans causing late blight is often compromised by late plant maturity, a negative agronomic character. Our objective was to identify candidate genes for quantitative resistance to late blight not compromised by late plant maturity. We used diagnostic DNA-markers to select plants with different field levels of maturity corrected resistance (MCR to late blight and compared their leaf transcriptomes before and after infection with P. infestans using SuperSAGE (serial analysis of gene expression technology and next generation sequencing. We identified 2034 transcripts up or down regulated upon infection, including a homolog of the kiwi fruit allergen kiwellin. 806 transcripts showed differential expression between groups of genotypes with contrasting MCR levels. The observed expression patterns suggest that MCR is in part controlled by differential transcript levels in uninfected plants. Functional annotation suggests that, besides biotic and abiotic stress responses, general cellular processes such as photosynthesis, protein biosynthesis and degradation play a role

  2. Rapid Genome Response of Malus to Infection by Erwinia amylovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pear, and other plants in the subfamily Maloideae of the Rosaceae. The goal of this study was to use a global analysis of gene expression to characterize the temporal response of apple to infection by E. amyl...

  3. Phenols, lignans and antioxidant properties of legume and sweet chestnut flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Turfani, Valeria; Azzini, Elena; Maiani, Giuseppe; Carcea, Marina

    2013-10-15

    Total phenols (TPC) and antioxidant properties were determined in chick-pea, green and red lentils and sweet chestnut flours, in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues, by the Folin Ciocalteau method and by the FRAP assay, respectively. Plant lignans were quantified in flours by means of HPLC. In addition, the FRAP of plant lignans (secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol, matairesinol), their mixture and enterolignans (enterodiol and enterolactone) were determined. In all flours, the highest TPC values were found in the residue. Specific and varietal significant differences were observed in all parameters. The highest TPC (737.32 and 1492.93mg/100gd.w.) and FRAP (140.32 and 101.25μmol/gd.w.) values were reached by green lentils in both aqueous-organic extract and residue, respectively. Sweet chestnuts had the highest total lignans (980.03μg/100gd.w.). It was also found that the plant lignans standards have a higher antioxidant activity than enterolignans standards and that matairesinol has the highest activity. PMID:23692751

  4. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. PMID:25363584

  5. A Morphological and Histological Characterization of Male Flower in Chestnut (Castanea Cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume. is a widely distributed fruit tree and well known for its ecological and economic value. In order to evaluate obstacles to male reproductive in the C. mollissima, a morphological and histological characterization of male flower of chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ were examined by paraffin section technique and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that male catkins with floral primordia were formed in the buds of one-year olds shoots in later April. Later, a protoderm, ground meristem and a procambium had differentiated in young anthers. Each young anther soon developed to four microsporangia. The anther wall layers developed completely by mid-May and consisted of one-cell-layered epidermis, one-cell-layered endothecium, two or three middle layers and one-cell-layered tapetum. The tapetum was of glandular type. Microspore mother cells underwent meiosis through simultaneous cytokinesis in later May and gave rise to tetrads of microspores, which were tetrahedrally arranged. Mature pollens contained two cells with three germ pores. Anthers were dehiscent and pollen grains shed by early June. Based our results, we did not find the abnormal male flower in the C. molissma cv ‘yanshanzaofeng’, indicating that male gametes were fertile and thus was considered as pollenizers.

  6. Chestnut cultivar diversification process in the Iberian Peninsula, Canary Islands, and Azores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Lorenzo, Santiago; Costa, Rita Maria Lourenço; Ramos-Cabrer, Ana María; Ciordia-Ara, Marta; Ribeiro, Carla Alexandra Marques; Borges, Olga; Barreneche, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    This is a large-scale molecular study based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci of the diversification process in chestnut cultivars from Portugal and Spain, from the northern Iberian Peninsula to the Canary Islands and the Azores. A total of 593 grafted chestnut trees (Castanea sativa Mill.) were analysed with 10 SSRs: 292 from Portugal and 301 from Spain. Some of the trees studied were more than 300 years old. Accessions were analysed using a model-based Bayesian procedure to assess the geographical structure and to assign individuals to reconstructed populations based on the SSR genotypes. We found 356 different genotypes with a mean value of clonality of 33% owing to grafting. Mutations accounted for 6%, with hybridization being the main diversification process that can explain the great diversity found. Ten main cultivar groups were detected: four in northern Spain, five in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, and one in southern Spain related to the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. This work demonstrated that cultivar origin and the diversification process was a combination of clonal propagation of selected seedlings, hybridization, and mutations, which allowed high levels of diversity to be maintained with respect to selected clones for fruit production. Furthermore, seedlings and graft sticks facilitated the transport to new destinations in the colonization process, transporting sometimes more than 3000 km if we consider the Azores and the Canary Islands. PMID:21491973

  7. Adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue onto activated carbon obtained from horse chestnut kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Milan Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Horse chestnut kernel was used as the precursor for the preparation of powdered activated carbon using phosphoric acid as the activating agent. Batch adsorption experiments for the adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue from aqueous solutions were carried out using the obtained carbon as adsorbent. Equilibrium and kinetic experiments were conducted. The equilibrium data were fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin theoretical isotherm models. The best results was obtained in the case of Langmuir model, which indicates that monolayer adsorption occurs on finite number of the active adsorption sites on the carbon surface. The kinetic data were fitted with pseudo-first, pseudo-second, Elovich and interparticle diffusion model. Pseudo-second order model and Elovich model showed the best results of the kinetic data. The increasing of the solution pH led to a higher uptake of methylene blue due to the fact that competitive adsorption of methylene blue cation and proton exists in acidic solutions. The adsorption capacity for methylene blue in equilibrium study was significant (168.93 mg g-1. Comparison of the adsorption capacities of methylene blue onto activated carbons derived from various alternative precursors proves chestnut kernel to be efficient and low-cost material which could be substantially deployed in the future.

  8. Influence of inoculum and climatic factors on the severity of Fusarium head blight in German spring and winter barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkmeyer, Andrea; Hofer, Katharina; Rychlik, Michael; Herz, Markus; Hausladen, Hans; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Hess, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small cereals is a disease of global importance with regard to economic losses and mycotoxin contamination harmful to human and animal health. In Germany, FHB is predominantly associated with wheat and F. graminearum is recognised as the major causal agent of the disease, but little is known about FHB of barley. Monitoring of the natural occurrence of FHB on Bavarian barley revealed differences for individual Fusarium spp. in incidence and severity of grain infection between years and between spring and winter barley. Parallel measurement of fungal DNA content in grain and mycotoxin content suggested the importance of F. graminearum in winter barley and of F. langsethiae in spring barley for FHB. The infection success of these two species was associated with certain weather conditions and barley flowering time. Inoculation experiments in the field revealed different effects of five Fusarium spp. on symptom formation, grain yield and mycotoxin production. A significant association between fungal infection of grain and mycotoxin content was observed following natural or artificial infection with the type B trichothecene producer F. culmorum, but not with the type A trichothecene-producing species F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides. Trichothecene type A toxin contamination also occurred in the absence of significant damage to grain and did not necessarily promote fungal colonisation. PMID:26679010

  9. Unveiling and deploying durability of late blight resistance in potato : from natural stacking to cisgenic stacking

    OpenAIRE

    Kwang-Ryong Jo

    2013-01-01

    The potato, which receives an increased attention as a food crop, has long been in threats from the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight. This disease still remains the most important constraint in potato producing regions of the world. It might cause the complete destruction of the foliage and tubers of potato if meteorological conditions are conducive to the onset and spread of late blight epidemics. Although fungicides applications provide sufficient levels of l...

  10. Biocontrol of sheath blight by Trichoderma asperellum in tropical lowland rice

    OpenAIRE

    de França, Suenny Kelly Santos; Cardoso, Aline Figueiredo; Lustosa, Denise Castro; Ramos, Edson Marcos Leal Soares; de Filippi, Marta Cristina Corsi; da Silva, Gisele Barata

    2015-01-01

    Crop damage by rice sheath blight, Rhizoctonia solani, can decrease rice yield by up to 45 %. The classical control method of rice sheath blight in the Amazon region is the application of fungicides. Therefore, we tested here the efficiency of a biocontrol agent, Trichoderma asperellum, and fungicides. Two experiments of rice cultivation were carried out with seven treatments: four isolates of T. asperellum, a mixture of the four isolates, the fungicide pencycuron, and the control. The first ...

  11. Preservation methods for isolates of ascochyta blight fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Marcinkowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolates of ascochyta blight fungi, two of Ascochyta pisi, four of Mycosphaerella pinodes and four of Phoma pinodella were stored: A - on slants under mineral oil, B - on CN's medium agar disks, and as conidial suspension: C - in glycerine, D · in water. Viability and pathogenicity of recovered cultures after each consecutive year were assesed from 1991 to 1999. The compared parameters were first of all strongly influenced by the preservation method, but fungus species and number of years had a minor importance. The best for longer storage was method "A" because after 9 years the isolates were viable, highly pathogenic, and cultures recovered from them were clean. Thc method "C'' is good for short keeping (2-3 years, as conidia in vials need only small space and gave clean cultures.

  12. Induced mutation for bacterial blight resistance in mulberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buds of mulberry varieties Phai, Noi and SK2502 were irradiated by gamma radiation and then cultured on the Murashige and Skoog medium containing 1.0 mg/l of BA and Casein hydrolysate 1g/l. After proliferation of shoots, they were transferred to the rooting medium (MS + NAA 0.2 mg/l + IBA 0.2 mg/l). Plantlets of mulberry var. Noi were transplanted to soil in greenhouse for screening for bacterial blight disease resistance. All plants showed symptoms of disease. In vitro inoculation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae p.v. mori, on plantlets of the mulberry var. Noi and Phai was conducted. All plants showed symptoms of the disease and died. In vitro screening will be continued with much larger populations in order to select the resistance traits. (author). 4 refs, 4 tabs

  13. The Identity of a Pea Blight Fungus in South Africa *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. T. van Warmelo

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available The perfect stage of Ascochyta pinodes (Berk. & Blox. Jones, a cause of pea blight in Natal, was compared with type material of  Sphaeria pinodes Berk, and Blox.,  Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. & Blox. Stone, and  Didymella pinodes (Berk. & Blox. Petrak and the development o f its ascocarps studied. Two types of ascocarp were found on the material of  Didymella pinodes, one perithecial and the other ascolocular in structure. The ascocarp of the South African fungus was typically ascolocular in development and construction and similar to that of other species of Mycosphaerella. These ascocarps were identical to those of  Sphaeria pinodes and Mycosphaerella pinodes and the ascolocular ascocarps of the  DidymeUa pinodes material. In development and morphology this fungus agrees more closely with the original generic concepts of the genus Mycosphaerella Joh. than with  Didymella Sacc. and should thus be named Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. & Blox. Stone.

  14. Effects of Different Pollination Treatments on Nutrition Changes of the Ovary in Chinese Chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume has noteworthy ecological, economic and cultural importance in the Northern Hemisphere. The low yield of chestnut often affect the economic efficiency. Ovary development is an important step in nut production. Changes in nutrient contents during ovary development in chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ and ‘Dabanhong’ were used as material. About 50~100 pollinated female inflorescences were picked every five days (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 days to determine N, P, K, fat, total soluble sugar, crude protein and starch contents. The results indicated that the contents of total soluble sugar, starch and fat increased constantly in ovaries after self-and cross-pollination, but protein, N and K contents first increased in 20 DAP (day after pollination and after that decreased in the stage of young fruit development. The changes of P has two peak values, one was in 40 DAP and the other was in 50 DAP. P and crude protein were not significantly after pollination treatments. However, N, sugar, starch, fat and K were significantly higher in cross-pollination treatment it seems that these nutrient has a decisive role during ovary development in chestnut. The characteristics of these nutrition changes provide a basis information for spraying N, P, K etc during ovary development and may have the potential to improve nut yield.

  15. Functional analysis of OsPGIP1 in rice sheath blight resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Lu, Liaoxun; Pan, Xuebiao; Hu, Zongliang; Ling, Fei; Yan, Yan; Liu, Yemao; Lin, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most devastating diseases of rice, sheath blight causes severe rice yield loss. However, little progress has been made in rice breeding for sheath blight resistance. It has been reported that polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins can inhibit the degradation of the plant cell wall by polygalacturonases from pathogens. Here, we prokaryotically expressed and purified OsPGIP1 protein, which was verified by Western blot analysis. Activity assay confirmed the inhibitory activity of OsPGIP1 against the PGase from Rhizoctonia solani. In addition, the location of OsPGIP1 was determined by subcellular localization. Subsequently, we overexpressed OsPGIP1 in Zhonghua 11 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica), and applied PCR and Southern blot analysis to identify the positive T0 transgenic plants with single-copy insertions. Germination assay of the seeds from T1 transgenic plants was carried out to select homozygous OsPGIP1 transgenic lines, and the expression levels of OsPGIP1 in these lines were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Field testing of R. solani inoculation showed that the sheath blight resistance of the transgenic rice was significantly improved. Furthermore, the levels of sheath blight resistance were in accordance with the expression levels of OsPGIP1 in the transgenic lines. Our results reveal the functions of OsPGIP1 and its resistance mechanism to rice sheath blight, which will facilitate rice breeding for sheath blight resistance. PMID:25488398

  16. Delphinella Shoot Blight on Abies lasiocarpa Provenances in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venche Talgø

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis attacks true firs (Abies spp. in Europe and North America. Especially subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa, one of the main Christmas tree species in Norway, is prone to the disease. The fungus kills current year needles, and in severe cases entire shoots. Dead needles become covered with black fruiting bodies, both pycnidia and pseudothecia. Delphinella shoot blight has mainly been a problem in humid, coastal regions in the northwestern part of Southern Norway, but, probably due to higher precipitation in inland regions during recent years, heavy attacks were found in 2011 in a field trial with 76 provenances of subalpine fir in Southeastern Norway. However, the amount of precipitation seemed less important once the disease had established in the field. Significant differences in susceptibility between provenances were observed. In general, the more bluish the foliage was, the healthier the trees appeared. The analysis of provenance means indicated that, at least for the southern range, the disease ratings were correlated with foliage color. This study also includes isolation, identification, a pathogenicity test, a seed test and electron microscopy of the wax layer on the needles. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of spores and by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. The fungus was found present on newly harvested seeds and may therefore spread via international seed trade. When comparing the wax layers on green and blue needles, those of the latter were significantly thicker, a factor that may be involved in disease resistance.

  17. Cultural Heritage in the Gulf: Blight or Blessing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Boussaa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Gulf and after gaining independence in the 1960s and 1970s many cities witnessed a staggering rapid urban growth. The urban centers, which formed the central parts of these cities, underwent continuous pressures of destruction and redevelopment. A large number of these centers have been often demolished and replaced by alien imported high-rise buildings. The urban cores which escaped complete demolition have survived as isolated pockets in the middle of hybrid environments. This dilemma raises important questions; is this surviving cultural heritage blight or blessing? Is it "blight" and obstacle that stifles our cities from moving forward to aspire for a bright and prosperous future, or is it "blessing" an asset that can form a major catalyst to promote our cities while maintaining strong roots with their past? Accordingly, what should be the future of these surviving historic centers? Will they be demolished to pave way for more ambitious growth or can they be conserved and sustained for present and future generations? Will the historic city, the heart of urban life and the main protector of our cities identities, survive and continue to be places for living within the emerging global cities of today and tomorrow? This paper attempts to highlight the importance of dealing with the conservation and development issue, by raising and discussing the following question: How can our cultural heritage be a setting of appropriate conservation and development in the emerging global environments? In order to discuss this issue, three historic cities from the Gulf; Old Dubai in UAE, Old Jeddah in Saudi Arabia and Old Doha in Qatar will form the setting of this research.

  18. Development of forecasting elements for minimization of fungicide treatment in potato protection against early blight in Moscow region

    OpenAIRE

    Penjkin Roman V.; Doroškina Ljudmila A.; Smirnov Aleksej N.

    2013-01-01

    Early blight of potato (the agent is imperfect fungus Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl.) is a serious disease of potatoes under hot conditions. This disease is important in the regions of Eastern and Southern Europe, Asia and Africa. It is controlled with intensive application of fungicides commonly used against late blight. However, currently fungicides cause undesirable damage to humans and the environment. Elements of forecasting the early blight have been developed in order to mini...

  19. The genome of the Erwinia amylovora phage PhiEaH1 reveals greater diversity and broadens the applicability of phages for the treatment of fire blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meczker, Katalin; Dömötör, Dóra; Vass, János; Rákhely, Gábor; Schneider, György; Kovács, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    The enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight. This study presents the analysis of the complete genome of phage PhiEaH1, isolated from the soil surrounding an E. amylovora-infected apple tree in Hungary. Its genome is 218 kb in size, containing 244 ORFs. PhiEaH1 is the second E. amylovora infecting phage from the Siphoviridae family whose complete genome sequence was determined. Beside PhiEaH2, PhiEaH1 is the other active component of Erwiphage, the first bacteriophage-based pesticide on the market against E. amylovora. Comparative genome analysis in this study has revealed that PhiEaH1 not only differs from the 10 formerly sequenced E. amylovora bacteriophages belonging to other phage families, but also from PhiEaH2. Sequencing of more Siphoviridae phage genomes might reveal further diversity, providing opportunities for the development of even more effective biological control agents, phage cocktails against Erwinia fire blight disease of commercial fruit crops. PMID:24551880

  20. Leaf blight of catharanthus roseus (l). g. don caused by macrophomina phaseolina (tassi) goid and its in vitro control through bio-pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catharanthus roseus (L.).G. Don, a highly valued medicinal plant suffers from a serious disease. A survey on the symptom and severity of the leaf blight of C. roseus was performed in the nurseries of the Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences (IFESCU), Bangladesh Council of Industrial Research (BCSIR) and Bangladesh Forest Research Institute (BFRI), Bangladesh. An observation was also made in the avenues and garden of King Saud University (KSU), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. No disease was recorded in KSU, but severe infections were found in all the locations surveyed in Bangladesh. The highest infection percentage and the highest disease index were found in BCSIR nursery followed by BFRI and the lowest was recorded in IFESCU nursery. Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid was isolated and it was proved to be pathogenic. This is the first report of leaf blight of C. roseus caused by M. phaseolina. Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum Vitex negundo, Mucuna pruriens, Calotropis procera, Terminalia arjuna, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinalis and Allium cepa were used as biopesticides. Out of the nine plant species screened, T. arjuna showed the highest (58.37%) inhibition percentage which was followed by A. indica (55.72%) and the lowest (27.4%) inhibition percentage were obtained with V. negundo whereas the rest of the plant extracts showed more or less same inhibitory effect. (author)

  1. Antibiosis Contributes to Biological Control of Fire Blight by Pantoea agglomerans Strain Eh252 in Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, V O; Johnson, K B; Sugar, D; Loper, J E

    2002-11-01

    ABSTRACT Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, is the most serious bacterial disease of pear and apple trees. Biological control with strains of Pantoea agglomerans (syn. Erwinia herbicola) may provide an effective disease management strategy for fire blight. Most strains of P. agglomerans evaluated for suppression of fire blight produce compounds that inhibit the growth of E. amylovora in culture. The role of these inhibitory compounds in fire blight suppression in orchard environments has not been studied. In seven field trials in Oregon, we compared the population dynamics and disease suppression with P. agglomerans Eh252, a strain that produces a single antibiotic, with its near-isogenic antibiotic-deficient derivative, strain 10:12. Water or suspensions of Eh252 or 10:12 (1 x 10(8) CFU/ml) were applied at 30 and 70% bloom to pear or apple trees. Aqueous suspensions of freeze-dried cells of E. amylovora (3 x 10(5) CFU/ml) were applied at full bloom. Additional trees were treated with streptomycin or oxytetracycline at 30 and 70% bloom and in some experiments, 1 day after application of the pathogen. Population sizes of Eh252 or 10:12 on pear blossoms were estimated by spreading dilutions of blossom washes on culture media. Average population sizes of Eh252 and 10:12 on blossoms ranged from 10(5) to 10(7) CFU, and in five of six trials, the relative area under the population curve of Eh252 was not significantly different than that of its derivative 10:12. Both Eh252 and 10:12 reduced the growth of the pathogen on blossoms compared with inoculated water-treated controls. Eh252 significantly decreased the incidence of fire blight in six of seven field trials compared with the incidence on water-treated trees, and 10:12 similarly reduced the incidence of fire blight in four of seven trials. In three of seven field trials, trees treated with Eh252 had a significantly lower incidence of fire blight compared with trees treated 3 with 10:12. Overall,3 Eh252 reduced

  2. Fire Blight Control: The Struggle Goes On. A Comparison of Different Fire Blight Control Methods in Switzerland with Respect to Biosafety, Efficacy and Durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Gusberti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight (FB, caused by Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most important pome fruit pathogens worldwide. To control this devastating disease, various chemical and biological treatments are commonly applied in Switzerland, but they fail to keep the infection at an acceptable level in years of heavy disease pressure. The Swiss authorities therefore currently allow the controlled use of the antibiotic streptomycin against FB in years that are predicted to have heavy infection periods, but only one treatment per season is permitted. Another strategy for controlling Erwinia is to breed resistant/tolerant apple cultivars. One way of accelerating the breeding process is to obtain resistant cultivars by inserting one or several major resistance genes, using genetic engineering. To date, no study summarizing the impact of different FB control measures on the environment and on human health has been performed. This study consequently aims to compare different disease-control measures (biological control, chemical control, control by antibiotics and by resistant/tolerant apple cultivars obtained through conventional or molecular breeding applied against E. amylovora, considering different protection goals (protection of human health, environment, agricultural diversity and economic interest, with special emphasis on biosafety aspects. Information on each FB control measure in relation to the specified protection goal was assessed by literature searches and by interviews with experts. Based on our results it can be concluded that the FB control measures currently applied in Switzerland are safe for consumers, workers and the environment. However, there are several gaps in our knowledge of the human health and environmental impacts analyzed: data are missing (1 on long term studies on the efficacy of most of the analyzed FB control measures; (2 on the safety of operators handling streptomycin; (3 on residue analyses of Equisetum plant extract, the copper

  3. Characterization of Novel Bacteriophages for Biocontrol of Bacterial Blight in Leek Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, Sofie; Volckaert, Anneleen; Venneman, Sofie; Declercq, Bart; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Allonsius, Camille N; Van Malderghem, Cinzia; Jang, Ho B; Briers, Yves; Noben, Jean P; Klumpp, Jochen; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Maes, Martine; Lavigne, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri, the causative agent of bacterial blight in leek (Allium porrum), is increasingly frequent causing problems in leek cultivation. Because of the current lack of control measures, novel bacteriophages were isolated to control this pathogen using phage therapy. Five novel phages were isolated from infected fields in Flanders (vB_PsyM_KIL1, vB_PsyM_KIL2, vB_PsyM_KIL3, vB_PsyM_KIL4, and vB_PsyM_KIL5), and were complemented with one selected host range mutant phage (vB_PsyM_KIL3b). Genome analysis of the phages revealed genome sizes between 90 and 94 kb and an average GC-content of 44.8%. Phylogenomic networking classified them into a novel clade, named the "KIL-like viruses," related to the Felixounalikevirus genus, together with phage phiPsa374 from P. syringae pv. actinidiae. In vitro characterization demonstrated the stability and lytic potential of these phages. Host range analysis confirmed heterogeneity within P. syringae pv. porri, leading to the development of a phage cocktail with a range that covers the entire set of 41 strains tested. Specific bio-assays demonstrated the in planta efficacy of phages vB_PsyM_KIL1, vB_PsyM_KIL2, vB_PsyM_KIL3, and vB_PsyM_KIL3b. In addition, two parallel field trial experiments on three locations using a phage cocktail of the six phages showed variable results. In one trial, symptom development was attenuated. These data suggest some potential for phage therapy in controlling bacterial blight of leek, pending optimization of formulation and application methods. PMID:27014204

  4. Characterization of Novel Bacteriophages for Biocontrol of Bacterial Blight in Leek Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, Sofie; Volckaert, Anneleen; Venneman, Sofie; Declercq, Bart; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Allonsius, Camille N.; Van Malderghem, Cinzia; Jang, Ho B.; Briers, Yves; Noben, Jean P.; Klumpp, Jochen; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Maes, Martine; Lavigne, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri, the causative agent of bacterial blight in leek (Allium porrum), is increasingly frequent causing problems in leek cultivation. Because of the current lack of control measures, novel bacteriophages were isolated to control this pathogen using phage therapy. Five novel phages were isolated from infected fields in Flanders (vB_PsyM_KIL1, vB_PsyM_KIL2, vB_PsyM_KIL3, vB_PsyM_KIL4, and vB_PsyM_KIL5), and were complemented with one selected host range mutant phage (vB_PsyM_KIL3b). Genome analysis of the phages revealed genome sizes between 90 and 94 kb and an average GC-content of 44.8%. Phylogenomic networking classified them into a novel clade, named the “KIL-like viruses,” related to the Felixounalikevirus genus, together with phage phiPsa374 from P. syringae pv. actinidiae. In vitro characterization demonstrated the stability and lytic potential of these phages. Host range analysis confirmed heterogeneity within P. syringae pv. porri, leading to the development of a phage cocktail with a range that covers the entire set of 41 strains tested. Specific bio-assays demonstrated the in planta efficacy of phages vB_PsyM_KIL1, vB_PsyM_KIL2, vB_PsyM_KIL3, and vB_PsyM_KIL3b. In addition, two parallel field trial experiments on three locations using a phage cocktail of the six phages showed variable results. In one trial, symptom development was attenuated. These data suggest some potential for phage therapy in controlling bacterial blight of leek, pending optimization of formulation and application methods. PMID:27014204

  5. [Electron microscopy and restriction analysis of bacteriophages isolated from quince and pear with symptoms of fire blight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovkach, F I; Faĭdiuk, Iu V; Korol', N A; Kushkina, A I; Moroz, S N; Muchnik, F V

    2013-01-01

    Phage populations of isolates from quince and pear affected with fire blight disease were studied using electron microscopy, restriction analysis and both agarose gel electrophoresis of particles and host range scoping method. The isolate from quince (pMA1) comprises at least three phage populations and two phage variants that can be detected on different bacterial indicators. After titration of this isolate on Erwinia amylovora the bacteriophage KEY of B1 morphotype with the genome size of 82.4 kb was identified. The isolate pMA1 also includes a unique phage population 4*, which can be identified on the test bacteria Pantoea agglomerans (Pag) g150. Two analogous populations being also present in the isolate pMA1 that appeared to be close phage variants with almost identical Hpal-restriction patterns can be identified using Pag g157 and 9/7-1. The situation is similar in the case of phage isolates from pear, pMG. Three phage populations identified in it using three different indicators represent the same phage of C1 morphotype (TT10-27) with a genome size of 71.4 kb. At least two other phage populations were also detected in the same isolate using P. agglomerans 9/7-2 as an indicator. A model system allowing the most efficient analysis of the isolates for the presence of different phage populations and phage variants in plants infected by fire blight disease has been developed. It provides for using three indicator enterobacterial species closely associated with the plants: E. amylovora, Erwinia "horticola" and Pagglomerans and ignoring of the phage cloning procedure. PMID:24479316

  6. Simultaneous selection for yield-related traits and susceptibility to Fusarium head blight in spring wheat RIL population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Halina; Surma, Maria; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Adamski, Tadeusz; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Mikołajczak, Krzysztof; Belter, Jolanta; Majka, Maciej; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Krajewski, Paweł; Sawikowska, Aneta; Lenc, Leszek; Baturo-Cieśniewska, Anna; Łukanowski, Aleksander; Góral, Tomasz; Sadowski, Czesław

    2016-03-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium, is a fungal disease that occurs in wheat and can cause significant yield and grain quality losses. The present paper examines variation in the resistance of spring wheat lines derived from a cross between Zebra and Saar cultivars. Experiments covering 198 lines and parental cultivars were conducted in three years, in which inoculation with Fusarium culmorum was applied. Resistance levels were estimated by scoring disease symptoms on kernels. In spite of a similar reaction of parents to F. culmorum infection, significant differentiation between lines was found in all the analyzed traits. Seven molecular markers selected as linked to FHB resistance QTLs gave polymorphic products for Zebra and Saar: Xgwm566, Xgwm46, Xgwm389, Xgwm533, Xgwm156, Xwmc238, and Xgwm341. Markers Xgwm389 and Xgwm533 were associated with the rate of Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) as well as with kernel weight per spike and thousand kernel weight in control plants. Zebra allele of marker Xwmc238 increased kernel weight per spike and thousand kernel weight both in control and infected plants, whereas Zebra allele of marker Xgwm566 reduced the percentage of FDK and simultaneously reduced the thousand kernel weight in control and infected plants. PMID:27162499

  7. Studies on Lactic Acid Bacteria Beverage of Chestnut and Red Date%板栗红枣乳酸菌饮料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰; 李岩; 刘伟

    2011-01-01

    本文将板栗浆与脱脂乳混合进行发酵制成板栗酸牛奶,再以板栗酸牛奶为基料添加红枣汁制成风味独特、清凉爽口的乳酸菌饮料,并确定其最佳配方为:板栗发酵乳添加量为35%,红枣汁添加量为4%,调整pH值为4.0.%A study on the chestnut yogurt fermentation with liquid of chestnut and skim milk. Made lactic acid bacteria beverage with chestnut yogurt of fundamental material adds juice of red dates, it has flavour of special, refreshing and cool tasty. The best result of the former is chestnut yogurt: 35%, juice of red dates: 4%, pH:4.0.

  8. Erwinia amylovora pyrC mutant causes fire blight despite pyrimidine auxotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, L S; Sinn, J P; Lehman, B L; Pfeufer, E E; Peter, K A; McNellis, T W

    2015-06-01

    Erwinia amylovora bacteria cause fire blight disease, which affects apple and pear production worldwide. The Erw. amylovora pyrC gene encodes a predicted dihydroorotase enzyme involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Here, we discovered that the Erw. amylovora pyrC244::Tn5 mutant was a uracil auxotroph. Unexpectedly, the Erw. amylovora pyrC244::Tn5 mutant grew as well as the wild-type in detached immature apple and pear fruits. Fire blight symptoms caused by the pyrC244::Tn5 mutant in immature apple and pear fruits were attenuated compared to those caused by the wild-type. The pyrC244::Tn5 mutant also caused severe fire blight symptoms in apple tree shoots. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type pyrC gene restored prototrophy and symptom induction in apple and pear fruit to the pyrC244::Tn5 mutant. These results suggest that Erw. amylovora can obtain sufficient pyrimidine from the host to support bacterial growth and fire blight disease development, although de novo pyrimidine synthesis by Erw. amylovora is required for full symptom development in fruits. Significance and impact of the study: This study provides information about the fire blight host-pathogen interaction. Although the Erwinia amylovora pyrC mutant was strictly auxotrophic for pyrimidine, it grew as well as the wild-type in immature pear and apple fruits and caused severe fire blight disease in apple trees. This suggests that Erw. amylovora can obtain sufficient pyrimidines from host tissue to support growth and fire blight disease development. This situation contrasts with findings in some human bacterial pathogens, which require de novo pyrimidine synthesis for growth in host blood, for example. PMID:25789570

  9. Clarification on Host Range of Didymella pinodes the Causal Agent of Pea Ascochyta Blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilli, Eleonora; Cobos, Maria José; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Didymella pinodes is the principal causal agent of ascochyta blight, one of the most important fungal diseases of pea (Pisum sativum) worldwide. Understanding its host specificity has crucial implications in epidemiology and management; however, this has not been clearly delineated yet. In this study we attempt to clarify the host range of D. pinodes and to compare it with that of other close Didymella spp. D. pinodes was very virulent on pea accessions, although differences in virulence were identified among isolates. On the contrary, studied isolates of D. fabae, D. rabiei, and D. lentil showed a reduced ability to infect pea not causing macroscopically visible symptoms on any of the pea accessions tested. D. pinodes isolates were also infective to some extend on almost all species tested including species such as Hedysarum coronarium, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus albus, Medicago spp., Trifolium spp., Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vicia articulata which were not mentioned before as hosts of D. pinodes. On the contrary, D. lentil and D. rabiei were more specific, infecting only lentil and chickpea, respectively. D. fabae was intermediate, infecting mainly faba bean, but also slightly other species such as Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trifolium spp., Vicia sativa, and V. articulata. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was performed to confirm identity of the isolates studies and to determine phylogenetic relationship among the Didymella species, revealing the presence of two clearly distinct clades. Clade one was represented by two supported subclusters including D. fabae isolates as well as D. rabiei with D. lentil isolates. Clade two was the largest and included all the D. pinodes isolates as well as Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Genetic distance between D. pinodes and the other Didymella spp. isolates was not correlated with overall differences in pathogenicity. Based on evidences presented here, D

  10. Identificationof Major Phenolic Compounds of Chinese Water Chestnut and their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli You

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese water chestnut (CWC is one of the most popular foods among Asian people due to its special taste and medical function. Experiments were conducted to test the antioxidant activity and then determine the major phenolic compound components present in CWC. CWC phenolic extract strongly inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and exhibited a dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which was superior to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, two commercial used antioxidants. Furthermore, the CWC extract was found to have a relatively higher reducing power, compared with BHT. The major phenolic compounds present in CWC tissues were extracted, purified and identified by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC as (–-gallocatechin gallate, (–-epicatechin gallate and (+-catechin gallate. This study suggests that CWC tissues exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions.

  11. Volatile compounds and bacterial community dynamics of chestnut-flour-based sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, M; Boscaino, F; Sorrentino, A; Coppola, R; Masi, P; Romano, A

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this study were the monitoring of the microbial dynamics by means of a polyphasic approach based on conventional isolation techniques and PCR-DGGE-based methods in different chestnut-based sourdoughs and the evaluation of the impact of fermentation on volatile organic compounds formation during sourdoughs ripening. Members of the Lactobacillus plantarum group and Pediococcus pentosaceous dominated the sourdough ecosystems. Nevertheless, RAPD-PCR allowed recording a relevant genotypic biodiversity among strains coming from gluten-free flour combinations. Volatile compounds were characterised by GC/MS. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified, mainly alcohols, esters, acids, aldehydes and ketones. Principal component analysis of samples at the beginning and at the end of ripening offered a good separation of the samples and highlighted the effect of fermentation on the sensorial profile. PMID:23870973

  12. Ionizing radiation applications for food preservation: effects of gamma and e-beam irradiation on physical and chemical parameters of chestnut fruits

    OpenAIRE

    António, Amílcar Manuel Lopes

    2014-01-01

    [EN]In Mediterranean countries chestnut fruits represent an important food product with a high economic relevance in local economy. The production of European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) varieties in E.U. countries represents more than 100 kton, with an income for the producers of several million of euros, value that increases along the market chain. These fruits are also exported to other countries that, due to international phytosanitary laws, impose the absence of insects. Until recen...

  13. Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. Urban Habitat - Pollution Influence on Some Phenotypic and Morphological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran Poštenjak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. may be found in most urban areas in Croatia. Over the years it showed to be resistant to various negative urban influences. In this research we tested trees on randomly selected streets with intense traffic in smaller towns. The main goal of this research was to establish the link between pollution and tree growth and to analyze to what extent pollution influences the increase in the measured parameters. Material and Methods: The research was done in 7 settlements, in towns with the population of up to 75 000 inhabitants. The measured parameters were the morphological characteristics of trees, shoots, leaves and nuts. From the selected branches we measured the annual shoot (thickness and length, leaves, the number of flowers and nuts. The crown transparency was assessed according to the ICP Forest method. Results and Conclusion: The phenotype of the urban Horse chestnut significantly differs from its natural phenotype, and it is transformed by multiple radical pruning, what may be seen in the following ratios: the diameter at breast height - tree height, trunk height - tree height, crown height – tree height, crown width – crown height. The most significant characteristic of the tree is the vitality expressed by crown-damage classes. On the selected trees the worst crown damage class was “3b” and the best was “0”. The measured parameters of yearly shoot characteristics were defined. All measured parameters (trees, shoots, leafs and nuts show significant differences from the given average values.

  14. 板栗贮藏中的病原菌及其控制%Pathogenetic Fungi Stored Chestnuts Putrid in China and Controlling Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴桂馥; 李宗伟; 王雁萍; 王付转; 吴健; 刘建华

    2001-01-01

    Five kinds of pathogenetic fungi seperated from Chinese chestnutsin storage are identified. They are Dothiorelle gregria, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Papularia sp, Penicillium sp and yeast. After having studied some infecting conditions and the ecological environment in storing, knew that four of them can be effectively inhibited when chestnucts are stored in modified atmosphere at low temperature, except for penicillium sp. Some nonpoison and nonpollution agents, for example patassium sorbate, can decline the loss caused by penicillum sp. Base on the study, a scheme for storing chustnuts is set up, in which the pathogenetic fungi infecting chestnus in their growth period are inhibited stored in modified atmosphere at low temperature, and the pathogenetic fungi infecting chestnuts after harvest are inhibited by appling antifungus agent.%从贮藏板栗中分离并鉴定出5种主要病原菌,它们是Dothiorella gregria,Colletotrichumgloeosporioides,Papulariasp,Penicilliumsp和yeast.通过对这些病原菌的侵染条件和贮藏生态环境的研究发现除青霉外,低温自发气调能有效地抑制其它4种病原菌的蔓延,而无毒无污染的山梨酸钾又可使青霉的危害大为降低,从而确立了低温气调控制生长期感染病原菌的蔓延,以及适当的药剂防止采后感染病原菌扩散的防霉策略.

  15. Horse chestnut extract contracts bovine vessels and affects human platelet aggregation through 5-HT(2A) receptors: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felixsson, Emma; Persson, Ingrid A-L; Eriksson, Andreas C; Persson, Karin

    2010-09-01

    Extract from seeds and bark of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) is used as an herbal medicine against chronic venous insufficiency. The effect and mechanism of action on veins, arteries, and platelets are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of horse chestnut on the contraction of bovine mesenteric veins and arteries, and human platelet aggregation. Contraction studies showed that horse chestnut extract dose-dependently contracted both veins and arteries, with the veins being the most sensitive. Contraction of both veins and arteries were significantly inhibited by the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin. No effect on contraction was seen with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, the alpha(1) receptor antagonist prazosin or the angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonist saralasin neither in veins nor arteries. ADP-induced human platelet aggregation was significantly reduced by horse chestnut. A further reduction was seen with the extract in the presence of ketanserin. In conclusion, horse chestnut contraction of both veins and arteries is, at least partly, mediated through 5-HT(2A) receptors. Human platelet aggregation is reduced by horse chestnut. The clinical importance of these findings concerning clinical use, possible adverse effects, and drug interactions remains to be investigated. PMID:20148408

  16. Infection of Phytophthora capsici on pepper——Models and affecting factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuemin LIU; Yanling ZHOU; Lijun LI

    2008-01-01

    Under controlled conditions in a growth chamber, we studied the mortality of pepper seedlings caused by Phytophthora capsici. The results showed that soil temperature and soil water content were important factors affecting their infection with P. capsici and the optimum condition for infection was found to be a soil temperature of 22℃-28℃ and a soil water content of 40%. The relationships of pepper seedling mortality caused by P. capsici along with soil temperature, soil water content and their interactions can be described by mathematical models. Field observations suggested that the Gompertz model was the best one for describing the epidemiological dynamics of the disease. The incidence of pepper phytophthora blight was significantly related to the initial incidence of pepper phytophthora blight, soil temperature, soil water content and air temperature. A forecasting model for pepper phytophthora blight in the field was developed.

  17. First report of bacterial leaf blight on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) caused by pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, a brassica leafy greens grower in Sunflower County, Mississippi, observed scattered outbreaks of a leaf blight disease on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) in a 180-hectare field. A severe outbreak of leaf blight occurred on mustard greens and turnip greens (Brassica rapa) in the same field...

  18. USING FUNCTIONAL AND APPLIED GENOMICS TO IDENTIFY GENES THAT CONFER EITHER RESISTANCE OR SUSCEPTIBILITY TO FIRE BLIGHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pear and other plants of the Rosaceae. The goal of this project is to use functional genomics to characterize the response of apple to fire blight disease and, thereby, identify new opportunities for improvin...

  19. Sweet chestnut cultures in the Southern Alps – conservation and regional development. eco.mont (Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research)|eco.mont Vol. 2 No. 1 2 1|

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Sweet chestnut cultures are a major component of the vegetation in many large protected areas of the Southern Alps. Since Roman times, vast areas of Southern and Western Europe have been covered by groves and coppices of sweet chestnut trees (Castanea sativa MILL.). Having replaced the original broadleaved forest, they used to play a vital role in traditional agriculture. Chestnut cultivation was even more important in terms of producing a substitute for cereals (bread) than for the productio...

  20. Same ammo, different weapons: enzymatic extracts from two apple genotypes with contrasted susceptibilities to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) differentially convert phloridzin and phloretin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Matthieu; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Guyot, Sylvain; Dat, James F; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-11-01

    The necrogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora responsible for the fire blight disease causes cell death in apple tissues to enrich intercellular spaces with nutrients. Apple leaves contain large amounts of dihydrochalcones (DHCs), including phloridzin and its aglycone phloretin. Previous work showed an important decrease in the constitutive DHCs stock in infected leaves, probably caused by transformation reactions during the infection process. At least two flavonoid transformation pathways have been described so far: deglucosylation and oxidation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether DHCs are differentially converted in two apple genotypes displaying contrasted susceptibilities to the disease. Different analyses were performed: i) enzymatic activity assays in infected leaves, ii) identification/quantification of end-products obtained after in vitro enzymatic reactions with DHCs, iii) evaluation of the bactericidal activity of end-products. The results of the enzymatic assays showed that deglucosylation was dominant over oxidation in the susceptible genotype MM106 while the opposite was observed in the resistant genotype Evereste. These data were confirmed by LC-UV/Vis-MS analysis of in vitro reaction mixtures, especially because higher levels of o-quinoid oxidation products of phloretin were measured by using the enzymatic extracts of Evereste infected leaves. Their presence correlated well with a strong bactericidal activity of the reaction mixtures. Thus, our results suggest that a differential transformation of DHCs occur in apple genotypes with a potential involvement in the establishment of the susceptibility or the resistance to fire blight, through the release of glucose or of highly bactericidal compounds respectively. PMID:23561298

  1. Screening Rice Cultivars for Resistance to Bacterial Leaf Blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred, Agaba Kayihura; Kiswara, Gilang; Yi, Gihwan; Kim, Kyung-Min

    2016-05-28

    Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most serious threats to rice production. In this study, screening of rice for resistance to BLB was carried out at two different times and locations; that is, in a greenhouse during winter and in an open field during summer. The pathogenicity of Xoo race K1 was tested on 32 Korean rice cultivars. Inoculation was conducted at the maximum tillering stage, and the lesion length was measured after 14 days of inoculation. Five cultivars, Hanareum, Namcheon, Samgdeok, Samgang, and Yangjo, were found to be resistant in both the greenhouse and open-field screenings. Expression of the plant defense-related genes JAmyb, OsNPR1, OsPR1a, OsWRKY45, and OsPR10b was observed in resistant and susceptible cultivars by qRT-PCR. Among the five genes tested, only OsPR10b showed coherent expression with the phenotypes. Screening of resistance to Xoo in rice was more accurate when conducted in open fields in the summer cultivation period than in greenhouses in winter. The expression of plant defenserelated genes after bacterial inoculation could give another perspective in elucidating defense mechanisms by using both resistant and susceptible individuals. PMID:26869604

  2. An Update on Genetic Resistance of Chickpea to Ascochyta Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ascochyta blight (AB caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass. Labr. is an important and widespread disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. worldwide. The disease is particularly severe under cool and humid weather conditions. Breeding for host resistance is an efficient means to combat this disease. In this paper, attempts have been made to summarize the progress made in identifying resistance sources, genetics and breeding for resistance, and genetic variation among the pathogen population. The search for resistance to AB in chickpea germplasm, breeding lines and land races using various screening methods has been updated. Importance of the genotype × environment (GE interaction in elucidating the aggressiveness among isolates from different locations and the identification of pathotypes and stable sources of resistance have also been discussed. Current and modern breeding programs for AB resistance based on crossing resistant/multiple resistant and high-yielding cultivars, stability of the breeding lines through multi-location testing and molecular marker-assisted selection method have been discussed. Gene pyramiding and the use of resistant genes present in wild relatives can be useful methods in the future. Identification of additional sources of resistance genes, good characterization of the host–pathogen system, and identification of molecular markers linked to resistance genes are suggested as the key areas for future study.

  3. Application of a new purification method of West-Kazakhstan chestnut soil microbiota DNA for metagenomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergaliev, N. Kh.; Kakishev, M. G.; Zhiengaliev, A. T.; Volodin, M. A.; Andronov, E. E.; Pinaev, A. G.

    2015-04-01

    A method for the extraction of soil microbial DNA has been tested on chestnut soils (Kastanozems) of the West Kazakhstan region. The taxonomic analysis of soil microbiome libraries has shown that the phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria constitute the largest part of microbial communities in the analyzed soils. The Archaea form an appreciable part of the microbiome in the studied samples. In the underdeveloped dark chestnut soil, their portion is higher than 11%. This is of interest, as the proportion of Archaea in the soil communities of virgin lands usually does not exceed 5%. In addition to the phyla mentioned above, there are representatives of the phyla Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadales, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia, which are all fairly common in soil communities.

  4. 板栗加工工艺对挥发性香气成分的影响%Effect of Processing Technology on Volatile Components of Chinese Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亚辉; 徐芳; 王丰俊; 王建中; 欧阳杰

    2012-01-01

    Chinese chestnut forms different flavors by different processing technology. An automatic thermal de-sorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (ATD-GC-MS) system was applied to analyze the volatile composition of raw chestnut, boiled chestnut, fried chestnut and roasted chestnut. Herbaceous aroma such as ethyl acetate, hex-anal, butyl acetate, 1-butanol-3-methyl-acetate, alpha-pinene and benzaldehyde were found in raw chestnut; fried chestnut and roasted chestnut were found to have characteristic volatiles such as 2-pentyl-furan, 3-carene, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-ketone; and in boiled chestnut, spiro [2,4] hepta-4,6-diene was found first time. The results will provide a reference for the further research and development of Chinese chestnut products.%板栗经过不同的加工工艺熟化后会产生不同的风味.文中分别对生板栗,以及煮制、炒制和烤制加工后的板栗进行ATD热脱附以及GC-MS分析,得出不同加工工艺条件下的板栗挥发性香气成分.其中生板栗主要有板栗本身的草本清香香气成分,如乙酸乙酯、己醛、乙酸丁酯、3-甲基-1-丁醇乙酸酯、α-蒎烯和苯甲醛等;炒板栗和烤板栗的特征性挥发物有2-戊基呋喃、3-蒈烯、4-羟基-2-丁酮和2-甲基-四氢呋喃-3-酮;煮板栗中发现了之前未在板栗香气研究中报道过的香气成分螺[2,4]庚-4.6-二烯.

  5. Tagging RAPD markers to a bacterial blight resistance gene in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@The somaclonal mutant HX_3 has shown a broad spectrum resistance to bacterial blight. To study the inheritance of the bacterial blight resistance in HX_3, a cross was made between HX_3 and a susceptible cultivar Longtefu A. The F2 population of 418 plants was inoculated with Chinese bacterial blight strain Zhe 173 (pathotype Ⅳ ). Results showed that the F2 progenies segregated in a ratio of 3R∶ 1S (324 resistant plants and 94 susceptible plants). From the plants tested, 114 individuals (86 resistant and 28 susceptible) were chosen randomly for RAPD analysis. Twelve highly resistant and 12 highly susceptible plants were selected to form a resistant pool and a susceptible pool, respectively.

  6. Efficacy of fungicides on the progress of early blight and yield of potato in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontera, DA.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Five fungicides were evaluated during the 1990 and 1991 growing seasons in two locations in Cameroon for efficacy on the progress of early blight and yield of potato. Disease-progress curves fitted the logistic transformation better than the Gompertz. Fungicidal treatments reduced the rate of early blight progress and area under disease-progress curve (AUDPC. Early blight was more severe in the 1991 season and yields recorded in this season were lower than those in 1990. In both seasons, high yields were obtained in plots receiving six sprays maneb or mancozeb. Two sprays of Ridomil plus (12 % metalaxyl + 60 % cuprous oxide and six of cupric hydroxide also produced appreciable yields, while fosetyl-AI (three sprays provided the least yield increase. Yield losses in non-sprayed plots were estimated at 15.7-53.6 %. Yields were negatively correlated to AUDPC.

  7. Zinc-deficient sprouting blight potatoes and their possible relation with neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulman, Cevval; Taneli, Fatma; Oksel, Figen; Hakerlerler, Huseyin

    2005-01-01

    Maternal nutritional zinc deficiency is blamed in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects. In animal and plant domains zinc is required for growth and development. The objective of the present study was to show that sprouting blighted potato tuber is zinc deficient. In five potato varieties, zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in wet-ashed paired slices of edible potato tuber and in its peel, in blighted potato tuber and in its sprout. Zinc contents were measured as the mean (+/- SEM) and the following values were found, 0.388 +/- 0.036, 0.623 +/- 0.059, 0.550 +/- 0.030 and 1.089 +/- 0.181 mg per 100 g wet weight, respectively. In conclusion, we believe that long-term consumption of zinc-depleted, blight potato tuber by pregnant woman could be potentially teratogenic with the consequent birth of a baby with neural tube defects. PMID:15376231

  8. Functional Characterization of Novel Chitinase Genes Present in the Sheath Blight Resistance QTL: qSBR11-1 in Rice Line Tetep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richa, Kamboj; Tiwari, Ila M; Kumari, Mandeep; Devanna, B N; Sonah, Humira; Kumari, Archana; Nagar, Ramawatar; Sharma, Vinay; Botella, Jose R; Sharma, Tilak R

    2016-01-01

    Rice sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most devastating diseases in rice leading to heavy yield losses. Due to the polygenic nature of resistance, no major resistance gene with complete host resistance against R. solani has been reported. In this study, we have performed molecular and functional analysis of the genes associated with the major R. solani-resistance QTL qSBR11-1 in the indica rice line Tetep. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a set of 11 tandem repeats containing genes with a high degree of homology to class III chitinase defense response genes. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that all the genes are strongly induced 36 h after R. solani infection. Comparison between the resistant Tetep and the susceptible HP2216 lines shows that the induction of the chitinase genes is much higher in the Tetep line. Recombinant protein produced in vitro for six of the eleven genes showed chitinolytic activity in gel assays but we did not detect any xylanase inhibitory activity. All the six in vitro expressed proteins show antifungal activity with a clear inhibitory effect on the growth of the R. solani mycelium. The characterized chitinase genes can provide an important resource for the genetic improvement of R. solani susceptible rice lines for sheath blight resistance breeding. PMID:26973685

  9. Analyses of the Temporal Development and Yield Losses due to Sheath Blight of Rice (Rhizoctonia solani AG1.1a)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sheath blight of rice, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG1.1a, has become the most important disease and caused serious yield losses in some major rice-growing regions in China in recent years. In the present study, field plot experiment was conducted to examine the relationships between disease intensity and inoculum density (ID), the seasonal disease epidemic dynamics, and yield reductions due to disease damages. Results from the experiment demonstrated that the areas under progress curves of disease severity and those of percent rice tillers diseased were positively and closely related to the relative initial ID of the pathogen. The inoculum density-disease (IDD) relationships were simulated and the impractical linear models were obtained. Both logistic and Gompertz functions could be used to simulate the disease progress dynamics in time, but the progress curves of the disease severity were modeled better by the Gompertz than by logistic function. However, the Richards function was found to be the best in simulating the disease progress curves when a most appropriate value was chosen for the shape parameter m by using the computer software Epitimulator(R).Sheath blight infection decreased rice yield very significantly and a yield reduction of 40% was recorded in rice crop with the highest inoculum density. Rice yield was linearly and negatively correlated with the disease severity and the percent tillers affected. The simulated models for all these relationships were computed through executing Epitimulator(R) software and were presented in this paper.

  10. Effects of gamma radiation on the biological, physico-chemical, nutritional and antioxidant parameters of chestnuts - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio, Amilcar L.; Carocho, Márcio; Bento, Albino; Quintana, Begoña; Botelho, M. Luísa; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma radiation has been used as a post-harvest food preservation process for many years. Chestnuts are a seasonal product consumed fresh or processed, and gamma irradiation emerged recently as a possible alternative technology for their post-harvest processing, to fulfil the requirements of international phytosanitary trade laws. After harvest and storage, several problems may occur, such as the presence of infestations and development of microorganisms, namely rotting and fungi. These dimin...

  11. Effects of Nutrient Enrichment on Decomposition and Fungal Colonization of Sweet Chestnut Leaves in an Iberian Stream (Central Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Abelho, Manuela; Graça, M.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This study assessed the effect of nutrient enrichment on rates of decomposition, ergosterol concentrations (as a measure of fungal biomass), and rates of fungal sporulation of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) leaves in a 3rd order stream (Central Portugal), with medium to high background values of nutrients. Coarse and fine mesh leaf bags were attached to nutrient diffusing substrata containing NaNO3, KH2PO4, both nutrients, or no additions. Leaf breakdown rates were similar...

  12. The Role of Social Capital in Nascent Agri-Food Industries: A Case Study of Michigan Chestnut Growers, Inc.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Brent R.; Victor, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Despite early financial and organizational struggles, Chestnut Growers Inc. continues to play a central role in the industry and membership has increased. The purpose of this study is to explore this apparent paradox. We apply concepts from management and organizational theory to provide a greater understanding of dynamics of new ventures in emerging agri-food industries. In particular, we suggest that organizational identity and social capital may play an important role in explaining the und...

  13. Lactic Acid Bacteria as protective and functional cultures for the enhancement of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) processing chain

    OpenAIRE

    Di Capua, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Chestnuts are very perishable fruits, whose quality may be compromised during postharvest handling. Damage can be caused both by insects and fungi. Water curing, a commonly used postharvest method, is based on soaking fruits in water typically for about one week. Factors that affect effectiveness of water curing have only been explained partially. A decrease in pH, likely imputable to a light fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria, may inhibit the growth of moulds. In this study a Lac...

  14. Chestnut wood in compression perpendicular to the grain : non-destructive correlations for test results in new and old wood

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Paulo B.; Feio, A. O.; Machado, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the evaluation of the compressive properties of chestnut wood under compression perpendicular to the grain, using destructive and non-destructive methods. Three non-destructive methods (ultrasonic testing, Resistograph and Pilodyn) are proposed and the possibility of their application is discussed based on the application of simple linear regression models. Timber specimens were tested up to failure, divided in two different groups for assessing a possible load h...

  15. Non-destructive evaluation of the mechanical behaviour of chestnut wood in tension and compression parallel to grain

    OpenAIRE

    Feio, A. O.; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Machado, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    The paper addresses the evaluation of strength and stiffness of chestnut wood, in tension and compression parallel to the grain, using different non-destructive techniques (ultrasounds, Resistograph and Pilodyn). Around two hundred timber specimens (divided into compression and tension tests) were tested up to failure, comprising recently sawn timber (which is now available on the market for structural purposes) and what was called old wood, obtained from structural elements belonging to anci...

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on the biological, physico-chemical, nutritional and antioxidant parameters of chestnuts - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Amilcar L; Carocho, Márcio; Bento, Albino; Quintana, Begoña; Luisa Botelho, M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-09-01

    Gamma radiation has been used as a post-harvest food preservation process for many years. Chestnuts are a seasonal product consumed fresh or processed, and gamma irradiation emerged recently as a possible alternative technology for their post-harvest processing, to fulfil the requirements of international phytosanitary trade laws. After harvest and storage, several problems may occur, such as the presence of infestations and development of microorganisms, namely rotting and fungi. These diminish the quality and safety of the product, decreasing the yield along the production chain. In fruits, gamma irradiation treatment is for two main purposes: conservation (ripening delay) and insect disinfestation (phytosanitary treatment). In this review, the application of gamma irradiation to chestnuts is discussed, including production data, the irradiated species and the effects on biological (sprouting, rotting, respiration rate, insects, worms and fungi), physico-chemical (color, texture, and drying rate), nutritional (energetic value, proteins, sugars and fatty acids) and antioxidant (tocopherols, ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) parameters. These changes are the basis for detecting if the food product has been irradiated or not. The validation of standards used for detection of food irradiation, as applied to chestnuts, is also discussed. PMID:22735498

  17. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual groundwater report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline

  18. Genetics of alternaria leaf blight resistance in Indian mustard [Brassica Juncea (L. Czern & Coss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Chaurasia and Ram Bhajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance of Alternaria leaf blight disease in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss was carried-out using generation mean analysis. Results based on generation mean analysis of per cent disease index (PDI showed significant estimates of additive [d] and dominance [h] effects as well as all the three types of epistasis in all the three crosses. The opposite signs of [h] and [l] indicated that duplicate epistasis was operative in the inheritance of Alternaria leaf blight in the material studied.

  19. SURVEY OF TURCICUM LEAF BLIGHT OF MAIZE IN MAJOR MAIZE GROWING AREAS OF ANDHRA PRADESH

    OpenAIRE

    T. Rajeshwar Reddy; P. Narayan Reddy; R. Ranga Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Northern corn leaf blight or turcicum leaf blight caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Suggs is one of the important diseases affecting photosynthesis with severe reduction in grain yield to an extent of 28 to 91%. Disease symptoms first appear on the leaves at any stage of plant growth, but usually at or after anthesis. The studies on survey reveals that high intensity of the disease was noted in the district where mean maximum temperature was below 320C and relative humidity w...

  20. Survival of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Leplat, Johann; Friberg, Hanna; Abid, Muhammad; Steinberg, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most cultivated crops worldwide. In 2010, 20 % of wheat and durum wheat were cultivated in Europe, 17 % in China and 9 % in Russia and in North America. Wheat yield can be highly decreased by several factors. In particular Fusarium graminearum Schwabe is a worldwide fungal pest impacting wheat production. F. graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight, root and stem-base rot of cereals. Losses caused by Fusarium head blight in Northern and Central America from ...

  1. Effect of the Inclusion of Chestnut in the Finishing Diet on Volatile Compounds of Dry-Cured Ham from Celta Pig Breed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jos M. Lorenzo; Javier Carballo; Daniel Franco

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the inclusion of chestnut in pigs ifnishing diet on volatile compounds of dry-cured Celta ham was studied. Twelve hams of each type (from three different pigs ifnishing diets:concentrate (CO), mixed (MI) and chestnut (CH)) were used. Volatiles were extracted using a purge-and-trap method and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty-nine volatile compounds were identified in dry-cured Celta ham samples. Most abundant volatiles in ham samples were aldehydes, which represented respectively, 53% (CO), 51% (MI) and 46% (CH) of the total volatile composition. With the exception of 2-butenal, 2-methyl, all aldehydes were affected by feeding system. On the other hand, hydrocarbons n-alkanes were the second major group in the volatile proifle of dry-cured Celta hams and represented 28.9, 35.7 and 32.4%of the total volatile composition for CO, MI and CH groups, respectively. Ham samples from chestnut group showed a higher content of alcohols and this result could be related with the inclusion of chestnut in the ifnishing diet of pigs. Principal component analysis showed a good separation among groups. The discriminant analysis selected eight variables (butanoic acid, hexanal, octanal, nonenal (E), decenal (E), tetradecane, decane trimethyl and pyridine 2-methyl) and calculated two discriminating functions to predict if chestnut has been included in the ifnishing diet. Thus, it was possible to discriminate between groups fed with ifnishing diets containing chestnuts in their composition (mixed and chestnut group).

  2. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species. PMID:27446052

  3. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species. PMID:27446052

  4. Biological control of fire blight in pear orchards with a formulation of Pantoea agglomerans strain Eh 24 Controle biológico de fire blight em pereiras empregando uma formulação de Pantoea agglomerans Eh 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Özaktan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological control by using epiphytic bacteria against Erwinia amylovora has been considered as an alternative method for controlling the disease. Talc-based formulation of Pantoea agglomerans strain Eh-24 was applied at 30% and 100% bloom on two pear orchards which were selected from different locations in the Aegean Region in Turkey. Pear orchard trials were replicated for two years (1999 and 2000 in each place. Talc-based formulation of P. agglomerans strain Eh-24 was sprayed on pear trees which were naturally infected with E. amylovora. In the orchard trials conducted in 1999 and 2000, talc-based formulation of P. agglomerans strain Eh-24 reduced the percentage of blighted blossoms on pear orchards by 63% to 76%, approximately. Copper oxychloride+maneb was less effective in reducing the incidence of blossom infection by E. amylovora in each pear orchard than the bioformulation treatment. P. agglomerans strain Eh-24 labelled with StrR+ was applied at 30% and 100% bloom to monitor the colonization and population dynamics of P. agglomerans on pear blossoms. The population size of P. agglomerans strain Eh-24 strR+ on pear blossoms increased from 2x10(4 to 1.3x10(6 cfu per blossom over 18 days.Controle biológico de Erwinia amylovora através do uso de bactérias epifíticas tem sido considerado um método alternativo para o controle de "fire blight". Uma formulação de Pantoea agglomerans Eh 24 em talco foi utilizada em pereiras a 30% e a 100% de floração, em duas plantações selecionadas na região Aegean da Turquia. Os experimentos foram repetidos duas vezes (1999 e 2000 em cada plantação. A formulação de P. agglomerans foi aspergida nas pereiras naturalmente infectadas com E. amylovora. Nos experimentos de 1999 e 2000, a redução da porcentagem de ocorrência de "fire blight" foi reduzida aproximadamente em 63% e em 76%, respectivamente. Oxicloreto de cobre + maneb foi menos eficiente na redução da infecção por E. amylovora do

  5. Roe deer browsing effects on growth development of Turkey oak and chestnut coppices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cutini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Over the last three decades wild ungulates populations in Italy increased to values ranging from 300% to 600%. As a consequence, in Italy as well as in other European countries, situations with high ungulate density and, then, negative effects on the stability and dynamics of ecosystems, are increasing frequently. Starting from these evidences we investigated the effects of roe deer population on the vegetative regeneration of two different broadleaved tree species: Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. coppice stands. In Alpe di Catenaia (Apennines – Central Italy, after coppicing in 2002, we chose six experimental areas where fenced (P and non-fenced (NP plots were established. Measurements were performed at the beginning of the study period and in winter 2008 in both P and NP plots. Diameter and    height of all sprouts were measured. Results showed a different impact of roe deer on the two species. After seven years chestnut did not show any significant browsing-related damage, while in Turkey oak heavy differences between protected and non-protected areas are present: in NP plots roe deer browsing has produced a significant reduction in basal area (58% and volume (57% compared to P plots. The results agree with previous studies and confirm: (a a selective browsing pressure on Turkey oak; (b the lasting effect of the early impact after clear cutting, visible even seven years after. Based on the findings, we discussed the need for an integrated management of forest vegetation and forest fauna which should define the density of ungulates not only according to the theoretical carrying capacity    of ecosystems, but also considering (i the preservation of the ecosystem overall functionality, (ii the forest structure development and (iii the forest management type. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso

  6. The Urochloa Foliar Blight and Collar Rot Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA Emerged in South America Via a Host Shift from Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarro Mesa, Edisson; Ceresini, Paulo C; Ramos Molina, Lina M; Pereira, Danilo A S; Schurt, Daniel A; Vieira, José R; Poloni, Nadia M; McDonald, Bruce A

    2015-11-01

    The fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-1 IA emerged in the early 1990s as an important pathogen causing foliar blight and collar rot on pastures of the genus Urochloa (signalgrass) in South America. We tested the hypothesis that this pathogen emerged following a host shift or jump as a result of geographical overlapping of host species. The genetic structure of host and regional populations of R. solani AG-1 IA infecting signalgrass, rice, and soybean in Colombia and Brazil was analyzed using nine microsatellite loci in 350 isolates to measure population differentiation and infer the pathogen reproductive system. Phylogeographical analyses based on the microsatellite loci and on three DNA sequence loci were used to infer historical migration patterns and test hypotheses about the origin of the current pathogen populations. Cross pathogenicity assays were conducted to measure the degree of host specialization in populations sampled from different hosts. The combined analyses indicate that the pathogen populations currently infecting Urochloa in Colombia and Brazil most likely originated from a population that originally infected rice. R. solani AG-1 IA populations infecting Urochloa exhibit a mixed reproductive system including both sexual reproduction and long-distance dispersal of adapted clones, most likely on infected seed. The pathogen population on Urochloa has a genetic structure consistent with a high evolutionary potential and showed evidence for host specialization. PMID:26222889

  7. Characterization and antioxidant capacity of sweet chestnut honey produced in North-West Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Flores Shantal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, authentic foodstuffs have became a major requirement for consumers and producers worldwide. Honey has increased in popularity since it is associated with a natural diet, and because of honey’s authentic origin. The present study investigated the palynological characteristics, physicochemical parameters, total phenol content, flavonoid content, and radical scavenging activity of 41 sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa honeys from the northwestern part of Spain. These honeys were characterised by high values of electrical conductivity, pH, diastase content, and colour. All the samples showed a pollen combination of Castanea sativa-Rubus-Cytisus type-Erica. Fructose and glucose were 37.2% and 25.9%, while other sugars were less than 5%. Regarding the mineral content K, was the main with a mean value of 260.2 mg/100g. Other elements as Mg with a mean value of 17.1 mg/100g, Ca (mean value of 15.8 mg/100g and P (mean value of 12.8 mg/100g were well represented in this honey type. The phenol and flavonoid content were high (mean values of 129.8 mg/100g and 9.0 mg/100g, respectively. Multivariate statistical techniques showed the close relationship of colour, Mg, P, phenols, melezitose, and flavonoids, and the radical scavenging activity.

  8. Micromorphology of trichomes in the flowers of the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Chwil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aesculus hippocastanum L. is an ornamental tree appreciated for its beautiful flowers and leaves. The flowers of this species contain secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacological activity. They also produce essential oils and coloured “nectar guides”, which enable insects to reach nectar and pollen. The aim of the study was to investigate the types and characteristics of chestnut flower trichomes, which may contain biologically active substances. The analyses were performed using light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. Three types of trichomes were found on the sepals and the surface of the ovary, whereas the corolla petals exhibited two types of hairs and papillae. The hairs differ in terms of their length and number of cells. The perianth and pistil had no capitate hairs, whereas the ovary exhibited the presence of colleters. Histochemical assays revealed that all the types of trichomes and papillae contained lipids or essential oils; hence, they can be classified as glandular structures. The “nectar guides” were characterised by higher density of secretory hairs than that on the rest of the petal surface, which implies that these petal fragments may emit stronger fragrance.

  9. THE PESTS OF HORSE CHESTNUT TREE – AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T PERJU

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1998 the presence of the horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka-Dimic was reported in Cluj- Napoca. During 2000 – 2003 research concerning the extent, biology, ecology at this micro-lepidopteron, a new pest in our country, was performed. Signaled for the fi rst time in Western area of our country (1998, then in Central (1998, Southern (1999, and Eastern (2003 part of the country, the spread year by year conquering new territories. In the clime conditions of our country, the insect had 4 generations in 2000, and 3 during 2001 – 2003, remaining in hiemal diapauses during pupae stage, inside of the silk cocoons from the galleries of larvae feeding. The fl ight of the butterfl ies from the IIIrd generation (hiemal is recorded in the beginning of May. The Ist generation has a developmental stage during 15 May – 30 June, the IInd during 1 July – 15 August, and the IIIrd during 15 August – 15 May.

  10. Sequential sampling plan for Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnut tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    A fixed precision sequential sampling plan for estimating the density of the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L., leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was developed. Data were collected from 2002 to 2004 in Turin, northwestern Italy, with the aim of developing a sampling strategy for estimating populations of C. ohridella mines. Taylor's power law was used as a regression model. Sampling parameters were estimated from 216 data sets, and an additional 110 independent data sets were used to validate the fixed precision sequential sampling plan with resampling software. Covariance analysis indicated that there were not significant differences in the coefficient of Taylor's power law between heights of the foliage, months, and years. Dispersion patterns of C. ohridella were determined to be aggregated. The parameters of the Taylor's power law were used to calculate minimum sample sizes and sampling stop lines for different precision levels. Considering a mean density value of five mines per leaf, an average sample number of only 49 leaves was necessary to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, the average sample size increased to 303 leaves. The sequential sampling plan should provide an effective management of C. ohridella in the urban areas, minimizing sampling time and cost, and at the same should be an effective tool to reduce insecticide applications and prevent the esthetic damage. PMID:18232410

  11. Productivity and costs of fully mechanized harvesting in Italian Appenines’ chestnut coppices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moscatelli M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the role of mechanization in the treatment of chestnut coppice forests in the Italian Apennines. Two harvesting companies operating with mechanical processor in four different contexts in Liguria and in Tuscany regions were analyzed. The first enterprise was using a Keto 51 head mounted on a Valmet farm tractor, whereas the second one a Foresteri 25RH installed on a 14 tonne Caterpillar tracked excavator. Field data collection allowed detailing the operational methods applied by these enterprises and provided interesting figures: the rate of utilization of both processors was about 64%, and their productivity varied between 7 and 10 m3/net hour. Daily productivity was found in the range of 25-40 m3 using Keto 51, and 40-55 m3 for the Foresteri 25RH. Machine operating cost (including labour was rated at about 100 €/scheduled hour. Considering the financial incentives provided by the regional Rural Development Programme, harvesting costs have been estimated in the range of 15 and 33 €/m3, allowing the two companies to carry out profitable activities in the local markets.

  12. Development of genetic and molecular toolboxes to control both rice blast and sheath blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast and sheath blight diseases are the two major constraints for stable rice production in the Southern USA. New genetic and molecular tool boxes have been developed at the USDA-ARS Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center. Resistance (major and minor) genes from rice have been identified...

  13. Action and reaction of host and pathogen during Fusarium head blight disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Nicholson, Paul; Doohan, Fiona M

    2010-01-01

    The Fusarium species Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, Which are responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease, reduced world-wide cereal crop yield and, as a consequence of their mycotoxin production in cereal grain, impact on both human and animal health. Their study is greatly......-pathogen interactions will be instrumental in designing new efficient strategies for the control of FHB disease....

  14. Introgression and genetic characterization of alien Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alien species are an important source of genetic variability in wheat (Triticum spp.) and carry genes for resistance to numerous pathogens, including Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB). The goal of this project was to develop breeder-friendly, FHB-resistant ...

  15. Elevated [CO2] compromises both Type I and Type II wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the world’s most devastating wheat diseases, and results in significant yield loss and contamination of grain with harmful mycotoxins called trichothecenes. Despite emerging risks of increased mycotoxin contamination in food and feed associated with climate chang...

  16. Durable Late Blight Resistance in Potato Through Dynamic Varieties Obtained by Cisgenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Boonekamp, P.M.; Hutten, R.; Jacobsen, E.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Kessel, G.J.T.; Vossen, J.H.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2016-01-01

    From 2006 through 2015, a research project on Durable Resistance in potato against Phytophthora (DuRPh) was carried out at Wageningen University and Research Centre. Its objective was to develop a proof of principle for durable resistance against late blight by cisgenesis. This public-funded proj

  17. Stability of Sweet Potato Cultivars to Alternaria Leaf and Stem Blight Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria leaf petiole and stem blight is an economically important disease of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus L) in tropical and sub-tropical environments. Published research on cultivar resistance to the sweet potato disease is limited. To evaluate cultivar reaction and stability to the disease, mu...

  18. Genetic diversity of rice sheath blight isolates (Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA) from different rice cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 1 IA, the non specific, soil borne, and plant casual agent of rice sheath blight, occurring world widely in rice fields, has become a major disease to rice. In this study,relationships among R. solani AG 1 IA isolates, collected from different rice cultivars were reported.

  19. Unveiling and deploying durability of late blight resistance in potato : from natural stacking to cisgenic stacking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwang-Ryong Jo,

    2013-01-01

    The potato, which receives an increased attention as a food crop, has long been in threats from the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight. This disease still remains the most important constraint in potato producing regions of the world. It might cause the complete destruc

  20. Development of co-cultivated mixtures of antagonists active against Fusarium head blight of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multistrain mixtures of biocontrol agents can foster greater and more consistent reductions of plant disease. Several different mixtures of Agricultural Research Service/Ohio State University-discovered antagonists reduced Fusarium head blight (FHB) in field studies. Microbial mixtures commonly ar...

  1. Efficacy of different fungicides against Rhizoctonia brown patch and Pythium blight on turfgrass in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocioni, M; Titone, P; Garibaldi, A; Gullino, M L

    2003-01-01

    Brown patch, incited by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, and Pythium blight, caused by Pythium spp. are two of the diseases most frequently observed on turfgrass in high maintenance stands, as on golf courses. In such conditions the control strategies, based on chemicals, are particularly difficult due to the scarcity of fungicides registered for turf in Italy. The results obtained in experimental trials carried out to evaluate the efficacy of chemical and biological products against brown patch and Pythium blight are reported. On mature turfgrass, maintained under fairway conditions, azoxystrobin, and trifoxystrobin, not yet registered on turf, were very effective against brown patch. Tebuconazole, applied in three different formulations, was very effective against R. solani, while Trichoderma spp. and azadiractine did not control the pathogen. In greenhouse conditions on Agrostis stolonifera, in the presence of severe disease incidence, due to artificial inoculation, benalaxyl-M satisfactorily controlled Pythium blight; Trichoderma spp. as well as a commercial formulation of T. harzianum, applied one week before the inoculation, were not effective. Among the fungicides not yet registered for use on turfgrass in Italy, metalaxyl-M + mancozeb was effective against Pythium blight. PMID:15151284

  2. Relative Susceptibility of Quince, Pear, and Apple Cultivars to Fire Blight Following Greenhouse Inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora (EA) is one of the most serious diseases of plants in the family Rosaceae, and Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) is considered one of the most susceptible host genera. Apple (Malus sp.) and pear (Pyrus sp.) cultivars ranging from most susceptible to most resistan...

  3. Current progress on genetic interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of genetic interactions between rice and its pathogenic fungi Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani should lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of host resistance, and the improvement of strategies to manage rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Presently dozens of ri...

  4. Development of a pathology toolbox for genetic and breeding for resistance to rice sheath blight disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate evaluation of the host response of rice plants to sheath blight disease, Rhizoctonia solani, is important for genetic studies and breeding for improved resistance. In the present study, a method to evaluate the response of a recombinant inbred mapping population, consisting of 574 F10 indiv...

  5. Biocontrol-based sheath blight management to reduce fungicide use on rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheath blight (ShB) caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important rice diseases in Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi, and other southern states. The lack of complete ShB resistance in the most commonly planted varieties and the severity of this disease results in southern U.S. rice farmers ap...

  6. Validation of Fusarium head blight resistance QTL using the NC-Neuse / Bess doubled haploid population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat. It lowers the grain yield and quality, and contaminates grain with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Genetic resistance is a critical control measure and breeding objective. Many studies have focused on the genetic basis of ...

  7. Management of Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation Using Antagonistic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Riungu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and green house studies were conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, to evaluate the efficacy of Epicoccum sp., Alternaria sp., Trichoderma sp. and Bacillus sp. in control of Fusarium head blight of wheat caused by F. graminearum. Fungicides folicur® and copper oxychloride were used as standard checks. Laboratory assay was carried out by paired cultures and antagonism was measured as reduction in pathogen colony diameter. Green house experiments involved dual inoculation of pathogen and antagonist onto wheat ears and head blight severity and grain yield determined. Doxynivalenol content in the resulting grain was determined by competitive direct ELISA. The antagonists and fungicides significantly reduced the growth of Fusarium graminearum colonies in culture. Folicur® and copper oxychloride completely inhibited the growth of the pathogen while Trichoderma sp. showed 64% colony growth reduction. However, the antagonists showed limited reduction in head blight severity in green house trials. Trichoderma sp. reduced head blight severity by 18% while folicur® reduced the disease by 28%. All the antagonists had little or no significant effect on grain yield. Only folicur®, copper oxychloride and Alternaria sp. reduced DON in grain by 76 to 93%. Obtained results indicate that microbial antagonists may offer potential benefit in FHB management and screening of more antagonists both under controlled and field conditions is necessary.

  8. Evaluation of Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks for Tolerance to Phytophthora Blight and Watermelon Vine Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora blight and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici, and watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), are two important and emerging diseases of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus). Recently, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto roo...

  9. Identification of markers associated with bacterial blight resistance loci in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agbicodo, A.C.M.E.; Fatokun, C.A.; Bandyopadhyay, R.; Wydra, K.; Diop, N.N.; Muchero, W.; Ehlers, J.D.; Roberts, P.A.; Close, T.J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Linden, van der C.G.

    2010-01-01

    Cowpea bacterial blight (CoBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vignicola (Xav), is a worldwide major disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. Among different strategies to control the disease including cultural practices, intercropping, application of chemicals, and sowing pathogen-fr

  10. DGE-1, a durum alien disomic addition line with resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scab or Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum Schwabe., is a serious disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) and current durum cultivars have almost no FHB resistance. Because diploid wheatgrass, Lophopyrum elongatum (2n = 2x = 14; EE...

  11. Pantoea applied genomics to understand and improve biocontrol activity against fire blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea agglomerans and P. vagans (ex. Erwinia herbicola) are common epiphytes of pome fruit flowers and three strains (E325, P10c, C9-1) have been commercially developed as effective biocontrol products for managing fire blight (Erwinia amylovora). Antibiotics as a standard, reliable chemical optio...

  12. Complete Genome Sequence for the Fusarium Head Blight Antagonist Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain TrigoCor 1448

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Beth A.; Ramaiya, Preethi; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Kumar, Ravi; Crinklaw, Austin; Jolkovsky, Eliana; Crane, Julia M.; Bergstrom, Gary C; Rey, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    We present the complete genome sequence for Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TrigoCor 1448 (ATCC 202152), a bacterial biological control agent for Fusarium head blight in wheat. We compare it to its closest relative, B. amyloliquefaciens strain AS43.3.

  13. Field Evaluation of Apple Rootstocks for Orchard Performance and Fire Blight Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2002, apple rootstock trials using three scion cultivars were established at Geneva, NY to evaluate 64 apple (Malus X domestica) rootstocks for horticultural performance and fire blight resistance. Field trials compared several elite Geneva® apple rootstocks, which were bred for tolerance to fir...

  14. Fusarium spp. associated with head blight of wheat in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is caused by numerous Fusarium species, including trichothecene-producers. In South Africa, FHB is mostly associated with irrigated wheat rotated with maize. Twenty symptomatic wheat heads were collected from four cultivars each in irrigated fields in the Northern...

  15. Population genomics of Fusarium graminearum head blight pathogens in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we utilized comparative genomics to identify candidate adaptive alleles in the fungus Fusarium graminearum, the primary pathogen of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal crops. Recent epidemics of FHB have been economically devastating to agriculture, as F. graminearum reduces cereal yi...

  16. Multiple minor QTLs are responsible for Fusarium head blight resistance in Chinese wheat landrace Haiyanzhong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a devastatingve disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Use of host resistance is one of the most effective strategies to minimize the disease damage. Haiyanzhong (HYZ) is a Chinese wheat landrace that shows a high level of resi...

  17. Introduction of Several Methods to Control Fusarium Head Blight(FHB)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣; 张敏

    2008-01-01

    Abstract:Fusariam head blight(FHB)is a worldwide destructive disease of wheat in the warm,semi-humid or humid regions,especially serious in China.The disease not only causes significant losses in yield and re duces grain quanlity,but also induces toxin to contaminated seeds,which is harmful to the healthy of human and livestocks,So it is important to control it.There are several methods to control Fusarium head blight (FHB).Such as using Crop rotation,Soil cultivation and Fertiliser,biological control,Fungicides control, transgenes,resistance to control Fusarium head blight(FHB).All of these methods gain some effect,but also exist their deficiency.Sometimes crop rotation had no significant effect on DON contamination of wheat grain,subsequent reductions in DON contamination were inconsistent when using Soil cultivation and Fer tiliser,Unfortunately,under field conditions,the biological control achieved has been shown to be variable and in some tests has failed to give any control,The use of fungicides,however,have not been consistently effective in controlling FHB and in reducing DON formation,transgene-silencing at different generations is a problem to use transgenes,Information on location of QTL for FHB resistance should improve dramatically in the near future on resistance to control Fusarium head blight(FHB).Therefore,it is pressing to improve control methods,especially to DON.

  18. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL STUDIES OF TRICHOTHECENE BIOSYNTHETIC ENZYMES: A NOVEL APPROACH TO COMBATING FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is a plant disease with serious economic and health impacts. Although it has proved difficult to combat this disease, one strategy that has been examined is the introduction of an indigenous fungal protective gene into cereals such as wheat, barley, and rice. Thus far th...

  19. Molecular dynamics of interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to develop the molecular strategies to control rice (Oryzae sativa) diseases, molecular interactions of rice with rice blast [Magnaporthe oryzae, formerly (Magnaporthe grisea] and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) fungi were analyzed. The interaction of rice with M. oryzae follows a b...

  20. Controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans E325 for biocontrol of fire blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microencapsulation and controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 (E325), which is an antagonist to bacterial pathogen (Erwinia amylovora) of fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear, have been investigated. Uniform core-shell alginate microcapsules (AMCs), 60-300 µm in diamet...

  1. The role of oospores in the epidemiology of potato late blight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, G.J.T.; Andersson, B.; Widmark, A.K.; Yuen, J.E.; Evenhuis, A.; Turkensteen, L.J.; Lehtinen, A.; Nielsen, B.; Ravnskov, S.; Hansen, J.G.; Hermansen, A.; Brurberg, M.B.; Nordskog, B.

    2009-01-01

    Potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) is a plant disease feared globally by farmers and the potato industry. P. infestans is a heterothallic oomycete with two mating types. Until recently the pathogen was limited to surviving between seasons as living mycelia in its host plant in most parts of

  2. Bringing Benefits and Warding off Blights in Due Commandment (Analytic Study Compared with the Jordanian Law)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Etoum, Niebal Mohd Ibrahim; Mowafi, Hanan Sami Mohammad; Al Zubaidi, Faraj Hamad Salem

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to highlight the benefits and blights of the due commandment (intestate law) under Jordanian law for the year (2010) in the article (279). The study came in two sections, the first one dealt with the concept of due commandment, its legitimacy, verdict and terms; in the second section, I've dealt with the persons entitled to due…

  3. Fire blight in different production systems in Germany and strategies to control the disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jelkmann, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a serious disease of pome fruits in many countries of the world. The disease was first recognized at the end of the 18th century in the USA. Its first occurence in Europe was reported in 1957 from England.

  4. Relationship of Deoxynivalenol Content in Grain, Chaff, and Straw with Fusarium Head Blight Severity in Wheat Varieties with Various Levels of Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ji

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 122 wheat varieties obtained from the Nordic Genetic Resource Center were infected artificially with an aggressive Fusariumasiaticum strain in a field experiment. We calculated the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB and determined the deoxynivalenol (DON content of wheat grain, straw and glumes. We found DON contamination levels to be highest in the glumes, intermediate in the straw, and lowest in the grain in most samples. The DON contamination levels did not increase consistently with increased FHB incidence. The DON levels in the wheat varieties with high FHB resistance were not necessarily low, and those in the wheat varieties with high FHB sensitivity were not necessarily high. We selected 50 wheat genotypes with reduced DON content for future research. This study will be helpful in breeding new wheat varieties with low levels of DON accumulation.

  5. Ocorrência e sintomas da mancha de Ascochyta em feijão-vagem Occurrence and symptoms of Ascochyta blight on snap bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida de Souza Tanaka

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A mancha de ascochita (Ascochyta phaseolorum Sacc. foi identificada como uma das principais doenças do feijão-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L., na região de Itatiba (SP, em levantamento realizado de abril de 1991 a março de 92. Seus sintomas são manchas foliares arredondadas, tipicamente zonadas e de tamanho variável, necrosando, às vezes, extensas áreas do limbo e provocando desfolha prematura. Associado a esse sintoma foliar, o patógeno pode causar lesões nas hastes, pecíolos e vagens, assumindo proporções severas. As lesões necróticas das hastes podem estrangula-las e provocar a morte da planta acima da região afetada. Nas vagens, as lesões tendem a ser circulares e zonadas, como as das folhas, porém os anéis concêntricos são menos evidentes. Isolamentos, características culturais e morfológicas e testes de patogenicidade permitiram diagnosticar a moléstia, que vinha sendo confundida com a mancha foliar de alternária, ou com a podridão de macrofomina, quando atacava a parte inferior da haste. A identificação do patógeno, por ter permitido o diagnóstico preciso da doença. poderá embasar o emprego de métodos adequados de controle.A severe Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta phaseolorum Sacc., was found during a survey carried out in farmer's fields of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. at Itatiba county, São Paulo State, Brazil. Foliar lesions were usually circular to irregular shaped, brown to dark brown and usually contained concentric circles of picnidia. These lesions often blighted the entire leaves, that die and fall. The pathogen also infected the stems, petioles and pods, and the disease incidence ranged from trace to severe. The stems and petioles lesions were elongated and cankerous, often girdling them, killing the plant above the infected region. The pod lesions were initially circular and zonate, as the foliar spots, but the concentric circles are of little evidence. Diagnosis were confirmed by isolation

  6. Capability of Streptomyces spp. in Controlling Bacterial Leaf Blight Disease in Rice Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih D. Hastuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo is the most damaging disease in lowland rice growing areas in Indonesia. Streptomyces spp. have been known as a producer of antimicrobial compounds that can be used as biocontrol agents. This study examined the ability of three promising indigenous Streptomyces isolates which were previously selected from in vitro agar media and greenhouse test to suppress natural infection of Xoo during dry and wet season trials in 2009/2010 at the Muara Experimental Research Station, Bogor West Java, Indonesia. Approach: Streptomyces isolates (PS4-16, LBR-02 and LSW-05 were applied through seed coating in a peat-based carrier followed by seedling soaking, spray treatment, or combination of both methods, either singly or in combination of two or three isolates. The number of Streptomyces population in the peat carrier at the time of inoculation was above 107 cell g-1. The efficacy of Streptomyces was compared to that chemical spray using NORDOX 56 WP (a.i., zinc oxide 56% and non-treatment. Treated and untreated seeds were grown in plots (5×5 m2 and set in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Results: In the dry season experiment, application of Streptomyces spp. reduced BLB severity when compared to that of untreated plots, although did not reduce BLB incidence. PS4-16, applied singly through seed coating followed by seedling soaking, reduced the Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC at 70 Days After Planting (DAP to 1458, which was equally effective to the chemical spray (AUDPC value 1434 and simultaneously promoted plant height and gave the highest rice yield. In the wet season trial PS4-16 and LBR-02, applied singly or in dual combination through seed coating followed by seedling soaking, suppressed BLB severity, PS4-16 was confirmed as the most effective isolate by reducing the AUDPC to 1923, which was not significantly different to the

  7. Control of seedling blight in winter wheat by seed treatments - impact on emergence, crop stand, yield and deoxynivalenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise N; K. Nielsen, Linda; Nielsen, Bent J

    2012-01-01

    Seedling blight caused by Fusarium spp. and Microdochium spp. is common on wheat grain, and severe attacks can lead to poor establishment of new crops. Several seed treatments using bitertanol, difenoconazole, triticonazole, maneb, fludioxonil or guazatine found to significantly control Fusarium...... seedling blight (Fusarium spp., Microdochium spp.) were improving germination and reducing seedling blight on roots and coleoptiles under field conditions in winter wheat. Some of the seed treatments were also shown to have an impact on soil-borne Fusarium in trials carried out under glasshouse conditions...... germination by approximately 100%, which led to an improved crop stand and yield increases in the range of 1.2–1.5 tonnes ha−1. Attacks of Fusarium head blight were relatively slight in the two trials and the content of deoxynivalenol was below the EU limits of 1250 ppb in the harvested grain. Even so, seed...

  8. Case study of a new method for the classification and analysis of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu damage to young chestnut sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tani A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dryocosmus kuriphilus is a new chestnut pest that is causing a serious problem worldwide. This gall wasp causes severe infestations of Italian Castanea sativa stands, which lowers their productivity. The most effective method for controlling gall wasp infestations is to introduce the parasitoid, Torymus sinensis, although experience shows that it can be 6-18 years before it is effective in reducing the infestation to acceptable levels. From a silvicultural point of view, it is important to reduce the damage as rapidly as possible to maintain plant vigour and fruit production, thereby avoiding chestnut stand degradation and abandonment before biological control is effective. This study analyzed the damage caused by Dryocosmus kuriphilus during normal plant development and detected differences in plant susceptibility, irrespective of genetic factors. Data were collected from a young Castanea sativa coppice stand in Tuscany (Italy where damage was evaluated during the 2010 growing season. The study consisted of two phases: (1 classification of the damages caused by galls; and (2 studying the galls and damage distribution effects on different vigour chestnut sprouts to determine whether there were preferred oviposition sites or different degrees of susceptibility to gall wasp attack depending on a plant’s physiological state. The D. kuriphilus damage classification scale was based on two factors: damage position (the vegetative organ attacked and damage effect (abnormal organ development caused by galls. This classification included damage types that had not been previously described in literature. The statistical analysis identified differences in damage susceptibility in terms of: axis (stem or branches, plant organs (shoots, leaves, or buds, position of the attacked node (high or low region of the axis, and sprout vigour. Information on the D. kuriphilus damage distribution and its effect on plants with different levels vigour can be used to

  9. Nontargeted GC-MS approach for volatile profile of toasting in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, and ash wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel María

    2014-05-01

    By using a nontargeted GC-MS approach, 153 individual volatile compounds were found in extracts from untoasted, light toasted and medium-toasted cherry, chestnut, false acacia, as well as European and American ash wood, used in cooperage for aging wines, spirits and other beverages. In all wood types, the toasting provoked a progressive increase in carbohydrate derivatives, lactones and lignin constituents, along with a variety of other components, thus increasing the quantitative differences among species with the toasting intensity. The qualitative differences in the volatile profiles allow for identifying woods from cherry (being p-anisylalcohol, p-anisylaldehyde, p-anisylacetone, methyl benzoate and benzyl salicylate detected only in this wood), chestnut (cis and trans whisky lactone) and false acacia (resorcinol, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol, 2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde, 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone, 2,4-dihydroxypropiophenone and 2,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone), but not those from ash, because of the fact that all compounds present in this wood are detected in at least one other. However, the quantitative differences can be clearly used to identify toasted ash wood, with tyrosol being most prominent, but 2-furanmethanol, 3- and 4-ethylcyclotene, α-methylcrotonolactone, solerone, catechol, 3-methylcatechol and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde as well. Regarding oak wood, its qualitative volatile profile could be enough to distinguish it from cherry and acacia woods, and the quantitative differences from chestnut (vanillyl ethyl ether, isoacetovanillone, butirovanillone, 1-(5-methyl-2-furyl)-2-propanone and 4-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-(2H)-pyran-2-one) and ash toasted woods. PMID:24809897

  10. Impact of fertilization on chestnut growth, N and P concentrations in runoff water on degraded slope land in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shu-Cai; Chen, Bei-Guang; Jiang, Cheng-Ai; Wu, Qi-Tang

    2007-01-01

    Growing fruit trees on the slopes of rolling hills in South China was causing serious environmental problems because of heavy application of chemical fertilizers and soil erosion. Suitable sources of fertilizers and proper rates of applications were of key importance to both crop yields and environmental protection. In this article, the impact of four fertilizers, i.e., inorganic compound fertilizer, organic compound fertilizer, pig manure compost, and peanut cake (peanut oil pressing residue), on chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) growth on a slope in South China, and on the total N and total P concentrations in runoff waters have been investigated during two years of study, with an orthogonal experimental design. Results show that the organic compound fertilizer and peanut cake promote the heights of young chestnut trees compared to the control. In addition, peanut cake increases single-fruit weights and organic compound fertilizer raises single-seed weights. All the fertilizers increased the concentrations of total N and total P in runoff waters, except for organic compound fertilizer, in the first year experiment. The observed mean concentrations of total N varied from 1.6 mg/L to 3.2 mg/L and P from 0.12 mg/L to 0.22 mg/L, which were increased with the amount of fertilizer applications, with no pattern of direct proportion. On the basis of these experiment results, organic compound fertilizer at 2 kg/tree and peanut cake at 1 kg/tree are recommended to maximize chestnut growth and minimize water pollution. PMID:17966870

  11. Impact of fertilization on chestnut growth, N and P concentrations in runoff water on degraded slope land in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Shu-cai; CHEN Bei-guang; JIANG Cheng-ai; WU Qi-tang

    2007-01-01

    Growing fruit trees on the slopes of rolling hills in South China is causing serious environmental problems because of heavy application of chemical fertilizers and soil erosion. Suitable sources of fertilizers and proper rates of applications are of key importance to both crop yields and environmental protection. In this article, the impact of four fertilizers, i.e., inorganic compound fertilizer, organic compound fertilizer, pig manure compost, and peanut cake (peanut oil pressing residue), on chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) growth on a slope in South China, and on the total N and total P concentrations in runoff waters have been investigated during two years of study, with an orthogonal experimental design. Results show that the organic compound fertilizer and peanut cake promote the heights of young chestnut trees when compared to the control. In addition, peanut cake increases single-fruit weights and organic compound fertilizer raises single-seed weights. All the fertilizers increase the concentrations of total N and total P in runoff waters, except for organic compound fertilizer, in the first year experiment. The observed mean concentrations of total N varied from 1.6 mg/L to 3.2 mg/L and P from 0.12 mg/L to 0.22 mg/L, which are increased with the amount of fertilizer applications, with no pattern of direct proportion. On the basis of these experiment results, organic compound fertilizer at 2 kg/tree and peanut cake at 1 kg/tree are recommended to maximize chestnut growth and minimize water pollution.

  12. L-Ascorbic acid metabolism during fruit development in an ascorbate-rich fruit crop chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2014-09-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a fruit crop that contains unusually high levels of l-ascorbic acid (AsA; ∼1300 mg 100g(-1) FW). To explore the mechanisms underlying AsA metabolism, we investigated the distribution and abundance of AsA during fruit development. We also analyzed gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and content of metabolites related to AsA biosynthesis and recycling. AsA first accumulated during late fruit development and continued to accumulate during ripening, with the highest accumulation rate near fruit maturity. The redox state of AsA in fruit was also enhanced during late fruit development, while leaf and other tissues had much lower levels of AsA and the redox state of AsA was lower. In mature fruit, AsA was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the mesocarp. Correlation analysis suggested that the gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and related metabolite concentrations involved in the l-galactose pathway showed relatively high correlations with the accumulation rate of AsA. The gene expression pattern and activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) correlated strongly with AsA concentration, possibly indicating the crucial role of DHAR in the accumulation of high levels of AsA in chestnut rose fruit. Over expression of DHAR in Arabidopsis significantly increased the reduced AsA content and redox state. This was more effective than over expression of the l-galactose pathway gene GDP-d-mannose-3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.18). These findings will enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating accumulation of AsA in chestnut rose. PMID:25019249

  13. Effect of the amount of chestnuts in the diet of Celta pigs on the fatty acid profile of dry-cured lacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jesús, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed (0, 15 and 25% chestnut on the fatty acids of dry-cured lacon from Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of chestnuts decreases the saturated fatty acid content (SFA and the monounsaturated fatty acid content (MUFA. With regards to the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, the lacon from animals fed with chestnuts presented higher values of total PUFA, n6 PUFAs and n3 PUFAs. This is related to the fact that chestnut diets had the highest amounts of essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3, therefore the lacon from chestnut-fed animals also presented higher amounts of these fatty acids. According to nutritional ratios, lacon obtained from chestnut-fed pigs was healthier than the one obtained from pigs fed on commercial feed. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet allows us to obtain healthier dry-cured meat products.Se estudió el efecto de la inclusión de la castaña en la formulación del pienso (0, 15 y 25% de castaña sobre el perfil de ácidos grasos del lacón curado de cerdo Celta. La inclusión de castañas produjo una disminución del contenido de ácidos grasos saturados (SFA y monoinsaturados (MUFA. Con respecto a los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA los lacones de animales alimentados por castaña presentaron valores más altos de PUFA totales, PUFA n6 y PUFA n3. Esto está relacionado con que las castañas tienen una mayor cantidad de ácidos grasos esenciales (C18:2n6 y C18:3n3, por tanto los lacones de cerdos alimentados con castaña también presentan mayores contenidos de estos ácidos grasos. De acuerdo con los índices nutricionales, los lacones obtenidos de cerdos alimentados con mayor proporción de castañas fueron más saludables. La inclusión de castañas en la dieta nos permite obtener productos cárnicos curados más saludables.

  14. Phenotypic characteristics of trees and seeds as the base for improvement and conservation of the horse chestnut gene pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocokoljić Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with individual and group variability of horse chestnut trees cultivated in urban cenoses in Belgrade, Zemun, and Pančevo, Serbia. The trees were selected according to their morphological-aesthetic properties and yield variability. In view of size of the study populations, it can be considered that the trees were cultivated in more or less uniform ecological conditions and that individual intra-population variability is mostly the result of genetic properties. The study results can serve as the base for selection of genotypes significant for application in urban cenoses, especially for the establishment of tree rows.

  15. New foods: a case study of Portuguese “Serra da Estrela” cheese incorporated with chestnuts flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2014-01-01

    The “Serra da Estrela” is the most well-known Portuguese cheese, made from ewe’s milk for centuries, granted a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) in 1996 by the European Union. To this date, not many studies have been carried out regarding the nutritional profile of this cheese. Chestnut flowers are usually leftovers of the nut harvest, and, being a very interesting flower in terms of antioxidants and antimicrobials, the incorporation of this by-product into the cheese may be o...

  16. Deletion and Complementation of the Mating Type (MAT) Locus of the Wheat Head Blight Pathogen Gibberella zeae

    OpenAIRE

    Desjardins, A E; Brown, D W; Yun, S.-H.; Proctor, R.H.; Lee, T.; Plattner, R. D.; Lu, S.-W.; Turgeon, B G

    2004-01-01

    Gibberella zeae, a self-fertile, haploid filamentous ascomycete, causes serious epidemics of wheat (Triticum aestivum) head blight worldwide and contaminates grain with trichothecene mycotoxins. Anecdotal evidence dating back to the late 19th century indicates that G. zeae ascospores (sexual spores) are a more important inoculum source than are macroconidia (asexual spores), although the fungus can produce both during wheat head blight epidemics. To develop fungal strains to test this hypothe...

  17. Biosynthesis of the antimetabolite 6-thioguanine in Erwinia amylovora plays a key role in fire blight pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sébastien; Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Litomska, Agnieszka; Richter, Klaus; Beerhues, Ludger; Hertweck, Christian

    2013-09-27

    Sulfur for fire: The molecular basis for the biosynthesis of the antimetabolite 6-thioguanine (6TG) was unveiled in Erwinia amylovora, the causative agent of fire blight. Bioinformatics, heterologous pathway reconstitution in E. coli, and mutational analyses indicate that the protein YcfA mediates guanine thionation in analogy to 2-thiouridylase. Assays in planta and in cell cultures reveal for the first time a crucial role of 6TG in fire blight pathogenesis. PMID:24038828

  18. Plant growth-promoting and antifungal activity of yeasts from dark chestnut soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Lyudmila V; Brazhnikova, Yelena V; Berzhanova, Ramza Z; Mukasheva, Togzhan D

    2015-06-01

    538 yeast strains were isolated from dark chestnut soil collected from under the plants of the legume family (Fabaceae). The greatest number of microorganisms is found at soil depth 10-20 cm. Among the 538 strains of yeast 77 (14.3%) strains demonstrated the ability to synthesize IAA. 15 strains were attributed to high IAA-producing yeasts (above 10 μg/ml). The most active strains were YA05 with 51.7 ± 2.1 μg/ml of IAA and YR07 with 45.3 ± 1.5 μg/ml. In the study of effect of incubation time on IAA production the maximum accumulation of IAA coincided with maximum rates of biomass: at 120 h for YR07 and at 144 h for strain YA05. IAA production increased when medium was supplemented with the L-tryptophan. 400 μg/ml of L-tryptophan showed maximum IAA production. 10 strains demonstrated the ability to inhibit the growth and development of phytopathogenic fungi. YA05 and YR07 strains formed the largest zones of inhibition compared to the other strains--from 21.6 ± 0.3 to 30.6 ± 0.5 mm. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed for YA05 against Phytophtora infestans and YR07 strains against Fusarium graminearum. YA05 and YR07 strains were identified as Aureobasidium pullulans YA05 (GenBank accession No JF160955) and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa YR07 (GenBank accession No JF160956). PMID:25843007

  19. Micromorphology of the floral nectary of red horse chestnut (Aesculus ×carnea Hayne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Europe Aesculus ×carnea Hayne is planted in cities as an avenue tree. Compared to A. hippocastanum L., it is more drought resistant, but less resistant to low temperatures. A. ×carnea is a lower tree than A. hippocastanum and develops a smaller corolla. It produces dark green, shiny and crinkled leaves. Its flowers have different colours, from bright pink to carmine red. The nectary glands secrete nectar abundantly. Due to the long corolla tube, nectar is difficult to reach for bees. The aim of this study was to investigate the topography and micromorphology of the nectaries of A. ×carnea using scanning electron microscopy. The study shows that the nectary gland of red horse chestnut forms an incomplete ring around the base of the staminal filaments, surrounding only four stamens out of the seven that occur in the flower. Three stamens are outside the nectary. In its widest place, the nectary diameter reaches 2.7 mm. Three expanded portions of the gland can bee seen in the marginal part of the nectary, adjoining the petals. The part of the nectary adjacent to the filaments forms a convex protrusion with a wavy appearance (shape, which results from the vicinity of the filaments. Nectar is secreted through numerous stomata located beneath the convex part of the nectary. The stoma length is 21.7 μm, while the width 23.3 μm. In the material examined, most stomata had open pores. Secretion was observed in many places. The stomata were surrounded by 6-7 guard cells; this allows them to be classified as the cyclocytic type. The cells of the stomatal complex were raised above the surface of the other epidermal cells. The walls of the guard cells and of the adjacent epidermal cells were covered by a cuticle with irregular striation.

  20. Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhl, J.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania and the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task in this project is to establish, through several distinct epidemiologic approaches, health data to be used to test hypotheses about relations of air pollution exposures to morbidity and mortality rates in this region. This project affords a cost-effective opportunity for state-of-the-art techniques to be used in both costly areas of air pollution and health effects data collection. The closely spaced network of monitors, plus the dispersion modeling capabilities, allow for the investigation of health impacts of various pollutant gradients in neighboring geographic areas, thus minimizing the confounding effects of social, ethnic, and economic factors. The pollutants that are monitored in this network include total gaseous sulfur, sulfates, total suspended particulates, NOx, NO, ozone/oxidants, and coefficient of haze. In addition to enabling the simulation of exposure profiles between monitors, the air quality modeling, along with extensive source and background inventories, will allow for upgrading the quality of the monitored data as well as simulating the exposure levels for about 25 additional air pollutants. Another important goal of this project is to collect and test the many available models for associating health effects with air pollution, to determine their predictive validity and their usefulness in the choice and siting of future energy facilities.

  1. TURCICUM LEAF BLIGHT OF MAIZE INCITED BY Exserohilum turcicum: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rajeshwar Reddy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally maize (Zea mays L. is the first and most important cereal crop gown under diversity of environments unmatched by any other crop, as expansion of maize to new areas and environment still continues due to its range of plasticity. It is prone to as many as 112 diseases in different parts of the world, caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes leading to extensive damage. In India about 61 diseases have been reported to affect the crop. These include seedling blights, stalk rots, foliar diseases, downy mildews and ear rots (Payaket al., 1973 and Payak and Sharma, 1985.Among the fungal diseases turcicum leaf blight caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.. Leonard and Suggs. (Synonyms:Helminthosprium turcicum (Pass. Leonard and Suggs [Perfect stage: Setosphaeria turcica (Luttrell Leonard and Suggs. (Synonym: Trichometasphaeria turcica (Luttrell] is one the important foliar disease causing severe reduction in grain and fodder yield to the tune of 16 -98% (Kachapur and Hegde, 1988. The disease was first described by Passerini (1876 from Italy and by Butler (1907 from India. In India, this disease is prevalent in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh and Maharashtra. Turcicum leaf blight is potentially an important foliar disease in areas where the temperatures drop at night while the humidity is high. The disease is known to affect maize from seedling stage till harvest. Loss in grain yield will be more if it occurs at flowering, silking and grain filling stages. Lesions produced on the leaves of susceptible plants are normally large (4 -20 cm long and 1-5 cm wide, elliptical in shape and greyish green to tan in color, in conditions of high relative humidity, lesions may be covered with masses of dark conidia of the fungus. The conidia are olive grey and spindle shaped with 1- 9 septations. These conidia spread through air germinate on the surface and penetrate directly. Turcicum blight injures or kills the leaf tissues and

  2. The role of crop waste and soil in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar porri infection of leek (Allium porrum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Nijhuis, E.H.; Koenraadt, H.; Visser, J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri, the causal agent of bacterial blight of leek, is a current threat for leek (Allium porrum) production in the Netherlands. The roles of post-harvest crop waste and plant invasion from soil in leek plant infection was investigated with the purpose to gain better underst

  3. Cell Wall Biomolecular Composition Plays a Potential Role in the Host Type II Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlali, Rachid; Kumar, Saroj; Wang, Lipu; Forseille, Li; Sylvain, Nicole; Korbas, Malgorzata; Muir, David; Swerhone, George; Lawrence, John R.; Fobert, Pierre R.; Peng, Gary; Karunakaran, Chithra

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious disease of wheat worldwide. Cultivar resistance to FHB depends on biochemical factors that confine the pathogen spread in spikes. Breeding for cultivar resistance is considered the most practical way to manage this disease. In this study, different spectroscopy and microscopy techniques were applied to discriminate resistance in wheat genotypes against FHB. Synchrotron-based spectroscopy and imaging techniques, including focal plane array infrared and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy were used to understand changes in biochemical and nutrients in rachis following FHB infection. Sumai3 and Muchmore were used to represent resistant and susceptible cultivars to FHB, respectively, in this study. The histological comparison of rachis showed substantial differences in the cell wall thickness between the cultivars after infection. Synchrotron-based infrared imaging emphasized substantial difference in biochemical composition of rachis samples between the two cultivars prior to visible symptoms; in the resistant Sumai3, infrared bands representing lignin and hemicellulose were stronger and more persistent compared to the susceptible cultivar. These bands may be the candidates of biochemical markers for FHB resistance. Focal plane array infrared imaging (FPA) spectra from the rachis epidermis and vascular bundles revealed a new band (1710 cm−1) related to the oxidative stress on the susceptible cultivar only. XRF spectroscopy data revealed differences in nutrients composition between cultivars, and between controls and inoculated samples, with substantial increases observed for Ca, K, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Si in the resistant cultivar. These nutrients are related to cell wall stability, metabolic process, and plant defense mechanisms such as lignification pathway and callose deposition. The combination of cell wall composition and lignification plays a role in the mechanism of type II host resistance to FHB. Biochemical profiling

  4. Cell Wall Biomolecular Composition Plays a Potential Role in the Host Type II Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlali, Rachid; Kumar, Saroj; Wang, Lipu; Forseille, Li; Sylvain, Nicole; Korbas, Malgorzata; Muir, David; Swerhone, George; Lawrence, John R; Fobert, Pierre R; Peng, Gary; Karunakaran, Chithra

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious disease of wheat worldwide. Cultivar resistance to FHB depends on biochemical factors that confine the pathogen spread in spikes. Breeding for cultivar resistance is considered the most practical way to manage this disease. In this study, different spectroscopy and microscopy techniques were applied to discriminate resistance in wheat genotypes against FHB. Synchrotron-based spectroscopy and imaging techniques, including focal plane array infrared and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy were used to understand changes in biochemical and nutrients in rachis following FHB infection. Sumai3 and Muchmore were used to represent resistant and susceptible cultivars to FHB, respectively, in this study. The histological comparison of rachis showed substantial differences in the cell wall thickness between the cultivars after infection. Synchrotron-based infrared imaging emphasized substantial difference in biochemical composition of rachis samples between the two cultivars prior to visible symptoms; in the resistant Sumai3, infrared bands representing lignin and hemicellulose were stronger and more persistent compared to the susceptible cultivar. These bands may be the candidates of biochemical markers for FHB resistance. Focal plane array infrared imaging (FPA) spectra from the rachis epidermis and vascular bundles revealed a new band (1710 cm(-1)) related to the oxidative stress on the susceptible cultivar only. XRF spectroscopy data revealed differences in nutrients composition between cultivars, and between controls and inoculated samples, with substantial increases observed for Ca, K, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Si in the resistant cultivar. These nutrients are related to cell wall stability, metabolic process, and plant defense mechanisms such as lignification pathway and callose deposition. The combination of cell wall composition and lignification plays a role in the mechanism of type II host resistance to FHB. Biochemical profiling

  5. Effect of diet chestnut tannin supplementation on meat quality, fatty acid profile and lipid stability in broiler rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chestnut tannins on meat quality in broiler rabbits. 72 commercial hybrid rabbits (mean body weight 740 g, 32 days old were fed for 49 days with three diets containing 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% of a commercial chestnut wood extract (ENC®, Sil- vachimica srl, respectively. Eight rabbits per group were slaughtered at 12 weeks of age and at 24h post-mortem pH and colour were measured on the carcass. Moreover, both sides of m. longis- simus thoracis (LT were dissected. Left side was used for cooking losses whereas the other side was used for the determination of fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. No differences were found in pH, colour and cooking losses, as well as the fatty acid profile of LT muscle and its relative health indexes. Concerning the antioxidant effect, the ENC shows a positive and significant effect at the inclusion level of 0.5%. In conclusion, the ENC has not undesirable side effects on the meat quality of rabbits, although further studies will be necessary to find the optimal diet inclusion level of ENC to elicit a stronger antioxidant effect in the rabbit meat.

  6. A horse chestnut extract, which induces contraction forces in fibroblasts, is a potent anti-aging ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Tsukahara, Kazue; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    Contraction forces generated by non-muscle cells, such as fibroblasts, play important roles in determining cell morphology, vasoconstriction, and/or wound healing. We have searched among various plant extracts for ingredients that generate cell contraction forces using fibroblast-populated collagen gels. Using that model, we found that an extract of horse chestnuts (Aesculus hippocastanum) is able to generate such contraction forces in fibroblasts. The involvement of stress fiber formation in that response is suggested by the inhibition of such force generation by cytochalasin D and rhodamine phalloidin stain. Clinical testing of the extract was carried out using 40 healthy female volunteers. A gel formulation that included 3% of the extract was applied topically to the skin around the eye three times daily for nine weeks. The efficacy of the extract to diminish wrinkles was evaluated by visual scoring based on photo scales. After six weeks, significant decreases in the wrinkle scores at the corners of the eye or in the lower eyelid skin were observed compared with controls. After nine weeks, similar results were obtained. Taken together, our results suggest that an extract of horse chestnuts can generate contraction forces in fibroblasts and is a potent anti-aging ingredient. PMID:17111071

  7. Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared from wheat flour supplemented with cassava and water chestnut flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Bala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared by supplementing different proportions of cassava flour (CF and water chestnut flour (WCF blends (0–100% to wheat flour (WF were studied. Seven formulations of cookies were prepared from (a Control (100% WF, (b 30% WF, 35% WCF and 35% CF, (c 27% WF, 37.5% WCF and 37.5% CF, (d 20% WF, 40% WCF and 40% CF, (e 15% WF, 42.5% WCF and 42.5% CF, (f 10% WF, 45% WCF and 45% CF, and (g 0% WF, 50% WCF and 50% CF. Cookies were subjected to physical analysis (cookie diameter, cookie thickness, spread ratio, bulk volume, bulk density, breaking strength, and color analysis and evaluated for consumer acceptance by descriptive sensory analysis. Cookies prepared from water chestnut and cassava flour had low moisture content (5.63%, low fat (24.87%, higher spread ratio (8.148, decreased L, a and b values (dark color, and low breaking strength than control ones. Sensory evaluation established that cookies prepared from 50% WCF and 50% CF were more acceptable than cookies prepared from other formulations.

  8. Appraise a combination of fungicides against blast and sheath blight diseases of paddy (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar M K

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In present study various fungicides were screened against blast (leaf and neck and sheath blight disease of rice. Among them, Conika 50% WP (Kasugamycin 5% + Copper Oxychloride 45% WP, Dhanucop Team (Tricyclazole 75% WP and RIL-068/F1 48 WG (Kresoxim methyl 40% + Hexaconazole 8% WG were found effective against blast diseases. While, the seed treatment fungicide Isotianil SC 200 and its combination with Trifloxystrobin 500 SC were found least effective against leaf and neck blast diseases. However, in case of sheath blight, Thifluzamide 24% SC, RIL-068/F1 48 WG (Kresoxim methyl 40% + Hexaconazole 8% WG, Propiconazole 25% EC (Tilt, Tricyclazole 75% WP (Beam and a new combination fungicide, Fluxapyroxad 62.5 g/l + Epoxiconazlle 62.5 g/l EC (Adexar w/v EC were found effective.

  9. Production of bacterial leaf blight resistant mulberry through tissue culture and induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mon Noi multiple shoots obtained from axillary buds in vitro cultures were induced mutation by irradiating with gamma rays at the optimum dose (LD 50) of 40 Gy. In vitro inoculation technique for bacterial blight disease of mulberry caused by Pseudomonas syringae p v. mori was done by leaf-rub method, using bacterial suspension at 107 cells per milliliter which was the lowest concentration to cause highest disease severity. A total of 8357 Mon Noi gamma irradiated plantlets in 7-11 generations were screened for bacterial blight disease resistance. Eighteen plants survived and free from bacterial contamination. These surviving plants were in vitro rapid multiplication then screened for disease resistance in greenhouse. At present, only 4 lines from 18 plants are selected

  10. Occurrence of Leaf Blight on Cosmos Caused by Alternaria cosmosa in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xin Deng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a leaf blight disease was observed on cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus leaves in Nonsan, Korea. The causal pathogen was isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular approaches. Morphological characteristics of the pathogen matched well with the Alternaria cosmosa and also easily distinguishable from Alternaria zinniae reported from cosmos seeds by producing branched beak. Phylogenetically, the pathogen could not be distinguished from A. passiflorae based on the sequence analysis of a combined data set of Alt a1 and gpd genes. However, A. passiflorae was distinguished from the present species by having conidiophores with 4 to 5 conidiogenous loci. The results indicate that the present Alternaria species is A. cosmosa. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the isolate was pathogenic to the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus. This is the first report of Alternaria blight disease caused by A. cosmosa on cosmos in Korea.

  11. Relationship between soil cellulolytic activity and suppression of seedling blight of barley in arable soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Knudsen, I.; Elmholt, S.;

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the relationship between soil suppression of seedling blight of barley caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Smith) Sacc. and the soil cellulolytic activity of beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase and endocellulase. Disease suppression was investigated in bioassays with...... test soils mixed with sand, and barley seeds inoculated with F. culmorum. After 19 days, disease severity was evaluated on the barley seedlings. Soil cellulolytic activities were measured using 4-methylumbelliferyl-labelled fluorogenic substrates, and were expressed as V-max values obtained by using...... content of total C and N. From the preliminary results obtained, it is proposed that the cellulolytic activity can be used as an enzymatic approach to study the microbial turnover of organic matter in soils and as indicator of seedling blight of barley caused by F. culmorum. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B...

  12. SURVEY OF TURCICUM LEAF BLIGHT OF MAIZE IN MAJOR MAIZE GROWING AREAS OF ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rajeshwar Reddy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Northern corn leaf blight or turcicum leaf blight caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass. Leonard and Suggs is one of the important diseases affecting photosynthesis with severe reduction in grain yield to an extent of 28 to 91%. Disease symptoms first appear on the leaves at any stage of plant growth, but usually at or after anthesis. The studies on survey reveals that high intensity of the disease was noted in the district where mean maximum temperature was below 320C and relative humidity was above 85 percent during the cropping season (June-October. The maximum PDI of 51 percent was recorded in Khammam district where the maximum temperature of 31.820C and the relative humidity of 87.5 percent was recorded whereas minimum (33 percent PDI was recorded in Guntur district and it was due to high maximum temperature of 35.220C and low relative humidity of 76 percent

  13. QTL mapping of resistance to sheath blight in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hua; YANG Junpin; RONG Tingzhao; TAN Jun; QIU Zhenggao

    2005-01-01

    The genetic linkage map has been constructed with 125 SSR markers based on BC1:2 population consisting of 322 lines derived from the combination of (CML270×478) ×CML270 in maize (Zea mays L.), covering 1939.0 cM of maize genome. The average mapping distance was about 15.5 cM. Three major QTLs of the relative resistant index of resistance to maize sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) had been located on chromosomes 1, 7 by composite interval mapping (CIM). 7 QTLs of the plant height have been located on chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 6. Five QTLs of ear height have been located on chromosomes 3, 4, 6. The resistance to the sheath blight is shown to be not relative to plant height and ear height genetically. Inbred line CML270 was used for molecular assisted selection and cloning the genes.

  14. Limitations of Cassava Bacterial Blight: New Advances Limitaciones de la bacteriosis vascular de yuca: Nuevos avances

    OpenAIRE

    Verdier Valérie; López Camilo; Restrepo Silvia

    2006-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta), a starchy root crop, constitutes the source of alimentation for over 600 million people worldwide. Cassava Bacterial Blight (CBB) is caused bythe bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam). This review will focus on the current knowledge on the molecular cassava-Xam interaction. We will present the different molecular techniques developed to assess the genetic diversity and dynamics of Xam populations. We will also present different methods developed for...

  15. Reduction of Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol in wheat with early fungicide applications of prothioconazole

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Simon G; Godley, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Numerous studies have identified the benefit of fungicides applied at flowering (Zadoks Growth Stage (GS) 59-69) in the reduction of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and the reduction of deoxynivalenol (DON) in harvested wheat grain. Two experiments were performed to identify the ability of prothioconazole (Proline?, Bayer CropScience) at three timings to reduce FHB and resulting DON in harvested grain of wheat. Prothioconazole (150 g ha-1) was applied to plots of wheat at GS3...

  16. Applied Biotechnology to combat the late blight in potato caused by Phytophthora infestans

    OpenAIRE

    Haverkort, A.J.; Struik, P. C.; Visser, R. G. F.; Jacobsen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Potato is an important crop, grown worldwide. It suffers from many pests and diseases among which late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the worst. The disease is still causing major damage in many potato production areas and control is only possible by applying fungicides frequently. The knowledge on the molecular biology and genetics of the interaction between the plant and the oomycete is developing rapidly. These are relevant fields of study, currently dominated by...

  17. REVIEW ON BANDED LEAF AND SHEATH BLIGHT OF RICE CAUSED BY Rhizoctonia solani KUHN

    OpenAIRE

    P. Srinivas; Ved Ratan; Atm Prakash Patel; G. Bindu Madhavi

    2013-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a graminaceous crop. It is one of the important staple foods for Asian countries. Sheath blight disease is an important fungal disease of rice. Currently, this disease is distributed in almost all the rice growing states. The disease is alarming due to its intensive cultivation of modern high yielding varieties with high doses of nitrogenous fertilizers. Crop with a high plant density and close canopy associated favors disease build up from panicle initiation onwards...

  18. Controlling Foliar Blight of Wheat in South Asia: A Holistic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Duveiller, E.; Sharma, R.C.; MERCADO, D.; MARAITE, H.; BHATTA, M. R.; Ortiz-Ferrara, G.; Sharma, D.

    2005-01-01

    Foliar blight is a major biotic constraint to wheat in the Gangetic plains of south Asia, particularly in the rice-wheat system. The disease occurs as a complex of spot blotch and tan spot caused by C. sativus and P. tritici-repentis, respectively. Yield losses reach on average 15% but are variable depending on sowing time, years, locations and stress conditions. Resistance breeding has been the cornerstone of the control strategy. Through international agricultural research efforts in collab...

  19. Fungicide baseline for mycelial sensitivity of Exserohilum turcicum, causal agent of northern corn leaf blight

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Luis De Rossi; Erlei Melo Reis; Ricardo Brustolin

    2015-01-01

    Northern corn leaf blight, caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Et), is one of the major corn diseases which can reduce grain yield and quality. The aim of this study was to determine the mycelial sensitivity of ten Et isolates, five from Argentina and five from Brazil, to six fungicides (carbendazim, captan, fludioxinil, metalaxyl, iprodione and thiram) used in seed treatment. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined by using seven concentrations of the fungicides supplemented to the ag...

  20. Conjuring Blight in an Urban Landscape: Market Farms and Aerosol Murals in Oakland, CA

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Jessica Weston

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation, Conjuring Blight in an Urban Landscape: Market Farms and Aerosol Murals in Oakland, CA, examines collaborations between the City of Oakland and several nonprofits to cover key city functions in the face of a fiscal crisis precipitated by the national recession (2008-2011). Based in eighteen months of ethnographic research and years of additional interaction, my research shows the ways that bureaucrats, gardeners and aerosol muralists are all actively inscribing spaces and c...

  1. Development of a weather-based model for Botrytis leaf blight of onion

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Luiz Marcuzzo; Roberto Haveroth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the present study, onion plants were tested under controlled conditions for the development of a climate model based on the influence of temperature (10, 15, 20 and 25°C) and leaf wetness duration (6, 12, 24 and 48 hours) on the severity of Botrytis leaf blight of onion caused by Botrytis squamosa. The relative lesion density was influenced by temperature and leaf wetness duration (P

  2. Appraise a combination of fungicides against blast and sheath blight diseases of paddy (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna Kumar M K; Veerabhadraswamy A L

    2014-01-01

    In present study various fungicides were screened against blast (leaf and neck) and sheath blight disease of rice. Among them, Conika 50% WP (Kasugamycin 5% + Copper Oxychloride 45% WP), Dhanucop Team (Tricyclazole 75% WP) and RIL-068/F1 48 WG (Kresoxim methyl 40% + Hexaconazole 8% WG) were found effective against blast diseases. While, the seed treatment fungicide Isotianil SC 200 and its combination with Trifloxystrobin 500 SC were found least effective against leaf and neck bla...

  3. EVALUATION OF TRICHODERMA SPP. ON BEAN CULTURE, IN ANTHRACNOSE, WEB BLIGHT AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

    OpenAIRE

    P. E. V. Aguiar; S. M. Bonaldo; S. R. G. Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Mato Grosso is the third largest producer of bean from Brazil, being the third harvest (irrigated) the most productive, but diseases such as anthracnose, web blight and nematodes of galls cause losses to producers. In addition, a measure widely used and little studied for the control of diseases and nematodes in Mato Grosso is the biological control, which consists of the action of other microorganisms on phytopathogens. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of T...

  4. TWIG BLIGHT AND DEFOLIATION CAUSED BY Colletotrichum horii IN PERSIMMONS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOUISE LARISSA MAY DE MIO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Persimmon anthracnose has been a great concern to Brazilian producers. This study aimed to identify and characterized the causal species from Brazilian persimmons byassessing morphological and molecular characteristics and pathogenicity tests. Five fungal isolatesobtained from diseased twigs and fruits were identified as Colletotrichum horii, based on morphologicalcharacteristics and nucleotide sequences of ITS region. Inoculation tests revealed that the fungal isolates caused necrotic spots followed by defoliation of leaves, blight of twigs and buds of potted persimmon plants.

  5. The evolution and pathogenic mechanisms of the rice sheath blight pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Aiping; Lin, Runmao; Zhang, Danhua; Qin, Peigang; Xu, Lizhi; Ai, Peng; Ding, Lei; Wang, Yanran; Chen, Yao; Liu, Yao; Sun, Zhigang; Feng, Haitao; Liang, Xiaoxing; Fu, Rongtao; Tang, Changqing

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a major fungal pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa L.) that causes great yield losses in all rice-growing regions of the world. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the rice sheath blight disease pathogen, R. solani AG1 IA, assembled using next-generation Illumina Genome Analyser sequencing technologies. The genome encodes a large and diverse set of secreted proteins, enzymes of primary and secondary metabolism, carbohydrate-active enzymes, and transporters, which prob...

  6. TURCICUM LEAF BLIGHT OF MAIZE INCITED BY Exserohilum turcicum: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    T. Rajeshwar Reddy; P. Narayan Reddy; R. Ranga Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Globally maize (Zea mays L.) is the first and most important cereal crop gown under diversity of environments unmatched by any other crop, as expansion of maize to new areas and environment still continues due to its range of plasticity. It is prone to as many as 112 diseases in different parts of the world, caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes leading to extensive damage. In India about 61 diseases have been reported to affect the crop. These include seedling blights,...

  7. Biocontrol Activity of Myxococcus sp. KYC 1126 against Phytophthora Blight on Hot Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Sung Chul Yun; Sung Taek Kim

    2011-01-01

    Bacteriolytic myxobacteria have been known to secrete various antifungal metabolites against several soilborne phytopathogens including Phytophthora. Among the three isolates of Myxococcus spp., KYC 1126 and KYC 1136 perfectly inhibited the mycelial growth of Phytophtora capsici in vitro. In order to show the biocontrol activity on Phytophthora blight of hot pepper, we tried to find the best way of application of myxobacterial isolate. Although KYC 1126 fruiting body was easily grown on the c...

  8. Non-conventional possibilities of protection of apple and pear against fire blight (Erwinia amylovora)

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Sobiczewski; Grzegorz Krupiński; Joanna Puławska

    2013-01-01

    Standard program of plant protection against fire blight consists of use of management practices and chemical control method. Recently a new, non-conventional possibilities based on application of biocontrol agents (two biopreparations have been already introduced into practice: Bliteban A506 (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and BlossomBless (Pantoea agglomerans), plant extracts active against Erwinia amylovora (AkseBio containing extracts from Thymbra spicata and Biomit Plussz with extracts from va...

  9. Characterization of fire blight strains (Erwinia amylovora) from different host plants from Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrev, Sasa; Karov, Ilija; Spasov, Dusan; Kostadinovska, Emilija; Kovacevik, Biljana; TODOROVSKA, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Burr.) Winslow et al. is twenty years old and the most destructive disease of pears and to a lesser degree of apples, quinces and several other members of the Rosaceae family in the Republic of Macedonia. E. amylovora is a quarantine pathogen for the country and has already caused considerable material damage in orchards with a tendency for further spreading. E. amylovora was reported in the Republic of Macedonia for the first time in 1991 on pea...

  10. Studies on the control of ascochyta blight in field peas (Pisum sativum L. caused by Ascochyta pinodes in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eLiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ascochyta blight, an infection caused by a complex of Ascochyta pinodes, Ascochyta pinodella, Ascochyta pisi, and/or Phoma koolunga, is a destructive disease in many field peas (Pisum sativum L.-growing regions, and it causes significant losses in grain yield. To understand the composition of fungi associated with this disease in Zhejiang Province, China, a total of 65 single-pycnidiospore fungal isolates were obtained from diseased pea samples collected from 5 locations in this region. These isolates were identified as Ascochyta pinodes by molecular techniques and their morphological and physiological characteristics. The mycelia of ZJ-1 could penetrate pea leaves across the stomas, and formed specific penetration structures and directly pierced leaves. The resistance level of 23 available pea cultivars was tested against their representative isolate A. pinodes ZJ-1 using the excised leaf-assay technique. The ZJ-1 mycelia could penetrate the leaves of all tested cultivars, and they developed typical symptoms, which suggested that all tested cultivars were susceptible to the fungus. Chemical fungicides and biological control agents were screened for management of this disease, and their efficacies were further determined. Most of the tested fungicides (11 out of 14 showed high activity towards ZJ-1 with EC50 < 5 μg/mL. Moreover, fungicides, including tebuconazole, boscalid, iprodione, carbendazim and fludioxonil, displayed more than 80% disease control efficacy under the recorded conditions. Three biocontrol strains of Bacillus sp. and one of Pantoea agglomerans were isolated from pea-related niches and significantly reduced the severity of disease under greenhouse and field conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first study on ascochyta blight in field peas, and results presented here will be useful for controlling the disease in this area.

  11. Studies on the Control of Ascochyta Blight in Field Peas (Pisum sativum L.) Caused by Ascochyta pinodes in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Xu, Shengchun; Yao, Xiefeng; Zhang, Guwen; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Feng, Zhijuan; Gong, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    Ascochyta blight, an infection caused by a complex of Ascochyta pinodes, Ascochyta pinodella, Ascochyta pisi, and/or Phoma koolunga, is a destructive disease in many field peas (Pisum sativum L.)-growing regions, and it causes significant losses in grain yield. To understand the composition of fungi associated with this disease in Zhejiang Province, China, a total of 65 single-pycnidiospore fungal isolates were obtained from diseased pea samples collected from 5 locations in this region. These isolates were identified as Ascochyta pinodes by molecular techniques and their morphological and physiological characteristics. The mycelia of ZJ-1 could penetrate pea leaves across the stomas, and formed specific penetration structures and directly pierced leaves. The resistance level of 23 available pea cultivars was tested against their representative isolate A. pinodes ZJ-1 using the excised leaf-assay technique. The ZJ-1 mycelia could penetrate the leaves of all tested cultivars, and they developed typical symptoms, which suggested that all tested cultivars were susceptible to the fungus. Chemical fungicides and biological control agents were screened for management of this disease, and their efficacies were further determined. Most of the tested fungicides (11 out of 14) showed high activity toward ZJ-1 with EC50 control efficacy under the recorded conditions. Three biocontrol strains of Bacillus sp. and one of Pantoea agglomerans were isolated from pea-related niches and significantly reduced the severity of disease under greenhouse and field conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first study on ascochyta blight in field peas, and results presented here will be useful for controlling the disease in this area. PMID:27148177

  12. Phisiological and biochemical characteristics of protein and lipid exchanges of maple and chestnut seeds from different regions of Dnepropetrovsk city technogenic pollution

    OpenAIRE

    I. O. Filonik; L. F. Zamorueva

    2015-01-01

    The indexes of protein and lipid exchanges - the content of proteins, lipase activity, level of lipids and their composition, component composition of free fatty acids in the maple and chestnut seeds from several sites of Dnepropetrovsk technical pollution were investigated. The revealed figures can be used as biomarkers of anthropogenic pollution in industrial region.

  13. Risk assessment of the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus for the EU territory and identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.; Gilioli, G.; Grégoire, J.-C.; Jeger, M. J.; Karadjova, O. E.; Lövei, G.; Makowski, D.; Manceau, C.; Navajas, M.; Porta Puglia, A.; Rafoss, T.; Rossi, V.; Schans, J.; Schrader, G.; Urek, G.; van Lenteren, J. C.; Vloutoglou, I; Winter, S.; Zlotina, M.

    2010-01-01

    considered moderate and the environmental impact in Castanea woodland is considered as low; f) all EU chestnut production is endangered but the areas of fruit production with the highest degree day accumulations where D. kuriphilus is absent, e.g. in northern Portugal, northern Spain and south-west France...

  14. Best management practices plan for the Chestnut Ridge-Filled Coal Ash Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chestnut Ridge Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP) Project has been established to satisfy Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2. FCAP is on Chestnut Ridge, approximately 0.5 miles south of the Y-12 Plant. A 62-foot high earthen dam across Upper McCoy Branch was constructed in 1955 to create a pond to serve as a settling basin for fly and bottom ashes generated by burning coal at the Y-12 Steam Plant. Ash from the steam was mixed with water to form a slurry and then pumped to the crest of Chestnut Ridge and released through a large pipe to flow across the Sluice Channel area and into the pond. The ash slurry eventually overtopped the dam and flowed along Upper McCoy Branch to Rogers Quarry. The purpose of this document is to provide a site-specific Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan for construction associated with environmental restoration activities at the FCAP Site

  15. Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report For The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.B.

    1998-02-01

    This report contains the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1997 in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). In July 1997, the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved modifications to several of the permit conditions that address RCRA pow-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and RCIU4 post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin) and Kerr Hollow Quarry. This report has been prepared in accordance with these modified permit requirements. Also included in this report are the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 1997 for the purposes ofi (1) detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste disposal facilities (SWDFS) in accordance with operating permits and applicable regulations, (2) monitoring in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Recove~ Act Records of Decision (now pefiormed under the Integrated Water Quality Program for the Oak Ridge Reservation), and (3) monitoring needed to comply with U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.1.

  16. Production comparisons of Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch] functional corms grown in hydroponics versus flooded sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch.] corms are used as a canned or raw vegetable worldwide and may have potential use as a functional vegetable for human health uses. The accessions in the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit do not produce very many...

  17. The Response of Selected Triticum spp. Genotypes with Different Ploidy Levels to Head Blight Caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Smith) Sacc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwart, Marian; Suchowilska, Elżbieta; Kandler, Wolfang; Sulyok, Michael; Wachowska, Urszula; Krska, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Several cultivars and pure lines of Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. polonicum, T. spelta and T. aestivum were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in wheat. During the three-year study, the infection decreased the values of the analyzed yield components: spike weight (by 5.6% to 15.8%), number of kernels per spike (by 2.8% to 11.8%) and one kernel weight (by 8.4% to 10.7%). T. spelta was characterized by the weakest average response to infection. The grain from inoculated spikes contained significantly higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its 3-β-d-glucoside (D3G) than control grain. The D3G/DON ratio ranged from 11.4% to 21.4% in control grain and from 8.1% to 11.6% in inoculated grain. The lowest levels of mycotoxins were found in spelt, and the highest in T. polonicum lines and Kamut. PCA revealed that the grain of T. polonicum was characterized by an entirely different mycotoxin profile. The weakest response to F. culmorum infections was noted in T. spelta, and the strongest response in T. polonicum breeding lines and Kamut. PMID:27092526

  18. The Response of Selected Triticum spp. Genotypes with Different Ploidy Levels to Head Blight Caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Smith Sacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wiwart

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Several cultivars and pure lines of Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. polonicum, T. spelta and T. aestivum were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in wheat. During the three-year study, the infection decreased the values of the analyzed yield components: spike weight (by 5.6% to 15.8%, number of kernels per spike (by 2.8% to 11.8% and one kernel weight (by 8.4% to 10.7%. T. spelta was characterized by the weakest average response to infection. The grain from inoculated spikes contained significantly higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON and its 3-β-d-glucoside (D3G than control grain. The D3G/DON ratio ranged from 11.4% to 21.4% in control grain and from 8.1% to 11.6% in inoculated grain. The lowest levels of mycotoxins were found in spelt, and the highest in T. polonicum lines and Kamut. PCA revealed that the grain of T. polonicum was characterized by an entirely different mycotoxin profile. The weakest response to F. culmorum infections was noted in T. spelta, and the strongest response in T. polonicum breeding lines and Kamut.

  19. In vitro induction of variability through radiation for late blight resistance and heat tolerance in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro cultured shoots of potato, cvs. 'Kufri Jyoti' and 'Kufri Chandramukhi', were irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy gamma rays. Microtubers, obtained from MIV3 shoots multiplied in vitro, were planted in pots. The resulting plants were screened for resistance to late blight, using detached leaf method. In 'Kufri Chandramukhi', 42% plants and in 'Kufri Jyoti' 36% plants, obtained from 40 Gy treatment, showed resistance to late blight. The frequency of resistant plants was lower from 20 Gy treatment. The progenies of putatively resistant plants were grown in field, and inoculated with sporangial inoculum of late blight fungus. The field grown progeny segregated for disease resistance, and approximately 56% plants showed resistance. During the next propagation, the frequency of resistant plants increased to 72%. For developing heat tolerance, microtubers obtained from 20 and 40 Gy treatments and in vitro multiplied M1V3 shoots were cultured at high temperature of 28C. In both varieties, the number of the microtubers per plant was highly reduced and the resulting microtubers had distorted shape but showed better germination (62%), even in early sowing at relatively higher temperature. Of the two radiation doses, the higher dose of 40 Gy gave better results in both the varieties. Heat tolerance was also assessed from chlorophyll persistence. The progenies from putative heat-tolerant plants were tested in field by planting at higher temperature in two subsequent generations. The heat tolerant plants segregated in each generation, but the frequency of heat-tolerant plants increased. (author)

  20. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E.; Santander, Ricardo D.; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G.; López, María M.; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle. PMID:25978369

  1. Development of a weather-based model for Botrytis leaf blight of onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luiz Marcuzzo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present study, onion plants were tested under controlled conditions for the development of a climate model based on the influence of temperature (10, 15, 20 and 25°C and leaf wetness duration (6, 12, 24 and 48 hours on the severity of Botrytis leaf blight of onion caused by Botrytis squamosa. The relative lesion density was influenced by temperature and leaf wetness duration (P <0.05. The disease was most severe at 20°C. Data were subjected to nonlinear regression analysis. Beta generalized function was used to adjust severity and temperature data, while a logistic function was chosen to represent the effect of leaf wetness on the severity of Botrytis leaf blight. The response surface obtained by the product of two functions was expressed as ES = 0.008192 * (((x-51.01089 * ((30-x1.19052 * (0.33859/(1+3.77989 * exp (-0.10923*y, where ES represents the estimated severity value (0.1; x, the temperature (°C; and y, the leaf wetness (in hours. This climate model should be validated under field conditions to verify its use as a computational system for the forecasting of Botrytis leaf blight in onion.

  2. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E; Santander, Ricardo D; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G; López, María M; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle. PMID:25978369

  3. Wheat Blast and Fusarium Head Blight Display Contrasting Interaction Patterns on Ears of Wheat Genotypes Differing in Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Xia; Koopmann, Birger; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The interaction of wheat with two ear pathogens, Magnaporthe wheat blast (MWB) and Fusarium graminearum (Fusarium head blight, FHB), was studied on the phenotypic, histological, and gene expression level. Most of the 27 wheat cultivars inoculated with MWB and F. graminearum displayed inverse disease responses to blast and FHB infection. Two cultivars, Milan and Sumai 3, were selected expressing converse disease phenotypes to blast (Milan, R)/(Sumai 3, S) and FHB (Milan, S)/(Sumai 3, R). Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed early (12 h postinoculation) colonization of the spikelets by MWB similarly on both cultivars, while F. graminearum infected anthers of the susceptible cultivar earlier. Both pathogens grew much faster in the rachilla of susceptible than resistant cultivars, indicating that resistance is mainly expressed in this part connecting the spikelet with the rachis. In general, O2(-) and H2O2 levels were unrelated to disease expression in the four studied interactions. The differential disease phenotypes, fungal spread in the rachis, and colonization patterns in the spikelets were confirmed by distinct gene expression patterns. Among the eight genes analyzed, seven were more strongly induced by FHB than by blast. Genes for chitinase (Chi2), β-1,3-glucanase (PR2), a plant defensin homolog (PRPI), and peroxidase (Pox2) were strongly upregulated in Milan in response to both pathogens, while PR2 and PR5 (thaumatin-like protein) were transiently triggered by MWB on both cultivars. Upregulation of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), cytochrome P450 (CYP709C1), and UDP-glycosyl transferase (UGT) were more prominent in ears infected with F. graminearum, while upregulation of UGT was higher in Sumai 3 when infected with either pathogen. Cultivar resistance to FHB was reflected by clearly higher expression levels of UGT and CYP709C1 in Sumai 3. The differential responses of wheat to the two ear pathogens demonstrated in this study makes it unlikely that common

  4. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994. Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management sites located within the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the Y-12 Plant and is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the TDEC by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities

  5. Sgt1, but not Rar1, is essential for the RB-mediated broad-spectrum resistance to potato late blight

    OpenAIRE

    Wielgus Susan M; Neumann Pavel; Kramer Lara C; Raasch John A; Bhaskar Pudota B; Austin-Phillips Sandra; Jiang Jiming

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Late blight is the most serious potato disease world-wide. The most effective and environmentally sound way for controlling late blight is to incorporate natural resistance into potato cultivars. Several late blight resistance genes have been cloned recently. However, there is almost no information available about the resistance pathways mediated by any of those genes. Results We previously cloned a late blight resistance gene, RB, from a diploid wild potato species Solanu...

  6. Prospect of the QTL-qSB-9Tq utilized in molecular breeding program of japonica rice against sheath blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The major QTL-qSB-9Tq conferring partial resistance to rice (Oryza sativa L.) sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) has been verified on chromosome 9 of the indica rice cultivar, Teqing. In this study, the prospect of this QTL utilized in molecular breeding program of japonica rice for sheath blight resistance was investigated. Most of the japonica rice cultivars showed lower level of sheath blight resistance than the indica rice cultivars. At the corresponding site of qSB-9Tq, nine typical japonica rice culfivars from different ecological regions or countries proved to possess the susceptible allele(s). Introgression of qSB-9Tq into these cultivars enhanced their resistance level by decreasing sheath blight score of 1.0 (0.5-1.3), which indicated that qSB-9Tq had a large potential in strengthening the resistance of japonica rice to sheath blight. The use of the three molecular markers, which were polymorphic between Teqing and many japonica rice cultivars, promotes the application of qSB-9Tq in a concrete molecular breeding program.

  7. Cropload management and appropriate harvest timing improves final fruit size and fruit quality of US 71655-014, a new fire blight resistant European pear selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    US71655-014 (‘Gem’) is a fire blight resistant pear selection developed at the USDA Appalachian Fruit Research Station. Despite possessing several positive attributes (precocity, high annual production, attractive fruit appearance, fire blight resistance good storability and consumer acceptance), ‘...

  8. Photosynthesis Declines in Phyrophthora ramorum-Infected Plants Develop Prior to Water Stree and in Response to Exogenous Application of Elicitins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora ramorum the causal agent of sudden oak death is responsible for the widespread death of oaks in California and Oregon, and has the potential to infect up to 70 different plant species, which exhibit varying forms of disease ranging from stem girdling, shoot blight, and leaf spotting. I...

  9. Combining ability of Phaseolus vulgaris L. for resistance to common bacterial blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Rodrigues

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases limit dry bean and snap bean yields. Common bacterial blight (CBB, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, is one of the most serious bacterial diseases in dry bean and snap bean that cause crop losses. Since there is no satisfactory chemical control, the use of resistant cultivars is an important control measure. Genetic studies of resistance are important for choosing appropriate breeding methods. Combining ability was determined for disease resistance in three snap bean genotypes (Alessa, Hab 52 and Hab 198 and two dry bean genotypes (Bac-6 and A-794. Plants were inoculated with highly pathogenic isolate CNF 15, using a razor blade procedure in leaves and needle punctures in pods. They were evaluated 7 days after inoculation. Leaves were evaluated on a 1 to 5 scale and pods by lesion diameter. Diallel analysis was conducted using Griffing's model. General combining ability (GCA was significant for both leaf and pod infection, whereas specific combining ability (SCA was significant for disease reaction in pods. Bac-6 and A-794 were considered superior genotypes for leaf resistance. Nonadditive effects were predominant in pod reactions, and Alessa x Bac-6, Alessa x A-794 and Hab 52 x Bac-6 were the best combinations.Entre as várias doenças que causam problemas às culturas do feijão-de-vagem e do feijão comum, uma das mais importantes é o crestamento bacteriano comum (CBB, causado pela bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, que pode ocasionar grandes perdas na produção. O controle químico não é eficiente, e entre as medidas de controle recomendadas, destaca-se a resistência genética. Estudos genéticos da resistência são básicos para a definição dos métodos de melhoramento a serem adotados para cada caso. Avaliou-se a capacidade de combinação de três genótipos de feijão-de-vagem (Alessa, Hab 52, Hab 198 e dois de feijão comum (Bac-6 e A-794 quanto à resistência ao CBB, em folhas e vagens. A

  10. The content of available mineral phosphorus compounds in chestnut soils of Northern Mongolia upon application of different forms of phosphorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubugunov, L. L.; Enkhtuyaa, B.; Merkusheva, M. G.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of different forms of phosphorite (activated and crude ground) of the Burenkhansk deposit on the phosphate status of chestnut soils and the productivity of spring wheat was studied in Northern Mongolia. It was found that the transformation of mineral soil phosphates upon the application of activated phosphorite (together with NK) is similar to that upon superphosphate application, and the available phosphorus concentration is even a gradation higher. The application of crude ground phosphorite helped to preserve the content of mineral phosphates in the soil at the initial level. Optimum concentrations of available phosphorus and the sum of loosely bound and calcium phosphates in the plow horizon were estimated 33-35 mg/kg) and 16-18 mg/100 g, respectively. Under these concentrations, high and sustainable yields of spring wheat were obtained upon application of activated phosphorite.

  11. 13C MAS NMR studies of the effects of hydration on the cell walls of potatoes and Chinese water chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H; Belton, P S; Ng, A; Ryden, P

    1999-02-01

    13C NMR with magic angle spinning (MAS) has been employed to investigate the cell walls of potatoes and Chinese water chestnuts over a range of hydration levels. Both single-pulse excitation (SPEMAS) and cross-polarization (CPMAS) experiments were carried out. Hydration led to a substantial increase in signal intensities of galactan and galacturonan in the SPEMAS spectra and a decrease in line width, implying mobilization in the backbone and side chains of pectin. In CPMAS spectra of both samples, noncellulose components showed signal loss as hydration increased. However, the signals of some galacturonan in the 3(1) helix configuration remained in the spectra even when the water content was as high as 110%. Cellulose was unaffected. It is concluded that the pectic polysaccharides experience a distribution of molecular conformations and mobility, whereas cellulose remained as typical rigid solid. PMID:10563925

  12. Ecological Meaning and Consideration of Economic Forest Carbon Sinks in China----Take Yan-Shan Chestnut for Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Li, H.; Zhang, W. W.; Liu, S. R.

    Along with our country scientific researchers' study on native forest carbon sinks as well as the summary of the increasing amount of China's forest carbon, With the deepening of our scientists on the study of the national forest carbon sinks, forest carbon sinks has become a favorable support for climate diplomacy. Currently, a lot of work has focused on the carbon cycle, the level of carbon sinks of forest ecosystems, but the characteristics of economic forest carbon sinks are in a blank state. Beijing chestnut is one of the national food strategic security stockpiles, and estimate the potential of economic forest carbon sinks has important scientific significance to the establishment of carbon sink function area, and expansion of sustainable economic and social development of response measures.

  13. Chestnut and lemon balm based ingredients as natural preserving agents of the nutritional profile in matured "Serra da Estrela" cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-08-01

    Chestnut flowers, lemon balm plants and their decoctions were incorporated into "Serra da Estrela" cheese, to assess their potential to preserve its nutritional properties and provide new foodstuffs. The analyses were carried out after the normal ripening period of 1month and after 6months of storage. The most abundant nutrients were proteins and fats. The most abundant minerals were Ca and Na, while C16:0 and C18:1 were the main fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids were the most abundant, followed by the monounsaturated. Moisture seemed to be lower in the samples with the plants incorporated. The dried plants, when incorporated, seemed to be more efficient as preservers then the decoctions, although these better preserved the proteins. These plants can be regarded as promising natural preservers in foodstuffs cheese, given the preservation of key parameters and the slight impact on the nutritional value. PMID:26988492

  14. INDUCTION OF SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE BY BIOCONTROL AGENTS AGAINST BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF COTTON CAUSED BY XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. MALVACEARUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjana S. Ramachandrappa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioagents such as Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from cotton rhizosphere soil and tested individually for their effectiveness in controlling bacterial blight of cotton caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum (Xcm. Talc based formulations were prepared and used for seed treatment at different concentrations for assessing their ability to stimulate plant growth and to control bacterial blight disease. Among bioagents, P. fluorescens and T. harzianum proved to be effective in controlling disease under field conditions.  Other than direct action, these bioagents triggered the defense related enzymes involved in synthesis of phenols. Higher activity of peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase and b-1,3-glucanase was observed in P. fluorescens and T. harzianum treated cotton plants after challenge inoculation with Xcm. Seed treatment with these bioagents enhanced the seed germination and growth parameters against blight disease and they also induced systemic resistance in plant for defense mechanisms. 

  15. Evaluation of Calendar Year 1997 Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data For The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.B.

    1998-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1997. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge bordered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) to the north, Scarboro Road to the eas~ Bethel Valley Road to the south, and an unnamed drainage basin southwest of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater quality monitoring is performed at hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities in the regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The CY 1997 monitoring data are presented in Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeolo~"c Regime at the US. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (MA Technical Services, Inc. 1998), which also presents results of site-specific monitoring data evaluations required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCIL4) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Regime

  16. Development of forecasting elements for minimization of fungicide treatment in potato protection against early blight in Moscow region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penjkin Roman V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early blight of potato (the agent is imperfect fungus Alternaria alternata (Fr. Keissl. is a serious disease of potatoes under hot conditions. This disease is important in the regions of Eastern and Southern Europe, Asia and Africa. It is controlled with intensive application of fungicides commonly used against late blight. However, currently fungicides cause undesirable damage to humans and the environment. Elements of forecasting the early blight have been developed in order to minimize the dosage of fungicides. Primary symptoms (chloroses and necroses and the potential of pathogen natural inoculum (determination of disease severity, indexes of formation of conidia and aggressiveness; as well as the current weather conditions were registered and determined in the potato signal plots (no treatments or artificial inoculation near main potato cropping. Seed tubers of main potato cropping were preliminary treated with plant growth regulator Circon and micro-fertilizer Siliplant produced by the Russian Company NEST-M. These preparations proved to be effective in acceleration process of potato growth and in delaying the early blight onset by 5-10 days. The same potato cultivar must be planted both in signaling plots and in the fields. Well-timed determination of primary symptoms and potential of pathogen in­oculum allowed us to understand the damage that early blight can cause to potato natural inoculation, and hence to provide well-timed application of fungicides with optimum dosages in mixture with Circon or Silipant. This forecasting method can be helpful for the adequate management of early blight and decrease of the environmental damages.

  17. EVALUATION OF TRICHODERMA SPP. ON BEAN CULTURE, IN ANTHRACNOSE, WEB BLIGHT AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. V. Aguiar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mato Grosso is the third largest producer of bean from Brazil, being the third harvest (irrigated the most productive, but diseases such as anthracnose, web blight and nematodes of galls cause losses to producers. In addition, a measure widely used and little studied for the control of diseases and nematodes in Mato Grosso is the biological control, which consists of the action of other microorganisms on phytopathogens. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum and T. asperellum in the development (height of plants, chlorophyll and number of pods of culture of bean, in the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, web blight (Rhizoctonia solani and in the population of Meloidogyne spp. in the soil. The experiment was accomplished in area experimental of University Federal of Mato Grosso/Campus Sinop. The experimental design was of entirely randomized with 12 parcels of 5m² each, with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The cultivar used was Whitey, carioca group, and the seed treatment performed with product Pyraclostrobin + Thiophanate Methyl + Fipronil and after drying of the inoculation of biocontrol agents and manual seeding. It was observed that the application of T. harzianum and T. asperellum, not promoted increase of chlorophyll, height of plants in bean culture, without reducing the population of Meloidogyne spp.. However, biocontrol agents have reduced the severity of anthracnose and web blight and promoted an increase in the average number of plant pods-1. It is therefore concluded that biocontrol agents show potential for application in bean culture in the North of Mato Grosso.

  18. Development of the First Cisgenic Apple with Increased Resistance to Fire Blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Thomas D; Gessler, Cesare; Jänsch, Melanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Patocchi, Andrea; Broggini, Giovanni A L

    2015-01-01

    The generation and selection of novel fire blight resistant apple genotypes would greatly improve the management of this devastating disease, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Such resistant genotypes are currently developed by conventional breeding, but novel breeding technologies including cisgenesis could be an alternative approach. A cisgenic apple line C44.4.146 was regenerated using the cisgene FB_MR5 from wild apple Malus ×robusta 5 (Mr5), and the previously established method involving A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the fire blight susceptible cultivar 'Gala Galaxy' using the binary vector p9-Dao-FLPi. The line C44.4.146 was shown to carry only the cisgene FB_MR5, controlled by its native regulatory sequences and no transgenes were detected by PCR or Southern blot following heat induced recombinase-mediated elimination of the selectable markers. Although this line contains up to 452 bp of vector sequences, it still matches the original definition of cisgenesis. A single insertion of T-DNA into the genome of 'Gala Galaxy' in chromosome 16 was identified. Transcription of FB_MR5 in line C44.4.146 was similar to the transcription in classically bred descendants of Mr5. Three independent shoot inoculation experiments with a Mr5 avirulent strain of Erwinia amylovora were performed using scissors or syringe. Significantly lower disease symptoms were detected on shoots of the cisgenic line compared to those of untransformed 'Gala Galaxy'. Despite the fact that the pathogen can overcome this resistance by a single nucleotide mutation, this is, to our knowledge, the first prototype of a cisgenic apple with increased resistance to fire blight. PMID:26624292

  19. The fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora requires the rpoN gene for pathogenicity in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Laura S; Lehman, Brian L; Sinn, Judith P; Pfeufer, Emily E; Halbrendt, Noemi O; McNellis, Timothy W

    2013-10-01

    RpoN is a σ(54) factor regulating essential virulence gene expression in several plant pathogenic bacteria, including Pseudomonas syringae and Pectobacterium carotovorum. In this study, we found that mutation of rpoN in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora caused a nonpathogenic phenotype. The E. amylovora rpoN Tn5 transposon mutant rpoN1250::Tn5 did not cause fire blight disease symptoms on shoots of mature apple trees. In detached immature apple fruits, the rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant failed to cause fire blight disease symptoms and grew to population levels 12 orders of magnitude lower than the wild-type. In addition, the rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant failed to elicit a hypersensitive response when infiltrated into nonhost tobacco plant leaves, and rpoN1250::Tn5 cells failed to express HrpN protein when grown in hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity)-inducing liquid medium. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type rpoN gene complemented all the rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant phenotypes tested. The rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant was prototrophic on minimal solid and liquid media, indicating that the rpoN1250::Tn5 nonpathogenic phenotype was not caused by a defect in basic metabolism or growth. This study provides clear genetic evidence that rpoN is an essential virulence gene of E. amylovora, suggesting that rpoN has the same function in E. amylovora as in P. syringae and Pe. carotovorum. PMID:23721085

  20. Integrating Cultivar Resistance and Seed Treatment with Planting Dates to Manage Chickpea Ascochyta Blight

    OpenAIRE

    C. Akem; S. Kabbabeh; Ahmed, S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) planting date on seasonal epidemics of Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labrousse and on grain yield was evaluated during the 1997 and 1998 cropping seasons. Two chickpea cultivar (Ghab 1 and Ghab 3) and 2 breeding lines (FLIP 90-96 and F 88-85) were used in the field trials at 3 different locations representing the different agro ecological zones in which winter chickpea is grown in Syria and in most of the Mediterranean countrie...

  1. In vitro obtention and selection of pear mutants resistant to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop a standard protocol for in vitro culture technique to support mutation breeding of fruit trees, procedures for mutagen treatment and selection methods for resistance to fire blight (by Erwinia amylovora) were investigated. 60Co gamma rays or ultra violet light (257 nm) were used as mutagens. Leaves were irradiated then adventitious buds were regenerated on the in vitro culture medium. The regenerated plants were tested by artificial inoculation with pathogen to in vitro cultured plants and confirmed in the greenhouse. Conductivity test to measure the net electrolyte leakage seemed to be a good method to quantify the resistance to the pathogen. (author). 5 refs, 6 figs

  2. Relationship between soil cellulolytic activity and suppression of seedling blight of barley in arable soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Knudsen, I.; Elmholt, S.; Jensen, D. F.

    2002-01-01

    the Hanes-Wolf transformation of the Michaelis-Menten equation. Soil samples from 6 to 13 cm depth were collected in the early spring as undisturbed blocks from 10 arable soils with different physico-chemical properties and cultivation history. Significant correlations were found between soil...... content of total C and N. From the preliminary results obtained, it is proposed that the cellulolytic activity can be used as an enzymatic approach to study the microbial turnover of organic matter in soils and as indicator of seedling blight of barley caused by F. culmorum. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B...

  3. Assessment of electron beam-induced DNA damage in larvae of chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hasan, Mahbub; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro; Hayashi, Toru

    2006-02-01

    Effect of electron beam treatment on DNA damage in mature larvae of chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) was assessed using single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet assay). Electrons at acceleration voltages of 0 (control), 300, 750, 1000, and 1500 kV at radiation doses of 1 and 4 kGy were used. Electron beam-treated chestnut larvae showed typical DNA fragmentation, compared with cells from non-treated ones which showed a more intact DNA. Investigations using the comet assay showed that the parameters including tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment as well as the quota of DNA damage at both the doses were significantly larger than the control batch larvae. Thus, this technique could contribute to analytical identification of an effective disinfestation and quarantine treatment.

  4. Application of Honey in Antibrowning of Chinese Chestnut%蜂蜜对板栗褐变的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建暖; 苗利军; 于建军

    2015-01-01

    为抑制板栗的褐变, 研究了蜂蜜的种类和浓度对抑制效果的影响,并通过试验比较了蜂蜜和传统试剂的防褐变效果,结果显示蜂蜜对板栗褐变有明显的抑制作用.%To control the browning of chestnuts, we studied the effect of the kind and concentration of honey in antibrowning. We had a lso compared the honey with several other chemical reagents by experiments. And the results showed us the honey could inhibit the browning of chestnut effective.

  5. An experimental test of the role of structural blue and melanin-based chestnut coloration in aggressive contests in male eastern bluebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin eMercadante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis have feathers with either structurally based blue coloration or melanin-based chestnut coloration, and they hold territories during the breeding season that they defend vigorously. We tested whether the melanin pigmentation or structural coloration of feathers serve as signals during intrasexual aggressive encounters by placing color-modified stuffed bluebirds in male territories. We recorded the time to attack and the intensity of attacks on each model, and we then compared the response to color-enhanced versus color-reduced models. Male bluebirds attacked models with brighter and more chromatic blue coloration significantly more often than they attacked models with darker and less chromatic blue coloration. In contrast, the darkness of the chestnut breast coloration did not have a significant effect on the rate at which models were attacked. We conclude that territorial male bluebirds perceive intruding males with brighter blue coloration as a greater threat than males with drabber blue coloration, presumably because blue coloration is a signal of fighting ability. In contrast, the chestnut coloration of breast feathers appears to be a signal of gender and sexual maturity and not a graded signal of social status.

  6. 野生板栗资源开发利用技术探讨%TECHNICAL STUDIES ON DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF WILD CHINESE CHESTNUT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马朝阳; 胡继周; 车明轩

    2001-01-01

    In order to explore the wild Chinese chestnut in mountainous areas in Chengxian county, the Chengxian Planning Committee assigned a project of “Technical Demonstration of high-level grafting with well-bred species on Wild Chinese Chestnut” to achieve the goal of development with means of well-bred species, intensive management and industrialization of Chinese chestnut production. With co-operation of relevant organizations and the project grop in three years, three demonstration bases of high-level grafting and low-yield-garden improvement of Chinese chestnut have been build. Tests on some technical aspects necessary to the project were done.%为了开发利用甘肃省成县山区的野生板栗资源,实现板栗生产的良种化、集约化和产业化发展目标,经3年的研究,进行野生板栗高接、换优实验技术与生产示范。

  7. 水杨酸对冷藏板栗贮藏效果的影响%Storage effects of salicylic acid on post-harvest chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶利民; 徐芬芬

    2011-01-01

    Effects of physiological and biochemical changes of the post-harvest chestnut fruit were studied with different concentrations of salicylic acid to dipping fruit at different times during storage. Main results were as follows: salicylic acid treatment could inhibit respiration rate of the chestnut during storage,delay the arrival of climacteric. Salicylic acid could inhibit the decreasing of the vitamin C content and the starch content. In addition, salicylic acid treatment decreased chestnut rot rate and weight loss rate.The best treatment condition by salicylic acid was O. 5 g/L for 10 min.%以不同浓度水杨酸、不同浸果时间研究水杨酸对板栗果实冷藏效果的影响.结果表明:水杨酸可抑制贮藏期间栗果呼吸强度,推迟呼吸跃变的到来;还可抑制VC含量和淀粉含量;水杨酸处理后栗果腐烂率和质量损失率均降低.最佳处理方式为0.5 g/L水杨酸浸果10 min.

  8. Enhanced biological control of phytophthora blight of pepper by biosurfactant-producing pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyilmaz, Umit; Benlioglu, Kemal

    2013-12-01

    Pseudomonas isolates from different crop plants were screened for in vitro growth inhibition of Phytophthora capsici and production of biosurfactant. Two in vivo experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of selected Pseudomonas strains against Phytophthora blight of pepper by comparing two fungicide treatments [acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and ASM + mefenoxam]. Bacterial isolates were applied by soil drenching (1 × 10(9) cells/ml), ASM (0.1 μg a.i./ml) and ASM + mefenoxam (0.2 mg product/ml) were applied by foliar spraying, and P. capsici inoculum was incorporated into the pot soil three days after treatments. In the first experiment, four Pseudomonas strains resulted in significant reduction from 48.4 to 61.3% in Phytophthora blight severity. In the second experiment, bacterial treatments combining with olive oil (5 mL per plant) significantly enhanced biological control activity, resulting in a reduction of disease level ranging from 56.8 to 81.1%. ASM + mefenoxam was the most effective treatment while ASM alone was less effective in both bioassays. These results indicate that our Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (6L10, 6ba6 and 3ss9) that have biosurfactant-producing abilities are effective against P. capsici on pepper, and enhanced disease suppression could be achieved when they were used in combination with olive oil. PMID:25288970

  9. Preparation and evaluation of Bacillus megaterium-alginate microcapsules for control of rice sheath blight disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwattanapatapee, R; Chumthong, A; Pengnoo, A; Kanjanamaneesathian, M

    2013-08-01

    Bacillus megaterium encapsulated in calcium alginate microcapsules was prepared and tested for its efficacy against sheath blight disease of rice. In laboratory conditions, the aqueous suspension (1:100, v/v in potato dextrose agar) of the bacterial microcapsules (10(10) spores/ml) inhibited mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia solani (>99 %) after the microcapsules were produced and stored for 12 months at room temperature (28 ± 2 °C). The survival of the bacterium in the microcapsules in response to ultraviolet (u.v.) irradiation and high temperature was investigated. The survivability of the bacterium in the encapsulated form was greater than that of the fresh cells when it was subjected to u.v. (20-W General electric u.v. lamp from a 25 cm distance for 48 h) and a high temperature treatment (80 °C for 48 h). Cells of the bacterium were detected by scanning electron microscope on both the leaf sheath and the leaf blade (in pot tests in a greenhouse) after spraying encapsulated product. The number of bacteria on the surface of both rice tissues (5 Log. number/g of plant) after spraying with encapsulated product was not significantly different from that after spraying with fresh cells onto the rice seedlings. Spraying the encapsulated B. megaterium on rice plants in the greenhouse was as effective as spraying a chemical fungicide for suppressing rice sheath blight disease. PMID:23508397

  10. The use of tissue culture techniques with irradiation to improve potato resistance to late blight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutation breeding program was conducted to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum) resistance to late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans. In vitro cultured explants from potato cvs. Draga, Diamant, Spunta were irradiated with gamma ray doses 25, 30, and 35 Gy. Growing shoots were cut and re-cultured every 2 weeks until the 4th generation (MV4) to make sure no chimeral tissues still existed in the mutant material. Plantlets were subsequently propagated to obtain enough explants for in vitro selection pressure. Around 3000 plantlets from the three cultivars were subjected to selection pressure using co-culture technique. MV4 explants were incubated in jars, containing MS medium, with mycelia of P. infestans. Surviving plantlets were propagated and re-incubated with the pathogen for three consecutive generations. Resistant plantlets were acclimatized and transferred to pots and grown under glasshouse conditions. Plants were later inoculated, at the adult stage, with sporangial suspension. Cultivar Draga produced the highest number of resistant plants. Ten plants of Draga appeared to be resistant to late blight whereas only one plant from each of the other 2 cultivars was resistant. Mutant plants varied in number of produced minitubers from 13 to 70, Also, weight of these minitubers varied from less than 1 to 35 grams. Selected mutant lines will undergo further testing under field conditions for P. infestans resistance and other agronomic characteristics. (author)

  11. In vitro induction, isolation and selection of potato mutants resistant to late blight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutation breeding program was conducted to improve potato resistance to late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans. In vitro cultured explants from cvs Draga, Diamant, Spunta were irradiated with gamma ray doses 25, 30, and 35 Gy. Growing shoots were cut and re-cultured every 2 weeks until the 4th generation (MV4) to make sure no chimeral tissues still existed in the mutant material. Plantlets were subsequently propagated to obtain enough explants for in vitro selection pressure. Around 3,000 plantlets from the 3 cultivars were subjected to selection pressure using co-culture technique. MV4 explants were incubated in jars, containing MS medium, with mycelia of P. infestans. Surviving plantlets were propagated and re-incubated with the pathogen for 3 consecutive generations. Resistant plantlets were acclimatized and transferred to pots and grown under glasshouse conditions. Plants were later inoculated, at the adult stage, with sporangial suspension. Cv Draga produced the highest number of resistant plants. Ten plants of Draga appeared to be resistant to late blight, whereas only one plant from each of the other 2 cvs was resistant. Mutant plants varied in number of produced minitubers from 13 to 70. Also, weight of these minitubers varied from less than 1 to 35 grams. Selected mutant lines will undergo further testing under field conditions for P. infestans resistance and other agronomic characteristics

  12. An Assessment of the Impact of Two Late Blight Tolerant Potato Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made to assess the impact of two late blight tolerant potato varieties Tigoni and Asante releases in 1998. The appraisal and impact assessment set out to collect information on the adoption of the two varieties; assess their economic impact; and forecast future prospects for these two varieties and identity constraints to their adoption and diffusion in three divisions of Molo, Timboroa and Laikipia. The methodology adopted was conducting field surveys between September and October 2001, and gathering secondary information from the Ministry of Agriculture, research Centres, seed companies, NGO's and farmers. Results indicated that high yield, early maturity, tolerant to late blight, good market for ware potatoes and good taste were the advantages of Tigoni and Asante, widely recognised in all survey sites. Disadvantages of Tigoni and Asante were poor storage, rapid greening of tubers (mainly for Tigoni), and limited availability of planting material. The two varieties had higher yield benefits, net benefit per hectare and higher rates of return compared to the local varieties. the rate of returns when the local cultivars were substituted by the new improved varieties ranged from 556 to 1070%. Data on diffusion of Tigoni and Asante showed that combined acreage of varieties Tigoni and Asante rose to 196.3, 137.5 and 1476 ha in Molo, Timboroa and Laikipia respectively. The future forecast for the two varieties is good if the limitation on seed availability is addressed

  13. Cowpea mutation breeding for resistance to bacterial blight Xanthomonas vignicola (Burk.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986, seeds of the variety ''Red Cowpea 6-1 US'' were treated with gamma rays (20, 40, 60 and 80 kR). In M3, the treated material segregated into erect and semi-spreading plant types, light green and green pod colours, and red, brown and creamy seed coats. There was further segregation in M4 for a larger pod size and better tolerance to diseases. In M5, some of the lines segregated into early and late maturity and it was found that resistance to diseases was, to some degree, associated with late maturity. Only slight changes in these characters were found in M6. Sixty mutant lines with desirable characteristics were established. Most of the mutant lines flowered synchronously, and had a long peduncle and all the pods above the plant canopy. Moreover, they were superior in plant type, pod size, seed size and tolerance to bacterial blight and other diseases. In 1989, they were tested for yield; most had a 20-46% higher yield than the blight susceptible parent. (author). 2 tabs

  14. Preliminary results on the ability of pentatomidae to transfer fire blight Erwinia amylovora under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peusens, G; Schoofs, H; Deckers, T; Belien, T

    2013-01-01

    With their piercing-sucking mouthparts stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), a major pest in especially organic orchards, create wounds in fruit of pear trees. As Erwinia amylovora (Burrill, Winslow et al.), a wide spread bacterial disease affecting many rosaceous plants including pome fruit trees and hawthorn, enters through openings in flowers, leaves, shoots and fruit, feeding punctures caused by these bugs might be inoculated with Erwinia bacteria. In order to investigate the ability of the bugs Pentotoma rufipes L. and Polomena prasina L. to transmit fire blight, insects were caught in an organically managed orchard without fire blight, brought into contact with artificially inoculated immature pear fruit/slices and transferred to healthy, mechanically wounded pear fruit/slices. After an incubation period potential transmission of bacteria was examined by evaluation of symptom expression (necrosis, ooze production). To assess the presence of bacteria on the exoskeleton of the tested bugs, all bugs were forced to walk on a semiselective nutrient agar medium. In another experiment the viability of Ea on the exoskeleton was tested -after previous contact with ooze- through washing and plating of the wash water. All experiments were conducted under optimal climatological conditions and according to quarantine standards. Results demonstrated the ability of stink bugs to transfer E. amylovora to fruit and the viability of bacteria on stink bugs externally - both under lab conditions. PMID:25145257

  15. Development of the variety for resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice with thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In search for the development of genes for resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice, thermal neutrons generated from the Research Reactor at the Kyoto University have been applied to the breeding. In this paper, the developmental outcome is described, and a potential application of thermal neutrons for breeding the variety of resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice is reviewed. When thermal neutrons were delivered to the rice, the ratio of absorbed doses by B-10, which is contained in a small quantity in the plant, was found to be larger than expected. This implies characteristic effects of thermal neutrons on the plant. When boric acid was incorporated into the plant before irradiation, the effect of thermal neutrons per irradiation time was considered to become great. The frequency of mutations for resistance was significantly higher by thermal neutron, as compared with that induced by other mutagens, such as gamma radiation, ethylene-imine, ethyl-methane-sulfonate, and nitroso-methyl-urea. Genetic analysis of mutants for resistance revealed recessive genes and polygenes. Finally, the application of thermal neutrons and other radiations would contribute greatly to a resolution of serious pollution problems in global food and environment. (N.K.)

  16. Future prospects for ascochyta blight resistance breeding in cool season food legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego eRubiales

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation is strongly hampered by the occurrence of ascochyta blights. Strategies of control have been developed but only marginal successes have been achieved. Breeding for disease resistance is regarded the most cost efficient method of control. Significant genetic variation for disease resistance exists in most legume crops with numerous germplasm lines maintained, providing an excellent resource for plant breeders. Fast and reliable screening methods have been adjusted to fulfil breeding programmes needs. However, the complex inheritance controlled quantitatively by multiple genes, have been difficult to manipulate. Successful application of biotechnology to ascochyta blight resistance breeding in legume crops will facilitate both a good biological knowledge of the crops and of the mechanisms underlying resistance. The current focus in applied breeding is leveraging biotechnological tools to develop more and better markers to speed up the delivery of improved cultivars to the farmer. To date, however, progress in marker development and delivery of useful markers has been slow. The limited saturation of the genomic regions bearing putative QTLs in legume crops makes difficult to identify the most tightly-linked markers

  17. FIRST REPORT OF BLOSSOM BLIGHT OF STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA X ANANASSA DUCH.) CAUSED BY PSEUDOMONAS MARGINALIS IN CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel blossom blight was detected in commercial plantings of the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) in 2003 in central coastal California. Koch’s postulates were completed and etiology of the pathogen was determined. Physiological and molecular characterization showed that the pathogen was rel...

  18. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of alien introgressions with gene Fhb3 for resistance to Fusarium head blight disease of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance was identified in the alien species Leymus racemosus, and wheat-Leymus introgression lines with FHB resistance were reported previously. Detailed molecular cytogenetic analysis of alien introgressions T01, T09, and T14 and the mapping of Fhb3, a new gene for FHB...

  19. First report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae causing inflorescence blight and fruit rot of longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longan is a tropical fruit tree in the Sapindaceae family. During a disease survey from 2008 to 2010, fruit rot and inflorescence blight (rotting of the rachis, rachilla and flowers) were observed at the USDA-ARS Research Farm in Isabela, Puerto Rico. Tissue sections (1 mm2) of diseased inflorescenc...

  20. Ascochyta blight of chickpea reduced 38% by application of Aureobasidium pullulans (anamorphic Dothioraceae, Dothideales) to post harvest debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2004-2005, early winter application of suspensions of Aureobasidium pullulans (AuP) conidia to post-harvest chickpea debris resulted in significantly fewer spring-time Ascochyta blight lesions on chickpea test plants relative to controls. Survival of plants adjacent to treated debris was higher t...

  1. Maryblyt v. 7.1 for Windows: An Improved Fire Blight Forecasting Program for Apples and Pears

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article describes updates found in Version 7.1 of the fire blight prediction model Maryblyt, originally developed by Paul Steiner and Gary Lightner. In addition, a brief history of the development of the Maryblyt model is given. The article ends with examples comparing the performance of Versio...

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM636, a Strain with Biocontrol Capabilities against Late Blight of Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher K; Novinscak, Amy; Gadkar, Vijay J; Joly, David L; Filion, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Herein provided is the full-genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM636. This strain is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) which produces phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, an antibiotic involved in the biocontrol of numerous plant pathogens, including late blight of potato caused by the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans. PMID:27231373

  3. Efficiacy of bumble bee disseminated biological control agents for control of Botrytis Blossom blight of Rabbiteye Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis blossom blight caused by Botrytis cinerea may cause severe crop loss in rabbiteye blueberry, necessitating applications of expensive fungicides. Commercial bumble bees, Bombus impatiens, were tested as vectors of the fungicidal biological control agents (BCAs), Prestop® Gliocladium catenula...

  4. Survival Analysis to Determine the Length of the Incubation Period of Camellia Twig Blight Caused by Colletorichum gloeosporioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camellia twig blight, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a prevalent disease problem on several Camellia species in the southern United States. To determine the potential seasonal differences in incubation periods, twelve to sixteen stems of Camellia sasanqua ‘Rosa’ plants grown in pine ba...

  5. Cytogenetic and Molecular Characterization of Durum Alien Disomic Addition Line with Enhanced Tolerance to Fusarium Head Blight Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a serious disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes). Current durum cultivars have very little or no FHB resistance. A wild relative, diploid wheatgrass Lophopyrum elongatum (Hos...

  6. Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani can produce both web blight and root rot symptoms in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Rs) is an important pathogen in the tropics, causing web blight (WB), and a widespread soil-borne root rot (RR) pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. This pathogen is a species complex classified into 14 anastomosis groups (AG). Some AGs have been report...

  7. Verification test on an innovated method for the studies on inheritance of resistance to rice sheath blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@We have recently developed a systematic method for the study on the inheritance of resistance to sheath blight. The key of the system is an innovated method of inoculation and investigation along with the employment of the permanent population. This paper reported the procedure of the system and the result of its verification.

  8. Identification of Sheath Blight Resistance QTLs in Rice Using Recombinant Inbred Line Population of Lemont X Jasmine 85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice sheath blight (RSB) caused by the soil borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most destructive diseases of rice around the globe, causing severe losses in rice yield and quality annually. Major gene(s) governing the resistance to RSB have not been found in cultivated rice worldwide...

  9. Potential of osmoadaptation for improving Pantoea agglomerans E325 as biocontrol agent for fire blight of apple and pear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea agglomerans biocontrol strain E325 is the active ingredient in a commercial product for fire blight, a destructive disease of apple and pear initiated by Erwinia amylovora in flowers. Osmoadaptation, involving the combination of saline osmotic stress and osmolyte amendment to growth media, w...

  10. Survival of Pantoea agglomerans E325 as fire blight biocontrol agent when osmoadapted in high-saline medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 is available commercially as the active ingredient in a freeze-dried product (Bloomtime FDTM) of Northwest Agricultural Products (NAP) for biological control of fire blight. Osmoadaptation, which involves the combination of Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 is available...

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Japanese Erwinia Strain Ejp617, a Bacterial Shoot Blight Pathogen of Pear ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Duck Hwan; Thapa, Shree Prasad; Choi, Beom-Soon; Kim, Won-Sik; Hur, Jang Hyun; Cho, Jun Mo; Lim, Jong-Sung; Choi, Ik-Young; Lim, Chun Keun

    2010-01-01

    The Japanese Erwinia strain Ejp617 is a plant pathogen that causes bacterial shoot blight of pear in Japan. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain Ejp617 isolated from Nashi pears in Japan to provide further valuable insight among related Erwinia species.

  12. Rainfall thresholds as support for timing fungicide applications in the control of potato late blight in Ecuador and Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Peter; Taipe, Arturo; Perez, Willmer G.;

    2009-01-01

    Accumulated rainfall thresholds were studied in seven field experiments conducted in Ecuador and Peru for their value in timing applications of fungicide to control potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans. Fungicide regimes based on accumulated rainfall thresholds ranging from 10 to 70...

  13. Genome-wide association mapping of fusarium head blight resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using genotyping by sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide and host resistance displays complex genetic control. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 273 winter wheat breeding lines from the mid-western and eastern regions of the US to identify chromosomal re...

  14. 银杏板栗乳的研制%Preparation of a compound beverage from ginkgo,chestnut and skim milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟秀梅; 张绵松; 袁文鹏; 刘新; 王小军; 唐聚德; 刘昌衡

    2011-01-01

    目的:银杏板栗乳的制备。方法:以可溶性固形物的增加量为指标筛选银杏汁和板栗汁的酶解条件,以感官评分确定银杏板栗乳的配方。结果:银杏汁的最适酶解条件为:温度70℃、料液比1:5、酶解时间20min、淀粉酶0.03%,可溶性固形物增加量可达3.5%以上;板栗汁的最适酶解条件为:温度65℃、料液比1:8、酶解时间50min、淀粉酶0.04%,可溶性固形物增加量可达2.5%以上。最终产品各组分含量分别为板栗汁20%、银杏汁10%、脱脂奶液20%、木糖醇8%、稳定剂0.01%,此时产品感官评分最高。结论:银杏板栗乳呈乳黄白色,具有银杏、板栗和乳品的复合香味,口感细腻柔滑、甜度适中。%For developing a novel compound beverage,the conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis of ginkgo and chestnut were optimized using the increase of soluble solid content as a reference.The optimum conditions for ginkgo hydrolysis were as follows:temperature is 70 ℃,solid-liquid ratio is 1:5,time is 20 min and enzyme dosage is 0.03%,and those for chestnut hydrolysis were:65 ℃,1:8,50 min and 0.04%,respectively.At these conditions,the increase of soluble solid content in ginkgo and chestnut juice are more than 3.5% and 2.5%.On the basis of determining sensory indexes,the formula of the compound beverage was selected through orthogonal experimental design.Results showed that the perfect formula was 10% ginkgo juice,20% chestnut juice,20% skim milk,8% xylitol and 0.01% stabilizer.The compound beverage was moderate sweet,supple in mouth and has a unique flavor of ginkgo,chestnut and milk.

  15. Effectiveness of a Peptide-rich Fraction from Xenorhabdus budapestensis Culture against Fire Blight Disease on Apple Blossoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid VOZIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia amylovora is one of the most frequently occurred plant pathogenic bacterium. It causes necrosis and blight symptoms on host plants and it lead to considerable yield losses throughout the world on apple trees. There is no effective chemical treatment is currently available against fire blight. The purpose of the present study was to search a new, alternative control method. The evaluation of the plant protection potential of an enriched fraction of Xenorhabdus budapestensis cell-free conditioned media was investigated. Purified samples were tested in vitro and in planta against the phytopathogenic bacterium. A reproducible method for isolation of a peptide-rich fraction from Xenorhabdus cell-free conditioned media was established. The process resulted in 400 mg of dry sample prepared from three litres of Xenorhabdus cell culture. Significant correlation was found between the concentration of the purified preparation and the induced inactivation zones against Erwinia amylovora Ea1 in agar diffusion test method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the purified fraction against Ea1 strain were 8 μg/mL and 16 μg/mL, respectively. In planta experiments were tested on an apple cultivar (‘Watson Jonathan’ susceptible to fire blight. The effective range of concentration was 62-200 µg/mL, while treatment with 300 µg/mL and larger amounts caused necrotic symptoms on the petals of flowers. Current study pointed to the effectiveness of the compounds produced by X. budapestensis against fire blight. The development of a commercially applicable formulation of these compounds would allow growers to effectively control fire blight in apple and pear orchards.

  16. Association of single nucleotide polymorphic sites in candidate genes with aggressiveness and deoxynivalenol production in Fusarium graminearum causing wheat head blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talas Firas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (s.s. is an ubiquitous pathogen of cereals. The economic impact of Fusarium head blight (FHB is characterized by crop losses and mycotoxin contamination. Our objective was to associate SNP diversity within candidate genes with phenotypic traits. A total of 77 F. graminearum s.s. isolates was tested for severity of fungal infection (= aggressiveness and deoxynivalenol (DON production in an inoculated field experiment at two locations in each of two years. For seven genes known to control fungal growth (MetAP1, Erf2 or DON production (TRI1, TRI5, TRI6 TRI10 and TRI14 single nucleotides polymorphic sites (SNPs were determined and evaluated for the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD. Associations of SNPs with both phenotypic traits were tested using linear mixed models. Results Decay of LD was in most instances fast. Two neighboring SNPs in MetAP1 and one SNP in Erf2 were significantly (P pG of 25.6%, 0.5%, and 13.1%, respectively. One SNP in TRI1 was significantly associated with DON production (pG = 4.4. Conclusions We argue that using the published sequence information of Fusarium graminearum as a template to amplify comparative sequence parts of candidate genes is an effective method to detect quantitative trait loci. Our findings underline the potential of candidate gene association mapping approaches to identify functional SNPs underlying aggressiveness and DON production for F. graminearum s.s populations.

  17. Structure-based virtual screening of hypothetical inhibitors of the enzyme longiborneol synthase-a potential target to reduce Fusarium head blight disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresso, E; Leroux, V; Urban, M; Hammond-Kosack, K E; Maigret, B; Martins, N F

    2016-07-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat and other cereals worldwide. During infection, the Fusarium fungi produce mycotoxins that represent a high risk to human and animal health. Developing small-molecule inhibitors to specifically reduce mycotoxin levels would be highly beneficial since current treatments unspecifically target the Fusarium pathogen. Culmorin possesses a well-known important synergistically virulence role among mycotoxins, and longiborneol synthase appears to be a key enzyme for its synthesis, thus making longiborneol synthase a particularly interesting target. This study aims to discover potent and less toxic agrochemicals against FHB. These compounds would hamper culmorin synthesis by inhibiting longiborneol synthase. In order to select starting molecules for further investigation, we have conducted a structure-based virtual screening investigation. A longiborneol synthase structural model is first built using homology modeling, followed by molecular dynamics simulations that provided the required input for a protein-ligand ensemble docking procedure. From this strategy, the three most interesting compounds (hits) were selected among the 25 top-ranked docked compounds from a library of 15,000 drug-like compounds. These putative inhibitors of longiborneol synthase provide a sound starting point for further studies involving molecular modeling coupled to biochemical experiments. This process could eventually lead to the development of novel approaches to reduce mycotoxin contamination in harvested grain. PMID:27324634

  18. Rapid Diagnosis of Soybean Seedling Blight Caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Soybean Charcoal Rot Caused by Macrophomina phaseolina Using LAMP Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chenchen; Song, Bi; Zhang, HaiFeng; Wang, YuanChao; Zheng, XiaoBo

    2015-12-01

    A new method of direct detection of pathogenic fungi in infected soybean tissues has been reported here. The method rapidly diagnoses soybean seedling blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani and soybean charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, and features loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The primers were designed and screened using internal transcribed spacers (ITS) as target DNAs of both pathogens. An ITS-Rs-LAMP assay for R. solani and an ITS-Mp-LAMP assay for M. phaseolina that can detect the pathogen in diseased soybean tissues in the field have been developed. Both LAMP assays efficiently amplified the target genes over 60 min at 62°C. A yellow-green color (visible to the naked eye) or intense green fluorescence (visible under ultraviolet light) was only observed in the presence of R. solani or M. phaseolina after addition of SYBR Green I. The detection limit of the ITS-Rs-LAMP assay was 10 pg μl⁻¹ of genomic DNA; and that of the ITS-Mp-LAMP assay was 100 pg μl⁻¹ of genomic DNA. Using the two assays described here, we successfully and rapidly diagnosed suspect diseased soybean samples collected in the field from Jiangsu and Anhui provinces. PMID:26606587

  19. The effect of Pythium oligandrum and chitosan used in control of potato against late blight and the occurrence of fungal diseases on tuber peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzawińska, H; Mazur, S

    2007-01-01

    The aim of two year investigation was the valuation the effect of biopreparate Polyversum (B.A.S. Pythium oligandrum) and preparate Biochikol 020 PC (B.A.S. chitosan) used in control of potato against Phytophthora blight on the tuber infestation during storage by Helminthosporium solani and tuber infestation by sclerotia of Rhizoctonia solani. As the standard fungicide Vitavax 200 FS (B.A.S. karboxin and thiuram) was used. After harvesting 100 tubers from each plots was collected and put in storage. The analysis of tuber infestation by Rhizoctonia solani and Helminthosporium solani was made after harvesting (September) and later every 3 months during storage period (December, March). The percent of diseased tubers in tested sample and also infestation degree of bulbs using 5-degree scale was estimated. The received results of investigations ascertained, that all tested preparations during potato vegetation influenced on lower (in comparison with control) degree of bulbs infestation by sclerots of Rhizoctonia solani and the mean degree of infestation by Helminthosporium solani. Moreover the percent of diseased tubers infected by pathogens with tested preparations combination was significant lower than in control. PMID:18396836

  20. Discovery of plant phenolic compounds that act as type III secretion system inhibitors or inducers of the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhani, Devanshi; Zhang, Chengfang; Li, Yan; Wang, Qi; Zeng, Quan; Yamazaki, Akihiro; Hutchins, William; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Chen, Xin; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2013-09-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes a devastating disease called fire blight in rosaceous plants. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is one of the important virulence factors utilized by E. amylovora in order to successfully infect its hosts. By using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct combined with a high-throughput flow cytometry assay, a library of phenolic compounds and their derivatives was studied for their ability to alter the expression of the T3SS. Based on the effectiveness of the compounds on the expression of the T3SS pilus, the T3SS inhibitors 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid (TMCA) and benzoic acid (BA) and one T3SS inducer, trans-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethenylsulfonate (EHPES), were chosen for further study. Both the T3SS inhibitors (TMCA and BA) and the T3SS inducer (EHPES) were found to alter the expression of T3SS through the HrpS-HrpL pathway. Additionally, TMCA altered T3SS expression through the rsmBEa-RsmAEa system. Finally, we found that TMCA and BA weakened the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco by suppressing the T3SS of E. amylovora. In our study, we identified phenolic compounds that specifically targeted the T3SS. The T3SS inhibitor may offer an alternative approach to antimicrobial therapy by targeting virulence factors of bacterial pathogens. PMID:23770912

  1. Erwinia amylovora loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid pathogen detection and on-site diagnosis of fire blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühlmann, Andreas; Pothier, Joël F; Rezzonico, Fabio; Smits, Theo H M; Andreou, Michael; Boonham, Neil; Duffy, Brion; Frey, Jürg E

    2013-03-01

    Several molecular methods have been developed for the detection of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight in pear and apple, but none are truly applicable for on-site use in the field. We developed a fast, reliable and field applicable detection method using a novel target on the E. amylovora chromosome that we identified by applying a comparative genomic pipeline. The target coding sequences (CDSs) are both uniquely specific for and all-inclusive of E. amylovora genotypes. This avoids potential false negatives that can occur with most commonly used methods based on amplification of plasmid gene targets, which can vary among strains. Loop-mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) with OptiGene Genie II chemistry and instrumentation proved to be an exceptionally rapid (under 15 min) and robust method for detecting E. amylovora in orchards, as well as simple to use in the plant diagnostic laboratory. Comparative validation results using plant samples from inoculated greenhouse trials and from natural field infections (of regional and temporal diverse origin) showed that our LAMP had an equivalent or greater performance regarding sensitivity, specificity, speed and simplicity than real-time PCR (TaqMan), other LAMP assays, immunoassays and plating, demonstrating its utility for routine testing. PMID:23275135

  2. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  3. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is ∼ 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends ∼1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of ∼1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top

  4. A novel approach to biocontrol: Release of live insect hosts pre-infected with entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Arife; Karagoz, Mehmet; Shapiro-Ilan, David; Hazir, Selcuk

    2015-09-01

    As a new application approach, we tested the efficacy of releasing live insect hosts that were pre-infected with entomopathogenic nematodes against insect pests living in cryptic habitats. We hypothesized that the pre-infected hosts could carry the next generation of emerging nematode infective juveniles to hard-to-reach target sites, and thereby facilitate enhanced control in cryptic habitats. Thus, the infected hosts act as "living insect bombs" against the target pest. We tested this approach using two model insect pests: a chestnut tree pest, the goat moth Cossus cossus (Lepidiptera: Cossidae), and a lawn caterpillar, Spodoptera cilium (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). One pest is considered hard-to-reach via aqueous spray (C. cossus) and the other is more openly exposed in the environment (S. cilium). C. cossus and S. cilium studies were conducted in chestnut logs and Bermudagrass arenas, respectively. The living bomb approach was compared with standard nematode application in aqueous spray and controls (without nematode application); Steinernema carpocapsae (Rize isolate) was used in all experiments. The percentage larval mortality of C. cossus was 86% in the living insect bomb treatment, whereas, all other treatments and controls exhibited less than 4% mortality. The new approach (living bomb) was equally successful as standard aqueous application for the control of S. cilium larvae. Both methods exhibited more than 90% mortality in the turfgrass arena. Our new approach showed an immense potential to control insect pests living in hard-to-reach cryptic habitats. PMID:26149819

  5. Effects of chestnut tannins on the meat quality, welfare, and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huawei; Li, Ke; Mingbin, Lv; Zhao, Jinshan; Xiong, Benhai

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) on the meat quality, welfare and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs. Lambs in one group were raised at 20°C and fed a basal diet (N), and three other groups (32°C) were fed a basal diet with 0 (CT0), 5 (CT5), and 10 g (CT10) of CT/kg. Addition of CT increased the b* and L* values of meat and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in the serum and liver of heat-stressed lambs. The malondialdehyde concentration in meat, serum, and liver of heat-stressed lambs was decreased by dietary CT supplementation. Lambs in the CT0 group had higher cortisol, T3, and T4 levels, creatine kinase activity, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and a lower lymphocyte count than that in the N and CT10 groups. In conclusion, the addition of CT improved meat quality, certain stress parameters, and the antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs. PMID:26914512

  6. A tangled tale of two teal: Population history of the grey Anas gracilis and chestnut teal a. castanea of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, L.; Adcock, G.J.; Linde, C.; Omland, K.E.; Heinsohn, R.; Terry, Chesser R.; Roshier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two Australian species of teal (Anseriformes: Anatidae: Anas), the grey teal Anas gracilis and the chestnut teal A. castanea, are remarkable for the zero or near-zero divergence recorded between them in earlier surveys of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. We confirmed this result through wider geographical and population sampling as well as nucleotide sampling in the more rapidly evolving mtDNA control region. Any data set where two species share polymorphism as is the case here can be explained by a model of gene flow through hybridization on one hand or by incomplete lineage sorting on the other hand. Ideally, analysis of such shared polymorphism would simultaneously estimate the likelihood of both phenomena. To do this, we used the underlying principle of the IMa package to explore ramifications to understanding population histories of A. gracilis and A. castanea. We cannot reject that hybridization occurs between the two species but an equally or more plausible finding for their nearly zero divergence is incomplete sorting following very recent divergence between the two, probably in the mid-late Pleistocene. Our data add to studies that explore intermediate stages in the evolution of reciprocal monophyly and paraphyletic or polyphyletic relationships in mtDNA diversity among widespread Australian birds. ?? 2009 J. Avian Biol.

  7. Optimization of water curing for the preservation of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) and evaluation of microbial dynamics during process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Di Capua, Marika; Romano, Annalisa; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Chestnuts are very perishable fruits, whose quality may be compromised during postharvest handling. Damage can be caused both by insects and fungi. Water curing, a commonly used postharvest method, is based on soaking fruits in water typically for about one week. Factors that affect effectiveness of water curing have only been explained partially. A decrease in pH, likely imputable to a light fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria, may inhibit the growth of moulds. In this study a Lactobacillus pentosus strain was selected for its ability to inhibit fungi, and used as a starter culture during water curing. As second goal, a reduction of the environmental impact of the process was evaluated by using water that had been re-cycled from a previous curing treatment. Experiments were performed on pilot as well as on farm scale. In all trials, microbial dynamics were evaluated by means of a polyphasic approach including conventional and molecular-based analyses. According to results, the employment of an adjunct culture appears as a very promising opportunity. Even if no reduction in the duration of the process was achieved, waters exhibited a minor microbial complexity and fruits did not lose the natural lustre after the process. PMID:24929716

  8. Soil DNA pyrosequencing and fruitbody surveys reveal contrasting diversity for various fungal ecological guilds in chestnut orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Paula; Reis, Francisca; Pereira, Eric; Tavares, Rui M; Santos, Pedro M; Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André; Lino-Neto, Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Fungal diversity in Mediterranean forest soils is poorly documented, particularly when considering saprobic and pathogenic organisms. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods applied to soil fungi provide the opportunity to unveil the most inconspicuous functional guilds (e.g. saprobes) and life forms (e.g. Corticiaceae) of this tremendous diversity. We used fruitbody surveys over 2 years and soil 454 metabarcoding in Castanea sativa orchards to evaluate respectively the reproductive (fruitbodies) and vegetative (mycelia) parts of fungal communities in three 100-year-old stands. Analysis of 839 fruitbodies and 210 291 ITS1 reads revealed high fungal diversity, mainly shown by belowground analysis, with high (dominant) abundance of mycorrhizal fruitbodies and reads. Both methods displayed contrasted composition and structure of fungal communities, with Basidio- and Ascomycetes dominating above- and belowground, respectively. For the two dominant fungal guilds (i.e. ectomycorrhizal and saprobic), diversity above- and belowground overlapped weakly. This study is the first assessment of the complementarity of fruitbody surveys and NGS for analysing fungal diversity in Mediterranean ecosystems and shows that belowground methods still need to be completed by fruiting diversity to provide a comprehensive overview of the different fungal guilds. The results shed light on chestnut soil biodiversity and question the spatial distribution and synergies among fungal guilds. PMID:26391727

  9. Rational therapy of chronic venous insufficiency – chances and limits of the therapeutic use of horse-chestnut seeds extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greeske Karin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods We report two clinical studies, one already published, performed in patients with early and advanced chronic venous insufficiency (CVI. In both, compression therapy and oral therapy with horse-chestnut seeds extracts (HCSE were compared to placebo. Results The published study in early CVI (Grade I showed HCSE and compression to be superior to placebo and to be equivalent to each other in reducing lower leg volume, a measure for oedema. In the study, in advanced CVI (Grade II and IIIa, compression appeared to be superior to placebo, whereas HCSE was not. HCSE fared better in Grade II than in Grade IIIa patients. These results are discussed in the light of data from an in vitro model, where HCSE has been able to close the intercellular gaps in the venular endothelium. Not fully specified factors lead to an opening of these gaps, resulting in oedema as well as in local coagulation and thrombosis. The subsequent inflammation keeps these gaps open and initiates and maintains a chronic disease process, which may be the starting point of CVI. Conclusion Due to its ability to close the venular endothelial gaps, HCSE seems to be a suitable and protecting therapy during the early stages of CVI. In later more severe stages compression therapy is indicated. Taking into account the observed negative impact of compression on quality of life, pharmacological CVI therapy should start early to avoid progress and to spare patients compression therapy.

  10. Optimisation of cultural practices for organic potato: effect of irrigation regimes on the development of late blight, crop yield and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Lambion, Jérôme; Bertrand, Cyril

    2005-01-01

    A trial was established in 2003, in Southern France, to assess under organic farming conditions the effect of top irrigation with sprinklers on potato yield, but also to evaluate side effects on epidemics, with a focus on late blight (Phytophthora infestans L.). Two varieties, one susceptible (Charlotte) and one with a good level of resistance to late blight (Eden), have been planted. Three irrigation regimes have been applied : no irrigation [NO], reduced or optimized irrigation [OPT] and ir...

  11. Field and greenhouse inoculation methods for assessment of sheath blight resistance in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Garcês de Araújo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Field and greenhouse inoculation methods were compared to determine the genetic variation for resistance toRhizoctonia solani in 38 somaclones of rice cultivar Metica-1. Rice plants in pots were inoculated with isolate 4F1 at the ageof sixty four days, with 2.0 g of the fungal culture, multiplied on rice grain and hull medium and placed on the soil surfacearound the plant. The differences among somaclones in relation to lesion height were significant and varied from 6.5 to 15.5cm. In the field trial of artificial inoculation with fungal culture, 52 days after planting, the lesion height varied from 6.2 to 17.7cm. The correlation between disease severity in the greenhouse and the field was positive and highly significant (r=0.44;P< 0.01, indicating the greenhouse inoculation as a safe method for screening germplasm for sheath blight resistance.

  12. Non-conventional possibilities of protection of apple and pear against fire blight (Erwinia amylovora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Sobiczewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard program of plant protection against fire blight consists of use of management practices and chemical control method. Recently a new, non-conventional possibilities based on application of biocontrol agents (two biopreparations have been already introduced into practice: Bliteban A506 (Pseudomonas fluorescens and BlossomBless (Pantoea agglomerans, plant extracts active against Erwinia amylovora (AkseBio containing extracts from Thymbra spicata and Biomit Plussz with extracts from various plant species and microelements and resistance inducers (Regalis, Bion and plant extracts are of great interest. Also plant transformation with resistance genes such as: hrpN (harpin, dpo (EPS depolymerase and lytic protein genes (attacin E, cecropin SB-37, T4 lysozyme is a promising perspective.

  13. ROLE OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL FACTORS AGAINST EARLY BLIGHT OF POTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Idrees

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and biochemical factors play a significant role in early blight disease development in potatoes. For this 29 test cultivars/ lines, were screened, 15 lines including Cardinal and Desiree were found to be very highly susceptible. Eight lines including Diament FSD-White, and TPS-9813 showed highly susceptible response. Two lines i.e. 9802 and 396266-33 were susceptible. Only one variety /advanced line FD-1-8 was found to be resistant. None of the 29 advanced lines was found to be highly resistant while two lines such as FD-3-9 and FD-48-41 were shown moderately resistant response. At varietal level, among 29 test varieties/ advanced lines, all the varieties showed highly significant correlation with minimum temperature and negative correlation with maximum temperature. 18 varieties/advanced lines have significant correlation with pan evaporation. Whereas all the 29 varieties/ advanced lines did not show any correlation with relative humidity and wind speed. Five varieties/ advanced lines namely Cardinal, 396240-181, 9803, FD-1-9 and 9801 were selected to study the relationship of environmental conditions with disease severity. Maximum disease severity was recorded at 17-200C maximum temperature, 6-9oC of minimum air temperature and 1.9-2.4 mm pan evaporation. Relative humidity and wind speed almost had no significant effect on disease severity. On varietal level early blight disease severity had significant correlation with phenolic production both in leaves and tubers. Among 29 varieties, 20 varieties had significant correlation with phenolic production while 9 had no correlation in case of leaves while in case of tubers 19 varieties/ lines showed significant correlation & 10 lines did not show any correlation with phenolics production. 

  14. Evaluation of Susceptibility of Different Pear Hybrid Populations to Fire Blight (Erwinia amylovora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin EVRENOSOĞLU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight disease caused by pathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is the serious disease of pear, and there is not a certain chemical management against this disease except antibiotic-type compounds such as streptomycin. It is very important to improve new fire blight resistant cultivars in case of integrated disease management. With this purpose, different crosses have been made between Pyrus communis varieties that have good fruit characteristics and resistant cultigens. Besides, self and open pollination treatments have been carried out in maternal plants. The disease resistance level of the hybrids obtained from these combinations was determined by artificial inoculations by Erwinia amylovora in greenhouse conditions. A total of 3284 hybrids were inoculated, and 2631 of them survived and were distributed to different susceptibility classes. 19.88% of the inoculated hybrids was killed by Erwinia amylovora. Total distribution of the hybrids to susceptibility classes was as 6.18% in class “A- slightly susceptible”, 3.11% in class “B- less susceptible”, 8.89% in class “C- mid-susceptible”, 20.28% in class “D- susceptible”, and 61.54% in class “E- very susceptible”. Majority of class “A- slightly susceptible” hybrids were obtained from ‘Magness’ x ‘Ankara’ combination. ‘Kieffer’ x ‘Santa Maria’, ‘Kieffer’ open pollination, ‘Magness’ x ‘Akça’, ‘Magness’ x ‘Kieffer’, ‘Magness’ x ‘Santa Maria’, ‘Mustafa Bey’ x ‘Moonglow’ treatments displayed good results with respect to “A- slightly susceptible” character. It is very important to evaluate these hybrid pear populations through different fruit and tree characteristics in the future.

  15. Genetic control of late blight, yield and some yield related traits in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic control of late blight (LB) and some economic traits was assessed to identify genotypes suitable for the hybrids were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., development of late blight resistant hybrids in tomato. 10 F/sub 1/ hybrid were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., TMS1 and TMS2 with 5 elite lines viz., Nagina, Riogrande, Roma, 88572 and Picdenato according to line x tester technique. Disease resistance was measured using detached leaf and whole plant assay techniques. Data were also recorded for days to maturity, number of fruit per plant, single fruit weight and yield per plant. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among crosses, lines, testers and line x tester interaction for almost all parameters. Estimate of genetic components indicated preponderance of additive type of gene action for detached leaf assay, whole plant assay, number of fruit per plant and yield per plant whereas non-additive type of gene action for days to maturity and single fruit weight. Among parents, TMS2, Nagina, Roma and Picdenato showed significant favorable general combing ability (GCA) effects for disease rating traits while TMS1 and Riogrande indicated desirable GCA effects for yield and some yield related traits. Among hybrids, TMS2 x Roma and TMS1 x Riogrande had significant specific combing ability (SCA) effects for detached and whole plant assays. However, hybrid TMS2 x Roma appeared as good combination of LB resistance as it had both parents with desirable GCA effects. All hybrids showed average type of SCA effects for yield and yield components. Genetic control of LB revealed that a multiple crossing program involving genotypes with high GCA effects would be rewarding to identify LB resistant genotypes in early generations. (author)

  16. Conventional and real-time PCRs for detection of Erwinia piriflorinigrans allow its distinction from the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbé, Silvia; Bertolini, Edson; Roselló, Montserrat; Llop, Pablo; López, María M

    2014-04-01

    Erwinia piriflorinigrans is a new pathogenic species of the bacterial genus Erwinia that has been described recently in Spain. Accurate detection and identification of E. piriflorinigrans are challenging because its symptoms on pear blossoms are similar to those caused by Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Moreover, these two species share phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Two specific and sensitive conventional and real-time PCR protocols were developed to identify and detect E. piriflorinigrans and to differentiate it from E. amylovora and other species of this genus. These protocols were based on sequences from plasmid pEPIR37, which is present in all strains of E. piriflorinigrans analyzed. After the stability of the plasmid was demonstrated, the specificities of the protocols were confirmed by the amplification of all E. piriflorinigrans strains tested, whereas 304 closely related pathogenic and nonpathogenic Erwinia strains and microbiota from pear trees were not amplified. In sensitivity assays, 10(3) cells/ml extract were detected in spiked plant material by conventional or real-time PCR, and 10(2) cells/ml were detected in DNA extracted from spiked plant material by real-time PCR. The protocols developed here succeeded in detecting E. piriflorinigrans in 102 out of 564 symptomatic and asymptomatic naturally infected pear samples (flowers, cortex stem tissue, leaves, shoots, and fruitlets), in necrotic Pyracantha sp. blossoms, and in necrotic pear and apple tissues infected with both E. amylovora and E. piriflorinigrans. Therefore, these new tools can be used in epidemiological studies that will enhance our understanding of the life cycle of E. piriflorinigrans in different hosts and plant tissues and its interaction with E. amylovora. PMID:24509928

  17. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

  18. Técnicas de aplicação de fungicida em trigo para o controle de Giberela (Gibberella zeae Fungicidal spray techniques for the control of head blight (Gibberella zeae in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivan Panisson

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante muitos anos, a giberela, causada pelo fungo Gibberella zeae (anamorfo Fusarium graminearum, foi considerada de importância secundária no sul do Brasil. O aumento da intensidade e da freqüência de ocorrência, tornou a giberela uma das doenças de maior importância na cultura do trigo. A giberela é uma doença de infecção floral e mesmo os fungicidas sistêmicos recomendados apresentam apenas efeito protetor das anteras. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos nos grãos colhidos, de dois tipos de pontas de pulverização (leque e duplo leque, diferentes arranjos dos bicos na barra de aplicação e dois volumes de calda. A desuniformidade da antese aparece como um dos principais fatores envolvidos com a baixa eficiência dos fungicidas. Nos experimentos, realizados no ano 2000, a aplicação dos tratamentos reduziu significativamente a incidência, o número de espiguetas gibereladas e a severidade da doença, aumentando o rendimento de grãos. As pontas de pulverização, seus arranjos na barra e os volumes de calda utilizados comportaram-se de maneira semelhante em todas as variáveis avaliadas. O incremento no rendimento de grãos, obtido em relação à testemunha, sugere que se deve recomendar a aplicação de fungicidas para o controle da giberela, utilizando pontas que geram gotas finas a médias com volume de calda de 200 L.ha-1.For many years, the head blight of winter cereal crops, caused by the fungus Gibberella zeae, was considered a disease of secondary importance. However, the increased frequency and yield losses associated with head blight in Southern Brazil have turned this disease into a major problem. Gibberella zeae enters the host plants through the anthers. To avoid infection, the fungicides need to protect the anthers from the fungus, which requires improved spray techniques. The role of two types of spray nozzles (single jet and twin jet, different nozzle

  19. Induction of bacterial blight resistance in elite Indian rice cultivars using gamma-rays and ethyl methanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice is the most important cereal crop in the world feeding more than 50 percent of the human population. During the last 30 years, induced mutation breeding has played a significant role in rice breeding programmes. Rice mutants with higher yield, greater tolerance to diseases and pests and other agronomic qualities have been released for commercial cultivation in many countries. Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the second important disease in Southeast Asia. In the Basmati field sometime the yield loss is up to 100%. Moreover, there is no resistance source available. In Basmati rice, which is known for its quality and aroma. Induction of bacterial blight resistance in Basmati will help in developing high yielding Basmati type cultivars without compromising the quality

  20. Transfer of bacterial blight resistance from Oryza meyeriana to O.Sativa L.by asymmetric somatic hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yongsheng; CHEN Baotang; YU Shunwu; ZHANG Duanpin; ZHANG Xueqin; YAN Qiusheng

    2004-01-01

    Asymmetric somatic hybrid plants were produced between cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wild species [O. Meyeriana (Zoll. etMor, exSteud.)] with high resistance to rice bacterial blight. X-ray-irradiated protoplasts of the wild species were used as donor and chemically fused with iodoacetamide-inactivated protoplasts of rice cv. 02428to produce hybrids. Seventy-two plants were regenerated from 623 calli based on metabolic complementation. The morphological characters of the plants closely resembled that of the rice. Simple sequence repeats were employed to identify their hybridity. Cytological analysis of root-tips revealed that their chromosome number varied in the range of 27-38. The somatic hybrids were inoculated with strains of Xanthamonas oryzae pv. Oryzae at adult growth stage and demonstrated the resistance to bacterial blight introgression from the O. Meyeriana.