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Sample records for chestnut blight fungus

  1. Variations in Disease Resistance of Chestnut Cultivars against Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Sanghyun; KIM Kyunghee; PIAO Chungen; MOON Byungju

    2006-01-01

    Chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica is one of the major chestnut diseases occurred on stems and branches. Oriental chestnut has more resistance than American one. Twenty-five cultivars of chestnut tree including various cultivars such as Tsukuba, Okkwang, Rihei, Ginyose, Eunsan, etc. Were tested with a rapid, simple and reliable method. The cultivar Banseki is one of the most resistant cultivars tested and has the necrotic area of 0.40 cm2. However, the necrotic areas of the cultivars of American chestnut, Eunsan, Kwangjujoyul and Eaton, ranges from 3.35 to 2.61 cm2 and these cultivars are relatively susceptible to this pathogen. Many pycnidia of this pathogen were observed on the inner and outer bark tissues after incubating for 3 weeks.

  2. Genetic control of horizontal virus transmission in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica.

    OpenAIRE

    Cortesi, P; McCulloch, C.E.; Song, H; H. Lin; Milgroom, M G

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative incompatibility in fungi has long been known to reduce the transmission of viruses between individuals, but the barrier to transmission is incomplete. In replicated laboratory assays, we showed conclusively that the transmission of viruses between individuals of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica is controlled primarily by vegetative incompatibility (vic) genes. By replicating vic genotypes in independent fungal isolates, we quantified the effect of heteroallelism ...

  3. Interaction between two invasive organisms on the European chestnut: does the chestnut blight fungus benefit from the presence of the gall wasp?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joana B; Gallien, Laure; Prospero, Simone

    2015-11-01

    The impact of invasive fungal pathogens and pests on trees is often studied individually, thereby omitting possible interactions. In this study the ecological interaction between the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus was investigated. We determined if abandoned galls could be colonized by C. parasitica and thereby act as an entry point and a source of pathogen inoculum. Moreover we assessed the identity and diversity of other gall-colonizing fungal species. A total of 1973 galls were randomly sampled from 200 chestnut trees in eight Swiss stands. In a stand C. parasitica was isolated from 0.4-19.2% of the galls. The incidence of C. parasitica on the galls and the fungal diversity significantly increased with the residence time of D. kuriphilus in a stand. All but one C. parasitica cultures were virulent. The predominant fungus isolated from galls was Gnomoniopsis castanea whose abundance influenced negatively that of C. parasitica. This study shows that D. kuriphilus galls can be colonized by virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus C. parasitica. This can have effects on the chestnut blight incidence even in chestnut stands where the disease is successfully controlled by hypovirulence. The gall wasp presence influences also the fungal species composition on chestnut trees.

  4. Structure of Oxalacetate Acetylhydrolase, a Virulence Factor of the Chestnut Blight Fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen; Sun, Qihong; Narayanan, Buvaneswari; Nuss, Donald L.; Herzberg, Osnat (UMBI)

    2010-11-15

    Oxalacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily, catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalic acid and acetate. This study shows that knock-out of the oah gene in Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, reduces the ability of the fungus to form cankers on chestnut trees, suggesting that OAH plays a key role in virulence. OAH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and its catalytic rates were determined. Oxalacetate is the main OAH substrate, but the enzyme also acts as a lyase of (2R,3S)-dimethyl malate with {approx}1000-fold lower efficacy. The crystal structure of OAH was determined alone, in complex with a mechanism-based inhibitor, 3,3-difluorooxalacetate (DFOA), and in complex with the reaction product, oxalate, to a resolution limit of 1.30, 1.55, and 1.65 {angstrom}, respectively. OAH assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit exhibiting an ({alpha}/{beta})8 barrel fold and each pair swapping the 8th {alpha}-helix. An active site 'gating loop' exhibits conformational disorder in the ligand-free structure. To obtain the structures of the OAH {center_dot} ligand complexes, the ligand-free OAH crystals were soaked briefly with DFOA or oxalacetate. DFOA binding leads to ordering of the gating loop in a conformation that sequesters the ligand from the solvent. DFOA binds in a gem-diol form analogous to the oxalacetate intermediate/transition state. Oxalate binds in a planar conformation, but the gating loop is largely disordered. Comparison between the OAH structure and that of the closely related enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, suggests potential determinants of substrate preference.

  5. Dynamics of Cryphonectria hypovirus infection in chestnut blight cankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, Sarah Franziska; Prospero, Simone; Rigling, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica cause lethal bark cankers on chestnut trees. Infection of C. parasitica with Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in Europe biologically controls this disease, leading to nonlethal and inactive cankers. Unexpectedly, virus-free C. parasitica strains have been isolated from inactive cankers. In this study, we compared the virulence of virus-infected and virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from either inactive or active cankers on chestnut seedlings and sprouts. In the seedling experiment, we assessed canker growth and seedling mortality. In the sprout experiment, we also assessed canker growth and made fungal reisolations to determine virus infection and immigration of foreign vegetative compatibility (vc) types over a period of 13 years in a coppice forest. Overall, the virulence of virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from inactive versus active cankers did not differ. Significant differences were only attributed to virus infection. Virus infection and fungal strain composition in cankers changed over time. Foreign vc types immigrated into cankers and virus-free cankers became virus-infected within a few years. Most of the cankers were callused over time and became inactive. However, we observed that the virus did not always persist in these cankers. This study demonstrates that virus spread occurs effectively in European chestnut forests and that this biocontrol system is highly dynamic.

  6. Chestnut blight in Portugal : spread and populational structure of Cryphonectria parasitica

    OpenAIRE

    Bragança, Maria Helena Pires, 1964-

    2007-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Biologia (Microbiologia), apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2008 Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight, has been considered one of the most important mortality factors of the sweet chestnut Castanea sativa all over the world. To evaluate the current distribution of chestnut blight in Portugal, all chestnut growing regions across the entire country were screened, a total of 191 chestnut stands were surveyed...

  7. Survey and geographic distribution of chestnut blight in Portugal Prospecção e distribuição geográfica do cancro do castanheiro em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Bragança; Sofia Simões; Miguel Capelo; José Marcelino; Natércia Santos

    2008-01-01

    Cryphonectria parasitica, the fungus that causes chestnut blight disease, was first described in Portugal (1929) on bark samples of Castanea crenata, collected in Beira Interior province. After this report, only in 1989 two disease foci were found on native European chestnut, C. sativa, in Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province. To assess the current distribution of chestnut blight in Portugal (mainland, Azores and Madeira) a nationwide monitoring program was implemented. A major cooperative ef...

  8. Interactions between chestnut gall wasp and blight: a new criticality for chestnut

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    Turchetti T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast spread of Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus represents a new constraint factor for chestnut stands and orchards in Italy. So far, the favourable effect of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica-Castanea sativa patho-system allowed the development of chestnut cultivation. This situation could be modified by the progressive weakening of the trees caused by intensive attacks of the new parasite. During recent surveys worrying blight damage recurrences were observed in different Italian chestnut areas (in Piemonte, Trentino and Toscana regions which were highly infested by the Chinese wasp. While biological control treatments against the parasite are carried out, it is necessary to set up integrated protocols for the management of chestnut orchards to allow the survival of trees and their productivity.

  9. PHYSICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF CHESTNUT BLIGHT DISEASED CASTANEA SATIVA MILL. WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhan Gunduz,; Mehmet Ali Oral; Mehmet Akyuz; Deniz Aydemir; Barbaros Yaman; Nejla Asik; Ali Savas Bulbul; Surhay Allahverdiyev

    2016-01-01

    In this study, some of the physical and anatomical properties of Chestnut Blight Diseased (CBD) wood were investigated, and the study also included observations using Raman spectroscopy. The objective of these investigations was to determine the extent of the damage that is done to the wood of the diseased chestnut trees, which must be removed from the forest and used in the manufacture of industrial products. It was indicated that most of the adverse effects of the disease were in the vascu...

  10. The Identity of a Pea Blight Fungus in South Africa *

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    K. T. van Warmelo

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available The perfect stage of Ascochyta pinodes (Berk. & Blox. Jones, a cause of pea blight in Natal, was compared with type material of  Sphaeria pinodes Berk, and Blox.,  Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. & Blox. Stone, and  Didymella pinodes (Berk. & Blox. Petrak and the development o f its ascocarps studied. Two types of ascocarp were found on the material of  Didymella pinodes, one perithecial and the other ascolocular in structure. The ascocarp of the South African fungus was typically ascolocular in development and construction and similar to that of other species of Mycosphaerella. These ascocarps were identical to those of  Sphaeria pinodes and Mycosphaerella pinodes and the ascolocular ascocarps of the  DidymeUa pinodes material. In development and morphology this fungus agrees more closely with the original generic concepts of the genus Mycosphaerella Joh. than with  Didymella Sacc. and should thus be named Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. & Blox. Stone.

  11. PHYSICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF CHESTNUT BLIGHT DISEASED CASTANEA SATIVA MILL. WOOD

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    Gokhan Gunduz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some of the physical and anatomical properties of Chestnut Blight Diseased (CBD wood were investigated, and the study also included observations using Raman spectroscopy. The objective of these investigations was to determine the extent of the damage that is done to the wood of the diseased chestnut trees, which must be removed from the forest and used in the manufacture of industrial products. It was indicated that most of the adverse effects of the disease were in the vascular cambium. There was a clear indication of deterioration of the wood in the last growth ring next to vascular cambium. In the diseased secondary xylem region next to vascular cambium; vessel diameter, vessel frequency and vessel element length had a decrease, and vessel and other cells were irregular compared to healthy wood. Spores were detected and identified as Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill. Annual ring properties (annual growth ring width, latewood percentage, etc. were similar in diseased wood compared to healthy wood. The Raman spectroscopy results showed no significant changes in the structure of the cell wall or its components. After removing the diseased parts, unlimited usage of formerly wood is possible. Heat treatment of the wood is suggested before use in the interest of sanitation and dimensional stability.

  12. Potential of local hypovirulent strains of Cryphonectria parasitica for biological control of chestnut blight

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Eugénia; Coelho, Valentim; Monteiro, Maria do Loreto

    2010-01-01

    Cryphonectria parasitica, introduced in the NE of Portugal since 1989, is now an important and widespread pathogen of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) which causes losses in chestnut fruit production and led to decline and death of many chestnut trees. Hypovirulence, a virus mediated attenuation of fungal pathogenesis, has not been frequent until now in Portugal but recently some cases of healing cankers were reported by chestnut growers. We assessed these sites and one of them, where healing...

  13. Study of Investigation and Irulence Differentiation for Chestnut Blight%板栗疫病的调查和致病力分化研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆荣

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence law of chestnut blight was introduced, the investigation method was elaborated. The pathogenesis of chestnut blight was studied with two dimensional gel electrophore method. From the perspective of proteomics, irulence differentiation was studied%介绍了板栗疫病的发生规律,论述了板栗疫病的调查方法,探讨了双向凝胶电泳法研究板栗疫病菌的致病机理,并从蛋白质组学角度介绍了板栗疫病菌致病力分化的研究.

  14. Survey and geographic distribution of chestnut blight in Portugal Prospecção e distribuição geográfica do cancro do castanheiro em Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Bragança

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryphonectria parasitica, the fungus that causes chestnut blight disease, was first described in Portugal (1929 on bark samples of Castanea crenata, collected in Beira Interior province. After this report, only in 1989 two disease foci were found on native European chestnut, C. sativa, in Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province. To assess the current distribution of chestnut blight in Portugal (mainland, Azores and Madeira a nationwide monitoring program was implemented. A major cooperative effort, involving all the Portuguese Forest and Agricultural Services, was created for this endeavor and coordinated by the National Forestry Station. A total of 191 chestnut stands was surveyed across the entire country. C. parasitica was isolated from 56.5% of the sampling sites (108 sites. Sampled parcels were digitally geo-referenced and mapped. In addition, a collection of C. parasitica isolates has been established and the study of the molecular variability of C. parasitica in Portugal is underway.Cryphonectria parasitica, o fungo responsável pelo cancro do castanheiro, foi descrito pela primeira vez em Portugal (1929 em amostras da casca de Castanea crenata, provenientes da Beira Interior. Depois da detecção inicial, apenas em 1989, dois focos da doença foram encontrados em castanheiro Europeu, C. sativa, na província de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro. Para determinar a distribuição actual do cancro do castanheiro em Portugal (continente e Regiões Autónomas da Madeira e Açores, foi implementado um programa nacional de monitorização da doença. Para o efeito houve intensa cooperação entre os Serviços Florestais e Agrícolas do país, com coordenação da Estação Florestal Nacional. Foram visitadas, em todo o país, 191 parcelas de castanheiro. C. parasitica foi isolado em 56,5% da amostragem (108 parcelas. As parcelas amostradas foram digitalmente georeferenciadas e cartografadas. Uma colecção de isolados de C. parasitica foi estabelecida

  15. Modelling chestnut biogeography for American chestnut restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Songlin; Liang, Liang; Paillet, Frederick L.;

    2012-01-01

    of American chestnut [C. dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.] by incorporating blight-resistant genes from Asiatic species. Location North America, Europe and East Asia. Methods General chestnut biology was reviewed on the basis of published literature and field observations. Chestnut distributions were established using...... published range maps and literature. Climatic constraints were analysed for the northern and southern distribution limits and the entire range for each species using principal component analysis (PCA) of fourteen bioclimatic variables. Climatic envelope matching was performed for three Chinese species using...... distribution. Climatic spaces of different species overlap with one another to different degrees, but strong similarities are shown especially between Chinese species and American species. Climatic envelope matching suggested that large areas in eastern North America have a favourable climate for Chinese...

  16. Discovery of a new gene pool and a high genetic diversity of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica in Caucasian Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, S; Lutz, A; Tavadze, B; Supatashvili, A; Rigling, D

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the population genetic structure and possible origins of the plant pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica in Caucasian Georgia, a region within the centre of origin of the host species Castanea sativa. A total of 427 C. parasitica isolates from nine populations were genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. A high genetic diversity was detected, but the overall Georgian population was dominated by three haplotypes which were present in most individual populations. Two of them have not been previously found in Europe. Bayesian clustering analysis and principal component analysis could not identify their source population, neither in Asia nor in North America. On the other hand, one haplotype is frequent in Central Europe and probably naturally invaded Caucasian Georgia from neighbouring Turkey. Seventy-three haplotypes were unique to specific populations, and 66 of them were represented by a single isolate. Allele patterns suggest that most of these haplotypes emerged locally through sexual recombination between haplotypes of the Georgian and the central European gene pool. Due to the high incidence of haplotypes not otherwise present in Europe, Caucasian Georgia represents an additional source of diversity for the European C. parasitica population.

  17. Ecology and pathology of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the deciduous forests of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridnya, M.V.; Cherpakov, V.V.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    1996-01-01

    Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected by several other fungal and bacterial parasites and the joint infection of blight and bacteria may be especially dangerous for chestnut trees. Chestnut-dominated forests comprise only a few percent of total forest cover in the Caucasus Biosphere Preserve, and usually occur in mountain valleys or coves with deep brown soil. The age structure and reproductive status of chestnut in the Caucasus was investigated on six study plots in the Caucasus Biosphere Forest Preserve near the upper altitudinal limit of chestnut. Although chestnut is at least 70 percent of the overstory on these sites, there are very few trees less than 50 years old, and very few recent seedlings on any of the plots. Most large chestnut trees appear to have originated as basal spouts from previously established stems. Although chestnut seed production appears adequate, we suspect that competition with shrubs and other tree seedlings, and predation by herbivores and rodents, now prevent the establishment and survival of chestnut seedlings in the Biosphere Preserve.

  18. Consequences of Shifts in Abundance and Distribution of American Chestnut for Restoration of a Foundation Forest Tree

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    Harmony J. Dalgleish

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of foundation species, such as the American chestnut (Castanea dentata that was devastated by an introduced fungus, can restore ecosystem function. Understanding both the current distribution as well as biogeographic patterns is important for restoration planning. We used United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis data to quantify the current density and distribution of C. dentata. We then review the literature concerning biogeographic patterns in C. dentata. Currently, 431 ± 30.2 million stems remain. The vast majority (360 ± 22 million are sprouts <2.5 cm dbh. Although this number is approximately 10% of the estimated pre-blight population, blight has caused a major shift in the size structure. The current-day population has a larger range, particularly west and north, likely due to human translocation. While climate change could facilitate northward expansion, limited seed reproduction makes this unlikely without assisted migration. Previous research demonstrates that the current, smaller population contains slightly higher genetic diversity than expected, although little information exists on biogeographic patterns in the genetics of adaptive traits. Our research provides a baseline characterization of the contemporary population of C. dentata, to enable monitoring stem densities and range limits to support restoration efforts.

  19. A review of the Mycrocylus ulei Ascomycetes fungus, causative agent of South American rubber-leaf blight Revisión sobre el hongo Microcyclus ulei, agente causal del mal suramericano de la hoja del caucho

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    Ancízar Aristizábar Fabio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Microcyclus ulei Ascomycetes fungus is the causal agent of south-American leaf blight (SALB, this being one of the most important diseases affecting the natural rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis in Latina-America and has been responsible for numerous economic losses. This fungus has presented high physiological variability, suggesting its great adaptability. HCN tolerance has been described as being one of the mechanisms associated with its virulence. Resistant Hevea clones have been obtained by genetic improvement; however, the mechanisms associated with this are still not well known. Greater knowledge of this pathogen will lead to developing new control strategies and better understanding of the mechanisms associated with host resistance. Key words: Microcyclus ulei, SALB, Hevea brasiliensis.El hongo ascomycete Microcyclus ulei es el agente causal del SALB que es una de las enfermedades más importan­tes del árbol de caucho natural (Hevea brasiliensis en América Latina y ha sido responsable de numerosas pérdidas económicas. Este hongo ha presentado alta variabilidad fisiológica y se sugiere su alta adaptabilidad, dentro de los mecanismos asociados a su virulencia se ha descrito la tolerancia al HCN. Se han obtenido clones de Hevea resistentes mediante mejoramiento genético, sin embargo, aun no son bien conocidos los mecanismos asociados a ésta. Un mayor conocimiento de este patógeno permitirá el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias de control así como el mayor entendimiento de los mecanismos asociados a resistencia del hospedero. Palabras clave: Microcyclus ulei, SALB, Hevea brasiliensis.

  20. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  1. Survival and growth of chestnut backcross seeds and seedlings on surface mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skousen, J; Cook, T; Wilson-Kokes, L; Pena-Yewtukhiw, E

    2013-01-01

    Some scientists consider the loss of the American chestnut from forests in the eastern United States as one of the greatest forest ecological disasters in the 20th century. The American Chestnut Foundation has been attempting to restore chestnut by backcrossing blight-resistant Chinese chestnut to American chestnut and selecting those strains with blight resistance. Third-generation backcross seeds and seedlings have been produced and planted by researchers. Surface-mined lands provide a land base where these backcross chestnut seedlings may be introduced back into forests. In 2008, seeds of two parent species of chestnut (100% American and 100% Chinese) and three breeding generations (BF, BF, and BF backcrosses) were planted into loosely graded mine soils with and without tree shelters. First-year establishment from seeds averaged 81%. After the fourth year, survival without shelters declined for all chestnut stock types except for Chinese (80%): American 40%, BF 70%, BF 40%, and BF 55%. Survival with shelters was only slightly better after the fourth year (average, 60% with shelters and 57% without). Height growth was not different among stock types, and average height after the fourth year was 43 cm without shelters and 56 cm with shelters. In 2009, seeds and seedlings of the same chestnut stock types were planted into brown (pH 4.5) or gray (pH 6.6) mine soils. Only six out of 250 seeds germinated, which was very poor considering 81% average seed germination in 2008. Transplanted chestnut seedling survival was much better. After the third year, seedling survival was 85% in brown and 80% in gray soil, but significant differences were found with stock types. Survival was significantly higher with American, Chinese, and BF stock types (75%) than with BF and BF (60%). Height after the third season averaged 90 cm on brown and 62 cm on gray soil. Chestnut backcrosses displayed no hybrid vigor and were not better in survival and growth than the parent stock. All five

  2. Does management improve the state of chestnut (Castanea sativa L. on Belasitsa Mountain, southwest Bulgaria?

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    Zlatanov T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut forests in the Belasitsa Mountain region of southwest Bulgaria were traditionally intensively managed as orchard-like stands for nut production. More recently, management intensity has been sharply reduced as a result of rural abandonment, which combined with the effects of chestnut blight has led to marked structural changes in these forests. The focus of this paper is on the seed-based regeneration potential and seedling survival of chestnut in mixed stands managed over the past 15 years. Results suggest that management of stands under a high-forest system is appropriate, and regeneration from seed has advantages over coppicing if competing species can be controlled. An investigation into “sanitation cutting” performed since the 1990s shows that this had not a successful response to blight infestations.

  3. Difference of fungicide resistance of asparagus stem blight fungus from different geographic origins%不同地理来源芦笋茎枯病菌对杀菌剂抗药性的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡; 杨迎青; 兰波; 李湘民

    2013-01-01

    To define the difference of the resistance level of asparagus stem blight fungus Phomopsis asparagi (Sacc.) Bubak from different provinces on systemic and protective fungicides,the resistance levels of 24 isolates from 6 provinces on carbendazim and mancozeb were determined by using the mycelial growth rate method.The isolates from Shandong Province expressed the most resistance on carbendazim with an average EC50 value of 1.10 mg/L,followed by the isolates from Jiangxi Province and Fujian Province,with an average EC50 values of 0.58 mg/L and 0.33 mg/L respectively.The isolates from Fujian Province expressed the most resistance on mancozeb with an average EC50 value of 34.53 mg/L,followed by the isolates from Hebei Province and Shandong Province,with average EC50 values of 15.88mg/L and 14.19 mg/L respectively.Compared to mancozeb,it's easier for carbendazim to produce resistance,with 7 resistant isolates,3.66 as the resistant level and 29.17% as the resistant frequency,while 4 resistant isolates,with 1.90 as the resistant level and 16.67% as the resistant frequency,were included in mancozeb.Of 24 isolates,SD4 revealed resistance on both of carbendazim and mancozeb,with the resistance levels of 10.44 and 3.01 respectively,which expressed multiresistance.%为明确不同省份芦笋茎枯病菌对内吸性和保护性杀菌剂抗药性的差异,采用菌丝生长速率法测定了6个省24个菌株对多菌灵和代森锰锌2种杀菌剂的抗药水平,并比较了其差异.结果表明:各省份菌株对2种杀菌剂的抗药性均存在明显差异,其中山东省菌株对多菌灵的抗药性最强,平均EC50值为1.10 mg/L,江西省和福建省菌株次之,平均EC50值分别为0.58 mg/L和0.33 mg/L;福建省菌株对代森锰锌的抗药性最强,平均EC50值为34.53 mg/L,河北省和山东省菌株次之,平均EC50值分别为15.88 mg/L和14.19 mg/L.多菌灵相对代森锰锌更易产生抗药性,其抗药菌株为7个,平均抗性水平为3.66,

  4. Towards Managing Stemphylium Blight of Lentil in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemphylium blight of lentil, caused by the fungus Stemphylium botryosum, has recently emerged as a disease problem in the Pacific Northwest, particularly on the recently released lentil cultivar ‘Morena’. The first step toward managing the disease is to correctly identify early signs of the diseas...

  5. Somatic Embryogenesis in Chestnut

    OpenAIRE

    CORREDOIRA, E.; Ballester, A.; Viéitez Madriñán, Francisco Javier; Viéitez Martín, Ana María

    2005-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is an important biotechnological tool that demonstrates significant benefits when applied to forest tree species; clonal propagation, cryostorage of valuable germoplasm and genetic transformation are among the most promising of its applications. In this chapter, the state of the art of somatic embryogenesis in chestnut (an important economical tree species of the genus Castanea) is assessed and discussed. The factors affecting the induction (type of explant, growth condi...

  6. Development of forecasting elements for minimization of fungicide treatment in potato protection against early blight in Moscow region

    OpenAIRE

    Penjkin Roman V.; Doroškina Ljudmila A.; Smirnov Aleksej N.

    2013-01-01

    Early blight of potato (the agent is imperfect fungus Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl.) is a serious disease of potatoes under hot conditions. This disease is important in the regions of Eastern and Southern Europe, Asia and Africa. It is controlled with intensive application of fungicides commonly used against late blight. However, currently fungicides cause undesirable damage to humans and the environment. Elements of forecasting the early blight have been developed in order to mini...

  7. Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi causes chestnut canker symptoms in Castanea sativa shoots in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Sabrina; Calmin, Gautier; Auderset, Guy; Crovadore, Julien; Pelleteret, Pegah; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Barja, François; Paul, Bernard; Jermini, Mauro; Lefort, François

    2016-02-01

    A screening of Castanea sativa scions for grafting for the presence of endophytes showed that the opportunistic fungal pathogen Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi was the most abundant member of the endophytic flora. This fungus is known as a pathogen affecting chestnut fruits in Italy and Australia. Here, we present evidence that it causes cankers very similar to the ones due to Cryphonectria parasitica infection on twigs and scions of chestnut trees. We found natural infections of G. smithogilvyi in healthy grafted plants as well as in scions from chestnut trees. The identity of the fungus isolated from asymptomatic tissues was verified by applying Koch's postulates and corroborated by DNA sequencing of four different gene regions. In contrast to C. parasitica that appears on the bark as yellow to orange pycnidia, stromata and slimy twisted tendrils, G. smithogilvyi forms orange to red and black pycnidia, gray stromata and cream-colored to beige slimy twisted tendrils on the bark. These Swiss strains are closely related to G. smithogilvyi strains from Australia and from New Zealand, Gnomoniopsis sp. and Gnomoniopsis castanea from New Zealand, Italy, France and Switzerland. While the strains from Ticino are genetically very close to G. smithogilvyi and G. castanea from Italy, the differences between the strains from Ticino and Geneva suggest two different origins. The present study supports the hypothesis that a single species named G. smithogilvyi, which is known to be the agent of chestnut rot, also causes wood cankers on chestnut. PMID:26768710

  8. Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi causes chestnut canker symptoms in Castanea sativa shoots in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Sabrina; Calmin, Gautier; Auderset, Guy; Crovadore, Julien; Pelleteret, Pegah; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Barja, François; Paul, Bernard; Jermini, Mauro; Lefort, François

    2016-02-01

    A screening of Castanea sativa scions for grafting for the presence of endophytes showed that the opportunistic fungal pathogen Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi was the most abundant member of the endophytic flora. This fungus is known as a pathogen affecting chestnut fruits in Italy and Australia. Here, we present evidence that it causes cankers very similar to the ones due to Cryphonectria parasitica infection on twigs and scions of chestnut trees. We found natural infections of G. smithogilvyi in healthy grafted plants as well as in scions from chestnut trees. The identity of the fungus isolated from asymptomatic tissues was verified by applying Koch's postulates and corroborated by DNA sequencing of four different gene regions. In contrast to C. parasitica that appears on the bark as yellow to orange pycnidia, stromata and slimy twisted tendrils, G. smithogilvyi forms orange to red and black pycnidia, gray stromata and cream-colored to beige slimy twisted tendrils on the bark. These Swiss strains are closely related to G. smithogilvyi strains from Australia and from New Zealand, Gnomoniopsis sp. and Gnomoniopsis castanea from New Zealand, Italy, France and Switzerland. While the strains from Ticino are genetically very close to G. smithogilvyi and G. castanea from Italy, the differences between the strains from Ticino and Geneva suggest two different origins. The present study supports the hypothesis that a single species named G. smithogilvyi, which is known to be the agent of chestnut rot, also causes wood cankers on chestnut.

  9. Technology and optimization of preparation and regeneration of protoplasts from rice sheath blight fungus Rhizoctonia solani%水稻纹枯病菌(Rhizoctonia solani)原生质体制备与再生技术及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔丹丹; 阙亚伟; 闫霞; 李亚; 陈卫良; 王政逸

    2013-01-01

    Rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is one of the most important diseases on cultivated rice worldwide . Unlike most other fungal pathogens , R . solani forms heterokaryotic vegetative mycelia with multiple nuclei per hyphal cell and is unable to produce haploid asexual spores under normal conditions . These characteristics of R . solani may make it difficult to perform genetic transformation and functional analysis of genes . Production of large amount of protoplasts from this fungus is a prerequisite for the studies of molecular genetics , such as protoplast fusion and fungal transformation . Previously , some lytic enzymes and conditions for releasing R . solani protoplasts have been tested and optimized and several protocols for the preparation and regeneration of protoplasts from R .solani mycelium have been developed by some researchers . However , the efficiency of R .solani protoplasts releasing by these protocols is sometimes unstable due to different strains of R . solani or experimental conditions . Therefore , it is necessary to develop an efficient method for preparing protoplasts of rice sheath blight fungus . The objectives of the present study were to evaluate various cell wall degradation enzymes and their combinations for releasing protoplasts from R . solani mycelium , and to develop an efficient protocol for yielding protoplasts . Using 0.7 mol/L NaCl as stabilizer solution , seven different cell wall degradation enzymes , including Glucanex , lywallzyme , cellulase‐R‐10 , macerozyme‐R‐10 , snailase , driselase and lysing enzyme , and their combinations were evaluated for releasing protoplasts from R . solani GD‐118 mycelium which was harvested from potato dextrose liquid medium cultured at 28 ℃ for 36 h . The number of released protoplasts was counted by using haemocytometer under microscopy . The optimal concentration of lytic enzymes for the generation of protoplasts was determinated and the conditions to obtain

  10. Thyreophagus corticalis as a vector of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica in chestnut stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Sauro; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Turchetti, Tullio; Bouneb, Mabrouk

    2014-03-01

    The natural spread of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. occurs in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) stands and orchards in Italy and other European countries, leading to spontaneous recovery of the diseased trees. Little is known about how hypovirulence spreads in chestnut stands but various corticolous mite species frequently detected on chestnut cankers could be one of the many factors playing a role in the spread. Artificial virulent cankers created in inoculation field tests and treated with Thyreophagus corticalis (Acari, Sarcoptiformes, Acaridae) raised on hypovirulent cultures showed similar growth to those treated with mycelia of the hypovirulent strain over 18 months of inoculation. Cultures re-isolated from virulent cankers treated with mites were found to contain hypovirus like those derived from pairings of virulent and hypovirulent strains. Viral dsRNA could be carried externally and/or ingested by mites from the hypovirulent mycelia and then transmitted to the mycelia of virulent strains, causing their conversion. In a laboratory study, all fecal pellets collected from mites reared on hypovirulent and virulent strains grown on semi-selective media gave rise to colonies of C. parasitica with similar morphological characters and virulence to the original cultures. Field inoculation of stump sprouts with the resulting colonies revealed that mite digestive tract passage did not alter the virulence of the studied strains. These results are of interest for the biological control of chestnut blight. PMID:24114335

  11. Thyreophagus corticalis as a vector of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica in chestnut stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Sauro; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Turchetti, Tullio; Bouneb, Mabrouk

    2014-03-01

    The natural spread of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. occurs in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) stands and orchards in Italy and other European countries, leading to spontaneous recovery of the diseased trees. Little is known about how hypovirulence spreads in chestnut stands but various corticolous mite species frequently detected on chestnut cankers could be one of the many factors playing a role in the spread. Artificial virulent cankers created in inoculation field tests and treated with Thyreophagus corticalis (Acari, Sarcoptiformes, Acaridae) raised on hypovirulent cultures showed similar growth to those treated with mycelia of the hypovirulent strain over 18 months of inoculation. Cultures re-isolated from virulent cankers treated with mites were found to contain hypovirus like those derived from pairings of virulent and hypovirulent strains. Viral dsRNA could be carried externally and/or ingested by mites from the hypovirulent mycelia and then transmitted to the mycelia of virulent strains, causing their conversion. In a laboratory study, all fecal pellets collected from mites reared on hypovirulent and virulent strains grown on semi-selective media gave rise to colonies of C. parasitica with similar morphological characters and virulence to the original cultures. Field inoculation of stump sprouts with the resulting colonies revealed that mite digestive tract passage did not alter the virulence of the studied strains. These results are of interest for the biological control of chestnut blight.

  12. Studies on fire blight.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    Part 1Effects of water potential and temperature on multiplication of and pressure by Erwinia amylovora in host plantsAnalysis of field data from Eve Billing, England, on the duration of the incubation period of fire blight revealed that temperature and rainfall wer

  13. XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

  14. Population genomics of Fusarium graminearum head blight pathogens in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we utilized comparative genomics to identify candidate adaptive alleles in the fungus Fusarium graminearum, the primary pathogen of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal crops. Recent epidemics of FHB have been economically devastating to agriculture, as F. graminearum reduces cereal yi...

  15. Effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Lina; Li, Qian; Xie, Shuangshuang; Hu, Jiaqi; Wu, Yanwen; Ouyang, Jie

    2016-10-20

    The present study focused on the effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel. After thermal processing, the total starch content in both boiled and roasted chestnuts decreased significantly (Pstarch in cooked chestnut was gradually destroyed during the thermal processing. The starch in cooked chestnut still exhibited C-type X-ray diffraction patterns, but the intensity of diffraction peaks and the crystallinity were obviously declined compared with those of fresh chestnut. Textural profile analysis of chestnut starch gel and chestnut kernel showed that the main textural characterizations of roasted chestnut were higher than those of boiled chestnuts. These results are helpful for better understanding the texture change in fresh, boiled and roasted chestnuts, which indicated that roasting is an alternative industrial thermal processing method for chestnut kernel. PMID:27474607

  16. Practices to manage chestnut orchards infested by the Chinese gall wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchetti T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of the Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in Italian chestnut growing areas is causing new criticisms. In this context, in addition to a clear plant suffering due to the wasp infestation, the dangerous recurrence of chestnut blight and the sudden spread of Gnomoniopsis sp., a coloniser of galls but also the etiological agent of nut brown rot, must be considered. Therefore, it is very important to increase the plants’ vigour and prevent their decline. Preliminary experiments were carried out in different Italian regions between 2010 and 2011. Organic plant fertilizers were applied to plants showing middle or high defoliation levels caused by the wasp attacks. The observations carried out during the growing season indicate a good vegetative restart in the treated plants compared to the untreated controls, in all the situations and independently of the fertilizers applied. Most of the treated plants (between the 75% and the 100% showed an evident improvement in the canopy vegetation, while the untreated controls were always classified in the worse classes of crown condition. These preliminary results highlight the efficacy of this kind of treatments for infested chestnut stands. This strategy, which is based on the preliminary evaluation of the plant vigour (following the proposed scale of attack severity and lack of foliage, consists in a manuring treatment at vegetative restart, which can be repeated in the following years in dependence on the results obtained. Moreover, pruning may be suggested only to manage the development of plants showing a definite recovery. The gall wasp pullulation requires new management strategies aimed at preserving the chestnut orchards, in order to avoid the chestnut cultivation to be marginalized or abandoned.

  17. Assessment of weather risk on chestnut production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. G.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Caramelo, L.

    2009-04-01

    Meteorological conditions play a fundamental role during entire chestnut tree vegetative cycle. Chestnut trees are well adapted to mean year temperatures of 8-15°C, requires monthly mean temperatures greater than 10°C during 6 months (Gomes-Laranjo et al. 2008) and its pollen only germinates at relatively high temperatures of 27-30°C (Bounous, 2002). Photosynthesis of an adult tree is highly dependent of temperature. Photosynthesis is maximal at 24-28°C but it is inhibited for temperatures greater than 32°C (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). Furthermore, there are significant differences between chestnut trees cultivated in northfaced orchads in relation to those cultivated in the southfaced and between leaves from different sides of the chestnut canopy because they receive different amounts of radiant energy and consequently they grow under different mean daily air temperature. The objective of this work was to assess the role of weather on chestnut production variability. This study was performed for the 28 years period defined between 1980 and 2007 and it was based on annual values of chestnut production and total area of production, at national level, provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal. The meteorological data used was provided by Meteored (http://www.meteored.com/) and includes daily values of precipitation, wind speed, and mean, maximum and minimum air temperature. All meteorological variables were tested as potential predictors by means of a simple correlation analysis. Multiple time intervals were considered in this the analysis, which consist in moving intervals of constant length and forward and backward evolutionary intervals. Results show that some meteorological variables present significant correlation with chestnut productivity particularly in the most relevant periods of the chestnut tree cycle, like the previous winter, the flushing phase and the maturation period. A regression model based on the winter (January

  18. Late Blight demonstrations December 2013-February 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Gunadi, N.; Putter, de H.; Wustman, R.; Moekasan, T.K.; Laksminiwati, P.; Karjadi, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans is one of the most important diseases worldwide. Also in Indonesia control of late blight is very important in potato and tomato, especially in the rainy season. In order to learn more about the important factors that determine late blight control - such

  19. Delphinella Shoot Blight on Abies lasiocarpa Provenances in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venche Talgø

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis attacks true firs (Abies spp. in Europe and North America. Especially subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa, one of the main Christmas tree species in Norway, is prone to the disease. The fungus kills current year needles, and in severe cases entire shoots. Dead needles become covered with black fruiting bodies, both pycnidia and pseudothecia. Delphinella shoot blight has mainly been a problem in humid, coastal regions in the northwestern part of Southern Norway, but, probably due to higher precipitation in inland regions during recent years, heavy attacks were found in 2011 in a field trial with 76 provenances of subalpine fir in Southeastern Norway. However, the amount of precipitation seemed less important once the disease had established in the field. Significant differences in susceptibility between provenances were observed. In general, the more bluish the foliage was, the healthier the trees appeared. The analysis of provenance means indicated that, at least for the southern range, the disease ratings were correlated with foliage color. This study also includes isolation, identification, a pathogenicity test, a seed test and electron microscopy of the wax layer on the needles. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of spores and by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. The fungus was found present on newly harvested seeds and may therefore spread via international seed trade. When comparing the wax layers on green and blue needles, those of the latter were significantly thicker, a factor that may be involved in disease resistance.

  20. Late blight and early blight resistance from Solanum hougasii introgressed into Solanum tuberosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, and early blight, incited by Alternaria solani,are the two most widely occurring foliar diseases of potato in the U.S. Resistance to both diseases is necessary if growers are to reduce fungicide applications. Field resistance to late blight has previous...

  1. Silvicultural and phytosanitary researches in thinned chestnut coppices at different elevations in Sila (Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Avolio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of mensurational and phytosanitary researches ten years after thinning trials in chestnut coppices (Castanea sativa Miller in Sila, are reported.. Eight experimental areas, four located at an average elevation of 1200 m a.s.l. aged 20 yrs and four located on average at 1050 m a.s.l. aged 13 yrs, were compared. Three sub-plots were installed in each area and mensurational and phytosanitary surveys were carried out in 1997 (before and after thinning trials and ten years later (2007 on 30 stools per sub-plot to assess bio-ecological, structural and compositional status of the standing crops. At each elevation, the experimental protocol included the following theses: thesis T (control: release of the standing crop and removal of dried up stems on the ground, only; thesis A (light thinning: removal of the dominated storey, on average 30% of coppice shoots, poorly shaped, both withered and green; thesis B (moderate thinning: removal from the dominated up to the dominant storey = 43% of the shoots, both dried up and green; thesis C (heavy thinning: removal = 62% of coppice shoots, both withered and green. Results highlighted the significance of thinnings in the cultivation of chestnut coppices. As for silviculture and growth pattern, the surveying ten years later showed the following outcomes: reduction of shoots mortality, according to the thinning intensity from A to C (by comparing the number of dried up coppice shoots surveyed in the control theses; a higher number of coppice shoots in the commercial category “average stems” in the thinned plots; the higher percentage increment in dbh, basal area and volume in the sub-plots undergoing thinning A and C at the elevation of 1050 m and, in general, with thesis C at both elevations; the complete recovery of canopy cover even in the sub-plots heavily thinned. As for the phytosanitary aspects, the research has been oriented on the chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, due to

  2. Preservation methods for isolates of ascochyta blight fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Marcinkowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolates of ascochyta blight fungi, two of Ascochyta pisi, four of Mycosphaerella pinodes and four of Phoma pinodella were stored: A - on slants under mineral oil, B - on CN's medium agar disks, and as conidial suspension: C - in glycerine, D · in water. Viability and pathogenicity of recovered cultures after each consecutive year were assesed from 1991 to 1999. The compared parameters were first of all strongly influenced by the preservation method, but fungus species and number of years had a minor importance. The best for longer storage was method "A" because after 9 years the isolates were viable, highly pathogenic, and cultures recovered from them were clean. Thc method "C'' is good for short keeping (2-3 years, as conidia in vials need only small space and gave clean cultures.

  3. Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. C. Nyaka Ngobisa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations – Selangor, Perak, and Johor states – in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15 containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis.

  4. Cost-benefit Analysis of Chestnut Production in Xingtai County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuji; JIN

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of market demand survey of chestnut,this article carries out cost-benefit analysis of the chestnut production in Xingtai County,to understand the profitability and payback period of local chestnut production.It points out that chestnut production has a high rate of return on investment,and chestnut can be promoted on a large scale in Xingtai County.However,there are still some problems in the production and marketing of chestnut in Xingtai County,such as low level of technology,extensive management,low level of organization,market imperfections and weak brand consciousness.Based on these problems,corresponding recommendations are put forth.

  5. The Role of Antioxidant Enzymes in Adaptive Responses to Sheath Blight Infestation under Different Fertilization Rates and Hill Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheath blight of rice, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. No rice cultivar has been found to be completely resistant to this fungus. Identifying antioxidant enzymes activities (activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, and catalase (CAT and malondialdehyde content (MDA responding to sheath blight infestation is imperative to understand the defensive mechanism systems of rice. In the present study, two inoculation methods (toothpick and agar block method were tested in double-season rice. Toothpick method had greater lesion length than agar block method in late season. A higher MDA content was found under toothpick method compared with agar block method, which led to greater POD and SOD activities. Dense planting caused higher lesion length resulting in a higher MDA content, which also subsequently stimulated higher POD and SOD activity. Sheath blight severity was significantly related to the activity of antioxidant enzyme during both seasons. The present study implies that rice plants possess a system of antioxidant protective enzymes which helps them in adaptation to sheath blight infection stresses. Several agronomic practices, such as rational use of fertilizers and optimum planting density, involved in regulating antioxidant protective enzyme systems can be regarded as promising strategy to suppress the sheath blight development.

  6. Population Structure and Disease Development of Cryphonectria parasitica in European Chestnut Forests in the Presence of Natural Hypovirulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissegger, M; Rigling, D; Heiniger, U

    1997-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Cryphonectria parasitica populations in two 6-year-old European chestnut (Castanea sativa) coppices were investigated in southern Switzerland over a period of 4 years. Occurrence of white isolates indicating an infection with Cryphonectria hypovirus, vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), hypovirulence conversion capacity, and mating types were used to characterize the populations. Sampling of randomly chosen cankers in the first year yielded 59% white isolates in one and 40% in the other population. The distribution of the VCGs and mating types was similar among white and orange isolates, indicating a homogeneous infection of the two populations by the hypovirus. Fourteen VCGs were found in the first population, 16 VCGs in the second. Altogether, 21 VCGs were determined. The same three VCGs dominated in both populations, comprising more than 60% of all isolates. Several VCGs were represented only by white isolates. Five of the six most common VCGs were clustered in two hypovirulence conversion groups, with almost 100% hypovirus transmission within each cluster. Repeated sampling of the same cankers in 1990, 1992, and 1994 did not reveal an increase of white isolates. The portion of blighted stems rose from 37% to about 60% in both plots within 4 years. In this time, chestnut blight killed 15% and competition an additional 21% of the sprouts. Predominantly, sprouts with low diameters at breast height were killed. The growth rate of new cankers was high in their first year and decreased gradually in the following years. A role of hypovirulence in the decline of disease severity was evident since (i) cankers yielding white isolates grew slower and killed considerably fewer sprouts than cankers with orange isolates; and (ii) the majority of the cankers yielded white isolates at least once during the 4-year observation period.

  7. Effects of irradiation on physiology of chestnut under cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality characteristics of irradiated chestnut at dose of 0.5 kGy after 8 months storage at 0 degree C-4 degree C were studied. Results showed that cold storage shelf life could be effectively prolonged by irradiation. After 8 months storage, the water contents, total sugars, starch and respiratory rate of irradiated chestnut were significantly higher than control. (authors)

  8. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Tian; Zheng, Fu-Shan; Qin, Jing; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby) is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.). To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb) and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC), central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC) and southwestern China (SWC) based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900-126,500 years ago. PMID:27459279

  9. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tian Tang

    Full Text Available Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.. To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC, central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC and southwestern China (SWC based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900-126,500 years ago.

  10. Mechanical characterization of old chestnut beams

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Jorge M.; Peixoto, Tiago; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Medeiros, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate, by non-destructive techniques, seven old Chestnut beams. For that, after the geometric assessment and the detailed visual inspection that allowed to strength grade the beams, a series of non-destructive tests was setup. In a first step, non-destructive bending tests, under the elastic limit, were performed to quantify the modulus of elasticity in bending (MoE) of the seven beams. Then, Resistograph® and Pilodyn® tests were done to...

  11. Reduction of lesion growth rate of late blight plant disease in transgenic potato expressing harpin protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汝刚; 范云六

    1999-01-01

    Using harpin protein gene from apple fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylavora and potato prp1-1 promoter as main DNA elements, the feasibility of using pathogen infection-induced hypersensitive response was explored as a new strategy of engineering fungal disease resistance. Three plant transformation vectors were constructed and 68 transgenic potato plants were produced through Agrobacterium mediated transformation method. Southern, Northern and Western blot analysis demonstrated the insertion, transcription and protein expression of harpin protein gene in transgenic plants. Disease resistance test using a complex race of Phytophthora infestans as challenging pathogen showed that both constitutive and pathogen infection-induced expression of harpin protein gene in transgenic potato reduced the lesion growth rate of fungus. Among plants where harpin protein gene expression was induced only by fungus infection, two plants were found to be highly resistant to P. infestans infection. Fungal hyphae were not pr

  12. In vitro induction of variability through radiation for late blight resistance and heat tolerance in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro cultured shoots of potato, cvs. 'Kufri Jyoti' and 'Kufri Chandramukhi', were irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy gamma rays. Microtubers, obtained from MIV3 shoots multiplied in vitro, were planted in pots. The resulting plants were screened for resistance to late blight, using detached leaf method. In 'Kufri Chandramukhi', 42% plants and in 'Kufri Jyoti' 36% plants, obtained from 40 Gy treatment, showed resistance to late blight. The frequency of resistant plants was lower from 20 Gy treatment. The progenies of putatively resistant plants were grown in field, and inoculated with sporangial inoculum of late blight fungus. The field grown progeny segregated for disease resistance, and approximately 56% plants showed resistance. During the next propagation, the frequency of resistant plants increased to 72%. For developing heat tolerance, microtubers obtained from 20 and 40 Gy treatments and in vitro multiplied M1V3 shoots were cultured at high temperature of 28C. In both varieties, the number of the microtubers per plant was highly reduced and the resulting microtubers had distorted shape but showed better germination (62%), even in early sowing at relatively higher temperature. Of the two radiation doses, the higher dose of 40 Gy gave better results in both the varieties. Heat tolerance was also assessed from chlorophyll persistence. The progenies from putative heat-tolerant plants were tested in field by planting at higher temperature in two subsequent generations. The heat tolerant plants segregated in each generation, but the frequency of heat-tolerant plants increased. (author)

  13. TRAPA NATANS (WATER CHESTNUT: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatiwal Shalabh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Trapa natans (water chestnut, commonly known as singhara in India, belonging to family Trapaceae, is a free-floating plant which grows in shallow water fields, ponds or swampy land. The water chestnut is native to Europe, Asia and Africa where it is well kept in check by native insect parasites. It favours nutrient-rich water with a pH range of 6.7 to 8.2 and an alkalinity of 12 to 128 mg/l of calcium carbonate. The kernels are delicious to eat and contain carbohydrates, proteins and essential minerals and are reported to be used in many ayurvedic preparations as diuretic, aphrodisiac, nutrient, appetizer, astringent, coolant, antidiarrhoeal & tonic. They are also useful in lumbago, sore throat, bilious affections, bronchitis, fatigues & inflammation. The fruits are a good source of nutrition having 16% starch and 2% protein. Stem is used in eye disorders in the form of juice. The plant Trapa natans has also been evaluated for various activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial. The literature reveals the use of kernels as diuretic, aphrodisiac, nutrient, appetizer, astringent, coolant, antidiarrhoeal & tonic, fruits as good source of nutrition having 16% starch and 2% protein, plant as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial and stem in form of juice in eye disorders. The present study will give comprehensive information on the chemical constituents and mainly pharmacological activities of this plant.

  14. Tissue-specific expression of Arabidopsis NPR1 gene in rice for sheath blight resistance without compromising phenotypic cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Kutubuddin Ali; Karmakar, Subhasis; Chanda, Palas Kumar; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Swapan Kumar; Datta, Karabi

    2016-09-01

    Rice sheath blight disease, caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani, is considered the second most important disease of rice after blast. NPR1 (non expressor of PR1) is the central regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) conferring broad spectrum resistance to various pathogens. Previous reports have indicated that constitutive expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 (AtNPR1) gene results in disease resistance in rice but has a negative impact on growth and agronomic traits. Here, we report that green tissue-specific expression of AtNPR1 in rice confers resistance to the sheath blight pathogen, with no concomitant abnormalities in plant growth and yield parameters. Elevated levels of NPR1 activated the defence pathway in the transgenic plants by inducing expression of endogenous genes such as PR1b, RC24, and PR10A. Enhanced sheath blight resistance of the transgenic plants was evaluated using three different bioassay systems. A partially isolated toxin from R. solani was used in the bioassays to measure the resistance level. Studies of the phenotype and yield showed that the transgenic plants did not exhibit any kind of phenotypic imbalances. Our results demonstrate that green tissue-specific expression of AtNPR1 is an effective strategy for controlling the sheath blight pathogen. The present work in rice can be extended to other crop plants severely damaged by the pathogen. PMID:27457988

  15. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jing; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby) is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.). To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb) and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC), central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC) and southwestern China (SWC) based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900–126,500 years ago. PMID:27459279

  16. TURCICUM LEAF BLIGHT OF MAIZE INCITED BY Exserohilum turcicum: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rajeshwar Reddy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally maize (Zea mays L. is the first and most important cereal crop gown under diversity of environments unmatched by any other crop, as expansion of maize to new areas and environment still continues due to its range of plasticity. It is prone to as many as 112 diseases in different parts of the world, caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes leading to extensive damage. In India about 61 diseases have been reported to affect the crop. These include seedling blights, stalk rots, foliar diseases, downy mildews and ear rots (Payaket al., 1973 and Payak and Sharma, 1985.Among the fungal diseases turcicum leaf blight caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.. Leonard and Suggs. (Synonyms:Helminthosprium turcicum (Pass. Leonard and Suggs [Perfect stage: Setosphaeria turcica (Luttrell Leonard and Suggs. (Synonym: Trichometasphaeria turcica (Luttrell] is one the important foliar disease causing severe reduction in grain and fodder yield to the tune of 16 -98% (Kachapur and Hegde, 1988. The disease was first described by Passerini (1876 from Italy and by Butler (1907 from India. In India, this disease is prevalent in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh and Maharashtra. Turcicum leaf blight is potentially an important foliar disease in areas where the temperatures drop at night while the humidity is high. The disease is known to affect maize from seedling stage till harvest. Loss in grain yield will be more if it occurs at flowering, silking and grain filling stages. Lesions produced on the leaves of susceptible plants are normally large (4 -20 cm long and 1-5 cm wide, elliptical in shape and greyish green to tan in color, in conditions of high relative humidity, lesions may be covered with masses of dark conidia of the fungus. The conidia are olive grey and spindle shaped with 1- 9 septations. These conidia spread through air germinate on the surface and penetrate directly. Turcicum blight injures or kills the leaf tissues and

  17. Biochemical composition of the horse chestnut seed (Aesculus hippocastanum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Čukanović Jelena; Ninić-Todorović Jelena; Ognjanov V.; Mladenović Emina; Ljubojević Mirjana; Kurjakov A.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents research on the chemical composition of 15 horse chestnut seed genotypes (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) conducted on three different sites. The seeds were picked from selected trees in Bačka Palanka, Novi Sad and Sremski Karlovci at the end of September 2010. The statistical parameters point out the variables of the examined features of the seed. On the basis of the moisture, starch, fat and protein contents in the horse chestnut seeds, the genotypes, the reproductive m...

  18. Physical characteristics and drying kinetics of Portuguese "Longal" chestnut

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalhosa, Elsa; Lamas, Hugo; Pereira, J.A.; Morais, A. M. M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Chestnut is a fruit of great importance in Portugal, being generally sold fresh or frozen. Alternative products may be obtained by hot air drying. The present work is on the dehydration behavior of Portuguese ‘Longal’ chestnut, that is the most used in industry. Different models for representing the variations of water content and drying rate along time were tested successfully. As expected, higher temperatures correspond to faster drying processes. The apparent diffusivity was predicted b...

  19. The early days of late blight

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Paul RJ; Cooke, David EL

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale DNA sequencing of samples of foliage collected in the 19th century from plants infected with late blight has shown that the potato famines of the 1840s were triggered by a single clonal lineage of Phytophthora infestans, called HERB-1, which persisted for at least 50 years.

  20. Review of World literature on Water Chestnut with implications for management in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, Meredith; Kiviat, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa natans L.,sensu lato) is an annual, floating-leaved aquatic plant of temperate and tropical freshwater wetlands, rivers, lakes, ponds, and estuaries. Native to Eurasia and Africa, water chestnut has been widely gathered for its large nutritious seed since the Neolithic and is cultivated for food in Asia. Water chestnut is now a species of conservation concern in Europe and Russia. Introduced to the northeastern United States in the mid-1800s, the spread of water chestnut...

  1. Quantification of minerals and tocopherols isomers in chestnuts approach chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Evelazio de Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The levels of the ?, ?, and (?+?-tocopherol isomers and the amounts of the minerals Se, Zn, Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Mg, and Cu were analyzed in chestnuts. High contents of Zn (>65% relative to the recommended dietary intake (RDI were found in all chestnuts except macadamia nuts (25% of the RDI. All samples had Se contents higher than the RDI: Brazil nuts > macadamia nuts, cashew nuts > pecans > almonds > pistachio nuts > hazelnuts > European nuts. A greater concentration of ?-tocopherol was found in almonds (30% of RDI. All samples, except for hazelnuts, almonds, and macadamia nuts, had (?+?- tocopherols, with the largest amount found in pistachios. Only pecan nuts and European nuts had ?-tocopherol and only in low amounts. Multivariate analysis allowed for better characterization and distinction of the chestnuts

  2. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana; De Sio, Antonio; Boniglia, Concetta; Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro

    2009-07-01

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [ European Parliament and Council Directive, 1999/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of "Montella" chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  3. Antifungal Activity of Fruit Extracts of Different Water Chestnut Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ANOWAR RAZVY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of three varieties (red, green and wild of water chestnut fruit extracts was studied against a number of fungal species. A strong antifungal activity of ethanol and petroleum extract was found against the treated fungi resulting remarkable inhibition zone in comparison to both Dithane-M45 fungicide and control. It has also been evident that wild variety of water chestnut was comparatively more efficient in respect to antifungal activity compared to the red and green variety of the same plant.

  4. Biochemical composition of the horse chestnut seed (Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čukanović Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents research on the chemical composition of 15 horse chestnut seed genotypes (Aesculus hippocastanum L. conducted on three different sites. The seeds were picked from selected trees in Bačka Palanka, Novi Sad and Sremski Karlovci at the end of September 2010. The statistical parameters point out the variables of the examined features of the seed. On the basis of the moisture, starch, fat and protein contents in the horse chestnut seeds, the genotypes, the reproductive material which would be used for the intensive production of the high grade seedlings for the greening of the different area categories in urban areas, are distinguished.

  5. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill) starch for industrial utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Demiate Ivo Mottin; Oetterer Marília; Wosiacki Gilvan

    2001-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g), lipid (5.39 g/100g), crude fiber (2.34 g/100g) and ash (2.14 g/100g). Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A TECHNOLOGY FOR LOW IN GLUTEN CHESTNUT PUREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlina Paraskova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the scientific research related to technologies for processing and implementation of chestnut products are aimed to establish the regimes of preliminary treatment of the nuts, such as devitalization, hydrotherapy, thermo-hydro therapy, refrigeration and freezing with the scope of long term storage of the raw material in disguise of peeled, unpeeled, cooled, chilled and etc. chestnut. Additionally added value products can be designed to designate some specific target group like consumers with food allergies, obese people as well as pupils’ nutrition

  7. Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum Cause Blossom Blight in Strawberry in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Myeong Hyeon; Park, Myung Soo; Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Hong Gi

    2015-09-01

    Blossom blight in strawberry was first observed in a green house in Nonsan, Damyang, and Geochang areas of Korea, between early January to April of 2012. Disease symptoms started as a grey fungus formed on the stigma, which led to the blossom blight and eventually to black rot and necrosis of the entire flower. We isolated the fungi purely from the infected pistils and maintained them on potato dextrose agar (PDA) slants. To test Koch's postulates, we inoculated the fungi and found that all of the isolates caused disease symptoms in the flower of strawberry cultivars (Seolhyang, Maehyang, and Kumhyang). The isolates on PDA had a velvet-like appearance, and their color ranged between olivaceous-brown and smoky-grey to olive and almost black. The intercalary conidia of the isolates were elliptical to limoniform, with sizes ranging from 5.0~10.5 × 2.5~3.0 µm to 4.0~7.5 × 2.0~3.0 µm, respectively. The secondary ramoconidia of these isolates were 0- or 1-septate, with sizes ranging betweem 10.0~15.0 × 2.5~3.7 µm and 8.7~11.2 × 2.5~3.2 µm, respectively. A combined sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions, partial actin (ACT), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF) genes revealed that the strawberry isolates belonged to two groups of authentic strains, Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum. Based on these results, we identified the pathogens causing blossom blight in strawberries in Korea as being C. cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum. PMID:26539056

  8. Sources of resistance in chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) land races against ascochyta rabiei causal agent of ascochyta blight disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascochyta blight disease, caused by the fungus Ascochyta rabiei, is a major yield limiting factor of chickpea in Turkey and around the world. This study was conducted to identify sources of genetic resistance against chickpea blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei. For this purpose, 68 chickpea land races of different origins were evaluated in both field and growth chamber conditions during 2008-2009 growing seassons. Two standard cultivars were used as a reference, Inci (resistant) and Canitez (susceptible). Disease severity scoring was conducted on a 1-9 rating scale 21 days after inoculation in growth chamber test and at flowering and pot filling stages in field tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test showed a significant difference among the chickpea landraces in ascochyta blight resistance at p<0.05. None of the chickpea land races was highly resistant to the pathogen in growth chamber and field conditions. Only two landraces (10A and 28B) were moderately resistant to the disease. Some of the landraces resulted in a particular plant to exhibit no disease symptoms, indicating that the variation within chickpea land races was high. Therefore, seeds of this plant were harvested separately and preserved for further evaluations. (author)

  9. Current progress on genetic interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulin JIA; Guangjie LIU; Stefano COSTANZO; Seonghee LEE; Yuntao DAI

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of genetic interactions between rice and its pathogenic fungi Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani should lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of host resistance, and the improvement of strategies to manage rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Currently, dozens office resistance (R) genes against specific races of the blast fungus have been described. Among them, ten were molecularly characterized and some were widely used for breeding for genetic resistance. The Pi-ta gene was one of the best characterized rice R genes. Following the elucidation of its molecular structure, interaction, distribution, and evolution, user friendly DNA markers were developed from portions of the cloned genes to facilitate the incorporations of the Pi-ta mediated resistance into improved rice varieties using marker assisted selection (MAS). However, rice blast is still a major threat for stable rice production because of race change mutations occurring in rice fields, which often overcome added resistance based on single R genes, and these virulent races of M. oryzae pose a continued challenge for blast control. For sheath blight, progress has been made on the exploration of novel sources of resistance from wild rice relatives and indica rice cultivars. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL), named qSB9-2, was recently verified in several mapping populations with different phenotyping methods, including greenhouse methods. The ability to identify qSB9-2 using greenhouse methods should accelerate the efforts on the qSB9-2 fine mapping and positional cloning.

  10. Acute Effusive Pericarditis due to Horse Chestnut Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Edem, Efe; Kahyaoğlu, Behlül; Çakar, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 32 Final Diagnosis: Pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal product Symptoms: Dyspnea Medication: Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) Clinical Procedure: Pericardial and pleural effusions were drained through a pericardiopleural window Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: There are many well-known causes of pericardial effusion, such as cancer metastasis, bacterial or viral pericarditis, and uremic pericarditis; however, n...

  11. Biotic and abiotic stress can induce cystatin expression in chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernas, M; Sánchez-Monge, R; Salcedo, G

    2000-02-11

    A cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) from chestnut (Castanea sativa) seeds, designated CsC, has been previously characterized. Its antifungal, acaricide and inhibitory activities have allowed to involve CsC in defence mechanisms. The CsC transcription levels decreased during seed maturation and increased throughout germination, an opposite behavior to that shown by most phytocystatins. No inhibition of endogenous proteinase activity by purified CsC was found during the seed maturation or germination processes. CsC message accumulation was induced in chestnut leaves after fungal infection, as well as by wounding and jasmonic acid treatment. Induction in roots was also observed by the last two treatments. Furthermore, CsC transcript levels strongly raised, both in roots and leaves, when chestnut plantlets were subjected to cold- and saline-shocks, and also in roots by heat stress. All together, these data suggest that chestnut cystatin is not only involved in defence responses to pests and pathogen invasion, but also in those related to abiotic stress.

  12. Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables

  13. Betaines and related ammonium compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Cautela, Domenico; Paolucci, Marina; Siano, Francesco; Volpe, Maria Grazia; Castaldo, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Chestnut fruits, being poor of simple sugars and consisting mainly of fibers and starch, are among the constituents of Mediterranean diet. While numerous studies report on content of proteins and amino acids in chestnut, no one has appeared so far on betaines, an important class of nitrogen compounds ubiquitous in plants for their protective action in response to abiotic stress. In this study, we analyzed by HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry, in fruits and flours of varieties of chestnut cultivated in Italy, the composition of betaines and ammonium compounds intermediates of their biosynthesis. Besides the parent amino acids, the compounds quantified were choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, glycine betaine, N-methylproline, proline betaine (stachydrine), β-alanine betaine, 4-guanidinobutyric acid, trigonelline, N,N,N-trimethyllysine. Interestingly, some uncommon derivatives of pipecolic acid, such as N-methylpipecolic acid, 4-hydroxypipecolic acid and 4-hydroxy-N-methylpipecolic acid were identified for the first time in chestnut samples and characterized by MS(n) tandem mass spectrometry.

  14. Tremella with Edible Fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    (Meiwei Shuang’er)Remove the tremella and edible fungus roots, clean and drain. Slice green peppers and carrots.Heat some oil in a wok, add tremella, edible fungus, green peppers and carrots, and clear stock, salt and sugar. Simmer for two minutes. Add MSG and pepper, remove to a plate, and serve.Features: Attractively black and white.Taste: Crisp and savory.

  15. Development of late blight resistant potatoes by cisgenic stacking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo, K.R.; Kim, C.J.; Kim, S.J.; Kim, T.J.; Bergervoet-van Deelen, J.E.M.; Jongsma, M.A.; Visser, R.G.F.; Jacobsen, E.; Vossen, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight in potato, remains one of the most devastating pathogens in potato production and late blight resistance is a top priority in potato breeding. The introduction of multiple resistance (R) genes with different spectra from crossable species into p

  16. 黄秋葵疫病的发生与防治%Occurrence and control of blight disease of Abelmoschus esculentus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞美

    2015-01-01

    黄秋葵疫病是危害黄秋葵的真菌病之一,发病严重时会导致黄秋葵产量和品质降低。该文综述了黄秋葵疫病的症状、病原、发生规律,并总结了防治措施。%Blight disease is one of the fungus diseases in Abelmoschus esculentus,the occurrence of which would cause seri-ous yield and quality decrease of Abelmoschus esculentus. This paper described the symptom,pathogen and occurrence regu-larity for blight disease of Abelmoschus esculentus,and control measures was summarized.

  17. Effect of cooking methods on nutritional quality and volatile compounds of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Shi, Xianhe; Zhao, Qiaojiao; Cui, Yahui; Ouyang, Jie; Xu, Fang

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods on the content of important nutrients and volatiles in the fruit of Chinese chestnut. The nutritional compounds, including starch, water-soluble protein, free amino acids, reducing sugar, sucrose, organic acids and total flavonoids, of boiled, roasted and fried chestnuts were significantly (P0.05). L-Aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and L-arginine were found to be the main reduced free amino acids in cooked chestnuts. The main aromatic compositions in fresh chestnuts were aldehydes and esters, while ketones, furfural and furan were formed in cooked chestnuts due to the Maillard reaction and degradation of saccharides, amino acids and lipids. Principle component analysis demonstrated that roasting and frying had a similar effect on the nutritional composition of chestnuts, which differed from that of the boiling process. PMID:26868551

  18. Effect of cooking methods on nutritional quality and volatile compounds of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Shi, Xianhe; Zhao, Qiaojiao; Cui, Yahui; Ouyang, Jie; Xu, Fang

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods on the content of important nutrients and volatiles in the fruit of Chinese chestnut. The nutritional compounds, including starch, water-soluble protein, free amino acids, reducing sugar, sucrose, organic acids and total flavonoids, of boiled, roasted and fried chestnuts were significantly (Pcooking, while the amylose, fat, crude protein and total polyphenol content varied slightly (P>0.05). L-Aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and L-arginine were found to be the main reduced free amino acids in cooked chestnuts. The main aromatic compositions in fresh chestnuts were aldehydes and esters, while ketones, furfural and furan were formed in cooked chestnuts due to the Maillard reaction and degradation of saccharides, amino acids and lipids. Principle component analysis demonstrated that roasting and frying had a similar effect on the nutritional composition of chestnuts, which differed from that of the boiling process.

  19. Litterfall and litter decomposition in chestnut high forest stands in northern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Patrício, Maria do Sameiro; Pereira, Ermelinda; Claro, Ana Marília; Fernandes, Maria José; Nunes, Luís; Monteiro, Maria do Loreto

    2010-01-01

    Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) is an important species in Northern Portugal as for fruit as well as for timber. Today, the role of the chestnut areas is not limited to production of fruit and timber but also to other aspects such as landscape, environmental and ecological protection, which are very important. Consequently, its sustainable management is essential in maintaining the health and vitality of the chestnut areas, therefore increasing the economical and social benefits of the...

  20. Removal of water turbidity by natural coagulants obtained from chestnut and acorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sćiban, Marina; Klasnja, Mile; Antov, Mirjana; Skrbić, Biljana

    2009-12-01

    The ability of seed extracts of several species of chestnut and acorn to act as natural coagulants was tested using a synthetic turbid water. Active components were extracted from ground seeds of Horse chestnut and acorns of some species of family Fagaceae: Common oak, Turkey oak, Northern red oak and European chestnut. All investigated extracts had coagulation capabilities and their amounts depended on pH values and initial turbidities. The seed extracts from European chestnut and Common oak acorn were the most efficient expressing the highest coagulation activities, about 80% and 70%, respectively, in both low and medium investigated water turbidities at the lowest coagulant dose 0.5 ml/L.

  1. Property Comparison of Chestnut Starch and Modified Chestnut Starch%板栗淀粉与板栗变性淀粉性质的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建兰; 刘秀凤; 李志博; 马宏峰; 蔡金星; 常学东

    2011-01-01

    比较了板栗淀粉,板栗氧化淀粉,板栗羟丙基淀粉,板栗磷酸酯淀粉的主要物理性质并测定了板栗淀粉及其3种变性淀粉的冻融稳定性、透光率、溶解性和膨胀度、糊化特性等性质.结果表明:板栗淀粉经过变性后,3种变性淀粉的冻融稳定性和透光率上升,溶解度变大;氧化淀粉和羟丙基淀粉的膨胀度小于板栗淀粉,磷酸酯淀粉的膨胀度大于板栗淀粉;板栗淀粉糊的糊化温度,峰值黏度、95℃的黏度与50℃的黏度以及在二者温度保温1 h的黏度值均低于板栗淀粉;板栗变性淀粉糊的热黏度稳定性和冷黏度稳定性与板栗淀粉相比变化较大;板栗变性淀粉的凝胶性和凝沉性均低于板栗淀粉,抗老化能力强于板栗淀粉.%The properties of chestnut starch, oxidized chestnut starch, and hydroxypropylated chestnut starch were compared and the physical properties such as freeze -melt stability, light transmissivity, solubility, expansibility,and gelatinization were studied.Results: The freeze - melt stability and light transmissivity of chestnut starch rise and solubility is enhanced after the modification.The expansibilities of oxidized chestnut starch and hydroxypropyl chestnut starch are lower than chestnut starch, while those of carboxymethyl chestnut starch are higher.The pasting temperature,peak viscosity,95 ℃ viscosity,50 ℃ viscosity and their final viscosity of the modified chestnut starch are lower than chestnut starch.Differences are found in thermal -viscosity and cool paste viscosity between modified chestnut starch paste and chestnut starch paste.The gelatin and sink stability of the modified starch are lower than chestnut starch and the anti -aging ability of the modified starch is strengthened.

  2. Population genetic characteristics of horse chestnut in Serbia

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    Ocokoljić Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The general population genetic characteristics of cultivated horse chestnut trees excelling in growth, phenotype characteristics, type of inflorescence, productivity and resistance to the leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimić were analyzed in Serbia. The analyzed population genetic parameters point to fundamental differences in the genetic structure among the cultivated populations in Serbia. The study shows the variability in all properties among the populations and inter-individual variability within the populations. The variability and differential characteristics were assessed using statistical parameters, taking into account the satisfactory reflection of the hereditary potential. The assessed differences in the vitality and evolution potential of different populations can determine the methods of horse chestnut gene pool collection, reconstruction and improvement. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041: Establishment of Wood Plantations Intended for a forestation of Serbia

  3. Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. α-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

  4. Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses.

  5. The Solanum demissumR8 late blight resistance gene is an Sw-5 homologue that has been deployed worldwide in late blight resistant varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, Jack H.; Arkel, van Gert; Bergervoet-van Deelen, Marjan; Jo, Kwang Ryong; Jacobsen, Evert; Visser, Richard G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The potato late blight resistance geneR8has been cloned.R8is found in five late blight resistant varieties deployed in three different continents. R8 recognises Avr8 and is homologous to the NB-LRR protein Sw-5 from tomato.Abstract: The broad spectrum late blight resistance gene R8 from Solanum

  6. Niclosamide inhibits leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-Il Kim; Jong Tae Song; Jin-Yong Jeong; Hak Soo Seo

    2016-01-01

    Rice leaf blight, which is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), results in huge losses in grain yield. Here, we show that Xoo-induced rice leaf blight is effectively controlled by niclosamide, an oral antihelminthic drug and molluscicide, which also functions as an anti-tumor agent. Niclosamide directly inhibited the growth of the three Xoo strains PXO99, 10208 and K3a. Niclosamide moved long distances from the site of local application to distant rice tissues...

  7. Vitamin E profile as a reliable authenticity discrimination factor between chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C M; Alves, Rita C; Casal, Susana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Pereira, José Alberto

    2009-06-24

    In this study, the profile of tocopherols and tocotrienols in chestnut ( Castanea sativa Mill.) kernel oil was evaluated. Four Portuguese chestnut varieties were selected: Aveleira, Boaventura, Judia, and Longal. The vitamin E determination had already been applied to similar matrices, but, to the authors' knowledge, it is the first time that chestnut kernel oil has been evaluated. The prevalent vitamer was gamma-tocopherol, often present in trace amounts in other natural products. Due to the high commercial value of chestnut, a statistical analysis of the obtained results was also conducted to define the tocopherol and tocotrienol profile as a reliable indicator of a specific chestnut variety. To achieve this objective, an analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the method as well as the uniformity of results for each variety. A discriminant analysis was also carried out revealing quite satisfactory results. Four varieties were clustered in four individual groups through the definition of two discriminant analysis dimensions.

  8. Changes in leaf tissues of common horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) colonised by the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ochridella Deschka and Dimić)

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Weronika Haratym

    2012-01-01

    The present study, conducted during the period 2010- 2011, involved morphological observations and anatomical investigations of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) leaves with symptoms of damage caused by feeding of larvae of the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić). Leaves were collected from trees growing in the city of Lublin (Poland). Microscopic slides were prepared from fresh and fixed plant material. Leaf anatomical features were examined by light micr...

  9. 不同抑菌杀菌剂对新鲜板栗仁抑菌效果的研究%Study on the Antibacterial Effect of Disinfectant in Rresh Chestnut Kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德静; 胡燕

    2014-01-01

    板栗不仅营养价值高,而且有一定的保健功效。但是板栗因易腐烂变质而不易保藏。新鲜板栗仁因表面保护组织的破坏而更不易保藏。以广水板栗为试材,研究了几种不同的抑菌剂对新鲜板栗仁的抑菌效果。结果显示,0.10%次氯酸钠和0.10%脱氢醋酸钠在新鲜板栗仁中的抑菌效果较好。用次氯酸钠和脱氢醋酸钠处理过的板栗仁中细菌和真菌的生长都受到了极大的抑制。特别是次氯酸钠不仅有抑菌作用,还能降低呼吸作用的强度,能显著的延长新鲜板栗仁的保鲜期。%Chestnut is not only a high nutritional food, but also have certain health care function. But it is not easily stored for it is highly perishable and the fresh chestnut kernel is not easily stored too for the damage of the surface protection tissue. With Guangshui chestnut as the material, the antibacterial effect of different disinfectant in fresh chestnut kernel was studied. The result shows that the antibacterial effect of 0.10%sodium hypochlorite and 0.10%sodium dehydro acetate are better in fresh chestnut kernel.The grows of the bacteria and fungus are inhibited after treated with sodium hypochlorite and sodium dehydroacetate. Especially sodium hypochlorite which has an antibacterial effect, but also can reduce the respiration intensity so it can ignificantly extend the shelf-life of fresh chestnut kernel.

  10. Effect of Two Biological Formulations Based on Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Control of Didymella applanata, the Causal Agent of Red Raspberry Cane Spur Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Shternshis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to estimate the efficacy of the two microbial formulations based on Bacillus subtilis Cohn. and Pseudomonas fluorescens Mig. on the fungus Didymella applanata (Niessl. Sacc., the causal agent of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. spur blight. In vitro, both bacteria reduced the growth of D. applanata. In inoculation experiments with raspberry canes in two cultivars with different susceptibility to D. applanata, these antagonistic bacteria suppressed fungal development by reducing the lesions area and the number of D. applanata fruiting bodies. Field trials of two biological formulations under natural conditions showed a significant suppression of the disease. B. subtilis and P. fluorescens included in the formulations revealed antagonistic activity towards D. applanata that depended on the red raspberry cultivar and weather conditions. In all cases, B. subtilis showed better results than P. fluorescens in biocontrol of the raspberry spur blight. This study demonstrated for the first time the ability of the biocontrol agents B. subtilis and P. fluorescens to suppress red raspberry cane spur blight, a serious worldwide disease.

  11. The cold-induced defensin TAD1 confers resistance against snow mold and Fusarium head blight in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kentaro; Kuwabara, Chikako; Umeki, Natsuki; Fujioka, Mari; Saburi, Wataru; Matsui, Hirokazu; Abe, Fumitaka; Imai, Ryozo

    2016-06-20

    TAD1 (Triticum aestivum defensin 1) is induced during cold acclimation in winter wheat and encodes a plant defensin with antimicrobial activity. In this study, we demonstrated that recombinant TAD1 protein inhibits hyphal growth of the snow mold fungus, Typhula ishikariensis in vitro. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TAD1 were created and tested for resistance against T. ishikariensis. Leaf inoculation assays revealed that overexpression of TAD1 confers resistance against the snow mold. In addition, the TAD1-overexpressors showed resistance against Fusarium graminearum, which causes Fusarium head blight, a devastating disease in wheat and barley. These results indicate that TAD1 is a candidate gene to improve resistance against multiple fungal diseases in cereal crops.

  12. Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manetti MC

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement? This paper aims at evaluating the role of standards in chestnut coppices from a biological and functional perspective. In addition to a detailed analysis of Italian regulations on the issue, the technical definition of the term is analysed: (i as for the functional role of standards; (ii to assess whether the required functions are technically necessary and are being actually performed. In this contex, the results of an experimental trial are reported. The goal of the trial were to assess the shoots’ parameters, the stand productivity, the dynamics of canopy cover in coppices with or without standards. In 2001, at harvesting operations in a coppice aged 30 with standards managed by the local community, two experimental plots 2500 m2 each were established. The two theses being compared were: simple coppice and coppixce with standards (100 standards per hectare. The released standards were qualified immediately after final harvesting. Sprouting ability, growth pattern and stool vitality were surveyed in March 2004 (at age 2, in May 2008 (at age 6 and in April 2010 (at age 8. First results highlighted the evidence of statistically significant differences between the two thesis. The high number of standards effected negatively both vitality and growth pattern of the stools. Simple coppice recorded a lower shoot mortality, a higher diametrical growth and canopy cover degree as well; the heigth growth was, on the opposite, significantly lower. These results, although referred to a limited lifespan (1/3 of the rotation time and to one site only, underline productive, ecological and environmental benefits and as a consequence suggest the widening of the experimental network and the development of new, more relevant and consistent rules, making acceptable the simple coppice as a possible silvicultural choice to be applied to chestnut coppices.

  13. Control of Wilt and Blight Diseases of Cumin through Antagonistic Fungi under in Vitro and Field Conditions

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    P. DEEPAK

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to assess their possible use as bio-agents for several antagonistic fungi on growth of two cumin fungal pathogens under in vitro and field conditions. Under in vitro conditions maximum inhibition (82.86% of radial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cumini was observed with the treatment of Trichoderma harzianum strain I, whereas maximum inhibition (85.45% of the mycelial growth of Alternaria burnsii was observed in the presence of Trichoderma harzianum strain II. The antagonists who showed maximum inhibition of the pathogen in laboratory conditions were applied in field conditions as soil treatment/seed treatment or as foliar spray. The incidence of wilt disease was found to be lowest (PDI 27.40% when soil was treated with Trichoderma harzianium strain I at the rate of 24g / 6m2 (weight of fungus with sorghum seeds. Minimum blight disease incidence was observed when T. harzianum strain II was applied to the soil at the rate of 24g / 6m2 (36.15% or when 10% spore suspension of T. harzianum strain II was applied as seed treatment at the time of sowing and as spray at the time of flowering (PDI 35.10%. Thus treatments of Trichoderma harzianum strain I for wilt and Trichoderma harzianum strain II for blight diseases of cumin under both the conditions @ 24g / 6m2 or 40kg / ha seems promising for sustainable management of crop diseases.

  14. Somatic Embryogenesis in Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuana, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Embryogenic cultures of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) can be obtained from different organs and tissues. We describe here the induction from stamen filaments and the procedures applied for the successive phases of somatic embryo development and maturation. Embryogenic tissues are obtained on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 9.0 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Somatic embryos develop after transfer to hormone-free medium enriched with glutamine. Maturation and germination of isolated embryos are achieved by transfer to medium containing polyethylene glycol 4000 and activated charcoal, successive desiccation treatment, and cold storage at 4 °C for 8 weeks. PMID:26619878

  15. Impact of new populations of Phytophthora infestans on integrated late blight management

    OpenAIRE

    Flier, W. G.; Kessel, G.J.T.; Bosch, van den, F.J.P.; Turkensteen, L.J.

    2002-01-01

    A recent migration of a variable population of P. infestans has largely displaced the clonal A1 population in Western Europe. Sexual reproduction in European late blight populations is now possible and has been reported. The increased levels of aggressiveness form an important epidemiological feature of this new blight population. The impact of `new blight¿ on crop protection strategies based on late blight resistant cultivars and fungicides is discussed

  16. Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estonba Andone

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E allele produces black or bay coat horses. Because black or bay colored coats are considered as the purebred phenotype for most of the breeds from this region, it is important to have a fast and reliable method to detect alleles causing chestnut coat color in horses. Findings In order to assess coat color genotype in reproductive animals with a view to avoiding those bearing chestnut alleles, we have developed a reliable, fast and cost-effective screening device which involves Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP detection based on SNaPshot® (Applied Biosystems methodology. We have applied this method to four native breeds from the Iberian Cantabrian Coast: Pottoka and Jaca Navarra pony breeds, in which only black or bay coats are acceptable, and Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia and Burguete heavy breeds, in which chestnut coats are acceptable. The frequency of the chestnut alleles ranged between f = 0.156-0.322 in pony breeds and between f = 0.604-0.716 in heavy breeds. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of the DNA methodology reported herein as a device for identifying chestnut alleles; the methodology constitutes a valuable tool for breeders to decrease the incidence of chestnut animals among Cantabrian Coast pony breeds.

  17. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill starch for industrial utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g, lipid (5.39 g/100g, crude fiber (2.34 g/100g and ash (2.14 g/100g. Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and corn. This fraction showed more lipids and proteins than the other starches. Chestnut starch granules showed peculiar shape, smaller than the control starches and low amount of damaged units. Chemical composition concerning amylose : amylopectin ratio was intermediate to that presented by cassava and corn starch granules. Water absorption at different temperatures as well as solubility were also intermediate but closer to that presented by cassava granules. The same behavior was observed in the interaction with dimethyl-sulfoxide. Native starch granules and those submitted to enzymatic treatment with commercial alpha-amylase and also with enzymes from germinated wheat were observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Water suspensions of chestnut starch granules were heated to form pastes that were studied comparatively to those obtained with cassava and corn starches. Viscographic pattern of chestnut starch pastes showed a characteristic profile with high initial viscosity but peak absence, high resistance to mechanical stirring under hot conditions and high final viscosity. There was no way to compare it with the paste viscographic profiles obtained with the control starches. Chestnut starch pastes were stable down to pH 4 but unstable at pH 3. The water losses observed in the chestnut starch pastes after freeze-thaw cycles showed more similarity to the pattern observed in corn starch pastes as well as clarity and strength of the gel. In general the results

  18. Short communication. Inheritance of cotyledon storage proteins in European sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M. A.; Alvarez, J. B.; Gutierrez, J. C.; Martin, L. M.

    2012-11-01

    A first approximation to the inheritance of cotyledon storage proteins was studied in European sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) by evaluating the offspring of a controlled cross between two local chestnut varieties (Corriente and Pilonga) from southern Spain. The analysis was carried out in 15 polymorphic bands corresponding to the albumin fraction of the storage proteins. The relationship between bands displayed one case of allelism and four of linkage. These results should be considered as the baseline of the genetics of these proteins and suggest that they could be useful for the evaluation of the genetic variability in chestnut. (Author) 13 refs.

  19. Niclosamide inhibits leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Il; Song, Jong Tae; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Seo, Hak Soo

    2016-01-01

    Rice leaf blight, which is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), results in huge losses in grain yield. Here, we show that Xoo-induced rice leaf blight is effectively controlled by niclosamide, an oral antihelminthic drug and molluscicide, which also functions as an anti-tumor agent. Niclosamide directly inhibited the growth of the three Xoo strains PXO99, 10208 and K3a. Niclosamide moved long distances from the site of local application to distant rice tissues. Niclosamide also increased the levels of salicylate and induced the expression of defense-related genes such as OsPR1 and OsWRKY45, which suppressed Xoo-induced leaf wilting. Niclosamide had no detrimental effects on vegetative/reproductive growth and yield. These combined results indicate that niclosamide can be used to block bacterial leaf blight in rice with no negative side effects. PMID:26879887

  20. Fusarium head blight of winter rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kiecana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on Fusarium head blight of rye were carried out in the years 2005-2007 on 10 production fields in the Lublin region. The percentage of heads showing the fusariosis symptoms in the years 2005-2007 ranged from 0 to 7%. Mycological analysis of kernels and chaff obtained from heads with Fusarium blight (scab symptoms showed that Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium sporotrichioides were the largest threat to heads of this cereal. The species of Fusarium poae and Fusarium crookwellense were also isolated from infected rye heads. The dominance of particular species in infecting rye heads was determined by weather conditions.

  1. Systems and models of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kielak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents fire blight prediction models and systems, developed in Europe (system Billing - versions: BOS, BRS, BIS95 and originated from this system: Firescreen, FEUERBRA and ANLAFBRA and in United States (Californian system, model Maryblyt and system Cougarblight. Use of above models and systems in various climatic-geographic conditions and comparison of obtained prognostic data to real fire blight occurrence is reviewed. The newest trends in research on improvement of prognostic analyses parameters with their adjustment to particular conditions and consideration of infection source occurrence are also presented.

  2. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes involved in Blister Blight defense in Tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaswall, Kuldip; Mahajan, Pallavi; Singh, Gagandeep; Parmar, Rajni; Seth, Romit; Raina, Aparnashree; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shankar, Ravi; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2016-01-01

    To unravel the molecular mechanism of defense against blister blight (BB) disease caused by an obligate biotrophic fungus, Exobasidium vexans, transcriptome of BB interaction with resistance and susceptible tea genotypes was analysed through RNA-seq using Illumina GAIIx at four different stages during ~20-day disease cycle. Approximately 69 million high quality reads were assembled de novo, yielding 37,790 unique transcripts with more than 55% being functionally annotated. Differentially expressed, 149 defense related transcripts/genes, namely defense related enzymes, resistance genes, multidrug resistant transporters, transcription factors, retrotransposons, metacaspases and chaperons were observed in RG, suggesting their role in defending against BB. Being present in the major hub, putative master regulators among these candidates were identified from predetermined protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Further, confirmation of abundant expression of well-known RPM1, RPS2 and RPP13 in quantitative Real Time PCR indicates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, possibly induce synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, required to overcome the virulence of E. vexans. Compendiously, the current study provides a comprehensive gene expression and insights into the molecular mechanism of tea defense against BB to serve as a resource for unravelling the possible regulatory mechanism of immunity against various biotic stresses in tea and other crops. PMID:27465480

  3. Biological Efficacy of Streptomyces sp. Strain BN1 against the Cereal Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boknam Jung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB caused by the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is one of the most severe diseases threatening the production of small grains. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as zearalenone and trichothecences. During survey of contamination by FHB in rice grains, we found a bacterial isolate, designated as BN1, antagonistic to F. graminearum. The strain BN1 had branching vegetative hyphae and spores, and its aerial hyphae often had long, straight filaments bearing spores. The 16S rRNA gene of BN1 had 100% sequence identity with those found in several Streptomyces species. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS regions showed that BN1 grouped with S. sampsonii with 77% bootstrap value, suggesting that BN1 was not a known Streptomyces species. In addition, the efficacy of the BN1 strain against F. graminearum strains was tested both in vitro and in vivo. Wheat seedling length was significantly decreased by F. graminearum infection. However, this effect was mitigated when wheat seeds were treated with BN1 spore suspension prior to F. graminearum infection. BN1 also significantly decreased FHB severity when it was sprayed onto wheat heads, whereas BN1 was not effective when wheat heads were point inoculated. These results suggest that spraying of BN1 spores onto wheat heads during the wheat flowering season can be efficient for plant protection. Mechanistic studies on the antagonistic effect of BN1 against F. graminearum remain to be analyzed.

  4. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes involved in Blister Blight defense in Tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaswall, Kuldip; Mahajan, Pallavi; Singh, Gagandeep; Parmar, Rajni; Seth, Romit; Raina, Aparnashree; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shankar, Ravi; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2016-07-01

    To unravel the molecular mechanism of defense against blister blight (BB) disease caused by an obligate biotrophic fungus, Exobasidium vexans, transcriptome of BB interaction with resistance and susceptible tea genotypes was analysed through RNA-seq using Illumina GAIIx at four different stages during ~20-day disease cycle. Approximately 69 million high quality reads were assembled de novo, yielding 37,790 unique transcripts with more than 55% being functionally annotated. Differentially expressed, 149 defense related transcripts/genes, namely defense related enzymes, resistance genes, multidrug resistant transporters, transcription factors, retrotransposons, metacaspases and chaperons were observed in RG, suggesting their role in defending against BB. Being present in the major hub, putative master regulators among these candidates were identified from predetermined protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Further, confirmation of abundant expression of well-known RPM1, RPS2 and RPP13 in quantitative Real Time PCR indicates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, possibly induce synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, required to overcome the virulence of E. vexans. Compendiously, the current study provides a comprehensive gene expression and insights into the molecular mechanism of tea defense against BB to serve as a resource for unravelling the possible regulatory mechanism of immunity against various biotic stresses in tea and other crops.

  5. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songlin Fei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaTScan and ClusterSeer and a nonspatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moderate level of conformity and revealed similar chestnut oak regeneration site affinity. Chestnut oak regeneration hotspots were positively associated with the abundance of chestnut oak trees in the overstory and a moderate cover of heather species (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia spp. but were negatively associated with the abundance of hayscented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula and mountain laurel (Kalmia latiforia. In general, hotspot detection is a viable tool for assisting natural resource managers with identifying areas possessing significantly high or low tree regeneration.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Chestnut-flanked white-eye (Zosterops erythropleurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yumei; Yao, Jiyuan; Zhao, Xin; Li, Lingyu; Yan, Shouqing

    2016-09-01

    The Chestnut-flanked white-eye (Zosterops erythropleurus) is a species of family Zosteropidae, which is distributed widely in the world. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Chestnut-flanked white-eye was determined. It has a total length of 17 811 bp, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosome RNA genes and 2 control regions. The total base composition was 30.2% for A, 31.0% for C, 14.2% for G and 24.6% for T. The phylogenetic tree of Chestnut-flanked white-eye and 13 other species belonging to the order Passeriformes was built. The molecular data presented here will be useful to study the evolutionary relationships and genetic diversity of Chestnut-flanked white-eye. PMID:26260179

  7. Horse chestnut – efficacy and safety in chronic venous insufficiency: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Marlena Dudek-Makuch; Elżbieta Studzińska-Sroka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe extract from horse chestnut seeds (Aesculus hippocastanumL., Sapindaceae), standardised for the content of aescin, is used as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-oedematous properties and indicates a positive effect on the venous tone, rheological properties, and blood coagulability. The mechanism of horse chestnut seed extract/aescin activity was proposed on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies, and its effectiveness was document...

  8. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant properties of edible chestnuts

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio, Amilcar L.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Bento, Albino; Teubig, P.; Botelho, M. Luísa

    2010-01-01

    As seasonal products chestnut have to be postharvest treated to increase the shelf-life. Several problems are associated with traditional preservation methods. These are a decreasing in quality due to dehydration and contamination with insects and microbes including secondary metabolites, e.g.: mycotoxin. The most common preservation method for chestnuts is the use of chemical fumigation with methyl bromide. Methyl bromide is a toxic agent and has been banned according to the M...

  9. Assessing phytophtora zoospore a to enhance disease management and promote ecological surveillance of chestnut ink disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Eugénia; Nunes, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. cambivora are soil borne oomycetes that cause Chestnut Ink Disease, a lethal and widespread disease of the European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.). Soil moisture is a key factor for the onset of Phytophthora root rot epidemics. Zoospores are the main infective propagules that reach the roots by swimming in liquid environments, become encysted and after that infect the host. Considering this biological uniqueness, we studied zoospore release an...

  10. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis) on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yanli; Zhang, Jiaxin; Yan, Zengguang; Ma, Yongqiang; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Minzhao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qin, Ling; Cao, Qingqin

    2016-01-01

    Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng), we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant-volatile-mediated host

  11. Carbon sequestration for different management alternatives in sweet chestnut coppice in northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Prada, Marta; Bravo Oviedo, Felipe; Berdasco, Lorena; Canga, Elena; Martínez Alonso, Celia

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an innovative approach to assessing carbon sequestration in sweet chestnut coppice taking into account the importance of carbon fluxes in the whole forest-industry value chain in the mitigation of climate change. The goals of this study were: to evaluate the baseline carbon capture of sweet chestnut forest in the north of Spain; to assess the effect of thinning and extending the rotation period on carbon storage; and to evaluate the substitution effect of using...

  12. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Du

    Full Text Available Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng, we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant

  13. Chestnut Lodge and the psychoanalytic approach to psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, John S

    2011-02-01

    The study of psychosis has a long history in psychoanalysis, as does the debate over the suitability of psychoanalysis for treating schizophrenia. For decades, Chestnut Lodge was not only a hospital but also a clinical research and educational institution. A unique patient-staff ratio--about twenty analytic therapists for a hundred patients--made possible prolonged and intense clinical work with schizophrenic and other severely disturbed patients. Interstaff discussions were encouraged and facilitated. This quasi-academic approach to in-depth individual case studies led to clinical findings and theoretical formulations that had a significant impact on developments in psychoanalysis, both here and abroad. Many of these findings and theoretical formulations are relevant to current studies and treatments of psychotic and nonpsychotic patients.

  14. Purification of castamollin, a novel antifungal protein from Chinese chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2003-11-01

    A novel antifungal protein, designated castamollin, was isolated from Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollisima) seeds with a procedure involving ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 75. Castamollin possessed a novel N-terminal sequence demonstrating little similarity to N-terminal sequences of Castanea sativa chitinase. Castamollin exhibited a molecular mass of 37kDa in gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. It inhibited the activity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 7microM and translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC(50) of 2.7microM. Castamollin displayed antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Physalospora piricola, and Coprinus comatus but was devoid of lectin activity.

  15. Effect of Different Hydrocolloids on Pasting Behavior of Native Water Chestnut (Trapa bispinosa Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubala Lutfi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The pasting behavior of native Water Chestnut Starch – hydrocolloids mixtures was studied. The effect of Xanthan, Guar, Carboxy Methyl Cellulose and Acacia on Water Chestnut Starch was examined by using micro Viscoamylograph. It was noticed that all hydrocolloids greatly modify the pasting properties of water chestnut starch. Results showed that gelatinization temperature of water chestnut starch was increased by the addition of gum acacia at 0.3 % concentration, whereas guar gum decreased at the same concentration as compared to native water chestnut starch. Xanthan gum and guar gum significantly increased peak viscosity at 0.1 – 0.3 %, but gum acacia at only 0.3 % addition. The breakdown was greatly enhanced by the addition of xanthan gum at 0.1-0.3 % concentrations, but the retrogradation was mostly influenced due to the presence of guar gum at 0.3 %. These results showed that hydrocolloids modify the properties of native water chestnut starch, which can provide a great potential for use in different food products.

  16. Horse chestnut – efficacy and safety in chronic venous insufficiency: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Dudek-Makuch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe extract from horse chestnut seeds (Aesculus hippocastanumL., Sapindaceae, standardised for the content of aescin, is used as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-oedematous properties and indicates a positive effect on the venous tone, rheological properties, and blood coagulability. The mechanism of horse chestnut seed extract/aescin activity was proposed on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies, and its effectiveness was documented with numerous randomised clinical trials. The results of the studies have proven that horse chestnut seed extract not only significantly improves subjective symptoms in patients with chronic venous insufficiency like calf spasm, leg pain, pruritus, fatigue, but it also reduced leg volume, the ankle and calf circumference. The preparations containing horse chestnut seed extract are very popular and they have similar effectiveness as compression therapy and a preparation with O-(β-hydroxyethyl-rutosides. Moreover, horse chestnut seed extract has been proven to be safe and very well tolerated. The study was to present the results of the studies that have been conducted so far and that have confirmed the effectiveness of use of horse chestnut seed extract or aescin as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency.

  17. Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahamadou E.GOUNGA; Shi-ying XU; Zhang WANG

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption.Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample's protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal.

  18. Acute Effusive Pericarditis due to Horse Chestnut Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edem, Efe; Kahyaoğlu, Behlül; Çakar, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 32 Final Diagnosis: Pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal product Symptoms: Dyspnea Medication: Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) Clinical Procedure: Pericardial and pleural effusions were drained through a pericardiopleural window Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: There are many well-known causes of pericardial effusion, such as cancer metastasis, bacterial or viral pericarditis, and uremic pericarditis; however, no reports exist in the literature demonstrating a pericardial effusion that led to cardiac tamponade following consumption of an herbal remedy. Case Report: A 32-year-old male patient was referred to our cardiology outpatient clinic with a complaint of dyspnea. The patient’s medical history was unremarkable; however, he had consumed 3 boxes of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) paste over the previous 1.5 months. His chest x-ray examination revealed an enlarged cardiac shadow and bilateral pleural effusion. On transthoracic echocardiographic examination, his ejection fraction was found to be 55% with circumferentially extended pericardial effusion that reached 3.9 cm at its maximal thickness. No growth had been detected in the pericardial and pleural biopsies or blood samples; there was no evidence of an infectious process in the physical examination. Based on this information, we diagnosed pericarditis resulting from the use of herbal remedies. This is the first report to demonstrate that herbal remedy consumption may cause this type of clinical condition. Conclusions: Besides other well-known causes, pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal remedies should always be considered when treating patients with pericardial effusion caused by unclear etiologies. PMID:27141926

  19. Blighted Spaces and the Politics of Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available While a great deal is known about the demographic and historical trends that shape the built environment of American cities, much less is known about the politics of everyday life among residents who continue to live in postindustrial neighborhoods. This study seeks to compensate for the current gaps in academic research by conducting spatially informed ethnography in a North Philadelphia community. Specifically, the study will explore the issue of urban "blight" from a cultural geography perspective, primarily by looking at the ways in which "blighted" spaces shape everyday life, and everyday life in turn shapes and produces the spatial environment. In response to these concerns, my study poses the questions: What would it mean to focus on the ways in which human agency, imagination, and subjectivity are shaped by "blighted" geographical locations? What would it mean to pay ethnographic attention to how subjects in given historical conditions are shaped by "blighted" spaces, as well as how they respond to these spaces in culturally specific ways? By incorporating critical interdisciplinary approaches, this study offers a new way of looking at the various practices of daily life - including flexible, informal economic activities and post-welfare related "lifestyles" of resistance. Through the lens of spatial ethnography, the study seeks to elucidate the ways in which postindustrial space interacts with culture, poverty and addiction; as well as the ways in which users continue to appropriate postindustrial spaces in culturally meaningful ways under the aegis of the semi-welfare state.

  20. Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Bacterial Antagonists and Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora were prevalent. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory acti...

  1. Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Antagonists and Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora arose. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory activity of o...

  2. Can physiology help us to combat late blight in potato?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Late blight is a devastating disease in potato production world-wide. Breeding for resistance is complex because of the versatile and aggressive population of Phytophthora infestans, which overcomes any new genetic source of resistance very rapidly. There are reliable fungicides available to control

  3. Fire blight: applied genomic insights of the pathogen and host

    Science.gov (United States)

    The enterobacterial phytopathogen, Erwinia amylovora, causes fire blight, an invasive disease that threatens a wide range of commercial and ornamental Rosaceae host plants. The response elicited by E. amylovora in its host during disease development is similar to the hypersensitive reaction that ty...

  4. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Water Chestnut Extract on Cytokine Responses via Nuclear Factor-κB-signaling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bora; Kim, Jin Eun; Choi, Byung-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa japonica Flerov.) is an annual aquatic plant. In the present study, we showed that the treatment of water chestnut extracted with boiling water resulted in a significant increase 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and decrease the intracellular H2O2-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, water chestnut extract (WCE) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production and suppressed mRNA and protein expre...

  6. Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2012-04-01

    The European chestnut is cultivated for its nuts and wood. Several studies point to the dependency of chestnut productivity on specific soil and climate characteristics. For instance, this species dislikes chalky and poorly drained soils, appreciates sedimentary, siliceous and acidic to neutral soils. Chestnut trees also seems to appreciate annual mean values of sunlight spanning between 2400 and 2600 h, rainfall ranging between 600 and 1500 mm, mean annual temperature between 9 and 13°C, 27°C being the mean of the maximum temperature (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992; Gomes-Laranjo et al.,2008). The amount of heat between May and October must range between 1800°D and 2400°D (Dinis et al., 2011) . In Poland, the growing season is defined as the period of time when the mean 24-h temperature is greater than 5°C (Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007). In Portugal, maximum photosynthetic activity occurs at 24-28°C for adult trees, but exhibits more than 50% of termoinhibition when the air temperature is above 32°C, which is frequent during summer (Gomes- Laranjo et al., 2006, 2008). Recently Pereira et al (2011) identified a set of meteorological variables/parameters with high impact on chestnut productivity. The main purpose of this work is to assess the potential impacts of future climate change on chestnut productivity in Portugal as well as on European chestnut orchards. First, observed data from the European Climate assessment (ECA) and simulations with the Regional Circulation Model (RCM) COSMO-CLM for recent climate conditions are used to assess the ability of the RCM to model the actual meteorological conditions. Then, ensemble projections from the ECHAM5/COSMO-CLM model chain for two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) are used to estimate the values of relevant meteorological variables and parameters und future climate conditions. Simulated values are then compared with those obtained for present climate. Results point to changes in the spatial and temporal

  7. Physico-chemical, morphological and pasting properties of starches extracted from water Chestnuts (Trapa natans) from three Lakes of Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Adil Gani; Sham Sul Haq; F.A. Masoodi; A. A. Broadway; Asir Gani

    2010-01-01

    Studies on physicochemical, morphology and pasting properties of starches extracted from water chestnuts of three Lakes of Kashmir valley (Wular, Anchar and Dal Lakes) were conducted to determine their application in different food products. The water chestnut starch from Dal Lake had more oval shaped granules than water chestnut starches from the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.The unique feature of the water chestnut starches were shape of starch granules which looked like horn(s) protruding fro...

  8. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located ∼800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1

  9. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

  10. Enhancing chestnut coppices: silvicultural management and socio-economic context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Manetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available  Castanea sativa is one of the most important species for timber production in Italy but, both management system, ownership type and wood chain structure, aren’t able to  enhance enough the market value of wood assortments. Although the high demand of quality timber, the internal production is heavily  reduced, mainly as far as timber quality is concerned and because of the lack of suitable timber sizes. In this context, experimental trials  have been approached to identify and verify which silvicultural methods are best suited to reach high yields depending to the investments  needed and the local socio-economical condition. Two technical approaches were evaluated: stand silviculture and single-tree oriented silviculture. As for the socio-economical aspects, a few demographic indexes have been examined and the first-phase processing enterprises  acting in the concerned area were analyzed. The goals of this paper are to evaluate the biological response to the applied silviculture, to  analyze the problems arisen and to estimate the applicability of the proposed methods in relation to the different socio-economic contexts. The research has been carried out in Tuscany in two important forest areas - Monte Amiata and Colline Metallifere - in young chestnut  coppices characterized by an homogeneous stand density and a good site index. The two examined districts showed some similarities  but they have mainly highlighted important differences about the social structure and concerns and enterprises characteristics. The area of Monte Amiata is typified by a higher residents density then the Colline Metallifere but only 1/3 of the population is employed in the agro-forest sector. In addition, in the Monte Amiata district most concerns are sized less than 2 hectares and chestnut is the main forest  species. On the contrary, in the Colline Metallifere the agro-forest sector (57% of workers is one of the main sources of income for the  local

  11. Late blight in organic potato growing: managing resistance and early tuber growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hospers - Brands, Monique; Timmermans, Bart; van der Putten, Peter; Struik, Paul; Tiemens-Hulscher, Marjolein; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith

    2008-01-01

    In organic potato production yields are often reduced by potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans). Two aspects are important in late blight management: a sufficiently high (field) resistance to late blight, and early tuber formation. With early tuber formation the period of tuber growth is extended at the beginning, and with a high resistance level at the end. In 2006 and 2007 experiments were carried out in which the effects of the physiological age of seed tubers on field resistance ...

  12. 车前草穗枯病菌分子鉴定%Molecular Identification of Pathogen of Plantain Head Blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁艳; 涂怀妹; 崔朝宇; 蒋军喜

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, two isolates of pathogen of plantain head blight from Ji'an county in Jiangxi province were molecularly identified. RDNA-ITS region of each of the two isolates was amplified by PCR, and the PCR products were sequenced. Both of them are 579 nt in length, and they have a consensus sequence. The sequence shares 99.0% homology with sequence of either Diaporthe angelicae or its anamorph Phomopsis subordinaria. Based on the criterion of rDNA-ITS sequence homology in fungus species classification, pathogen of plantain head blight was identified as Diaporthe angelicae.%采用真核生物通用引物ITS1/ITS4,对来自江西省吉安县2个车前草穗枯病菌菌株进行rDNA-ITS区段的PCR扩增,对扩增产物进行测序,结果获得2个长度均为579 nt且序列完全一致的rDNA-ITS序列,该序列与GenBank中当归间座壳菌(Diaporthe angelicae)及其无性态拟茎点霉菌(Phomopsis subordinaria)对应序列的同源性高达99.0%,根据以rDNA-ITS序列同源性大小划分种类的标准,将车前草穗枯病菌鉴定为当归间座壳菌。

  13. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF BANDED LEAF AND SHEATH BLIGHT DISEASE (Rhizoctonia solani KUHN IN CORN WITH FORMULATED Bacillus subtilis BR23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amran Muis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. causing banded leaf and sheath blight diseases is one of the important fungi of corn world wide. The fungus is commonly controlled by using fungicide because no resistant variety available. The objective of the study was to develop a seed treatment formulation of the selected Bacillus subtilis to control R. solani in corn. The study was conducted in the Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Bañòs, College, Laguna from May 2004 to August 2005, using sweet corn var. IPB Supersweet as test plant. Corn seeds were surface sterilized for 10 minutes in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution and 5% ethanol, washed thrice with sterile distilled water and air-dried. The seeds were coated with formulated B. subtilis BR23 and used for several experiments, such as evaluation for their germination and growth in the laboratory, effectively on R. solani in the baked and nonbaked field soil under greenhouse condition, and in the microplots artificially infested with R. solani. The treatment was compared with other standard seed treatment of synthetic fungicides such as captan (10 g per kg seeds and metalaxyl (10 g per kg seeds. The experiments were designed in a completely random design with three replications. Parameters observed were seed germination, plant height, disease scores, and plant yield. Laboratory formulated B. subtilis BR23 used as seed treatment had no detrimental effects on seed germination and seedling vigor. In microplots artificially infested with a selected highly virulent R. solani, seed treatment with the same formulation increased grain yield by 27% compared to that of the control captan seed treatment with 14.4%. The studies showed the potential of B. subtilis BR23 for commercialization as a seed treatment for the control of banded leaf and sheath blight disease (R. solani in corn.

  14. Flavonoids in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds and powdered waste water byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, Ireneusz; Janda, Bogdan; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo; Franceschi, Federico; Franz, Chlodwig; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2007-10-17

    Horse chestnut extracts are widely used in pharmacy and cosmetic industries. The main active constituents are saponins of oleane type, but seeds of horse chestnut also contain flavonoids, being glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. Their contribution to the overall activity of the extracts was not clear. In the present work, the main flavonoids from horse chestnut seeds were isolated and their structures established with spectral methods. Seven glycosides were isolated, out of which six ( 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 13) were previously reported and one ( 9) was identified as a new tamarixetin 3- O- [beta- d-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)]- O-beta- d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)- O-beta- d-glucopyranoside. The structures of three additional compounds 1, 10, and 12, not previously reported, were deduced on the basis of their LC-ESI/MS/MS fragmentation characteristics. A new ultraperformance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method has been developed for profiling and quantitation of horse chestnut flavonoids. The method allowed good separation over 4.5 min. Thirteen compounds could be identified in the profile, out of which di- and triglycoisdes of quercetin and kaempferol were the dominant forms and their acylated forms occurred in just trace amounts. The total concentration of flavonoids in the powdered horse chestnut seed was 0.88% of dry matter. The alcohol extract contained 3.46%, and after purification on C18 solid phase, this concentration increased to 9.40% of dry matter. The flavonoid profile and their content were also measured in the horse chestnut wastewater obtained as byproduct in industrial processing of horse chestnut seeds. The total flavonoid concentration in the powder obtained after evaporation of water was 2.58%, while after purification on solid phase, this increased to 11.23% dry matter. It was concluded that flavonoids are present in a horse chestnut extract in a relatively high amount and have the potential to contribute to the overall activity of these extracts

  15. Teratogenicity studies on late blighted potatoes in nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta and Saguinus labiatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J R; Marlar, R J; Chesney, C F; Helgeson, J P; Kelman, A; Weckel, G; Traisman, E; White, J W

    1977-02-01

    Female rhesus monkeys and marmosets were fed a diet containing blighted potatoes (Phytophthora infestans) at a level of 10g/kg per day for at least two weeks prior to breeding and six weeks following conception in order to gain additional information on the association of blighted potatoes and the development of anencephaly and spina bifida in primate species. There was an absence of either of these neural-tube defects in 32 rhesus and 14 marmoset infants whose mothers had received a blighted potato diet. In addition there were no cranial osseous defects. There were, however, two rhesus monkey infants with internal hydrocephalus whose mothers had consumed blighted potatoes.

  16. Epidemiology and integrated control of potato late blight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, L R; Schepers, H T A M; Hermansen, A;

    2011-01-01

    20 years. The relative importance of the different primary inoculum sources and specific measures for reducing their role, such as covering dumps with plastic and preventing seed tubers from becoming infected, is described for the different regions. In NW Europe, varieties with greater resistance...... tend not to be grown on a large scale. From the grower’s perspective, the savings in fungicide input that can be achieved with these varieties are not compensated by the higher (perceived) risk of blight. Fungicides play a crucial role in the integrated control of late blight. The spray strategies...... in NW Europe and a table of the specific attributes of the most important fungicides in Europe are presented. The development and use of decision support systems (DSSs) in NW Europe are described. In The Netherlands, it is estimated that almost 40% of potato growers use recommendations based...

  17. Research Progress on Northern Leaf Blight in Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yingnan; WANG Zhenhua

    2009-01-01

    The northern corn leaf blight is one of the most serious diseases in maize production. The research progress on etiology, generation law and control strategy, antigen identification, resistance mechanism and inheritance of this disease was discussed. And the research work which should be enhanced in China was pointed out, such as mechanism of resistance inheritance, developing function marker, gene mining, screening resistance resource and dominant physiological race in different areas.

  18. Acute Effusive Pericarditis due to Horse Chestnut Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edem, Efe; Kahyaoğlu, Behlül; Çakar, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND There are many well-known causes of pericardial effusion, such as cancer metastasis, bacterial or viral pericarditis, and uremic pericarditis; however, no reports exist in the literature demonstrating a pericardial effusion that led to cardiac tamponade following consumption of an herbal remedy. CASE REPORT A 32-year-old male patient was referred to our cardiology outpatient clinic with a complaint of dyspnea. The patient's medical history was unremarkable; however, he had consumed 3 boxes of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) paste over the previous 1.5 months. His chest x-ray examination revealed an enlarged cardiac shadow and bilateral pleural effusion. On transthoracic echocardiographic examination, his ejection fraction was found to be 55% with circumferentially extended pericardial effusion that reached 3.9 cm at its maximal thickness. No growth had been detected in the pericardial and pleural biopsies or blood samples; there was no evidence of an infectious process in the physical examination. Based on this information, we diagnosed pericarditis resulting from the use of herbal remedies. This is the first report to demonstrate that herbal remedy consumption may cause this type of clinical condition. CONCLUSIONS Besides other well-known causes, pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal remedies should always be considered when treating patients with pericardial effusion caused by unclear etiologies. PMID:27141926

  19. Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Melanin Fractions from Chestnut Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Yu Yao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut shell melanin can be used as a colorant and antioxidant, and fractionated into three fractions (Fr. 1, Fr. 2, and Fr. 3 with different physicochemical properties. Antioxidant activities of the fractions were comparatively evaluated for the first time. The fractions exhibited different antioxidative potential in different evaluation systems. Fr. 1, which is only soluble in alkaline water, had the strongest peroxidation inhibition and superoxide anion scavenging activity; Fr. 2, which is soluble in alkaline water and hydrophilic organic solvents but insoluble in neutral and acidic water, had the greatest power to chelate ferrous ions; and Fr. 3, which is soluble both in hydrophilic organic solvents and in water at any pH conditions, had the greatest hydroxyl (·OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH· radicals scavenging abilities, reducing power, and phenolic content. The pigment fractions were superior to butylated hydroxytolune (BHT in ·OH and DPPH· scavenging and to ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA in the Fe2+–chelation. They were inferior to BHT in peroxidation inhibition and O2·− scavenging and reducing power. However, BHT is a synthetic antioxidant and cannot play the colorant role. The melanin fractions might be used as effective biological antioxidant colorants.

  20. Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables

  1. Resistance of Antimicrobial Peptide Gene Transgenic Rice to Bacterial Blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WU Chao; LIU Mei; LIU Xu-ri; Hu Guo-cheng; SI Hua-min; SUN Zong-xiu; LIU Wen-zhen; Fu Ya-ping

    2011-01-01

    Antimierobial peptide is a polypeptide with antimicrobial activity.Antimicrobial peptide genes Np3 and Np5 from Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus Chinensis) were integrated into Oryza sativa L.subsp.japonica cv.Aichi ashahi by Agrobacterium mediated transformation system.PCR analysis showed that the positive ratios of Np3 and Np5 were 36% and 45% in T0 generation,respectively.RT-PCR analysis showed that the antimicrobial peptide genes were expressed in T1 generation,and there was no obvious difference in agronomic traits between transgenic plants and non-transgenic plants.Four Np3 and Np5 transgenic lines in T1 generation were inoculated with ×anthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae strain CR4,and all the four transgenic lines had significantly enhanced resistance to bacterial blight caused by the strain CR4.The Np5 transgenic lines also showed higher resistance to bacterial blight caused by strains JS97-2,Zhe 173 and OS-225.It is suggested that transgenic lines with Np5 gene might possess broad spectrum resistance to rice bacterial blight.

  2. Assessing the effects of gamma irradiation and storage time in energetic value and in major individual nutrients of chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Angela; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is an important food resource all over the world. In the present study, it is intended to evaluate if the application of gamma irradiation doses ≤ 3 kGy maintain chestnuts chemical and nutritional profiles unaffected. Furthermore, possible interactions among irradiation dose and storage time were accessed using linear discriminate analysis (LDA). The nutritional composition was evaluated through determination of proteins, fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. The chemical composition was focused in the main nutrients found in chestnuts: sugars - sucrose, fatty acids - palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, tocopherols - γ-tocopherol. The obtained results seem to indicate that the irradiation treatment did not affect the nutritional and chemical quality of chestnut fruits. Otherwise, storage time exerted more evident influence in those parameters. The application of gamma irradiation emerges as a promising technology for chestnuts chemical quality, but food safety issues have to be evaluated in order to recommend its application as a useful conservation alternative.

  3. Salicylic acid inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) by competitively inhibiting polyphenol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Li, Lin; Wu, Yanwen; Fan, Junfeng; Ouyang, Jie

    2015-03-15

    The inhibitory effect and associated mechanisms of salicylic acid (SA) on the browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut were investigated. Shelled and sliced chestnuts were immersed in different concentrations of an SA solution, and the browning of the chestnut surface and interior were inhibited. The activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) extracted from chestnuts were measured in the presence and absence of SA. SA at concentrations higher than 0.3g/L delayed chestnut browning by significantly inhibiting the PPO activity (P0.05). The binding and inhibition modes of SA with PPO and POD, determined by AUTODOCK 4.2 and Lineweaver-Burk plots, respectively, established SA as a competitive inhibitor of PPO.

  4. Studies on the Control of Ascochyta Blight in Field Peas (Pisum sativum L.) Caused by Ascochyta pinodes in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Xu, Shengchun; Yao, Xiefeng; Zhang, Guwen; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Feng, Zhijuan; Gong, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    Ascochyta blight, an infection caused by a complex of Ascochyta pinodes, Ascochyta pinodella, Ascochyta pisi, and/or Phoma koolunga, is a destructive disease in many field peas (Pisum sativum L.)-growing regions, and it causes significant losses in grain yield. To understand the composition of fungi associated with this disease in Zhejiang Province, China, a total of 65 single-pycnidiospore fungal isolates were obtained from diseased pea samples collected from 5 locations in this region. These isolates were identified as Ascochyta pinodes by molecular techniques and their morphological and physiological characteristics. The mycelia of ZJ-1 could penetrate pea leaves across the stomas, and formed specific penetration structures and directly pierced leaves. The resistance level of 23 available pea cultivars was tested against their representative isolate A. pinodes ZJ-1 using the excised leaf-assay technique. The ZJ-1 mycelia could penetrate the leaves of all tested cultivars, and they developed typical symptoms, which suggested that all tested cultivars were susceptible to the fungus. Chemical fungicides and biological control agents were screened for management of this disease, and their efficacies were further determined. Most of the tested fungicides (11 out of 14) showed high activity toward ZJ-1 with EC50 pea-related niches and significantly reduced the severity of disease under greenhouse and field conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first study on ascochyta blight in field peas, and results presented here will be useful for controlling the disease in this area.

  5. Primary study on the resistance to bacterial blight (X. oryzae) in Cecropin B gene transgenic rices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUAZhihua; HUANGDanian; XUERui; WANGXiaoling; GAOZhenya

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial blight (BB) is one of the major diseases to rice. Antibacterial Cecropin B gene has been cloned and transformed into rice. We studied the resistance to bacterial blight in Cecropin B gene tronsgenic rices.

  6. Biological control of late blight of potatoes: In vivo and in vitro evaluation of microbial antagonists against tuber blight.

    OpenAIRE

    Hollywood, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    The cost of losses and control measures attributed to late blight of potatoes caused by Phytophthora infestans, are estimated to exceed {dollar}5 billion annually. Breeding for resistance is difficult owing to the tetraploid genotype of potato and current strains of the pathogen have developed resistance to chemical control. Consequently the search for biological control has assumed greater importance. In this investigation an in vivo bioassay was used to select soils antagonistic to late bli...

  7. Post-cultural stand dynamics in an abandoned chestnut coppice at its ecological border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the be­ginning of the last century, chestnut has played an important role as staple food and primary wood source. In many cases it was cultivated at the border of its ecological limits where it was planted by man in place of the original and more site-adapted tree species. However, with the abandonment of the rural activities, ma­nagement of chestnut forests was progressively left starting from more marginal areas, usually occupied by coppice stands. After the interruption of the traditional coppice management system (usual rotation periods of 10-25 years, natural intra- and interspecific competition dynamics have become the driving force of the stand evolution. This may lead to dramatic changes in both structure and species composition of the stands. The aim of this study is to analyse the post-cultural evolution of an abandoned chestnut coppice in the Pesio Valley (Piedmont, Italy in order to highlight the competition among different "basic silvi­cultural components" of the forest using a dendroecological approach. The "basic silvicultural components" are intended as the elements defined as groups of trees of the stand that have similar features such as silvi­culturally relevant attributes: species (chestnut, beech, fir, origin (seed, sprout and cultural age and function (standard/reserve, maiden, shoot, regeneration, dead tree. The mean growth curves of the compo­nents show the different fitness of each category. From a general point of view, the beech and fir components show a better competitive potential in comparison with chestnut. Among chestnut components, maidens from seeds reveal a better growth trend compared to coppice shoots and standards.

  8. Allergens from birch pollen and pollen of the European chestnut share common epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschwehr, R; Jäger, S; Horak, F; Ferreira, F; Valenta, R; Ebner, C; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O

    1993-09-01

    Type I allergy to pollen of the European chestnut (Castanea sativa) represents a major cause of pollinosis in (sub) Mediterranean areas. Using sera from 14 patients with established allergy to pollen of the European chestnut, 13/14 sera (92%) showed IgE-binding to a 22 kD protein, 2/14 (14%) displayed additional binding to a 14 kD protein and 1/14 (7%) bound only to the 14 kD protein of European chestnut pollen extract. Two monoclonal mouse antibodies, BIP 1 and BIP 4, directed against different epitopes of Bet v I (the major birch pollen allergen), and a rabbit antibody to recombinant birch profilin (rBet v II) were used to characterize the proteins of the European chestnut pollen. The recombinant birch pollen allergens, rBet v I and rBet v II (profilin) were employed to show common allergenic structures on proteins from both birch and European chestnut pollen by IgE-inhibition experiments. Despite the fact that the 22 kD protein displayed a higher molecular weight in comparison to the 17 kD major birch pollen allergen, Bet v I, we could demonstrate reactivity of both monoclonal antibodies, BIP 1 and BIP 4, with this protein. A complete inhibiton of IgE-binding to this 22 kD protein was shown by pre-incubating sera with purified recombinant Bet v I. In addition, the 14 kD protein could be identified by IgE-inhibition studies with recombinant Bet v II and by using a rabbit anti-profilin antibody as the profilin from pollen of the European chestnut.

  9. Gamma irradiation of chestnuts: dosimetric study and its influence in drying

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio, Amilcar L.; Botelho, M. Luísa; Quintana, Begoña; Bento, Albino; Ramalhosa, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    Food irradiation is a process that has been regaining an increasing interest for different food products to increase shelf life, for disinfestation or sterilization. In industry the drying of chestnuts is used to produce other sub-products, such as flour. So far as we know this is the first time that the influence of gamma irradiation in drying behaviour of an european chestnuts variety was performed. First the dose rate distribution was measured in one of the four levels of a Cobalt-60 irrad...

  10. Assessment of biomass and carbon litterfall in three chestnut high forest stands in Northern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Patrício, Maria do Sameiro; Fernandes, Maria José; Pereira, Ermelinda; Lopes, Domingos

    2009-01-01

    Litterfall in three high forest chestnut stands, located in different soil types, of 53, 71 and 64 years old, in Marão, Padrela and Bornes, respectively (northern Portugal), was collected last Autumn. Circular litter traps which cover a surface area of 1 m2 each were installed in these chestnut stands. The litterfall was separated into leaves, branches, fruits and burs. All litter fractions were dried to constant weight at 70ºC. The total amount of litter in the three stands was 4.2, 4.6 and ...

  11. Sustainable control of pea bacterial blight : approaches for durable genetic resistance and biocontrol by endophytic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elvira-Recuenco, M.

    2000-01-01

    Key-words: bacterial blight, biological control, biodiversity, endophytic bacteria, L-form, pea, PDRl retrotransposon, Pisum sativum, Pisum abyssinicum, Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi, race specific resistance, race non-specific resistance, Spanish landraces.Pea bacterial blight (Pseudom

  12. Response of germinating barley seeds to Fusarium graminearum: The first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium seedling blight in cereals can result in significant reductions in plant establishment but has not received much attention. The disease often starts during seed germination due to sowing of the seeds infected by Fusarium spp. including Fusarium graminearum. In order to gain the first...... provides the first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight....

  13. Estimating the global severity of potato late blight with GIS-linked disease forecast models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.; Forbes, G.A.; Walker, T.S.

    2000-01-01

    Global severity of potato late blight was estimated by linking two disease forecast models, Blitecast and Simcast, to a climate data base in a geographic information system (GIS). The disease forecast models indirectly estimate late blight severity by determining how many sprays are needed during a

  14. Fine mapping of the Ph-3 gene conferring resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.Z.; Liu, L.; Zheng, Z.; Sun, Y.Y.; Zhou, L.X.; Yang, Y.H.; Cheng, F.; Zhang, Z.H.; Wang, X.W.; Huang, S.W.; Xie, B.Y.; Du, Y.C.; Bai, Y.; Li, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, is a devastating disease for tomato and potato crops. In the past decades, many late blight resistance (R) genes have been characterized in potato. In contrast, less work has been conducted on tomato. The Ph-3 gene

  15. Analysing potato late blight control as a social-ecological system using fuzzy cognitive mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacilly, Francine C.A.; Groot, Jeroen C.J.; Hofstede, Gert Jan; Schaap, Ben F.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is one of the main diseases in potato production, causing major losses in yield. Applying environmentally harmful fungicides is the prevailing and classical method for controlling late blight, thus contaminating food and water. There is theref

  16. Triazole induced drought tolerance in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Glynn C; Noviss, Kelly

    2008-11-01

    We determined the influence of the triazole derivatives paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole, propiconazole and myclobutanil on the drought tolerance and post drought recovery of container-grown horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) saplings. Myclobutanil neither conferred drought resistance, as assessed by its effects on a number of physiological and biochemical parameters, nor affected growth parameters measured after recovery from drought. Chlorophyll fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)), photosynthetic rates, total foliar chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, foliar proline concentration and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were consistently higher and leaf necrosis and cellular electrolyte leakage was lower at the end of a 3-week drought in trees treated with paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole or propiconazole than in control trees. Twelve weeks after drought treatment, leaf area and shoot, root and total plant dry masses were greater in triazole-treated trees than in control trees with the exception of those treated with myclobutanil. In a separate study, trees were subjected to a 2-week drought and then sprayed with paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole, propiconazole or myclobutanil. Chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic rate, foliar chlorophyll concentration and catalase activity over the following 12 weeks were 20 to 50% higher in triazole-treated trees than in control trees. At the end of the 12-week recovery period, leaf area and shoot, root and total plant dry masses were higher in triazole-treated trees than in control trees, with the exception of trees treated with myclobutanil. Application of triazole derivatives, with the exception of myclobutanil, enhanced tolerance to prolonged drought and, when applied after a 2-week drought, hastened recovery from drought. The magnitude of treatment effects was in the order epixiconazole approximately propiconazole > penconazole > paclobutrazol > myclobutanil. PMID:18765373

  17. A New Cytotoxic Sterol Produced By an Endophytic Fungus from Castaniopsis Fissa at the Couth China Sea Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Jin LI; Yong Cheng LIN; L. L. P. VRIJMOED; E. B. G. JONES

    2004-01-01

    A new sterol,ergosta-8(9),22-diene-3,5,6,7-tetraol(3β,5α,6β,7α,22E)(A)together with three known sterols:3β,5α,6β-trihydroxyergosta-7,22-diene(B),3β-hydroxy-5α,8α-epidioxyer-gosta-6,22-diene(C)and ergosterol(D)were isolated from the mycelia of an unidentified endophytic fungus separated from Castaniopsis fissa(chestnut tree).Compound A exhibited potent selective cytotoxicity against Bel-7402,NCI4460 and L-02 cell lines with IC50values 8.445,5.03,13.621μg/mL,respectively.

  18. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI

  19. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  20. [Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) used nasally as snuff - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    There are only few reports in the medical literature about side effects and toxicity of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum). We report a 15-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital because of symptoms including: vomiting, dyspnea, burning in the nose and throat, and syncope, after intranasal snuff of powdered horse chestnut seeds. Laboratory tests showed no abnormalities. After 2 days of hospitalization the female was discharged home with subjective and objective improvement. Preparation and use of snuff is related to the tradition of the kashubian region. The powder formed from horse chestnuts, which is white in color, effects after about 5-10 minutes, and causes severe irritation of the nasal mucous membranes, which results in sneezing. Responsible for side effects is mainly aescin. The most frequently observed aescin intoxication symptoms were gastrointestinal irritation and allergic reactions. Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut used nasally as snuff may lead, as it was in our case, to sudden and self-limiting clinical symptoms. Supportive therapy and a short hospital observation seems to be sufficient in such cases. PMID:25632792

  1. Coumarins in horse chestnut flowers: isolation and quantification by UPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek-Makuch, Marlena; Matławska, Irena

    2013-01-01

    The coumarins: scopoletin, esculetin and fraxetin were isolated from the flowers of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae) and identified by spectrophotometric methods (UV, 1H, 13C NMR, ESI-MS). Their content, determined using the Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), was 0.41, 0.13 and 0.05%, respectively. PMID:23757942

  2. Horse chestnut extract induces contraction force generation in fibroblasts through activation of Rho/Rho kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2006-06-01

    Contraction forces generated by non-muscle cells such as fibroblasts play important roles in determining cell morphology, vasoconstriction, and/or wound healing. However, few factors that induce cell contraction forces are known, such as lysophosphatidic acid and thrombin. Our study analyzed various plant extracts for ingredients that induce generation of cell contraction forces in fibroblasts populating collagen gels. We found that an extract of Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is able to induce such contraction forces in fibroblasts. The involvement of actin polymerization and stress fiber formation in the force generation was suggested by inhibition of this effect by cytochalasin D and by Rhodamine phalloidin. Rho kinase inhibitors (Y27632 and HA1077) and a Rho inhibitor (exoenzyme C3) significantly inhibited the force generation induced by the Horse chestnut extract. H7, which inhibits Rho kinase as well as other protein kinases, also significantly inhibited induction of force generation. However, inhibitors of other protein kinases such as myosin light chain kinase (ML-9), protein kinase C (Calphostin), protein kinase A (KT5720), and tyrosine kinase (Genistein, Herbimycin A) had no effect on force generation induced by Horse chestnut extract. These results suggest that the Horse chestnut extract induces generation of contraction forces in fibroblasts through stress fiber formation followed by activation of Rho protein and Rho kinase but not myosin light chain kinase or other protein kinases. PMID:16754996

  3. Isolation and identification of nystose from seeds of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Kamerling, J.P.; Kahl, W.; Roszkowski, A.; Zurowska, A.

    1972-01-01

    From the seeds of the-horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanm L.), a tetrasaccharide containing 1 mol. of glucose and 3 mol. of fructose has been isolated and shown to be nystose Ip-D-Fruf-(2+ 1)-/?-D-Fruf-(2+ l)-B-D-Fruf-(2-l)a-D-Glcp - J3201.

  4. Investigation on natural durability and sorption properties of Italian Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) from coppice stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Militz, H.; Busetto, D.; Hapla, F.

    2003-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill. from coppice stands in Italy were evaluated. Fungi trials with different white rot, brown rot and soft rot fungi showed, that the heartwood of chestnut can be classified following EN 350 in durability class 2 as ¿durable¿. However, the durability within the tested material (bet

  5. Controlling rice bacterial blight in Africa : needs and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Verdier, Valérie; Cruz, C.V.; Leach, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Rice cultivation has drastically increased in Africa over the last decade. During this time, the region has also seen a rise in the incidence of rice bacterial blight caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The disease is expanding to new rice production areas and threatens food security in the region. Yield losses caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzae range from 20 to 30% and can be as high as 50% in some areas. Employing resistant cultivars is the most economical and effective way to...

  6. Interaction of Plant Epicuticular Waxes and Extracellular Esterases of Curvularia eragrostidis during Infection of Digitaria sanguinalis and Festuca arundinacea by the Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang-Lai Xu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Curvularia eragrostidis, a causal agent of head blight on the weed (Digitariasanguinalis, did not cause disease on the turfgrass Festuca arundinacea. Differentextracellular esterase isoenzymes were detected in saprophytic and parasitic phases duringthe fungal germination. The epicuticular waxes of D. sanguinalis were more efficient toinduce the secretion of esterases from the fungus than that of F. arundinacea, but were morerapidly degraded by the fungal enzymes. Component analysis indicated that the epicuticularwaxes from D. sanguinalis were mostly composed of alcohols, with 54.3% being 9,12-Octadecadien-1-ol. The main component of F arundinacea waxes was alkyl compounds,with 49.8% being olefin, 9-Tricosence. More long-chained esters were found in D.sanguinalis waxes, which were easier to be digested than those in F. arundinacea waxes byextreacellular esterases of the fungus. Epicuticular waxes play a role in varyingpathogenicity of C. eragrostidis on D. sanguinalis and F arundinacea.

  7. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  8. Effects of electron-beam radiation on nutritional parameters of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Bento, Albino; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-08-01

    Chestnuts are a widely consumed fruit around the world, with Portugal being the fourth biggest producer in Europe. Storage of these nuts is an important step during processing, and the most widely used fumigant was banned in the European Union under the Montreal Protocol because of its toxicity. Recently, radiation has been introduced as a cheap and clean conservation method. Previous studies of our research group proved that γ radiation had no negative effect on the nutritional value of chestnuts; in fact, storage time had a much bigger influence on the chestnut quality. In the present study, we report the effect of a less ionizing radiation, electron beam, with doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 3, and 6 kGy in the nutritional value of chestnuts (ash, energy, fatty acids, sugars, and tocopherols), previously stored at 4 °C for 0, 30, and 60 days. The storage time seemed to reduce fat and energetic values but reported a tendency for higher values of dry matter. With regard to fatty acids, there was a higher detected quantity of C20:2 in non-irradiated samples and four fatty acids were only detected in trace quantities (C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, and C12:0). γ-Tocopherol decreased during storage time but did not alter its quantity for all of the radiation doses (as like α-, β-, and δ-tocopherol); in fact, these compounds were present in higher concentrations in the irradiated samples. Sucrose and total sugars were lower in non-irradiated samples, and raffinose was only detected in irradiated samples. Electron-beam irradiation seems to be a suitable methodology, because the effects on chemical and nutritional composition are very low, while storage time seems to be quite important in chestnut deterioration.

  9. The Content of Phenolic Compounds in Leaf Tissues of White (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and Red Horse Chestnut (Aesculus carea H.) Colonized by the Horse Chestnut Leaf Miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić)

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Oszmiański; Stanisław Kalisz; Wojdyło Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Normally, plant phenolics are secondary metabolites involved in the defense mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens. Therefore, in this study we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in leaves of white and red horse chestnut with leaf miner larvae before and after Cameraria ohridella attack. A total of 17 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in white and red horse chestnut leaf extra...

  10. Effect of sun-exposure of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) on the occurrence and number of parasitoids of the horse chestnut leafminer (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic) in central Poland in 2004– 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tarwacki, Grzegorz; Bystrowski, Cezary; Celmer-Warda, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    The research on parasitoids of the horse chestnut leafminer (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dymić, 1986) of the order Hymenoptera was conducted in the years 2004– 2006 in six locations in central Poland. The complex of para-sitoids was composed of 14 species. Minotetrastrichus frontalis (Nees) and Pnigalio agraules (Walker), (Hyme-noptera: Eulophidae) were the dominant species in all locations. It was noted that sun-exposure of the horse chest-nut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) had asignificant e...

  11. Novel species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with shoot blight of pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ShuaiFei; Li, GuoQing; Liu, FeiFei; Michailides, Themis J

    2015-01-01

    Various species of phytopathogenic Botryosphaeriaceae were identified previously from pistachio trees worldwide. Disease symptoms caused by pathogens in Botryosphaeriaceae on pistachio include panicle and shoot blight, leaf defoliation, fruit discoloration and decay. In this study species of Botryosphaeriaceae were collected from blighted pistachio shoots in Arizona, USA, and Greece. The aims of this study were to identify these Botryosphaeriaceae isolates and to test their pathogenicity to pistachio. The fungi were identified based on comparisons of DNA sequence data of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), a partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (TEF1), a partial β-tubulin gene (TUB2) and morphological characteristics. Results indicated that some isolates collected from pistachio represent two previously undescribed species, which we described here as Lasiodiplodia americana sp. nov. from the United States and Neofusicoccum hellenicum sp. nov. from Greece. Field inoculations of L. americana and N. hellenicum on branches of four pistachio cultivars showed that both L. americana and N. hellenicum are pathogenic on pistachio. The four pistachio cultivars differed in their susceptibility to the Botryosphaeriaceae species. Results of this study suggested that the two new species of Botryosphaeriaceae need to be monitored carefully to determine the distribution of these pathogens and the possible spread to other areas.

  12. Novel species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with shoot blight of pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ShuaiFei; Li, GuoQing; Liu, FeiFei; Michailides, Themis J

    2015-01-01

    Various species of phytopathogenic Botryosphaeriaceae were identified previously from pistachio trees worldwide. Disease symptoms caused by pathogens in Botryosphaeriaceae on pistachio include panicle and shoot blight, leaf defoliation, fruit discoloration and decay. In this study species of Botryosphaeriaceae were collected from blighted pistachio shoots in Arizona, USA, and Greece. The aims of this study were to identify these Botryosphaeriaceae isolates and to test their pathogenicity to pistachio. The fungi were identified based on comparisons of DNA sequence data of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), a partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (TEF1), a partial β-tubulin gene (TUB2) and morphological characteristics. Results indicated that some isolates collected from pistachio represent two previously undescribed species, which we described here as Lasiodiplodia americana sp. nov. from the United States and Neofusicoccum hellenicum sp. nov. from Greece. Field inoculations of L. americana and N. hellenicum on branches of four pistachio cultivars showed that both L. americana and N. hellenicum are pathogenic on pistachio. The four pistachio cultivars differed in their susceptibility to the Botryosphaeriaceae species. Results of this study suggested that the two new species of Botryosphaeriaceae need to be monitored carefully to determine the distribution of these pathogens and the possible spread to other areas. PMID:25977211

  13. Resistance Evaluation to Sheath Blight in Transgenic Rice Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAi-hong; XuXin-ping; DAIZheng-yuan; CHENZong-xiang; LIBao-jian; ZHANGHong-xi; PANXue-biao

    2004-01-01

    Resistance of forty one homozygous rice lines transformed with chitinase gene (RC24) and β-1,3-glucanse gene (β-1,3-Glu) to sheath blight was analyzed by inoculation. Among different lines, the resistance had significant differences according to the result by cluster analysis. The lines could be categorized into resistant, moderately resistant, moderately susceptible and susceptible typcs, while 92.1% of which belonging to moderately resistant or moderately susceptible type. For different resistant or susceptible lines, the resistance to rice sheath blight was remarkable correlated with the chitinase activity of transgenic lines except resistant type lines, in which enzyme activity coded by target gene was lower than moderately resistant type. The chitinase activity of transgenic lines tested at different time after inoculation or different organs of the same plant was uniform, which suggested that the expression of chitinase gene was constitutive in nature. Check varieties' chitinase acdvity would change at different time after inoculation and reach a peak at sometime, but it had no difference at various parts of the same plant.

  14. Resistance Evaluation to Sheath Blight in Transgenic Rice Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ai-hong; XU Xin-ping; DAI Zheng-yuan; CHEN Zong-xiang; LI Bao-jian; ZHANG Hong-xi; PAN Xue-biao

    2004-01-01

    Resistance of forty-one homozygous rice lines transformed with chitinase gene (RC24) and β-1,3 -glucanse gene (β-1,3-Glu) to sheath blight was analyzed by inoculation. Among different lines, the resistance had significant differences according to the result by cluster analysis. The lines could be categorized into resistant, moderately resistant, moderately susceptible and susceptible types, while 92.1% of which belonging to moderately resistant or moderately susceptible type. For different resistant or susceptible lines, the resistance to rice sheath blight was remarkable correlated with the chitinase activity of transgenic lines except resistant type lines, in which enzyme activity coded by target gene was lower than moderately resistant type. The chitinase activity of transgenic lines tested at different time after inoculation or different organs of the same plant was uniform, which suggested that the expression of chitinase gene was constitutive in nature. Check varieties' chitinase activity would change at different time after inoculation and reach a peak at sometime, but it had no difference at various parts of the same plant.

  15. First Occurence of Fire Blight on Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Végh, Anita; László PALKOVICS

    2013-01-01

    During July 2012, a severe unusual disease symptom was observed on young shoots on apricot (Prunus armeniaca 10/13 hybrid) in the city of Pomáz, near Budapest. The naturally infected shoots showed typical symptoms of fire blight including terminal shoots with brown to black necrotic lesions. Symptoms were the same as fire blight symptoms reported from other hosts and locations. The first occurrence of fire blight on an apricot tree in Europe was recorded in Czech Republic in 2011. Samples of ...

  16. Eulophid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), from İstanbul, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    CEBECİ, Hacı Hüseyin; Grabenweger, Giselher; Ayberk, Hamit

    2011-01-01

    The eulophid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnuts (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in İstanbul were determined for the first time. Horse chestnut leaves infested with leafminers were collected in 2008 and adult parasitoids were obtained in emergence cages in the laboratory. A total of 10 eulophid parasitoid species were identified, 5 of which, namely Cirrospilus viticola (Rondani), Pnigalio mediterraneus (Fe...

  17. Seasonal Variation in Phenolic Constituents of Hazelnut (Coryllus avellana L.) and Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Leaves and Shoots

    OpenAIRE

    BİLGENER, Şükriye Kurnaz

    1998-01-01

    In this research, the seasonal variation in total phenolic contents in hazelnut and chestnut leaves and shoots was determined. In addition, the phenolic compounds extracted by aqueous alcohol or obtained by acid hydrolysis of the leaves and shoots were separated by paper chromatography (PC). The total phenolic contents of the chestnut leaves and shoots were higher than the hazelnut. In both species, the young shoots had higher total phenolic contents than one year old shoots. The total phen...

  18. Effect of simulated rain on the efficiency of fungicides in potato late blight and early blight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Guerino Tofoli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfastness of fungicides used in the control of late blight (Phytophthora infestans and early blight (Alternaria solani of potato was evaluated under green house and laboratory conditions. ‘Agata’ and ‘Monalisa’ plants treated with fungicides against both diseases were subjected to 20 mm controlled rain simulation for 6 min at 30 min, 1, 2, and 4 h after application. Once all leaves had dried, foliar discs were transferred to Petri dishes and inoculated with the respective pathogens. The plates were then incubated in a BOD chamber for a 12-h photoperiod at 18°C and 25°C, respectively. Disease severity was evaluated by determining the area (% of the foliar discs affected by disease on 5 and 7 days post-inoculation. The results suggest that systemic or inherent tenacity fungicides were less influenced by the simulated rain as compared to contact fungicides. An increase in drying time promoted higher control levels of both diseases, indicating a better retention and absorption of the tested fungicides.

  19. Assessing potential changes of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mário; Calheiros, Tomas; Pinto, Joaquim; Caramelo, Liliana

    2013-04-01

    Weather conditions play an important role during different phases of the vegetative cycle of the chestnut trees and, consequently, several meteorological parameters seem to be associated chestnut productivity (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992, Cesaraccio et al., 2001, Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007, Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008, Dinis et al., 2011, Pereira et al., 2011). Observed data from European Climate Assessment and simulated data by COSMO-CLM model for the actual (C20) and future (A1B and B1) climate scenarios were used in this study to: (i) assess the model ability to reproduce weather parameters distribution; and, (ii) to assess future changes in the distribution of meteorological parameters which play an important role in the productivity of chestnut for different future periods. Results points to statistical significant changes in the mean and in variance in the future, more prominent in temperature than in precipitation based parameters. Changes in precipitation will be more significant in Northwestern Iberian Peninsula and France in the end of the 21st century for A1B scenario conditions. As expected, more significant changes will be expected to occur during spring and summer, in the Mediterranean areas and in the later period. The number of days with TmaxAesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland", J.For.Res., 12, 24-23. Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: "Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy", Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Dinis, L.T,Peixoto, F., Pinto, T., Costa, R.Bennett, R. N., and Gomes-Laranjo,J., 2011: "Study of morphological and phonological diversity in chestnut trees (Judia variety) as a function of temperature sum". Environ. Exp Bot., 70, 110-120. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhães, M., 2011: "Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity". Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. This work

  20. Evaluation of the BlightPro Decision Support System for Management of Potato Late Blight Using Computer Simulation and Field Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Ian M; Joseph, Laura; Fry, William E

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of the BlightPro decision support system (DSS) for late blight management using computer simulation and field tests. Three fungicide schedules were evaluated: (i) calendar-based (weekly) applications, (ii) applications according to the DSS, or (iii) no fungicide. Simulation experiments utilized 14 years of weather data from 59 locations in potato-producing states. In situations with unfavorable weather for late blight, the DSS recommended fewer fungicide applications with no loss of disease suppression; and, in situations of very favorable weather for late blight, the DSS recommended more fungicide applications but with improved disease suppression. Field evaluation was conducted in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013. All experiments involved at least two cultivars with different levels of resistance. DSS-guided and weekly scheduled fungicide treatments were successful at protecting against late blight in all field experiments. As expected, DSS-guided schedules were influenced by prevailing weather (observed and forecast) and host resistance and resulted in schedules that maintained or improved disease suppression and average fungicide use efficiency relative to calendar-based applications. The DSS provides an interactive system that helps users maximize the efficiency of their crop protection strategy by enabling well-informed decisions.

  1. Social-insect fungus farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    basidiomycete genus Termitomyces - whereas the ants are associated with a larger diversity of fungal lineages (all basidiomycetes). The ants and termites forage for plant material to provision their fungus gardens. Their crops convert this carbon-rich plant material into nitrogen-rich fungal biomass to provide...... the farming insects with most of their food ( Figure 1 ). No secondary reversals to the ancestral life style are known in either group, which suggests that the transitions to farming were as drastically innovative and irreversible as when humans made this step about 10,000 years ago....

  2. Disease-reducing effect of Chromolaena odorata extract on sheath blight and other rice diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoa, Nguyen Đac; Thuy, Phan Thi Hong; Thuy, Tran Thi Thu; Collinge, David B; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

    2011-02-01

    Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a major cause of crop loss in intensive rice production systems. No economically viable control methods have been developed. We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions. The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C. odorata and rice cultivar. The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity. Under semi-field conditions, extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases, i.e., blast (Pyricularia oryzae) using foliar spray (up to 45%), brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae) using seed treatment (up to 57%), and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) using both application methods (up to 50%). PMID:20839964

  3. Performance of resistance gene pyramids to races of rice bacterial blight in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGKangle; ZHUANGJieyun; WANGHanrong

    1998-01-01

    The effect of gene pyramiding on resistance to bacterial blight (BB) in rice was evahlated among the IR24-based near isogenic lines conraining single resistance gene and gene pyramids containing two, three or lour resistancegenes (see table).

  4. Antifungal Action of Ginkgo biloba Outer Seedcoat on Rice Sheath blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Seok Oh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available From study of antifungal actions on the rice sheath blight by using the extract of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats, we found that the extracts of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats of all treatment concentrations had inhibited the rice sheath blight. Among them, the most effective concentration was 250 mg/l at which the growth of microbe was 26 mm and even at the packaging test, when sprayed the G. biloba outer seedcoats at the level of 250 mg/l, the damage rate of the rice sheath blight was identified as 13%. As a result investigating the antifungal activity by separating polysaccharides from G. biloba outer seedcoats, it showed that the clear zone of 14 mm or more was formed at the concentration of 250 mg/l or higher. Based on these results, we concluded that the G. biloba outer seedcoat is a natural substance with the antifungal activity on the rice sheath blight.

  5. Integrating cultural control methods for tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwine, J.; Frinking, H.D.; Jeger, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Cultural control measures against tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) were evaluated in six field experiments over 3 years in Uganda. Each experiment included sanitation (removal of diseased plant tissues), fungicide (mancozeb) application, and an untreated control, as standard treatments. L

  6. Expression of viral EPS-depolymerase reduces fire blight susceptibility in transgenic pear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malnoy, Mickaël; Faize, Mohamed; Venisse, Jean-Stéphane; Geider, Klaus; Chevreau, Elisabeth

    2005-02-01

    Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight of Maloideae. One of the main pathogenicity factors of this bacterium is the exopolysaccharide (EPS) of its capsule. In this paper, we used genetic transformation tools to constitutively express an EPS-depolymerase transgene in the pear (Pyrus communis L.) cv. Passe Crassane with the aim of decreasing its high susceptibility to fire blight. Expression of the depolymerase gene in 15 independent transgenic clones led, on average, to low depolymerase activity, although relatively high expression was observed at the transcriptional and translational levels. Only two of the transgenic clones (9X and 10M) consistently showed a decrease in fire blight susceptibility in vitro and in the greenhouse. These clones were also among the highest expressers of depolymerase at the RNA and enzyme activity levels. The correlation observed among all transgenic clones between depolymerase expression and fire blight resistance suggested the potential of this strategy.

  7. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....

  8. [Cutaneous mold fungus granuloma from Ulocladium chartarum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmeyer, P; Schon, K

    1981-01-01

    Cutaneous granulomas due to the mold fungus Ulocladium chartarum (Preuss) are described in a 58 year old woman. This fungus is usually harmless for mammalian. It is thought that a consisting immunosuppression (Brill-Symmer's disease, therapy with corticosteroids) was a priming condition for the infection. The route of infection in this patient described is unknown. PMID:7194869

  9. Alcoholic chestnut fermentation in mixed culture. Compatibility criteria between Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murado, Miguel Anxo; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Vázquez, José Antonio; Mirón, Jesús; González, María Pilar

    2008-10-01

    The main objective of the present work consisted in the transfer to the case of the chestnut of a rice fermentative process that carried out to the Japanese traditional way to lead to an alcoholic bagasse, the moromi, capable of obtaining distilled. This way, selection assays of amylolitic Aspergillus oryzae strains and studies of compatibility between microfungi and yeast were carried out. These mixed cultivations were performed operating in batch submerged culture. Later on, using solid state system (chestnut, microfungi, yeast), a fermentative fed-batch process (koji, moto, moromi) was defined. By means of this approach a yield of 70% was reached in the conversion of total carbohydrates in ethanol. Also, the time required by the traditional operation was reduced in half. PMID:18289846

  10. EFFECT of hydrocolloids on the quality evaluation of flour based noodles from Horse Chestnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiq Syed Insha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused to investigate the effects of hydrocolloids (guar gum and xanthan gum at additional levels (1%, 2% and 3% on the noodle characteristics prepared from horse chestnut flour. The qualities of noodles prepared from horse chestnut flour were compared with wheat flour based noodles in terms of cooking characteristics, textural and sensory properties. The hydrocolloid addition in noodles resulted in improvement of cooking and textural qualities in consistent to control sample. The incorporation of 3% gum significantly increased cooking properties and the firmness of cooked noodles. The results of the sensory evaluation based on a nine point hedonic scale revealed that apart from the control, noodles with 3% gum were acceptable to the panellists.

  11. Relationships between silvicultural system, forest type and floristic diversity in chestnut coppices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scoppola A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut stands are among the main forest formations in Italy. The aim of this work is to assess the floristic diversity of chestnut coppice stands of Sabatini Mts. (central Italy, highlighting the relationships between the silvicultural system and the ecological processes. In the management of these coppices almost exclusive importance has been given to the wood production, rating the stands on the basis of the rotation that maximizes the production of the most valuable assortments. The assessment carried out is based on floristic and dendrometric surveys within permanent circular plots (10 meters radius randomly selected within three chronological strata. Surveys have been realized on a total of 15 plots, 5 for each stratum. Indices of floristic richness and diversity have been elaborated to point out variations of forest types and to suggest possible alternatives to the current management to mitigate its impact on biodiversity.

  12. Insolubilization of Chestnut Shell Pigment for Cu(II Adsorption from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Yu Yao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut shell pigment (CSP is melanin from an agricultural waste. It has potential as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment but cannot be used in its original state because of its solubility in water. We developed a new method to convert CSP to insolubilized chestnut shell pigment (ICSP by heating, and the Cu(II adsorption performance of ICSP was evaluated. The conversion was characterized, and the thermal treatment caused dehydration and loss of carboxyl groups and aliphatic structures in CSP. The kinetic adsorption behavior obeyed the pseudo-second-order rate law, and the equilibrium adsorption data were well described with both the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. ICSP can be used as a renewable, readily-available, easily-producible, environmentally-friendly, inexpensive and effective adsorbent to remove heavy-metal from aquatic environments.

  13. Unveiling and deploying durability of late blight resistance in potato : from natural stacking to cisgenic stacking

    OpenAIRE

    Kwang-Ryong Jo

    2013-01-01

    The potato, which receives an increased attention as a food crop, has long been in threats from the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight. This disease still remains the most important constraint in potato producing regions of the world. It might cause the complete destruction of the foliage and tubers of potato if meteorological conditions are conducive to the onset and spread of late blight epidemics. Although fungicides applications provide sufficient levels of l...

  14. Cultural Heritage in the Gulf: Blight or Blessing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Boussaa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Gulf and after gaining independence in the 1960s and 1970s many cities witnessed a staggering rapid urban growth. The urban centers, which formed the central parts of these cities, underwent continuous pressures of destruction and redevelopment. A large number of these centers have been often demolished and replaced by alien imported high-rise buildings. The urban cores which escaped complete demolition have survived as isolated pockets in the middle of hybrid environments. This dilemma raises important questions; is this surviving cultural heritage blight or blessing? Is it "blight" and obstacle that stifles our cities from moving forward to aspire for a bright and prosperous future, or is it "blessing" an asset that can form a major catalyst to promote our cities while maintaining strong roots with their past? Accordingly, what should be the future of these surviving historic centers? Will they be demolished to pave way for more ambitious growth or can they be conserved and sustained for present and future generations? Will the historic city, the heart of urban life and the main protector of our cities identities, survive and continue to be places for living within the emerging global cities of today and tomorrow? This paper attempts to highlight the importance of dealing with the conservation and development issue, by raising and discussing the following question: How can our cultural heritage be a setting of appropriate conservation and development in the emerging global environments? In order to discuss this issue, three historic cities from the Gulf; Old Dubai in UAE, Old Jeddah in Saudi Arabia and Old Doha in Qatar will form the setting of this research.

  15. Response to artificial inoculation with Phytophthora infestans of potato clones insensitive to culture filtrate of the fungus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induction of general resistance to Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary by in vitro culture has been reported for cvs. 'Bintje' and 'Kennebec'. In both cases, sporangia suspension of the fungus were used as selective agent. As reported for many host-pathogen interactions, culture filtrate or purified toxins may also contribute to the selection of resistant genotypes. Challenge of mutagenized buds of cv. 'Spunta' with culture filtrate of P. infestans allowed selection of insensitive clones. To verify the possible correlation between culture filtrate insensitivity and disease resistance, different inoculation technique were applied to these clones. Considering that general resistance to late blight is a complex trait, different tests were performed to evaluate the behaviour during various stages of pathogenesis, such as infection, invasion, mycelial growth and sporulation. 7 refs, 1 tab

  16. Acute urticaria and angioedema caused by horse-chestnut (aesculus hippocastanum) ingestion: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Akinci, Emine; OĞUZTÜRK, Oğuzhan; Coşkun, Figen

    2012-01-01

    Acute urticaria and angioedema, which can develop due to various causes, are common life threatening condition seen in emergency departments (EDs). The literature includes reports of angioedema cases developing after contacting various plants and seeds. We present the case of a 47-year-old male patient who developed acute urticaria and angioedema after eating horse-chestnut (aesculus hippocastanum). The patient presented to the ED with redness and irritation spread around the body and swellin...

  17. Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) Urban Habitat - Pollution Influence on Some Phenotypic and Morphological Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Fran Poštenjak; Karmelo Poštenjak

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) may be found in most urban areas in Croatia. Over the years it showed to be resistant to various negative urban influences. In this research we tested trees on randomly selected streets with intense traffic in smaller towns. The main goal of this research was to establish the link between pollution and tree growth and to analyze to what extent pollution influences the increase in the measured parameters. Materials and metho...

  18. Micromorphology of trichomes in the flowers of the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosława Chwil; Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Aneta Sulborska; Magdalena Michońska

    2014-01-01

    Aesculus hippocastanum L. is an ornamental tree appreciated for its beautiful flowers and leaves. The flowers of this species contain secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacological activity. They also produce essential oils and coloured “nectar guides”, which enable insects to reach nectar and pollen. The aim of the study was to investigate the types and characteristics of chestnut flower trichomes, which may contain biologically active substances. The analyses were performed using light, f...

  19. The effects of e-beam radiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Kałuska, Iwona; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M. Luísa; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Chestnut fruits (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been studied in terms of nutritional value and also for their antioxidant potential [1]. In Europe, Portugal is a leading producer of this nut, along with Italy, and the conservation of the chestnut’s properties is essential, especially for export [2]. Irradiation might be an alternative conservation method, since Methyl Bromide, a widely used fumigant, was prohibited as a conservation technique by the Eu...

  20. The effects of e-beam radiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Kałuska, Iwona; Bento, Albino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Chestnut fruits (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been studied in terms of nutritional value and also for their antioxidant potential. In Europe, Portugal is one of the leading producers of this nut, and its conservation is essential. Irradiation might be an alternative conservation method, since methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant, was prohibited as post-harvest technique by the European Union in 2010 due to its toxicity. The alternati...

  1. Thermorheological and textural behaviour of gluten-free gels obtained from chestnut and rice flours

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Maria D.; Fradinho, Patricia; Raymundo, Anabela; Sousa, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, as celiac disease is becoming more common the consumers’ demand for gluten-free products with high nutritional and taste quality is increasing. This work deals with the study of the impact of four novelty gluten-free sources: chestnut flour (Cf), whole rice flour (Rw), Carolino rice flour (Rc) and Agulha rice flour (Ra). Textural, thermorheological and stability performance of gluten-free gels using different experimental techniques were evaluated. Mixed gels...

  2. Growth and yield models, assortment type and analysis of deadwood in chestnut coppice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziliano PA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut (Castanea sativa MILL. is one of the most important forest tree species in Europe, and it is considered a symbol of the natural vegetation in southern Europe. In Calabria (southern Italy chestnut forest covers an area of approximately 87000 hectares, most of which (about 80% managed as coppice. In this study a growth and yield table has been elaborated. Thurthermore, assortment type and quantity of deadwood have been evaluated according to age of coppice and forest fire prevention, respectively. The study site is located in the “Presila of Catanzaro” and the research was carried out in 15 plots; the age of the examined stands ranged from 2 to 50 years old. More than 30000 shoots per hectare were recorded in the first two years after coppicing. As opposed, about 2300 and 1000 shoots per hectare were observed 15 and 50 years after coppicing, respectively. The culmination of the mean annual increment of the forest standing volume (16 m3 ha-1 year-1 was highlighted 25 years after coppicing, while the current annual increment culmination (21 m3 ha-1 year-1 was observed at 15 years. Fifteen years after coppicing, most of the wood production was constituted by small dimension assortments. Twenty five years after coppicing small and large poles were the prevailing assortments while telegraph poles and timber beams increased after 50 years. The amount of deadwood in forest ranged between 11.9 and 68.7 m3 ha-1. The largest component was represented by standing dead shoots. The results show that coppice management can be adopted even if the main purpose of the chestnut stand is the production of large size assortments. In chestnut coppice, highly vulnerable to fire, the reduction of stand density with silvicultural practices (thinning and displacement is the main way to promote the efficiency of forest and a higher strength and resiliency against forest fire.

  3. Adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue onto activated carbon obtained from horse chestnut kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Momčilović Milan Z.; Purenović Milovan M.; Miljković Milena N.; Bojić Aleksandar Lj.; Ranđelović Marjan S.

    2011-01-01

    Horse chestnut kernel was used as the precursor for the preparation of powdered activated carbon using phosphoric acid as the activating agent. Batch adsorption experiments for the adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue from aqueous solutions were carried out using the obtained carbon as adsorbent. Equilibrium and kinetic experiments were conducted. The equilibrium data were fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin theoretical isotherm models. The best results was obtained in ...

  4. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Songlin Fei

    2010-01-01

    Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaTScan and ClusterSeer) and a nonspatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana) regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moder...

  5. Phenolic and furanic compounds of Portuguese chestnut and French, American and Portuguese oak wood chips

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Raquel; Soares, Bruno; Barrocas Dias, Cristina; Ana Maria, Costa Freitas; Cabrita, Maria joao

    2012-01-01

    Botanical species used on aging process must be wisely and judiciously chosen, and for this selection, a basic knowledge of the chemical composition of woods is warranted. Aiming to contribute to extend the knowledge of the chemical composition of several wood species useful for enological purposes, we have focused our studies on Portuguese chestnut and French, American and Portuguese oak chips. The profile of low molecular weight phenolic composition of these chips wa...

  6. Gamma and electron beam irradiation as an alternative for postharvest treatment: a case study with chestnuts

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Barreira, João C.M.; Barros, Lillian; Rafalski, Andrzej; Bento, Albino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Chestnut fruits are an important food commodity in the Northeast region of "Trás-osMontes", representing an income of approximately 17 M€ and being Porn1gal one of the: world's biggest producer. Due to environmental concerns a broad spectrum fumigant, methyl bromide, was banned in 20 I 0 by the European Union. Since then, no adequate postharvest treatment has been implemented, fostering research on suitable alteratives. Our research group has been testing gamma and electron bea...

  7. Incidence and diversity of the fungal genera Aspergillus and Penicillium in Portuguese almonds and chestnuts

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Paula; Venâncio, Armando; Lima, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Almonds (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) and European (sweet) chestnuts (Castanea sativa Miller) are of great economic and social impact in Mediterranean countries, and in some areas they constitute the main income of rural populations. Despite all efforts to control fungal contamination, toxigenic fungi are ubiquitous in nature and occur regularly in worldwide food supplies, and these nuts are no exception. This work aimed to provide knowledge on the general mycobiota of Portuguese almonds...

  8. Functional analysis of OsPGIP1 in rice sheath blight resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Lu, Liaoxun; Pan, Xuebiao; Hu, Zongliang; Ling, Fei; Yan, Yan; Liu, Yemao; Lin, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most devastating diseases of rice, sheath blight causes severe rice yield loss. However, little progress has been made in rice breeding for sheath blight resistance. It has been reported that polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins can inhibit the degradation of the plant cell wall by polygalacturonases from pathogens. Here, we prokaryotically expressed and purified OsPGIP1 protein, which was verified by Western blot analysis. Activity assay confirmed the inhibitory activity of OsPGIP1 against the PGase from Rhizoctonia solani. In addition, the location of OsPGIP1 was determined by subcellular localization. Subsequently, we overexpressed OsPGIP1 in Zhonghua 11 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica), and applied PCR and Southern blot analysis to identify the positive T0 transgenic plants with single-copy insertions. Germination assay of the seeds from T1 transgenic plants was carried out to select homozygous OsPGIP1 transgenic lines, and the expression levels of OsPGIP1 in these lines were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Field testing of R. solani inoculation showed that the sheath blight resistance of the transgenic rice was significantly improved. Furthermore, the levels of sheath blight resistance were in accordance with the expression levels of OsPGIP1 in the transgenic lines. Our results reveal the functions of OsPGIP1 and its resistance mechanism to rice sheath blight, which will facilitate rice breeding for sheath blight resistance. PMID:25488398

  9. Inheritance Analysis and Identification of SSR Markers Linked to Late Blight Resistant Gene in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hai-shan; WU Tao; ZHANG Zhen-xian

    2006-01-01

    Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans is the most serious disease of tomato production in China. Studies on the genetics of resistance and identification of molecular markers are very useful for breeding late blight resistant varieties.The objective of this paper was to study the inheritance of late blight resistance and identify simple sequence repeat (SSR)markers associated with resistance allele in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The results came from an F2 progeny of 241 plants derived from a cross between 5# inbred line that is susceptible to late blight and a resistant accession CLN2037E. The late blight responses of F2 plants were tested by artificially inoculation of detached-leaflets in plate and natural infection assayed under greenhouse conditions. Both methods showed that the resistance is dominant and inherited as monogenic trait. Genetic mapping and linkage analysis showed that the late blight resistance gene Ph-ROL was located on chromosome 9 with a genetic distance of 5.7 cM to the SSR marker TOM236.

  10. A chestnut seed cystatin differentially effective against cysteine proteinases from closely related pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernas, M; Sánchez-Monge, R; Gómez, L; Salcedo, G

    1998-12-01

    Cystatin CsC, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from chestnut (Castanea sativa) seeds, has been purified and characterized. Its full-length cDNA clone was isolated from an immature chestnut cotyledon library. The inhibitor was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from bacterial extracts. Identity of both seed and recombinant cystatin was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis, two-dimensional electrophoresis and N-terminal sequencing. CsC has a molecular mass of 11,275 Da and pI of 6.9. Its amino acid sequence includes all three motifs that are thought to be essential for inhibitory activity, and shows significant identity to other phytocystatins, especially that of cowpea (70%). Recombinant CsC inhibited papain (Ki 29 nM), ficin (Ki 65 nM), chymopapain (Ki 366 nM), and cathepsin B (Ki 473 nM). By contrast with most cystatins, it was also effective towards trypsin (Ki 3489 nM). CsC is active against digestive proteinases from the insect Tribolium castaneum and the mite Dermatophagoides farinae, two important agricultural pests. Its effects on the cysteine proteinase activity of two closely related mite species revealed the high specificity of the chestnut cystatin.

  11. Selected trace element concentrations in ambient air and in horse chestnut leaves in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deljanin I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, airborne particulates (PM10 and leaves of horse chestnut were collected at selected urban sites in Belgrade, Serbia, in years 2006, 2009 and 2012. All samples were analysed for trace element concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb. It has been shown that, during the study period, the differences among PM10 mass trace element concentrations were not considerable, and that the measured mass and trace elements concentrations were below the Serbian and EU legislation limits. Highest values of trace element concentrations in leaves were observed in year 2012, with the exception of Pb. Lead concentration had a decreasing trend during the whole studied period, in both PM10 and tree leaves. Since leaded gasoline was banned in 2011, a possible reason could be an increasing number of vehicles using unleaded kind along the previous years. Although trace elements in horse chestnut leaves were accumulated only during summer season, horse chestnut leaves showed good response to changes in trace element atmospheric concentrations. However, seasonal variability was evident in trace element source apportionment due to the lack of stationary heating system influence. The Principal Component Analysis showed that during the studied period, one of the major sources of the measured elements was fossil fuel combustion. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43007 and OI 172007

  12. Determination of timber assortments obtainable from coppice chestnut stands (Susa Valley, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosenzo A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut (Castanea sativa L. coppice stands currently cover about 195.000 ha of Piedmont (North-Western Italy surface, corresponding to 22.4 % of the overall forested area in the region. Most of these forest stands are usually older than the typical rotation period. As a consequence from these stands timber assortments with a higher value could be obtained. The purpose of this study is to assess the amount of timber assortments and to propose a sorting methodology based on measurements on standing trees within these chestnut stands.Five study areas were selected in the Susa Valley, where forest measurements were realized within sampling plots. Timber assortments obtainable from each coppice shoot were then determined by means of the Bitterlich’s relascope. More than 1.000 timber logs were measured. The data elaboration allowed to assess the timber assortment production of the investigated stands. The proposed methodology makes it possible to better exploit timber assortments. In fact, while usually the whole production from chestnut coppices is directly destined to secondary products, the subdivision into assortments could result in a 20 % of products with higher commercial value. It is important to notice that within these stands no tending operation is currently realized. The definition of qualitative features to classify timber assortments can provide useful suggestions on the main yield targets that could be reached through silvicultural management.

  13. Thickness of Knox Group overburden on Central Chestnut Ridge, Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thickness of residual soil overlying the Knox Group along Central Chestnut Ridge was estimated by a conventional seismic refraction survey. The purpose of this survey was to identify sites on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation where ample overburden exists above the water table for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste. The results of the survey suggest that the upper slopes of the higher ridges in the area have a minimum of 16 to 26 m (52 to 85 ft) of overburden and that the crests of these ridges may have more than 30 m (100 ft). Therefore, it is unlikely that sound bedrock would be encountered during trench excavation [maximum of 10 m (32 ft)] along Central Chestnut Ridge. Also, the relatively low seismic wave velocities measured in the overburden suggest that the water table is generally deep. On the basis of these preliminary results, Central Chestnut Ridge appears to be suitable for further site characterization for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste. 3 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  14. Studies on the control of ascochyta blight in field peas (Pisum sativum L. caused by Ascochyta pinodes in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eLiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ascochyta blight, an infection caused by a complex of Ascochyta pinodes, Ascochyta pinodella, Ascochyta pisi, and/or Phoma koolunga, is a destructive disease in many field peas (Pisum sativum L.-growing regions, and it causes significant losses in grain yield. To understand the composition of fungi associated with this disease in Zhejiang Province, China, a total of 65 single-pycnidiospore fungal isolates were obtained from diseased pea samples collected from 5 locations in this region. These isolates were identified as Ascochyta pinodes by molecular techniques and their morphological and physiological characteristics. The mycelia of ZJ-1 could penetrate pea leaves across the stomas, and formed specific penetration structures and directly pierced leaves. The resistance level of 23 available pea cultivars was tested against their representative isolate A. pinodes ZJ-1 using the excised leaf-assay technique. The ZJ-1 mycelia could penetrate the leaves of all tested cultivars, and they developed typical symptoms, which suggested that all tested cultivars were susceptible to the fungus. Chemical fungicides and biological control agents were screened for management of this disease, and their efficacies were further determined. Most of the tested fungicides (11 out of 14 showed high activity towards ZJ-1 with EC50 < 5 μg/mL. Moreover, fungicides, including tebuconazole, boscalid, iprodione, carbendazim and fludioxonil, displayed more than 80% disease control efficacy under the recorded conditions. Three biocontrol strains of Bacillus sp. and one of Pantoea agglomerans were isolated from pea-related niches and significantly reduced the severity of disease under greenhouse and field conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first study on ascochyta blight in field peas, and results presented here will be useful for controlling the disease in this area.

  15. Studies on the Control of Ascochyta Blight in Field Peas (Pisum sativum L.) Caused by Ascochyta pinodes in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Xu, Shengchun; Yao, Xiefeng; Zhang, Guwen; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Feng, Zhijuan; Gong, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    Ascochyta blight, an infection caused by a complex of Ascochyta pinodes, Ascochyta pinodella, Ascochyta pisi, and/or Phoma koolunga, is a destructive disease in many field peas (Pisum sativum L.)-growing regions, and it causes significant losses in grain yield. To understand the composition of fungi associated with this disease in Zhejiang Province, China, a total of 65 single-pycnidiospore fungal isolates were obtained from diseased pea samples collected from 5 locations in this region. These isolates were identified as Ascochyta pinodes by molecular techniques and their morphological and physiological characteristics. The mycelia of ZJ-1 could penetrate pea leaves across the stomas, and formed specific penetration structures and directly pierced leaves. The resistance level of 23 available pea cultivars was tested against their representative isolate A. pinodes ZJ-1 using the excised leaf-assay technique. The ZJ-1 mycelia could penetrate the leaves of all tested cultivars, and they developed typical symptoms, which suggested that all tested cultivars were susceptible to the fungus. Chemical fungicides and biological control agents were screened for management of this disease, and their efficacies were further determined. Most of the tested fungicides (11 out of 14) showed high activity toward ZJ-1 with EC50 control efficacy under the recorded conditions. Three biocontrol strains of Bacillus sp. and one of Pantoea agglomerans were isolated from pea-related niches and significantly reduced the severity of disease under greenhouse and field conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first study on ascochyta blight in field peas, and results presented here will be useful for controlling the disease in this area. PMID:27148177

  16. Antibiosis Contributes to Biological Control of Fire Blight by Pantoea agglomerans Strain Eh252 in Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, V O; Johnson, K B; Sugar, D; Loper, J E

    2002-11-01

    ABSTRACT Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, is the most serious bacterial disease of pear and apple trees. Biological control with strains of Pantoea agglomerans (syn. Erwinia herbicola) may provide an effective disease management strategy for fire blight. Most strains of P. agglomerans evaluated for suppression of fire blight produce compounds that inhibit the growth of E. amylovora in culture. The role of these inhibitory compounds in fire blight suppression in orchard environments has not been studied. In seven field trials in Oregon, we compared the population dynamics and disease suppression with P. agglomerans Eh252, a strain that produces a single antibiotic, with its near-isogenic antibiotic-deficient derivative, strain 10:12. Water or suspensions of Eh252 or 10:12 (1 x 10(8) CFU/ml) were applied at 30 and 70% bloom to pear or apple trees. Aqueous suspensions of freeze-dried cells of E. amylovora (3 x 10(5) CFU/ml) were applied at full bloom. Additional trees were treated with streptomycin or oxytetracycline at 30 and 70% bloom and in some experiments, 1 day after application of the pathogen. Population sizes of Eh252 or 10:12 on pear blossoms were estimated by spreading dilutions of blossom washes on culture media. Average population sizes of Eh252 and 10:12 on blossoms ranged from 10(5) to 10(7) CFU, and in five of six trials, the relative area under the population curve of Eh252 was not significantly different than that of its derivative 10:12. Both Eh252 and 10:12 reduced the growth of the pathogen on blossoms compared with inoculated water-treated controls. Eh252 significantly decreased the incidence of fire blight in six of seven field trials compared with the incidence on water-treated trees, and 10:12 similarly reduced the incidence of fire blight in four of seven trials. In three of seven field trials, trees treated with Eh252 had a significantly lower incidence of fire blight compared with trees treated 3 with 10:12. Overall,3 Eh252 reduced

  17. Ocorrência e sintomas da mancha de Ascochyta em feijão-vagem Occurrence and symptoms of Ascochyta blight on snap bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida de Souza Tanaka

    1996-01-01

    , cultural and morphological characteristics of the fungus, besides pathogenicity tests. The disease was confused with Alternaria blight, on the leaves, or Macrophomina rot, on the lower part of stems. The pathogen identification permitted to avoid misidentification and to establish measures of control.

  18. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  19. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  20. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry.

  1. Physico-chemical, morphological and pasting properties of starches extracted from water Chestnuts (Trapa natans from three Lakes of Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Gani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on physicochemical, morphology and pasting properties of starches extracted from water chestnuts of three Lakes of Kashmir valley (Wular, Anchar and Dal Lakes were conducted to determine their application in different food products. The water chestnut starch from Dal Lake had more oval shaped granules than water chestnut starches from the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.The unique feature of the water chestnut starches were shape of starch granules which looked like horn(s protruding from the surface which did not appear in other starches already studied. Proximate analysis of water chestnut starches showed that average protein content were 0.4%, amylose 29.5 % and ash 0.007 on dry weight basis. Increase in water binding capacity, swelling power and solubility was found over a temperature range of 50-90ºC. Water chestnut starches showed an increase in syneresis during freeze thaw cycles and decline in paste clarity upon storage. Starch extracted from the water chestnuts of the Dal Lake showed higher water binding capacity, swelling, solubility, past clarity, freeze thaw stability, peak viscosity, final viscosity and lower protein content, amylose content, pasting temperature and gel firmness than starches extracted from water chestnuts of the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.

  2. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry

  3. Erwinia amylovora pyrC mutant causes fire blight despite pyrimidine auxotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, L S; Sinn, J P; Lehman, B L; Pfeufer, E E; Peter, K A; McNellis, T W

    2015-06-01

    Erwinia amylovora bacteria cause fire blight disease, which affects apple and pear production worldwide. The Erw. amylovora pyrC gene encodes a predicted dihydroorotase enzyme involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Here, we discovered that the Erw. amylovora pyrC244::Tn5 mutant was a uracil auxotroph. Unexpectedly, the Erw. amylovora pyrC244::Tn5 mutant grew as well as the wild-type in detached immature apple and pear fruits. Fire blight symptoms caused by the pyrC244::Tn5 mutant in immature apple and pear fruits were attenuated compared to those caused by the wild-type. The pyrC244::Tn5 mutant also caused severe fire blight symptoms in apple tree shoots. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type pyrC gene restored prototrophy and symptom induction in apple and pear fruit to the pyrC244::Tn5 mutant. These results suggest that Erw. amylovora can obtain sufficient pyrimidine from the host to support bacterial growth and fire blight disease development, although de novo pyrimidine synthesis by Erw. amylovora is required for full symptom development in fruits. Significance and impact of the study: This study provides information about the fire blight host-pathogen interaction. Although the Erwinia amylovora pyrC mutant was strictly auxotrophic for pyrimidine, it grew as well as the wild-type in immature pear and apple fruits and caused severe fire blight disease in apple trees. This suggests that Erw. amylovora can obtain sufficient pyrimidines from host tissue to support growth and fire blight disease development. This situation contrasts with findings in some human bacterial pathogens, which require de novo pyrimidine synthesis for growth in host blood, for example.

  4. The content of phenolic compounds in leaf tissues of white (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and red horse chestnut (Aesculus carea H.) colonized by the horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmiański, Jan; Kalisz, Stanisław; Aneta, Wojdyło

    2014-01-01

    Normally, plant phenolics are secondary metabolites involved in the defense mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens. Therefore, in this study we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in leaves of white and red horse chestnut with leaf miner larvae before and after Cameraria ohridella attack. A total of 17 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in white and red horse chestnut leaf extracts. Significantly decreased concentrations of some phenolic compounds, especially of flavan-3-ols, were observed in infected leaves compared to the non-infected ones. Additionally, a higher content of polyphenolic compounds especially (-)-epicatechin and procyanidins in leaves of red-flowering than in white-flowering horse chestnut may explain their greater resistance to C. ohridella insects. PMID:25225723

  5. The Content of Phenolic Compounds in Leaf Tissues of White (Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Red Horse Chestnut (Aesculus carea H. Colonized by the Horse Chestnut Leaf Miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Oszmiański

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normally, plant phenolics are secondary metabolites involved in the defense mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens. Therefore, in this study we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in leaves of white and red horse chestnut with leaf miner larvae before and after Cameraria ohridella attack. A total of 17 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in white and red horse chestnut leaf extracts. Significantly decreased concentrations of some phenolic compounds, especially of flavan-3-ols, were observed in infected leaves compared to the non-infected ones. Additionally, a higher content of polyphenolic compounds especially (−-epicatechin and procyanidins in leaves of red-flowering than in white-flowering horse chestnut may explain their greater resistance to C. ohridella insects.

  6. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  7. A new macrocyclic trichochecene from soil fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From fermentation broth of soil fungus 254-2 obtained from Yunnan province,a new macrocylic trichochecene was isolated.The structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidences especially the 2-D NMR spectra.

  8. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list.

  9. Revisiting the Resilience of Chestnut Forests in Corsica: from Social-Ecological Systems Theory to Political Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Michon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The "chestnut civilization" is often used to qualify agrarian inland Corsica. Based on a critical review of historical sources and research on present dynamics, we show how this "civilization" has built up on a long series of resistance and adaptation to external political forces, from Genovese and French domination up to the present period of independence claims. The construction of the castagnetu, the Corsican chestnut (Castanea sativa mill. forest, as a social-ecological system is based on a constantly evolving compromise between wild and domestic attributes, but also on socio-political resistance, incorporation, and innovation. We argue that the castagnetu's resilience, beyond its social-ecological qualities and its economic profitability, is closely linked to a constant incorporation of identity and cultural values into chestnut trees and gardens, but also to the role assigned to the castagnetu by its supporters in the political positioning of their relations to both central power and outside actors.

  10. Effectiveness of fungicide-free approaches to the protection of potato and tomato against late blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Aleksej N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes fungicide-free ecologically tolerant technologies for the protection of potato and tomato against Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, agent of late blight of these crops. It has been proved that potato cultivars with field resistance (Lugovskoy provide a protection level comparable to the effectiveness of modern fungicides. Plant extracts from Southern plants can be used as biopesticides in order to additionally suppress the development of late blight. For example, extracts of four species from Yemen (fam. Asteraceae: Psiadia arabica Jaup and Spach; fam. Lamiaceae: Lawsonia inermis L ; Dodonea viscos L ; Euryops arabicus Steud. ex Jaub and Spach were capable of suppressing late blight development on potato. On the contrary, plant growth regulators, Novosil (active compound triterpene acids, Larixin (active compound dihydroquerticin, and Terpenol (active compound triterpene acids, in spite of the periods of high efficiency against late blight, do not provide satisfying effect since these substances could sometimes even promote a pathogen development. Also, vaccination of tomato with attenuated strain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV could improve viability and immune status of plants under normal conditions, and in the case of stress situation it promoted weakness of plants and P. infestans infection. In Eastern Europe, fungicide-free technologies for the protection of potato and tomato against late blight, corresponding to the ecological criterion, should be additionally elaborated and tested for potato and tomato cropping.

  11. Quantitative Effects of Early and Late Blights on Tomato Yields in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Early blight caused by Alternaria solani and late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans are the major diseases of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum in Cameroon. The effect of both diseases on fruit yield was evaluated during the 1995 growing season in Dschang, Cameroon.Ten varieties were planted in the first trial (March-July and nine in the second (July- November. In both trials, plots were sprayed weekly with Ridomil Plus (2.0 kg/ha before flowering and with maneb (1.6 kg/ha after flowering. Early blight was more severe in the early part of the first trial, while late blight caused most damage during the second. Marketable yields varied according to variety. High yields in sprayed plots were obtained in Dona F1 (61.63 t/ha and Heinz 1370 (68.24 t/ha during the first trial, and in Fline (58.35 t/ha, Mecline (64.25 t/ha, and Moboline (55.16 t/ha during the second trial. Percent fruit infection in sprayed plots caused by both diseases varied according to variety from 12 to 65% in the first season and from 14 to 52% in the second, while losses in marketable yields for both blights were as high as 100% in unsprayed plots.

  12. An Update on Genetic Resistance of Chickpea to Ascochyta Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ascochyta blight (AB caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass. Labr. is an important and widespread disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. worldwide. The disease is particularly severe under cool and humid weather conditions. Breeding for host resistance is an efficient means to combat this disease. In this paper, attempts have been made to summarize the progress made in identifying resistance sources, genetics and breeding for resistance, and genetic variation among the pathogen population. The search for resistance to AB in chickpea germplasm, breeding lines and land races using various screening methods has been updated. Importance of the genotype × environment (GE interaction in elucidating the aggressiveness among isolates from different locations and the identification of pathotypes and stable sources of resistance have also been discussed. Current and modern breeding programs for AB resistance based on crossing resistant/multiple resistant and high-yielding cultivars, stability of the breeding lines through multi-location testing and molecular marker-assisted selection method have been discussed. Gene pyramiding and the use of resistant genes present in wild relatives can be useful methods in the future. Identification of additional sources of resistance genes, good characterization of the host–pathogen system, and identification of molecular markers linked to resistance genes are suggested as the key areas for future study.

  13. Screening Rice Cultivars for Resistance to Bacterial Leaf Blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred, Agaba Kayihura; Kiswara, Gilang; Yi, Gihwan; Kim, Kyung-Min

    2016-05-28

    Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most serious threats to rice production. In this study, screening of rice for resistance to BLB was carried out at two different times and locations; that is, in a greenhouse during winter and in an open field during summer. The pathogenicity of Xoo race K1 was tested on 32 Korean rice cultivars. Inoculation was conducted at the maximum tillering stage, and the lesion length was measured after 14 days of inoculation. Five cultivars, Hanareum, Namcheon, Samgdeok, Samgang, and Yangjo, were found to be resistant in both the greenhouse and open-field screenings. Expression of the plant defense-related genes JAmyb, OsNPR1, OsPR1a, OsWRKY45, and OsPR10b was observed in resistant and susceptible cultivars by qRT-PCR. Among the five genes tested, only OsPR10b showed coherent expression with the phenotypes. Screening of resistance to Xoo in rice was more accurate when conducted in open fields in the summer cultivation period than in greenhouses in winter. The expression of plant defenserelated genes after bacterial inoculation could give another perspective in elucidating defense mechanisms by using both resistant and susceptible individuals. PMID:26869604

  14. Mapping of the S. demissum late blight resistance gene R8 to a new locus on chromosome IX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo, K.R.; Arens, M.J.B.; Kim, T.Y.; Jongsma, M.A.; Visser, R.G.F.; Jacobsen, E.; Vossen, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The use of resistant varieties is an important tool in the management of late blight, which threatens potato production worldwide. Clone MaR8 from the Mastenbroek differential set has strong resistance to Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight. The F1 progeny of a cross between the

  15. First report of bacterial leaf blight on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) caused by pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, a brassica leafy greens grower in Sunflower County, Mississippi, observed scattered outbreaks of a leaf blight disease on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) in a 180-hectare field. A severe outbreak of leaf blight occurred on mustard greens and turnip greens (Brassica rapa) in the same field...

  16. Competitive Between Phytophthora Infestans Effectors Leads to Increased Aggressiveness on Plants Containing Broad-Spectrum Late Blight Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato late blight is a particularly destructive plant disease caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. Late blight has remained particularly problematic despite intensive breeding efforts to integrate resistance into cultivated potato. This is due to the pathogen’s ab...

  17. Changes in leaf tissues of common horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. colonised by the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ochridella Deschka and Dimić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study, conducted during the period 2010- 2011, involved morphological observations and anatomical investigations of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. leaves with symptoms of damage caused by feeding of larvae of the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić. Leaves were collected from trees growing in the city of Lublin (Poland. Microscopic slides were prepared from fresh and fixed plant material. Leaf anatomical features were examined by light microscopy in order to determine the mechanical barrier for feeding pests. Changes were also observed during the progressive damage of the leaf tissues caused by the larvae. Selected developmental stages of the pest are presented in the paper. It has been shown that very thin blades of the mesomorphic leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum produce a poorly developed mechanical barrier in which the following elements can be included: the presence of collenchyma and idioblasts with druses of calcium oxalate, few non-glandular trichomes found close to the leaf veins as well as relatively thin outer walls of the epidermal cells. The cells containing tannins and the oil cells found in the mesophyll may form a physiological barrier. However, foraging leaf miner larvae feed only on the palisade and spongy parenchyma cells, leaving undamaged the cells with tannins as well as the idioblasts with calcium oxalate crystals and oils. The feeding of the pest in the leaf mesophyll leads to the death of the epidermis on both sides of the lamina and to drying of the parts of the leaves in the area of the mines.

  18. Cultivation and Management Techniques of Chestnut Mushroom%栗蘑栽培管理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓娜

    2014-01-01

    总结了栗蘑栽培管理技术,包括选地、做畦、码放菌袋、搭遮荫棚、生长期管理、主要病虫害防治、适时采摘等内容,以供参考。%Cultivation and management techniques of chestnut mushroom were summarized,including selection of land,furrowing,block pattern row pattern of cultivated bag,setting up shed shelter,growth management,main prevention and control of plant diseases and insect pests,timely harvest and etc.,so as to provide the reference.

  19. THE PESTS OF HORSE CHESTNUT TREE – AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    PERJU, T.; I OLTEAN; OPREAN, I.; Monica ECOBICI

    2005-01-01

    In 1998 the presence of the horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka-Dimic was reported in Cluj- Napoca. During 2000 – 2003 research concerning the extent, biology, ecology at this micro-lepidopteron, a new pest in our country, was performed. Signaled for the fi rst time in Western area of our country (1998), then in Central (1998), Southern (1999), and Eastern (2003) part of the country, the spread year by year conquering new territories. In the clime conditions of our country,...

  20. HPLC Analysis of Esculin and Fraxin in Horse-Chestnut Bark (Aesculus hippocastanum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Stanić, Gordana; Juričić, Blaženka; Brkić, Dragomir

    1999-01-01

    Selective and sensitive HPLC method was used for simultaneous determination of esculin and fraxin in a methanolic extract of horse-chestnut bark (A. hippocastanum L.). The samples were separated on a LiChrospher RP 18 column (150 4 mm i.d.) with the mobile phase consisting of acetic acid, 1%, and methanol (84:16 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and quantified by measuring the UV absorbance at 340 nm. The assay of esculin and fraxin is linear over the range 0.02–2 mg/mL. It was shown that t...

  1. Hydrologic study and evaluation of Ish Creek watershed (West Chestnut Ridge proposed disposal site)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of site characterization work for the proposed West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility, hydrologic information has been assembled from literature sources and direct field measurements. Earlier studies provide the basis for estimating flow frequency and expected high and low flows for catchments on Knox Group formations. Seven waterflow-gaging installations were established and used to characterize runoff patterns in the study area. Based on findings of this study, a practical design capacity for a flume to measure site runoff would range between 1 and 3000 L/s, although flows up to 4500 L/s (10-year recurrence interval) may be encountered. 7 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  2. Spectroscopy analysis of phenolic and sugar patterns in a food grade chestnut tannin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, A; Lagel, M-C; Parpinello, G P; Pizzi, A; Kilmartin, P A; Versari, A

    2016-07-15

    Tannin of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood, commonly used in winemaking was characterised with a spectroscopy qualitative approach that revealed its phenolic composition: several vibrational diagnostic bands assigned using the Attenuated Total Reflectance-Infrared Spectroscopy, and fragmentation patterns obtained using the Laser-Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight technique evidenced polygalloylglucose, e.g. castalagin/vescalagin-like structures as the most representative molecules, together with sugar moieties. The implication of these findings on winemaking application and the potential influence of the chemical structure on the sensory properties of wine are discussed. PMID:26948634

  3. Efficacy of fungicides on the progress of early blight and yield of potato in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontera, DA.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Five fungicides were evaluated during the 1990 and 1991 growing seasons in two locations in Cameroon for efficacy on the progress of early blight and yield of potato. Disease-progress curves fitted the logistic transformation better than the Gompertz. Fungicidal treatments reduced the rate of early blight progress and area under disease-progress curve (AUDPC. Early blight was more severe in the 1991 season and yields recorded in this season were lower than those in 1990. In both seasons, high yields were obtained in plots receiving six sprays maneb or mancozeb. Two sprays of Ridomil plus (12 % metalaxyl + 60 % cuprous oxide and six of cupric hydroxide also produced appreciable yields, while fosetyl-AI (three sprays provided the least yield increase. Yield losses in non-sprayed plots were estimated at 15.7-53.6 %. Yields were negatively correlated to AUDPC.

  4. Tagging RAPD markers to a bacterial blight resistance gene in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@The somaclonal mutant HX_3 has shown a broad spectrum resistance to bacterial blight. To study the inheritance of the bacterial blight resistance in HX_3, a cross was made between HX_3 and a susceptible cultivar Longtefu A. The F2 population of 418 plants was inoculated with Chinese bacterial blight strain Zhe 173 (pathotype Ⅳ ). Results showed that the F2 progenies segregated in a ratio of 3R∶ 1S (324 resistant plants and 94 susceptible plants). From the plants tested, 114 individuals (86 resistant and 28 susceptible) were chosen randomly for RAPD analysis. Twelve highly resistant and 12 highly susceptible plants were selected to form a resistant pool and a susceptible pool, respectively.

  5. Relationship between soil cellulolytic activity and suppression of seedling blight of barley in arable soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Knudsen, I.; Elmholt, S.;

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the relationship between soil suppression of seedling blight of barley caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Smith) Sacc. and the soil cellulolytic activity of beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase and endocellulase. Disease suppression was investigated in bioassays....... From the preliminary results obtained, it is proposed that the cellulolytic activity can be used as an enzymatic approach to study the microbial turnover of organic matter in soils and as indicator of seedling blight of barley caused by F. culmorum. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Survival of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Leplat, Johann; Friberg, Hanna; Abid, Muhammad; Steinberg, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most cultivated crops worldwide. In 2010, 20 % of wheat and durum wheat were cultivated in Europe, 17 % in China and 9 % in Russia and in North America. Wheat yield can be highly decreased by several factors. In particular Fusarium graminearum Schwabe is a worldwide fungal pest impacting wheat production. F. graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight, root and stem-base rot of cereals. Losses caused by Fusarium head blight in Northern and Central America from ...

  7. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight

  8. The Urochloa Foliar Blight and Collar Rot Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA Emerged in South America Via a Host Shift from Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarro Mesa, Edisson; Ceresini, Paulo C; Ramos Molina, Lina M; Pereira, Danilo A S; Schurt, Daniel A; Vieira, José R; Poloni, Nadia M; McDonald, Bruce A

    2015-11-01

    The fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-1 IA emerged in the early 1990s as an important pathogen causing foliar blight and collar rot on pastures of the genus Urochloa (signalgrass) in South America. We tested the hypothesis that this pathogen emerged following a host shift or jump as a result of geographical overlapping of host species. The genetic structure of host and regional populations of R. solani AG-1 IA infecting signalgrass, rice, and soybean in Colombia and Brazil was analyzed using nine microsatellite loci in 350 isolates to measure population differentiation and infer the pathogen reproductive system. Phylogeographical analyses based on the microsatellite loci and on three DNA sequence loci were used to infer historical migration patterns and test hypotheses about the origin of the current pathogen populations. Cross pathogenicity assays were conducted to measure the degree of host specialization in populations sampled from different hosts. The combined analyses indicate that the pathogen populations currently infecting Urochloa in Colombia and Brazil most likely originated from a population that originally infected rice. R. solani AG-1 IA populations infecting Urochloa exhibit a mixed reproductive system including both sexual reproduction and long-distance dispersal of adapted clones, most likely on infected seed. The pathogen population on Urochloa has a genetic structure consistent with a high evolutionary potential and showed evidence for host specialization. PMID:26222889

  9. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. PMID:25363584

  10. Adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue onto activated carbon obtained from horse chestnut kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Milan Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Horse chestnut kernel was used as the precursor for the preparation of powdered activated carbon using phosphoric acid as the activating agent. Batch adsorption experiments for the adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue from aqueous solutions were carried out using the obtained carbon as adsorbent. Equilibrium and kinetic experiments were conducted. The equilibrium data were fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin theoretical isotherm models. The best results was obtained in the case of Langmuir model, which indicates that monolayer adsorption occurs on finite number of the active adsorption sites on the carbon surface. The kinetic data were fitted with pseudo-first, pseudo-second, Elovich and interparticle diffusion model. Pseudo-second order model and Elovich model showed the best results of the kinetic data. The increasing of the solution pH led to a higher uptake of methylene blue due to the fact that competitive adsorption of methylene blue cation and proton exists in acidic solutions. The adsorption capacity for methylene blue in equilibrium study was significant (168.93 mg g-1. Comparison of the adsorption capacities of methylene blue onto activated carbons derived from various alternative precursors proves chestnut kernel to be efficient and low-cost material which could be substantially deployed in the future.

  11. A Morphological and Histological Characterization of Male Flower in Chestnut (Castanea Cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume. is a widely distributed fruit tree and well known for its ecological and economic value. In order to evaluate obstacles to male reproductive in the C. mollissima, a morphological and histological characterization of male flower of chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ were examined by paraffin section technique and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that male catkins with floral primordia were formed in the buds of one-year olds shoots in later April. Later, a protoderm, ground meristem and a procambium had differentiated in young anthers. Each young anther soon developed to four microsporangia. The anther wall layers developed completely by mid-May and consisted of one-cell-layered epidermis, one-cell-layered endothecium, two or three middle layers and one-cell-layered tapetum. The tapetum was of glandular type. Microspore mother cells underwent meiosis through simultaneous cytokinesis in later May and gave rise to tetrads of microspores, which were tetrahedrally arranged. Mature pollens contained two cells with three germ pores. Anthers were dehiscent and pollen grains shed by early June. Based our results, we did not find the abnormal male flower in the C. molissma cv ‘yanshanzaofeng’, indicating that male gametes were fertile and thus was considered as pollenizers.

  12. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies.

  13. Chestnut cultivar diversification process in the Iberian Peninsula, Canary Islands, and Azores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Lorenzo, Santiago; Costa, Rita Maria Lourenço; Ramos-Cabrer, Ana María; Ciordia-Ara, Marta; Ribeiro, Carla Alexandra Marques; Borges, Olga; Barreneche, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    This is a large-scale molecular study based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci of the diversification process in chestnut cultivars from Portugal and Spain, from the northern Iberian Peninsula to the Canary Islands and the Azores. A total of 593 grafted chestnut trees (Castanea sativa Mill.) were analysed with 10 SSRs: 292 from Portugal and 301 from Spain. Some of the trees studied were more than 300 years old. Accessions were analysed using a model-based Bayesian procedure to assess the geographical structure and to assign individuals to reconstructed populations based on the SSR genotypes. We found 356 different genotypes with a mean value of clonality of 33% owing to grafting. Mutations accounted for 6%, with hybridization being the main diversification process that can explain the great diversity found. Ten main cultivar groups were detected: four in northern Spain, five in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, and one in southern Spain related to the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. This work demonstrated that cultivar origin and the diversification process was a combination of clonal propagation of selected seedlings, hybridization, and mutations, which allowed high levels of diversity to be maintained with respect to selected clones for fruit production. Furthermore, seedlings and graft sticks facilitated the transport to new destinations in the colonization process, transporting sometimes more than 3000 km if we consider the Azores and the Canary Islands. PMID:21491973

  14. Quick detection of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in chestnut dormant buds by nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, C; Marinoni, D Torello; Quacchia, A; Botta, R

    2012-06-01

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) develops in chestnut buds that remain asymptomatic from oviposition (June-July) until budburst; it is, thus, easily spread by plant material used in propagation. Therefore, it is particularly interesting to identify infested plant batches before their movement. Unfortunately, a non-destructive method for checking buds has not yet been developed, and the only technique available is the screening of a bud sample. The visual investigation is long and requires highly skilled and trained staff. The purpose of this work was to set up an effective and fast method able to identify the presence of first instar larvae of D. kuriphilus in a large number of chestnut buds by PCR. Four primer pairs were designed on nuclear and mitochondrial sequences of a set of seven gall wasp taxa and tested on five different cynipid's DNA. Nested diagnostic PCR was carried out on DNA extracted from samples of 2 g buds simulating four levels of infestation (larvae were added to uninfested buds); 320 bp amplicon of 28S sequence was chosen as a marker to detect one larva out of 2 g buds. The method showed a potential efficiency of 5000 to 15,000 buds per week, depending on bud size.

  15. Effects of Different Pollination Treatments on Nutrition Changes of the Ovary in Chinese Chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume has noteworthy ecological, economic and cultural importance in the Northern Hemisphere. The low yield of chestnut often affect the economic efficiency. Ovary development is an important step in nut production. Changes in nutrient contents during ovary development in chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ and ‘Dabanhong’ were used as material. About 50~100 pollinated female inflorescences were picked every five days (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 days to determine N, P, K, fat, total soluble sugar, crude protein and starch contents. The results indicated that the contents of total soluble sugar, starch and fat increased constantly in ovaries after self-and cross-pollination, but protein, N and K contents first increased in 20 DAP (day after pollination and after that decreased in the stage of young fruit development. The changes of P has two peak values, one was in 40 DAP and the other was in 50 DAP. P and crude protein were not significantly after pollination treatments. However, N, sugar, starch, fat and K were significantly higher in cross-pollination treatment it seems that these nutrient has a decisive role during ovary development in chestnut. The characteristics of these nutrition changes provide a basis information for spraying N, P, K etc during ovary development and may have the potential to improve nut yield.

  16.   The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne

      The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables   Anne Winding, National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde, AU   Trichoderma spp. is a naturally occurring fungus in soil and T. harzianum is an active ingredient in microbial pest control agents (MPCA) active against root pathogenic fungi....... The MPCA is administered to the plants by watering. The fungus establishes in the root zone and exerts its beneficial effect by general increase of resistance against pathogenic fungi. The natural occurrence of Trichoderma spp. and the fate and survival of the introduced T. harzianum on vegetables...... are important for risk assessment of MPCA and are the objectives of this project. Trichoderma spp. on tomatoes and cucumbers grown in greenhouses and on broccoli and celery leaf grown outdoors were quantified during a growth season. A MPCA with T. harzianum was applied in a greenhouse growing tomatoes...

  17. Nuclear flow in a filamentous fungus

    CERN Document Server

    Hickey, Patrick C; Read, Nick; Glass, N Louise; Roper, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The syncytial cells of a filamentous fungus consist of a mass of growing, tube-like hyphae. Each extending tip is fed by a continuous flow of nuclei from the colony interior, pushed by a gradient in turgor pressure. The myco-fluidic flows of nuclei are complex and multidirectional, like traffic in a city. We map out the flows in a strain of the model filamentous fungus {\\it N. crassa} that has been transformed so that nuclei express either hH1-dsRed (a red fluorescent nuclear protein) or hH1-GFP (a green-fluorescent protein) and report our results in a fluid dynamics video.

  18. R gene stacking by trans- and cisgenesis to achieve durable late blight resistance in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Among the many diseases of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), which is the third food crop in the world after wheat and rice, late blight caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most serious diseases. In the last century, major resistance (R) genes were introgressed mainly

  19. Potential impact of a hybrid leaf blight disease that infects both carrot and potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria dauci and Alternaria solani are two forms of necrotrophic fungi. A. dauci targets carrot crops, while A. solani mainly targets potato. Both species of Alternaria have been able to produce blight on their respective target plants. Recently, an A. dauci hybrid has appeared that is able to i...

  20. Bringing Benefits and Warding off Blights in Due Commandment (Analytic Study Compared with the Jordanian Law)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Etoum, Niebal Mohd Ibrahim; Mowafi, Hanan Sami Mohammad; Al Zubaidi, Faraj Hamad Salem

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to highlight the benefits and blights of the due commandment (intestate law) under Jordanian law for the year (2010) in the article (279). The study came in two sections, the first one dealt with the concept of due commandment, its legitimacy, verdict and terms; in the second section, I've dealt with the persons entitled to due…

  1. Unveiling and deploying durability of late blight resistance in potato : from natural stacking to cisgenic stacking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwang-Ryong Jo,

    2013-01-01

    The potato, which receives an increased attention as a food crop, has long been in threats from the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight. This disease still remains the most important constraint in potato producing regions of the world. It might cause the complete destruc

  2. Efficacy of different fungicides against Rhizoctonia brown patch and Pythium blight on turfgrass in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocioni, M; Titone, P; Garibaldi, A; Gullino, M L

    2003-01-01

    Brown patch, incited by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, and Pythium blight, caused by Pythium spp. are two of the diseases most frequently observed on turfgrass in high maintenance stands, as on golf courses. In such conditions the control strategies, based on chemicals, are particularly difficult due to the scarcity of fungicides registered for turf in Italy. The results obtained in experimental trials carried out to evaluate the efficacy of chemical and biological products against brown patch and Pythium blight are reported. On mature turfgrass, maintained under fairway conditions, azoxystrobin, and trifoxystrobin, not yet registered on turf, were very effective against brown patch. Tebuconazole, applied in three different formulations, was very effective against R. solani, while Trichoderma spp. and azadiractine did not control the pathogen. In greenhouse conditions on Agrostis stolonifera, in the presence of severe disease incidence, due to artificial inoculation, benalaxyl-M satisfactorily controlled Pythium blight; Trichoderma spp. as well as a commercial formulation of T. harzianum, applied one week before the inoculation, were not effective. Among the fungicides not yet registered for use on turfgrass in Italy, metalaxyl-M + mancozeb was effective against Pythium blight. PMID:15151284

  3. Genetic diversity of rice sheath blight isolates (Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA) from different rice cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 1 IA, the non specific, soil borne, and plant casual agent of rice sheath blight, occurring world widely in rice fields, has become a major disease to rice. In this study,relationships among R. solani AG 1 IA isolates, collected from different rice cultivars were reported.

  4. Fire blight in different production systems in Germany and strategies to control the disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jelkmann, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a serious disease of pome fruits in many countries of the world. The disease was first recognized at the end of the 18th century in the USA. Its first occurence in Europe was reported in 1957 from England.

  5. Evaluation of Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks for Tolerance to Phytophthora Blight and Watermelon Vine Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora blight and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici, and watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), are two important and emerging diseases of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus). Recently, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto roo...

  6. Multiple minor QTLs are responsible for Fusarium head blight resistance in Chinese wheat landrace Haiyanzhong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a devastatingve disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Use of host resistance is one of the most effective strategies to minimize the disease damage. Haiyanzhong (HYZ) is a Chinese wheat landrace that shows a high level of resi...

  7. Introduction of Several Methods to Control Fusarium Head Blight(FHB)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣; 张敏

    2008-01-01

    Abstract:Fusariam head blight(FHB)is a worldwide destructive disease of wheat in the warm,semi-humid or humid regions,especially serious in China.The disease not only causes significant losses in yield and re duces grain quanlity,but also induces toxin to contaminated seeds,which is harmful to the healthy of human and livestocks,So it is important to control it.There are several methods to control Fusarium head blight (FHB).Such as using Crop rotation,Soil cultivation and Fertiliser,biological control,Fungicides control, transgenes,resistance to control Fusarium head blight(FHB).All of these methods gain some effect,but also exist their deficiency.Sometimes crop rotation had no significant effect on DON contamination of wheat grain,subsequent reductions in DON contamination were inconsistent when using Soil cultivation and Fer tiliser,Unfortunately,under field conditions,the biological control achieved has been shown to be variable and in some tests has failed to give any control,The use of fungicides,however,have not been consistently effective in controlling FHB and in reducing DON formation,transgene-silencing at different generations is a problem to use transgenes,Information on location of QTL for FHB resistance should improve dramatically in the near future on resistance to control Fusarium head blight(FHB).Therefore,it is pressing to improve control methods,especially to DON.

  8. Validation of Fusarium head blight resistance QTL using the NC-Neuse / Bess doubled haploid population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat. It lowers the grain yield and quality, and contaminates grain with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Genetic resistance is a critical control measure and breeding objective. Many studies have focused on the genetic basis of ...

  9. Inheritance of resistance to bacterial streak and hacterial blight in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUJianlong; WANGHanrong; LINYi; XIYongan

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial streak(BS) caused by Xanthomonas campesiris pv. oryzicola bas become one of the major diseases in southbern rice areas.Up to date, tbere are few reports on the inheritance of resistance to BS and its relationsbip with the resistance to bacterial blight(BB).

  10. Action and reaction of host and pathogen during Fusarium head blight disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Nicholson, Paul; Doohan, Fiona M

    2010-01-01

    The Fusarium species Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, Which are responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease, reduced world-wide cereal crop yield and, as a consequence of their mycotoxin production in cereal grain, impact on both human and animal health. Their study is greatly...

  11. Investigation of the effect of nitrogen on severity of Fusarium Head Blight in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Spliid, N.H.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in a susceptible barley cultivar was investigated using gel-based proteomics. Barley grown with either 15 or 100 kg ha(-1)N fertilizer was inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (Fg). The storage protein fraction did not change significantly...

  12. Impact of new populations of Phytophthora infestans on integrated late blight management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, W.G.; Kessel, G.J.T.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Turkensteen, L.J.

    2002-01-01

    A recent migration of a variable population of P. infestans has largely displaced the clonal A1 population in Western Europe. Sexual reproduction in European late blight populations is now possible and has been reported. The increased levels of aggressiveness form an important epidemiological featur

  13. Differential responses to pea bacterial blight in stems, leaves and pods under glasshouse and field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elvira-Recuenco, M.; Bevan, J.R.; Taylor, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to pea bacterial blight (Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi) in different plant parts was assessed in 19 Pisum sativum cultivars and landraces, carrying race-specific resistance genes (R-genes) and two Pisum abyssinicum accessions carrying race-nonspecific resistance. Stems, leaves and pods we

  14. Introgression and genetic characterization of alien Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alien species are an important source of genetic variability in wheat (Triticum spp.) and carry genes for resistance to numerous pathogens, including Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB). The goal of this project was to develop breeder-friendly, FHB-resistant ...

  15. Elevated [CO2] compromises both Type I and Type II wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the world’s most devastating wheat diseases, and results in significant yield loss and contamination of grain with harmful mycotoxins called trichothecenes. Despite emerging risks of increased mycotoxin contamination in food and feed associated with climate chang...

  16. The potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans and other pathogenic oomycota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, F.; Drenth, A.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Potato late blight, caused by a member of the Oomycota, Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) De Bary, is one of the most important and devastating diseases of potato (Solanum tuberosum). The pathogen attacks both foliage and tubers, and spreads rapidly through host tissues, thereby causing a destructive n

  17. Durable Late Blight Resistance in Potato Through Dynamic Varieties Obtained by Cisgenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Boonekamp, P.M.; Hutten, R.; Jacobsen, E.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Kessel, G.J.T.; Vossen, J.H.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2016-01-01

    From 2006 through 2015, a research project on Durable Resistance in potato against Phytophthora (DuRPh) was carried out at Wageningen University and Research Centre. Its objective was to develop a proof of principle for durable resistance against late blight by cisgenesis. This public-funded proj

  18. Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat using the in vitro androgenic approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, M.B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) belongs to the three most important food crops in the world. In certain years, the crop can suffer considerable damage as a result of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), especially as no chemical control is effective against this disease. This disease is mainly caused by the fu

  19. Complete Genome Sequence for the Fusarium Head Blight Antagonist Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain TrigoCor 1448

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Beth A.; Ramaiya, Preethi; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Kumar, Ravi; Crinklaw, Austin; Jolkovsky, Eliana; Crane, Julia M.; Bergstrom, Gary C; Rey, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    We present the complete genome sequence for Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TrigoCor 1448 (ATCC 202152), a bacterial biological control agent for Fusarium head blight in wheat. We compare it to its closest relative, B. amyloliquefaciens strain AS43.3.

  20. The role of oospores in the epidemiology of potato late blight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, G.J.T.; Andersson, B.; Widmark, A.K.; Yuen, J.E.; Evenhuis, A.; Turkensteen, L.J.; Lehtinen, A.; Nielsen, B.; Ravnskov, S.; Hansen, J.G.; Hermansen, A.; Brurberg, M.B.; Nordskog, B.

    2009-01-01

    Potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) is a plant disease feared globally by farmers and the potato industry. P. infestans is a heterothallic oomycete with two mating types. Until recently the pathogen was limited to surviving between seasons as living mycelia in its host plant in most parts of

  1. Fusarium spp. associated with head blight of wheat in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is caused by numerous Fusarium species, including trichothecene-producers. In South Africa, FHB is mostly associated with irrigated wheat rotated with maize. Twenty symptomatic wheat heads were collected from four cultivars each in irrigated fields in the Northern...

  2. Results of potato late blight demonstrations in Garut and Pangalengan, Indonesia, October 2014-January 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Gunadi, N.; Putter, de H.; Moekasan, T.K.; Prabaningrum, L.; Karjadi, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Demo plots with potato varieties Atlantic and Granola were laid out in Garut and Pangalengan from October 2014 to January 2015. The objective of the demo plots described in this report are to investigate the influence of three factors on the efficacy of three factors in late blight control strategie

  3. Identification of markers associated with bacterial blight resistance loci in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agbicodo, A.C.M.E.; Fatokun, C.A.; Bandyopadhyay, R.; Wydra, K.; Diop, N.N.; Muchero, W.; Ehlers, J.D.; Roberts, P.A.; Close, T.J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Linden, van der C.G.

    2010-01-01

    Cowpea bacterial blight (CoBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vignicola (Xav), is a worldwide major disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. Among different strategies to control the disease including cultural practices, intercropping, application of chemicals, and sowing pathogen-fr

  4. Controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans E325 for biocontrol of fire blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microencapsulation and controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 (E325), which is an antagonist to bacterial pathogen (Erwinia amylovora) of fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear, have been investigated. Uniform core-shell alginate microcapsules (AMCs), 60-300 µm in diamet...

  5. Complete genome sequence of Japanese erwinia strain ejp617, a bacterial shoot blight pathogen of pear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duck Hwan; Thapa, Shree Prasad; Choi, Beom-Soon; Kim, Won-Sik; Hur, Jang Hyun; Cho, Jun Mo; Lim, Jong-Sung; Choi, Ik-Young; Lim, Chun Keun

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese Erwinia strain Ejp617 is a plant pathogen that causes bacterial shoot blight of pear in Japan. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain Ejp617 isolated from Nashi pears in Japan to provide further valuable insight among related Erwinia species.

  6. Pantoea applied genomics to understand and improve biocontrol activity against fire blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea agglomerans and P. vagans (ex. Erwinia herbicola) are common epiphytes of pome fruit flowers and three strains (E325, P10c, C9-1) have been commercially developed as effective biocontrol products for managing fire blight (Erwinia amylovora). Antibiotics as a standard, reliable chemical optio...

  7. [Erwinia amylovora--the fire blight pathogen of trees in Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, L M; Moroz, S N; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E; Gvozdiak, R I; Patyka, V F

    2014-01-01

    Niduses of fire blight of fruit and ornamental trees have been found in the Kyiv and Vinnitsa regions of Ukraine. Pathogen Erwinia amylovora was isolated between April and October. The pathogen was often accompanied by bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Artificial infection with a mixture of bacteria E. amylovora and P. syringae pv. syringae accelerates and enhances the disease process in the laboratory.

  8. Occurrence and transmission of mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 from dejecta of Thyreophagus corticalis (Acari, Acaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouneb, Mabrouk; Turchetti, Tullio; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Paoli, Francesco; Danti, Roberto; Simoni, Sauro

    2016-03-01

    The natural spread of virus-induced hypovirulence is highly involved in the recovery of blighted chestnut stands and orchards in Italy and in Europe. The potential role of corticolous mites as vectors of hypovirulence in blighted chestnut Castanea sativa (Mill.) stands was pointed out in previous reports. Here, by using RT-PCR, mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus (CHV1) was detected in Thyreophagus corticalis mites reared on a hypovirulent strain in monoxenic cultures and in their faecal pellets. Cryphonectria parasitica mycelium derived from mites' dejecta was able to transmit CHV1 to the virulent strain determining its conversion to hypovirulent one. This converted strain induced healing cankers on excised stems, differently from the un-converted virulent strain. Our findings prove the spread of CHV1 by corticolous mites that feed on virus-infected fungus and emphasize their potential role as vectors. PMID:26895863

  9. Occurrence and transmission of mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 from dejecta of Thyreophagus corticalis (Acari, Acaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouneb, Mabrouk; Turchetti, Tullio; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Paoli, Francesco; Danti, Roberto; Simoni, Sauro

    2016-03-01

    The natural spread of virus-induced hypovirulence is highly involved in the recovery of blighted chestnut stands and orchards in Italy and in Europe. The potential role of corticolous mites as vectors of hypovirulence in blighted chestnut Castanea sativa (Mill.) stands was pointed out in previous reports. Here, by using RT-PCR, mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus (CHV1) was detected in Thyreophagus corticalis mites reared on a hypovirulent strain in monoxenic cultures and in their faecal pellets. Cryphonectria parasitica mycelium derived from mites' dejecta was able to transmit CHV1 to the virulent strain determining its conversion to hypovirulent one. This converted strain induced healing cankers on excised stems, differently from the un-converted virulent strain. Our findings prove the spread of CHV1 by corticolous mites that feed on virus-infected fungus and emphasize their potential role as vectors.

  10. Studies on Lactic Acid Bacteria Beverage of Chestnut and Red Date%板栗红枣乳酸菌饮料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰; 李岩; 刘伟

    2011-01-01

    本文将板栗浆与脱脂乳混合进行发酵制成板栗酸牛奶,再以板栗酸牛奶为基料添加红枣汁制成风味独特、清凉爽口的乳酸菌饮料,并确定其最佳配方为:板栗发酵乳添加量为35%,红枣汁添加量为4%,调整pH值为4.0.%A study on the chestnut yogurt fermentation with liquid of chestnut and skim milk. Made lactic acid bacteria beverage with chestnut yogurt of fundamental material adds juice of red dates, it has flavour of special, refreshing and cool tasty. The best result of the former is chestnut yogurt: 35%, juice of red dates: 4%, pH:4.0.

  11. Death from Fungus in the Soil

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-17

    Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

  12. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-12-20

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

  13. Primary and secondary metabolite composition of kernels from three cultivars of Portuguese chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) at different stages of industrial transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Carmo Barbosa Mendes De Vasconcelos, Maria; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira Cardoso, Jorge Ventura

    2007-05-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa) is an important basic food in rural diets and a major starch crop used in a similar way to potatoes. Chestnuts are a fundamental economic resource in the "chestnut regions" not only for the fruit but also for the chestnut wood. Chestnuts have become increasingly important with respect to human health, for example, as an alternative gluten-free flour source. Chestnuts are also a rich source of other beneficial compounds, but there have been few studies on the composition during processing. In this study, we analyzed the chemical composition of three Portuguese cultivars at different stages of industrial processing. The chestnut cultivars were Longal, Judia, and Martaínha. All three cultivars had high moisture contents but were low in ash, crude fat, and crude protein contents, with high starch and low fiber contents. The free amino acid contents, including various essential amino acids, varied depending on the cultivar. All three cultivars also had a significant content of polyphenolics with gallic acid; ellagic acid was predominant among hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Many of these compounds are known to exert significant positive effects on human health. The one-way analysis of variance for fresh chestnut shows significant differences among the three cultivars for most of the studied parameters. The same statistical analysis applied to each one of the two cultivars (Judia and Longal) sampled for the four processing steps analyzed indicates a significant effect of this factor in practically all of the constituents. On the other hand, the two-way analysis of variance shows that, besides the residual, the processing step and the interaction cultivar x processing step were the factors that more contributed for the total variation observed in the constituents analyzed, while the contribution of cultivar was much less significant.

  14. 板栗苞壳周年栽培食用菌试验%Year-round Cultivation of Edible Fungus with the Chestnut Spiny Involucre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃宝山; 吴康董; 黄春凤

    2015-01-01

    以板栗(Castanea mollissima)苞壳为主要原料,进行灵芝(Ganoderma lucidum)、秀珍菇(Pleurotus geesteranus)和平菇(Pleurotus ostreatus)周年栽培试验.结果表明,3种食用菌的菌丝体长势良好,生物学效率、总产值和毛利率均较高;灵芝—秀珍菇—平菇是食用菌周年化栽培比较理想的品种搭配模式.

  15. In vitro morphogenetic competence of basal sprouts and crown branches of mature chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M C; Vieitez, A M

    1991-01-01

    Basal shoots of five clones of mature chestnut tree (Castanea sativa Mill. and C. sativa x C. crenata Siebold & Zucc.) had a greater capacity for in vitro establishment, multiplication and rooting than crown branches of the same trees. Cultures from basal shoots were more responsive than crown-derived cultures in terms of in vitro reactivity (proportion of the explants with shoot development), the mean number of shoots formed per explant, the length of the tallest shoot in each culture, and the multiplication coefficient (defined as the product of the reactivity and the mean number of shoots per explant). Multiplication coefficients were greatest between subcultures 6 and 12, but subculturing failed to increase the rooting potential of shoots of crown origin. Multiplication and rooting rates were also determined for clones derived from seeds of mature trees. Genotype influenced the in vitro performance of clones of both adult and seedling origins.

  16. The effect of chestnut coppice forests abandon on slope stability: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Chiara; Bassanelli, Chiara; Rossi, Lorenzo; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Battista Bischetti, Gian

    2013-04-01

    Sweet chestnut has been fundamental for Italian mountainous economies for many centuries. This kind of forest was traditionally managed by coppicing in shortly rotation (15-20 years) to rapidly produce wood biomass until half of XX century. In the last decades these forests were in large part abandoned due to change in economy which made coppiced forest management unprofitable, especially in steeper slopes and where forest viability is scarce. As a consequence most of them are over aged and very dense, leading to an observed increasing in localized slope instability, primary because of the uprooting of stools (Vogt et al., 2006). In this work the effect of the abandon of chestnut coppice on slope stability was analyzed, focusing on shallow landslides triggering. The mechanical contribution to soil shear strength of differently managed chestnut stand was estimated and compared in terms of additional root cohesion. The study area is located in the Valcuvia Valley (Lombardy Prealps - Northern Italy) at an elevation about 600 m a.s.l., where two different stands, one managed and the other abandoned (over 40 year aged), were chosen. The two sampling stands are on cohesionless slopes (quaternary moraine deposits) and are homogeneous with regard to the substrate, exposure and elevation. Slope steepness influences heavily forestry practices and steeper stands are more frequently abandoned than stands on gentler terrain: in fact in the abandoned coppice the slope was higher (35 degrees against 13 in the managed stand) and no stands completely homogeneous can be found. In each site the main characteristics of the stand were surveyed and a trench in each stand was excavated to analyze root diameter and number distribution with depth; root specimens were also collected for the tensile force determination through laboratory tensile tests. Root distribution and force were then used to estimate root cohesion values through a Fiber Boundle Model (Pollen and Simon, 2005). Results

  17. Identificationof Major Phenolic Compounds of Chinese Water Chestnut and their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli You

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese water chestnut (CWC is one of the most popular foods among Asian people due to its special taste and medical function. Experiments were conducted to test the antioxidant activity and then determine the major phenolic compound components present in CWC. CWC phenolic extract strongly inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and exhibited a dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which was superior to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, two commercial used antioxidants. Furthermore, the CWC extract was found to have a relatively higher reducing power, compared with BHT. The major phenolic compounds present in CWC tissues were extracted, purified and identified by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC as (–-gallocatechin gallate, (–-epicatechin gallate and (+-catechin gallate. This study suggests that CWC tissues exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions.

  18. Volatile compounds and bacterial community dynamics of chestnut-flour-based sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, M; Boscaino, F; Sorrentino, A; Coppola, R; Masi, P; Romano, A

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this study were the monitoring of the microbial dynamics by means of a polyphasic approach based on conventional isolation techniques and PCR-DGGE-based methods in different chestnut-based sourdoughs and the evaluation of the impact of fermentation on volatile organic compounds formation during sourdoughs ripening. Members of the Lactobacillus plantarum group and Pediococcus pentosaceous dominated the sourdough ecosystems. Nevertheless, RAPD-PCR allowed recording a relevant genotypic biodiversity among strains coming from gluten-free flour combinations. Volatile compounds were characterised by GC/MS. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified, mainly alcohols, esters, acids, aldehydes and ketones. Principal component analysis of samples at the beginning and at the end of ripening offered a good separation of the samples and highlighted the effect of fermentation on the sensorial profile. PMID:23870973

  19. Horse chestnut extract contracts bovine vessels and affects human platelet aggregation through 5-HT(2A) receptors: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felixsson, Emma; Persson, Ingrid A-L; Eriksson, Andreas C; Persson, Karin

    2010-09-01

    Extract from seeds and bark of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) is used as an herbal medicine against chronic venous insufficiency. The effect and mechanism of action on veins, arteries, and platelets are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of horse chestnut on the contraction of bovine mesenteric veins and arteries, and human platelet aggregation. Contraction studies showed that horse chestnut extract dose-dependently contracted both veins and arteries, with the veins being the most sensitive. Contraction of both veins and arteries were significantly inhibited by the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin. No effect on contraction was seen with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, the alpha(1) receptor antagonist prazosin or the angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonist saralasin neither in veins nor arteries. ADP-induced human platelet aggregation was significantly reduced by horse chestnut. A further reduction was seen with the extract in the presence of ketanserin. In conclusion, horse chestnut contraction of both veins and arteries is, at least partly, mediated through 5-HT(2A) receptors. Human platelet aggregation is reduced by horse chestnut. The clinical importance of these findings concerning clinical use, possible adverse effects, and drug interactions remains to be investigated. PMID:20148408

  20. Control of seedling blight in winter wheat by seed treatments - impact on emergence, crop stand, yield and deoxynivalenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise N; K. Nielsen, Linda; Nielsen, Bent J

    2012-01-01

    Seedling blight caused by Fusarium spp. and Microdochium spp. is common on wheat grain, and severe attacks can lead to poor establishment of new crops. Several seed treatments using bitertanol, difenoconazole, triticonazole, maneb, fludioxonil or guazatine found to significantly control Fusarium...... seedling blight (Fusarium spp., Microdochium spp.) were improving germination and reducing seedling blight on roots and coleoptiles under field conditions in winter wheat. Some of the seed treatments were also shown to have an impact on soil-borne Fusarium in trials carried out under glasshouse conditions...... germination by approximately 100%, which led to an improved crop stand and yield increases in the range of 1.2–1.5 tonnes ha−1. Attacks of Fusarium head blight were relatively slight in the two trials and the content of deoxynivalenol was below the EU limits of 1250 ppb in the harvested grain. Even so, seed...

  1. Improvement of Resistance to Bacterial Blight by Marker-Assisted Selection in a Wide Compatibility Restorer Line of Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiu-hua; LUO Yan-chang; LIU Qiao-quan; WANG Shou-hai; WU Hsin-kan; LI Cheng-quan; WANG Zong-yang; WU Shuang; GU Ming-hong; WANG De-zheng; DU Shi-yun

    2004-01-01

    4183 is a promising wide compatibility restorer line with good grain quality. Its hybrid rice Shuangyou 4183 (Shuangjiu A/4183) was registered in Anhui Province in 2003. However, the line and its hybrid rice are susceptible to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). R4183 carrying Xa21 was developed to improve bacterial blight resistance of 4183 through introducing the broad-spectrum resistance gene Xa21 by marker-aided selection. R4183 had similar level of bacterial blight resistance to IRBB21, the resistant donor, while maintained the wide compatibility, restoring ability and other good economic traits of the recurrent parent 4183. Critical issues on improvement of bacterial blight resistance of hybrid rice and breeding strategies were also discussed.

  2. Pathogenic reaction of some introduced rice cultivars (lines) to seven pathotypes of bacterial blight in Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENYing; ZHUPeiliang; YUANXiaoping

    1993-01-01

    Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae (Xoo) is a major rice disease in China. 138 introduced cultivars (lines) were tested on pathogenicity with seven pathotypes of BB at CNRRI Experiment Station during Apt-Oct,1991.

  3. Phenolic compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) heartwood. Effect of toasting at cooperage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Castanea sativa Mill., before and after toasting in cooperage, were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS, and some low molecular weight phenolic compounds and hydrolyzable tannins were found. The low molecular weight phenolic compounds were lignin constituents as the acids gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, ferulic, and ellagic, the aldehydes protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, coniferylic, and sinapic, and the coumarin scopoletin. Their patterns were somewhat different those of oak because oak does not contain compounds such protocatechuic acid and aldehyde and is composed of much lower amounts of gallic acid than chestnut. Vescalagin and castalagin were the main ellagitannins, and acutissimin was tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. Moreover, some gallotannins were tentatively identified, including different isomers of di, tri, tetra, and pentagalloyl glucopyranose, and di and trigalloyl-hexahydroxydiphenoyl glucopyranose, comprising 20 different compounds, as well as some ellagic derivatives such as ellagic acid deoxyhexose, ellagic acid dimer dehydrated, and valoneic acid dilactone. These ellagic derivatives as well as some galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl derivatives were tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. The profile of tannins was therefore different from that of oak wood because oak only contains tannins of the ellagitannins type. Seasoned and toasted chestnut wood showed a very different balance between lignin derivatives and tannins because toasting resulted in the degradation of tannins and the formation of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignin degradation. Moreover, the different toasting levels provoked different balances between tannins and lignin constituents because the intensity of lignin and tannin degradation was in relation to the intensity of toasting. PMID:20687564

  4. Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. Urban Habitat - Pollution Influence on Some Phenotypic and Morphological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran Poštenjak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. may be found in most urban areas in Croatia. Over the years it showed to be resistant to various negative urban influences. In this research we tested trees on randomly selected streets with intense traffic in smaller towns. The main goal of this research was to establish the link between pollution and tree growth and to analyze to what extent pollution influences the increase in the measured parameters. Material and Methods: The research was done in 7 settlements, in towns with the population of up to 75 000 inhabitants. The measured parameters were the morphological characteristics of trees, shoots, leaves and nuts. From the selected branches we measured the annual shoot (thickness and length, leaves, the number of flowers and nuts. The crown transparency was assessed according to the ICP Forest method. Results and Conclusion: The phenotype of the urban Horse chestnut significantly differs from its natural phenotype, and it is transformed by multiple radical pruning, what may be seen in the following ratios: the diameter at breast height - tree height, trunk height - tree height, crown height – tree height, crown width – crown height. The most significant characteristic of the tree is the vitality expressed by crown-damage classes. On the selected trees the worst crown damage class was “3b” and the best was “0”. The measured parameters of yearly shoot characteristics were defined. All measured parameters (trees, shoots, leafs and nuts show significant differences from the given average values.

  5. [Micrococcus sp.--the pathogen of leaf necrosis of horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.) in Kiev].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, L M; Makhinia, L V; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2013-01-01

    A group of phytopathogenic bacteria was isolated from patterns of drying horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.), which grow in Kyiv. The properties of slowly growing, highly aggressive microorganisms have been described in the paper. They grow up on the 8-10th day after sowing. The investigated microorganisms form very small (0.5-1 mm in diameter) colonies on the potato agar. Bacteria are protuberant, shining, smooth with flat edges, they are pale yellow, yellow, or pink. The bacteria are Gram-positive, spherical, are disposed in smears singly, in pairs, as accumulations, or netting. They are aerobes, do not form spores, are not mobile. They are inert in respect of different sources of carbon. They reduce nitrates, do not dilute gelatin, do not hydrolyze starch, do not release hydrogen sulphide and indole. The bacteria are catalase-positive, oxidase-negative. They do not cause potato and carrot rot. They lose quickly their viability under the laboratory conditions. The saturated acids C 14:0; C 15:0; C16:0; C18:0 have been revealed in the composition of cellular fatty acids. Microorganisms are identified as Micrococcus sp. Under artificial inoculation this highly aggressive pathogen causes drying of the horse-chestnut buds and necrosis, which occupies 1/3-1/2 of the leaf plate. A wide zone of chlorosis, surrounding necrosis, may occupy the whole leaf surface. The infected leaves use to twist up from the top (apex) or along a midrib and to dry. PMID:23866588

  6. Physicochemical, pasting, rheological, thermal and morphological properties of horse chestnut starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Syed Insha; Jan, Kulsum; Singh, Sukhcharn; Saxena, D C

    2015-09-01

    Indian Horse chestnuts contain high content of starch which can be explored to be used in various applications in food industry as encapsulating agent, stabilizer, binder, thickener, gelling agents and many more. Horse chest nut is locally available and can be a boon for food industry if the inherent properties are explored. Hence, horse chest nut starch can be a better option for the replacement of conventional starches to meet the industrial demand of starch. Physicochemical, pasting, rheological, thermal and morphological properties of starch isolated from Indian Horse chestnut (HCN) were determined. Amylose content was found to be 26.10 %. Peak viscosity obtained from RVA profile was 4110 cP. Hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness and gumminess were determined by Texture Profile Analyser. Particle size analysis showed a typical Uni modal size distribution profile with particle distribution ranging from 7.52 to 27.44 μm. The shape of starch granules varied from round, irregular, oval, and elliptical with smooth surface. X- ray diffraction revealed that HCN starch showed a typical C-type pattern with characteristic peaks at 5.7, 15.0, 17.3 and 22.3°. The transition temperatures (To, Tp, and Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) values were 53.35, 58.81, 63.57 °C and 8.76 J/g, respectively. The rheological properties were determined in terms of variation of storage modulus (G (/)), loss modulus (G (//)) and loss factor (tan δ) at different temperatures. Peak G (/), peak G (//) and peak tan δ values were observed as 10,400 Pa, 1,710 Pa, and 0.164, respectively. PMID:26344978

  7. Phenolic compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) heartwood. Effect of toasting at cooperage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Castanea sativa Mill., before and after toasting in cooperage, were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS, and some low molecular weight phenolic compounds and hydrolyzable tannins were found. The low molecular weight phenolic compounds were lignin constituents as the acids gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, ferulic, and ellagic, the aldehydes protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, coniferylic, and sinapic, and the coumarin scopoletin. Their patterns were somewhat different those of oak because oak does not contain compounds such protocatechuic acid and aldehyde and is composed of much lower amounts of gallic acid than chestnut. Vescalagin and castalagin were the main ellagitannins, and acutissimin was tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. Moreover, some gallotannins were tentatively identified, including different isomers of di, tri, tetra, and pentagalloyl glucopyranose, and di and trigalloyl-hexahydroxydiphenoyl glucopyranose, comprising 20 different compounds, as well as some ellagic derivatives such as ellagic acid deoxyhexose, ellagic acid dimer dehydrated, and valoneic acid dilactone. These ellagic derivatives as well as some galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl derivatives were tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. The profile of tannins was therefore different from that of oak wood because oak only contains tannins of the ellagitannins type. Seasoned and toasted chestnut wood showed a very different balance between lignin derivatives and tannins because toasting resulted in the degradation of tannins and the formation of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignin degradation. Moreover, the different toasting levels provoked different balances between tannins and lignin constituents because the intensity of lignin and tannin degradation was in relation to the intensity of toasting.

  8. Biosynthesis of the antimetabolite 6-thioguanine in Erwinia amylovora plays a key role in fire blight pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sébastien; Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Litomska, Agnieszka; Richter, Klaus; Beerhues, Ludger; Hertweck, Christian

    2013-09-27

    Sulfur for fire: The molecular basis for the biosynthesis of the antimetabolite 6-thioguanine (6TG) was unveiled in Erwinia amylovora, the causative agent of fire blight. Bioinformatics, heterologous pathway reconstitution in E. coli, and mutational analyses indicate that the protein YcfA mediates guanine thionation in analogy to 2-thiouridylase. Assays in planta and in cell cultures reveal for the first time a crucial role of 6TG in fire blight pathogenesis.

  9. Horse Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    60036 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/horsechestnut ... us ... 60036 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/horsechestnut ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/Specifics ... us ... 60036 ... https:// ...

  10. Técnicas de aplicação de fungicida em trigo para o controle de Giberela (Gibberella zeae Fungicidal spray techniques for the control of head blight (Gibberella zeae in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivan Panisson

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante muitos anos, a giberela, causada pelo fungo Gibberella zeae (anamorfo Fusarium graminearum, foi considerada de importância secundária no sul do Brasil. O aumento da intensidade e da freqüência de ocorrência, tornou a giberela uma das doenças de maior importância na cultura do trigo. A giberela é uma doença de infecção floral e mesmo os fungicidas sistêmicos recomendados apresentam apenas efeito protetor das anteras. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos nos grãos colhidos, de dois tipos de pontas de pulverização (leque e duplo leque, diferentes arranjos dos bicos na barra de aplicação e dois volumes de calda. A desuniformidade da antese aparece como um dos principais fatores envolvidos com a baixa eficiência dos fungicidas. Nos experimentos, realizados no ano 2000, a aplicação dos tratamentos reduziu significativamente a incidência, o número de espiguetas gibereladas e a severidade da doença, aumentando o rendimento de grãos. As pontas de pulverização, seus arranjos na barra e os volumes de calda utilizados comportaram-se de maneira semelhante em todas as variáveis avaliadas. O incremento no rendimento de grãos, obtido em relação à testemunha, sugere que se deve recomendar a aplicação de fungicidas para o controle da giberela, utilizando pontas que geram gotas finas a médias com volume de calda de 200 L.ha-1.For many years, the head blight of winter cereal crops, caused by the fungus Gibberella zeae, was considered a disease of secondary importance. However, the increased frequency and yield losses associated with head blight in Southern Brazil have turned this disease into a major problem. Gibberella zeae enters the host plants through the anthers. To avoid infection, the fungicides need to protect the anthers from the fungus, which requires improved spray techniques. The role of two types of spray nozzles (single jet and twin jet, different nozzle

  11. 板栗加工工艺对挥发性香气成分的影响%Effect of Processing Technology on Volatile Components of Chinese Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亚辉; 徐芳; 王丰俊; 王建中; 欧阳杰

    2012-01-01

    Chinese chestnut forms different flavors by different processing technology. An automatic thermal de-sorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (ATD-GC-MS) system was applied to analyze the volatile composition of raw chestnut, boiled chestnut, fried chestnut and roasted chestnut. Herbaceous aroma such as ethyl acetate, hex-anal, butyl acetate, 1-butanol-3-methyl-acetate, alpha-pinene and benzaldehyde were found in raw chestnut; fried chestnut and roasted chestnut were found to have characteristic volatiles such as 2-pentyl-furan, 3-carene, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-ketone; and in boiled chestnut, spiro [2,4] hepta-4,6-diene was found first time. The results will provide a reference for the further research and development of Chinese chestnut products.%板栗经过不同的加工工艺熟化后会产生不同的风味.文中分别对生板栗,以及煮制、炒制和烤制加工后的板栗进行ATD热脱附以及GC-MS分析,得出不同加工工艺条件下的板栗挥发性香气成分.其中生板栗主要有板栗本身的草本清香香气成分,如乙酸乙酯、己醛、乙酸丁酯、3-甲基-1-丁醇乙酸酯、α-蒎烯和苯甲醛等;炒板栗和烤板栗的特征性挥发物有2-戊基呋喃、3-蒈烯、4-羟基-2-丁酮和2-甲基-四氢呋喃-3-酮;煮板栗中发现了之前未在板栗香气研究中报道过的香气成分螺[2,4]庚-4.6-二烯.

  12. Application of a new purification method of West-Kazakhstan chestnut soil microbiota DNA for metagenomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergaliev, N. Kh.; Kakishev, M. G.; Zhiengaliev, A. T.; Volodin, M. A.; Andronov, E. E.; Pinaev, A. G.

    2015-04-01

    A method for the extraction of soil microbial DNA has been tested on chestnut soils (Kastanozems) of the West Kazakhstan region. The taxonomic analysis of soil microbiome libraries has shown that the phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria constitute the largest part of microbial communities in the analyzed soils. The Archaea form an appreciable part of the microbiome in the studied samples. In the underdeveloped dark chestnut soil, their portion is higher than 11%. This is of interest, as the proportion of Archaea in the soil communities of virgin lands usually does not exceed 5%. In addition to the phyla mentioned above, there are representatives of the phyla Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadales, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia, which are all fairly common in soil communities.

  13. Chestnut wood in compression perpendicular to the grain : non-destructive correlations for test results in new and old wood

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Paulo B.; Feio, A. O.; Machado, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the evaluation of the compressive properties of chestnut wood under compression perpendicular to the grain, using destructive and non-destructive methods. Three non-destructive methods (ultrasonic testing, Resistograph and Pilodyn) are proposed and the possibility of their application is discussed based on the application of simple linear regression models. Timber specimens were tested up to failure, divided in two different groups for assessing a possible load h...

  14. Non-destructive evaluation of the mechanical behaviour of chestnut wood in tension and compression parallel to grain

    OpenAIRE

    Feio, A. O.; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Machado, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    The paper addresses the evaluation of strength and stiffness of chestnut wood, in tension and compression parallel to the grain, using different non-destructive techniques (ultrasounds, Resistograph and Pilodyn). Around two hundred timber specimens (divided into compression and tension tests) were tested up to failure, comprising recently sawn timber (which is now available on the market for structural purposes) and what was called old wood, obtained from structural elements belonging to anci...

  15. Design of Automatic Chestnut Shelling Machine%自动板栗脱壳机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文斌

    2015-01-01

    针对目前板栗脱壳过程中主要依靠手工剥壳,手指极易被板栗刺壳上坚硬的刺刺伤,以及劳动强度大、生产效率低的问题,设计了一种新型的自动板栗脱壳机。该机采用胶皮与螺纹钢揉挤的方式将板栗刺与板栗米分开,同时采用鼓风机搭配输送带的方式进行分离。实际测试结果表明,该机采用的脱壳方式和分离方式新颖,能最大限度地将板栗米与板栗刺剥离,且能实现两者的自动分离,对于减轻栗农劳动强度,缩短栗子从采摘到上市的时间发挥了极大作用,值得进一步推广普及。%At present, chestnut is basically using hand to strip off, people’ s finger is inevitably scratched.Focusing on the current problem of high labor cost and low working efficiency, a new automatic chestnut shelling machine is designed. This machine combines rubber and deformed steel bars to separate the chestnut and its capillus.At the same time, the fan and conveyer belt are combined to realize their separation.The practical testing results show that this machine could separate the chestnut and its capillus to a great degree by using the novel shelling and separating way, it will reduce working hard and shorten time from picking to go to the market, it has great value to popularize.

  16. Lactic Acid Bacteria as protective and functional cultures for the enhancement of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) processing chain

    OpenAIRE

    Di Capua, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Chestnuts are very perishable fruits, whose quality may be compromised during postharvest handling. Damage can be caused both by insects and fungi. Water curing, a commonly used postharvest method, is based on soaking fruits in water typically for about one week. Factors that affect effectiveness of water curing have only been explained partially. A decrease in pH, likely imputable to a light fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria, may inhibit the growth of moulds. In this study a Lac...

  17. Severidade da mela da soja causada por Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA em função de doses de potássio Severity of hte foliar blight of the soylean caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA infunction of doses of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Basseto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O fungo Rhizoctonia solani pertencente ao grupo de anastomose 1 IA (AG-1 IA é um dos patógenos mais importantes afetando a cultura da soja no Brasil. Este fungo causa queima da folha e/ou mela em soja, para a qual medidas de manejo cultural são consideradas alternativas importantes para controle antes do estabelecimento da doença. Há evidências de que a adubação potássica diminui substancialmente a severidade dos sintomas de várias doenças da soja como a queima foliar (Cercospora kikuchii, a seca da haste e da vagem (Phomopsis phaseoli var. sojae e o cancro da haste (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis. Apesar das evidências do efeito do potássio no controle de várias doenças da soja, não há informação na literatura sobre o efeito desse nutriente no controle da mela. A hipótese testada foi que a mela da soja pode ser controlada através de incrementos na adubação potássica. De maneira geral, concluiu-se que, sob condições de casa de vegetação, o incremento de K no solo não resultou no controle da mela da soja. É necessário, entretanto, confirmar esta observação conduzindo-se experimentos sob condições de campo, podendo-se incluir a avaliação do efeito da doença sob aspectos da produção.The fungus Rhizoctonia solani, belonging to anastomosis group 1IA (AG-1 IA is one of the most important pathogens affecting soybean in Brazil. This fungus causes aerial or foliar blight of soybean, and cultural measures are thought as important choices for the control before the establishment of the disease. Based on evidences that potassium amendments can substantially reduce the severity of several soybean diseases such as Cercospora leaf blight (Cercospora kikuchii, pod and stem blight (Phomopsis phaseoli var. sojae and stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis. Despite all evidence, there is no information in the literature about the effect of potassium controlling the soybean foliar blight. The

  18. [Report on a fungus parasitizing Entamoeba histolytica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, C Q; Feng, Y S

    1989-01-01

    Infection of Entamoeba histolytica with chytridiaceous fungus Sphaerita was observed in some specimens obtained from a farmer and stained with iron-haematoxylin. The fungi were found in 78% of the cysts, mostly immature ones. Within the amoebae this parasite occurred singly, in groups, or in the form of a sporangium. It was located in the cytoplasm, the glycogen mass or the chromatoidal bars. In the same specimen, the parasitic fungus was also found in 18% of E. coli cysts; in 11% of E. nana cysts; while only one of 16 E. hartmanni cysts was parasitized. It is an interesting case of superimposed parasitism so far reported in China as well as a rare case of several species of amoebae being heavily involved with the same in the scientific literature. PMID:2548767

  19. Appraise a combination of fungicides against blast and sheath blight diseases of paddy (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar M K

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In present study various fungicides were screened against blast (leaf and neck and sheath blight disease of rice. Among them, Conika 50% WP (Kasugamycin 5% + Copper Oxychloride 45% WP, Dhanucop Team (Tricyclazole 75% WP and RIL-068/F1 48 WG (Kresoxim methyl 40% + Hexaconazole 8% WG were found effective against blast diseases. While, the seed treatment fungicide Isotianil SC 200 and its combination with Trifloxystrobin 500 SC were found least effective against leaf and neck blast diseases. However, in case of sheath blight, Thifluzamide 24% SC, RIL-068/F1 48 WG (Kresoxim methyl 40% + Hexaconazole 8% WG, Propiconazole 25% EC (Tilt, Tricyclazole 75% WP (Beam and a new combination fungicide, Fluxapyroxad 62.5 g/l + Epoxiconazlle 62.5 g/l EC (Adexar w/v EC were found effective.

  20. [The sugar cane blight of the 1860s: science applied to agriculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediaga, Begonha

    2012-12-01

    The Imperial Instituto Fluminense de Cultura (Fluminense Imperial Institute of Agriculture) encouraged debate with a view to eradicating the blight that devastated sugar cane plantations in the State of Bahia. Rural landowners, government officials and men of science participated in the discussions. The article presents the context of the sciences applied to agriculture, especially agricultural chemistry and the repercussions of the 'discoveries' of Justus Liebig in Brazil. The debate at the Imperial Instituto about the sugar cane blight was analyzed, together with the ideas espoused there and the characters involved in the issue. The procedures and solutions presented are studied, as well as the formation of knowledge networks around the agricultural sciences, which was in the process of institutionalization at the time.

  1. QTL mapping of resistance to sheath blight in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hua; YANG Junpin; RONG Tingzhao; TAN Jun; QIU Zhenggao

    2005-01-01

    The genetic linkage map has been constructed with 125 SSR markers based on BC1:2 population consisting of 322 lines derived from the combination of (CML270×478) ×CML270 in maize (Zea mays L.), covering 1939.0 cM of maize genome. The average mapping distance was about 15.5 cM. Three major QTLs of the relative resistant index of resistance to maize sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) had been located on chromosomes 1, 7 by composite interval mapping (CIM). 7 QTLs of the plant height have been located on chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 6. Five QTLs of ear height have been located on chromosomes 3, 4, 6. The resistance to the sheath blight is shown to be not relative to plant height and ear height genetically. Inbred line CML270 was used for molecular assisted selection and cloning the genes.

  2. Occurrence of Leaf Blight on Cosmos Caused by Alternaria cosmosa in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xin Deng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a leaf blight disease was observed on cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus leaves in Nonsan, Korea. The causal pathogen was isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular approaches. Morphological characteristics of the pathogen matched well with the Alternaria cosmosa and also easily distinguishable from Alternaria zinniae reported from cosmos seeds by producing branched beak. Phylogenetically, the pathogen could not be distinguished from A. passiflorae based on the sequence analysis of a combined data set of Alt a1 and gpd genes. However, A. passiflorae was distinguished from the present species by having conidiophores with 4 to 5 conidiogenous loci. The results indicate that the present Alternaria species is A. cosmosa. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the isolate was pathogenic to the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus. This is the first report of Alternaria blight disease caused by A. cosmosa on cosmos in Korea.

  3. Occurrence of Leaf Blight on Cosmos Caused by Alternaria cosmosa in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Cho, Hye Sun; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung Hun

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, a leaf blight disease was observed on cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus) leaves in Nonsan, Korea. The causal pathogen was isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular approaches. Morphological characteristics of the pathogen matched well with the Alternaria cosmosa and also easily distinguishable from Alternaria zinniae reported from cosmos seeds by producing branched beak. Phylogenetically, the pathogen could not be distinguished from A. passiflorae based on the sequence analysis of a combined data set of Alt a1 and gpd genes. However, A. passiflorae was distinguished from the present species by having conidiophores with 4 to 5 conidiogenous loci. The results indicate that the present Alternaria species is A. cosmosa. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the isolate was pathogenic to the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus. This is the first report of Alternaria blight disease caused by A. cosmosa on cosmos in Korea.

  4. The agricultural pathology of ant fungus gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Cameron R; Mueller, Ulrich G.; Malloch, David

    1999-01-01

    Gardens of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini) traditionally have been thought to be free of microbial parasites, with the fungal mutualist maintained in nearly pure “monocultures.” We conducted extensive isolations of “alien” (nonmutualistic) fungi from ant gardens of a phylogenetically representative collection of attine ants. Contrary to the long-standing assumption that gardens are maintained free of microbial pathogens and parasites, they are in fact host to specialized parasites th...

  5. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual groundwater report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline

  6. Antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein haplotypes and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein (CN) haplotypes (αs1-, β-, κ-CN) and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys. The CN haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, whereas antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. The results showed that chestnut honey presented the highest phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, which are closely associated with its high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of fortified yogurt samples was affected both by different CN haplotypes and by type of honey added. Yogurts fortified with chestnut honey showed higher antioxidant activity than those fortified with sulla honey. The different behavior observed among the fortified yogurts led us to hypothesize that the effects of protein-polyphenol complex on antioxidant activity are interactive. The results suggest that milk proteins polymorphism and polyphenols play different roles in affecting the bioavailability and the antioxidant activity of yogurt.

  7. New gall wasp species attacking chestnut trees: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new gall wasp species, Dryocosmus zhuili Liu et Zhu, is herein described from the southeastern Fujian province of China. The new species induces galls on trees of Henry's chestnut, Castanea henryi, which is also a native host for the notorious Oriental chestnut gall wasp (OCGW, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu). D. zhuili overlaps with OCGW in emergence time and induces galls morphologically similar to that of OCGW on similar plant parts. In a previous study, we reported considerable divergence between mtDNA CO1 (mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences of these wasps and the true OCGW wasps and suggested the existence of a cryptic species. Herein, we confirm the identity of the new species based on morphological and biological differences and provide a formal description. Although the new species is relatively easily separated from OCGW on basis of morphology, field identification involving the two species can still be problematic because of their small body size, highly similar gall morphology, and other life history traits. We further discussed the potential of the new species to be a pest for the chestnut industry and the consequences of accidental introduction of this species into nonnative areas, especially with regard to the bisexual reproduction mode of the new species in contrast to the parthenogenetic reproduction mode of OCGW.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF TANNIN AND THERMAL TREATMENT ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LAMINATED CHESTNUT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Gunduz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tannin and thermal treatment on physical properties such as dimensional stability and moisture content (%, as well as mechanical properties such as bending strength, modulus of elasticity, and compression strength of laminated chestnut wood composites, which are used commonly for shipboard construction in Turkey. The chestnut wood used in boat construction is usually exposed to several treatments in order to achieve better bonding performance and to remove excessive tannins. According to the results obtained, physical properties of laminated chestnut wood without tannin were better compared to samples with tannin. Oven-dry density and air-dry density were found to be higher in samples containing tannins and not exposed to thermal treatment. Moreover, the lowest value of density was observed in samples containing no tannin and exposed to thermal treatment. In terms of mechanical properties, the highest bending strength and modulus of elasticity were obtained from samples containing tannins and not exposed to heat treatment. The lowest values were found in samples without tannin exposed to heat treatment. Regarding compression strength, the maximum and minimum values were found in samples containing tannins and not exposed to heat treatment and samples without tannin and exposed to heat treatment, respectively.

  9. Reduction of Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol in wheat with early fungicide applications of prothioconazole

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Simon G; Godley, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Numerous studies have identified the benefit of fungicides applied at flowering (Zadoks Growth Stage (GS) 59-69) in the reduction of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and the reduction of deoxynivalenol (DON) in harvested wheat grain. Two experiments were performed to identify the ability of prothioconazole (Proline?, Bayer CropScience) at three timings to reduce FHB and resulting DON in harvested grain of wheat. Prothioconazole (150 g ha-1) was applied to plots of wheat at GS3...

  10. Capability of Streptomyces spp. in Controlling Bacterial Leaf Blight Disease in Rice Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ratih D. Hastuti; Yulin Lestari2); Rasti Saraswati; Antonius Suwanto; Chaerani

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the most damaging disease in lowland rice growing areas in Indonesia. Streptomyces spp. have been known as a producer of antimicrobial compounds that can be used as biocontrol agents. This study examined the ability of three promising indigenous Streptomyces isolates which were previously selected from in vitro agar media and greenhouse test to suppress natural infection of Xoo during dry and wet s...

  11. Appraise a combination of fungicides against blast and sheath blight diseases of paddy (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna Kumar M K; Veerabhadraswamy A L

    2014-01-01

    In present study various fungicides were screened against blast (leaf and neck) and sheath blight disease of rice. Among them, Conika 50% WP (Kasugamycin 5% + Copper Oxychloride 45% WP), Dhanucop Team (Tricyclazole 75% WP) and RIL-068/F1 48 WG (Kresoxim methyl 40% + Hexaconazole 8% WG) were found effective against blast diseases. While, the seed treatment fungicide Isotianil SC 200 and its combination with Trifloxystrobin 500 SC were found least effective against leaf and neck bla...

  12. Non-conventional possibilities of protection of apple and pear against fire blight (Erwinia amylovora)

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Sobiczewski; Grzegorz Krupiński; Joanna Puławska

    2013-01-01

    Standard program of plant protection against fire blight consists of use of management practices and chemical control method. Recently a new, non-conventional possibilities based on application of biocontrol agents (two biopreparations have been already introduced into practice: Bliteban A506 (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and BlossomBless (Pantoea agglomerans), plant extracts active against Erwinia amylovora (AkseBio containing extracts from Thymbra spicata and Biomit Plussz with extracts from va...

  13. TWIG BLIGHT AND DEFOLIATION CAUSED BY Colletotrichum horii IN PERSIMMONS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOUISE LARISSA MAY DE MIO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Persimmon anthracnose has been a great concern to Brazilian producers. This study aimed to identify and characterized the causal species from Brazilian persimmons byassessing morphological and molecular characteristics and pathogenicity tests. Five fungal isolatesobtained from diseased twigs and fruits were identified as Colletotrichum horii, based on morphologicalcharacteristics and nucleotide sequences of ITS region. Inoculation tests revealed that the fungal isolates caused necrotic spots followed by defoliation of leaves, blight of twigs and buds of potted persimmon plants.

  14. Development of a weather-based model for Botrytis leaf blight of onion

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Luiz Marcuzzo; Roberto Haveroth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the present study, onion plants were tested under controlled conditions for the development of a climate model based on the influence of temperature (10, 15, 20 and 25°C) and leaf wetness duration (6, 12, 24 and 48 hours) on the severity of Botrytis leaf blight of onion caused by Botrytis squamosa. The relative lesion density was influenced by temperature and leaf wetness duration (P

  15. Survival potential of Phytophthora infestans sporangia in relation to environmental factors and late blight occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Olanya Ocen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato is an important crop globally and late blight (Phytophthora infestans often results in severe crop loss. The cost for late blight control can be in excess of $210 million in the United States. We utilised a non-parametric density distribution analysis of local temperature (T and relative humidity (RH, from 2005 to 2009, to assess and validate sporangia survival potential using survival model and late blight risks during the potato cropping season at Presque Isle, in the northern part of the state of Maine, USA. Modelbased analyses showed that ambient temperatures of 3−30°C and RH values of 45−100% were conducive for sporangia survival. Disease outbreaks and risk periods coincided with a high sporangia survival probability (15−35%. Due to the omission of solar radiation (SR in the computation of survival potential in previous research, we applied a Cox proportional model to estimate the probability of sporangia survival [i.e. hazard at a specific time H(t] as a function of baseline hazard (H0 and the influencing parameters. The model is: H(t = H0(t × exp(0.067ET + 0.138T + 0.083RH + 0.001SR where ET is exposure time. The survival model indicated that RH (β = 0.083 and T (β = 0.138 were significant (p < 0.05 factors in sporangia survival in comparison to SR (β = 0.001. The hazard ratio, indicative of sporangia survival risk, varied with the predictors. For the unit increase of T, sporangia survival hazard increased by 1.148 times. The Cox model and sporangia hazard probabilities can be used for short-term disease forecasts based on the risk period most conducive for pathogen survival and targeted fungicide applications for optimum late blight management.

  16. REVIEW ON BANDED LEAF AND SHEATH BLIGHT OF RICE CAUSED BY Rhizoctonia solani KUHN

    OpenAIRE

    P. Srinivas; Ved Ratan; Atm Prakash Patel; G. Bindu Madhavi

    2013-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a graminaceous crop. It is one of the important staple foods for Asian countries. Sheath blight disease is an important fungal disease of rice. Currently, this disease is distributed in almost all the rice growing states. The disease is alarming due to its intensive cultivation of modern high yielding varieties with high doses of nitrogenous fertilizers. Crop with a high plant density and close canopy associated favors disease build up from panicle initiation onwards...

  17. Controlling Foliar Blight of Wheat in South Asia: A Holistic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Duveiller, E.; Sharma, R.C.; MERCADO, D.; MARAITE, H.; BHATTA, M. R.; Ortiz-Ferrara, G.; Sharma, D.

    2005-01-01

    Foliar blight is a major biotic constraint to wheat in the Gangetic plains of south Asia, particularly in the rice-wheat system. The disease occurs as a complex of spot blotch and tan spot caused by C. sativus and P. tritici-repentis, respectively. Yield losses reach on average 15% but are variable depending on sowing time, years, locations and stress conditions. Resistance breeding has been the cornerstone of the control strategy. Through international agricultural research efforts in collab...

  18. Role of micronutrients in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight infecting Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, A S; Singh, Dhiraj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-03-01

    Field experiments were carried out at Oilseeds Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi, 2008-09 to 2011-12 to find out the possible role of soil application of different micronutrients alone and in combinations in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight diseases in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]. Among the sole application of micronutrients, minimum disease severity of both white rust (35.0%) and Alternaria blight (31.8%) was observed when S @ 40 kg ha in the form of Gypsum was applied as basal dose in the soil. When Gypsum was supplemented with Borax @10 kg ha(-1) or with ZnSO4 @15 kg ha(-1) the level of tolerance seems to be improved for both the diseases as compared to the sole treatment of each nutrient, i.e., ZnSO4 @ 15 kg/ha, Borax @ 10 kg ha' and Gypsum @ 250 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, minimum disease severity of both white rust (31.3 %) and Alternaria blight (26.3 %) was observed with soil application of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha(-1) + Borax @ 10 kg ha(-1) + Gypsum @250 kg ha(-1) as basal dose as compared to the severity of white rust (43.6%) and Alternaria blight (38.6%) in untreated check. Significant increase in seed yield (1612 kg ha(-1)) was also recorded in above mentioned treatment as compared to the yield (1337 kg ha(-1)) in untreated check. These findings will also be helpful in maintaining soil health and minimizing the losses due to both the fungal diseases for eco-friendly sustainability of Indian mustard.

  19. Effect of the Inclusion of Chestnut in the Finishing Diet on Volatile Compounds of Dry-Cured Ham from Celta Pig Breed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jos M. Lorenzo; Javier Carballo; Daniel Franco

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the inclusion of chestnut in pigs ifnishing diet on volatile compounds of dry-cured Celta ham was studied. Twelve hams of each type (from three different pigs ifnishing diets:concentrate (CO), mixed (MI) and chestnut (CH)) were used. Volatiles were extracted using a purge-and-trap method and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty-nine volatile compounds were identified in dry-cured Celta ham samples. Most abundant volatiles in ham samples were aldehydes, which represented respectively, 53% (CO), 51% (MI) and 46% (CH) of the total volatile composition. With the exception of 2-butenal, 2-methyl, all aldehydes were affected by feeding system. On the other hand, hydrocarbons n-alkanes were the second major group in the volatile proifle of dry-cured Celta hams and represented 28.9, 35.7 and 32.4%of the total volatile composition for CO, MI and CH groups, respectively. Ham samples from chestnut group showed a higher content of alcohols and this result could be related with the inclusion of chestnut in the ifnishing diet of pigs. Principal component analysis showed a good separation among groups. The discriminant analysis selected eight variables (butanoic acid, hexanal, octanal, nonenal (E), decenal (E), tetradecane, decane trimethyl and pyridine 2-methyl) and calculated two discriminating functions to predict if chestnut has been included in the ifnishing diet. Thus, it was possible to discriminate between groups fed with ifnishing diets containing chestnuts in their composition (mixed and chestnut group).

  20. The Contemporary Situation of Dothistroma Needle Blight Outbreak in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEDNAROVA, Miroslava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dothistroma needle blight Mycosphaerella pini E. Rostrup resp. its anamorphic stage Dothistroma septospora (Dorog. Morelet was for the first time noted in the region of the Czech Republic in a consignment of imported plants of Austrian pine Pinus nigra Arnold in 1999. In 2000, it was also found on Pinus nigra in an open planting in a plantation of Christmas trees near the village of Jedovnice by Brno in the South Moravia. In the Czech Republic, Dothistroma needle blight was identified on 19 species of pines and 5 species of spruces. The critical period for infection is in the Czech Republic from the second half of May until the end of June, when the new shoots and needles develop. The incubation period lasts about 2–4 months depending on climatic conditions. The first symptoms on the needles infected in the current year appear in August being clearly expressed from September to November. In the CR, Dothistroma needle blight spread probably with infected planting stock obtained from import at the end of the 80s and at the beginning of the 90s.

  1. Genetics and Improvement of Bacterial Blight Resistance of Hybrid Rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi

    2009-01-01

    Since 1980s, rice breeding for resistance to bacterial blight has been rapidly progressing in China. The gene Xa4 was mainly used in three-line indica hybrid and two-line hybrid rice. The disease has been 'quiet' for 20 years in China, yet in recent years it has gradually emerged and been prevalent in fields planted with newly released rice varieties in the Changjiang River valley. Under the circumstances, scientists inevitably raised several questions: what causes the resurgence and what should we do next? And/or is resistance breeding still one of the main objectives in rice improvement? Which approach do we take on resistance breeding so that the resistance will be more durable, and the resistance gene will be used more efficiently? A combined strategy involving traditional method, molecular marker-assisted selection, and transgenic technology should bring a new era to the bacterial blight resistance hybrid rice breeding program. This review also briefly discusses and deliberates on issues related to the broadening of bacterial blight resistance, and suitable utilization of resistance genes, alternate planting of available resistance genes; and understands the virulent populations of the bacterial pathogen in China even in Asia.

  2. Bacteriocin Serratine-P as a biological tool in the control of fire blight Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoofs, H; Vandebroek, K; Pierrard, A; Thonart, P; Lepoivre, P; Beaudry, T; Deckers, T

    2002-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Burill Winslow et al.), is the most important bacterial disease in European pear growing. It can cause a lot of damage in some countries on apple and on pear trees in orchards and also in the fruit tree nurseries. In Belgium, the disease is present since 1972. Control of fire blight in Belgian fruit orchards is made on a broad basis of measurements in and around the fruit trees. The use of an antibiotic is allowed for application only during the primary blossom period under strict controlled regulations. The use of antobiotics in agriculture is strongly discussed on the European level today and will probably disappear in the near future. Therefore, the research on fire blight control concentrates on the possibilities of biological control with antagonistic bacteria such as Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola), Bacillus subtilis or Pseudomonas syringae strain A 506. The use of Serratine-P, a phage tail-like bacteriocin, produced by Serratia plymiticum, shows an interesting antibacterial activity against Erwinia amylovora. Its mode of action consists in the perforation of the cytoplasmic membrane of the target cell, inducing perturbations in cellular exchanges and a final lysis of the bacterial cell. In this paper some trials are discussed on the use of Serratine-P at different doses and on different infection types on pear trees. The results indicate interesting protection possibilities on blossom- and fruit infections. PMID:12701444

  3. Development of a weather-based model for Botrytis leaf blight of onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luiz Marcuzzo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present study, onion plants were tested under controlled conditions for the development of a climate model based on the influence of temperature (10, 15, 20 and 25°C and leaf wetness duration (6, 12, 24 and 48 hours on the severity of Botrytis leaf blight of onion caused by Botrytis squamosa. The relative lesion density was influenced by temperature and leaf wetness duration (P <0.05. The disease was most severe at 20°C. Data were subjected to nonlinear regression analysis. Beta generalized function was used to adjust severity and temperature data, while a logistic function was chosen to represent the effect of leaf wetness on the severity of Botrytis leaf blight. The response surface obtained by the product of two functions was expressed as ES = 0.008192 * (((x-51.01089 * ((30-x1.19052 * (0.33859/(1+3.77989 * exp (-0.10923*y, where ES represents the estimated severity value (0.1; x, the temperature (°C; and y, the leaf wetness (in hours. This climate model should be validated under field conditions to verify its use as a computational system for the forecasting of Botrytis leaf blight in onion.

  4. Roe deer browsing effects on growth development of Turkey oak and chestnut coppices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cutini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Over the last three decades wild ungulates populations in Italy increased to values ranging from 300% to 600%. As a consequence, in Italy as well as in other European countries, situations with high ungulate density and, then, negative effects on the stability and dynamics of ecosystems, are increasing frequently. Starting from these evidences we investigated the effects of roe deer population on the vegetative regeneration of two different broadleaved tree species: Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. coppice stands. In Alpe di Catenaia (Apennines – Central Italy, after coppicing in 2002, we chose six experimental areas where fenced (P and non-fenced (NP plots were established. Measurements were performed at the beginning of the study period and in winter 2008 in both P and NP plots. Diameter and    height of all sprouts were measured. Results showed a different impact of roe deer on the two species. After seven years chestnut did not show any significant browsing-related damage, while in Turkey oak heavy differences between protected and non-protected areas are present: in NP plots roe deer browsing has produced a significant reduction in basal area (58% and volume (57% compared to P plots. The results agree with previous studies and confirm: (a a selective browsing pressure on Turkey oak; (b the lasting effect of the early impact after clear cutting, visible even seven years after. Based on the findings, we discussed the need for an integrated management of forest vegetation and forest fauna which should define the density of ungulates not only according to the theoretical carrying capacity    of ecosystems, but also considering (i the preservation of the ecosystem overall functionality, (ii the forest structure development and (iii the forest management type. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso

  5. 板栗在贮藏中的微观形态变化%Changes of Microcosmic Morpha during the Storage of Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭正林

    2009-01-01

    After comparison with the micrographs of chestnut between the fresh chestnut and the stored chestnut, the results showed that the cell membrane of the fresh chestnut was complete and smooth, endoplasm was homogeneous. The cell membrane of the blet chestnut was not complete, the limit of cell was not obviously, mitoehondrion membrane became vague and its erista was blurry after 90 days storage. But the nucleolus was unchanged.%对贮藏前后的板栗进行光学显微镜和电子显微镜观察,结果表明贮藏前的板栗细胞排列紧密,淀粉粒清晰可见,细胞膜较完整、光滑、内质均匀;腐烂板栗的细胞膜不完整,细胞与细胞的界限不明显,淀粉粒不清晰,线粒体膜不清晰,嵴模糊.但是贮藏前后板栗的细胞核没有发生明显的变化.

  6. Burkholderia rhizoxinica sp. nov. and Burkholderia endofungorum sp. nov., bacterial endosymbionts of the plant-pathogenic fungus Rhizopus microsporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partida-Martinez, Laila P; Groth, Ingrid; Schmitt, Imke; Richter, Walter; Roth, Martin; Hertweck, Christian

    2007-11-01

    Several strains of the fungus Rhizopus microsporus harbour endosymbiotic bacteria for the production of the causal agent of rice seedling blight, rhizoxin, and the toxic cyclopeptide rhizonin. R. microsporus and isolated endobacteria were selected for freeze-fracture electron microscopy, which allowed visualization of bacterial cells within the fungal cytosol by their two parallel-running envelope membranes and by the fine structure of the lipopolysaccharide layer of the outer membrane. Two representatives of bacterial endosymbionts were chosen for phylogenetic analyses on the basis of full 16S rRNA gene sequences, which revealed that the novel fungal endosymbionts formed a monophyletic group within the genus Burkholderia. Inter-sequence similarities ranged from 98.94 to 100%, and sequence similarities to members of the Burkholderia pseudomallei group, the closest neighbours, were 96.74-97.38%. In addition, the bacterial strains were distinguished from their phylogenetic neighbours by their fatty acid profiles and other biochemical characteristics. The phylogenetic studies based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data, together with conclusive DNA-DNA reassociation experiments, strongly support the proposal that these strains represent two novel species within the genus Burkholderia, for which the names Burkholderia rhizoxinica sp. nov. (type strain, HKI 454T=DSM 19002T=CIP 109453T) and Burkholderia endofungorum sp. nov. (type strain, HKI 456T=DSM 19003T=CIP 109454T) are proposed. PMID:17978222

  7. Prospect of the QTL-qSB-9Tq utilized in molecular breeding program of japonica rice against sheath blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The major QTL-qSB-9Tq conferring partial resistance to rice (Oryza sativa L.) sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) has been verified on chromosome 9 of the indica rice cultivar, Teqing. In this study, the prospect of this QTL utilized in molecular breeding program of japonica rice for sheath blight resistance was investigated. Most of the japonica rice cultivars showed lower level of sheath blight resistance than the indica rice cultivars. At the corresponding site of qSB-9Tq, nine typical japonica rice culfivars from different ecological regions or countries proved to possess the susceptible allele(s). Introgression of qSB-9Tq into these cultivars enhanced their resistance level by decreasing sheath blight score of 1.0 (0.5-1.3), which indicated that qSB-9Tq had a large potential in strengthening the resistance of japonica rice to sheath blight. The use of the three molecular markers, which were polymorphic between Teqing and many japonica rice cultivars, promotes the application of qSB-9Tq in a concrete molecular breeding program.

  8. Sequential sampling plan for Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnut tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    A fixed precision sequential sampling plan for estimating the density of the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L., leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was developed. Data were collected from 2002 to 2004 in Turin, northwestern Italy, with the aim of developing a sampling strategy for estimating populations of C. ohridella mines. Taylor's power law was used as a regression model. Sampling parameters were estimated from 216 data sets, and an additional 110 independent data sets were used to validate the fixed precision sequential sampling plan with resampling software. Covariance analysis indicated that there were not significant differences in the coefficient of Taylor's power law between heights of the foliage, months, and years. Dispersion patterns of C. ohridella were determined to be aggregated. The parameters of the Taylor's power law were used to calculate minimum sample sizes and sampling stop lines for different precision levels. Considering a mean density value of five mines per leaf, an average sample number of only 49 leaves was necessary to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, the average sample size increased to 303 leaves. The sequential sampling plan should provide an effective management of C. ohridella in the urban areas, minimizing sampling time and cost, and at the same should be an effective tool to reduce insecticide applications and prevent the esthetic damage. PMID:18232410

  9. Characterization and antioxidant capacity of sweet chestnut honey produced in North-West Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Flores Shantal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, authentic foodstuffs have became a major requirement for consumers and producers worldwide. Honey has increased in popularity since it is associated with a natural diet, and because of honey’s authentic origin. The present study investigated the palynological characteristics, physicochemical parameters, total phenol content, flavonoid content, and radical scavenging activity of 41 sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa honeys from the northwestern part of Spain. These honeys were characterised by high values of electrical conductivity, pH, diastase content, and colour. All the samples showed a pollen combination of Castanea sativa-Rubus-Cytisus type-Erica. Fructose and glucose were 37.2% and 25.9%, while other sugars were less than 5%. Regarding the mineral content K, was the main with a mean value of 260.2 mg/100g. Other elements as Mg with a mean value of 17.1 mg/100g, Ca (mean value of 15.8 mg/100g and P (mean value of 12.8 mg/100g were well represented in this honey type. The phenol and flavonoid content were high (mean values of 129.8 mg/100g and 9.0 mg/100g, respectively. Multivariate statistical techniques showed the close relationship of colour, Mg, P, phenols, melezitose, and flavonoids, and the radical scavenging activity.

  10. Cryopreservation of zygotic embryo axes and somatic embryos of European chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; San-José, M Carmen; Ballester, Antonio; Vieitez, Ana M

    2004-01-01

    This work describes experiments demonstrating the feasibility of long-term conservation of Castanea sativa germplasm through cryopreservation of embryonic axes or somatic embryo clumps. Between 93 % and 100 % of excised embryonic axes of recalcitrant chestnut seeds survived storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) following desiccation in a laminar flow cabinet to moisture contents of 20-24 % (on a fresh weight basis), and some 63 % subsequently developed as whole plants. Desiccation to moisture contents less than 19 % produced damage resulting in loss of organized plant development after cryostorage, allowing only root growth. When 6-8 mg clumps of globular or heart-shaped somatic embryos were precultured for 7 days on high-sucrose medium and then desiccated to a moisture content of 25 % before storage in LN, the embryogenesis resumption level after thawing was 33 %. When the embryo clumps were precultured for 3 days on high-sucrose medium followed by 60 min application of PVS2 vitrification solution before cryostorage, the post-storage embryogenesis resumption level was 68 %.

  11. Cryopreservation of zygotic embryonic axes and somatic embryos of European chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieitez, Ana M; San-José, M Carmen; Corredoira, Elena

    2011-01-01

    For Castanea sativa (European chestnut), a species with recalcitrant seeds that is not easily propagated vegetatively, cryopreservation is one of the most promising techniques for maintaining genetic resource diversity and for conservation of selected germplasms. Long-term conservation of selected seeds and valuable embryogenic lines can be achieved through the cryopreservation of zygotic embryonic axes and somatic embryos, respectively. This chapter describes methods for the desiccation-based cryostorage of zygotic embryonic axes, and the vitrification-based cryopreservation of somatic embryos. For zygotic embryonic axes, the highest post-thaw survival and plantlet recovery rates are obtained by desiccation in a laminar flow hood to 20-25% moisture content, followed by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. For somatic embryos, embryogenesis resumption rates of over 60% are achieved by preculture of embryo clumps for 3 days on solid medium containing 0.3 M sucrose, incubation in PVS2 vitrification solution for 60 min at 0°C, and direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Plantlet recovery from cryostored embryogenic lines requires proliferation of the thawed embryos and subsequent maturation before germination and conversion into plantlets.

  12. Micromorphology of trichomes in the flowers of the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Chwil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aesculus hippocastanum L. is an ornamental tree appreciated for its beautiful flowers and leaves. The flowers of this species contain secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacological activity. They also produce essential oils and coloured “nectar guides”, which enable insects to reach nectar and pollen. The aim of the study was to investigate the types and characteristics of chestnut flower trichomes, which may contain biologically active substances. The analyses were performed using light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. Three types of trichomes were found on the sepals and the surface of the ovary, whereas the corolla petals exhibited two types of hairs and papillae. The hairs differ in terms of their length and number of cells. The perianth and pistil had no capitate hairs, whereas the ovary exhibited the presence of colleters. Histochemical assays revealed that all the types of trichomes and papillae contained lipids or essential oils; hence, they can be classified as glandular structures. The “nectar guides” were characterised by higher density of secretory hairs than that on the rest of the petal surface, which implies that these petal fragments may emit stronger fragrance.

  13. THE PESTS OF HORSE CHESTNUT TREE – AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T PERJU

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1998 the presence of the horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka-Dimic was reported in Cluj- Napoca. During 2000 – 2003 research concerning the extent, biology, ecology at this micro-lepidopteron, a new pest in our country, was performed. Signaled for the fi rst time in Western area of our country (1998, then in Central (1998, Southern (1999, and Eastern (2003 part of the country, the spread year by year conquering new territories. In the clime conditions of our country, the insect had 4 generations in 2000, and 3 during 2001 – 2003, remaining in hiemal diapauses during pupae stage, inside of the silk cocoons from the galleries of larvae feeding. The fl ight of the butterfl ies from the IIIrd generation (hiemal is recorded in the beginning of May. The Ist generation has a developmental stage during 15 May – 30 June, the IInd during 1 July – 15 August, and the IIIrd during 15 August – 15 May.

  14. Chestnut shell as unexploited source of fermentable sugars: effect of different pretreatment methods on enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurelli, Luisa; Ionata, Elena; La Cara, Francesco; Morana, Alessandra

    2013-07-01

    Chestnut shell (CS) is an agronomic residue mainly used for extraction of antioxidants or as adsorbent of metal ions. It also contains some polysaccharide that has not been considered as potential source of fermentable sugars for biofuel production until now. In this study, the effect of different pretreatment methods on CS was evaluated in order to obtain the greatest conversion of cellulose and xylan into fermentable sugars. Hot acid impregnation, steam explosion (acid-catalysed or not), and aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) were selected as pretreatments. The pretreated biomass was subjected to saccharification with two enzyme cocktails prepared from commercial preparations, and evaluation of the best pretreatment and enzyme cocktail was based on the yield of fermentable sugars produced. As AAS provided the best result after preliminary experiments, enhancement of sugar production was attempted by changing the concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, enzymes, and CS. The optimal pretreatment condition was 10 % ammonium hydroxide, 70 °C, 22 h with CS at 5 % solid loading. After saccharification of the pretreated CS for 72 h at 50 °C and pH 5.0 with a cocktail containing cellulase (Accellerase 1500), beta-glucosidase (Accellerase BG), and xylanase (Accellerase XY), glucose and xylose yields were 67.8 and 92.7 %, respectively.

  15. Rpi-vnt1.1, a Tm-2(2) Homolog from Solanum venturii, Confers Resistance to Potato Late Blight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, S.J.; Park, T.H.; Pel, M.; Brigneti, G.; Sliwka, J.; Jagger, L.; Vossen, van der E.A.G.; Jones, J.D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the efforts of breeders and the extensive use of fungicide control measures, late blight still remains a major threat to potato cultivation worldwide. The introduction of genetic resistance into cultivated potato is considered a valuable method to achieve durable resistance to late blight. H

  16. Metabolites from mangrove endophytic fungus Dothiorella sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUQingyan; WANGJianfeng; HUANGYaojian; ZHENGZhonghui; SONGSiyang; ZHANGYongmin; SUWenjin

    2004-01-01

    Mangroves are special woody plant communities in the intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical coasts. They prove to be a natural microorganisms and new metabolites storage. In the study of mangrove endophytic fungi metabolites, four new compounds, Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4, as well as a known octaketide, cytosporone B (5), are isolated from an endophytic fungus, Dothiorella sp., HTF3. They all show cytotoxic activities. The elucidation of these structures is mainly based on 1D/2D NMR and ESI-MS spectral analyses.

  17. Sterols from the Fungus Catathelasma imperiale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG, Sheng-Ping; XU, Jun; YUE, Jian-Min

    2003-01-01

    Eight ergostane-type sterols and three their derivatives (one mono-linoleate and two mono-glucosides) were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the fungus Catathelasma imperiale. Two of them are novel compounds, namely 22E, 24R-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β, 5α-diol-6β-linoleate (1) and 22E, 24R-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5β,6α-triol (5) with an uncommon cisfused A/B ring. Structures of these compounds were demonstrated on the basis of their chemical evidences and spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR techniques.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ANAEROBIC FUNGUS FROM LLAMA FECES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARVINSIKKEMA, FD; LAHPOR, GA; KRAAK, MN; GOTTSCHAL, JC; PRINS, RA

    1992-01-01

    An anaerobic fungus was isolated from Hama faeces. Based on its morphological characteristics, polyflagellated zoospores, extensive rhizoid system and the formation of monocentric colonies, the fungus is assigned to the genus Neocallimastix. Neocallimastix sp. L2 is able to grow on several poly-, ol

  19. Innate immune system targets asthma-linked fungus for destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, Barry James

    2008-01-01

    A new study shows that the innate immune system of humans is capable of killing a fungus linked to airway inflammation, chronic rhinosinusitis, and bronchial asthma. Researchers at Mayo Clinic and the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech have revealed that eosinophils, a particular type of white blood cell, exert a strong immune response against the environmental fungus Alternaria alternata.

  20. Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Martel, An; Asselberghs, Johan; Bales, Emma K; Beukema, Wouter; Bletz, Molly C; Dalbeck, Lutz; Goverse, Edo; Kerres, Alexander; Kinet, Thierry; Kirst, Kai; Laudelout, Arnaud; Marin da Fonte, Luis F; Nöllert, Andreas; Ohlhoff, Dagmar; Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Speybroeck, Jeroen; Spikmans, Frank; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Veith, Michael; Vences, Miguel; Wagner, Norman; Pasmans, Frank; Lötters, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Emerging fungal diseases can drive amphibian species to local extinction. During 2010-2016, we examined 1,921 urodeles in 3 European countries. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans at new locations and in urodeles of different species expands the known geographic and host range of the fungus and underpins its imminent threat to biodiversity.

  1. Genome Sequence of the Pathogenic Fungus Sporothrix schenckii (ATCC 58251).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Christina A; Rodriguez-Del Valle, Nuri; Perez-Sanchez, Lizaida; Abouelleil, Amr; Goldberg, Jonathan; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W

    2014-05-22

    Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogenic dimorphic fungus that grows as a yeast and as mycelia. This species is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, typically a skin infection. We report the genome sequence of S. schenckii, which will facilitate the study of this fungus and of the Sporothrix schenckii group.

  2. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai;

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal...

  3. Effect of chestnuts level in the formulation of the commercial feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Celta pig breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen De Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality from 24 castrated males Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of 15% of chestnut (CH15 improved (p0.05 differences except for the carcass length and ham length, for which the CH15 group proved to be the group with the longest sizes. The diet did not affect the physicochemical properties (colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force of longissimus dorsi muscle. The composition of some fatty acids of the longissimus dorsi muscle was affected by diet. The total saturated (35-38% and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (8-10% did not present differences. However, the increase of chestnut in the diet increased (p<0.05 the monounsaturated fatty acids in intramuscular fat (57% in CH25 vs. 53% in control and CH15. Within monounsaturated fatty acids, the C18:1n9 was the most influenced by the diet. The expression of the enzyme that synthesizes C18:1n9 depend on the composition of the diet. Therefore, the lower content of protein and the higher amounts of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 in the chestnut could be explaining the greater content of C18:1n9 in muscle of chestnut-fed animals. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet would allow reduce production costs with no effect or even improving carcass measurements and meat quality.

  4. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phomasp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat Hussain; Siegfried Draeger; Barbara Schulz; Karsten Krohn; Ines Kock; Ahmed Al-Harrasi; Ahmed Al-Rawahi; Ghulam Abbas; Ivan R Green; Afzal Shah; Amin Badshah; Muhammad Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phomasp. and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using theAgarWellDiffusionMethod. Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and their structures were assigned using1H and13CNMR spectra,DEPT,2DCOSY,HMQC andHMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp. showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative, named phomafuranol(1), together with three known compounds, phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3) and emodin(4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2) displayed strong antibacterial, good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin(4) showed good antifungal, antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungusPhomasp. and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate thatPhomasp. and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  6. New Development Trend of Edible Fungus Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We elaborate support system of edible fungus industry from outlook on ecological economic development, legislation and standardization of variety approval, multiple-function innovation platform of industrial development research, and perfect talent cultivation and education system. Besides, we analyze the development trend of edible fungus industry from competitive advantages, position and role in national food security, industrial development trend driven by internal demand, diversified industrial development model, division of labor within the industry, and expansion of industrial chain. Then, from the point of zoning and planning of edible fungus industry, we put forward suggestions that it should start from modern industrial system and take the industrial cluster development and optimization as guidance. In addition, we present technical innovation direction of industrial development. It is proposed to strengthen propaganda, build industrial cultural atmosphere, and expand social cognition degree of edible fungus industry to promote its redevelopment. Finally, it is expected to promote international influence of edible fungus industry through experts appealing for policy support.

  7. Fungus-Growing Termites Originated in African Rain Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Eggleton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    are consumed (cf. [ [1] and [2] ]). Fungus-growing termites are found throughout the Old World tropics, in rain forests and savannas, but are ecologically dominant in savannas [ 3 ]. Here, we reconstruct the ancestral habitat and geographical origin of fungus-growing termites. We used a statistical model......Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae, Isoptera) cultivate fungal crops (genus Termitomyces, Basidiomycotina) in gardens inside their colonies. Those fungus gardens are continuously provided with plant substrates, whereas older parts that have been well decomposed by the fungus...... of habitat switching [ 4 ] repeated over all phylogenetic trees sampled in a Bayesian analysis of molecular data [ 5 ]. Our reconstructions provide strong evidence that termite agriculture originated in African rain forest and that the main radiation leading to the extant genera occurred there. Because...

  8. Screening of Antagonistic Fungus for Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Shoot Blight%樟子松枯梢病拮抗真菌的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝年; 徐树辉; 杨传波; 黄敬林; 庞丽杰; 石铁嵩; 刘兴刚; 李耀民; 项存悌; 谢运海

    2004-01-01

    试验筛选出10种对樟子松枯梢病病原茵Diplodia pinea有拮抗作用的真菌,最终确定具有拮抗作用的真菌6种.拮抗效果由强到弱依次为绿木霉(Trichoderma viride)、单格孢(Ulocladium chartarum)、枣褐霉(Spadicoides oboratum)、镰刀茵(Fusarium sp.)、球毛壳孢(Chaetomium globosum)、附球茵(Epicoccum sp.).其中绿木霉效果最好,为首选茵种.拮抗茵的筛选以相对抑茵效果为准,同时应考虑被抑制率和菌种本身具有的致病性.

  9. Effect of the amount of chestnuts in the diet of Celta pigs on the fatty acid profile of dry-cured lacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jesús, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed (0, 15 and 25% chestnut on the fatty acids of dry-cured lacon from Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of chestnuts decreases the saturated fatty acid content (SFA and the monounsaturated fatty acid content (MUFA. With regards to the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, the lacon from animals fed with chestnuts presented higher values of total PUFA, n6 PUFAs and n3 PUFAs. This is related to the fact that chestnut diets had the highest amounts of essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3, therefore the lacon from chestnut-fed animals also presented higher amounts of these fatty acids. According to nutritional ratios, lacon obtained from chestnut-fed pigs was healthier than the one obtained from pigs fed on commercial feed. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet allows us to obtain healthier dry-cured meat products.Se estudió el efecto de la inclusión de la castaña en la formulación del pienso (0, 15 y 25% de castaña sobre el perfil de ácidos grasos del lacón curado de cerdo Celta. La inclusión de castañas produjo una disminución del contenido de ácidos grasos saturados (SFA y monoinsaturados (MUFA. Con respecto a los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA los lacones de animales alimentados por castaña presentaron valores más altos de PUFA totales, PUFA n6 y PUFA n3. Esto está relacionado con que las castañas tienen una mayor cantidad de ácidos grasos esenciales (C18:2n6 y C18:3n3, por tanto los lacones de cerdos alimentados con castaña también presentan mayores contenidos de estos ácidos grasos. De acuerdo con los índices nutricionales, los lacones obtenidos de cerdos alimentados con mayor proporción de castañas fueron más saludables. La inclusión de castañas en la dieta nos permite obtener productos cárnicos curados más saludables.

  10. Case study of a new method for the classification and analysis of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu damage to young chestnut sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tani A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dryocosmus kuriphilus is a new chestnut pest that is causing a serious problem worldwide. This gall wasp causes severe infestations of Italian Castanea sativa stands, which lowers their productivity. The most effective method for controlling gall wasp infestations is to introduce the parasitoid, Torymus sinensis, although experience shows that it can be 6-18 years before it is effective in reducing the infestation to acceptable levels. From a silvicultural point of view, it is important to reduce the damage as rapidly as possible to maintain plant vigour and fruit production, thereby avoiding chestnut stand degradation and abandonment before biological control is effective. This study analyzed the damage caused by Dryocosmus kuriphilus during normal plant development and detected differences in plant susceptibility, irrespective of genetic factors. Data were collected from a young Castanea sativa coppice stand in Tuscany (Italy where damage was evaluated during the 2010 growing season. The study consisted of two phases: (1 classification of the damages caused by galls; and (2 studying the galls and damage distribution effects on different vigour chestnut sprouts to determine whether there were preferred oviposition sites or different degrees of susceptibility to gall wasp attack depending on a plant’s physiological state. The D. kuriphilus damage classification scale was based on two factors: damage position (the vegetative organ attacked and damage effect (abnormal organ development caused by galls. This classification included damage types that had not been previously described in literature. The statistical analysis identified differences in damage susceptibility in terms of: axis (stem or branches, plant organs (shoots, leaves, or buds, position of the attacked node (high or low region of the axis, and sprout vigour. Information on the D. kuriphilus damage distribution and its effect on plants with different levels vigour can be used to

  11. Morphological and pheno logical description of 38 sweet chestnut cultivars (Castanea sativa Miller) in a contemporary collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furones-Perez, P.; Fernandez-Lopez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Thirty eight traditional chestnut cultivars, from a contemporary collection, were described using nine characteristics, seven of which are included in the guidelines for carrying out tests of distinctness, homogeneity and stability of chestnut established by the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV). The nine variables were chosen from among 13 characteristics evaluated in the collection with regard to the criteria for distinctness, uniformity and stability. The evaluations were carried out over the years 2003, 2004 and 2005, in two plantations, situated in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Each mean value obtained for each cultivar, plantation and year were assigned a state and numerical number using the UPOV system or proposed new descriptors. No cultivar showed a very late time of leaf bud burst nor a very late time for the start of male and female flowering, nor a strong penetration of the seed coat into embryo. In five variables there was no or few differences among years and between plantations. Consequently they can be evaluated at one site in one year. These characters were: filament length of male flowers, percent of chestnuts with a split pericarp, the degree of penetration of the seed coat into the embryo, fruit shape and the ratio of hilum length to hilum width. Of the remaining four variables, three were phonologic (time of leaf bud burst, time of beginning of male and female flowering) and one related to fruit size (size of fruit hilum). They varied among years and between plantations and consequently need to be evaluated under contrasting site conditions for a minimum number of years. Additional key words: cultivated varieties, descriptor, genetic resources, UPOV. (Author) 27 refs.

  12. Nontargeted GC-MS approach for volatile profile of toasting in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, and ash wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel María

    2014-05-01

    By using a nontargeted GC-MS approach, 153 individual volatile compounds were found in extracts from untoasted, light toasted and medium-toasted cherry, chestnut, false acacia, as well as European and American ash wood, used in cooperage for aging wines, spirits and other beverages. In all wood types, the toasting provoked a progressive increase in carbohydrate derivatives, lactones and lignin constituents, along with a variety of other components, thus increasing the quantitative differences among species with the toasting intensity. The qualitative differences in the volatile profiles allow for identifying woods from cherry (being p-anisylalcohol, p-anisylaldehyde, p-anisylacetone, methyl benzoate and benzyl salicylate detected only in this wood), chestnut (cis and trans whisky lactone) and false acacia (resorcinol, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol, 2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde, 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone, 2,4-dihydroxypropiophenone and 2,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone), but not those from ash, because of the fact that all compounds present in this wood are detected in at least one other. However, the quantitative differences can be clearly used to identify toasted ash wood, with tyrosol being most prominent, but 2-furanmethanol, 3- and 4-ethylcyclotene, α-methylcrotonolactone, solerone, catechol, 3-methylcatechol and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde as well. Regarding oak wood, its qualitative volatile profile could be enough to distinguish it from cherry and acacia woods, and the quantitative differences from chestnut (vanillyl ethyl ether, isoacetovanillone, butirovanillone, 1-(5-methyl-2-furyl)-2-propanone and 4-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-(2H)-pyran-2-one) and ash toasted woods. PMID:24809897

  13. Impact of fertilization on chestnut growth, N and P concentrations in runoff water on degraded slope land in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Shu-cai; CHEN Bei-guang; JIANG Cheng-ai; WU Qi-tang

    2007-01-01

    Growing fruit trees on the slopes of rolling hills in South China is causing serious environmental problems because of heavy application of chemical fertilizers and soil erosion. Suitable sources of fertilizers and proper rates of applications are of key importance to both crop yields and environmental protection. In this article, the impact of four fertilizers, i.e., inorganic compound fertilizer, organic compound fertilizer, pig manure compost, and peanut cake (peanut oil pressing residue), on chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) growth on a slope in South China, and on the total N and total P concentrations in runoff waters have been investigated during two years of study, with an orthogonal experimental design. Results show that the organic compound fertilizer and peanut cake promote the heights of young chestnut trees when compared to the control. In addition, peanut cake increases single-fruit weights and organic compound fertilizer raises single-seed weights. All the fertilizers increase the concentrations of total N and total P in runoff waters, except for organic compound fertilizer, in the first year experiment. The observed mean concentrations of total N varied from 1.6 mg/L to 3.2 mg/L and P from 0.12 mg/L to 0.22 mg/L, which are increased with the amount of fertilizer applications, with no pattern of direct proportion. On the basis of these experiment results, organic compound fertilizer at 2 kg/tree and peanut cake at 1 kg/tree are recommended to maximize chestnut growth and minimize water pollution.

  14. L-Ascorbic acid metabolism during fruit development in an ascorbate-rich fruit crop chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2014-09-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a fruit crop that contains unusually high levels of l-ascorbic acid (AsA; ∼1300 mg 100g(-1) FW). To explore the mechanisms underlying AsA metabolism, we investigated the distribution and abundance of AsA during fruit development. We also analyzed gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and content of metabolites related to AsA biosynthesis and recycling. AsA first accumulated during late fruit development and continued to accumulate during ripening, with the highest accumulation rate near fruit maturity. The redox state of AsA in fruit was also enhanced during late fruit development, while leaf and other tissues had much lower levels of AsA and the redox state of AsA was lower. In mature fruit, AsA was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the mesocarp. Correlation analysis suggested that the gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and related metabolite concentrations involved in the l-galactose pathway showed relatively high correlations with the accumulation rate of AsA. The gene expression pattern and activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) correlated strongly with AsA concentration, possibly indicating the crucial role of DHAR in the accumulation of high levels of AsA in chestnut rose fruit. Over expression of DHAR in Arabidopsis significantly increased the reduced AsA content and redox state. This was more effective than over expression of the l-galactose pathway gene GDP-d-mannose-3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.18). These findings will enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating accumulation of AsA in chestnut rose. PMID:25019249

  15. EVALUATION OF TRICHODERMA SPP. ON BEAN CULTURE, IN ANTHRACNOSE, WEB BLIGHT AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. V. Aguiar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mato Grosso is the third largest producer of bean from Brazil, being the third harvest (irrigated the most productive, but diseases such as anthracnose, web blight and nematodes of galls cause losses to producers. In addition, a measure widely used and little studied for the control of diseases and nematodes in Mato Grosso is the biological control, which consists of the action of other microorganisms on phytopathogens. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum and T. asperellum in the development (height of plants, chlorophyll and number of pods of culture of bean, in the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, web blight (Rhizoctonia solani and in the population of Meloidogyne spp. in the soil. The experiment was accomplished in area experimental of University Federal of Mato Grosso/Campus Sinop. The experimental design was of entirely randomized with 12 parcels of 5m² each, with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The cultivar used was Whitey, carioca group, and the seed treatment performed with product Pyraclostrobin + Thiophanate Methyl + Fipronil and after drying of the inoculation of biocontrol agents and manual seeding. It was observed that the application of T. harzianum and T. asperellum, not promoted increase of chlorophyll, height of plants in bean culture, without reducing the population of Meloidogyne spp.. However, biocontrol agents have reduced the severity of anthracnose and web blight and promoted an increase in the average number of plant pods-1. It is therefore concluded that biocontrol agents show potential for application in bean culture in the North of Mato Grosso.

  16. Development of the First Cisgenic Apple with Increased Resistance to Fire Blight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D Kost

    Full Text Available The generation and selection of novel fire blight resistant apple genotypes would greatly improve the management of this devastating disease, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Such resistant genotypes are currently developed by conventional breeding, but novel breeding technologies including cisgenesis could be an alternative approach. A cisgenic apple line C44.4.146 was regenerated using the cisgene FB_MR5 from wild apple Malus ×robusta 5 (Mr5, and the previously established method involving A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the fire blight susceptible cultivar 'Gala Galaxy' using the binary vector p9-Dao-FLPi. The line C44.4.146 was shown to carry only the cisgene FB_MR5, controlled by its native regulatory sequences and no transgenes were detected by PCR or Southern blot following heat induced recombinase-mediated elimination of the selectable markers. Although this line contains up to 452 bp of vector sequences, it still matches the original definition of cisgenesis. A single insertion of T-DNA into the genome of 'Gala Galaxy' in chromosome 16 was identified. Transcription of FB_MR5 in line C44.4.146 was similar to the transcription in classically bred descendants of Mr5. Three independent shoot inoculation experiments with a Mr5 avirulent strain of Erwinia amylovora were performed using scissors or syringe. Significantly lower disease symptoms were detected on shoots of the cisgenic line compared to those of untransformed 'Gala Galaxy'. Despite the fact that the pathogen can overcome this resistance by a single nucleotide mutation, this is, to our knowledge, the first prototype of a cisgenic apple with increased resistance to fire blight.

  17. Phenotypic characteristics of trees and seeds as the base for improvement and conservation of the horse chestnut gene pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocokoljić Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with individual and group variability of horse chestnut trees cultivated in urban cenoses in Belgrade, Zemun, and Pančevo, Serbia. The trees were selected according to their morphological-aesthetic properties and yield variability. In view of size of the study populations, it can be considered that the trees were cultivated in more or less uniform ecological conditions and that individual intra-population variability is mostly the result of genetic properties. The study results can serve as the base for selection of genotypes significant for application in urban cenoses, especially for the establishment of tree rows.

  18. New foods: a case study of Portuguese “Serra da Estrela” cheese incorporated with chestnuts flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2014-01-01

    The “Serra da Estrela” is the most well-known Portuguese cheese, made from ewe’s milk for centuries, granted a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) in 1996 by the European Union. To this date, not many studies have been carried out regarding the nutritional profile of this cheese. Chestnut flowers are usually leftovers of the nut harvest, and, being a very interesting flower in terms of antioxidants and antimicrobials, the incorporation of this by-product into the cheese may be o...

  19. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF FUNGICIDE APPLICATION ON TARO (Colocasia esculenta LEAF BLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarla D N

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Taro is an important crop in Cameroon but yields of the crop has severely affected by pests and diseases especially leaf blight. An economic evaluation of fungicide applications on taro blight was conducted in Dschang, Cameroon, during the 2012 cropping season. A split-plot design was used, with two factors; fungicide and cultivar, replicated three times. Whole plots were assigned to five fungicide spray schedules (7, 14, 21, 28-day, and non-treated while sub-plots were assigned to two taro cultivars; the dark green petioles (“Ibo coco” cultivar and the light green petioles small leaves (“Ehkoueh’lah” cultivar. A fungicide, Plantomil 72 WP was applied at 3.33 kgha-1 . Blight severity was scored weekly in every sub-plot, and yields were obtained at harvest. Data was subjected to the analysis of variance. Standardized area under disease progress curve (SAUDPC was high (p = 0.005 in control plots compared to sprayed plots of the cultivars. The high SAUDPC values were correlated with low yields (16.11 t/ha in control plots of “Ibo coco” compared to high yields (60.44 to 62.11 t/ha in sprayed plots. For “Ehkoueh’lah”, yield differences between control and sprayed plots were not high, 33.11 tha-1 in the control compared to 46.83 to 49.06 tha-1 in sprayed plots. The highest yield increase of 74.06 and 32.51 % for “Ibo coco” and “Ehkoueh’lah”, respectively was obtained from 7-day sprayed plots. Economic analysis revealed that a 28-day fungicide spray frequency had the highest rate of return, 13.78 and 6.63 and net benefits of 8.26 and 4.76 million FCFAha-1 for “Ibo coco” and “Ehkoueh’lah”, respectively. Thus, taro leaf blight can be managed with monthly applications of fungicide.

  20. Hybrid Rice Resistant to Bacterial Leaf Blight Developed By Marker Assisted Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Li-yong; ZHUANG Jie-yun; YUAN Shou-jiang; ZHAN Xiao-deng; ZHENG Kang-le; CHENG Shi-hua

    2003-01-01

    Through recurrént backcrossing in combination with molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS), restorer lines R8006 and R1176 carrying Xa-21 , a gene having broad-spectrum resistance to rice bacterial leaf blight, were selected. By crossing the two lines to CMS line Zhong 9A, two new hybrid rice combinations, Zhongyou 6 and Zhongyou 1176 were developed. The hybrids showed high resistance to diseases, good grain quality and high yielding potential in national and provincial adaptability and yield trials.

  1. First Occurence of Fire Blight on Apricot (Prunus armeniaca in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita VÉGH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During July 2012, a severe unusual disease symptom was observed on young shoots on apricot (Prunus armeniaca 10/13 hybrid in the city of Pomáz, near Budapest. The naturally infected shoots showed typical symptoms of fire blight including terminal shoots with brown to black necrotic lesions. Symptoms were the same as fire blight symptoms reported from other hosts and locations. The first occurrence of fire blight on an apricot tree in Europe was recorded in Czech Republic in 2011. Samples of the leaves and shoots with symptoms were macerated and spread on King’s medium B. After 24 hours of incubation at 26 °C, bacteria morphologically similar to E. amylovora were detected. Isolate induced hypersensitive reaction on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. ‘White Burley’ leaves. Biochemical test was also used for identification, and the result of API 20E kit (Biomérieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France, demonstrate that the bacterium belongs to Enterobacteriaceae family. A pathogenicity tests were positive on young apricot shoots and immature fruits. For molecular identification of the pathogen the 16S rDNA region was amplified from isolate Ea-ApricotPo1 with a general bacterial primer pair (63f forward and 1389r reverse. The PCR products were cloned into a pGEM T-Easy plasmid vector (Promega, Madison, WI USA and were transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α cells. A recombinant plasmid (2A2.5 was sequenced by M13 forward and reverse primers. The sequence was deposited in GenBank (Accession No. HF546214 and showed 99-100% sequence homology with a number of E. amylovora isolates, including type strain FN666575 with 100% similarity. On the basis of the symptoms, colony morphology, biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA sequence homology, the pathogen was identified as E. amylovora. This is a first record of a natural outbreak of fire blight on apricot in Hungary.

  2. TaFROG Encodes a Pooideae Orphan Protein That Interacts with SnRK1 and Enhances Resistance to the Mycotoxigenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perochon, Alexandre; Jianguang, Jia; Kahla, Amal; Arunachalam, Chanemougasoundharam; Scofield, Steven R; Bowden, Sarah; Wallington, Emma; Doohan, Fiona M

    2015-12-01

    All genomes encode taxonomically restricted orphan genes, and the vast majority are of unknown function. There is growing evidence that such genes play an important role in the environmental adaptation of taxa. We report the functional characterization of an orphan gene (Triticum aestivum Fusarium Resistance Orphan Gene [TaFROG]) as a component of resistance to the globally important wheat (T. aestivum) disease, Fusarium head blight. TaFROG is taxonomically restricted to the grass subfamily Pooideae. Gene expression studies showed that it is a component of the early wheat response to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), which is a virulence factor produced by the causal fungal agent of Fusarium head blight, Fusarium graminearum. The temporal induction of TaFROG by F. graminearum in wheat spikelets correlated with the activation of the defense Triticum aestivum Pathogenesis-Related-1 (TaPR1) gene. But unlike TaPR1, TaFROG induction by F. graminearum was toxin dependent, as determined via comparative analysis of the effects of wild-type fungus and a DON minus mutant derivative. Using virus-induced gene silencing and overexpressing transgenic wheat lines, we present evidence that TaFROG contributes to host resistance to both DON and F. graminearum. TaFROG is an intrinsically disordered protein, and it localized to the nucleus. A wheat alpha subunit of the Sucrose Non-Fermenting1-Related Kinase1 was identified as a TaFROG-interacting protein based on a yeast two-hybrid study. In planta bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed the interaction. Thus, we conclude that TaFROG encodes a new Sucrose Non-Fermenting1-Related Kinase1-interacting protein and enhances biotic stress resistance.

  3. TaFROG Encodes a Pooideae Orphan Protein That Interacts with SnRK1 and Enhances Resistance to the Mycotoxigenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perochon, Alexandre; Jianguang, Jia; Kahla, Amal; Arunachalam, Chanemougasoundharam; Scofield, Steven R; Bowden, Sarah; Wallington, Emma; Doohan, Fiona M

    2015-12-01

    All genomes encode taxonomically restricted orphan genes, and the vast majority are of unknown function. There is growing evidence that such genes play an important role in the environmental adaptation of taxa. We report the functional characterization of an orphan gene (Triticum aestivum Fusarium Resistance Orphan Gene [TaFROG]) as a component of resistance to the globally important wheat (T. aestivum) disease, Fusarium head blight. TaFROG is taxonomically restricted to the grass subfamily Pooideae. Gene expression studies showed that it is a component of the early wheat response to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), which is a virulence factor produced by the causal fungal agent of Fusarium head blight, Fusarium graminearum. The temporal induction of TaFROG by F. graminearum in wheat spikelets correlated with the activation of the defense Triticum aestivum Pathogenesis-Related-1 (TaPR1) gene. But unlike TaPR1, TaFROG induction by F. graminearum was toxin dependent, as determined via comparative analysis of the effects of wild-type fungus and a DON minus mutant derivative. Using virus-induced gene silencing and overexpressing transgenic wheat lines, we present evidence that TaFROG contributes to host resistance to both DON and F. graminearum. TaFROG is an intrinsically disordered protein, and it localized to the nucleus. A wheat alpha subunit of the Sucrose Non-Fermenting1-Related Kinase1 was identified as a TaFROG-interacting protein based on a yeast two-hybrid study. In planta bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed the interaction. Thus, we conclude that TaFROG encodes a new Sucrose Non-Fermenting1-Related Kinase1-interacting protein and enhances biotic stress resistance. PMID:26508775

  4. Micromorphology of the floral nectary of red horse chestnut (Aesculus ×carnea Hayne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Europe Aesculus ×carnea Hayne is planted in cities as an avenue tree. Compared to A. hippocastanum L., it is more drought resistant, but less resistant to low temperatures. A. ×carnea is a lower tree than A. hippocastanum and develops a smaller corolla. It produces dark green, shiny and crinkled leaves. Its flowers have different colours, from bright pink to carmine red. The nectary glands secrete nectar abundantly. Due to the long corolla tube, nectar is difficult to reach for bees. The aim of this study was to investigate the topography and micromorphology of the nectaries of A. ×carnea using scanning electron microscopy. The study shows that the nectary gland of red horse chestnut forms an incomplete ring around the base of the staminal filaments, surrounding only four stamens out of the seven that occur in the flower. Three stamens are outside the nectary. In its widest place, the nectary diameter reaches 2.7 mm. Three expanded portions of the gland can bee seen in the marginal part of the nectary, adjoining the petals. The part of the nectary adjacent to the filaments forms a convex protrusion with a wavy appearance (shape, which results from the vicinity of the filaments. Nectar is secreted through numerous stomata located beneath the convex part of the nectary. The stoma length is 21.7 μm, while the width 23.3 μm. In the material examined, most stomata had open pores. Secretion was observed in many places. The stomata were surrounded by 6-7 guard cells; this allows them to be classified as the cyclocytic type. The cells of the stomatal complex were raised above the surface of the other epidermal cells. The walls of the guard cells and of the adjacent epidermal cells were covered by a cuticle with irregular striation.

  5. Plant growth-promoting and antifungal activity of yeasts from dark chestnut soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Lyudmila V; Brazhnikova, Yelena V; Berzhanova, Ramza Z; Mukasheva, Togzhan D

    2015-06-01

    538 yeast strains were isolated from dark chestnut soil collected from under the plants of the legume family (Fabaceae). The greatest number of microorganisms is found at soil depth 10-20 cm. Among the 538 strains of yeast 77 (14.3%) strains demonstrated the ability to synthesize IAA. 15 strains were attributed to high IAA-producing yeasts (above 10 μg/ml). The most active strains were YA05 with 51.7 ± 2.1 μg/ml of IAA and YR07 with 45.3 ± 1.5 μg/ml. In the study of effect of incubation time on IAA production the maximum accumulation of IAA coincided with maximum rates of biomass: at 120 h for YR07 and at 144 h for strain YA05. IAA production increased when medium was supplemented with the L-tryptophan. 400 μg/ml of L-tryptophan showed maximum IAA production. 10 strains demonstrated the ability to inhibit the growth and development of phytopathogenic fungi. YA05 and YR07 strains formed the largest zones of inhibition compared to the other strains--from 21.6 ± 0.3 to 30.6 ± 0.5 mm. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed for YA05 against Phytophtora infestans and YR07 strains against Fusarium graminearum. YA05 and YR07 strains were identified as Aureobasidium pullulans YA05 (GenBank accession No JF160955) and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa YR07 (GenBank accession No JF160956). PMID:25843007

  6. Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhl, J.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania and the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task in this project is to establish, through several distinct epidemiologic approaches, health data to be used to test hypotheses about relations of air pollution exposures to morbidity and mortality rates in this region. This project affords a cost-effective opportunity for state-of-the-art techniques to be used in both costly areas of air pollution and health effects data collection. The closely spaced network of monitors, plus the dispersion modeling capabilities, allow for the investigation of health impacts of various pollutant gradients in neighboring geographic areas, thus minimizing the confounding effects of social, ethnic, and economic factors. The pollutants that are monitored in this network include total gaseous sulfur, sulfates, total suspended particulates, NOx, NO, ozone/oxidants, and coefficient of haze. In addition to enabling the simulation of exposure profiles between monitors, the air quality modeling, along with extensive source and background inventories, will allow for upgrading the quality of the monitored data as well as simulating the exposure levels for about 25 additional air pollutants. Another important goal of this project is to collect and test the many available models for associating health effects with air pollution, to determine their predictive validity and their usefulness in the choice and siting of future energy facilities.

  7. SYSTEMIC INFECTION AND RELATED FUNGUS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Rajsekhar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which are separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Many fungi play a crucial role in decomposition (breaking things down and returning nutrients to the soil. They are also used in medicine, an example is the antibiotic penicillin, as well as in industry and food preparation. In the present time the microbes are to be seen as disease causing organisms harming the mankind. The harm done by this community cannot be taken lightly as they are also useful in many ways. The above article is an effort to bring out the various fungal issued related to human.

  8. Bioactive Triterpenes from the Fungus Piptoporus betulinus

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    Zeyad Alresly

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fruiting bodies from the basidiomycete Piptoporus betulinus led to the isolation of a new bioactive lanostane triterpene identified as 3 b -acetoxy-16-hydroxy-24-oxo-5α-lanosta-8- ene-21-oic acid (1. In addition, ten known triterpenes, polyporenic acid A (5, polyporenic acid C (4, three derivatives of polyporenic acid A (8, 10, 11, betulinic acid (3, betulin (2, ergosterol peroxide (6, 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (7, and fomefficinic acid (9, were also isolated from the fungus. All isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as against a fungal strain. The new triterpene and some of the other compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  9. Preparation and evaluation of Bacillus megaterium-alginate microcapsules for control of rice sheath blight disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwattanapatapee, R; Chumthong, A; Pengnoo, A; Kanjanamaneesathian, M

    2013-08-01

    Bacillus megaterium encapsulated in calcium alginate microcapsules was prepared and tested for its efficacy against sheath blight disease of rice. In laboratory conditions, the aqueous suspension (1:100, v/v in potato dextrose agar) of the bacterial microcapsules (10(10) spores/ml) inhibited mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia solani (>99 %) after the microcapsules were produced and stored for 12 months at room temperature (28 ± 2 °C). The survival of the bacterium in the microcapsules in response to ultraviolet (u.v.) irradiation and high temperature was investigated. The survivability of the bacterium in the encapsulated form was greater than that of the fresh cells when it was subjected to u.v. (20-W General electric u.v. lamp from a 25 cm distance for 48 h) and a high temperature treatment (80 °C for 48 h). Cells of the bacterium were detected by scanning electron microscope on both the leaf sheath and the leaf blade (in pot tests in a greenhouse) after spraying encapsulated product. The number of bacteria on the surface of both rice tissues (5 Log. number/g of plant) after spraying with encapsulated product was not significantly different from that after spraying with fresh cells onto the rice seedlings. Spraying the encapsulated B. megaterium on rice plants in the greenhouse was as effective as spraying a chemical fungicide for suppressing rice sheath blight disease. PMID:23508397

  10. The use of tissue culture techniques with irradiation to improve potato resistance to late blight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutation breeding program was conducted to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum) resistance to late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans. In vitro cultured explants from potato cvs. Draga, Diamant, Spunta were irradiated with gamma ray doses 25, 30, and 35 Gy. Growing shoots were cut and re-cultured every 2 weeks until the 4th generation (MV4) to make sure no chimeral tissues still existed in the mutant material. Plantlets were subsequently propagated to obtain enough explants for in vitro selection pressure. Around 3000 plantlets from the three cultivars were subjected to selection pressure using co-culture technique. MV4 explants were incubated in jars, containing MS medium, with mycelia of P. infestans. Surviving plantlets were propagated and re-incubated with the pathogen for three consecutive generations. Resistant plantlets were acclimatized and transferred to pots and grown under glasshouse conditions. Plants were later inoculated, at the adult stage, with sporangial suspension. Cultivar Draga produced the highest number of resistant plants. Ten plants of Draga appeared to be resistant to late blight whereas only one plant from each of the other 2 cultivars was resistant. Mutant plants varied in number of produced minitubers from 13 to 70, Also, weight of these minitubers varied from less than 1 to 35 grams. Selected mutant lines will undergo further testing under field conditions for P. infestans resistance and other agronomic characteristics. (author)

  11. In vitro induction, isolation and selection of potato mutants resistant to late blight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutation breeding program was conducted to improve potato resistance to late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans. In vitro cultured explants from cvs Draga, Diamant, Spunta were irradiated with gamma ray doses 25, 30, and 35 Gy. Growing shoots were cut and re-cultured every 2 weeks until the 4th generation (MV4) to make sure no chimeral tissues still existed in the mutant material. Plantlets were subsequently propagated to obtain enough explants for in vitro selection pressure. Around 3,000 plantlets from the 3 cultivars were subjected to selection pressure using co-culture technique. MV4 explants were incubated in jars, containing MS medium, with mycelia of P. infestans. Surviving plantlets were propagated and re-incubated with the pathogen for 3 consecutive generations. Resistant plantlets were acclimatized and transferred to pots and grown under glasshouse conditions. Plants were later inoculated, at the adult stage, with sporangial suspension. Cv Draga produced the highest number of resistant plants. Ten plants of Draga appeared to be resistant to late blight, whereas only one plant from each of the other 2 cvs was resistant. Mutant plants varied in number of produced minitubers from 13 to 70. Also, weight of these minitubers varied from less than 1 to 35 grams. Selected mutant lines will undergo further testing under field conditions for P. infestans resistance and other agronomic characteristics

  12. An Assessment of the Impact of Two Late Blight Tolerant Potato Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made to assess the impact of two late blight tolerant potato varieties Tigoni and Asante releases in 1998. The appraisal and impact assessment set out to collect information on the adoption of the two varieties; assess their economic impact; and forecast future prospects for these two varieties and identity constraints to their adoption and diffusion in three divisions of Molo, Timboroa and Laikipia. The methodology adopted was conducting field surveys between September and October 2001, and gathering secondary information from the Ministry of Agriculture, research Centres, seed companies, NGO's and farmers. Results indicated that high yield, early maturity, tolerant to late blight, good market for ware potatoes and good taste were the advantages of Tigoni and Asante, widely recognised in all survey sites. Disadvantages of Tigoni and Asante were poor storage, rapid greening of tubers (mainly for Tigoni), and limited availability of planting material. The two varieties had higher yield benefits, net benefit per hectare and higher rates of return compared to the local varieties. the rate of returns when the local cultivars were substituted by the new improved varieties ranged from 556 to 1070%. Data on diffusion of Tigoni and Asante showed that combined acreage of varieties Tigoni and Asante rose to 196.3, 137.5 and 1476 ha in Molo, Timboroa and Laikipia respectively. The future forecast for the two varieties is good if the limitation on seed availability is addressed

  13. Development of the variety for resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice with thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In search for the development of genes for resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice, thermal neutrons generated from the Research Reactor at the Kyoto University have been applied to the breeding. In this paper, the developmental outcome is described, and a potential application of thermal neutrons for breeding the variety of resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice is reviewed. When thermal neutrons were delivered to the rice, the ratio of absorbed doses by B-10, which is contained in a small quantity in the plant, was found to be larger than expected. This implies characteristic effects of thermal neutrons on the plant. When boric acid was incorporated into the plant before irradiation, the effect of thermal neutrons per irradiation time was considered to become great. The frequency of mutations for resistance was significantly higher by thermal neutron, as compared with that induced by other mutagens, such as gamma radiation, ethylene-imine, ethyl-methane-sulfonate, and nitroso-methyl-urea. Genetic analysis of mutants for resistance revealed recessive genes and polygenes. Finally, the application of thermal neutrons and other radiations would contribute greatly to a resolution of serious pollution problems in global food and environment. (N.K.)

  14. Strategies for managing Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Gary Y; Schoneweis, Susan D

    2007-10-20

    Many mycotoxigenic fungi infect plant hosts and cause disease in the field. Therefore, control of field infection by these fungi is a critical step in managing mycotoxin accumulation in the harvested product. Fusarium graminearum, also known as Gibberella zeae, is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, in cereals and is also the primary agent responsible for contamination of grain with deoxynivalenol (DON). Research efforts worldwide are devoted to the development of strategies to control field infection of wheat and barley by this pathogen. Strategies include the use of fungicides and biological control agents to protect flowering heads from infection. There is extensive effort in breeding for host resistance to infection and spread of the pathogen within the heads. Scientists are also seeking exogenous traits to introduce into cereals to enhance resistance. Cultural practices are also being examined, primarily as measures to reduce pathogen survival and inoculum production in crop residues. The successes and limitations of these strategies in the management of Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol are discussed.

  15. Transgenic Rice Plants Harboring Genomic DNA from Zizania latifolia Confer Bacterial Blight Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wei-wei; SONG Cheng-li; CHEN Jie; Fu Ya-ping; Wu Jian-li; JIANG Shao-mei

    2011-01-01

    Based on the sequence of a resistance gene analog FZ14 derived from Zizania latifolia (Griseb.),a pair of specific PCR primers FZ14P1/FZ14P2 was designed to isolate candidate disease resistance gene.The pooled-PCR approach was adopted using the primer pair to screen a genomic transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) library derived from Z.latifolia.A positive TAC clone (ZR1) was obtained and confirmed by sequence analysis.The results indicated that ZR1 consisted of conserved motifs similar to P-loop (kinase 1a),kinase 2,kinase 3a and GLPL (Gly-Leu-Pro-Leu),suggesting that it could be a portion of NBS-LRR type of resistance gene.Using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Nipponbare mature embryo,a total of 48 independent transgenic T0 plants were obtained.Among them,36 plants were highly resistant to the virulent bacterial blight strain P×O71.The results indicate that ZR1 contains at least one functional bacterial blight resistance gene.

  16. Enhanced biological control of phytophthora blight of pepper by biosurfactant-producing pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyilmaz, Umit; Benlioglu, Kemal

    2013-12-01

    Pseudomonas isolates from different crop plants were screened for in vitro growth inhibition of Phytophthora capsici and production of biosurfactant. Two in vivo experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of selected Pseudomonas strains against Phytophthora blight of pepper by comparing two fungicide treatments [acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and ASM + mefenoxam]. Bacterial isolates were applied by soil drenching (1 × 10(9) cells/ml), ASM (0.1 μg a.i./ml) and ASM + mefenoxam (0.2 mg product/ml) were applied by foliar spraying, and P. capsici inoculum was incorporated into the pot soil three days after treatments. In the first experiment, four Pseudomonas strains resulted in significant reduction from 48.4 to 61.3% in Phytophthora blight severity. In the second experiment, bacterial treatments combining with olive oil (5 mL per plant) significantly enhanced biological control activity, resulting in a reduction of disease level ranging from 56.8 to 81.1%. ASM + mefenoxam was the most effective treatment while ASM alone was less effective in both bioassays. These results indicate that our Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (6L10, 6ba6 and 3ss9) that have biosurfactant-producing abilities are effective against P. capsici on pepper, and enhanced disease suppression could be achieved when they were used in combination with olive oil. PMID:25288970

  17. [Polyvalence of bacteriophages isolated from fruit trees, affected by bacterial fire blight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovkach, F I; Moroz, S N; Korol', N A; Faĭdiuk, Iu V; Kushkina, A I

    2013-01-01

    Phage populations appearing as a result of a pathogenic process caused by Erwinia amylovora have been discovered and described. They accompany bacterial fire blight development in the process of quince, pear and apple trees vegetation in Zakarpattya region of Ukraine. Phage isolates of the affected pear and quince include polyvalent virulent phages able to develop on bacterial strains associated with plants--E. amylovora. E. "horticola" and Pantoea agglomerans. E. amylovora isolated from the plant tissues affected by the fire blight and detected at the same time as phages proved to be resistant to the viral infection. It is hard to explain now this characteristic however it was noticed that resistance to phages can change drastically in case of dissociation, lysogenization and mutagenesis of erwinia in laboratory conditions. Phage population study shows that they are heterogeneous and can obviously include not only polyvalent but also specific viruses. Further studies of biology and molecular genetics of pure lines of isolated phages will help to get closer to understanding the place and role of bacteriophages in the complicated network of relations between bacterial pathogens and plants.

  18. Effects of Fungicides, Time of Application, and Application Method on Control of Sclerotinia Blight in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Woodward

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to evaluate the response of peanut cultivars to different fungicides, application timings, and methods. Overall, fungicides reduced Sclerotinia blight incidence and increased pod yields when applied to susceptible and partially resistant cultivars. Disease suppression was greater when full fungicide rates were applied preventatively; however, yields between fungicide treated plots were similar. Lower levels of disease and higher yields were achieved with the partially resistant cultivar Tamrun OL07 compared to the susceptible cultivars Flavor Runner 458 and Tamrun OL 02. Despite possessing improved resistance Tamrun OL07 responded to all fungicide applications. While similar levels of disease control were achieved with broadcast or banded applications made during the day or at night, the yield response for the different application methods was inconsistent among years. A negative relationship (slope = −73.8; R2=0.73; P<0.01 was observed between final disease incidence ratings and yield data from studies where a fungicide response was observed. These studies suggest that both boscalid and fluazinam are effective at controlling Sclerotinia blight in peanuts. Alternative management strategies such as nighttime and banded applications could allow for lower fungicide rates to be used; however, additional studies are warranted.

  19. Stemphylium Leaf Blight of Garlic (Allium sativum in Spain: Taxonomy and In Vitro Fungicide Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gálvez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The most serious aerial disease of garlic is leaf blight caused by Stemphylium spp. Geographical variation in the causal agent of this disease is indicated. Stemphylium vesicarium has been reported in Spain, whereas S. solani is the most prevalent species recorded in China. In this study, Stemphylium isolates were obtained from symptomatic garlic plants sampled from the main Spanish production areas. Sequence data for the ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 region enabled assignation of the isolates to the Pleospora herbarum complex and clearly distinguished the isolates from S. solani. Conidial morphology of the isolates corresponded to that of S. vesicarium and clearly discriminated them from S. alfalfae and S. herbarum on the basis of the size and septation pattern of mature conidia. Conidial morphology as well as conidial length, width and length:width ratio also allowed the Spanish isolates to be distinguished from S. botryosum and S. herbarum. Control of leaf blight of garlic is not well established. Few studies are available regarding the effectiveness of chemical treatments to reduce Stemphylium spp. incidence on garlic. The effectiveness of nine fungicides of different chemical groups to reduce Stemphylium mycelial growth in vitro was tested. Boscalid + pyraclostrobin (group name, succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors + quinone outside inhibitors, iprodione (dicar-boximide, and prochloraz (demethylation inhibitors were highly effective at reducing mycelial growth in S. vesicarium with EC₅₀ values less than 5 ppm. In general, the effectiveness of the fungicide was enhanced with increasing dosage.

  20. Future prospects for ascochyta blight resistance breeding in cool season food legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego eRubiales

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation is strongly hampered by the occurrence of ascochyta blights. Strategies of control have been developed but only marginal successes have been achieved. Breeding for disease resistance is regarded the most cost efficient method of control. Significant genetic variation for disease resistance exists in most legume crops with numerous germplasm lines maintained, providing an excellent resource for plant breeders. Fast and reliable screening methods have been adjusted to fulfil breeding programmes needs. However, the complex inheritance controlled quantitatively by multiple genes, have been difficult to manipulate. Successful application of biotechnology to ascochyta blight resistance breeding in legume crops will facilitate both a good biological knowledge of the crops and of the mechanisms underlying resistance. The current focus in applied breeding is leveraging biotechnological tools to develop more and better markers to speed up the delivery of improved cultivars to the farmer. To date, however, progress in marker development and delivery of useful markers has been slow. The limited saturation of the genomic regions bearing putative QTLs in legume crops makes difficult to identify the most tightly-linked markers

  1. Research Status and Prospect ofBurkholderia glumae, the Pathogen Causing Bacterial Panicle Blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Zhou-qi; ZHU Bo; XIE Guan-lin; LI Bin; HUANG Shi-wen

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial panicle blight caused by Burkholderia glumae is one of the most severe seed-borne bacterial diseases of rice in the world. Currently, this disease has affected many countries of Asia, Africa, South and North America. It is a typical example of the shifting from minor plant disease to major disease due to the changes of environmental conditions. Some virulent factors of B. glumae have been identified, including toxoflavins and lipases, whose productions are dependent on the TofI/TofR quorum-sensing system, and type III effectors. In spite of its economic significance, neither effective control measure for this disease nor resistant rice variety is currently available. In recent years, genomics, transcriptomics and other molecular methods have provided useful information for better understanding the molecular mechanisms underlyingB. glumaevirulence and the rice defence mechanisms against pathogens. For the prevention of this pathogen, our laboratory has developed a rapid and sensitive multiplex PCR assay for detecting and distinguishingB. glumae from otherBurkholderia species. This improved understanding ofB. glumae will shed new light on bacterial panicle blight disease management.

  2. Mapping QTLs for Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in an Interspecific Wheat Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancaspro, Angelica; Giove, Stefania L.; Zito, Daniela; Blanco, A.; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (scab) is one of the most widespread and damaging diseases of wheat, causing grain yield and quality losses and production of harmful mycotoxins. Development of resistant varieties is hampered by lack of effective resistance sources in the tetraploid wheat primary gene pool. Here we dissected the genetic basis of resistance in a new durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population obtained by crossing an hexaploid resistant line and a durum susceptible cultivar. A total of 135 RILs were used for constituting a genetic linkage map and mapping loci for head blight incidence, severity, and disease-related plant morphological traits (plant height, spike compactness, and awn length). The new genetic map accounted for 4,366 single nucleotide polymorphism markers assembled in 52 linkage groups covering a total length of 4,227.37 cM. Major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for scab incidence and severity were mapped on chromosomes 2AS, 3AL, and 2AS, 2BS, 4BL, respectively. Plant height loci were identified on 3A, 3B, and 4B, while major QTL for ear compactness were found on 4A, 5A, 5B, 6A, and 7A. In this work, resistance to Fusarium was transferred from hexaploid to durum wheat, and correlations between the disease and morphological traits were assessed. PMID:27746787

  3. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten;

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves...... into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for secreted...

  4. A horse chestnut extract, which induces contraction forces in fibroblasts, is a potent anti-aging ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Tsukahara, Kazue; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    Contraction forces generated by non-muscle cells, such as fibroblasts, play important roles in determining cell morphology, vasoconstriction, and/or wound healing. We have searched among various plant extracts for ingredients that generate cell contraction forces using fibroblast-populated collagen gels. Using that model, we found that an extract of horse chestnuts (Aesculus hippocastanum) is able to generate such contraction forces in fibroblasts. The involvement of stress fiber formation in that response is suggested by the inhibition of such force generation by cytochalasin D and rhodamine phalloidin stain. Clinical testing of the extract was carried out using 40 healthy female volunteers. A gel formulation that included 3% of the extract was applied topically to the skin around the eye three times daily for nine weeks. The efficacy of the extract to diminish wrinkles was evaluated by visual scoring based on photo scales. After six weeks, significant decreases in the wrinkle scores at the corners of the eye or in the lower eyelid skin were observed compared with controls. After nine weeks, similar results were obtained. Taken together, our results suggest that an extract of horse chestnuts can generate contraction forces in fibroblasts and is a potent anti-aging ingredient. PMID:17111071

  5. Touchdown nested multiplex PCR detection of Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. cambivora from French and English chestnut grove soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrell, Stephen R H; Morel, Olivier; Robin, Cécile

    2011-07-01

    Soil borne Phytophthora cinnamomi and Phytophthora cambivora are considered the most pathogenic species associated with chestnut (Castanea sativa) decline in Europe. Mapping their incidence and distribution from nursery and plantation soils may offer valuable information for limiting spread. As conventional biological baiting and taxonomic confirmation is generally time consuming, labour, logistically and space intensive, we have focused on the development of a specific touchdown nested multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) approach for the simultaneous detection of both species direct from soil. Pre-existing and novel primers, based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences, have been evaluated for their specificity and use in a multiplex capacity in various combinations. Coupled to this we have modified a mechanical lysis procedure for DNA extraction from up to 10 g of chestnut under storey soils (ranging from 0.5 to 25 μg DNA g(-1)fresh soil). Using serial dilutions and/or polyvinylpolypyrrolidone chromatography purification, both species have been successfully detected, in artificially and naturally infected soils. Levels of assay detection are comparable to other Phytophthora species where PCR based diagnostic systems have been reported. A qualitative evaluation of this approach against conventional baiting is presented.

  6. Effect of diet chestnut tannin supplementation on meat quality, fatty acid profile and lipid stability in broiler rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chestnut tannins on meat quality in broiler rabbits. 72 commercial hybrid rabbits (mean body weight 740 g, 32 days old were fed for 49 days with three diets containing 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% of a commercial chestnut wood extract (ENC®, Sil- vachimica srl, respectively. Eight rabbits per group were slaughtered at 12 weeks of age and at 24h post-mortem pH and colour were measured on the carcass. Moreover, both sides of m. longis- simus thoracis (LT were dissected. Left side was used for cooking losses whereas the other side was used for the determination of fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. No differences were found in pH, colour and cooking losses, as well as the fatty acid profile of LT muscle and its relative health indexes. Concerning the antioxidant effect, the ENC shows a positive and significant effect at the inclusion level of 0.5%. In conclusion, the ENC has not undesirable side effects on the meat quality of rabbits, although further studies will be necessary to find the optimal diet inclusion level of ENC to elicit a stronger antioxidant effect in the rabbit meat.

  7. Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared from wheat flour supplemented with cassava and water chestnut flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Bala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared by supplementing different proportions of cassava flour (CF and water chestnut flour (WCF blends (0–100% to wheat flour (WF were studied. Seven formulations of cookies were prepared from (a Control (100% WF, (b 30% WF, 35% WCF and 35% CF, (c 27% WF, 37.5% WCF and 37.5% CF, (d 20% WF, 40% WCF and 40% CF, (e 15% WF, 42.5% WCF and 42.5% CF, (f 10% WF, 45% WCF and 45% CF, and (g 0% WF, 50% WCF and 50% CF. Cookies were subjected to physical analysis (cookie diameter, cookie thickness, spread ratio, bulk volume, bulk density, breaking strength, and color analysis and evaluated for consumer acceptance by descriptive sensory analysis. Cookies prepared from water chestnut and cassava flour had low moisture content (5.63%, low fat (24.87%, higher spread ratio (8.148, decreased L, a and b values (dark color, and low breaking strength than control ones. Sensory evaluation established that cookies prepared from 50% WCF and 50% CF were more acceptable than cookies prepared from other formulations.

  8. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, de J.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Ketelaar, T.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phl

  9. Best management practices plan for the Chestnut Ridge-Filled Coal Ash Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP) Project has been established to satisfy Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2. FCAP is on Chestnut Ridge, approximately 0.5 miles south of the Y-12 Plant. A 62-foot high earthen dam across Upper McCoy Branch was constructed in 1955 to create a pond to serve as a settling basin for fly and bottom ashes generated by burning coal at the Y-12 Steam Plant. Ash from the steam was mixed with water to form a slurry and then pumped to the crest of Chestnut Ridge and released through a large pipe to flow across the Sluice Channel area and into the pond. The ash slurry eventually overtopped the dam and flowed along Upper McCoy Branch to Rogers Quarry. The purpose of this document is to provide a site-specific Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan for construction associated with environmental restoration activities at the FCAP Site.

  10. Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report For The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.B.

    1998-02-01

    This report contains the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1997 in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). In July 1997, the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved modifications to several of the permit conditions that address RCRA pow-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and RCIU4 post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin) and Kerr Hollow Quarry. This report has been prepared in accordance with these modified permit requirements. Also included in this report are the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 1997 for the purposes ofi (1) detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste disposal facilities (SWDFS) in accordance with operating permits and applicable regulations, (2) monitoring in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Recove~ Act Records of Decision (now pefiormed under the Integrated Water Quality Program for the Oak Ridge Reservation), and (3) monitoring needed to comply with U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.1.

  11. Phisiological and biochemical characteristics of protein and lipid exchanges of maple and chestnut seeds from different regions of Dnepropetrovsk city technogenic pollution

    OpenAIRE

    I. O. Filonik; L. F. Zamorueva

    2015-01-01

    The indexes of protein and lipid exchanges - the content of proteins, lipase activity, level of lipids and their composition, component composition of free fatty acids in the maple and chestnut seeds from several sites of Dnepropetrovsk technical pollution were investigated. The revealed figures can be used as biomarkers of anthropogenic pollution in industrial region.

  12. Production comparisons of Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch] functional corms grown in hydroponics versus flooded sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch.] corms are used as a canned or raw vegetable worldwide and may have potential use as a functional vegetable for human health uses. The accessions in the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit do not produce very many...

  13. Gene expression profiling during asexual development of the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans reveals a highly dynamic transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judelson, H.S.; Ah-Fong, A.M.V.; Aux, G.; Avrova, A.O.; Bruce, C.; Cakir, C.; Cunha, da L.; Grenville-Briggs, L.; Latijnhouwers, M.; Ligterink, W.; Meijer, H.J.G.; Roberts, S.; Thurber, C.S.; Whisson, S.C.; Birch, P.R.J.; Govers, F.; Kamoun, S.; West, van P.; Windass, J.

    2008-01-01

    Much of the pathogenic success of Phytophthora infestans, the potato and tomato late blight agent, relies on its ability to generate from mycelia large amounts of sporangia, which release zoospores that encyst and form infection structures. To better understand these stages, Affymetrix GeneChips bas

  14. Rainfall thresholds as support for timing fungicide applications in the control of potato late blight in Ecuador and Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Peter; Taipe, Arturo; Perez, Willmer G.;

    2009-01-01

    Accumulated rainfall thresholds were studied in seven field experiments conducted in Ecuador and Peru for their value in timing applications of fungicide to control potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans. Fungicide regimes based on accumulated rainfall thresholds ranging from 10 to 70...

  15. Palisade Russet: A late blight resistant potato cultivar having a low incidence of sugar ends and high specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisade Russet is a medium-late maturing, lightly russeted potato breeding clone notable for its resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) infection of foliage and tuber. Palisade Russet is suitable for processing with low tuber glucose concentrations observed following long-term storage ...

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Japanese Erwinia Strain Ejp617, a Bacterial Shoot Blight Pathogen of Pear ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Duck Hwan; Thapa, Shree Prasad; Choi, Beom-Soon; Kim, Won-Sik; Hur, Jang Hyun; Cho, Jun Mo; Lim, Jong-Sung; Choi, Ik-Young; Lim, Chun Keun

    2010-01-01

    The Japanese Erwinia strain Ejp617 is a plant pathogen that causes bacterial shoot blight of pear in Japan. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain Ejp617 isolated from Nashi pears in Japan to provide further valuable insight among related Erwinia species.

  17. Spatial modelling of rice yield losses in Tanzania due to bacterial leaf blight and leaf blast in a changing climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duku, Confidence; Sparks, Adam H.; Zwart, Sander J.

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the most rapidly growing staple food in Africa and although rice production is steadily increasing, the consumption is still out-pacing the production. In Tanzania, two important diseases in rice production are leaf blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae and bacterial leaf blight caused by Xa

  18. Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani can produce both web blight and root rot symptoms in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Rs) is an important pathogen in the tropics, causing web blight (WB), and a widespread soil-borne root rot (RR) pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. This pathogen is a species complex classified into 14 anastomosis groups (AG). Some AGs have been report...

  19. FIRST REPORT OF BLOSSOM BLIGHT OF STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA X ANANASSA DUCH.) CAUSED BY PSEUDOMONAS MARGINALIS IN CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel blossom blight was detected in commercial plantings of the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) in 2003 in central coastal California. Koch’s postulates were completed and etiology of the pathogen was determined. Physiological and molecular characterization showed that the pathogen was rel...

  20. Effective marker alleles associated with type II resistance of wheat to Fusarium head blight infection in fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular markers associated with known quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for type 2 resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in bi-parental mapping populations usually have more than two alleles in breeding populations. Therefore, understanding the association of each allele with FHB response is parti...

  1. Prevalence, Development, and Significance of Ascochyta Blight Caused by Peyronellaea pinodes in Pisum elatius Populations Growing in Natural Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golani, M; Frenkel, O; Bornstein, M; Shulhani, R; Abbo, S; Shtienberg, D

    2016-08-01

    Wild Pisum populations prevail in Israel in regions with diverse climatic conditions. A comprehensive survey was conducted in the winters of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at two sites in northern Israel, aiming to (i) document the density of Pisum elatius plants in natural ecosystems and elucidate factors related to their initial infection by Ascochyta blight and (ii) determine the factors governing disease development over time on individual plants. The surveyors identified P. elatius plants growing in designated quadrats, inspected each plant visually, and recorded the incidence and severity of its Ascochyta blight symptoms. Ascochyta blight, caused by Peyronellaea pinodes, was ubiquitous in Pisum elatius populations at both survey sites in both seasons. However, the total leaf area exhibiting disease symptoms of individual plants was very low, and stem and pod infections were rarely observed. Based on analyses of the survey data, it was suggested that, in natural ecosystems, the teleomorph stage of Peyronellaea pinodes serves as the main source of the primary and the secondary inoculum of the disease. In addition, it was found that infected leaves dropped off soon after infection, thereby precluding development of stem lesions. The plants continued growing and did not die; thus, they overcame the disease and could be considered "cured". This phenomenon was examined and confirmed in artificially inoculated, potted-plant experiments. It would be worthwhile to exploit the potential of this unique resistance mechanism as a tool for Ascochyta blight management in pea breeding. PMID:27050576

  2. 马铃薯晚疫病的综合防治%Integrate control of potato late blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋伯符

    2001-01-01

    马铃薯晚疫病是马铃薯产区发生最普遍和最严重的真菌性病害,是具有毁灭性的病害,在大流行年份常造成马铃薯的绝产.因此世界各国专家都把马铃薯晚疫病作为马铃薯生产上的第一个最重要的病害.马铃薯晚疫病的防治以选育抗病品种为主,并结合药剂防治措施,以期达到控制马铃薯晚疫病发生的目的.%Potato late blight has been regarded as the most widely and serious fungal disease in potato production areas. It is one of the fatal diseases and often causes no production at all in the epidemic years. Hence specialists from all over the world regard potato late blight as the most serious disease in potato production. The main controlling method of potato late blight is to combine resistant varieties breeding with agricultural measures such as chemical spray etc. in an attempt to achieve the goal of controlling the occurrence and epidemic of potato late blight.

  3. Verification test on an innovated method for the studies on inheritance of resistance to rice sheath blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@We have recently developed a systematic method for the study on the inheritance of resistance to sheath blight. The key of the system is an innovated method of inoculation and investigation along with the employment of the permanent population. This paper reported the procedure of the system and the result of its verification.

  4. Prevalence, Development, and Significance of Ascochyta Blight Caused by Peyronellaea pinodes in Pisum elatius Populations Growing in Natural Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golani, M; Frenkel, O; Bornstein, M; Shulhani, R; Abbo, S; Shtienberg, D

    2016-08-01

    Wild Pisum populations prevail in Israel in regions with diverse climatic conditions. A comprehensive survey was conducted in the winters of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at two sites in northern Israel, aiming to (i) document the density of Pisum elatius plants in natural ecosystems and elucidate factors related to their initial infection by Ascochyta blight and (ii) determine the factors governing disease development over time on individual plants. The surveyors identified P. elatius plants growing in designated quadrats, inspected each plant visually, and recorded the incidence and severity of its Ascochyta blight symptoms. Ascochyta blight, caused by Peyronellaea pinodes, was ubiquitous in Pisum elatius populations at both survey sites in both seasons. However, the total leaf area exhibiting disease symptoms of individual plants was very low, and stem and pod infections were rarely observed. Based on analyses of the survey data, it was suggested that, in natural ecosystems, the teleomorph stage of Peyronellaea pinodes serves as the main source of the primary and the secondary inoculum of the disease. In addition, it was found that infected leaves dropped off soon after infection, thereby precluding development of stem lesions. The plants continued growing and did not die; thus, they overcame the disease and could be considered "cured". This phenomenon was examined and confirmed in artificially inoculated, potted-plant experiments. It would be worthwhile to exploit the potential of this unique resistance mechanism as a tool for Ascochyta blight management in pea breeding.

  5. Bacterial blight (Pseudomonas pisi Sackett) of peas in South Africa, with special reference to frost as a predisposing factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelema, B.H.

    1972-01-01

    In the beginning of the nineteen fifties bacterial blight caused much damage to pea crops in South Africa, particularly to those grown for seed production. A study has been made of the causal organism and the conditioning factors of the disease, special attention being paid to frost as a predisposin

  6. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of alien introgressions with gene Fhb3 for resistance to Fusarium head blight disease of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance was identified in the alien species Leymus racemosus, and wheat-Leymus introgression lines with FHB resistance were reported previously. Detailed molecular cytogenetic analysis of alien introgressions T01, T09, and T14 and the mapping of Fhb3, a new gene for FHB...

  7. Efficiacy of bumble bee disseminated biological control agents for control of Botrytis Blossom blight of Rabbiteye Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis blossom blight caused by Botrytis cinerea may cause severe crop loss in rabbiteye blueberry, necessitating applications of expensive fungicides. Commercial bumble bees, Bombus impatiens, were tested as vectors of the fungicidal biological control agents (BCAs), Prestop® Gliocladium catenula...

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM636, a Strain with Biocontrol Capabilities against Late Blight of Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher K; Novinscak, Amy; Gadkar, Vijay J; Joly, David L; Filion, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Herein provided is the full-genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM636. This strain is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) which produces phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, an antibiotic involved in the biocontrol of numerous plant pathogens, including late blight of potato caused by the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans. PMID:27231373

  9. Competitive Interaction Between Phytophthora Infestans Effectors Leads to Increased Aggressiveness on Plants Containing Broad-spectrum Late Blight Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The resistance (R) gene RB confers broad-spectrum resistance to potato late blight and belongs. The RB protein recognizes the presence of members of the Phytophthora infestans effector family IPI-O to elicit resistance. Most isolates of the pathogen contain IPI-O variants that are recognized by R...

  10. First report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae causing inflorescence blight and fruit rot of longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longan is a tropical fruit tree in the Sapindaceae family. During a disease survey from 2008 to 2010, fruit rot and inflorescence blight (rotting of the rachis, rachilla and flowers) were observed at the USDA-ARS Research Farm in Isabela, Puerto Rico. Tissue sections (1 mm2) of diseased inflorescenc...

  11. Genome-wide association mapping of fusarium head blight resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using genotyping by sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide and host resistance displays complex genetic control. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 273 winter wheat breeding lines from the mid-western and eastern regions of the US to identify chromosomal re...

  12. Study on enzymatic browning and blanching methods of chestnut%板栗的酶促褐变特性及灭酶预处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾婷婷; 张立彦; 芮汉明

    2011-01-01

    The activity and thermal stability of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in frozed chestnut were studied. The blanching methods and their effects on candying processing of chestnut were also investigated. Results showed that the thermal stability of PPO was higher than POD,the optimum temperature and pH of PPQ were 20℃,6.5 respectively, When the relative activity of PPO was decreased to less than 8%,the enzymes causing browning in chestnut were estimated to be inactivated enough, Compared with the way of hot water and steam blanching, enzymatic browning in chestnut was inhibited efficiently by microwave blanching ,and the sugar impregnation into chestnut was enhanced too in the processing of low-sugar candied chestnut, The optimal treatment of microwave blanching was that chestnut was heated at 4W/g power indensity for 6min.%对冻藏板栗中多酚氧化酶(PPO)的活力及热稳定性进行了比较,研究低糖板栗果脯灭酶顸处理及其对后续渗糖过程的影响。结果表明:板栗中影响褐变的酶主要有PPO和POD,其中PPO较POD热稳定性略高。冻藏后的板栗中PPO最适温度及pH分别为20℃和6.5。板栗加工中应以板栗PPO活力降至8%以下作为是否灭酶充分的标准。通过与热水烫漂灭酶、蒸汽灭酶比较发现,微波热烫处理可抑制低糖板粟果脯加工过程中的褐变,并有助于提高渗糖效率。微波炎酶的最佳条件是:功率密度4W/g,处理6min。

  13. Genetic transformation of European chestnut somatic embryos with a native thaumatin-like protein (CsTL1) gene isolated from Castanea sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Allona, Isabel; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    The availability of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) would offer an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. For the first time, a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1), isolated from chestnut cotyledons, has been overexpressed in three chestnut somatic embryogenic lines. Transformation experiments have been performed using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens Smith and Townsend vector harboring the neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) selectable and the green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter genes. The transformation efficiency, determined on the basis of the fluorescence of surviving explants, was clearly genotype dependent and ranged from 32.5% in the CI-9 line to 7.1% in the CI-3 line. A total of 126 independent transformed lines were obtained. The presence and integration of chestnut CsTL1 in genomic DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CsTL1 expression was up to 13.5-fold higher in a transgenic line compared with its corresponding untransformed line. In only one of the 11 transformed lines tested, expression of the CsTL1 was lower than the control. The remaining 115 transformed lines were successfully subjected to cryopreservation. Embryo proliferation was achieved in all of the transgenic lines regenerated and the transformed lines showed a higher mean number of cotyledonary stage embryos and total number of embryos per embryo clump than their corresponding untransformed lines. Transgenic plants were regenerated after maturation and germination of transformed somatic embryos. Furthermore, due to the low plantlet conversion achieved, axillary shoot proliferation cultures were established from partially germinated embryos (only shoot development), which were multiplied and rooted according to procedures already

  14. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p < 0.0001) between disease rating group means. In the majority of the experiments, comparisons of diseased plants with healthy plants using Fisher's LSD revealed more heavily diseased plants were significantly different from healthy plants. PLS analysis demonstrated the feasibility of detecting early blight infected plants, finding four optimal factors for raw spectra with the predictor variation explained ranging from 93.4% to 94.6% and the response variation explained ranging from 42.7% to 64.7%. Cluster analysis successfully distinguished healthy plants from all diseased plants except for the most mildly diseased plants, showing clustering analysis was an effective method for detection of early blight. Analysis of the reflectance spectra using the simple ratio (SR) and the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) was effective at differentiating all diseased plants from healthy plants, except for the

  15. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan;

    2011-01-01

    of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles....... Conclusions: Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production...... hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...

  16. Contributions to the study of Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga PALL

    1966-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper communicates the results of the laboratory experiments concerning the behaviour of the Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus that produces the clover brown leaf spot, in different culture mediums. The mycelium of the fungus develops at its best on the peptone-glucose-agar medium. The appearance of pycnides of Sporonema phacidioides Desm. type in vitro, has been reported for the fourth time in Romania especially developing on the potatoe-dextrosis-agar and plum-agar mediums.

  17. Solubilization of lignin by the ruminal anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum.

    OpenAIRE

    McSweeney, C S; Dulieu, A; Katayama, Y; Lowry, J B

    1994-01-01

    The ability of the ruminal anaerobic phycomycete Neocallimastix patriciarum to digest model lignin compounds and lignified structures in plant material was studied in batch culture. The fungus did not degrade or transform model lignin compounds that were representative of the predominant intermonomer linkages in lignin, nor did it solubilize acid detergent lignin that had been isolated from spear grass. In a stem fraction of sorghum, 33.6% of lignin was apparently solubilized by the fungus. S...

  18. Solubilization of diabase and phonolite dust by filamentous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andréia Vrba Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fungus Aspergillus niger strain CCT4355 in the release of nutrients contained in two types of rock powder (diabase and phonolite by means of in vitro solubilization trials. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial design with three replications. It was evaluated five treatments (phonolite dust + culture medium; phonolite dust + fungus + culture medium; diabase powder + culture medium; diabase powder + fungus + culture medium and fungus + culture medium and four sampling dates (0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Rock dust (0.4% w/v was added to 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL of liquid culture medium adapted to A. niger. The flasks were incubated at 30°C for 30 days, and analysis of pH (in water, titratable acidity, and concentrations of soluble potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese were made. The fungus A. niger was able to produce organic acids that solubilized ions. This result indicates its potential to alter minerals contained in rock dust, with the ability to interact in different ways with the nutrients. A significant increase in the amount of K was found in the treatment with phonolite dust in the presence of the fungus. The strain CCT4355 of A. niger can solubilize minerals contained in these rocks dust.

  19. Assessment of the Empirical Management Method of Coppice Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. Forests Practiced by the Monks and its Effect on the Availability of Forest Soil Resources in Mount Athos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios PAPAIOANNOU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, chestnut forests (Castanea sativa Mill. occupy more than 30,000 ha of forest land. The species is one of the most significant of the Balkans. It is mainly cultivated for its high quality wood. Concerning cultivation and harvesting, the monks in Mount Athos peninsula in northern Greece practice a special empirical management method for local coppice chestnut forests. Data collected from 9 sampling surfaces, comprising of coppice chestnut stands of three different ages (10, 20 and 40 years old, were analyzed to study the effect of this particular empirical management method on specific soil parameters. Results indicated that, there is a general trend for increased organic matter and nutrient concentrations in the soil of 10 and 40 years old chestnut stands in comparison to those of 20 years of age. Cultivation treatments cause intense alterations on soil properties, leading to severe degradation of nutrient resources.

  20. Use of Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) as a model system for Trichoderma biocontrol of Pythium blight identifies new targets for genetic strain improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seidl V; Schmoll M; Scherm B; Balmas V; Seiboth B; Migheli Q; Kubicek C P

    2004-01-01

    @@ Biocontrol by Trichoderma has been studied mainly with selected isolates of T. harzianum, T.atroviride and T. asperellum, which are members of sections Pachybasium and Trichoderma. In contrast, species from section Longibrachiatum have only rarely been studied. On the other hand, one taxon from this section-Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph: Trichoderma reesei)-has been widely used for the production of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes and recombinant proteins. As far as Trichoderma is concerned, molecular genetic methods and tools are most advanced in H. jecorina,and its genome has recently been fully sequenced, thus making this taxon a model organism for the genus. Here we will demonstrate that H. jecorina is able to antagonize plant pathogenic fungi in plate confrontation tests, and can protect tomato and cucumber plants against Pythium ultimum blight.Using this as a model case, we made use of available H. jecorina mutants to investigate (a) whether carbon catabolite repression via the Cre1-regulator protein has an impact on biocontrol, and (b)whether cellulase gene expression is necessary for biocontrol of P. ultimum. In the first case, plate confrontation tests and in planta experiments yielded opposite results, i.e. while a Cre1 mutant was more active in antagonization of fungi on plates, the survival rates of P. ultimum-inoculated cucumber plants was lower than with the H. jecorina wild-type strain. Mutants of H. jecorina,unable to form cellulases, were still able to antagonize fungi on plates and provided similar protection of tomatos against P. ultimum as the wild type, indicating that the pronounced biocontrol ability of H.jecorina against fungi with cellulose-containing cell-walls is not due to its high cellulolytic activity. A strain disrupted in the light-modulator gene envoy (Schmoll et al., ms submitted) exhibited in planta biocontrol activity strongly exceeding that of the wild-type strain, thereby providing a first link between Trichoderma

  1. Resistance to Bacterial Leaf Blight in a Somaclonal Rice Mutant HX-3 at Cellular Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Dong-ying; ZHOU Yi-hong; HUANG Xue-qing; SUN Li-hua; LIU Ai-min

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between rice host and its pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) at cellular level was studied by using a resistant somaclonal mutant HX-3 and its susceptable donor Minghui 63. After inoculation with Xoo strain Zhe 173 (Chinese pathotype Ⅳ), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the callus of Minghui 63 was increased dramatically, and the active oxygen(O2 - .) was produced at a higher rate; Meanwhile, the callus grew slowly with the reduction of protein content. Compared to the activity of SOD and POD, the production rate of O2-. and the fresh weight in HX-3 callus varied little after the inoculation. It could be proposed that there were great differences between the resistance of HX-3 and Mighui 63 at cellular level. There was no difference detected concerning resistance to bacterial leaf blight in HX-3 between the plant and the callus.

  2. Antifungal activity of Syzygium cumini against Ascochyta rabiei-the cause of chickpea blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Khajista; Javaid, Arshad

    2010-07-01

    Aqueous, ethanol and n-hexane extracts from leaves, fruit, root-bark and stem-bark of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels were tested for their antifungal activity against Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., the cause of blight disease of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Different concentrations, namely 1, 2, ..., 5% of both aqueous and the two organic solvent extracts were used in this study. Aqueous extracts of all the four test plant parts, namely leaves, fruit, stem-bark and root-bark, showed significant antifungal activity resulting in 7-30%, 22-59%, 23-39% and 21-64% reduction in fungal growth, respectively. Similarly, n-hexane stem-bark extract, and ethanol root- and stem-bark extracts also significantly suppressed the growth of target fungal species, resulting in 17-39%, 24-30% and 12-32% suppression in fungal growth. PMID:19588279

  3. Non-conventional possibilities of protection of apple and pear against fire blight (Erwinia amylovora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Sobiczewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard program of plant protection against fire blight consists of use of management practices and chemical control method. Recently a new, non-conventional possibilities based on application of biocontrol agents (two biopreparations have been already introduced into practice: Bliteban A506 (Pseudomonas fluorescens and BlossomBless (Pantoea agglomerans, plant extracts active against Erwinia amylovora (AkseBio containing extracts from Thymbra spicata and Biomit Plussz with extracts from various plant species and microelements and resistance inducers (Regalis, Bion and plant extracts are of great interest. Also plant transformation with resistance genes such as: hrpN (harpin, dpo (EPS depolymerase and lytic protein genes (attacin E, cecropin SB-37, T4 lysozyme is a promising perspective.

  4. Gene expression analysis during cassava defense response to bacterial blight disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto-Suárez Mauricio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava bacterial blight (CBB caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam is a destructive disease in the South América and África and yield losses range between 12 and 100%. Cytochemistry and biochemistry of defense response to CBB have been well studied. However, the response of the plant to pathogen attack at the molecular and cellular level remains uncharacterized. Identification of genes associated with defense responses is one of most critical steps leading to the elucidation of disease resistance mechanisms in cassava. In this study, we identified differentially expressed genes during pathogen attack by subtractive hybridization, using the Differential Subtraction Chain method (DSC. A population of cDNA obtained from infected plants was used as ";treatment"; and a population of cDNA obtained from healthy plants was used as ";control";. 1536 clones were isolated from the resistant varieties (MBRA 685 and SG 107-35. Of these, 110 randomly selected clones were sequenced and a homology search was conducted. The sequence analysis showed that 14 cDNA clones shared homology with plant genes involved in defense responses, 70 clones were either homologous to plant genes of unknown function or showed no homology, representing new genes potentially involved in cassava defense responses. A cDNA microarray was constructed by spotting the clones identified from our subtractive libraries. Other clones potentially involved in cassava defense responses were also included. The cassava defense cDNA microarray was used to confirm the differential expression of the clones. Keywords: cassava, bacterial blight, gene expression, subtractive library, microarrays.

  5. ROLE OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL FACTORS AGAINST EARLY BLIGHT OF POTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Idrees

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and biochemical factors play a significant role in early blight disease development in potatoes. For this 29 test cultivars/ lines, were screened, 15 lines including Cardinal and Desiree were found to be very highly susceptible. Eight lines including Diament FSD-White, and TPS-9813 showed highly susceptible response. Two lines i.e. 9802 and 396266-33 were susceptible. Only one variety /advanced line FD-1-8 was found to be resistant. None of the 29 advanced lines was found to be highly resistant while two lines such as FD-3-9 and FD-48-41 were shown moderately resistant response. At varietal level, among 29 test varieties/ advanced lines, all the varieties showed highly significant correlation with minimum temperature and negative correlation with maximum temperature. 18 varieties/advanced lines have significant correlation with pan evaporation. Whereas all the 29 varieties/ advanced lines did not show any correlation with relative humidity and wind speed. Five varieties/ advanced lines namely Cardinal, 396240-181, 9803, FD-1-9 and 9801 were selected to study the relationship of environmental conditions with disease severity. Maximum disease severity was recorded at 17-200C maximum temperature, 6-9oC of minimum air temperature and 1.9-2.4 mm pan evaporation. Relative humidity and wind speed almost had no significant effect on disease severity. On varietal level early blight disease severity had significant correlation with phenolic production both in leaves and tubers. Among 29 varieties, 20 varieties had significant correlation with phenolic production while 9 had no correlation in case of leaves while in case of tubers 19 varieties/ lines showed significant correlation & 10 lines did not show any correlation with phenolics production. 

  6. Evaluation of Susceptibility of Different Pear Hybrid Populations to Fire Blight (Erwinia amylovora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin EVRENOSOĞLU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight disease caused by pathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is the serious disease of pear, and there is not a certain chemical management against this disease except antibiotic-type compounds such as streptomycin. It is very important to improve new fire blight resistant cultivars in case of integrated disease management. With this purpose, different crosses have been made between Pyrus communis varieties that have good fruit characteristics and resistant cultigens. Besides, self and open pollination treatments have been carried out in maternal plants. The disease resistance level of the hybrids obtained from these combinations was determined by artificial inoculations by Erwinia amylovora in greenhouse conditions. A total of 3284 hybrids were inoculated, and 2631 of them survived and were distributed to different susceptibility classes. 19.88% of the inoculated hybrids was killed by Erwinia amylovora. Total distribution of the hybrids to susceptibility classes was as 6.18% in class “A- slightly susceptible”, 3.11% in class “B- less susceptible”, 8.89% in class “C- mid-susceptible”, 20.28% in class “D- susceptible”, and 61.54% in class “E- very susceptible”. Majority of class “A- slightly susceptible” hybrids were obtained from ‘Magness’ x ‘Ankara’ combination. ‘Kieffer’ x ‘Santa Maria’, ‘Kieffer’ open pollination, ‘Magness’ x ‘Akça’, ‘Magness’ x ‘Kieffer’, ‘Magness’ x ‘Santa Maria’, ‘Mustafa Bey’ x ‘Moonglow’ treatments displayed good results with respect to “A- slightly susceptible” character. It is very important to evaluate these hybrid pear populations through different fruit and tree characteristics in the future.

  7. The content of available mineral phosphorus compounds in chestnut soils of Northern Mongolia upon application of different forms of phosphorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubugunov, L. L.; Enkhtuyaa, B.; Merkusheva, M. G.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of different forms of phosphorite (activated and crude ground) of the Burenkhansk deposit on the phosphate status of chestnut soils and the productivity of spring wheat was studied in Northern Mongolia. It was found that the transformation of mineral soil phosphates upon the application of activated phosphorite (together with NK) is similar to that upon superphosphate application, and the available phosphorus concentration is even a gradation higher. The application of crude ground phosphorite helped to preserve the content of mineral phosphates in the soil at the initial level. Optimum concentrations of available phosphorus and the sum of loosely bound and calcium phosphates in the plow horizon were estimated 33-35 mg/kg) and 16-18 mg/100 g, respectively. Under these concentrations, high and sustainable yields of spring wheat were obtained upon application of activated phosphorite.

  8. In vitro permeation studies of phenolics from horse chestnut seed gels prepared with different polyacrylic acid polymer derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelbienė Eglė

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of polyacrylic acid polymers (Ultrez 10, Ultrez 20, Carbopol 980, and Carbopol 940 on the viscosity and the in vitro permeation of phenolic compounds from the gel prepared from natural horse chestnut seed extract. Experiments were performed in the presence and in the absence of peppermint oil (Mentha piperita. Our results showed that peppermint oil decreased the viscosity of the gels and permeation of phenolic compounds from all gel samples. Results show that the highest content of phenolic compounds (1.758 μg cm-2 permeated in vitro from gel based on Carbopol Ultrez 20 without peppermint oil added (p < 0.05 vs. other tested polymers.

  9. Chestnut and lemon balm based ingredients as natural preserving agents of the nutritional profile in matured "Serra da Estrela" cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-08-01

    Chestnut flowers, lemon balm plants and their decoctions were incorporated into "Serra da Estrela" cheese, to assess their potential to preserve its nutritional properties and provide new foodstuffs. The analyses were carried out after the normal ripening period of 1month and after 6months of storage. The most abundant nutrients were proteins and fats. The most abundant minerals were Ca and Na, while C16:0 and C18:1 were the main fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids were the most abundant, followed by the monounsaturated. Moisture seemed to be lower in the samples with the plants incorporated. The dried plants, when incorporated, seemed to be more efficient as preservers then the decoctions, although these better preserved the proteins. These plants can be regarded as promising natural preservers in foodstuffs cheese, given the preservation of key parameters and the slight impact on the nutritional value. PMID:26988492

  10. Ecological Meaning and Consideration of Economic Forest Carbon Sinks in China----Take Yan-Shan Chestnut for Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Li, H.; Zhang, W. W.; Liu, S. R.

    Along with our country scientific researchers' study on native forest carbon sinks as well as the summary of the increasing amount of China's forest carbon, With the deepening of our scientists on the study of the national forest carbon sinks, forest carbon sinks has become a favorable support for climate diplomacy. Currently, a lot of work has focused on the carbon cycle, the level of carbon sinks of forest ecosystems, but the characteristics of economic forest carbon sinks are in a blank state. Beijing chestnut is one of the national food strategic security stockpiles, and estimate the potential of economic forest carbon sinks has important scientific significance to the establishment of carbon sink function area, and expansion of sustainable economic and social development of response measures.

  11. Rupture and Modulus of Elasticity of Heat Treated Anatolian Chestnut (Castanea Sativa Wood by Fuzzy Logic Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Yapıcı

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, test samples prepared from Anatolian chestnut (Castanea sativa wood were first exposed to heat treatment at 130, 145, 160, 175, 190 and 205 ºC for 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours. Then the values of the samples of the modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE were determined and evaluated by multiple variance analysis. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of heat treatment on the MOR and MOE values of wood samples by using fuzzy logic classifier. Secondly, input and output values and rule base of the fuzzy logic classifier model were built by using the results obtained from the experiment. The developed fuzzy classifier model could predict the MOR and MOE values of test samples at the accuracy levels of 92.64 % and 90.35 %, respectively. The model could be especially employed in manufacturing stages of timber industry.

  12. Proximate analysis and physico-chemical properties of flour from the seeds of the China chestnut, Sterculia monosperma Ventenat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noitang, S; Sooksai, S A; Foophow, T; Petsom, A

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional composition of China chestnut seeds, Sterculia monosperma Vent. and analyze the physico-chemical properties of flour from the seeds. The results obtained on proximate analysis of China chestnut seeds, S. monosperma, revealed that they contained mostly carbohydrate (73.7% dm), followed by fat (12.0% dm), protein (7.8% dm), fiber (5.5% dm) and ash (1.0% dm). They have a relatively high content of potassium (12.3 mg g(-1) dm) following by phosphorus (2.30 mg g(-1) dm), magnesium (1.87 mg g(-1) dm), sulfur (0.88 mg g(-1) dm) and calcium (0.14 mg g(-1) dm). The fatty acids profile was found to be composed of mainly palmitic (42%) and oleic acids (34%), with general long-chain fatty acids the other significant component by mass (13%). Glutamic acid (17.4%), aspartic acid (12.5%) and arginine (12.5%) were the three major amino acid constituents. The purified seed starch was investigated for its morphological, starch content and physico-chemical properties, such as amylose content, swelling power, solubility and pasting properties. The starch granules were quite round, about 10-15 micron diameter and composed of more than 35% (w/w) of amylose. The pasting properties of flour from the seeds of S. monosperma revealed that gelatinization began at 72.6-73.2 degrees C and the maximum viscosity in the holding period at 95 degrees C was 633 BU. Interestingly and potentially of use, was that the viscosity at the cooling period was more than two-fold higher than that in the holding period.

  13. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasure, Linda L [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  14. Enhanced Tomato Disease Resistance Primed by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan eSong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Roots of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic associations (mycorrhiza with soil- borne arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. Many studies show that mycorrhizal colonization enhances plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. However, the mechanism of mycorrhiza-induced disease resistance remains equivocal. In this study, we found that mycorrhizal inoculation with AMF Funneliformis mosseae significantly alleviated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill. early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer. AMF pre-inoculation led to significant increases in activities of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and lipoxygenase (LOX in tomato leaves upon pathogen inoculation. Mycorrhizal inoculation alone did not influence the transcripts of most genes tested. However, pathogen attack on AMF-inoculated plants provoked strong defense responses of three genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR proteins, PR1, PR2 and PR3, as well as defense-related genes LOX, AOC and PAL, in tomato leaves. The induction of defense responses in AMF pre-inoculated plants was much higher and more rapid than that in un-inoculated plants in present of pathogen infection. Three tomato genotypes: a Castlemart wild-type (WT plant, a jasmonate (JA biosynthesis mutant (spr2, and a prosystemin-overexpressing 35S::PS plant were used to examine the role of the JA signaling pathway in AMF-primed disease defense. Pathogen infection on mycorrhizal 35S::PS plants led to higher induction of defense-related genes and enzymes relative to WT plants. However, pathogen infection did not induce these genes and enzymes in mycorrhizal spr2 mutant plants. Bioassays showed that 35S::PS plants were more resistant and spr2 plants were more susceptible to early blight compared with WT plants. Our finding indicates that mycorrhizal colonization enhances tomato resistance to early blight by priming systemic defense response, and the JA signaling pathway is essential for

  15. Enhanced tomato disease resistance primed by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuanyuan; Chen, Dongmei; Lu, Kai; Sun, Zhongxiang; Zeng, Rensen

    2015-01-01

    Roots of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic associations (mycorrhiza) with soil- borne arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Many studies show that mycorrhizal colonization enhances plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. However, the mechanism of mycorrhiza-induced disease resistance remains equivocal. In this study, we found that mycorrhizal inoculation with AMF Funneliformis mosseae significantly alleviated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer. AMF pre-inoculation led to significant increases in activities of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in tomato leaves upon pathogen inoculation. Mycorrhizal inoculation alone did not influence the transcripts of most genes tested. However, pathogen attack on AMF-inoculated plants provoked strong defense responses of three genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins, PR1, PR2, and PR3, as well as defense-related genes LOX, AOC, and PAL, in tomato leaves. The induction of defense responses in AMF pre-inoculated plants was much higher and more rapid than that in un-inoculated plants in present of pathogen infection. Three tomato genotypes: a Castlemart wild-type (WT) plant, a jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis mutant (spr2), and a prosystemin-overexpressing 35S::PS plant were used to examine the role of the JA signaling pathway in AMF-primed disease defense. Pathogen infection on mycorrhizal 35S::PS plants led to higher induction of defense-related genes and enzymes relative to WT plants. However, pathogen infection did not induce these genes and enzymes in mycorrhizal spr2 mutant plants. Bioassays showed that 35S::PS plants were more resistant and spr2 plants were more susceptible to early blight compared with WT plants. Our finding indicates that mycorrhizal colonization enhances tomato resistance to early blight by priming systemic defense response, and the JA signaling pathway is essential for mycorrhiza

  16. 桃枝枯病的症状及其病原鉴定%Identification of the pathogen of peach branch blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方丽; 熊彩珍; 顾立明; 景筱荣; 金建芳; 王汉荣

    2013-01-01

    Peach branch blight, a serious new fungal disease, burst out in Fengqiao town, Jiaxing city and Zhangqi town, Cixi city in Zhejiang in recent years. The symptom firstly appeared on the base of shoot twig with tan to black pit scab causing the leaves above withering sharply. The disease cause death of branch even the whole peach tree, and reduced seed setting rate about 20% - 50% per year. To understand and control the disease, Koch's postulate was used and a species of fungus was found to be the pathogenic agent. The fungus yielded white to light olivesheen colony on potato saccharose agar (PSA) medium with short tiny cotton-shaped hypha, and produced black spherical pycnidium with ostiole. There were two kinds of condium generated by pathogen,α-type, fusiform, hyaline, unicellular, (5. 2-8. 7)μm × (1. 3-2. 7) μm;P-type, linear, hyaline, unicellular, 1 -3 oil globule, ( 11.5-26.2)μm × (0. 9 -2. 1) μm. The ribosomal ITS 1-5. 8S-ITS2 region was PCR amplified from genomic DNA from mycelium and obtained a sequence of 611 bp. A blast search from the GenBank revealed highest similarity (100% ) to Pho- mopsis amygdali sequences in Europe. The pathogen was identified as Phomopsis amygdali Delacr. J. J. Tuset & M.T. Portilla (Fusicoccum amygdali Delacr. ) associated with culture characters.%近年来,在浙江省重要的水蜜桃产区嘉兴凤桥镇、慈溪掌起镇等地发生了一种新的桃树病害——桃枝枯病.该病害引起桃树新梢嫩枝的基部位置出现环状棕褐色至黑褐色病斑,致使枝条病部以上叶片快速枯萎脱落,病害蔓延扩展迅速,可造成老枝的大量枯死,造成约20%~ 50%的产量损失,严重的致使桃树整株死亡.按柯赫氏法则对桃树病枝进行分离、纯化和致病性试验,明确桃枝枯病的病原为一种真菌,该真菌在PSA培养基上生长旺盛,菌丝为白色至淡橄榄色、短、微絮状,产生黑色球形分生孢子器,有孔口,产生两型分生孢子,α型分生

  17. Transfer of bacterial blight resistance from Oryza meyeriana to O.Sativa L.by asymmetric somatic hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yongsheng; CHEN Baotang; YU Shunwu; ZHANG Duanpin; ZHANG Xueqin; YAN Qiusheng

    2004-01-01

    Asymmetric somatic hybrid plants were produced between cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wild species [O. Meyeriana (Zoll. etMor, exSteud.)] with high resistance to rice bacterial blight. X-ray-irradiated protoplasts of the wild species were used as donor and chemically fused with iodoacetamide-inactivated protoplasts of rice cv. 02428to produce hybrids. Seventy-two plants were regenerated from 623 calli based on metabolic complementation. The morphological characters of the plants closely resembled that of the rice. Simple sequence repeats were employed to identify their hybridity. Cytological analysis of root-tips revealed that their chromosome number varied in the range of 27-38. The somatic hybrids were inoculated with strains of Xanthamonas oryzae pv. Oryzae at adult growth stage and demonstrated the resistance to bacterial blight introgression from the O. Meyeriana.

  18. Control technique of sphaeropsis shoot blight in Pinus teada%火炬松枯梢病防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈友爱

    2001-01-01

    Sphaeropsis shoot blight in Pinus teada is a serious disease in south of China.The control experiments of cutting blight shoots,applying fertilizer and spraying fungicide were made ,The result shows that the above measures combined with spraying 50% Carbendazim wp could reach an efficacy of 88.6%.%火炬松枯梢病Sphaeropsis sapinea是为害火炬松Pinus taeda的毁灭性病害。该文通过剪枯梢、施肥和喷药相结合进行防治试验,结果表明:以剪枯梢为主,结合施肥或喷50%多菌灵的防治措施效果较好,防治率88.6%。

  19. Production of bacterial blight resistant lines from somatic hybridization between Oryza sativa L. and Oryza meyeriana L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严成其; 钱凯先; 薛刚平; 吴忠长; 陈跃磊; 颜秋生; 张雪琴; 吴平

    2004-01-01

    Novel bacterial blight (BB) resistance gene(s) for rice was (were) introduced into a cultivated japonica rice variety Oryza sativa (cv. 8411), via somatic hybridization using the wild rice Oryza meyeriana as the donor of the resistance gene(s). Twenty-nine progenies of somatically hybridized plants were obtained. Seven somatically hybridized plants and their parents were used for AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) analysis using 8 primer pairs. Results confirmed that these plants were somatic hybrids containing the characteristic bands of both parents. The morphology of the regenerated rice showed characters of both O.sativa and O.meyeriana. Two somatic hybrids showed highest BB resistance and the other 8 plants showed moderate resistance. The new germplasms with highest resistance have been used in the rice breeding program for the improvement of bacterial blight resistance.

  20. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p potato plants.

  1. Production of bacterial blight resistant lines from somatic hybridization between Oryza sativa L.and Oryza meyeriana L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严成其; 钱凯先; 薛刚平; 吴忠长; 陈跃磊; 颜秋生; 张雪琴; 吴平

    2004-01-01

    Novel bacterial blight (BB) resistance gene(s) for rice was (were) introduced into a cultivated japonica rice variety Oryza sativa (cv. 8411), via somatic hybridization using the wild rice Oryza meyeriana as the donor of the resistance gene(s). Twenty-nine progenies of somatically hybridized plants were obtained. Seven somatically hybridized plants and their parents were used for AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) analysis using 8 primer pairs. Results confirmed that these plants were somatic hybrids containing the characteristic bands of both parents. The morphology of the regenerated rice showed characters of both O. sativa and O. meyeriana. Two somatic hybrids showed highest BB resistance and the other 8 plants showed moderate resistance. The new germplasms with highest resistance have been used in the rice bfeeding program for the improvement of bacterial blight resistance.

  2. Genetic differences between blight-causing Erwinia species with differing host specificities, identified by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Lindsay R; Zhao, Youfu; Sundin, George W

    2006-11-01

    PCR-based subtractive hybridization was used to isolate sequences from Erwinia amylovora strain Ea110, which is pathogenic on apples and pears, that were not present in three closely related strains with differing host specificities: E. amylovora MR1, which is pathogenic only on Rubus spp.; Erwinia pyrifoliae Ep1/96, the causal agent of shoot blight of Asian pears; and Erwinia sp. strain Ejp556, the causal agent of bacterial shoot blight of pear in Japan. In total, six subtractive libraries were constructed and analyzed. Recovered sequences included type III secretion components, hypothetical membrane proteins, and ATP-binding proteins. In addition, we identified an Ea110-specific sequence with homology to a type III secretion apparatus component of the insect endosymbiont Sodalis glossinidius, as well as an Ep1/96-specific sequence with homology to the Yersinia pestis effector protein tyrosine phosphatase YopH.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of root response to citrus blight based on the newly assembled Swingle citrumelo draft genome

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yunzeng; Barthe, Gary; Grosser, Jude W.; Wang, Nian

    2016-01-01

    Background Citrus blight is a citrus tree overall decline disease and causes serious losses in the citrus industry worldwide. Although it was described more than one hundred years ago, its causal agent remains unknown and its pathophysiology is not well determined, which hampers our understanding of the disease and design of suitable disease management. Results In this study, we sequenced and assembled the draft genome for Swingle citrumelo, one important citrus rootstock. The draft genome is...

  4. Gamma radiation-induced mutant of NSIC RC144 with broad-spectrum resistance to bacterial blight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutant lines derived from gamma radiation-treated commercial variety NSIC RC144 were produced and screened for novel resistance to bacterial blight, one of the most serious diseases of rice. Preliminary screening of a bulk M2 population through induced method using race 3 of the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) resulted in the selection of 89 resistant plants. Subsequent repeated bacterial blight screenings and generation advance for five seasons resulted in the selection of two highly resistant M7 sister lines whose origin can be traced to a single M2 plant. DNA fingerprinting using 63 genome-wide simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers revealed an identical pattern in these lines. Using the same set of markers, they also exhibited 98% similarity to wild type NSIC RC144 indicating that the resistance is due to mutation and not due to genetic admixture or seed impurity. Two seasons of bacterial blight screening using 14 local isolates representing ten races of Xoo revealed an identical reaction pattern in these lines. The reaction pattern was observed to be unique compared to known patterns in four IRBB isolines (IRBB 4, 5, 7 and 21) with strong resistant reaction to bacterial blight suggesting possible novel resistance. The susceptible reaction in F1 testcrosses using Xoo race 6 and the segregation patterns in two F2 populations that fit with the expected 3 susceptible: 1 resistant ratio (P = 0.4, ns) suggest a single-gene recessive mutation in these lines. These mutants are now being used as resistance donor in the breeding program while further molecular characterization to map and characterize the mutated gene is being pursued

  5. EVALUATION OF DISEASE RESISTANCE POTENTIAL OF SEVEN POTATO GENOTYPES AGAINST EARLY BLIGHT CAUSED BY Alternaria tenuissima UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Mirkarimi; Ahmad Abasi Moghadam; Javad Mozafari

    2013-01-01

    Early blight of potato was caused by various species of genus Alternaria, the disease has a prominent role in reducing crop yields in most of the countries, especially in Iran. Various studies has been conducted for the finding out the information regarding the diversity of pathogen and estimation of damage caused by genus Alternaria tenuissima in Iran, but the information regarding the resistance against this fungal pathogen in various genotype of potatoes are in scarcity. Seven isolat...

  6. Controlling Botrytis elliptica Leaf Blight on Hybrid Lilies through the Application of Convergent Chemical X-ray Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jun Hong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available X-ray irradiation with convergent chemicals such as nano-silver particles or sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC has been used to control leaf blight on cut lilies. The oriental hybrid lily cultivars Siberia, Le Reve, and Sorbonne were irradiated five times by 200 Gy of X-rays in 2014. In 2015, Siberia and Sorbonne were irradiated three times by 150 Gy of X-rays. After artificial infection with Botrytis elliptica on the leaves and petals of cut lilies, this study used convergent chemical X-ray irradiation of 200 Gy or 150 Gy. Leaf and petal blight was measured in terms of incidence and severity at 8 days after infection using total 552 cuttings. Results indicate that the treatments of X-ray irradiation and NaDCC in 2014 and 2015 slightly decreased the severity of petal blight on Siberia and Sorbonne. However, the results were not significant and severity did not decrease as NaDCC concentration increased. Vase-life was observed separately after X-ray irradiation of 270 cut lilies in 2014 and 108 cut lilies in 2015. Chlorophyll content was not affected by either 200 Gy or 150 Gy of X-rays. The number of days of fully opened flowers at Siberia of 150 Gy and Le Revu of 200 Gy increased by 1–2 days. In addition, the relative fresh weights of the X-rayed flowers were 10% drier than the non-irradiated controls. Overall, leaf blight control by X-ray was inferior to the control by gamma rays, and petal color was bleached in Sorbonne and Le Reve cvs. by 150 Gy of X-rays.

  7. Incidence and etiology of maize seedling blight and control of soil borne pathogens using seed treatments / Johnny Viviers

    OpenAIRE

    Viviers, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    Seedling blight of maize has significantly influenced field crop stands and seedling vigour over various localities and seasons. The extent of the problem is influenced by a number of factors which includes soil temperature (generally below 13 °C), waterlogged soils, inadequate fertilization, herbicide damage and fungal pathogens. The fungi generally causing seedling damping off are often involved in a complex and succession over time varying in importance depending on the field circumstances...

  8. Controlling Botrytis elliptica Leaf Blight on Hybrid Lilies through the Application of Convergent Chemical X-ray Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Jun; Koo, Tae-Hoon; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2016-04-01

    X-ray irradiation with convergent chemicals such as nano-silver particles or sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) has been used to control leaf blight on cut lilies. The oriental hybrid lily cultivars Siberia, Le Reve, and Sorbonne were irradiated five times by 200 Gy of X-rays in 2014. In 2015, Siberia and Sorbonne were irradiated three times by 150 Gy of X-rays. After artificial infection with Botrytis elliptica on the leaves and petals of cut lilies, this study used convergent chemical X-ray irradiation of 200 Gy or 150 Gy. Leaf and petal blight was measured in terms of incidence and severity at 8 days after infection using total 552 cuttings. Results indicate that the treatments of X-ray irradiation and NaDCC in 2014 and 2015 slightly decreased the severity of petal blight on Siberia and Sorbonne. However, the results were not significant and severity did not decrease as NaDCC concentration increased. Vase-life was observed separately after X-ray irradiation of 270 cut lilies in 2014 and 108 cut lilies in 2015. Chlorophyll content was not affected by either 200 Gy or 150 Gy of X-rays. The number of days of fully opened flowers at Siberia of 150 Gy and Le Revu of 200 Gy increased by 1-2 days. In addition, the relative fresh weights of the X-rayed flowers were 10% drier than the non-irradiated controls. Overall, leaf blight control by X-ray was inferior to the control by gamma rays, and petal color was bleached in Sorbonne and Le Reve cvs. by 150 Gy of X-rays. PMID:27147927

  9. Cloning of a peroxidase gene from cassava with potential as a molecular marker for resistance to bacterial blight

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Filipe Pereira; Goodwin, Paul H.; Larry Erickson

    2003-01-01

    Cassava bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis, is considered one of the most important bacterial diseases of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). In order to characterize the cassava genes involved in resistance to this disease, a genomic clone of a cationic peroxidase gene, MEPX1, was isolated by PCR from cassava cultivar MCOL 22. The DNA sequence of MEPX1 showed high homology with other plant peroxidase genes and contained a large intron typical of peroxidase...

  10. Assessment of electron beam-induced DNA damage in larvae of chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hasan, Mahbub; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro; Hayashi, Toru

    2006-02-01

    Effect of electron beam treatment on DNA damage in mature larvae of chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) was assessed using single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet assay). Electrons at acceleration voltages of 0 (control), 300, 750, 1000, and 1500 kV at radiation doses of 1 and 4 kGy were used. Electron beam-treated chestnut larvae showed typical DNA fragmentation, compared with cells from non-treated ones which showed a more intact DNA. Investigations using the comet assay showed that the parameters including tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment as well as the quota of DNA damage at both the doses were significantly larger than the control batch larvae. Thus, this technique could contribute to analytical identification of an effective disinfestation and quarantine treatment.

  11. Extraction of high quality of RNA and construction of a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library from chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Wen, Xiaopeng; Tao, Nengguo; Hu, Zhiyong; Yue, Hailin; Deng, Xiuxin

    2006-04-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a rare fruit crop of promising economical importance in fruit and ornamental exploitation in China. Isolation of high quality RNA from chestnut rose is difficult due to its high levels of polyphenols, polysaccharides and other compounds, but a modified CTAB extraction procedure without phenol gave satisfactory results. High concentrations of PVP (2%, w/v), CTAB (2%, w/v) and beta-mercaptoethanol (4%, v/v) were used in the extraction buffer to improve RNA quality. The average yield was about 200 microg RNA g(-1) fresh leaves. The isolated RNA was of sufficient quality for construction of suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) library, which allowed the isolation of several pathogen-induced defense genes.

  12. Application of Honey in Antibrowning of Chinese Chestnut%蜂蜜对板栗褐变的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建暖; 苗利军; 于建军

    2015-01-01

    为抑制板栗的褐变, 研究了蜂蜜的种类和浓度对抑制效果的影响,并通过试验比较了蜂蜜和传统试剂的防褐变效果,结果显示蜂蜜对板栗褐变有明显的抑制作用.%To control the browning of chestnuts, we studied the effect of the kind and concentration of honey in antibrowning. We had a lso compared the honey with several other chemical reagents by experiments. And the results showed us the honey could inhibit the browning of chestnut effective.

  13. Rock Phosphate Solubilization Mechanisms of One Fungus and One Bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qi-mei; ZHAO Xiao-rong; ZHAO Zi-juan; LI Bao-guo

    2002-01-01

    Many microorganisms can dissolve the insoluble phosphates like apatite. However, the mechanisms are still not clear. This study was an attempt to investigate the mechanisms of rock phosphate solubilization by an Aspergillus 2TCiF2 and an Arthrobacter1TCRi7. The results indicated that the fungus produced a large amount of organic acids, mainly oxalic acid. The total quantity of the organic acids produced by the fungus was 550 times higher than that by the bacterium. Different organic acids had completely different capacities to solubilize the rock. Oxalic acid and citric acid had stronger capacity to dissolve the rock than malic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid and succinic acid. The fungus solubilized the rock through excreting both proton and organic acids. The rock solubilization of the bacterium depended on only proton.

  14. Effect of meteorological factors on the development of lentil stemphylium blight at different sowing dates in rampur, chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Subedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Stemphylium species are pathogenic to a number of crops under broad geography and diverse environments. Stemphylium blight of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik caused by Stemphylium botryosum Walr is becoming a serious emerging threat to lentil cultivation and become widespread throughout major legume growing areas in Nepal. Lentil was sown in different dates to observed incidence and severity of stemphylium blight in Rampur, Chitwan during two consecutive years 2012-2014. Lentil seeds sown up to middle of November escaped the disease severity and also resulted higher yield compared to other dates. Disease severity increased with the advancement of sowing date from November 1 to December 21 with decreased yields. The trends of disease development were similar in both years. The maximum and minimum temperatures, total rainfall and sunshine hour ranging from 22.42-24.23°C (mean 23.32°C, 4.12-13.00°C(mean 8.56°C, 9.6-30.5mm (mean 24.85mm and 200.05-309.85 hour (mean 254.95 hour respectively were favorable for disease development. A multiple linear regression model with temperature, rainfall and sunshine hours was developed to predict stemphylium blight disease severity on lentil plants.

  15. Potential for the integration of biological and chemical control of sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani on rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukaew, Sawai; Klinmanee, Chanasirin; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2013-10-01

    Biological control using antagonistic microbes to minimize the use of chemical pesticides has recently become more prevalent. In an attempt to find an integrated control system for sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani in rice, Streptomyces philanthi RM-1-138, commercial formulations of Bacillus subtilis as Larminar® and B. subtilis strain NSRS 89-24+MK-007 as Biobest® and chemical fungicides including carbendazim®, validamycin®, propiconazole® and mancozeb® were applied alone and in combination with S. philanthi RM-1-138. In vitro experiments showed that all treatments tested did provide some control against mycelial growth and sclerotia production by R. solani PTRRS-9. In addition, the four chemical fungicides had no detrimental effects on S. philanthi RM-1-138 even at high concentrations (up to 100 μg/ml). The efficacy of S. philanthi RM-1-138, the commercial formulations of B. subtilis, chemical fungicides alone or in combination with S. philanthi RM-1-138 was also tested in a greenhouse experiment against sheath blight disease on rice plants. All treatments showed some protection of rice for sheath blight by 47-60 % when carbendazim® was applied alone and up to 74 % when combined with S. philanthi RM-1-138. PMID:23653261

  16. Control of plant defense mechanisms and fire blight pathogenesis through the regulation of 6-thioguanine biosynthesis in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sébastien; Litomska, Agnieszka; Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Richter, Klaus; Beerhues, Ludger; Hertweck, Christian

    2014-02-10

    Fire blight is a devastating disease of Rosaceae plants, such as apple and pear trees. It is characterized by necrosis of plant tissue, caused by the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora. The plant pathogen produces the well-known antimetabolite 6-thioguanine (6TG), which plays a key role in fire blight pathogenesis. Here we report that YcfR, a member of the LTTR family, is a major regulator of 6TG biosynthesis in E. amylovora. Inactivation of the regulator gene (ycfR) led to dramatically decreased 6TG production. Infection assays with apple plants (Malus domestica cultivar Holsteiner Cox) and cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia (mountain ash, rowan) revealed abortive fire blight pathogenesis and reduced plant response (biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexin production). In the presence of the ΔycfR mutant, apple trees were capable of activating the abscission machinery to remove infected tissue. In addition to unveiling the regulation of 6TG biosynthesis in a major plant pathogen, we demonstrate for the first time that this antimetabolite plays a pivotal role in dysregulating the plant response to infection.

  17. The Differences among Pear Genotypes to Fire Blight (Erwinia amylovora Attack, Based on Observations of Natural Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. SESTRAS

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most damaging diseases of pear in the world. In Cluj-Napoca area, situated in central Transylvania, Romania, fire blight was observed first in 1994, very late comparative with the other countries from occidental Europe. The response of the pear cultivars and species from National Pear Collection from Cluj-Napoca to fire blight attack, assessed in natural conditions of infection, range on a large scale of variability, which denotes a strong influence of the genotype in expression of resistance or sensitivity to disease. From all genotypes, about 20.5% have not presented symptoms of attack, among them being the following: 'Blanquet precoce', 'Klementinka', 'Severianka', 'Beurre Bachelier', 'Kieffer Seedling', 'Er Shi Shinge', 'Beurre Amanlis', 'Bristol Cross', 'Beurre Liegel', 'Beurre Lucon', 'Grand Champion', 'Magness', 'Mericourt' etc. and several ancient autochthonous cultivars ('Pere malaiete', 'De zahar de Bihor', 'Cu miez rosu', 'Clopotele', 'Garoafa mare', 'Craiese', 'Para de apa'. Also, there were identified several species of Pyrus with no attack, as P. pollveria, P. common pear, P. lindlezi, P. malifolia, P. persica, P. ussuriensis, P. variolosa. The remarked genotypes could be potential sources for further breeding programmes and increase the number of genotypes available for breeding new pear cultivars resistant to Erwinia attack.

  18. Hypersensitive response and acyl-homoserine lactone production of the fire blight antagonists Erwinia tasmaniensis and Erwinia billingiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Jock, Susanne; Du, Zhiqiang; Geider, Klaus

    2008-09-01

    Fire blight caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora can be controlled by antagonistic microorganisms. We characterized epiphytic bacteria isolated from healthy apple and pear trees in Australia, named Erwinia tasmaniensis, and the epiphytic bacterium Erwinia billingiae from England for physiological properties, interaction with plants and interference with growth of E. amylovora. They reduced symptom formation by the fire blight pathogen on immature pears and the colonization of apple flowers. In contrast to E. billingiae, E. tasmaniensis strains induced a hypersensitive response in tobacco leaves and synthesized levan in the presence of sucrose. With consensus primers deduced from lsc as well as hrpL, hrcC and hrcR of the hrp region of E. amylovora and of related bacteria, these genes were successfully amplified from E. tasmaniensis DNA and alignment of the encoded proteins to other Erwinia species supported a role for environmental fitness of the epiphytic bacterium. Unlike E. tasmaniensis, the epiphytic bacterium E. billingiae produced an acyl-homoserine lactone for bacterial cell-to-cell communication. Their competition with the growth of E. amylovora may be involved in controlling fire blight.

  19. Vacuum freeze-drying process of chestnut kernel%真空冷冻干燥板栗仁加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏飞; 周家华; 常虹; 马良; 张宇昊

    2011-01-01

    With fresh chestnut as raw materials,we studied the vacuum freeze-drying chestnut kernel processing technology.Results show that the color protection liquid composition for 0.2% ascorbic acid,0.3 % citric acid,0.1% ethylenediamine tetraacetate(EDTA) and 0.1% sodium chloride.Best temperature is 40 ℃.The best vacuum freeze-drying conditions is the material quantity 4.85 kg/m2,45 ℃ with 12 hours.Processed chestnut kernel water content is about 3%,taste sweet and crisp,chestnut original color,fragrance,taste to maintain good.%以新鲜板栗为原料,研究了真空冷冻干燥板栗仁的加工工艺。结果表明:板栗仁护色液组成为0.2%抗坏血酸、0.3%柠檬酸、0.1%乙二胺四乙酸(EDTA)和0.1%氯化钠;护色温度为40℃。最佳真空冷冻干燥条件是单位面积的物料量4.85kg/m2、隔板温度45℃、冻干时间为12h,制得的冷冻干燥板栗仁含水量为3%,口感香甜松脆,板栗原有色、香、味保持良好。

  20. Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase Khasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO, Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 and KFC1 and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B. The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K and phosphorus (P. The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate, than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale. However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate. The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

  1. Roles of Peroxisomes in the Rice Blast Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Lin; Wang, Zhao; Liu, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is a model plant pathogenic fungus and is a severe threat to global rice production. Over the past two decades, it has been found that the peroxisomes play indispensable roles during M. oryzae infection. Given the importance of the peroxisomes for virulence, we review recent advances of the peroxisomes roles during M. oryzae infection processes. We firstly introduce the molecular mechanisms and life cycles of the peroxisomes. And then, metabolic functions related to the peroxisomes are also discussed. Finally, we provide an overview of the relationship between peroxisomes and pathogenicity. PMID:27610388

  2. Source of fungus contamination of hydrophilic soft contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasset, A R; Mattingly, T P; Hood, I

    1979-09-01

    Fungus infiltration within hydrophilic lenses has been a rare finding. This case report confirms previous findings that fungal contamination of hydrophilic contact lens is possible. The present report, to our knowledge, is the first demonstration of the association of fungus from contaminated cosmetics with hydrophilic contact lenses. It is important to be aware of the possibility of fungal invasion of hydrophilic lenses, as well as to be able to differentiate this from the more common harmless spot formation. On the basis of this study, good lid hygiene, strict adherence to the sterilization procedure, and discontinuance of any soft hydrophilic contact lenses with spot formation seems appropriate. PMID:556154

  3. Sgt1, but not Rar1, is essential for the RB-mediated broad-spectrum resistance to potato late blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wielgus Susan M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late blight is the most serious potato disease world-wide. The most effective and environmentally sound way for controlling late blight is to incorporate natural resistance into potato cultivars. Several late blight resistance genes have been cloned recently. However, there is almost no information available about the resistance pathways mediated by any of those genes. Results We previously cloned a late blight resistance gene, RB, from a diploid wild potato species Solanum bulbocastanum. Transgenic potato lines containing a single RB gene showed a rate-limiting resistance against all known races of Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen. To better understand the RB-mediated resistance we silenced the potato Rar1 and Sgt1 genes that have been implicated in mediating disease resistance responses against various plant pathogens and pests. The Rar1 and Sgt1 genes of a RB-containing potato clone were silenced using a RNA interference (RNAi-based approach. All of the silenced potato plants displayed phenotypically normal growth. The late blight resistance of the Rar1 and Sgt1 silenced lines were evaluated by a traditional greenhouse inoculation method and quantified using a GFP-tagged P. infestans strain. The resistance of the Rar1-silenced plants was not affected. However, silencing of the Sgt1 gene abolished the RB-mediated resistance. Conclusion Our study shows that silencing of the Sgt1 gene in potato does not result in lethality. However, the Sgt1 gene is essential for the RB-mediated late blight resistance. In contrast, the Rar1 gene is not required for RB-mediated resistance. These results provide additional evidence for the universal role of the Sgt1 gene in various R gene-mediated plant defense responses.

  4. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan G. Aćimović

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1-2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM, significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water- or non-injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2 and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control.

  5. An experimental test of the role of structural blue and melanin-based chestnut coloration in aggressive contests in male eastern bluebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin eMercadante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis have feathers with either structurally based blue coloration or melanin-based chestnut coloration, and they hold territories during the breeding season that they defend vigorously. We tested whether the melanin pigmentation or structural coloration of feathers serve as signals during intrasexual aggressive encounters by placing color-modified stuffed bluebirds in male territories. We recorded the time to attack and the intensity of attacks on each model, and we then compared the response to color-enhanced versus color-reduced models. Male bluebirds attacked models with brighter and more chromatic blue coloration significantly more often than they attacked models with darker and less chromatic blue coloration. In contrast, the darkness of the chestnut breast coloration did not have a significant effect on the rate at which models were attacked. We conclude that territorial male bluebirds perceive intruding males with brighter blue coloration as a greater threat than males with drabber blue coloration, presumably because blue coloration is a signal of fighting ability. In contrast, the chestnut coloration of breast feathers appears to be a signal of gender and sexual maturity and not a graded signal of social status.

  6. 野生板栗资源开发利用技术探讨%TECHNICAL STUDIES ON DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF WILD CHINESE CHESTNUT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马朝阳; 胡继周; 车明轩

    2001-01-01

    In order to explore the wild Chinese chestnut in mountainous areas in Chengxian county, the Chengxian Planning Committee assigned a project of “Technical Demonstration of high-level grafting with well-bred species on Wild Chinese Chestnut” to achieve the goal of development with means of well-bred species, intensive management and industrialization of Chinese chestnut production. With co-operation of relevant organizations and the project grop in three years, three demonstration bases of high-level grafting and low-yield-garden improvement of Chinese chestnut have been build. Tests on some technical aspects necessary to the project were done.%为了开发利用甘肃省成县山区的野生板栗资源,实现板栗生产的良种化、集约化和产业化发展目标,经3年的研究,进行野生板栗高接、换优实验技术与生产示范。

  7. Hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 nanoneedles grown on nickel foam as binder-free electrode for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kwun Nam; Hui, Kwan San; Tang, Zikang; Jadhav, V. V.; Xia, Qi Xun

    2016-10-01

    Hierarchical chestnut-like manganese cobalt oxide (MnCo2O4) nanoneedles (NNs) are successfully grown on nickel foam using a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal method. High resolution TEM image further verifies that the chestnut-like MnCo2O4 structure is assembled by numerous 1D MnCo2O4 nanoneedles, which are formed by numerous interconnected MnCo2O4 nanoparticles with grain diameter of ∼10 nm. The MnCo2O4 electrode exhibits high specific capacitance of 1535 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and good rate capability (950 F g-1 at 10 A g-1) in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. An asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using MnCo2O4 NNs on Ni foam (MnCo2O4 NNs/NF) as the positive electrode and graphene/NF as the negative electrode. The device shows an operation voltage of 1.5 V and delivers a high energy density of ∼60.4 Wh kg-1 at a power density of ∼375 W kg-1. Moreover, the device exhibits an excellent cycling stability of 94.3% capacitance retention after 12000 cycles at 30 A g-1. This work demonstrates that hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 NNs could be a promising electrode for the high performance energy storage devices.

  8. Purification, characterization and N-terminal amino acid sequence of a new major allergen from European chestnut pollen--Cas s 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, T; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Ferreira, F; Hirschwehr, R; Ahorn, H; Horak, F; Jager, S; Sperr, W; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O

    1993-11-15

    Pollens from trees of the order Fagales (e.g. birch, alder, hazel, and hornbeam) all contain one major allergen--the main cause for tree pollen allergy. So far the major allergens from birch (Bet v 1), alder (Aln g 1), hazel (Cor a 1), and hornbeam (Car b 1) have been characterized, showing high sequence similarity with each other (1-4). We present the molecular and immunologic characterization of Cas s 1, the major allergen from the European chestnut (Castanea sativa). From aqueous pollen extracts from European chestnut a protein was purified to homogeneity and was subjected to further investigation. The protein revealed a Mr of 22 kDa and was shown to represent the major allergen of the European chestnut (immunoblotting, histamine release) and designated Cas s 1. Despite a marked difference in Mr, Cas s 1 shows significant amino acid sequence similarity at the N-terminus and is antigenically closely related to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 (17 kDa), as shown by binding to the anti-Bet v 1 monoclonal antibody BIP-1 and by IgE-inhibition tests using recombinant Bet v 1.

  9. Local spread of an exotic invader: using remote sensing and spatial analysis to document proliferation of the invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziosi I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and spatial analysis represent useful tools for modeling species’ dispersal, characterizing the spread of invasions and the invasability of a region, and thus allowing more accurate predictions for developing mitigation strategies. American chestnut, Castanea dentata, was historically a dominant forest species in North America, but occurs only sporadically today after its functional elimination by an exotic fungal pathogen in the early 1900’s. In recent decades Castanea resources have increased due to restoration efforts, commercial chestnut plantations, and horticultural uses. This resurgence is threatened by an additional exotic species, the globally invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus. The gall wasp was first discovered in Lexington, Kentucky (USA in 2010. We used remotely sensed data and Geographic Information Systems to describe the local distribution of the Castanea hosts, and the occurrence and dispersal of the gall wasp. We tested the hypotheses that geomorphology, Castanea occurrence, and prevailing winds influence local proliferation. We found that gall wasp spread may be attributable to host plant distribution and to the effects of prevailing winds occurring during a brief period of adult insect emergence, and is influenced by topography. Our results suggest that weather data and topographic features can be used to delineate currently infested areas and predict future gall wasp infestations.

  10. 水杨酸对冷藏板栗贮藏效果的影响%Storage effects of salicylic acid on post-harvest chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶利民; 徐芬芬

    2011-01-01

    Effects of physiological and biochemical changes of the post-harvest chestnut fruit were studied with different concentrations of salicylic acid to dipping fruit at different times during storage. Main results were as follows: salicylic acid treatment could inhibit respiration rate of the chestnut during storage,delay the arrival of climacteric. Salicylic acid could inhibit the decreasing of the vitamin C content and the starch content. In addition, salicylic acid treatment decreased chestnut rot rate and weight loss rate.The best treatment condition by salicylic acid was O. 5 g/L for 10 min.%以不同浓度水杨酸、不同浸果时间研究水杨酸对板栗果实冷藏效果的影响.结果表明:水杨酸可抑制贮藏期间栗果呼吸强度,推迟呼吸跃变的到来;还可抑制VC含量和淀粉含量;水杨酸处理后栗果腐烂率和质量损失率均降低.最佳处理方式为0.5 g/L水杨酸浸果10 min.

  11. Current Situations of Edible Fungus Production in Lianyungang City and Development Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guan-xi; GE Xiong-can; WEI Liang-zhi

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of characteristics of edible fungus production in Lianyungang City, we analyzed its advantages and disadvantages and put forward suggestions and countermeasures for development of edible fungus industry, mainly including strengthening guidance and leadership of government, introducing professional personnel, and developing the edible fungus industry through science and technology.

  12. Fire Blight Control: The Struggle Goes On. A Comparison of Different Fire Blight Control Methods in Switzerland with Respect to Biosafety, Efficacy and Durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Gusberti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight (FB, caused by Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most important pome fruit pathogens worldwide. To control this devastating disease, various chemical and biological treatments are commonly applied in Switzerland, but they fail to keep the infection at an acceptable level in years of heavy disease pressure. The Swiss authorities therefore currently allow the controlled use of the antibiotic streptomycin against FB in years that are predicted to have heavy infection periods, but only one treatment per season is permitted. Another strategy for controlling Erwinia is to breed resistant/tolerant apple cultivars. One way of accelerating the breeding process is to obtain resistant cultivars by inserting one or several major resistance genes, using genetic engineering. To date, no study summarizing the impact of different FB control measures on the environment and on human health has been performed. This study consequently aims to compare different disease-control measures (biological control, chemical control, control by antibiotics and by resistant/tolerant apple cultivars obtained through conventional or molecular breeding applied against E. amylovora, considering different protection goals (protection of human health, environment, agricultural diversity and economic interest, with special emphasis on biosafety aspects. Information on each FB control measure in relation to the specified protection goal was assessed by literature searches and by interviews with experts. Based on our results it can be concluded that the FB control measures currently applied in Switzerland are safe for consumers, workers and the environment. However, there are several gaps in our knowledge of the human health and environmental impacts analyzed: data are missing (1 on long term studies on the efficacy of most of the analyzed FB control measures; (2 on the safety of operators handling streptomycin; (3 on residue analyses of Equisetum plant extract, the copper

  13. Towards an integrated understanding of the consequences of fungus domestication on the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas-Poulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some of the func......Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some...

  14. Compatibilidade de Dicyma pulvinata com defensivos agrícolas e eficiência do biocontrole do mal-das-folhas da seringueira em campo Compatibility of Dicyma pulvinata with pesticides and biocontrol efficiency of South American leaf blight of rubber tree under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Ferreira Melo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar quatro isolados do fungo antagonista Dicyma pulvinata quanto à compatibilidade com defensivos agrícolas e adjuvantes, e a eficiência desses isolados no controle do mal-das-folhas (Microcyclus ulei da seringueira (Hevea sp. em campo. A compatibilidade dos isolados com defensivos e adjuvantes foi avaliada com base no crescimento micelial e na esporulação do fungo, em testes conduzidos in vitro. Para avaliação da eficiência do antagonista contra M. ulei, em campo, os quatros isolados do antagonista foram comparados ao controle exercido pelo tratamento com os fungicidas propiconazol + mancozeb. Os ensaios conduzidos em laboratório indicaram a incompatibilidade de D. pulvinata com os fungicidas benomyl, carbendazim, mancozeb, propiconazol e, ainda, com o inseticida acaricida endosulfan. Dois dos adjuvantes testados (Tween 20 e Tween 80 não afetaram o desenvolvimento do fungo. Foi comprovada a ação do antagonista D. pulvinata sobre M. ulei, em campo, com destaque para os isolados CEN 62 e CEN 93, que apresentaram eficiência de controle semelhante ao tratamento fungicida padrão.The objective of this work was to evaluate four isolates of the antagonist fungus Dicyma pulvinata in terms of its compatibility with chemical pesticides and adjuvants products, and the efficiency of these isolates as biocontrol agent against South American leaf blight (Microcyclus ulei of rubber tree (Hevea sp. under field conditions. Isolates compatibility with chemical pesticides and adjuvants was evaluated on mycelial growth and fungus sporulation in vitro. To assess the efficiency of the antagonist against M. ulei under field conditions, the four isolates were compared to the control by the fungicide mixture propiconazol + mancozeb. The assays showed incompatibility of the antagonistic fungus with the fungicides benomyl, carbendazim, mancozeb, propiconazol, besides the insecticide-acaricide endosulfan. Two of the adjuvants

  15. Factors Affecting Browning of Cooked Chestnut Kernel%影响熟化板栗褐变的因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    綦菁华; 王芳; 庞美霞; 黄漫青; 赵琛琛

    2009-01-01

    板栗在熟化加工过程中易产生非酶褐变,本文针对板栗自身原料有关成分及部分加工条件对板栗熟化后褐变的影响进行了研究,探讨影响熟化板栗褐变的因素.研究结果表明:板栗非酶褐变前后蛋白质平均减少了30.34%、还原糖平均减少了38.44%、维生素C平均减少了85.81%;表明美拉德反应和抗坏血酸氧化是板栗熟化过程发生非酶褐变的主要原因.另外,在pH,NaCl,蔗糖三个加工条件研究中,pH对板栗褐变影响较大,pH为3.0、4.0、5.0的溶液对熟化板栗有较好的抑制褐变的效果,而NaCl,蔗糖的抑制作用不显著.%Non - enzymatic browning often occurs in the processing of cooked chestnut kernel. Chemical components of chestnut kernel before and after the processing and factors related to the processing conditions have been studied in this work in order to control the browning. Results; After the non - enzymatic browning in processing the protein content of the cooked chestnut kernel decreases by 30.34% , reduced sugar content decreases by 38.44% and Vitamin C content decreases by 85.81%. Therefore, Maillard reaction and Vitamin C oxidation are the main reactions resulting in the browning of cooked chestnut kernel. In addition, among three processing condition factors, i. e. , pH value, sucrose, and sodium chlorine, the influence of pH to the browning is significant, while sucrose and sodium chlorine have no effects. Solution with pH of 3, 4, or 5 displays rather good effects of inhibiting the browning of cooked chestnut kernel.

  16. 银杏板栗乳的研制%Preparation of a compound beverage from ginkgo,chestnut and skim milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟秀梅; 张绵松; 袁文鹏; 刘新; 王小军; 唐聚德; 刘昌衡

    2011-01-01

    目的:银杏板栗乳的制备。方法:以可溶性固形物的增加量为指标筛选银杏汁和板栗汁的酶解条件,以感官评分确定银杏板栗乳的配方。结果:银杏汁的最适酶解条件为:温度70℃、料液比1:5、酶解时间20min、淀粉酶0.03%,可溶性固形物增加量可达3.5%以上;板栗汁的最适酶解条件为:温度65℃、料液比1:8、酶解时间50min、淀粉酶0.04%,可溶性固形物增加量可达2.5%以上。最终产品各组分含量分别为板栗汁20%、银杏汁10%、脱脂奶液20%、木糖醇8%、稳定剂0.01%,此时产品感官评分最高。结论:银杏板栗乳呈乳黄白色,具有银杏、板栗和乳品的复合香味,口感细腻柔滑、甜度适中。%For developing a novel compound beverage,the conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis of ginkgo and chestnut were optimized using the increase of soluble solid content as a reference.The optimum conditions for ginkgo hydrolysis were as follows:temperature is 70 ℃,solid-liquid ratio is 1:5,time is 20 min and enzyme dosage is 0.03%,and those for chestnut hydrolysis were:65 ℃,1:8,50 min and 0.04%,respectively.At these conditions,the increase of soluble solid content in ginkgo and chestnut juice are more than 3.5% and 2.5%.On the basis of determining sensory indexes,the formula of the compound beverage was selected through orthogonal experimental design.Results showed that the perfect formula was 10% ginkgo juice,20% chestnut juice,20% skim milk,8% xylitol and 0.01% stabilizer.The compound beverage was moderate sweet,supple in mouth and has a unique flavor of ginkgo,chestnut and milk.

  17. Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Chęciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

  18. Fun Microbiology: How To Measure Growth of a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate a simple method for measuring fungus growth by monitoring the effect of temperature on the growth of Trichoderma viride. Among the advantages that this experimental model provides is introducing students to the importance of using the computer as a scientific tool for analyzing and presenting data. (AIM)

  19. Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Angela M; Strobel, Gary A; Moore, Emily; Robison, Richard; Sears, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Muscodor crispans is a recently described novel endophytic fungus of Ananas ananassoides (wild pineapple) growing in the Bolivian Amazon Basin. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); some of the major components of this mixture, as determined by GC/MS, are propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-; 1-butanol, 3-methyl-;1-butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester; and ethanol. The fungus does not, however, produce naphthalene or azulene derivatives as has been observed with many other members of the genus Muscodor. The mixture of VOCs produced by M. crispans cultures possesses antibiotic properties, as does an artificial mixture of a majority of the components. The VOCs of the fungus are effective against a wide range of plant pathogens, including the fungi Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis (the black sigatoka pathogen of bananas), and the serious bacterial pathogen of citrus, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. In addition, the VOCs of M. crispans killed several human pathogens, including Yersinia pestis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Artificial mixtures of the fungal VOCs were both inhibitory and lethal to a number of human and plant pathogens, including three drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gaseous products of Muscodor crispans potentially could prove to be beneficial in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and industry.

  20. An Abietane Diterpene and a Sterol from Fungus Phellinus igniarius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new abietane diterpene 12-hydroxy-7-oxo-5, 8, 11, 13-tetraene-18, 6-abietanolide,together with a new natural sterol stigmasta-7, 22-diene-3β, 5α, 6α-triol have been isolated from the fruiting body of the fungus Phellinus igniarius. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques.