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Sample records for chest x-ray manifestations

  1. Chest x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest radiography; Serial chest x-ray; X-ray - chest ... You stand in front of the x-ray machine. You will be told to hold your breath when the x-ray is taken. Two images are usually taken. You will ...

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by: Image/Video Gallery Your radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  3. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to ... to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit ...

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used ... diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A ...

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also be useful to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  6. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  7. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Angioplasty & vascular stenting Video: Arthrography Video: Contrast Material Radiology and You Take our survey About this Site ... radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  8. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! ...

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight June is Men's Health Month Recently posted: Focused Ultrasound for Uterine Fibroids ... to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny ...

  10. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript ... time! Spotlight Recently posted: Pediatric MRI Intravascular Ultrasound Video: Chest CT Video:Thyroid Ultrasound Video: Head CT ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ultrasound Video: Angioplasty & vascular stenting Video: Arthrography Radiology and You About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is ... radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript ... Recently posted: Focused Ultrasound for Uterine Fibroids Dementia Video: General Ultrasound Video: Pediatric Nuclear Medicine Radiology and ...

  13. Aspergillosis - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. Here, a chest x-ray shows that the fungus has invaded the lung ... are usually seen as black areas on an x-ray. The cloudiness on the left side of this ...

  14. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes inflammation, the formation of tubercules and other growths within tissue, ... death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light areas (opacities) of varying ...

  15. Coccidioidomycosis - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chest x-ray shows the affects of a fungal infection, coccidioidomycosis. In the middle of the left lung (seen on the ... defined borders. Other diseases that may explain these x-ray findings include lung abscesses, chronic pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic ...

  16. Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chest x-ray shows adenocarcinoma of the lung. There is a rounded light spot in the right upper lung (left side ... density. Diseases that may cause this type of x-ray result would be tuberculous or fungal granuloma, and ...

  17. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung tissue absorbs little radiation and will appear dark on the image. Until recently, x-ray images ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  18. The chest X-ray manifestations of children with highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection (a report of 1 final diagnosis case and 1 borderline case)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the chest X-ray manifestations of children with highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection. Methods: The pulmonary X-ray findings in 1 patient was confirmed by the World Health Organization infected H5N1 avian influenza vires and 1 borderline patient was retrospectively analyzed. Results: Both sides of lung field showed the cloudy and massive infiltration in chest X-ray film. The lesions of lung distributed extensively and symmetrically. Radiological dynamic changes showed the variation of the lesions of lung was quick in a short time. It had a characteristic of roving around. The lesions of lung appeared fibrosis at the period of the end. Conclusion: There are some radiographic characteristics in children with H5N1 avian influenza vires infection. It will be helpful for its diagnosis when getting familiar with its X-ray manifestations, but the final diagnosis is dependent on the epidemiology history and laboratory results. (authors)

  19. Why x-ray chests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the validity of screening chest radiography at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, the yield of occult major disease and its significance to the afflicted employees have been examined over a ten year period. The study suggests that the incidence rate of occult disease which in retrospect proved to have been of major or life-threatening importance to the afflicted employee approximates 1 per 1000 population per annum. Major benefit accrued only to about 1 in 3 of these employees, the remainder gaining little more than that which would have followed treatment had their diseases presented symptomatically. These results are considered in relation to the health surveillance needs of a population generally and selectively exposed to diverse health hazards within the nuclear industry. (auth)

  20. Chest x-ray following heart transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the cardio vascular Surgery Departiment of the University of Padua, where the first heart transplant operation in Italy took place in November, 14, 1985, in a period of six months, nine heart transplants have been performed. The post-operative follow-up of these patients included, among other tests, a chest X-ray, which has given us many morphological and functional data concerning both the circulatory and the pulmonary systems

  1. Errors in chest x-ray interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Reporting of adult chest x-rays by appropriately trained radiographers is frequently used in the United Kingdom as one method to maintain a patient focused radiology service in times of increasing workload. With models of advanced practice being developed in Australia, New Zealand and Canada, the spotlight is on the evidence base which underpins radiographer reporting. It is essential that any radiographer who extends their scope of practice to incorporate definitive clinical reporting perform at a level comparable to a consultant radiologist. In any analysis of performance it is important to quantify levels of sensitivity and specificity and to evaluate areas of error and variation. A critical review of the errors made by reporting radiographers in the interpretation of adult chest x-rays will be performed, examining performance in structured clinical examinations, clinical audit and a diagnostic accuracy study from research undertaken by the authors, and including studies which have compared the performance of reporting radiographers and consultant radiologists. overall performance will be examined and common errors discussed using a case based approach. Methods of error reduction, including multidisciplinary team meetings and ongoing learning will be considered

  2. Lung mass, right upper lung - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This picture is a chest x-ray of a person with a lung mass. This is a front view, where the lungs are the two dark areas and ... visible in the middle of the chest. The x-ray shows a mass in the right upper lung, ...

  3. Ordering chest X-rays in Australian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Julie; Miller, Graeme; Pan, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Data from the BEACH program between 2012–14 were used to examine general practice encounters where chest X-rays were ordered. This included the most common problems associated with chest X-ray ordering and patient characteristics. Changes in ordering between 2004–05 and 2013–14 were also investigated. The rate of chest X-ray ordering between 2004–05 and 2013–14 decreased significantly. In 2012–14, chest X-rays were most often ordered in the management of acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis, cough and pneumonia. Pleurisy/pleural effusion had the highest likelihood of resulting in a chest X-ray order, followed by shortness of breath/dyspnoea and pneumonia. PMID:26510138

  4. X-ray face mask and chest shield device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protective face mask is designed to shield an x-ray technician or machine operator primarily from random secondary or scatter x-rays deflected towards his face, head and neck by the table, walls, equipment and other reflecting elements in an x-ray room or chamber. The face mask and chest shield device can be mounted on a patient's shoulders in reverse attitude to protect the back of a patient's head and neck from the x-ray beam. The face mask is relatively or substantially transparent and contains lead in combination with a plastic ionomer or comonomer, which to a degree absorbs or resists penetration of the random deflected secondary or scatter x-rays or the x-ray beam through the mask. The face mask is removably attachable to the chest shield for easy application of the device to and support upon the shoulders of the technician or the patient. (author)

  5. Routine chest X-ray in the allergy clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether routine chest X-ray is indicated in allergy patients when there is no evidence of cardiopulmonary involvement. A retrospective study to analyze the indications and radiologic findings in 515 consecutive patients who underwent chest X-ray: Positive findings were considered to be any radiological sing that led to the performance of additional diagnostic measures or a change in the therapeutic management of the patient. Positive radiologic findings were observed in 39 cases (7.59%). Only two patients (0.38%) were diagnosed as having diseases that were susceptible to proper treatment. In one of them (0.19%), the failure to perform chest X-ray would have impeded the introduction of proper treatment. We do not recommend carrying out routine chest X-ray in this patient population. (Author) 7 refs

  6. Coal worker's lungs - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chest x-ray shows coal worker's lungs. There are diffuse, small, light areas on both sides (1 to 3 mm) in ... the lungs. Diseases that may result in an x-ray like this include: simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) - ...

  7. Quality criteria for chest X-ray image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A distinction has to be made between invariable and variable criteria in the determination of chest X-ray picture quality criteria. The invariable criteria are defined by the properties of the object and the psychophysiological laws of perception and cognition, and the variable criteria are determined by the prevailing state of the art of technology. An agreement on these criteria is based on the knowledge of the nature and the technical conditions of X-ray picture production and reproduction. The slogan 'the best picture at the lowest dose' dominates, too, the discussion centering around the X-ray picture of the chest, its quality and criteria. (orig./MG)

  8. Chest X-ray in newborns and infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest X-ray in newborns and infants shows great differences to that in adults. Therefore all radiologists, who engage in X-rays in this age group, must be familiar with the special features. At the beginning specific items of examination methods are explained, which must be strictly followed due to radiological protection. Focus of the paper is the discussion of the important chest diseases in newborn and infants, which are mostly unknown in chest diagnosis in adults. Many of them can be life-threatening, thus their knowledge is essential. Pathophysiological explanations shall make the special radiological signs understandable. (orig.)

  9. Chest X ray examination of workers exposed to pneumoconiosis risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest X-ray examination of workers exposed to pneumoconiosis risk: critical analysis of legal and radiation protection aspects. Chest X-ray examination is one of the most common radiological examinations practised in Italy. According to Presidential Decree 1124/65, workers exposed to risk of asbestosis and silicosis must undergo a chest radiography once a year, on occasion of the periodic medical examination. Basic requirements aimed at the radiation protection of the patient must therefore be complied with, and optimization of the chest radiography execution procedures is required. This paper illustrates the results obtained with the implementation of the NEXT programme in Italy for this kind of X-ray examination. The main objective of the NEXT programme is the optimization of radiological techniques. On the basis of the most recent publications in the field of radiation protection, a critical analysis is made of the laws in force in Italy

  10. X-ray face mask and chest shield device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protective face mask is disclosed that is designed to shield an x-ray technician or machine operator primarily from random secondary or scatter x-rays deflected toward his face, head and neck by the table, walls, equipment and other reflecting elements in an x-ray room or chamber, during the period of exposure while adjacent the object or person being exposed to the x-ray beam. The face mask and chest shield device can be mounted on a patient's shoulders in reverse attitude to protect the back of a patient's head and neck from the x-ray beam while being exposed to such beam for chest or upper body portion study and examination. The face mask is relatively or substantially transparent and contains lead in combination with a plastic ionomer or comonomer, which absorbs or resists penetration, to a degree, of the random deflected secondary or scatter x-rays or the x-ray beam through the mask. The face mask is removably attachable to the chest shield for facile application of the device to and support upon the shoulders of the technician or the patient

  11. Chest x-ray analysis by computer: final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of the automated analysis of chest x-rays for the classification of pneumoconiosis films according to the U.I.C.C./Cincinnati standard films. Toward this end, computer programs simulating the proposed systems were prepared. Using these programs, the authors then examined three sets of chest radiographs to determine the extent of pneumoconiosis present. The results of the examinations of these x-rays clearly indicated the feasibility of the proposed system. Based on the outcome of these examinations, a complete set of hardware and software specifications were established for a system which can be used for the large scale automatic analysis of chest x-rays

  12. Lung mass, right upper lung - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chest x-ray of a person with a lung mass. This is a front view, where the lungs are the two dark areas and the heart ... ray shows a mass in the right upper lung, indicated with the arrow (seen on the left ...

  13. Chest x-ray findings of opportunistic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chest x-ray findings of 20 cases of pulmonary opportunistic infection were analyzed according to causative agents. The results were as follows: 1. Final diagnoses of 20 cases of opportunistic infections were tuberculosis in 6 cases, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in 5 cases, bacterial infection in 7 cases, and fungal infection in 2 cases. 2. The underlying diseases were leukemia in 6 cases, kidney transplantation in 6 cases, lymphoma in 3 cases, nephrotic syndrome in 1 case, nasopharyngeal cancer in 1 case, multiple myeloma in 1 case, agranulocytosis in 1 case, and hypogammaglobulinemia in 1 case. 3. In tuberculosis, all the 6 cases showed severe manifestations such as military tuberculosis, tuberculous pneumonia, moderately advanced tuberculosis and tuberculous pericarditis. 4. In pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the most frequent findings were bilateral alveolar densities and peripheral field of the lung was saved in most cases. 5. In 2 cases of fungal infections bilateral multiple cavity nodules were noted. 6. In cases of bacterial infection there was more cases of gram negative infection than gram positive and 2 cases of pseudomonas revealed bilateral multiple cavitary nodules

  14. Chest x-ray findings of opportunistic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yul; Jeon, Suk Chul; Lim, Jeong Ki; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    The chest x-ray findings of 20 cases of pulmonary opportunistic infection were analyzed according to causative agents. The results were as follows: 1. Final diagnoses of 20 cases of opportunistic infections were tuberculosis in 6 cases, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in 5 cases, bacterial infection in 7 cases, and fungal infection in 2 cases. 2. The underlying diseases were leukemia in 6 cases, kidney transplantation in 6 cases, lymphoma in 3 cases, nephrotic syndrome in 1 case, nasopharyngeal cancer in 1 case, multiple myeloma in 1 case, agranulocytosis in 1 case, and hypogammaglobulinemia in 1 case. 3. In tuberculosis, all the 6 cases showed severe manifestations such as military tuberculosis, tuberculous pneumonia, moderately advanced tuberculosis and tuberculous pericarditis. 4. In pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the most frequent findings were bilateral alveolar densities and peripheral field of the lung was saved in most cases. 5. In 2 cases of fungal infections bilateral multiple cavity nodules were noted. 6. In cases of bacterial infection there was more cases of gram negative infection than gram positive and 2 cases of pseudomonas revealed bilateral multiple cavitary nodules.

  15. The chest X-ray appearances of SARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To report the chest X-ray appearances of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Methods: The chest films of 105 SARS patients were analyzed. All the patients were admitted by our hospital from January 30 to March 31, 2003, and the diagnoses met the diagnostic criterion of IAP made by the Ministry of Public Health, P. R. China. According to their first X-ray film appearances and progression, the patterns of lung lesions were categorized to four types: (1) focal lesion : the single and focal consolidation developed to diffuse lesion. (2) multiple lesions: the first X-ray film showed multiple patchy lesions or/and noodles. (3) interstitial-parenchyma: the major appearance on the first X-ray film was interstitial abnormality, followed by the major parenchymal lesion. (4) interstitial lesion: interstitial abnormality was predominant. Results: The chest radiological appearances of SARS were multiform. 75 cases (57 cases of focal lesion and 18 cases of multiple lesions) showed exudation and consolidation lesions, and 25 cases showed predominant interstitial lesion, followed by the lung consolidation. The interstitial lesions were showed in the other 5 cases , without obvious parenchymal exudation. There was a median interval of 19 days (range 7-46 days) from the onset of abnormality on the first X-ray film to the resolution. Conclusion: The predominant abnormalities of SARS on the first X-ray film were parenchymal exudation or/and interstitial lesion. The lesions progressed quickly at the early stage and reached at a peak within 7-10 days. The lesions in most patients would be fully resolved. Most patients have good prognosis , and sequela haven't been found yet so far

  16. X-ray face mask and chest shield device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The face mask and chest shield device of this invention comprises two principal components removably attachable together for mounting upon the shoulders of a person in facing or reverse attitude whereby the person's head, face, neck and shoulders are protected from random deflected x-rays or the direct x-ray beam during the x-ray exposure period. The face mask is preferably made of and comprises a substantially semi-circular or arcuate relatively transparent plate or sheet of plastic material designed to cover the front and sides of the head and neck in one aspect when used by x-ray technician, and the back and sides of the head and neck in another aspect when used by a patient being exposed to the x-ray beam for chest or upper body study. The thickness of the face mask can be varied, as can the density or proportion of the lead salt contained in the plastic material. The face mask is preferably made of a plastic material such as, but not limited to, DuPont's 'SURLYN' (trademark) material which is a nylon, relatively transparent, lead saltinomer compound containing a weight percent of lead up to about 18 percent to 20 percent. Higher proportions of lead salt can also be used. The chest shield is preferably fabricated of a rubber or plastic sheet material suitably impregnated or filled with a lead material such as lead sheet or film, or with lead particles or salt compound. It need not be transparent. The chest shield is designed for removable attachment to the face mask by suitable fasteners, such as for example snap-type fasteners which are relatively easily engaged and disengaged

  17. Chest X ray effective doses estimation in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional chest radiography is technically difficult because of wide in tissue attenuations in the chest and limitations of screen-film systems. Computed radiography (CR) offers a different approach utilizing a photostimulable phosphor. photostimulable phosphors overcome some image quality limitations of chest imaging. The objective of this study was to estimate the effective dose in computed radiography at three hospitals in Khartoum. This study has been conducted in radiography departments in three centres Advanced Diagnostic Center, Nilain Diagnostic Center, Modern Diagnostic Center. The entrance surface dose (ESD) measurement was conducted for quality control of x-ray machines and survey of operators experimental techniques. The ESDs were measured by UNFORS dosimeter and mathematical equations to estimate patient doses during chest X rays. A total of 120 patients were examined in three centres, among them 62 were males and 58 were females. The overall mean and range of patient dosed was 0.073±0.037 (0.014-0.16) mGy per procedure while the effective dose was 3.4±01.7 (0.6-7.0) mSv per procedure. This study compared radiation doses to patients radiographic examinations of chest using computed radiology. The radiation dose was measured in three centres in Khartoum- Sudan. The results of the measured effective dose showed that the dose in chest radiography was lower in computed radiography compared to previous studies.(Author)

  18. Chest x-ray in Q-fever pneumonia: a series of 71 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest X ray features of 71 cases of Q-fever serologically confirmed and with clinical manifestations of acute respiratory disease were retrospectively assessed in order to evaluate the radiographic features. In 68 cases (96%) The X-ray films were abnormal. Segmental consolidation, sometimes multiple and bilateral were tue most usual findings. Nodular opacities were found in 6 cases (9%) and can mimic a tumor. Cavitacion , a very unusual findings, was found in two nodular consolidations(two patients). Laminar atelectasis was less common than proviously reported. As in other series, total resolution or with minimal scars occurs within 3 months 15 refs

  19. Poor interpretation of chest X-rays by junior doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Janus Mølgaard; Gerke, Oke; Karstoft, Jens; Andersen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies targeting medical students and junior doctors have shown that their radiological skills are insufficient. Despite the widespread use of chest X-ray; however, a study of Danish junior doctors' skills has not previously been performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 22...... diagnosis, the participant's confidence in the diagnosis was assessed on a five-point Likert scale. The diagnoses were divided into four groups: normal findings, chronic diseases, acute diseases and hyperacute diseases or conditions. RESULTS: A total of 22 doctors receiving basic clinical education (BCE......) completed the study. Overall, participants correctly established 51% of the diagnoses. The participants' overall confidence in the primary diagnoses was 57.5% on the Likert scale, corresponding to 57.5% confidence in the proposed diagnoses. The sensitivity was calculated to 0.49 (95% confidence interval (CI...

  20. Lung boundary detection in pediatric chest x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candemir, Sema; Antani, Sameer; Jaeger, Stefan; Browning, Renee; Thoma, George R.

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem worldwide, and highly prevalent in developing countries. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over 95% of TB deaths occur in low- and middle- income countries that often have under-resourced health care systems. In an effort to aid population screening in such resource challenged settings, the U.S. National Library of Medicine has developed a chest X-ray (CXR) screening system that provides a pre-decision on pulmonary abnormalities. When the system is presented with a digital CXR image from the Picture Archive and Communication Systems (PACS) or an imaging source, it automatically identifies the lung regions in the image, extracts image features, and classifies the image as normal or abnormal using trained machine-learning algorithms. The system has been trained on adult CXR images, and this article presents enhancements toward including pediatric CXR images. Our adult lung boundary detection algorithm is model-based. We note the lung shape differences during pediatric developmental stages, and adulthood, and propose building new lung models suitable for pediatric developmental stages. In this study, we quantify changes in lung shape from infancy to adulthood toward enhancing our lung segmentation algorithm. Our initial findings suggest pediatric age groupings of 0 - 23 months, 2 - 10 years, and 11 - 18 years. We present justification for our groupings. We report on the quality of boundary detection algorithm with the pediatric lung models.

  1. 20 percent lower lung cancer mortality with low-dose CT vs chest X-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have found a 20 percent reduction in deaths from lung cancer among current or former heavy smokers who were screened with low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) versus those screened by chest X-ray.

  2. Chest X-ray in newborns and infants; Konventionelle Thoraxdiagnostik bei Neugeborenen und Kleinkindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritz, Joerg D. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer diagnostische Radiologie, Paediatrische Radiologie und Sonographie

    2012-12-15

    Chest X-ray in newborns and infants shows great differences to that in adults. Therefore all radiologists, who engage in X-rays in this age group, must be familiar with the special features. At the beginning specific items of examination methods are explained, which must be strictly followed due to radiological protection. Focus of the paper is the discussion of the important chest diseases in newborn and infants, which are mostly unknown in chest diagnosis in adults. Many of them can be life-threatening, thus their knowledge is essential. Pathophysiological explanations shall make the special radiological signs understandable. (orig.)

  3. Chest X-ray findings in children with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the chest X-ray radiographic findings in children with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Methods: The chest X-ray radiographs in 67 children with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection were reviewed in this study. The chest radiographs were obtained 3-8 days after the onset of symptoms and for the follow-up. Results: The abnormalities were bilateral in 53 patients and unilateral in 7 patients. The predominant radiographic findings were bilateral patchy consolidation (n=42) with rapid confluence in 10 patients, lobular consolidation (n=7) with interstitial hyperplasia in 1 patient 3 month later, diffuse consolidation (n=11) with interstitial hyperplasia in all patients after 3 month. Conclusion: The predominant chest X-ray radiographic findings are bilateral patchy consolidation and diffuse consolidation with interstitial hyperplasia afterward. (authors)

  4. Chest X-ray : a cost-diagnostic benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although plain chest radiography is one of the most useful diagnostic tools available to the physician, this procedure has not evolved into a consistent method. Two Large Field of View Image Intensifiers (LFOV-II) became available; the large imaging area makes them suitable for chest imaging. Both modalities supply 100 mm images to the radiologist. In this thesis the 'diagnostic benefits and 'costs' of these modalities are evaluated and related to the 'gold' standard (conventional full-size). The emphasis is on diagnostic image quality using phantoms for observer performance qualities. (author). 170 refs.; 21 figs.; 47 tabs

  5. Chest X-ray: routine indication in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hospital files of 609 patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer were analysed. Pulmonary formation of metastases was diagnosed in 50 patients. The thyroglobulin value at the time of diagnosis was compared with the chest X-ray findings and, if present, additional diagnostic information such as Iodine-131 whole body scintigraphy (WBS) and thorax CT. The sensitivity of the chest X-ray to detect pulmonary metastases was at 52% lower than that of WBS (64%), thorax CT (82%) and thyroglobulin during suppression therapy (86%). Among the patients with papillary carcinoma stage I and II (UICC 1987), only 1 patient developed pulmonary metastases during follow up. In this low risk group of patients, detection of lung metastases exclusively by chest X-ray, without elevation of thyroglobulin level is extremely rare (calculated probability 1/4000) and associated with considerable costs. (orig.)

  6. Computer-aided detection of tubes and lines in portable chest X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer-aided detection method for highlighting lines and tubes in a portable chest X-ray image is developed. The method determines a region of interest in the image, and processes the image to provide edge enhancement forming an edge-enhanced image. Edge segments in the edge-enhanced image are detected. Connected lines from the edge segments are formed to obtain a set of connected lines. A tube structure is identified by pairing, from the set of connected lines, one or more pairs of edges separated by a width dimension in a predetermined range. A tip is detected according to the convergence or divergence of paired connected lines. Tube and tip are outlined on the radiographic image. Preliminary results showed that computer-aided detection of tubes in portable chest X-ray images is promising. It is expected that computer-aided interpretation of portable chest X-ray images improve the overall workflow and efficiency. (orig.)

  7. Quality control of pediatric chest X-rays in diagnostic centers with and without pediatric competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation protection in pediatric radiology is very important because of the particular sensitivity of radiosensitive organs in younger patients. Optimized image quality supports radiation protection and should be targeted. In our study we examined the quality of pediatric chest X-rays at diagnostic centers (university hospitals and other large clinics). We then evaluated differences in image quality in departments without pediatric competence (R) and departments with pediatric competence (PR). Materials and Methods: Our study was based on 313 conventional chest X-rays from 207 patients (192 p.a./a.p. and 121 lateral, 43 from R, 258 from PR and 12 neither from R nor KR) and 38 digital chest X-rays from 26 patients (25 p.a./a.p. and 13 lateral, 1 from R and 37 from PR). All patients (age 0 - 18 years) are from Nephroblastoma-Study SIOP-93/01-GPOH. We examined all initial chest X-rays, which were sent to us for evaluation upon request between 4/3/2002 and 6/14/2002. The examined parameters were: exposure, centering of the X-rays/patient positioning, collimation and sharpness. The X-rays were evaluated on a scale from 1 (best result) to 5 (worst result), resulting in an overall score of A = optimum, B = minor problems, C = major problems, or D = unusable. The optical density, the center of the image and the relative field size were also measured. Statistical tests (Mann-Whitney-U and log regression) were carried out on the conventional images. The study was performed retrospectively. The exposure, sharpness and optical density of the digital X-rays were not analyzed. Results: In the case of all conventional X-rays, the quality of the centering of the X-rays/patient positioning and collimation was moderate (average scale value: 2.4 and 2.8), and the quality of the exposure and sharpness was good and very good (average scale value: 1.9 and 1.5). The quality of the chest X-rays in departments with additional pediatric radiological expertise was better mainly in

  8. Diagnostic modalities x-ray and CT chest differ in the management of thoracic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Chapagain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe difference in the management of blunt trauma to the chest on the basis of conventional xray and computerised tomography of the chest. Methods: This prospective study was conducted between December 2011 to October 2012 in COMS in Bharatpur,a tertiary referral centre in central Nepal . Clinically stable thoracic injury patients were first evaluated with chest x-ray and the management on this basis was recorded. The findings of the CT chest were assessed and the type of management on the basis of CT was also recorded. Outcome was assessed in terms of mortality, morbidity, hospital and ICU stay with respect to the management on the basis of chest x-ray and CT scan. Results: Of the 129 patients, 74.4% were male and 25.6% were female with the patients ranging in age from 7 to 87 years (mean = 40.41 years. The most common mechanism of trauma to the chest was as a result of a motor vehicle accident (69.8%, followed by fall injury (20.2%. X-ray chest diagnosed rib fracture in 62%, haemothorax in 37%, pneumothorax in 27%, lung contusion in 10% and haemopneumothorax in 21% patients. Similarly CT chest diagnosed rib fracture in 86%, haemothorax in 54%, pneumothorax in 36%, lung contusion in 30% and haemopneumothorax in 30% patients. Mean hospital stay was 9.5 days in the group of patients having management on the basis of x-ray chest relative to mean stay of 10.2 days in the CT- chest group. In the management on the basis of xray group, there was a mean ICU stay of 2.8days compared to mean stays of 3.2 days in CT chest group. Conclusion: Though CT scan of the chest is more informative and differs the management of the blunt chest trauma, one should not forget to advise the cost effective, easily available and initial guiding agent, xray chest for early management of the chest injury patient. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i1.12764 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(1; 22-31

  9. Annual Screening with Chest X-Ray Does Not Reduce Lung Cancer Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual screening for lung cancer using a standard chest x-ray does not reduce the risk of dying from lung cancer when compared with no annual screening, according to findings from the NCI-led Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) screening trial.

  10. Most frequent causes, complications and differential diagnosis of neonatal respiratory distress in chest X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponhold, W. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Kinderklinik)

    1982-01-01

    The radiologic changes of the chest X-ray of 270 newborns with respiratory distress were analyzed. In cases of Hyaline Membranes the chest X-Ray showed finely granular evenly disseminated structures combined with signs of hypoventilation. Localized, patchy, streaky, homogenous and reticulonodular shadows were found in cases of pneumonia and hemorrhage. Hyperinflation were an additional sign for an inflammatory disease. This symptom was also demonstrated in pulmonary bleeding, but was less common. The bilateral interstitial augmentation of the pulmonary structure in combination with cardiomegaly was mainly a symptom for cardial insufficiency and transient tachypnea. The differentiation between fine granular and reticulo-nodular structures should create no problem if the chest X-ray is of good quality. Extrapulmonary air collections were found in a high percentage in the course of artificial ventilation as a consequence of the 'baro-trauma'. The radiologic diagnosis of BPD was no problem. The value of the chest X-ray lies in the demonstration of a pulmonary cause for the respiratory distress, in the demonstration of complications and in the radiological observation of the disease.

  11. Viewing Another Person's Eye Movements Improves Identification of Pulmonary Nodules in Chest X-Ray Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Damien; Ball, Linden J.; Donovan, Tim; Manning, David J.; Crawford, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    Double reading of chest x-rays is often used to ensure that fewer abnormalities are missed, but very little is known about how the search behavior of others affects observer performance. A series of experiments investigated whether radiographers benefit from knowing where another person looked for pulmonary nodules, and whether the expertise of…

  12. Entrance skin dose measurements for paediatric chest x-rays examinations in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It estimates the Entrance Skin Dose (ESD) and the scattered dose in different organs (thyroid, gonad, ovary) for the frontal and lateral chest X-ray exposure to paediatric patients and to compare this result with the criteria of the European Commission for radiation dose to patients

  13. Radiation exposure during chest X-ray examinations in a premature intensive care unit: phantom studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duetting, T.; Foerste, B.; Darge, K.; Troeger, J. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology; Knoch, T. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Central Radiation Protection

    1999-03-01

    Background. There are few reports on the radiation dose received by infants, their family and radiographers exposed to scatter radiation in a premature baby intensive care unit. Objective. To evaluate the degree of radiation exposure from diagnostic X-ray examinations with mobile X-ray machines in a premature intensive care unit. Materials and methods. The radiation exposure of an adjacent newborn, the radiographer and other persons in the room was simulated using phantoms during X-ray examination of the chest using vertical and horizontal beams. Results. Most of the measured doses were below the registration limit of the measuring apparatus and had to be extrapolated by multiple exposures. Without exception, the maximal doses were significantly lower than the permitted limit for persons not professionally exposed to X-rays. Conclusions. Recommendations to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure are given. (orig.) With 2 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  14. Radiation exposure during chest X-ray examinations in a premature intensive care unit: phantom studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. There are few reports on the radiation dose received by infants, their family and radiographers exposed to scatter radiation in a premature baby intensive care unit. Objective. To evaluate the degree of radiation exposure from diagnostic X-ray examinations with mobile X-ray machines in a premature intensive care unit. Materials and methods. The radiation exposure of an adjacent newborn, the radiographer and other persons in the room was simulated using phantoms during X-ray examination of the chest using vertical and horizontal beams. Results. Most of the measured doses were below the registration limit of the measuring apparatus and had to be extrapolated by multiple exposures. Without exception, the maximal doses were significantly lower than the permitted limit for persons not professionally exposed to X-rays. Conclusions. Recommendations to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure are given. (orig.)

  15. Training program for radiologic technologists for performing chest X-rays at inspiration in uncooperative children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program was created to train technologists to perform chest X-rays in crying infants at maximum inspiration. Videos of 4 children were used. Using a computer program, the moment of deepest inspiration was determined in the video in the single frame view. During the normal running video, 14 technologists (3 with significant experience, 3 with little experience and 8 with very little experience in pediatric radiography) simulated a chest radiograph by pushing a button. The computer program stopped the video and the period of time to the optimal moment for a chest x-ray was calculated. Every technologist simulated 10 chest X-rays in each of the 4 video clips. The technologists then trained themselves to perform chest X-rays at optimal inspiration like playing a computer game. After training, the test was repeated. Changes were evaluated by t-test for unpaired samples (level of significance p < 0.05). Although the differences improved in all children, minimal deviation from the optimal moment for taking an X-ray at inspiration occurred in the periodically crying child (0.21 sec before and 0.13 sec after training). In a non-periodically crying infant, the largest differences were shown. The values improved significantly from 0.29 sec to 0.22 sec. The group with substantial experience in pediatric radiology improved significantly from 0.22 sec to 0.15 sec. The group with very little experience in pediatric radiology showed worse results (improvement from 0.29 sec to 0.21 sec). (orig.)

  16. Effective dose evaluation for chest and abdomen X-ray tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation doses resulting from diagnostic X-ray examinations are routinely measured in terms of entrance skin exposure (ESE). In this study, for the purpose of radiation protection, the radiation doses received from chest and abdomen X-ray tests were evaluated in terms of equivalent dose and effective dose. The dose calculations were conducted by using the MCNP Monte Carlo code and an adult hermaphrodite mathematical phantom. The effects of both operating high voltage and projection geometry on the effective dose were investigated. The absolute values of the effective doses may be provided from the national average ESE. (authors)

  17. Clinical importance of digitized chest X-ray for detection of pulmonary infiltrations in bone marrow transplant patients during aplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of digitized chest X-ray for the detection of pulmonary infiltrations in bone marrow transplant patients during aplasia. Methods: Digitized chest X-rays of 40 patients (21 female, 19 male) with 'Fever of unknown origin' (FUO) were evaluated concerning radiological signs of pulmonary infiltrations and correlated to clinical findings, blood chemistry, microbiology and bronchoscopy. Additionally, an individual risk profile was established. Results: In 11/40 patients pulmonary infiltrations were detected in digitized chest X-rays (group 1). 10/11 developed an infectious pulmonary infiltration. 29/40 patients developed no pulmonary infiltration (group 2). When fever increased for the first time (initial chest X-ray) a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 46%, 86%, 56%, 81% and for the chest X-rays in process of 61%, 79%, 68% and 73% was found. C-reactive protein and temperature increase occured statistically significantly earlier (p<0.05) in group 1 compared to group 2. The average latency of digital chest X-rays in comparison to c-reactive protein and temperature increase was 6 days. The incidence of risk factors was significantly higher in group 1 in comparison to group 2 (p<0.05). Conclusion: Digitized chest X-rays are not a reliable method for primary detection of pulmonary infiltrations after bone marrow transplantation. Individual risk factors have to be taken into consideration to indicate further diagnostic methods such as computed tomography at an earlier time. (orig.)

  18. Is it useful to perform a chest X-ray in asymptomatic patients with late latent syphilis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabis, R; Radcliffe, K

    2011-02-01

    According to the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) guidelines, a chest X-ray is recommended as part of the assessment of patients with late latent syphilis to exclude cardiovascular complications. The aims of this study were firstly to audit all cases of late latent syphilis seen at our centre since 1994 and to see whether a chest X-ray was requested and secondly to assess whether performing a chest X-ray was clinically useful. Of the 456 case notes audited, 298 chest X-rays were requested; 182 (61%) were reported as normal. Results were not available for 64 (21%) and 32 (11%) patients either declined or did not attend for follow-up. There were 20 (7%) chest X-rays that were reported as abnormal, yet none of these radiological findings were consistent with the cardiovascular complications of syphilis. In view of the lack of significant chest X-ray findings in asymptomatic patients with late latent syphilis, a chest X-ray should not be requested. PMID:21427433

  19. Posteroanterior chest X-ray for the diagnosis of pneumothorax: methods, usage, and resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Rossato Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Denise Rossato Silva, Sandra Jungblut Schuh, Paulo de Tarso Roth DalcinUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre-RS, BrazilAbstract: Most pneumothoraces are demonstrated on fully inspired erect posteroanterior (PA chest X-ray (CXR. Expiratory films may have a role in the clinical management of patients with a small respiratory reserve in whom pneumothorax is suspected and not demonstrated on the inspiratory film. PA CXR can be used for the diagnosis of spontaneous and ­nonspontaneous pneumothoraces. When digital radiography is used, for most authors, a 2.5-lp/mm spatial ­resolution is satisfactory to detect a pneumothorax.Keywords: radiography, computed tomography, pneumothorax, posteroanterior chest X-ray

  20. Correlation of breast cancer metastases in chest X-rays to symptoms and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virkkunen, P.; Hietanen, P.; Nyman, M.

    1987-05-01

    The sizes and locations of pulmonary and pleural metastases in chest X-rays of 50 symptomatic and 65 asymptomatic breast cancer patients were compared and correlated to survival. The diameters of the metastases were about the same in both groups as also their distribution. The incidence of pleural fluid was higher in symptomatic patients. The survival curve of symptomatic patients did not deviate from that of the asymptomatic ones. Symptoms in pulmonary metastatic disease do not mean rapid progress of the disease but may be beneficial in that they cause the patient to visit the oncologist early. The cost-effectiveness of chest X-rays in the follow-up is questionable.

  1. Radiation exposure to chest X-rays in the neonatal nursery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure how much very low birth-weight infants are exposed to chest X-rays during nursery, skin doses were calculated using phantoms under the same condition as that used in chest X-rays. Skin doses obtained were multiplied by the number of X-rays performed in 86 very low birth-weight infants (mean birth weight+-SD, 1163.0+-232.8 g; mean gestational age+-SD, 29.3+-3.0 week). Exposure doses per film ranged from 4.9 to 14.4 mR, with a mean dose of 6.1+-2.0 mR. Exposure doses per neonate ranged from 6.3 to 794.3 mR, with a mean dose of 170.4+-151.5 mR. The number of films per neonate ranged from one to 107, with a mean of 28.0+-24.9. Eighty-seven percent of X-rays were performed when the body weight was 1,500 g or less. Fourteen patients received 300 mR or more that may be the potential dose of radiation effects. (Namekawa, K)

  2. Automatic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis by texture analysis of chest X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study on automatic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis by texture analysis of chest X-ray images. A pre-processing method for normalizing distribution of film density is proposed and its effectiveness is studied experimentally. Dominant causes of the deviations of texture features for evaluating the profusion of small opacities are excluded by the pre-processing. New texture features based on the distribution of gradient vectors are also proposed. Experiments to evaluate the proposed system are demonstrated

  3. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures on lateral chest X-ray: Intraobserver agreement of semi-quantitative vertebral fracture assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagt-Willems, H.C. van der, E-mail: Hvanderjagt@spaarneziekenhuis.nl [Department of Geriatrics, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Internal Medicine, Spaarne Hospital, Hoofddorp (Netherlands); Munster, B.C. van [Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Geriatrics, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Leeflang, M. [Department of Geriatrics, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Beuerle, E. [Department of Radiology, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tulner, C.R. [Department of Geriatrics, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lems, W.F. [Department of Rheumatology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • (Lateral) chest X-ray's are often performed in older individuals for various reasons. • Vertebral fractures are visualized on lateral chest X-ray, but the diagnosis of vertebral fractures is until now only validated on (lateral) spine X-ray's. • This study shows that a (lateral) chest X-ray is sufficient for the diagnosis of vertebral fractures. • Older individuals with a vertebral fracture on a (lateral) chest X-ray do not need further radiography with thoracic spine X-ray or vertebral fracture assessment with DXA. - Abstract: Background: In clinical practice lateral images of the chest are performed for various reasons. As these lateral chest X rays show the vertebrae of the thoracic and thoraco-lumbar region, we wondered if these X-rays can be used for evaluation of vertebral fractures instead of separate thoracic spine X-rays. Methods: To evaluate the agreement and intraobserver reliability of the semi-quantitative method for vertebral fractures on the lateral chest X-ray (X-chest) in comparison to the lateral thoracic spine X-ray (X-Tspine), two observers scored vertebral fractures on X-Tspine and twice on X-chest, separately, blinded and in different time periods. Agreement and Cohens’ kappa were calculated for a diagnosis of any fracture on patient level and on vertebral body level. The study was done in patients visiting an outpatient geriatric day clinic, with a high prevalence of vertebral fractures. Results: 109 patients were included. The intraobserver agreement for X-chest versus X-Tspine was 95–98% for the two levels of fracturing, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.88–0.91. The intraobserver agreement and reliability of the re-test on the X-chest showed an agreement between 91 and 98% with a Cohen's kappa of 0.81–0.93. More vertebrae were visible on the X-chest, mean 10.2, SD 0.66 versus mean 9.8, SD 0.73 on the X-Tspine (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results show good agreement and intraobserver reliability on

  4. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures on lateral chest X-ray: Intraobserver agreement of semi-quantitative vertebral fracture assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • (Lateral) chest X-ray's are often performed in older individuals for various reasons. • Vertebral fractures are visualized on lateral chest X-ray, but the diagnosis of vertebral fractures is until now only validated on (lateral) spine X-ray's. • This study shows that a (lateral) chest X-ray is sufficient for the diagnosis of vertebral fractures. • Older individuals with a vertebral fracture on a (lateral) chest X-ray do not need further radiography with thoracic spine X-ray or vertebral fracture assessment with DXA. - Abstract: Background: In clinical practice lateral images of the chest are performed for various reasons. As these lateral chest X rays show the vertebrae of the thoracic and thoraco-lumbar region, we wondered if these X-rays can be used for evaluation of vertebral fractures instead of separate thoracic spine X-rays. Methods: To evaluate the agreement and intraobserver reliability of the semi-quantitative method for vertebral fractures on the lateral chest X-ray (X-chest) in comparison to the lateral thoracic spine X-ray (X-Tspine), two observers scored vertebral fractures on X-Tspine and twice on X-chest, separately, blinded and in different time periods. Agreement and Cohens’ kappa were calculated for a diagnosis of any fracture on patient level and on vertebral body level. The study was done in patients visiting an outpatient geriatric day clinic, with a high prevalence of vertebral fractures. Results: 109 patients were included. The intraobserver agreement for X-chest versus X-Tspine was 95–98% for the two levels of fracturing, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.88–0.91. The intraobserver agreement and reliability of the re-test on the X-chest showed an agreement between 91 and 98% with a Cohen's kappa of 0.81–0.93. More vertebrae were visible on the X-chest, mean 10.2, SD 0.66 versus mean 9.8, SD 0.73 on the X-Tspine (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results show good agreement and intraobserver reliability on

  5. X-ray chest mass screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1980, the law which instituted the National Health Service (NHS) in Italy, attributing both the organization and the administration of all public health services to local government bodies referred to as 'Regioni', is being gradually enforced. One result is that the mass screening services are now set up on local basis, involving important practice and regulatory changes. These in particular concern chest X-ray mass screening centers, which were formerly organized as Provincial Antituberculosis Services, supervised by the Ministry of Health and dealing almost exclusively with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Today, chest X-ray mass screening is carried on the 'Centri Sociali di Pneumologia', which in some case inherited the staff and diagnostic facilities of Provincial Antituberculosis Services, but are directed by the Councillorship of Health of the 'Regioni' and, in most cases, deal with the diagnosis and care of general pulmonary diseases. Therefore, regulations and practices of mass screening are eventually different in most Italian 'Regioni', depending on different economic and social situations. In this connection, this paper reports up-to-date information and data on frequency, effectiveness, cost and radiation risks of chest X-ray screening in the 'Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia' (FVG), North-East Italy, population 1,300,000

  6. Generation and use of sketches for chest X-ray image data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the use of image processing technique extends into various fields, the realization of am image data base has been desired, which accumulates and manages images in large volume and takes the efficient retrieval and further the operative ability for processing into account. In this paper, the use of a kind of compressed images called ''sketch'' is proposed to do high grade retrieval based on image contents at high speed, and its usefulness is shown with the data base of actual chest X-ray images. The sketch must well express the main features of chest X-ray images (heart, ribs, blood vessels, forcuses, etc.) and minimize the quantity of data. The application of the developed sketch automatic extraction procedure to about 400 actual examples in the data base resulted in almost satisfactory extracted results. As an application of sketches, the retrieval using image pattern recognition technique and diagnostic results were recorded. In the experiment of extracting the cases of cardiomegaly out of 226 image sheets using the cardiothoracic ratio measured from the sketches, 11 sheets out of 14 true symptom cases were correctly retrieved to prove the usefulness of sketches to some extent. This data base of chest X-ray images is composed of an image input assembly which converts the directly and indirectly photographed images into digital density images of 3000 x 300 points, 8 bits per each point, and of five files, or master, control, header, temporary and sketch files. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Chest X-ray quality in the diagnosis of pneumonia in children: from prescription to optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI), primarily pneumonia, is the leading cause of childhood death in developing countries. The increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistance and the high cost of vaccines lead to considering the first strategy to reduce pneumonia deaths the early detection of the disease. Case management begins with the clinical examination and may continue with the prescription of a chest x-ray. Consequently, the radiograph should meet quality standards, and radiologists and paediatricians must know how to interpret the images. Special attention should be paid on patient dose due to children radiosensitivity, high frequency and chest x rays rejection rate. This paper is a retrospective study of chest radiographs performed in 5731 children with clinical diagnosis of ALRI assisted in three Uruguayan hospitals during the three year investigation supported by the Division of Vaccines and Immunization of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) that had the aim of estimating the burden of pneumonia (from 2001 to 2004). It is analyzed the prescription of radiographs during the diagnosis and in later controls (2220 children assisted in two of the three hospitals). Patient doses are estimated from technical parameters and equipment specifications. The investigation also analyzes patient doses that could have been avoided if paediatricians had managed the disease according to the established protocols. Results show that 82.4 % of chest X-rays diagnosed pneumonia and that some children underwent up to ten radiographs. Significant differences were found in patient dose in the three hospitals, concluding that education on image quality on chest radiographs of radiologists, paediatricians and radiological technologists is the first and best tool for the earlier diagnosis of pneumonia in children and for the application of Radiation Protection (RP) principles in medical exposures. (author)

  8. Chest x-ray quality in the diagnosis of pneumonia in children: From prescription to optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI), primarily pneumonia, is the leading cause of childhood death in developing countries. The increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistance and the high cost of vaccines lead to considering the first strategy to reduce pneumonia deaths the early detection of the disease. Case management begins with the clinical examination and may continue with the prescription of a chest x-ray. Consequently, the radiograph should meet quality standards, and radiologists and paediatricians must know how to interpret the images. Special attention should be paid on patient dose due to children radiosensitivity, high frequency and chest x rays rejection rate. This paper is a retrospective study of chest radiographs performed in 5731 children with clinical diagnosis of ALRI assisted in three Uruguayan hospitals during the three year investigation supported by the Division of Vaccines and Immunization of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) that had the aim of estimating the burden of pneumonia (from 2001 to 2004). It is analyzed the prescription of radiographs during the diagnosis and in later controls (2220 children assisted in two of the three hospitals). Patient doses are estimated from technical parameters and equipment specifications. The investigation also analyzes patient doses that could have been avoided if paediatricians had managed the disease according to the established protocols. Results show that 82.4 % of chest x-rays diagnosed pneumonia and that some children underwent up to ten radiographs. Significant differences were found in patient dose in the three hospitals, concluding that education on image quality on chest radiographs of radiologists, paediatricians and radiological technologists is the first and best tool for the earlier diagnosis of pneumonia in children and for the application of Radiation Protection (RP) principles in medical exposures. (author)

  9. Development of a stationary chest tomosynthesis system using carbon nanotube x-ray source array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jing

    X-ray imaging system has shown its usefulness for providing quick and easy access of imaging in both clinic settings and emergency situations. It greatly improves the workflow in hospitals. However, the conventional radiography systems, lacks 3D information in the images. The tissue overlapping issue in the 2D projection image result in low sensitivity and specificity. Both computed tomography and digital tomosynthesis, the two conventional 3D imaging modalities, requires a complex gantry to mechanically translate the x-ray source to various positions. Over the past decade, our research group has developed a carbon nanotube (CNT) based x-ray source technology. The CNT x-ray sources allows compacting multiple x-ray sources into a single x-ray tube. Each individual x-ray source in the source array can be electronically switched. This technology allows development of stationary tomographic imaging modalities without any complex mechanical gantries. The goal of this work is to develop a stationary digital chest tomosynthesis (s-DCT) system, and implement it for a clinical trial. The feasibility of s-DCT was investigated. It is found that the CNT source array can provide sufficient x-ray output for chest imaging. Phantom images have shown comparable image qualities as conventional DCT. The s-DBT system was then used to study the effects of source array configurations and tomosynthesis image quality, and the feasibility of a physiological gated s-DCT. Using physical measures for spatial resolution, the 2D source configuration was shown to have improved depth resolution and comparable in-plane resolution. The prospective gated tomosynthesis images have shown substantially reduction of image blur associated with lung motions. The system was also used to investigate the feasibility of using s-DCT as a diagnosis and monitoring tools for cystic fibrosis patients. A new scatter reduction methods for s-DCT was also studied. Finally, a s-DCT system was constructed by

  10. The chest X-ray image features of patients with severe SARS: a preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晋新; 唐小平; 江松峰; 陈碧华; 张烈光; 黄德扬; 黄务枝; 史红玲; 尹炽标; 陈金城

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the chest X-ray image features of patients with severe SARS.Methods Chest X-ray image features in 36 patients with severe SARS were retrospectively analyzed. The image characteristics were compared with those of 224 patients with common SARS. Results The important chest X-ray imaging features of 36 patients with severe SARS included small patch of infiltration (n=27, 75.0%), large patch of infiltration (n=22, 61.1%), large area of lung consolidation (n=10, 27.3%), interstitial lung lesion (n=26, 72.2%), ground-glass shadow (n=28, 77.8%), irregular linear opacity (n=15, 41.7%), diffuse lung lesion (n=12, 33.3%), with single lung involved (n=9, 25.0%), and both lungs involved (n=32, 88.9%). The rates of large patch of infiltration, large area of lung consolidation, ground-glass shadow, diffuse lung lesion and involvement of both lungs in patients with severe SARS were significantly higher than those in patients with common type of SARS (all P<0.01). Out of the 11 severe SARS patients who died, nine had large area of ground-glass shadow with air bronchogram in both lungs before death.Conclusions Large patch of infiltration, large area of consolidation, ground-glass shadow, diffuse lung lesion and involvement of both lungs were the main X-ray image characteristics of patients with severe SARS. Large area of ground-glass shadow with air bronchogram in both lungs indicated a bad prognosis.

  11. Prospective gated chest tomosynthesis using CNT X-ray source array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jing; Burk, Laurel; Wu, Gongting; Lee, Yueh Z.; Heath, Michael D.; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2015-03-01

    Chest tomosynthesis is a low-dose 3-D imaging modality that has been shown to have comparable sensitivity as CT in detecting lung nodules and other lung pathologies. We have recently demonstrated the feasibility of stationary chest tomosynthesis (s-DCT) using a distributed CNT X-ray source array. The technology allows acquisition of tomographic projections without moving the X-ray source. The electronically controlled CNT x-ray source also enables physiologically gated imaging, which will minimize image blur due to the patient's respiration motion. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of prospective gated chest tomosynthesis using a bench-top s-DCT system with a CNT source array, a high- speed at panel detector and realistic patient respiratory signals captured using a pressure sensor. Tomosynthesis images of inflated pig lungs placed inside an anthropomorphic chest phantom were acquired at different respiration rate, with and without gating for image quality comparison. Metal beads of 2 mm diameter were placed on the pig lung for quantitative measure of the image quality. Without gating, the beads were blurred to 3:75 mm during a 3 s tomosynthesis acquisition. When gated to the end of the inhalation and exhalation phase the detected bead size reduced to 2:25 mm, much closer to the actual bead size. With gating the observed airway edges are sharper and there are more visible structural details in the lung. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of prospective gating in the s-DCT, which substantially reduces image blur associated with lung motion.

  12. Dynamic chest radiography: flat-panel detector (FPD) based functional X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Rie

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic chest radiography is a flat-panel detector (FPD)-based functional X-ray imaging, which is performed as an additional examination in chest radiography. The large field of view (FOV) of FPDs permits real-time observation of the entire lungs and simultaneous right-and-left evaluation of diaphragm kinetics. Most importantly, dynamic chest radiography provides pulmonary ventilation and circulation findings as slight changes in pixel value even without the use of contrast media; the interpretation is challenging and crucial for a better understanding of pulmonary function. The basic concept was proposed in the 1980s; however, it was not realized until the 2010s because of technical limitations. Dynamic FPDs and advanced digital image processing played a key role for clinical application of dynamic chest radiography. Pulmonary ventilation and circulation can be quantified and visualized for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Dynamic chest radiography can be deployed as a simple and rapid means of functional imaging in both routine and emergency medicine. Here, we focus on the evaluation of pulmonary ventilation and circulation. This review article describes the basic mechanism of imaging findings according to pulmonary/circulation physiology, followed by imaging procedures, analysis method, and diagnostic performance of dynamic chest radiography. PMID:27294264

  13. The correlation between the chest X-ray classifications and the pathogens of hand–foot–mouth disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-guo Li

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: There was some relativity between clinical grade and pathogens. The severe and critical HFMD were caused mainly by EV71, and the mild HFMD was caused mainly by other pathogens except EV71. There was no significant correlation between chest X-ray classification and pathogens, but in the same chest X-ray classification, the distribution of pathogens was not identical. For the limitations of this study, we will do more research in the future work.

  14. Stationary chest tomosynthesis using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jing; Tucker, Andrew W.; Lee, Yueh Z.; Heath, Michael D.; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David H.; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Chest tomosynthesis is a low-dose, quasi-3D imaging modality that has been demonstrated to improve the detection sensitivity for small lung nodules, compared to 2D chest radiography. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility and system requirements of stationary chest tomosynthesis (s-DCT) using a spatially distributed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array, where the projection images are collected by electronically activating individual x-ray focal spots in the source array without mechanical motion of the x-ray source, detector, or the patient. A bench-top system was constructed using an existing CNT field emission source array and a flat panel detector. The tube output, beam quality, focal spot size, system in-plane and in-depth resolution were characterized. Tomosynthesis slices of an anthropomorphic chest phantom were reconstructed for image quality assessment. All 75 CNT sources in the source array were shown to operate reliably at 80 kVp and 5 mA tube current. Source-to-source consistency in the tube current and focal spot size was observed. The incident air kerma reading per mAs was measured as 74.47 uGy mAs-1 at 100 cm. The first half value layer of the beam was 3 mm aluminum. An average focal spot size of 2.5  ×  0.5 mm was measured. The system MTF was measured to be 1.7 cycles mm-1 along the scanning direction, and 3.4 cycles mm-1 perpendicular to the scanning direction. As the angular coverage of 11.6°-34°, the full width at half maximum of the artifact spread function improved greatly from 9.5 to 5.2 mm. The reconstructed tomosynthesis slices clearly show airways and pulmonary vascular structures in the anthropomorphic lung phantom. The results show the CNT source array is capable of generating sufficient dose for chest tomosynthesis imaging. The results obtained so far suggest an s-DCT using a distributed CNT x-ray source array is feasible.

  15. Chest X-rays in detecting injuries caused by blunt trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agladioglu, Kadir; Serinken, Mustafa; Dal, Onur; Beydilli, Halil; Eken, Cenker; Karcioglu, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The appropriate sequence of different imagings and indications of thoracic computed tomography (TCT) in evaluating chest trauma have not yet been clarified at present. The current study was undertaken to determine the value of chest X-ray (CXR) in detecting chest injuries in patients with blunt trauma. METHODS: A total of 447 patients with blunt thoracic trauma who had been admitted to the emergency department (ED) in the period of 2009–2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients met inclusion criteria (age>8 years, blunt injury to the chest, hemodynamically stable, and neurologically intact) and underwent both TCT and upright CXR in the ED. Radiological imagings were re-interpreted after they were collected from the hospital database by two skilled radiologists. RESULTS: Of the 447 patients, 309 (69.1%) were male. The mean age of the 447 patients was 39.5±19.2 (range 9 and 87 years). 158 (35.3%) patients were injured in motor vehicle accidents (MVA). CXR showed the highest sensitivity in detecting clavicle fractures [95%CI 78.3 (63.6–89)] but the lowest in pneuomediastinum [95%CI 11.8 (1.5–36.4)]. The specificity of CXR was close to 100% in detecting a wide array of entities. CONCLUSION: CXR remains to be the first choice in hemodynamically unstable patients with blunt chest trauma. Moreover, stable patients with normal CXR are candidates who should undergo TCT if significant injury has not been ruled out. PMID:27006740

  16. The diagnosis of pneumonia requires a chest radiograph (x-ray – yes, no or sometimes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Gower Wootton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP remains a common condition associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Outcome is improved by early recognition and rapid institution of empirical antibiotic therapy. A number of international guidelines recommend a chest radiograph (x-ray is obtained when pneumonia is suspected; the argument forwarded is that chest radiographs are relatively inexpensive and enable pneumonia (lung consolidation to be confirmed or excluded. But, radiographs are not available in the community setting and introduce a delay in diagnosis and treatment. For these reasons, in mild CAP treated by primary care, guidelines suggest criteria for clinical diagnosis. However, there is debate as to whether clinical features alone are sufficiently reliable to support a diagnosis of CAP with some suggesting diagnostic precision is improved by chest radiographs. Conversely, several studies have demonstrated a lack of agreement in the interpretation of chest radiographs bringing their role as the ultimate arbiter of diagnosis into question. Below we debate the diagnostic role of the humble chest radiograph in the context of suspected CAP.

  17. Effective dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently developed MAX (Male Adult voXel) and the FAXht (Female Adult voXel) head and trunk phantoms have been used to calculate organ and tissue equivalent dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen as a function of source and field parameters, like voltage, filtration, field size, focus-to-skin distance, etc. Based on the equivalent doses to twenty three organs and tissues at risk, the effective dose has been determined and compared with corresponding data for others phantoms. The influence of different radiation transport codes, different tissue compositions and different human anatomies have been investigated separately. (Author)

  18. A survey on respiratory diseases of atomic bomb survivors using chest X-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From April 1981 through March 1986, 39,363 A-bomb survivors older than 50 years of age underwent chest X-ray examination. The incidence of abnormal findings was higher in men (28 %) than in women (13 %). The most common disease was old pulmonary tuberculosis in both men and women. The incidence of pulmonary fibrosis was remarkably high in survivors exposed directly to A-bomb radiation, when compared with controls. There was no data suggesting the relationship between the incidence of respiratory disease and exposure status such as the distance from ground zero. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Effective dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, F.R.A. [Centro regional de Ciencias Nucleares, CRCN/CNEN, Rua Conego Barata, 999, Tamarineira, Recife, PE (Brazil); Kramer, R.; Vieira, J.W.; Khoury, H.J. [Departamento de Energia Nuclear, DEN/UFPE, Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    The recently developed MAX (Male Adult voXel) and the FAXht (Female Adult voXel) head and trunk phantoms have been used to calculate organ and tissue equivalent dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen as a function of source and field parameters, like voltage, filtration, field size, focus-to-skin distance, etc. Based on the equivalent doses to twenty three organs and tissues at risk, the effective dose has been determined and compared with corresponding data for others phantoms. The influence of different radiation transport codes, different tissue compositions and different human anatomies have been investigated separately. (Author)

  20. Chest X-ray and computed tomography in the evaluation of pulmonary emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irion, Klaus Loureiro [Liverpool NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom). Cardiothoracic Centre; Hochhegger, Bruno [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: brunorgs@mail.ufsm.br; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Porto, Nelson da Silva [Hospital da Santa Casa e Hospital Mae de Deus, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Pavilhao Pereira Filho; Baldisserotto, Sergio de Vasconcellos [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil); Santana, Pablo Rydz [Irion Radiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    Emphysema is a condition of the lung, characterized by the abnormal increase in the size of the airspace distal to the terminal bronchioles. Currently, emphysema is the fourth leading cause of death in the USA, affecting 14 million people. The present article describes the principal tools in the imaging diagnosis of emphysema, from the early days until the present. We describe traditional techniques, such as chest X-ray, together with the evolution of computed tomography (CT) to more advanced forms, such as high resolution CT, as well as three-dimensional CT densitometry and volumetric assessment. (author)

  1. Chest X-ray and computed tomography in the evaluation of pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emphysema is a condition of the lung, characterized by the abnormal increase in the size of the airspace distal to the terminal bronchioles. Currently, emphysema is the fourth leading cause of death in the USA, affecting 14 million people. The present article describes the principal tools in the imaging diagnosis of emphysema, from the early days until the present. We describe traditional techniques, such as chest X-ray, together with the evolution of computed tomography (CT) to more advanced forms, such as high resolution CT, as well as three-dimensional CT densitometry and volumetric assessment. (author)

  2. Analysis of X-ray manifestations and changes in dysplastic damages to the skull bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the analysis of X-ray manifestations of osteodysplasia of skull bones in 136 patients of different ages. It presents the time course of changes in relation to the structural pattern of malformed osseous tissue, including those after radical and palliative surgical interventions

  3. A Design of a Computer-Aided Diagnostic Tool For Chest X-Ray Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Le

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of some chest diseases like heart failure, lung cancer or lung tuberculosis, etc. isoften based on chest X-ray images (CXR. The diseases are curable if they are detected in theirearly stages. Examining CXR is a time consuming process. In some cases, medical experts hadoverlooked the diseases in their firstexaminations on CXR, and when the images were reexamined,the disease signs could be detected.Furthermore, the number of CXR to examine isnumerous and far beyond the capability of available medical staff, especially in developingcountries.A computer-aided diagnosis (CAD system can mark suspected areas on CXR for carefulexamination by medical doctors, and can give alarm in the cases that need urgent attention.This paper reports our continuous work on the development of a CAD tool, which is anextended version of a conference paper [1]. In this version, we present some more works onCXR analysis and examination.

  4. Atlas-based rib-bone detection in chest X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candemir, Sema; Jaeger, Stefan; Antani, Sameer; Bagci, Ulas; Folio, Les R; Xu, Ziyue; Thoma, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates using rib-bone atlases for automatic detection of rib-bones in chest X-rays (CXRs). We built a system that takes patient X-ray and model atlases as input and automatically computes the posterior rib borders with high accuracy and efficiency. In addition to conventional atlas, we propose two alternative atlases: (i) automatically computed rib bone models using Computed Tomography (CT) scans, and (ii) dual energy CXRs. We test the proposed approach with each model on 25 CXRs from the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) dataset and another 25 CXRs from the National Library of Medicine CXR dataset. We achieve an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of about 95% for Montgomery and 91% for JSRT datasets. Using the optimal operating point of the ROC curve, we achieve a segmentation accuracy of 88.91±1.8% for Montgomery and 85.48±3.3% for JSRT datasets. Our method produces comparable results with the state-of-the-art algorithms. The performance of our method is also excellent on challenging X-rays as it successfully addressed the rib-shape variance between patients and number of visible rib-bones due to patient respiration. PMID:27156048

  5. HRCT findings of disseminated small nodular shadow in plain chest x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) was done in 22 cases of disseminated small nodular shadow from plain chest X-ray, which was included in metastatic lesion, Miliary tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis etc. and following results were obtained. Most of metastatic nodule (n=8) showed more than 1.5mm in diameter and the margin of nodule was discrete (n=8) and many cases (n=8) were associated with thickened bronchovascular sheath or interlobular septum and hilar and mediastinal lymphnode enlargement (n=6). One case turned out to be not true nodule in HRCT but revealed thickened interlobular septum and bronchovascular bundles. All cases of miliary tuberculosis (n=8) showed even sized, well marginate and less than 3mm in diameter of nodule without evidence of thickening of bronchovascular bundle or interlobular septum. Ease cases of pneumoconiosis, histiocytosis X, diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) showed ill defined nodule and associate finding of DPB was peripheral bronchioloectasis. HRCT is useful method to exact evaluation of nodular lesion and find out associate findings for differential diagnosis of disseminate small nodular shadow in plain chest X-rays

  6. Gray-scale transform and evaluation for digital x-ray chest images on CRT monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Isao; Suzuki, Junji; Ono, Sadayasu; Kitamura, Masayuki; Ando, Yutaka

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, an experimental evaluation of a super high definition (SHD) imaging system for digital x-ray chest images is presented. The SHD imaging system is proposed as a platform for integrating conventional image media. We are involved in the use of SHD images in the total digitizing of medical records that include chest x-rays and pathological microscopic images, both which demand the highest level of quality among the various types of medical images. SHD images use progressive scanning and have a spatial resolution of 2000 by 2000 pixels or more and a temporal resolution (frame rate) of 60 frames/sec or more. For displaying medical x-ray images on a CRT, we derived gray scale transform characteristics based on radiologists' comments during the experiment, and elucidated the relationship between that gray scale transform and the linearization transform for maintaining the linear relationship with the luminance of film on a light box (luminance linear transform). We then carried out viewing experiments based on a five-stage evaluation. Nine radiologists participated in our experiment, and the ten cases evaluated included pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, and pneumonia. The experimental results indicated that conventional film images and those on super high definition CRT monitors have nearly the same quality. They also show that the gray scale transform for CRT images decided according to radiologists' comments agrees with the luminance linear transform in the high luminance region. And in the low luminance region, it was found that the gray scale transform had the characteristics of level expansion to increase the number of levels that can be expressed.

  7. Analysis of the expressivity of chest X-ray in newborns with respiratory distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the role of chest X-ray in the diagnosis, clinical evaluation and follow-up of the infant born with lung disease-related respiratory distress. To establish general radiological patterns, studying their utility in orienting the differential diagnosis between primary diseases and pulmonary complications responsible for the distress. The necropsy and radiological findings of 71 infants born with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) were correlated with the clinical records. The etiology was hyaline membrane disease in 40 newborns, neonatal pneumonia in 17, aspiration of clear or meconium-stained amniotic fluid in 6 and 7, respectively, and primary pulmonary lymphangiectasis in the remaining case. Additional lung complications consisted of loss of alveolar airspace in 17 infants, massive pulmonary hemorrhage in 7 and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in 8. There was a high incidence of normal X-rays (25.35%) during the initial period despite the presence of well-established and severe disease. The sensitivity of chest X-ray for each of the underlying lung diseases causing NRDS was as follows: 80% for hyaline membrane disease, 71.4% for aspiration of meconium-stained amniotic fluid 70.6% for neonatal pneumonia, 50% for massive aspiration of clear amniotic fluid and 100% for the remaining causes. Although there are no radiological patterns showing significant sensitivity and specificity for a given primary disease or pulmonary complication, the radiological differential diagnosis serves to orient the study. Given the complexity and lack of clinical specificity of NRDS, it is necessary to approach this disease from both the clinical and radiological points of view. (Author) 25 refs

  8. The Role of Human Factor in Radiation Protection of Children During Chest X Ray Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection depends on many factors. Our study deals with the human factor, the radiology technicians' routine work. If all technical malfunctions are excluded they are responsible for the patient dose. Depending on their education and experience, technicians perform X ray examinations with various end results: image quality, entrance surface dose, patient interaction etc. In hospital setting we have consecutively chosen the study group of 20 children that had a clinical indication for a chest X ray examination (standard PA radiogram), for each of three technicians working at the radiology ward. A Shimadzu X ray machine was used in all cases. 60 children were from 6 to 12 years old and all parents were informed about the aim and the experimental details of the study. All of them gave their informed consent. Radiophotoluminescent (RPL) and thermoluminescent (TLD) dosimeters were applied at the entrance of the beam in the center of the X ray field to measure the entrance surface dose (ESD). Three differently experienced technicians were unaware of the objective of the study. Parameters that were noted were the kV, mAs and the size of the radiation field. The results show a good correlation in ESD between two technicians. Doses were significantly higher for the third one. After the results were known, protocols were designed and after educational interference, we continued to measure ESD again on a group of 40 children. The doses were reduced and there was a good correlation between all three technicians. With this work we want to clarify and show the importance of continuous education and good teamwork for dose reduction. In a sequel study, with the same three technicians, we hope to have results that would show a better dose reduction. (author)

  9. Comparison of Chest X-Ray Findings of Smear Positive and Smear Negative Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis is a chronic pulmonary infectious disease that has affected one-third of the people in the world. It causes nine million new cases and two million deaths per year. Chest radiography associated with Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining procedure significantly helps the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Chest radiography can help the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with a negative smear sample result that is mainly diagnosed with delay. In this study, chest X-ray findings of PTB were compared in two groups of smear positive and smear negative patients. In this retrospective descriptive-analytical study, 376 patients who had been confirmed with PTB were referred to Birjand Health Care Center from 2001 to 2006. Out of the 376 patients, 100 patients with a positive smear based on WHO criteria were selected. In addition, among negative smear patients, 100 were selected in whom similar demographic characteristics with positive smear patients were seen. All of them had undergone chest radiographies that were then interpreted by two expert radiologists independently. Moreover, all patients’ sputa were examined by an expert laboratory technician at the reference laboratory of the health center. The obtained data were analyzed by means of frequency distribution table and descriptive statistics using SPSS (version 15) and Chi-square statistical test. Except reticulo-nodular infiltration, the relative frequency of other radiographic findings in positive smear patients were more than negative smear patients; and only differences in calcification variables, mediastinal widening, patchy infiltration and hilar adenopathy were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Based on the results of this study, although radiographic findings are not diagnostic in PTB, they are helpful if the assessment associates with the view of clinical manifestations and sputum smears

  10. Reading and interpretation of chest X-ray in adults with community-acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Moncada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Traditional reading of chest X-rays usually has a low prognostic value and poor agreement. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the interobserver and intraobserver agreement using two reading formats in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, and to explore their association with etiology and clinical outcomes. METHODS: A pulmonologist and a radiologist, who were blind to clinical data, interpreted 211 radiographs using a traditional analysis format (type and location of pulmonary infiltrates and pleural findings, and a quantitative analysis (pulmonary damage categorized from 0 to 10. For both, the interobserver and intraobserver agreement was estimated (Kappa statistic and intraclass correlation coefficient. The latter was assessed in a subsample of 25 radiographs three months after the initial reading. Finally, the observers made a joint reading to explore its prognostic usefulness via multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Seventy-four chest radiographs were discarded due to poor quality. With the traditional reading, the mean interobserver agreement was moderate (0.43. It was considered good when the presence of pleural effusion, and the location of the infiltrates in the right upper lobe and both lower lobes, were evaluated; moderate for multilobar pneumonia; and poor for the type of infiltrates. The mean intraobserver agreement for each reviewer was 0.71 and 0.5 respectively. The quantitative reading had an agreement between good and excellent (interobserver 0.72, intraobserver 0.85 and 0.61. Radiological findings were neither associated to a specific pathogen nor to mortality. CONCLUSION: In patients with pneumonia, the interpretation of the chest X-ray, especially the smallest of details, depends solely on the reader.

  11. letter to editor: Swine Flu: Concern for Infection Control in the Procedure of Patient Preparation for Chest X-Ray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wiwanitkit

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dear editor:"n"nSwine flu is a new emerging atypical H1N1 influenza virus infection. Nowadays swine flu pandemic has become a global public health threat.1 As there are several epidemic foci of swine flu around the world and there are many infected cases, it is necessary for every country to prepare for management. Chest x-ray is an important investigation for the confirmed infected cases as well as highly suspicious cases. There must be specific concern for infection control in the procedure of patient preparation for chest x-ray. In routine clinical practice, separation of the patients and using specific isolated parts are suggested for general clinic; however, this might not be possible for the x-ray unit. It is routinely not possible to separate the x-ray room specifically for this group of patients. There must be a special communication system between the ward and the x-ray unit for early preparation. The process must be managed as a fast track procedure and preparation of a special room based on disinfectant principles before and after each x-ray procedure. In addition, preparation of the patients according to basic infection control process such as wearing masks and hand washing before the x-ray procedure are other precautionary measurements.    

  12. A study to compare chest X-ray reports on overseas nursing recruits.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, S

    2010-05-01

    This study was carried out to assess if there was a difference in the Chest X- ray (CXR) report on recruited nurses carried out overseas and later repeated in Ireland. This study was carried out in two Irish teaching hospitals. The subjects of this study comprised all overseas nurses recruited in each of the two hospitals within the defined period. The total number of subjects recruited from the 2 two centres was 84. Only nurses that had a repeat CXR were included in this study. 6\\/84 (7%) of the CXR that were initially reported as normal were subsequently reported as abnormal and were later diagnosed as Latent TB. 2\\/84(2%) of the CXR that were reported as abnormal were subsequently reported as normal. The data collected in this study has demonstrated that there was a significant difference in the CXR report from overseas and the CXR report in Ireland.

  13. The chest X-ray in children with pulmonic stenosis and intact ventricular septum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 89 children with angiographically-documented pulmonic stenosis and intact ventricular septum (PST), 76 had valvular, 11 infundibular and 2 had supravalvular lesions. Standard, p.a. view, chest X-rays of children with a mean age of 6 7/12 years were evaluated with respect to 1. cardiac enlargement; 2. prominence of the pulmonic trunk; 3. diminished pulmonary vascular markings. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the gradient measured across the pulmonic valve: 1: systolic pressure gradient less than 30 mm Hg (mild PST), 28 children; 2: systolic pressure gradient between 30 and 80 mm Hg (moderate PST), 37 children; 3: systolic pressure gradient greater than 80 mm Hg (severe PST), 24 children. Cardiac enlargement was found in a total of 56.2% of the children with no statistical difference in the severity of the lesion. A markedly ectatic pulmonary segment was observed in 12.5% of the children in group 3 but only in 2.7% of those in groups 1 and 2 respectively. Diminished pulmonary vascular markings were observed in a total of 9% with a distribution including no patient in group 1, 10.8% in group 2 and 16.6% in group 3. On combining all three of the radiologic criteria, 9% demonstrated completely normal findings of the heart and lungs, 5.6% showed cardiac enlargement with marked prominence of the pulmonic trunk and diminished pulmonary vascular markings. In the remaining patients, no statistically significant relationship between the constellation of findings and the severity of the stenosis was found. Thus, the results show that, in the individual case, the diagnosis of pulmonic stenosis with intact ventricular septum cannot be established from the standard chest X-ray. (orig./MG)

  14. The value of advanced multiple beam equalization radiography (AMBER) and storage phosphor radiography in chest X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study compared the quality of roentgenologic criteria in the evaluation of the heart and pulmonary vessels on chest X-rays obtained with different imaging systems. Fifty patients had four different chest radiographs, i.e. conventional chest X-rays, AMBER images, digital storage phosphor images, and digital storage radiographs that were obtained with the AMBER system. Comparison of techniques was based on 12 well-defined quality criteria of chest X-rays. Four radiologists with expertise reviewed the films according to these criteria. The AMBER technique was found to be superior to the remaining imaging modalities in visualization of the central pulmonary vessels, the descending aorta, and the left atrium. Peripheral pulmonary vessels were best appreciated with AMBER technique combined with storage phosphor technique. The same technique was superior in the assessment of all cardiovascular criteria. The superiority of this technique versus conventional chest X-rays can be explained on the basis of the linear slope of the gradation curve of AMBER and digital techniques. (orig.)

  15. The X-ray analysis of pulmonary manifestations in acute aspiration of trichlorethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the X-ray pulmonary changes in patients with acute aspiration of trichlorethane. Methods: Among 48 cases with acute aspiration of trichlorethane, 7 were male and 41 female, with ages ranged from 5.5 to 50 years old, mean age was 13.5 years old. 4 patients were diagnosed as mild acute intoxication, 22 as aspirating reaction, and 22 as uncomfortable reaction. And chest radiography was performed in all the cases. Results Pneumonia and bronchopneumonia was found in 4 cases with acute intoxication, inflammation around bronchial branches in 22 cases with aspirating reaction. The other cases were negative findings. Conclusions: Acute aspiration of trichlorethane may cause pneumonia, bronchopneumonia and inflammation around bronchial branches, which can be detected by chest radiography. (authors)

  16. Aspergillus and mucormycosis presenting with normal chest X-ray in an immunocompromised host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipin; Rajagopalan, Natarajan; Patil, Mahantesh; C, Shivaprasad

    2014-01-01

    Invasive aspergillus and mucormycosis infection are not uncommon in immunocompromised individuals. Endobronchial fungal infections have been reported in the literature, especially in patient's with diabetes complicated by diabetic ketoacidosis, but end bronchial coinfection with aspergillus and mucormycosis without pulmonary involvement has not been described in the literature. We report the case of a woman with diabetes who presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, ketoacidosis and respiratory distress, with an apparently normal chest X-ray. Investigations revealed a cavitatory lesion in the left lower lobe of the lungs on CT scan. Bronchoscopy revealed intense mucosal oedema and whitish plaques at the lower end of the trachea and right main stem bronchus with a normal left bronchial tree. Microbiological and pathological results confirmed aspergillus and mucormycosis. Despite aggressive medical management, the patient deteriorated and died of respiratory failure. Strong suspicion of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients with respiratory failure and minimal chest infiltrates, early fibreoptic bronchoscopy and early aggressive treatment is crucial for the patient's survival. PMID:24717585

  17. Notes on a local study on effectiveness and risk of X-ray mass chest screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution consists of some special remarks, which may be of general interest, on the results of a local investigation on effectiveness and radiological risk of mass chest screening carried out in Friuli Venezia Giulia, an area of North-East Italy limited by well defined geographical and administrative borders. Population is about 1,300,000, ten percent of which is undergoing X-ray chest screening each year. The results of the study are in the working report of the technical workshop on mass screening organized on 4-5 December 1984 in Luxembourg by CEC and CEA. The study itself does not intend to have any character of generality. It has been proposed as an example of syntetic methodology for other similar local investigations which could possibly constitute a reliable basis for putting together larger ones, of national range, as already mentioned in the report. The conclusions on the results of this study seem obvious to us, however, we are aware that any obvious conclusion must be considered very carefully especially when dealing with a very complex matter as epidemiologic statistic, and particularly if we consider the previous papers on this subject as well as other reports presented in the workshop. Finally, we hope that our remarks may at least contribute as a good background for further discussion

  18. Beam quality independent attenuation phantom for estimating patient exposure from x-ray automatic exposure controlled chest examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The periodic assessment of exposures in diagnostic radiology is an important part of a comprehensive quality assurance program. The most frequent radiologic examination conducted in the United States is chest radiography. Automatic exposure controlled (AEC) techniques are often used for this exam, and a standard patient-equivalent chest phantom is useful when estimating patient exposures on such systems. This is of particular importance if exposures are to be compared among AEC systems with different entrance x-ray spectra. Such a phantom has been developed to facilitate surveys of the average patient exposure from AEC posteroanterior chest radiography. The phantom is relatively lightweight and easily transportable, sturdy and made of readily available and relatively inexpensive materials (Lucite and aluminum). It accurately simulates the primary and scatter transmission through the lung-field regions of a patient-equivalent anthropomorphic phantom for x-ray spectra typically used in chest radiography. A clinical evaluation has been conducted to verify the patient equivalence of the phantom. Measurements of patient entrance skin exposure were obtained for a large number of patients on a variety of x-ray systems operated in the AEC mode using one or both lung-field detectors. Comparison of these data with exposure estimates derived from the phantom indicate that the phantom attenuates the x-ray beam in such a way that it can be employed to accurately and consistently estimate the mean exposure of the average patient under a variety of radiographic conditions

  19. Quantitative Ga-67 scintigraphy in patients with silicosis: comparison with chest X-ray and pulmonary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international Labor Organizatin (ILO) has established an international standard for chest X-ray diagnosis of pneumoconiosis since 1980. However, there is a need for improved diagnosis and staging in occupational disease. We evaluated Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy quantitatively and correlated the scintigraphic findings with pulmonary function tests and chest X-ray results. Twenty-five patients underwent whole body scintigraphy with additional chest and abdomen images 48 hrs after intravenous injection of 185 MBq of Ga-67 citrate. Ten normal controls were also studied. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn on the posterior image to measure counts from the liver and lungs (Lung/Liver Ratio). L/L ratio according to the stages of chest X-ray classification were as follows; stage 0 (normal, n=10): 0.3948 ±0.0692, stage 1(n=10): 0.5763±0.1837, stage 2(n=11): 0.6849±0.1459, stage 3 (n=4): 0.9913±0.0712. There was a significant correlation between the scintigraphic L/L ratio and the X-ray state (r=0.618, p0.05). Quantitative Ga-67 scintigraphy can be a useful method for staging of silicosis. However, it is not a method to assess pulmonary functional impairment

  20. Extrapleural hematoma as an unexpected finding on a follow-up chest X-ray after coronary surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present two cases of an extrapleural hematoma, on a follow-up chest X-ray after coronary artery bypass surgery using an internal mammary artery (IMA). In both cases, the finding was disclosed on a routine chest film obtained 1 month post-operatively, in a patient who was either asymptomatic or had nonspecific symptoms. Follow-up chest films showed spontaneous resolution in both patients. We emphasize the recognition and significance of such a self-limited post-operative radiological finding

  1. Routinely obtained chest X-rays after elective video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery can be omitted in most patients; a retrospective, observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars S; Jensen, Katrine; Petersen, René Horsleben;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the use of routinely obtained chest X-rays is necessary after elective VATS. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 1097 chest X-rays obtained routinely after elective VATS, performed in patients aged over 15 years during an 18-month period. VATS procedures were...

  2. Is Pneumothorax Size on Chest X-Ray a Predictor of Neonatal Mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yurtseven

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pneumothorax in newborns may result in a significant mortality and morbidity. To predict who will survive or die is of great importance in the clinical management. The aim of this study is to address whether assessment of pneumothorax size on chest X-ray may be a predictor of prognosis in newborns presenting with pneumothorax.Methods: Of 5929 infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU from January 2007 to April 2011, 60 (1.0% newborns presenting with pneumothorax were included in the present study. Pneumothorax size was calculated by measuring the widest transverse diameter of pneumothorax area in the posteroanterior view and dividing it by the widest transverse diameter of thoracic cavity above the diaphragm. Clinical data were collected from the patients’ records.Findings: Overall mortality rate was 30% (18 patients. Pneumothorax size was significantly higher in non-survivors (31.1±2.8 vs 16.4±1.4, P<0.001. The cut-off point of pneumothorax size for predicting survival was determined as 20%. The sensitivity was 72% whereas the specificity 83%. Preterm birth, low birth weight, resuscitation at birth, need for mechanical ventilation and chest tube insertion were of great significance in predicting mortality. However, of overall significant parameters, only pneumothorax size was the independent prognostic factor by regression analysis (P=0.02Conclusion: We conclude that the calculation of pneumothorax size in the newborns is a predictor of prognosis with high sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore newborns with pneumothorax size greater than 20% are likely to have worse prognosis.

  3. Adaptive wiener filter based on Gaussian mixture distribution model for denoising chest X-ray CT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades, X-ray CT imaging has become more important as a result of its high-resolution performance. However, it is well known that the X-ray dose is insufficient in the techniques that use low-dose imaging in health screening or thin-slice imaging in work-up. Therefore, the degradation of CT images caused by the streak artifact frequently becomes problematic. In this study, we applied a Wiener filter (WF) using the universal Gaussian mixture distribution model (UNI-GMM) as a statistical model to remove streak artifact. In designing the WF, it is necessary to estimate the statistical model and the precise co-variances of the original image. In the proposed method, we obtained a variety of chest X-ray CT images using a phantom simulating a chest organ, and we estimated the statistical information using the images for training. The results of simulation showed that it is possible to fit the UNI-GMM to the chest X-ray CT images and reduce the specific noise. (author)

  4. A simple model for predicting skin dose for patients undergoing routine chest x-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the predicted skin doses of patients undergoing routine medical examinations at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi were carried out. We have used the Edmond's formula, the modified Edmond's formula and the regression method. Measurements were also made using phantoms and Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) in place of patients in order to compare the results obtained. The predicted mean chest dose for 100 patients undergoing routine medical examinations at Federal Medical Centre Makurdi was 0.73 mGy using Edmond's formula. The predicted average dose using our modified formula was 0.72 mGy. That using the regression method was 647.9 mGy. We repeated the above measurements with TLD badges using phantoms in place of patients. Twenty-four measurements were carried out. The average skin dose using TLD badges was 1.14 mGy. From these results, it can be seen that, the average dose from the modified Edmond's formula and the regression method closely agree with those obtained from the Edmond's formulae. On the other hand the average dose obtained using phantoms was significantly higher than the previous results. This significant difference may be due to the age associated with the X-ray machine used.

  5. Chest X-ray findings in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the chest X-ray (CXR) findings and clinical courses of 129 patients with Kawasaki disease and found abnormal CXR findings in 14.7% of the patients. Reticulogranular pattern was the most frequent abnormality (89.5%), while peribronchial cuffing (21.1%), pleural effusion (15.8%), atelectasis (10.5%) and air trapping (5.3%) were also seen. In each of these patients, CXR abnormalities appeared within 10 days after the onset of illness. In the group with abnormal CXR findings, a statistically significant increase was noted in duration of fever, incidence of adventitious sounds, serum CPR levels and incidence of coronary arterial lesions and pericardial effusion, as compared with the group having normal CXR findings. The pathological basis of these CXR changes is not clear, since no biopsy or autopsy specimen was obtained from these patients. Since none of these patients showed definite heart failure, it is difficult to consider that abnormal CXR findings were due to heart failure. On the other hand, physical signs and previous pathological reports suggested that the causes of abnormal CXR findings were lower respiratory tract inflammation and/or pulmonary arteritis. (orig.)

  6. Manifestations of joint disease of domestic carnivores in X-ray view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević-Macanović Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes caused by joint diseases that are manifested in X-ray are very diverse. Some of them are present in all arthroparthies while some are specific to certain diseases. For all the arthropathies it is specific that the duration of a disease significantly influences the presence and intensity of radiological changes. In this paper there analyzed in detail some basic radiological joint diseases manifestations such as: distension of the joint capsule, change of size (width of the joint space, change of position of corresponding bones within the joint, change in quality of subchondral bone, the appearance of intra-articular mineralization and calcified structures, as well as the presence of perichondral and periarticular bone proliferations. Beside that, there are described in detail arthropathies of different etiology. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175061

  7. Chest Wall Involvement as a Manifestation of Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    K Rahmdel; R Golsha; Golshah, E; R Rezaie Shirazi; N Sadre Momtaz

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis continues to be a common infectious disease in some parts of the world. Although the disease has different presentations, but chest wall involvement, as a manifestation of brucellosis is rare. In this study, we report three cases of chest wall involvement as manifesting feature of Brucellosis in Iran. They presented with a history of parasternal masses revealed to a diagnosis of Brucellosis and responded well to the treatment. Brucellosis may present with strange and unpredictable...

  8. Safety related to the implantation of jugular catheters for haemodialysis and usefulness of PA chest X rays post procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to determine how safe the implantation of transient double lumen jugular catheters is for hemodialysis in patients with renal disease, and who require dialysis therapy and Posterior Anterior (PA) chest X-Ray post procedure. Design: observational descriptive study. Site: renal units at RTS Ltda. Sucursal Caldas (Hospital Santa Sofia y Hospital Infantil Rafael Henao Toro de la Cruz Roja). Patients: all patients with renal disease in whom it was necessary to do hemodyalitic therapy with implantation of a jugular catheter, with medical records of the events and complications that occurred during the procedure, with subsequent control AP chest X Ray and that showed reports made by the radiologist or physician who carried out the procedure, about the findings in the chest X Ray. Patients with renal disease, in whom jugular catheters had been inserted: Methods: variables such as age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI) etiology of the renal failure,time of evolution of the disease, indications for insertion, priority of catheter insertion, type of catheter inserted, amount of punctures, physician who carried out the procedure and patient's co-morbidities were analyzed. The events considered as complicated were analyzed as well as if there was any relationship with co-morbidities and the analyzed variables. Findings in the PA chest X-Ray were recorded and their relationship with the difficulties encountered during the procedure. A bi-variance analysis was done. The dependent and independent variables were classified in the nominal measurement scale. Results: 774 clinical histories were reviewed. 562 were excluded due to lack of variables and impossibility to read the notes. Men older than de 55 (45,7%). 212 (97.1%) patients with diagnosis of chronic renal disease (CRD) and in whom 238 procedures were carried out. seven patients (2,85%) had acute renal failure (ARF). The fi rst indication for central catheter insertion was in patients with chronic uremia

  9. Statistical Feature-based Neural Network Approach for the Detection of Lung Cancer in Chest X-Ray Images K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A.G. Udeshani, R.G.N. Meegama & T.G.I. Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer, if detected successfully at early stages, enables many treatment options,reduced risk of invasive surgery and increased survival rate. This paper presents a novelapproach to detect lung cancer from raw chest X-ray images. At the first stage, we use apipeline of image processing routines to remove noise and segment the lung from otheranatomical structures in the chest X-ray and extract regions that exhibit shape characteristicsof lung nodules. Subsequently, first and second order statistical texture features areconsidered as the inputs to train a neural network to verify whether a region extracted in thefirst stage is a nodule or not . The proposed approach detected nodules in the diseased areaof the lung with an accuracy of 96% using the pixel-based technique while the feature-basedtechnique produced an accuracy of 88%.

  10. Reading a radiologist's mind: monitoring rising and falling interest levels while scanning chest x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzubaidi, Mohammad; Patel, Ameet; Panchanathan, Sethuraman; Black, John A., Jr.

    2010-02-01

    Radiological images constitute a special class of images that are captured (or computed) specifically for the purpose of diagnosing patients. However, because these are not "natural" images, radiologists must be trained to interpret them through a process called "perceptual learning". However, because perceptual learning is implicit, experienced radiologists may sometimes find it difficult to explicitly (i.e. verbally) train less experienced colleagues. As a result, current methods of training can take years before a new radiologist is fully competent to independently interpret medical images. We hypothesize that eye tracking technology (coupled with multimedia technology) can be used to accelerate the process of perceptual training, through a Hebbian learning process. This would be accomplished by providing a radiologist-in-training with real-time feedback as he/she is fixating on important regions of an image. Of course this requires that the training system have information about what regions of an image are important - information that could presumably be solicited from experienced radiologists. However, our previous work has suggested that experienced radiologists are not always aware of those regions of an image that attract their attention, but are not clinically significant - information that is very important to a radiologist in training. This paper discusses a study in which local entropy computations were done on scan path data, and were found to provide a quantitative measure of the moment-by-moment interest level of radiologists as they scanned chest x-rays. The results also showed a striking contrast between the moment-by-moment deployment of attention between experienced radiologists and radiologists in training.

  11. Examination of funnel chests by X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography: First results and experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funnel chest (pectus excavatum) is a congenital malformation of the thorax. Operative correction must presently be regarded as the treatment of choise. In addition to cosmetical and psychological reasons, there are mainly functional aspects justifying a surgery. The indication for surgery results mostly from the objective clinical-diagnostical findings. This article describes the efficiency of both X-ray computerized tomography and also nuclear magnetic resonance tomography (NMR-CAT) which has only recently been introduced to clinical diagnostics. (orig./BWU)

  12. Quantitative assessment of radiation-induced lung changes by computerized optical densitometry of routine chest x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a quantitative assay of radiological lung changes after postmastectomy radiotherapy applicable for analysis of routine chest x-rays. Methods and Materials: The assay relies on measurement of the optical density of chest x-rays by means of a standard personal computer-controlled film densitometer used for scanning dosimetry films. Density profiles were recorded at 1 mm steps along two reference lines in each lung. The crossing between the clavicula and the first rib in the x-ray projection was used as an easily identifiable anatomical landmark and was used to establish two parallel cranio-caudal reference lines separated by 20 mm. The starting point for recording optical densities was 5 mm below a line perpendicular to the reference lines and tangent to the top of the lung. Data were stored in a computer file for subsequent processing. The optical film densities in the apex of the lungs were converted into equivalent absorber thickness (EAT). To minimize the dependency on technical factors, the unirradiated lung was used as a control. Lung density changes were quantified by the relative change in EAT (REAT), which was evaluated as the difference between the summed EATs along the reference lines in the two lungs, corrected for any pretreatment difference in lung density, and taken as a percentage of the pretreatment EAT value of the lung. Results: Four different tests were carried out to investigate the reproducibility and validity of the proposed assay. (a) An anthropomorphic phantom was used to test the relationship between REAT and the layer of plastic absorber placed in front of one lung. A linear relationship was found with a correlation coefficient of 0.9993. (b) A series of 10 repeat measurements of the same arbitrarily chosen x-ray showed a mean REAT value of 9.8%, with a standard deviation of 0.21%. (c) Forty-three chest x-rays exposed on the same day were available from the clinical series. These were treated as double determinations of

  13. Congenital Tuberculosis: The Diagnostic Value of Chest X-ray Film%先天性肺结核:胸片在诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晔; 甘兰丰; 余世才; 林兰荣

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate plain chest film in the diagnosis of congenital tuberculosis. Materials and Methods X-ray findings in 5 cases with congenital tuberculosis, proved with bacteriology or autopsy and encountered during 1992~1999 at the authors' hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. Results Though the pulmonary X-ray manifestations were complex and variable, two patterns were considered to be comparatively characteristic: (1) diffuse miliary pattern, and (2) wide-spread patch-nodular pattern. Conclusion Chest X-ray film plays a very important role in the diagnosis of congenital tuberculosis, providing physicians with radiological clues leading to the correct diagnosis.%目的 探讨胸部X线片在先天性肺结核中的诊断价值。 材料与方法 对1992年10月~1999年4月经细菌学检查或尸解证实的先天性肺结核5例进行分析。 结果 肺部X线表现虽复杂多变,但有两种形式的表现仍具有一定的特征性:(1)弥漫性粟粒病变; (2)广泛分布的斑片-结节病变。 结论 胸部X线片在先天性肺结核的诊断中具有十分重要的作用,它常能首先提出诊断,引导临床及时确诊和治疗,降低死亡率。

  14. Performing Chest X-Rays at Inspiration in Uncooperative Children: The Effect of Exercises with a Training Program for Radiology Technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is difficult to acquire a chest X-ray of a crying infant at maximum inspiration. A computer program was developed for technician training. Method. Video clips of 3 babies were used and the moment of deepest inspiration was determined in the single-frame view. 12 technicians simulated chest radiographs at normal video speed by pushing a button. The computer program stopped the video and calculated the period of time to the optimal instant for a chest X-ray. Demonstration software can be tested at website online. Every technician simulated 10 chest X-rays for each of the 3 video clips. The technicians then spent 40 minutes practicing performing chest X-rays at optimal inspiration. The test was repeated after 5, 20, and 40 minutes of practice. Results. 6 participants showed a significant improvement after exercises (collective 1). Deviation from the optimal instant for taking an X-ray at inspiration decreased from 0.39 to 0.22 s after 40 min of practice. 6 technicians showed no significant improvement (collective 2). Deviation decreased from a low starting value of 0.25 s to 0.21 s. Conclusion. The tested computer program improves the ability of radiology technicians to take a chest X-ray at optimal inspiration in a crying child

  15. STUDY OF TIME LAPSE IN FOREIGN BODY ASPIRATION IN RELATION TO CHEST X - RAY AND TYPE OF FOREIGN BODY

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    Salma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON: Foreign body aspiration in pediatrics is a potentially fatal accident which will continue until children explore their surroundings with their hand and mouth. Pediatric aspirations will persist until mankind exists. Not all foreign body aspirations are witnessed hence chances of delay in diagnosing an aspiration are high. Delay in diagnosis depends on site and character of foreign body aspirated. The chest x - ray findings and type of foreign body extracted vary depending on the duration the foreign body remains in airway . OBJECTIVE: To study the X - ray finding in pediatric airway aspiration and its relation to time lapse, the type and site of lodgment of foreign body extracted via bronchoscopy. The type of foreign body in relation to time lapse in aspiration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective study done in Bapuji child health institute and research center, JJM Medical College, Davangere . History and pre bronchoscopy x - Ray finding were noted for 65 children who were posted for suspicious bronchoscopy from August 2011 to September 2013. 11 children were excluded from study as they showed no foreign body on bronchoscopy. Time lapse in aspir ation and seeking medical care was noted. The bronchoscopic findings regarding site of foreign body lodgment and type of foreign body were recorded. The type of foreign body and variation of x - ray picture in relation to time lapse in aspiration were noted. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULT: It was observed that mean age was 28 months. About 80% of the cases were between 1 to 3 years age. 82% (n=53/54 were radio lucent foreign body, only 1.5% (n=1/54 were radio o paque. Site of lodgment of foreign body was right main bronchus in 48% (n=26/54, left main bronchus 46% (n=25/54 , tracheal 1.85% (n=1/54, subglottic 1.85% (n=1/54, carinal 1.85% (n=1/54, multiple site i.e. left bronchus +right bronchus+ carinal 1.85% (n=1/54. Groundnut was most common

  16. Chest radiographic and computed tomographic manifestations in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

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    Ritesh Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the chest radiographic and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT chest manifestations in glucocorticoid-naïve allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA patients. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study and includes 60 consecutive glucocorticoid-naïve patients with ABPA who underwent chest radiography and HRCT of the chest (1.25 mm every 10 mm in the routine diagnostic workup for ABPA. RESULTS: Chest radiographs were normal in 50% of cases. Of the remainder, most patients demonstrated permanent findings in the form of parallel line and ring shadows suggesting bronchiectasis. Consolidation was detected in 17 cases but in the majority, the corresponding HRCT chest scan showed mucus-filled bronchiectatic cavities. Chest HRCT was normal in 22 patients, while central bronchiectasis (CB was demonstrated in the remaining 38 patients. Bronchiectasis extended to the periphery in 33%-43% depending on the criteria used for defining CB. The other findings observed on HRCT were mucoid impaction, centrilobular nodules and high-attenuation mucus in decreasing order of frequency. CONCLUSION: Patients with ABPA can present with normal HRCT chest scans. Central bronchiectasis cannot be considered a characteristic feature of ABPA as peripheral bronchiectasis is commonly observed. Consolidation is an uncommon finding in ABPA.

  17. European Guidelines for AP/PA chest X-rays: routinely satisfiable in a paediatric radiology division?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate collimation helps to reduce unnecessary irradiation and improves radiographic image quality, which is especially important in the radiosensitive paediatric population. For AP/PA chest radiographs in children, a minimal field size (MinFS) from ''just above the lung apices'' to ''T12/L1'' with age-dependent tolerance is suggested by the 1996 European Commission (EC) guidelines, which were examined qualitatively and quantitatively at a paediatric radiology division. Five hundred ninety-eight unprocessed chest X-rays (45 % boys, 55 % girls; mean age 3.9 years, range 0-18 years) were analysed with a self-developed tool. Qualitative standards were assessed based on the EC guidelines, as well as the overexposed field size and needlessly irradiated tissue compared to the MinFS. While qualitative guideline recommendations were satisfied, mean overexposure of +45.1 ± 18.9 % (range +10.2 % to +107.9 %) and tissue overexposure of +33.3 ± 13.3 % were found. Only 4 % (26/598) of the examined X-rays completely fulfilled the EC guidelines. This study presents a new chest radiography quality control tool which allows assessment of field sizes, distances, overexposures and quality parameters based on the EC guidelines. Utilising this tool, we detected inadequate field sizes, inspiration depths, and patient positioning. Furthermore, some debatable EC guideline aspects were revealed. (orig.)

  18. European Guidelines for AP/PA chest X-rays: routinely satisfiable in a paediatric radiology division?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschauner, Sebastian; Marterer, Robert; Guebitz, Michael; Weissensteiner, Sabine; Sorantin, Erich [Medical University of Graz, Division of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Kalmar, Peter I. [Medical University of Graz, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Talakic, Emina [Medical University of Graz, Division of General Radiological Diagnostics, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria)

    2016-02-15

    Accurate collimation helps to reduce unnecessary irradiation and improves radiographic image quality, which is especially important in the radiosensitive paediatric population. For AP/PA chest radiographs in children, a minimal field size (MinFS) from ''just above the lung apices'' to ''T12/L1'' with age-dependent tolerance is suggested by the 1996 European Commission (EC) guidelines, which were examined qualitatively and quantitatively at a paediatric radiology division. Five hundred ninety-eight unprocessed chest X-rays (45 % boys, 55 % girls; mean age 3.9 years, range 0-18 years) were analysed with a self-developed tool. Qualitative standards were assessed based on the EC guidelines, as well as the overexposed field size and needlessly irradiated tissue compared to the MinFS. While qualitative guideline recommendations were satisfied, mean overexposure of +45.1 ± 18.9 % (range +10.2 % to +107.9 %) and tissue overexposure of +33.3 ± 13.3 % were found. Only 4 % (26/598) of the examined X-rays completely fulfilled the EC guidelines. This study presents a new chest radiography quality control tool which allows assessment of field sizes, distances, overexposures and quality parameters based on the EC guidelines. Utilising this tool, we detected inadequate field sizes, inspiration depths, and patient positioning. Furthermore, some debatable EC guideline aspects were revealed. (orig.)

  19. Comparison of Tracheal Diameter Measured by Chest X-Ray and by Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeki Sakuraba; Ryohei Serita; Junya Kuribayashi; Shizuko Kosugi; Hirofumi Arisaka; Kazuichi Yoshida; Junzo Takeda

    2010-01-01

    Assessments of tracheal diameter (TD) are important to select proper endotracheal tubes. Previous studies have used X-ray and physical indices to estimate tracheal diameter but these may not reflect the actual TD. We compared TD measured by X-ray (TD-XP) and by computer tomography (TD-CT) in 200 patients. Also, we analyzed correlation of TD-CT with physical indices such as age, height, weight, and BMI. TD-XP and TD-CT were significantly correlated (male: n = 55, P = .0146; female: n = 91, P =...

  20. Improvement of Contrast in Digital X-ray Images Considering Exposure Dose for Stout Patients Undergoing Fluorography Chest Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to high level of tuberculosis in Ukraine, the fluorography chest screening is the most frequent diagnostic procedure which is performed annually for adult population and contributes to collective effective dose. During the diagnostic examination, the people with high body mass index obtain higher exposure dose, compared to average patients. The higher exposure dose is required for receiving diagnostic X-ray images with sufficient visual quality parameters. In present study, the approach in reduce of exposure dose for patients with high body mass index was explored in close to clinical fluorography examination conditions with application of contrast improvement methods

  1. Using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) to determine the gonadal dose of patients under-going chest X-ray examinations at NKST hospital, Mkar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The doses absorbed by the gonads of patients undergoing chest X-ray examinations at NKST Christian Hospital, Mkar was determined using the Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Technique of measurement. Also, the direct X-ray dose to the chest of patients undergoing the routine examinations was also determined using the Thermolumnescence Dosimetry technique of measurement. The mean gonadal dose and the X-ray dose to the patients were found to be 0.03±0.02μSv and 0.04±0.03mSv respectively after exposure. These X-ray doses to the patients is seen to be within the acceptable recommended X -ray dose limits of 1mGy recommended by ICRP.

  2. Entrance surface dose and image quality: Comparison of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in general practitioner clinics, public and private hospitals in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to compare the entrance surface dose (ESD) and image quality of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations conducted at general practitioner (GP) clinics, and public and private hospitals in Malaysia. The surveyed facilities were randomly selected within a given category (28 GP clinics, 20 public hospitals and 15 private hospitals). Only departmental X-ray units were involved in the survey. Chest examinations were done at all facilities, while only hospitals performed abdominal examinations. This study used the x-ray attenuation phantoms and protocols developed for the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey program in the United States. The ESD was calculated from measurements of exposure and clinical geometry. An image quality test tool was used to evaluate the low-contrast detectability and high-contrast detail performance under typical clinical conditions. The median ESD value for the adult chest X-ray examination was the highest (0.25 mGy) at GP clinics, followed by private hospitals (0.22 mGy) and public hospitals (0.17 mGy). The median ESD for the adult abdominal X-ray examination at public hospitals (3.35 mGy) was higher than that for private hospitals (2.81 mGy). Results of image quality assessment for the chest X-ray examination show that all facility types have a similar median spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability. For the abdominal X-ray examination, public hospitals have a similar median spatial resolution but larger low-contrast detectability compared with private hospitals. The results of this survey clearly show that there is room for further improvement in performing chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in Malaysia. (authors)

  3. A pilot study evaluating erect chest imaging in children, using the Lodox Statscan digital X-ray machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Baloo Daya

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Chest radiography accounts for a significant proportion of ionising radiation in children. The radiation dose of radiographs performed on the Lodox Statscan system has been shown to be lower than that of a computed radiography (CR system. The role of the Lodox Statscan (hereafter referred to as the Statscan in routine erect chest radiography in children has not been evaluated. Objective: To evaluate the image quality and diagnostic accuracy of erect paediatric chest radiographs obtained with the Statscan and compare this with conventional erect chest images obtained with a CR system. Materials and Methods: Thirty three children with suspected chest pathology were enrolled randomly over a period of three months. Erect chest radiographs were obtained with the Statscan, and a Shimadzu R-20J X-ray machine coupled with a Fuji FCR 5000 CR system. Image quality and diagnostic accuracy and diagnostic capability were evaluated between the two modalities. Results: The erect Statscan allowed superior visualisation of the three major airways. Statscan images however, demonstrated exposure and movement artifacts with hemidiaphragms and ribs most prone to movement. Bronchovascular clarity was also considered unsatisfactory on the Statscan images. Conclusion: The Statscan has limitations in erect chest radiography in terms of movement artefacts, exposure fluctuations, and poor definition of lung markings. Despite this, the Statscan allows better visualisation of the major airways, equivalent to a ‘high KV’ film at a fraction of the radiation dose. This supports the finding of an earlier study evaluating Statscan images in trauma cases, where the images were taken supine. Statscan has great potential in assisting in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis where airway narrowing occurs as a result of nodal compression.

  4. Pulmonary complications of induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia in adults. Findings of chest X-rays and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To exclude pulmonary complications, 359 chest radiographs and 50 computed tomographs of the lung were performed in 95 patients suffering from acute myeloid leukemia. The radiological findings were registered, described and correlated with clinical findings in the present study on 2395 days of observation. Results: In summary, 52 patients showed alterations of the lung. Pulmonary hyperhydration was seen in 21 cases, bacterial pneumonia was found in 18 cases, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was documented in 14 cases, and 5 cases of severe haemorrhage were seen. An unexplained pulmonary edema in 13 patients with interstitial and alveolar infiltrates is considered to be a complication of treatment with cytosine-arabinoside. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that chest X-ray and computed tomography have a high impact in detection and treatment of pulmonary complications following intensive chemotherapy. We may expect the development of diffuse opacity following administration of cytosine-arabinoside in medium-sized doses. (orig.)

  5. Ward chest X-rays and extra-vascular lung water estimations in patients in intensive care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological staging of pulmonary oedema was compared with the determination of extra-vascular lung water by means of a double indicator dilution technique. One hundred and forty-six ward chest radiographs were evaluated and compared with the results of simultaneous measurements of lung water. Seventy-seven cases could be evaluated statistically. Chest x-rays regarded as normal corresponded to extra-vascular lung water of 5 to 9 ml./kg. body weight. Interstitial oedema (radiological stage I and II) correspond to extravascular lung water levels of 8 to 12 ml./kg. Differentiation of stages I and II was not possible. During stage III, extra-vascular lung water was 15 to 21 ml./kg. A comparative analysis of these findings revealed a discrepancy of 34%. The reasons for this are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Anatomy-based transmission factors for technique optimization in portable chest x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, Christopher L.; Tovey, Deborah; Segars, William P.; Dong, Frank D.; Li, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Portable x-ray examinations often account for a large percentage of all radiographic examinations. Currently, portable examinations do not employ automatic exposure control (AEC). To aid in the design of a size-specific technique chart, acrylic slabs of various thicknesses are often used to estimate x-ray transmission for patients of various body thicknesses. This approach, while simple, does not account for patient anatomy, tissue heterogeneity, and the attenuation properties of the human body. To better account for these factors, in this work, we determined x-ray transmission factors using computational patient models that are anatomically realistic. A Monte Carlo program was developed to model a portable x-ray system. Detailed modeling was done of the x-ray spectrum, detector positioning, collimation, and source-to-detector distance. Simulations were performed using 18 computational patient models from the extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) family (9 males, 9 females; age range: 2-58 years; weight range: 12-117 kg). The ratio of air kerma at the detector with and without a patient model was calculated as the transmission factor. Our study showed that the transmission factor decreased exponentially with increasing patient thickness. For the range of patient thicknesses examined (12-28 cm), the transmission factor ranged from approximately 21% to 1.9% when the air kerma used in the calculation represented an average over the entire imaging field of view. The transmission factor ranged from approximately 21% to 3.6% when the air kerma used in the calculation represented the average signals from two discrete AEC cells behind the lung fields. These exponential relationships may be used to optimize imaging techniques for patients of various body thicknesses to aid in the design of clinical technique charts.

  7. Diagnosis of IPA in HIV: The role of the chest X-ray and radiologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaspel, Uta [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut fuer Radiologie, Berlin (Germany); Denning, David W. [The University of Manchester, Education and Research Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Lemke, Arne J.; Roettgen, Rainer; Bittner, Roland; Oestmann, Joerg W. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Berlin (Germany); Greene, Reginald [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Schuermann, Dirk [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Infektiologie und Asthma-Poliklinik, Berlin (Germany); Maschmeyer, Georg [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Haematologie und Onkologie, Berlin (Germany); Ruhnke, Markus [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Onkologie und Haematologie, Berlin (Germany); Herbrecht, Raoul [Hopital de Hautepierre, Department d' Hematologie et d' Oncologie, Strasbourg (France); Ribaud, Patricia [Hopital Saint-Louis, Service d' Hematologie, Paris (France); Lortholary, Olivier [Universite Paris V, Centre National de Reference des Mycoses et des Antifongiques, Institut Pasteur, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Hopital Necker, Paris (France); Zonderland, Harmien [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Rabe, Klaus F. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Pulmology, Leiden (Netherlands); Neumann, Klaus [Krankenhaus und Herzzentrum Bernau, Bernau (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    The role of clinical information and chest film for the discrimination between invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and its differential diagnoses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was studied. The diagnostic performance of clinical information and chest film alone and in combination was studied for eight internists and eight radiologists with regular exposure to IPA patients. The multicenter case sample consisted of 25 patients with proven IPA and 25 with other pulmonary diseases typical for HIV. The cases were presented on a CD-ROM. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) methodology was employed. With clinical information alone, internists achieved the highest diagnostic performance (area under curve/AUC=0.84). Viewing the chest films did not contribute to their performance (AUC=0.80, P=0.26). The radiologist's performance on the basis of viewing the chest film (AUC=0.75) increased significantly (P=0.012) when clinical information (AUC=0.83) was supplied. IPA cases with characteristic radiological appearance were correctly identified in 90% with chest film. For radiologists with regular exposure to HIV patients, chest films hold relevant information and contribute to the determination in cases with characteristic radiological appearance. Overall and especially in cases with less characteristic radiological appearance, they have significant profit from full access to the clinical data. For internists with regular exposure to HIV patients, chest films do not provide information essential for the verification or differentiation of potential IPA. (orig.)

  8. Optimization of standard patient radiographic images for chest, skull and pelvis exams in conventional x-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimized radiographic techniques for clinical images of chest, skull and pelvis using conventional single-phase, three-phase and high-frequency x-ray units for a standard patient have been developed. Optimization of image contrast and optical density was obtained by using a homogeneous phantom (PEP) and an Anderson Rando anthropomorphic phantom. Image quality was evaluated by nine radiologists in independent analyses, leading to the choice of the optimized technique. A course of action to implement and validate these techniques in other radiographic systems has also been introduced. A realistic-analytic phantom (RAP) was constructed to certify the validation process. The optimized radiographic technique was implemented in the routine of our home hospital radiodiagnostic routine, enabling a reduction in patient doses around 25, 14 and 72%, respectively, for chest, skull and pelvis exams when compared with the previously used techniques. In addition, a corresponding reduction in the x-ray tube load of 68, 14 and 62% for the respective mentioned exams has been observed. In conclusion, implemented optimal techniques can lead to a reduction in the rate of film rejection, thus contributing to a better risk-benefit relationship for the patient and cost-benefit for the radiodiagnostic facility. (note)

  9. Measurements of patient chest dose for multi-slice X-ray CT examinations using PIN photodiode dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organ and tissue doses delivered during chest CT examinations were measured as a function of scanning parameters including tube current, slice thickness, and pitch of the multi-slice CT scanner. Measurements were carried out by using a chest dosimetry phantom that incorporated lung and vertebra models, and by putting PIN photodiode dosimeters into the phantom at sites of the esophagus or stomach, lung, bone marrow, and skin. Absorbed doses at each site in the phantom measured for a constant scan area indicated that these values could be precisely calculated from the value obtained at any scanning parameter by using inverse proportionality of dose to pitch and the data of x-ray intensity as a function of tube current and slice thickness measured for the CT scanner used. Relative dose at each site was found to be constant regardless of the scanning parameters, indicating that the dose value at each site could be calculated from that measured at only one point in the phantom. Effective doses and effective dose equivalents were estimated from organ or tissue doses for chest CT examinations, and were found to be 1.5 to 3 times larger than the average values of effective dose equivalent appearing in the literature. (author)

  10. Computed tomography of the chest with model-based iterative reconstruction using a radiation exposure similar to chest X-ray examination: preliminary observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neroladaki, Angeliki; Botsikas, Diomidis; Boudabbous, Sana; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic image quality of ultra-low-dose chest computed tomography (ULD-CT) obtained with a radiation dose comparable to chest radiography and reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in comparison with standard dose diagnostic CT (SDD-CT) or low-dose diagnostic CT (LDD-CT) reconstructed with FBP alone. Unenhanced chest CT images of 42 patients acquired with ULD-CT were compared with images obtained with SDD-CT or LDD-CT in the same examination. Noise measurements and image quality, based on conspicuity of chest lesions on all CT data sets were assessed on a five-point scale. The radiation dose of ULD-CT was 0.16 {+-} 0.006 mSv compared with 11.2 {+-} 2.7 mSv for SDD-CT (P < 0.0001) and 2.7 {+-} 0.9 mSv for LDD-CT. Image quality of ULD-CT increased significantly when using MBIR compared with FBP or ASIR (P < 0.001). ULD-CT reconstructed with MBIR enabled to detect as many non-calcified pulmonary nodules as seen on SDD-CT or LDD-CT. However, image quality of ULD-CT was clearly inferior for characterisation of ground glass opacities or emphysema. Model-based iterative reconstruction allows detection of pulmonary nodules with ULD-CT with radiation exposure in the range of a posterior to anterior (PA) and lateral chest X-ray. (orig.)

  11. Infant Hip Joint Diagnostic Support System Based on Clinical Manifestations in X-ray Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honda,Mitsugi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Plain X-ray radiography is frequently used for the diagnosis of developmental dislocation of the hip (DDH. The aim of this study was to construct a diagnostic support system for DDH based on clinical findings obtained from the X-ray images of 154 female infants with confirmed diagnoses made by orthopedists. The data for these subjects were divided into 2 groups. The Min-Max method of nonlinear analysis was applied to the data from Group 1 to construct the diagnostic support system based on the measurement of 4 items in X-ray images:the outward displacement rate, upward displacement rate, OE angle, and alpha angle. This system was then applied to the data from Group 2, and the results were compared between the 2 groups to verify the reliability of the system. We obtained good results that matched the confirmed diagnoses of orthopedists with an accuracy of 85.9%.

  12. Infant Hip Joint Diagnostic Support System Based on Clinical Manifestations in X-ray Images

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Mitsugi; Arita, Seizaburo; Mitani, Shigeru; TAKEDA, Yoshihiro; Ozaki,Toshifumi; Inamura, Keiji; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Plain X-ray radiography is frequently used for the diagnosis of developmental dislocation of the hip (DDH). The aim of this study was to construct a diagnostic support system for DDH based on clinical findings obtained from the X-ray images of 154 female infants with confirmed diagnoses made by orthopedists. The data for these subjects were divided into 2 groups. The Min-Max method of nonlinear analysis was applied to the data from Group 1 to construct the diagnostic support system based on t...

  13. Contribution of chest x-ray to the diagnosis of HIV virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After revising literature concerning Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumoniae (PCP), the authors undertook a close examination of the immunological system of the HIVab-positive patients that suffered opportunistic pneumopathy from PCP. Hundred-forty-three cases of HIVab-positive (mean age of 29), prevalently heroine drugusers, were studied. There were 13 AIDS, 26 ARC, 91 LAS cases and 13 patients with only Ab positivity for HIV. Four hundred chest radiographs were examined without previous knowledge of case histories. A small number of hilum and/or mediastinal lymphoadenopathies was observed. Moreover, percentage increase in acute lung inflammatory diseases, mainly interstitial, was seen. These data were correlated to the worsening of the HIV infection and to the developing of LAS, ARC and ADIS. In a number of cases there was radiological evidence of pregressed inflammatory episodes. The clinical pattern of PCP patients is dramatic and often fatal. Clinical-radiological cases with special reference to acute interstitial disease, caused by opportunistic agents, are presented

  14. Frequent chest X-ray fluoroscopy and breast cancer incidence among tuberculosis patients in Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of breast cancer was determined in 4940 women treated for tuberculosis between 1925 and 1954 in Massachusetts. Among 2573 women examined by X-ray fluoroscopy an average of 88 times during lung collapse therapy and followed for an average of 30 years, 147 breast cancers occurred in contrast to 113.6 expected [observed/expected (O/E) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-1.5]. No excess of breast cancer was seen among 2367 women treated by other means: 87 observed versus 100.9 expected. Increased rates for breast cancer were not apparent until about 10 to 15 years after the initial fluoroscopy examination. Excess risk then remained high throughout all intervals of follow-up, up to 50 years after first exposure. Age at exposure strongly influenced the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer with young women being at highest risk and those over age 40 being at lowest risk [relative risk (RR) = 1.06]. Mean radiation dose to the breast was estimated to be 79 cGy, and there was strong evidence for a linear relationship between dose and breast cancer risk. Allowing for a 10-year minimum latent period, the relative risk at 1 Gy was estimated as 1.61 and the absolute excess as 10.7 per 10(4) woman-years per gray. When compared to other studies, our data suggest that the breast is one of the most sensitive tissues to the carcinogenic force of radiation, that fractionated exposures are similar to single exposures of the same total dose in their ability to induce breast cancer, that risk remains high for many years after exposure, and that young women are especially vulnerable to radiation injury

  15. Prospective feasibility study of chest X-ray vs. thoracic MRI in breath-hold technique at an open low-field scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: MR investigations using a breath-hold sequence at an open low-field MR had to be compared to chest X-rays in patients with a wide spectrum of cardio-thoracic pathologies. Material and Methods: 114 patients and three volunteers who actually received a chest X-ray due to different indications underwent triplanar breath-hold (17-20 s) True-FISP sequence using a 0.2 T low-field MR (Siemens Magnetom Open, TR/TE/α: 7.3/3.5/80 , SD: 10 mm, Pixel: 2.18 x 1.41 mm) a mean of 5.1 (±8.2) days later. Results: Signal-to-noise ratio as basics for pattern recognition was 3.2 in nodule, 5.0 in infiltration, and 12.0 in effusion, and therefore True-FISP is usable for the detection of these findings. MRI demonstrated nodules (89% vs. 57%), infiltration (81% vs. 71%), pleural effusions (86% vs. 75%), pericardial effusions (100% vs. 21%) and pulmonary congestion (90% vs. 80%) clearly more frequently compared to chest X-ray. Discussion: MRI of the lung has been implemented successfully at an open low-field MR system. Diagnostic safety and accuracy are at least comparable to those of chest X-ray. The lack of superimposition led to a major improvement in the detection of pericardial effusions and nodules, and an increase in identification of infiltration, pleural effusion, and pulmonary congestion. (orig.)

  16. Impact of positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures on adverse outcomes following hospitalized pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Benfield, Thomas Lars Vibe;

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the clinical presentation and outcome of pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) without positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures. We investigated the prognostic impact of a pulmonary infiltrate and bacteraemia on the clinical course of hospitalized...... patients with confirmed pneumococcal LRTI....

  17. Training program for radiologic technologists for performing chest X-rays at inspiration in uncooperative children; Trainingsprogramm fuer MTRA zur Anfertigung von Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahmen in Inspiration bei unkooperativen Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langen, Heinz Jakob; Muras, S. [Missionsaerztliche Klinik, Wuerzburg (Germany). Radiologische Abt.; Kohlhauser-Vollmuth, C. [Missionsaerztliche Klinik, Wuerzburg (Germany). Kinderklinik am Moenchberg; Stenzel, M.; Beer, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2009-03-15

    A computer program was created to train technologists to perform chest X-rays in crying infants at maximum inspiration. Videos of 4 children were used. Using a computer program, the moment of deepest inspiration was determined in the video in the single frame view. During the normal running video, 14 technologists (3 with significant experience, 3 with little experience and 8 with very little experience in pediatric radiography) simulated a chest radiograph by pushing a button. The computer program stopped the video and the period of time to the optimal moment for a chest x-ray was calculated. Every technologist simulated 10 chest X-rays in each of the 4 video clips. The technologists then trained themselves to perform chest X-rays at optimal inspiration like playing a computer game. After training, the test was repeated. Changes were evaluated by t-test for unpaired samples (level of significance p < 0.05). Although the differences improved in all children, minimal deviation from the optimal moment for taking an X-ray at inspiration occurred in the periodically crying child (0.21 sec before and 0.13 sec after training). In a non-periodically crying infant, the largest differences were shown. The values improved significantly from 0.29 sec to 0.22 sec. The group with substantial experience in pediatric radiology improved significantly from 0.22 sec to 0.15 sec. The group with very little experience in pediatric radiology showed worse results (improvement from 0.29 sec to 0.21 sec). (orig.)

  18. Optimization of exposure parameters for pediatric chest x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Ye-Seul; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2012-03-01

    The pediatric patients are more susceptible to the effects of ionizing radiation than adults. Pediatric patients are smaller, more radiosensitive than adult patients and many cannot stand unassisted. Their characteristics affect the method of imaging projection and how dose is optimized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various technical parameters for the dose optimization in pediatric chest radiological examinations by evaluating effective dose and effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) including the scatter radiation from the object, the blur caused by the focal spot, geometric magnification and detector characteristics. For the tube voltages ranging from 40 to 90 kV in 10 kV increments at the focus-to-detector distance of 100, 110, 120, 150, 180 cm, the eDQE was evaluated at same effective dose. The results showed that the eDQE was largest at 60 kVp without and with an anti-scatter grid. Especially, the eDQE was considerably higher without the use of an anti-scatter grid on equivalent effective dose. This indicates that the reducing the scatter radiation did not compensate for the loss of absorbed effective photons in the grid. When the grid is not used the eDQE increased with increasing focus-to-detector distance because of the greater effective modulation transfer function (eMTF) with the lower focal spot blurring. In conclusion, for pediatric patients, the amount of scattered radiation is less, and the amount of grid attenuation increased unnecessary radiation dose.

  19. The effect of dexamethasone on respirator-dependent very-low-birth-weight infants is best predicted by chest X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Chronic lung disease (CLD) in premature infants shows a variable clinical course with different radiological manifestations. Objective. To evaluate the correlation between parameters of transmembrane permeability [albumin/secretory component (SC)] and oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA)/SC] in tracheal aspirate fluid (TAF) and radiological findings with the effect of a 5-day course of dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg per day). Materials and methods. Fifty ventilator-dependent premature infants with birth weights 2 x mean airway pressure > 40 % at day 5, compared to pretreatment values. About 80 % of the responders showed homogeneous lung opacification on chest X-ray, reflecting leaky lung syndrome. In contrast, seven of eight infants with predominantly emphysema on radiology were non-responders; 80 % of infants with a mixed radiological picture characterized by predominance of consolidations alternating with regions of emphysema were also non-responders. Ratios of albumin/SC and MDA/SC in TAF decreased significantly within 3 days after the onset of dexamethasone. However, MDA/SC was persistently higher in non-responders compared to responders. Opaque lungs were largely improved by dexamethasone, in contrast to streaky or patchy consolidations and emphysema. In a logistic regression model, radiographic classification was the most important factor influencing the response to dexamethasone with a positive predictive value of 86 %, followed by albumin/SC ratio. Conclusions. The optimum timing of dexamethasone treatment may be determined by the stage of developing CLD and radiological findings rather than by the age of the premature infant. (orig.)

  20. The effect of dexamethasone on respirator-dependent very-low-birth-weight infants is best predicted by chest X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrod, L.; Neuhaus, T. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany); Horwitz, A.E. [Dept. of Radiology/Paediatric Radiology, Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany); Speer, C.P. [Dept. of Neonatology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    Background. Chronic lung disease (CLD) in premature infants shows a variable clinical course with different radiological manifestations. Objective. To evaluate the correlation between parameters of transmembrane permeability [albumin/secretory component (SC)] and oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA)/SC] in tracheal aspirate fluid (TAF) and radiological findings with the effect of a 5-day course of dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg per day). Materials and methods. Fifty ventilator-dependent premature infants with birth weights < 1,500 g (gestational ages 23-31 weeks) and radiological signs of early chronic lung disease (CLD) were treated with dexamethasone at day of life 5-27 (median 10 days) because of respiratory deterioration. TAF was collected serially. Chest X-rays taken before and 8-10 days after dexamethasone were scored for changes of opacification, consolidation and hyperinflation/emphysema, and classified into three groups. Results. Twenty-four infants had a positive response to dexamethasone, defined as a reduction of the ventilation index FiO{sub 2} x mean airway pressure > 40 % at day 5, compared to pretreatment values. About 80 % of the responders showed homogeneous lung opacification on chest X-ray, reflecting leaky lung syndrome. In contrast, seven of eight infants with predominantly emphysema on radiology were non-responders; 80 % of infants with a mixed radiological picture characterized by predominance of consolidations alternating with regions of emphysema were also non-responders. Ratios of albumin/SC and MDA/SC in TAF decreased significantly within 3 days after the onset of dexamethasone. However, MDA/SC was persistently higher in non-responders compared to responders. Opaque lungs were largely improved by dexamethasone, in contrast to streaky or patchy consolidations and emphysema. In a logistic regression model, radiographic classification was the most important factor influencing the response to dexamethasone with a positive predictive value of 86

  1. Applying the PCXMCR software for dose assessment in patients submitted to chest and skull X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission of radiation and Units (ICRU) has recommended the use of Monte Carlo calculation software to assess the organ doses in patient undergoing x-ray examinations. The PCXMCR is a largely used computational program for assessing organ doses in chest and skull diagnostic radiology. The aim of this work was assess doses in critical and relevant organs of several patients in a hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. The work was done by recording the patient and geometrical data during several exams in the xray sectors of the hospital. Patients were classified according to their biotype as A, B and C and they were chosen for dose assessment s. Patients A, B and C have the smallest, the medium and the largest dimensions, respectively. Simulation was dose using the PCXMCR and organ doses were assessed. Analyses were carried out only for the highest exposed organs in terms of their contribution to the effective dose; doses due to the posteroanterior followed by lateral projections were added. During the chest examinations, the lungs got the highest doses. The lung doses were 23.5, 33.6, 45.4 μSv in patients A, B and C, respectively. During the skull examinations, the thyroid was the critical organ that gave the highest contribution to the effective dose. The thyroid doses were 30.5, 27.6 and 22.3 μSv, in patient A, B and C, respectively. Doses variations suggested that there is space for standardization of the radiological techniques and for optimizing the radiographic procedures to reduce patient doses. (author)

  2. Comparison of image quality among three x-ray systems for chest radiography: first step in optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three digital X-ray systems [one flat-panel (DR) and two computed radiography (CR)] for chest radiography in terms of the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) delivered to a polymethyl methacrylate phantom of 20 cm (equivalent to an adult patient) and image quality through of numerical evaluations using a test object (TO). The tube charge applied was ranged from 0.6 to 32 mAs, to a fixed tension of 125 kVp. The DR system presented the highest mean values of ESAK (615.9 μGy) along with the highest signal-to-noise ratio values, whereas CR systems showed a better high-contrast spatial resolution. Differences were statistically significant in both cases regarding the tube charge used. Thus, this parameter should be mainly considered to optimise the radiological protection through exposure settings selected. This survey represents the first effort to achieve optimisation in digital radiology for Chile. (authors)

  3. HIV-Tuberculosis: A Study of Chest X-Ray Patterns in Relation to CD4 Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesha Padyana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Fight against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is incomplete without addressing problems associated with difficult diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-Tuberculosis coinfected patients. Chest X-ray is a primary tool to evaluate tuberculosis in HIV. Aim: To assess and compare various radiological patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV patients and compare these patterns in relation to CD4 counts. Materials and Methods : Prospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in South India from September 2009 to July 2011 with 200 HIV positive patients. WHO guidelines were used for diagnosis of HIV and tuberculosis. Results : 27% of the patients had sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis, with higher incidence (33% among CD4 less than 200 as compared to CD4 more than 200 (14%. Infiltration (39% followed by consolidation (30%, cavity (11%, and lymphadenopathy (9% seen with CD4 less than 200. Infiltration (37.5% followed by cavity (25% and miliary (25% with CD4 above 200. Bilateral (68.5% and mid and lower zones or all zone involvement more commonly seen. Conclusion : In patients with CD4 lower than 200 noncavitory infiltration and consolidation predominated. Involvement of lungs was atypical; diffuse or mid and lower zone involvement than classical upper lobe involvement. A high index of suspicion is necessary for the accurate and timely diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV positive patients.

  4. Radiation doses and image quality in pediatric chest X-ray for the diagnosis of pneumonia in selected Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Pneumonia and acute lower respiratory infections in general, is the leading cause of child death in developing countries. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 4 millions of children die annually due to this disease. Despite the growing use of vaccination as an alternate approach to reduce mortality, the increasing antimicrobial resistance and the high costs of vaccines remain important obstacles in the global struggle against the disease. The usual treatment strategy begins with a clinical examination of the patient followed by the prescription of a chest X-ray. Radiography would appear as the best available method for diagnosing pneumonia only if radiologists (and other health professionals such as pediatricians) knew how to interpret the images showed in the radiographs, and these meeting the standards of quality (anatomic structures, image contrast and optical density, and patient dose among other factors). On the other hand, special attention should be paid on patient doses due to children's specific radiosensitivity, repeated and extended use of chest x-ray in all Radiology Departments, and high rejection rate due to both equipment malfunction and to human skills shortcomings. Patient doses of chest X-ray performed to children less than 5 years old in PAHO Sentinel Hospitals for surveillance of bacterial pneumonias in various Latin American countries were estimated using technical parameters and equipment specifications. Image quality was compared to WHO criteria for chest X-rays quality. Results showing differences in patient doses translates on one hand the impact of specific characteristics of the radiological equipment, including equipment limitations and performance of the radiographs and on the other various and divers levels of health professionals skills and training on image quality interpretation and dose optimization. The study concludes that professionals' training and education on chest radiographs image quality constitutes

  5. Pediatric thyroid carcinoma with lung metastases: A case of 7-years' follow-up by chest x-ray and scintigram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    Miliary lung metastasis is well known in thyroid carcinoma. However, thyroid carcinoma itself is very rare in children. We have seen a case of papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid in a 12 year old boy. He had extensive nodular lung metastasis on the chest x-ray, which were confirmed by 131-I scintigraphy and biopsy of a cervical lymph node. Radioactive iodine therapy was instituted for 5 years and nodular lung metastasis effectively disappeared on the follow-up chest x-rays. A lung scintigraphy with 131-I, however, showed residual uptake in the lung suggesting that scintigraphy is more sensitive and, therefore useful for evaluating the management of the thyroid carcinoma.

  6. Chest X-ray Plain Film Analysis Underlying 31 1 Case of HIV/AIDS Patients%311例 HIV/AIDS 患者胸部 X 线平片分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗洪云; 胡必富; 刘长华; 夏玉明; 江凤兰

    2015-01-01

    目的::分析 HIV/AIDS 患者胸部病变 X 线表现,为认知和诊断艾滋病提供医疗影像依据,为临床诊治提供指导。方法:收集本地区2006年1月~2014年1月门诊及住院确诊的311例 HIV/AIDS 患者胸部 X 线片,分析其病变的 X 线表现。结果:患者胸部 X 线表现为:心肺正常124例,肺门纵隔淋巴结增大20例(淋巴瘤4例)。肺纹理增强101例,肺炎36例,肺结核27例,肺癌3例(肝癌转移2例);结论:艾滋病患者胸部病变由呼吸道机遇性致病菌感染和 AIDS 相关恶性肿瘤所引起,胸部 X 线表现无明显特异性,为多种影像表现并存,结合临床表现和相关实验室检查,对诊断及治疗 HIV/AIDS 有一定参考价值。%Objective:To analyze the chest X-ray appearance of HIV / AIDS patients,so as to provide medical image basis and guidance for clinical diagnosis and treatment for HIV/AIDS patients.Methods:We collect the chest X ray films of local HIV/AIDS patients outpatient and inpatient from January 2006 to Janu-ary 2014,analyze the X-ray manifestation of lesions.Results:The manifestation of chest X-ray is shown as:124 cases of normal,enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes in 20 cases (lymphoma 4 cases).Lung marking disorder in 101 cases,36 cases of pneumonia,27 cases of tuberculosis,3 cases of lung cancer (2 cases of me-tastasis);Conclusion:The chest manifestation of HIV/AIDS patients are caused by respiratory opportunity pathogenic bacteria and AIDS related malignant tumor,the chest X-ray showed no obvious specificity,but a variety of imaging performance,it has certain reference value that combined with the clinical manifestations and related laboratory tests to the diagnosis and treatment of HIV/AIDS patients.

  7. Chest X-Ray

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  9. Chest X-Ray

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  14. X-ray manifestations of tumors of gnathic bones in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roentgenologic manifestations of the neoplasms of qnathic bones in adults are considered in details. Odontogenous tumors and neodontogeneous tumors are among the cases under analysis. It is shown that the roentgenologic features of manifestation of every neoplasm are determined by the character of variations in the form of bone affection section and in the architectonics of it's pattern, by the outlines sharphness, by the total delimitation from unaffected bone sections, by the presence of internal inclusions or calcifications, by the cartical plates safety by the presence and character of pathologic osteogenesis and ossification periostitis. Necessity of the histological studies of punctates or bioptates in certain cases is outlined because of the nonabsolutely reliability of radiological data

  15. Clinical and Laboratory Findings in Patients With Acute Respiratory Symptoms That Suggest the Necessity of Chest X-ray for Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pneumonia is a common illness in all parts of the world and is considered as a major cause of death among all age groups. Nevertheless, only about 5% of patients referring to their primary care physicians with acute respiratory symptoms will develop pneumonia. This study was performed to derive practical criteria for performing chest radiographs for the evaluation of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A total of 420 patients with acute respiratory symptoms and positive findings on chest radiograph were evaluated from December 2008 to December 2009. The subjects were referred to outpatient clinics or emergency departments of Birjand's medical university hospitals, Iran, and were enrolled as positive cases. A checklist was completed for each patient including their demographic information, clinical signs and symptoms (cough, sputum production, dyspnea, chest pain, fever, tachycardia, and tachypnea), abnormal findings in pulmonary auscultation and laboratory findings (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein levels, and white blood cell count). An equal number of age-matched individuals with acute respiratory symptoms, but insignificant findings on chest radiography, were included as the control group. Finally, the diagnostic values of different findings were compared. The data showed that vital signs and physical examination findings are useful screening parameters for predicting chest radiograph findings in outpatient settings. Therefore, by implementing a prediction rule, we would be able to determine which patients would benefit from a chest X-Ray (sensitivity, 94% and specificity, 57%). This study's findings suggest that requesting chest radiographs might not be necessary in patients with acute respiratory symptoms unless the vital signs and/or physical examination findings are abnormal. Considering the 94% sensitivity of this rule for predicting CAP, a chest radiograph is required for patients with unreliable follow-ups or moderate to high

  16. Prevalence of occupational pleural thickening: a look at chest x-rays from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of occupational pleural thickening in the United States in the mid-1970s was estimated; since asbestos often reduces pleural thickening, this estimate in turn was used to estimate the presence of asbestos exposure. Chest x-rays obtained by the 1971-1975 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were reread by three readers using the International Labour Office criteria for diagnosis of pleural thickening consistent with dust exposure. All 289 x-rays showing any pleural abnormalities plus a 3-to-1 age-, sex-, and race-matched control series were reread. Using two of three readings as positive, and extrapolating to the US population from this defined sample, the authors showed that 2.3% of males and 0.2% of females had occupational pleural thickening on x-ray, with a strong increase with age in white males. This provides a US population estimate of 1.3 million people with occupational pleural thickening and approximately 8 million people with asbestos exposure in the mid-1970s. This cohort might make a substantial contribution to cancer mortality into the next century

  17. Evaluation of the occupational doses in the ward room of a public hospital of Sergipe, Brazil, during chest X-rays examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiology is one of the main tools for medical diagnosis. The substantial growth in the number of radiological interventions is being accompanied by the interest with the patient, technical and clinical body's safety. The use of portable X rays equipment for medical diagnosis in hospitals is a common practice different types of examinations. At ward room, the chest radiography is one of the most requested. During this X ray examination, besides the technical team involved, in the room are also exposed to the scattered radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate and to quantify the kerma rates, in the air, at different distances of the equipment and to evaluate the doses received by the workers in the ward room of a public hospital. Besides, safe distances were determined for two radiography techniques. Different exams were evaluated and the typical parameters for performing the examination were determined. From that, the kerma rates were measured in the air using a chest phantom. By the results, it was possible to draw a dose map of a ward room of a public hospital of Sergipe. The knowledge of the dose maps allows the technical body to execute the radiological procedures in a safer way, minimizing the risks for them and for the general public. (author)

  18. Involvement of the chest and abdominal wall as a rave manifestation in Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological findings of chest and abdominal wall involvement in Hodgkin's disease are reported. This manifestation was diagnosed in one patient in the primary staging and in two patients during the course of the disease. Typical radiological findings are soft tissue masses in the chest and abdominal wall, in two cases with continous tumor growth of enlarged mediastinal lymphnodes into the anterior chest wall. The axial computed tomography is the best method to evaluate the extent of chest and abdominal wall involvement in Hodgkin's disease. (orig.)

  19. Natural History of Disease in Atomic Bomb Exposed Twins in Hiroshima : Findings of Chest X-Ray and Electrocardiogram

    OpenAIRE

    Satow, Yukio; Ohmae, Kiyokazu; Okamoto, Naomasa; Abe, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Shoji

    1982-01-01

    The subjects of this study are mainly pairs of monozygotic twins, one of whom was exposed to the atomic bomb and the other not exposed, and the natural history of the diseases of these twins was analyzed to find out genetic and environmental factors of the diseases and some biological effect of the atomic bomb exposure or other. In this study, 13 pairs of monozygotic and 5 pairs of dizygotic twins and other 34 cases of non-twins were examined by means of heart and lung X-ray films and electro...

  20. Detection of metastases in breast cancer patients. Comparison of FDG PET with chest X-ray, bone scintigraphy and ultrasound of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distant metastases at primary diagnosis are a prognostic key factor in breast cancer patients and play a central role in therapeutic decisions. To detect them, chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound, and bone scintigraphy are performed as standard of care in Germany and many centers worldwide. Although FDG PET detects metastatic disease with high accuracy, its diagnostic value in breast cancer still needs to be defined. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of FDG PET with conventional imaging. Patients, methods: a retrospective analysis of 119 breast cancer patients who presented for staging was performed. Whole-body FDG-PET (n = 119) was compared with chest X-ray (n = 106) and bone scintigraphy (n = 95). Each imaging modality was independently assessed and classified for metastasis (negative, equivocal and positive). The results of abdominal ultrasound (n = 100) were classified as negative and positive according to written reports. Imaging results were compared with clinical follow-up including follow-up imaging procedures and histopathology. Results: FDG-PET detected distant metastases with a sensitivity of 87.3% and a specificity of 83.3%. In contrast, the sensitivity and specificity of combined conventional imaging procedures was 43.1% and 98.5%, respectively. Regarding so-called equivocal and positive results as positive, the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET was 93.1% and 76.6%, respectively, compared to 61.2% and 86.6% for conventional imaging. Regarding different locations of metastases the sensitivity of FDG PET was superior in the detection of pulmonary metastases and lymph node metastases of the mediastinum in comparison to chest X-ray, whereas the sensitivity of FDG PET in the detection of bone and liver metastases was comparable with bone scintigraphy and ultrasound of the abdomen. Conclusions: FDG-PET is more sensitive than conventional imaging procedures for detection of distant breast cancer metastases and should be

  1. Evaluation of the entrance skin dose due to paediatric chest X-rays examinations carried out at a great hospital in Rio de Janeiro city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dosimetric survey in paediatric radiology is currently being carried out at the paediatric unit of a great hospital in Rio de Janeiro city, aiming the assessment of patient doses and image quality. The aim of this work was to estimate the entrance skin dose for frontal and lateral chest X-rays exposure to paediatric patients. Three examination techniques were investigated, namely PA, AP and lateral positions. For entrance skin dose evaluation, two different TL dosimeters were used, namely LiF:Mg,Ti and CaSO4:Dy. The age intervals considered were 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results obtained with both dosimeters are similar and the entrance skin dose values evaluated for the different age intervals considered are compared with previous values found in Brazil and also in Europe. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the entrance skin dose due to paediatric chest X-rays examinations carried out at a great hospital in Rio de Janeiro city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamadain, K.E.M. [Sudan Univ. of Science and Technology, Khartoum (Sudan). Faculty of Sciences. Physics Dept.; Azevedo, A.C.P. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Rosa, L.A.R. da; Mota, H.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Medica; Goncalves, O.D. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Guebel, M.R.N. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Pediatria e Puericultura Martagao Gesteira

    2001-07-01

    A dosimetric survey in paediatric radiology is currently being carried out at the paediatric unit of a great hospital in Rio de Janeiro city, aiming the assessment of patient doses and image quality. The aim of this work was to estimate the entrance skin dose for frontal and lateral chest X-rays exposure to paediatric patients. Three examination techniques were investigated, namely PA, AP and lateral positions. For entrance skin dose evaluation, two different TL dosimeters were used, namely LiF:Mg,Ti and CaSO4:Dy. The age intervals considered were 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results obtained with both dosimeters are similar and the entrance skin dose values evaluated for the different age intervals considered are compared with previous values found in Brazil and also in Europe. (author)

  3. Manifestations Analysis About the Acute Pyogenic Osteomyelitis By X-ray%急性化脓性骨髓炎X线表现分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文辉

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the X-ray imaging manifestations of the patients with acute pyogenic osteomyelitis.MethodsSelected 20 cases X-ray datum of the patients with acute pyogenic osteomyelitis to analyse from January 2012 to June 2014.Results The X-ray showed that there were 6 cases got intervertebral space stenosis, 2 cases got vertebral endplate failure and 12 cases got the destruction of vertebral bodies.Conclusion The skeletal positive X-ray signs of acute pyogenic osteomyelitis is displayed in the 10 days before onset, but the changes of the soft tissue will appear after 2 to 3 days when it onset. The X-ray examination with the advantages of convenient, simple, cheap, good effect and so on, and it still as the preferred method for diagnosis of acute suppurative osteomyelitis.%目的:探讨急性化脓性骨髓炎患者X线影像表现。方法选取2012年1月~2014年6月收治的急性化脓性骨髓炎患者20例X线检查资料进行分析。结果X线表现为椎间隙狭窄6例,椎体终板破坏2例,椎体破坏12例。结论急性化脓性骨髓炎的骨骼阳性X线征象需在发病10天后才能显示,但软组织的改变在发病后2~3天即可出现。X线检查以其方便、简单、便宜、效果良好等优点,仍作为诊断急性化脓性骨髓炎的首选方法。

  4. Do preliminary chest X-ray findings define the optimum role of pulmonary scintigraphy in suspected pulmonary embolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To investigate if preliminary chest radiograph (CXR) findings can define the optimum role of lung scintigraphy in subjects investigated for pulmonary embolism (PE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CXR and scintigraphy findings from 613 consecutive subjects investigated for suspected PE were retrieved from a radiological database. Of 393 patients with abnormal CXRs, a subgroup of 238 was examined and individual radiographic abnormalities were characterized. CXR findings were related to the scintigraphy result. RESULTS: Scintigraphy was normal in 286 subjects (47%), non-diagnostic in 207 (34%) and high probability for PE in 120 (20%). In 393 subjects (64%) the preliminary CXR was abnormal and 188 (48%) of scintigrams in this group were non-diagnostic. Individual radiographic abnormalities were not associated with significantly different scintigraphic outcomes. If the preliminary CXR was normal (36%), the proportion of non-diagnostic scintigrams decreased to 9% (19 of 220 subjects) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In subjects investigated for PE, an abnormal CXR increases the prevalence of non-diagnostic scintigrams. A normal pre-test CXR is more often associated with a definitive (normal or high probability) scintigram result. The chest radiograph may be useful in deciding the optimum sequence of investigations. Forbes, K.P.N., Reid, J.H., Murchison, J.T. (2001)

  5. Teratoma do mediastino simulando derrame pleural no estudo radiológico do tórax Mediastinal teratoma mimicking pleural effusion on chest X-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angelo Martins de Castro Júnior

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas mediastinais representam 8 a 13% dos tumores nesta região. Uma paciente de 27 anos apresentou-se com dor torácica e dispnéia de evolução arrastada. O radiograma de tórax revelou opacidade quase total do hemitórax direito, levando à suspeita de derrame pleural. A tomografia de tórax evidenciou coleção pleural heterogênea, de contornos regulares (10,1 x 11,7 cm, nos dois terços inferiores do hemitórax direito, sem envolvimento de estruturas adjacentes. Na toracotomia exploradora, pela hipótese de teratoma cístico benigno do mediastino, realizou-se ressecção total da lesão, com boa evolução pós-operatória. A apresentação atípica e grande crescimento do tumor dificultaram o diagnóstico pré-operatório.Teratomas account for 8-13% of all mediastinal tumors. A 27-year-old patient presented with chest pain and dyspnea of prolonged evolution. A chest X-ray revealed near total opacification of the right hemithorax. On a tomography scan of the chest, a collection of heterogeneous fluid, with irregular borders and 10.1 x 11.7 cm in size, was seen in the pleura of the lower two-thirds of the right hemithorax but was not encroaching on any of the adjacent structures. Based on the hypothesis that these findings represented a benign mediastinal teratoma, an exploratory thoracotomy was performed, during which such a teratoma was found and completely excised. The post-operative evolution was favorable. The atypical presentation and considerable growth of the tumor hindered the pre-operative diagnosis.

  6. Clinical importance of digitized chest X-ray for detection of pulmonary infiltrations in bone marrow transplant patients during aplasia; Wertigkeit der digitalen Thoraxaufnahme bei der Detektion von Lungeninfiltraten knochenmarktransplantierten Patienten in der Aplasie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.; Maas, R.; Steiner, P.; Kramer, J.; Bumann, D.; Buecheler, E. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Zander, A.R. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Zentrum fuer Knochenmarktransplantation

    1999-10-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of digitized chest X-ray for the detection of pulmonary infiltrations in bone marrow transplant patients during aplasia. Methods: Digitized chest X-rays of 40 patients (21 female, 19 male) with 'Fever of unknown origin' (FUO) were evaluated concerning radiological signs of pulmonary infiltrations and correlated to clinical findings, blood chemistry, microbiology and bronchoscopy. Additionally, an individual risk profile was established. Results: In 11/40 patients pulmonary infiltrations were detected in digitized chest X-rays (group 1). 10/11 developed an infectious pulmonary infiltration. 29/40 patients developed no pulmonary infiltration (group 2). When fever increased for the first time (initial chest X-ray) a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 46%, 86%, 56%, 81% and for the chest X-rays in process of 61%, 79%, 68% and 73% was found. C-reactive protein and temperature increase occured statistically significantly earlier (p<0.05) in group 1 compared to group 2. The average latency of digital chest X-rays in comparison to c-reactive protein and temperature increase was 6 days. The incidence of risk factors was significantly higher in group 1 in comparison to group 2 (p<0.05). Conclusion: Digitized chest X-rays are not a reliable method for primary detection of pulmonary infiltrations after bone marrow transplantation. Individual risk factors have to be taken into consideration to indicate further diagnostic methods such as computed tomography at an earlier time. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Wertigkeit der digitalen Thoraxaufnahme bei der Detektion pulmonaler Infiltrate bei knochenmarktransplantierten Patienten in der Aplasie. Methoden: Digitale Thoraxaufnahmen von 40 Patienten (21 Frauen, 19 Maenner) in Aplasie mit Fieber unklarer Genese wurden nach Zeichen pulmonaler Infiltrate ausgewertet und mit klinischen, laborchemischen, mikrobiologischen und bronchoskopischen Befunden korreliert. Zusaetzlich wurde ein

  7. WE-E-18A-02: Enhancement of Lung Tumor Visibility by Dual-Energy X-Ray Imaging in An Anthropomorphic Chest Phantom Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Intrafractional lung tumor motion during radiotherapy can be compensated for by tracking the tumor position using x-ray imaging and adapting the treatment in real-time. However, locating the tumor with an automated template-matching algorithm is often challenging if the tumor is obscured by ribs. This study investigates the feasibility of creating dual-energy (DE) images of the chest with increased tumor visibility on an Elekta XVI system. Methods: An anthropomorphic chest phantom was imaged at two different energies. Low-energy images were obtained at 80 kVp (0.8 mAs); high-energy images at 129 kVp (0.6 mAs, additional 1.26 mm tin filter). A Geant4 Monte-Carlo framework was developed allowing simulation of the x-ray tube, flat-panel detector and phantom in order to optimize the beam energies, filtration and the weighting factor used to subtract the individual images into a synthetic DE image. The weighting factor was selected to minimize the visibility of bones while maintaining a sufficient tumor visibility. We scored the bone visibility as the contrast of tumor (with bone) to tumor (without bone), and similarly of lung tissue (with bone) to lung tissue (without bone). Tumor visibility was quantified as the contrast between tumor and lung tissue (both without bone). Results: In the experimentally obtained DE image the bone visibility was reduced by 79.2% in tumor and by 96.8% in lung tissue while the overall tumor visibility only decreased by 69.5%. The Monte-Carlo simulation yielded similar results reducing the scores by 90.0%, 85.3% and only 71.9%, respectively. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the feasibility of DE imaging to enhance lung tumor detectability. In the future, we hope to further refine the Monte-Carlo simulation to more accurately predict the weighting factors which would aid real-time implementation. Furthermore, we plan to use the Monte-Carlo framework to simulate DE images of actual lung tumors. The authors would like to thank Paul

  8. Dose on the entrance surface of thyroid, crystalline lens and gonads during the chest X-rays studies; Dosis en la superficie de entrada de tiroides, cristalino y gonadas durante los examenes radiologicos de torax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez G, R.; Guerra M, J. A.; Pinedo S, A.; Hernandez O, M.; Duran M, H. A.; Salas L, M. A.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, IPN, Av. Legaria No. 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolita, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail: rgg_df@hotmail.com

    2009-10-15

    There were a measurement series in General Hospital of Fresnillo in X-rays department in areas of X-1 and X-2 ray rooms and in a neonatal intensive care unit 2, the dose was determined on the entrance surface into eyes, thyroid and gonads for patients undergoing to X-rays study of tele chest by thermoluminescent dosimetry. 5 dosemeters were used in each of the scans, found the following dose ranges 20+{sub -} 23 {mu}Gy to 350 +{sub -} 41 {mu}Gy. With results we can conclude that the used procedures and the calibration equipment are adequate. (Author)

  9. Correlation between atopic manifestation and lung toxicity following chest irradiation for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of atopic manifestations on the occurrence of the lung toxicity following chest irradiation for breast cancer. Collection of 1,173 patients who had undergone radiotherapy on their 1,177 chest walls or postsurgical mammary glands at 9 institutions including ours. They received treatment consecutively from December 1980 through October 2005, with which we formed the basis of this analysis. Patients with any of the following medical history were defined as having atopic manifestations (n=111): asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, and allergy to food or drug. Of them, patients who were observed for at least 6 months or who suffered from lung toxicity at any time, were classified as Group A (n=85). On the other hand, patients in our institute who were observed for at least 6 months or who suffered from lung toxicity at any time regardless of atopic manifestations, were classified as Group B (n=113), and patients without any atopic manifestation were classified as Group C (n=92). Grade 3 or higher lung toxicity in National Cancer Institute, Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE) (v 3.0), occurred in 8.2%, id est (i.e.) 7 cases, of Group A, 2.7% of Group B, and 1.1% of Group C (p=0.0293 Group C against Group A). Three cases were classified as classical pneumonitis, and the other 4 sporadic pneumonitis such as Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia and Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia. Both of the histologically proven COP and CEP patients showed atopic manifestations in our institute. The detail clinical features are described in the main text. Having atopic manifestations suggests that there may be risk of lung toxicity following chest irradiation for breast cancer. (author)

  10. Intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases on high-resolution chest computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C. Isabela S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Vancouver General Hospital]. E-mail: isabela.silva@vch.ca; Mueller, Nestor L. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Vancouver General Hospital. Dept. of Radiology

    2008-05-15

    Intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases are very common. The frequency of intrathoracic manifestations and the patterns of abnormality are variable depending on the type of collagen vascular disease and may simultaneously involve one or more of the following: lung parenchyma, airways, pulmonary vessels, pericardium, and pleura. The most common pulmonary manifestations are diffuse interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary hypertension which together represent the main causes of morbidity and mortality of these patients. Pulmonary, airway and pleural involvement may also be secondary to the disease therapy, or result from bacterial pneumonia or opportunistic infection. In the present review, the authors summarize the main intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases and the differential diagnosis on high-resolution chest computed tomography. (author)

  11. The value of advanced multiple beam equalization radiography (AMBER) and storage phosphor radiography in chest X-rays; Zur Validierung des AMBER-Systems und der digitalen Speicherfolienradiographie fuer Thoraxaufnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, C.S. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Richter, K. [Franz-Volhard-Klinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin, Berlin-Buch (Germany); Stein, R. [Franz-Volhard-Klinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin, Berlin-Buch (Germany); Busch, H.P. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Heidelberg Univ., Klinikum Mannheim (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    The study compared the quality of roentgenologic criteria in the evaluation of the heart and pulmonary vessels on chest X-rays obtained with different imaging systems. Fifty patients had four different chest radiographs, i.e. conventional chest X-rays, AMBER images, digital storage phosphor images, and digital storage radiographs that were obtained with the AMBER system. Comparison of techniques was based on 12 well-defined quality criteria of chest X-rays. Four radiologists with expertise reviewed the films according to these criteria. The AMBER technique was found to be superior to the remaining imaging modalities in visualization of the central pulmonary vessels, the descending aorta, and the left atrium. Peripheral pulmonary vessels were best appreciated with AMBER technique combined with storage phosphor technique. The same technique was superior in the assessment of all cardiovascular criteria. The superiority of this technique versus conventional chest X-rays can be explained on the basis of the linear slope of the gradation curve of AMBER and digital techniques. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurde ein Guetevergleich der roentgenologischen Kriterien des Herzens und der Pulmonalgefaesse auf Thoraxaufnahmen unterschiedlicher Bilderzeugungssysteme durchgefuehrt. Von 50 Patienten lagen jeweils 4 miteinander zu vergleichende Aufnahmen vor, und zwar jeweils eine konventionelle Filmfolienaufnahme, eine Aufnahme am AMBER (Advanced Multiple Beam Equalization Radiography)-System, eine digitale Phosphorspeicherfolienaufnahme und eine am AMBER-System angefertigte Speicherfolienaufnahme. Der Vergleich erfolgte anhand von 12 definierten Merkmalen der Thoraxaufnahme. Vier erfahrene Radiologen gaben fuer jedes dieser Kriterien ein Gueteurteil ab. Resultate: Die AMBER-Technik wurde fuer die Darstellung der zentralen Pulmonalgefaesse, der Aorta descendens und des linken Vorhofs als beste Methode eingeschaetzt. Die periphere Lungengefaesszeichnung erhielt die beste Guetebewertung bei

  12. X-ray diagnostics of neurological manifestations of cervical osteochondrosis and their importance in planning rehabilitation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined 500 patients with neurological manifestations of cervical osteochondrosis. It was found that each method of osteochondrosis visualization has its designation. Complex radial visualization of the cervical spine increases the quality of diagnosis: gives the chance to evaluate more precisely expressiveness of its degenerate-dystrophic changes, to establish their importance at medical planning of rehabilitation actions, and also to predict neurological complications. Distribution of patients on clinic-rehabilitation groups allows developing of an effective rehabilitation system of sick and disabled with neurological manifestations of cervical spine osteochondrosis that would not only improve the health of affected, but also have significant socio-economic effect. (authors)

  13. The diagnostic value of X-ray and CT scan of the chest trauma%X线平片和CT扫描对胸部创伤的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志勇; 陈俊

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the diagnostic value of X-ray and CT scan of the chest trauma.Methods:30 patients with chest trauma were selected,doing X-ray,CT examination. Results: 13 cases were pulmonary exudative change, in which X-ray showed normal in 2 cases, while CT lung found pale patchy and high-density shadow.6 cases were pneumothorax,in which it was difficult to see very little pneumothorax for X-ray, while CT scan was clear.In addition, X-ray and CT could clear diagnosis of pneumohemothorax in 6 cases,pulmonary hematoma in 5 cases,hemothorax in 8 cases,rib fracture in 9 cases, mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema in 6 cases,pulmonary atelectasis in 1 case.Conclusion:X-ray and CT scan are important methods in diagnosis of chest trauma,and CT is superior to X-ray.%目的:探讨 X 线平片和 CT 扫描对胸部创伤的诊断价值。方法:收治胸部创伤患者30例,行 X 线、CT 检查。结果:肺部渗出性改变13例,平片显示正常2例,而CT检查则均发现肺部的浅淡斑片状、云絮状高密度影。气胸6例,极少量的气胸,用平片很难看到,而CT扫描却十分清晰。另外,血气胸6例,肺血肿5例,胸腔积血8例,肋骨骨折9例,纵隔及皮下气肿6例,肺不张1例,X线和CT均能明确诊断。结论:X线平片和CT扫描是诊断胸部创伤的重要方法,而CT扫描明显优于X线平片。

  14. 小儿重症EV71感染早期临床特征和胸部X线表现以及临床转归%The early clinical features,chest X-ray findings and prognosis in infants and young children with severe enterovirus 71 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓辉; 章毅英; 贾绚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical features and chest X-ray manifestations and prognosis of enterovirus71 (EV71) infection in children. Methods 15 cases with severe EV71 infection in children confirmed by Centers for Disease Control of Zhejiang Province were retrospectively analysed. Of them,8 cases were dead and 7 cases were mended or cured. The characteristics of age, symptoms , laboratory tests and special inspections and particularly the relationship between chest X-ray findings and prognosis were analysed with literature review. Results There were significant differences between dead cases and improved/cured cases in the pulmonary edema whether or not presented on chest X-ray films (P0. 05). All the dead cases had pulmonary edema/pulmonary hemorrhage and all the improved/cured cases had no obvious abnormalities on chest X-ray. Conclusion It is extremely dangerous situation and it has a very high mortality rate in the cases with EV71 infection with acute pulmonary edema in children, the chest X-ray images show a certain characteristic to improve the awareness of this disease, chest X-ray findings can contribute to the understanding the diagnosis, treatment, differential diagnosis of lung diseases.%目的 探讨小儿肠道病毒71型(enterovirus71,EV71)感染早期临床特征与胸部X线表现及预后的关系.方法 回顾性分析15例经浙江省疾控中心确诊为EV71感染的重症患儿,其中8例经抢救无效死亡,7例好转或治愈出院.分析年龄及早期症状、实验室检查及特殊检查等临床特征,尤其是胸部X线表现与预后的关系,探讨胸片改变的特征,并结合有关文献进行讨论.结果 死亡病例与好转/治愈病例在胸片肺水肿出现与否存在显著差异(P0.05);8例死亡病例均有肺水肿/肺出血胸片表现,7例好转/治愈病例胸片未见明显异常征象.结论 小儿EV71感染若出现两肺渗出性改变,提示病情凶险,有非常高的死亡率,且其胸部X线表现具有一

  15. Dose evaluation for paediatric chest x-ray examinations in Brazil and Sudan: low doses and reliable examinations can be achieved in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadain, K. E. M.; da Rosa, L. A. R.; Azevedo, A. C. P.; Guebel, M. R. N.; Boechat, M. C. B.; Habani, F.

    2004-03-01

    Radiation protection in paediatric radiology deserves special attention since it is assumed that children are more sensitive to radiation than adults. The aim of this work is to estimate the entrance skin dose (ESD), the body organ dose (BOD) and the effective dose (E) for chest x-ray exposure of paediatric patients in five large units, three in Sudan and two in Brazil, and to compare the results obtained in both countries with each other and with other values obtained by some European countries. Two examination projections have been investigated, namely, postero-anterior (PA) and antero-posterior (AP). The age intervals considered were: 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results have been obtained with the use of a software called DoseCal. Results of mean ESD for the age interval 1-5 years and AP projection are: 66 µGy (Instituto de Pediatria e Puericultura Martagão Gesteira—IPPMG Hospital), 41, 86 and 68 µGy (Instituto Fernandes Figueira—IFF Hospital), 161 µGy (Omdurman Hospital), 395 µGy (Khartoum Hospital) and 23 µGy (Ahmed Gasim Hospital). In the case of the IFF Hospital, the results refer, respectively, to rooms 1, 2 and for the six mobile equipments. The reference dose values given by the European Guidelines were exceeded in the Khartoum Hospital whilst in all the other hospitals results obtained were below CEC reference values and comparable with the results found in Sweden, Germany, Spain and Italy. The mean E for the same age interval was 11 µSv in the IPPMG, 6, 15 and 11 µSv in the IFF, respectively for rooms 1, 2 and the 6 mobiles, 25 µSv in the Omdurman Hospital, 45 µSv in the Khartoum Hospital and 3 µSv in the Ahmed Gasim Hospital. These are some examples of the large discrepancies that have been detected in this survey.

  16. Dose evaluation for paediatric chest x-ray examinations in Brazil and Sudan: low doses and reliable examinations can be achieved in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection in paediatric radiology deserves special attention since it is assumed that children are more sensitive to radiation than adults. The aim of this work is to estimate the entrance skin dose (ESD), the body organ dose (BOD) and the effective dose (E) for chest x-ray exposure of paediatric patients in five large units, three in Sudan and two in Brazil, and to compare the results obtained in both countries with each other and with other values obtained by some European countries. Two examination projections have been investigated, namely, postero-anterior (PA) and antero-posterior (AP). The age intervals considered were: 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results have been obtained with the use of a software called DoseCal. Results of mean ESD for the age interval 1-5 years and AP projection are: 66 μGy (Instituto de Pediatria e Puericultura Martagao Gesteira-IPPMG Hospital), 41, 86 and 68 μGy (Instituto Fernandes Figueira-IFF Hospital), 161 μGy (Omdurman Hospital), 395 μGy (Khartoum Hospital) and 23 μGy (Ahmed Gasim Hospital). In the case of the IFF Hospital, the results refer, respectively, to rooms 1, 2 and for the six mobile equipments. The reference dose values given by the European Guidelines were exceeded in the Khartoum Hospital whilst in all the other hospitals results obtained were below CEC reference values and comparable with the results found in Sweden, Germany, Spain and Italy. The mean E for the same age interval was 11 μSv in the IPPMG, 6, 15 and 11 μSv in the IFF, respectively for rooms 1, 2 and the 6 mobiles, 25 μSv in the Omdurman Hospital, 45 μSv in the Khartoum Hospital and 3 μSv in the Ahmed Gasim Hospital. These are some examples of the large discrepancies that have been detected in this survey

  17. Dose evaluation for paediatric chest x-ray examinations in Brazil and Sudan: low doses and reliable examinations can be achieved in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamadain, K E M [FIOCRUZ-Escola Nacional de Saude Publica-CESTEH, Rua Leopoldo Bulhoes 1480, Manguinhos, 21041-210 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rosa, L A R da [Departamento de FIsica Medica, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Azevedo, A C P [FIOCRUZ-Escola Nacional de Saude Publica-CESTEH, Rua Leopoldo Bulhoes 1480, Manguinhos, 21041-210 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Guebel, M R N [Instituto de Pediatria e Puericultura Martagao Gesteira, UFRJ, 21490-910 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Boechat, M C B [FIOCRUZ-Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Habani, F [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Khartoum University, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2004-03-21

    Radiation protection in paediatric radiology deserves special attention since it is assumed that children are more sensitive to radiation than adults. The aim of this work is to estimate the entrance skin dose (ESD), the body organ dose (BOD) and the effective dose (E) for chest x-ray exposure of paediatric patients in five large units, three in Sudan and two in Brazil, and to compare the results obtained in both countries with each other and with other values obtained by some European countries. Two examination projections have been investigated, namely, postero-anterior (PA) and antero-posterior (AP). The age intervals considered were: 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results have been obtained with the use of a software called DoseCal. Results of mean ESD for the age interval 1-5 years and AP projection are: 66 {mu}Gy (Instituto de Pediatria e Puericultura Martagao Gesteira-IPPMG Hospital), 41, 86 and 68 {mu}Gy (Instituto Fernandes Figueira-IFF Hospital), 161 {mu}Gy (Omdurman Hospital), 395 {mu}Gy (Khartoum Hospital) and 23 {mu}Gy (Ahmed Gasim Hospital). In the case of the IFF Hospital, the results refer, respectively, to rooms 1, 2 and for the six mobile equipments. The reference dose values given by the European Guidelines were exceeded in the Khartoum Hospital whilst in all the other hospitals results obtained were below CEC reference values and comparable with the results found in Sweden, Germany, Spain and Italy. The mean E for the same age interval was 11 {mu}Sv in the IPPMG, 6, 15 and 11 {mu}Sv in the IFF, respectively for rooms 1, 2 and the 6 mobiles, 25 {mu}Sv in the Omdurman Hospital, 45 {mu}Sv in the Khartoum Hospital and 3 {mu}Sv in the Ahmed Gasim Hospital. These are some examples of the large discrepancies that have been detected in this survey.

  18. A population-based cohort study of chest x-ray screening in smokers: lung cancer detection findings and follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case-control studies of mass screening for lung cancer (LC) by chest x-rays (CXR) performed in the 1990s in scarcely defined Japanese target populations indicated significant mortality reductions, but these results are yet to be confirmed in western countries. To ascertain whether CXR screening decreases LC mortality at community level, we studied a clearly defined population-based cohort of smokers invited to screening. We present here the LC detection results and the 10-year survival rates. The cohort of all smokers of > 10 pack-years resident in 50 communities of Varese, screening-eligible (n = 5,815), in July 1997 was invited to nonrandomized CXR screening. Self-selected participants (21% of cohort) underwent screening in addition to usual care; nonparticipants received usual care. The cohort was followed-up until December 2010. Kaplan-Meier LC-specific survival was estimated in participants, in nonparticipants, in the whole cohort, and in an uninvited, unscreened population (control group). Over the initial 9.5 years of study, 67 LCs were diagnosed in screening participants (51% were screen-detected) and 178 in nonparticipants. The rates of stage I LC, resectability and 5-year survival were nearly twice as high in participants (32% stage I; 48% resected; 30.5% 5-year survival) as in nonparticipants (17% stage I; 27% resected; 13.5% 5-year survival). There were no bronchioloalveolar carcinomas among screen-detected cancers, and median volume doubling time of incidence screen-detected LCs was 80 days (range, 44-318), suggesting that screening overdiagnosis was minimal. The 10-year LC-specific survival was greater in screening participants than in nonparticipants (log-rank, p = 0.005), and greater in the whole cohort invited to screening than in the control group (log-rank, p = 0.001). This favourable long-term effect was independently related to CXR screening exposure. In the setting of CXR screening offered to a population-based cohort of smokers, screening

  19. AORTIC KNOB DIAMETER IN CHEST X-RAY AND ITS RELATION WITH AGE, HEART DIAMETER AND TRANSVERSE DIAMETER OF THORAX IN A POPULATION OF BANKURA DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available : CONTEXT BACKGROUND: Aortic knob or aortic knuckle is an important finding in chest radiograph. It may give the first clue of cardiovascular disease. Though many sophisticated investigations are there to diagnose cardiovascular diseases, but these investigating tools are only available in urban developed areas. They are hardly available in rural developing areas of West Bengal, where low cost X-ray machine is available. So, still today chest X-ray is the first investigation in suspected cardiac disease especially in rural areas. There should be a normal reference value of aortic knob diameter (AD with variation of age and sex. The value may vary with Heart diameter (HD and Transverse thoracic diameter (TD. In our study we tried to find out all these parameters. SETTING: Sub-divisional hospitals in Bishnupur and Chhatna blocks, Bankura, West Bengal. DESIGN: Simple random sampling method DURATION OF STUDY: Two years. METHOD: 650 people attending the out-patient department, meeting the deserved criteria are selected. Their chest X-ray were taken, aortic diameter, heart diameter and transverse thoracic diameter were measured. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: From these data, we calculate the mean and standard deviation and lastly correlation coefficient. RESULT: We find the mean average diameter of aortic knob is 3.10cm±3.34 in male and 3.076cm±3.9 in female. We also note that aortic diameter in both male and female increases in increasing age. We also note that there lies positive correlation of aortic diameter with heart diameter and transverse diameter of thorax. CONCLUSION: Aortic knob diameter is slightly more in male than in female. It increases as age increases. It has got positive correlation with heart diameter and transverse thoracic diameter.

  20. 胸部X线对肺透明膜病病情程度的监测%A dynamic observation of the X-ray images in chest after applying cnrosurf to hyaline membrane disease in grade Ⅲ~Ⅳ of the premature infants' lungs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪建华; 肖飞鹰; 孙多成; 刘超凡

    2008-01-01

    目的 评价X线对肺表面活性物质(PS)固尔苏治疗肺透明膜病(HMD)的疗效监测.方法 回顾确诊为Ⅲ~Ⅳ级HMD、应用PS治疗的早产儿21例病例,采用用药后1/2 h、6 h、24 h、48 h、5 d胸片观察.结果 用药后1/2 h胸片双肺透亮度即有改善15例;肺部表现进行性改善,较前次朐片好转16例;病变无改变或进展5例,其中并发肺出血1例,出现气漏3例;伴有肺部炎症样改变3例;动脉导管开放(PDA)11例.结论 使用PS治疗后胸片动态观察能对Ⅲ~Ⅳ级HMD病变转归作出正确判断,短期复查能及时发现HMD并发症.%Objective To analyze the characteristics of the dynamic changes of the radiological X-ray images in chest after applying a pulmonary surfactant(PS) named curosurf to hyaline membrane disease in grade Ⅲ~Ⅳ of the premature lungs,and to study the clinical values of the follow-ups with chest films after applying PS to evaluate its effects and to detect the complications in chest. Methods To review the definite cases of HMD in grade Ⅲ~Ⅳ with final clinical and radiological diagnosis so as to analyze the radiological image manifestations in ehest after applying PS to the premature lungs for half an hour, for 6 hours,for 24 hours, for 48 hours and for 5 days. Results Shortly after the application of PS,according to the chest films,just half an hour later, 15 cases improved their degrees of the transmittance of the two lungs; 16 cases progressively ameliorated their manifestations in chest, taking the turn for the better than the previous images; 5 cases had no improvement, among which 1 developed a complication of pulmonary hemorrhage,and 3 developed pulmonary air leakage; 3 eases accompanied with pulmonary inflammation-like lesions; 11 cases presented patent arterial duets(PDA). Generally speaking, the X-ray image manifestation was the same as the clinical symptoms. Conclusion A dynamic observation of the X-ray films in chest after the application of PS

  1. 新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征87例X线胸片分析%Analysis of chest X-ray in 87 cases of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnostic value of chest X-ray in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.Methods 87 children with NRDS were selected.Then bedside radiography was conducted with the Philip Pracelx100 mobile X-ray machine,and the children with confirmed NRDS were recorded,and the children screening by chest X-ray review were analyzed.Referenced the NRDS image diagnostic criteria,the disease grading was carried out according to the lung field light transmission reduction and air bronchogram extent.Results 20 cases in the first grade,35 cases in the second grade,28 cases in the third grade,4 cases in the fourth grade.Limitations of miliary shadows in 15 cases ;60 cases of impaired lung field transmittance,51 patients presented with ground-glass change and air bronchogram ;4 cases in “ white lung”.Conclusion Chest X-ray for NRDS had important value of diagnostic,differential diagnostic and prognosis.%目的 探讨X线胸片对新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征(NRDS)的诊断价值.方法 选取NRDS患儿87例,采用菲利浦Pracelx100型移动X线机床边摄片,对确诊NRDS的患儿进行记录,筛选经X线胸片复查的患儿进行整理分析.参考NRDS影像学诊断标准,根据肺野透光度减低和支气管充气征的程度对病情进行分级.结果 一级20例,二级35例,三级28例,四级4例.局限性粟粒阴影15例;肺野透光度减低60例,51例呈现毛玻璃样改变及支气管充气征;4例出现“白肺”.结论 X线胸片对NRDS的诊断、鉴别诊断及预后判断具有重要价值.

  2. The Image Quality of a Digital Chest X-Ray Radiography System: Comparison of Quantitative Image Quality Analysis and Radiologists' Visual Scoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ji Ho [Dept. of Radiology Oncology, Yongsan Hospital, Pusan National University College of Medicine, Yongsan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Darl; Kim, Won Taek; Kim, Yong Ho; Ki, Yong Kan; Kim, DFong Hyun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Dong Won [Dept. of Radiology Oncology, Yongsan Hospital, Pusan National University College of Medicine, Yongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ho Sang [Reserach Institue for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Yongsan Hospital, Pusan National University College of Medicine, Yongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    To evaluate the performance of imaging devices, which should be periodically monitored to maintain high quality images to the radiologists. Additionally, this evaluation may prevent patients from radiation over-exposure. The most suitable engineering standard for imaging performance evaluation of digital X-ray thoracic images was determined. IEC 62220-1 standards were used to evaluate the performance of the images. In succession, the visibilities of overall image, pneumothorax, and humerus head in anthropomorphic thoracic phantom images were used to evaluate the image qualities by radiologists. The rank correlation coefficient (p) of visual scoring by radiologists with system spatial resolution is not meaningful (p-value, p = 0.295), but is significant with image noise (p-value, p -0.9267). Finally, the noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) presents a high rank correlation for visual scoring of radiologists (p-value, p = 0.9320). Image quality evaluation of radiologists were mainly affected by imaging noise. Hence, the engineered standard for evaluating image noise is the most important index to effectively monitor the performance of X-ray images. Additionally, the NEQ can be used to evaluate the performance of radiographic systems, because it theoretically corresponds to the synthetic image quality of systems.

  3. Semi-automated measurements of heart-to-mediastinum ratio on 123I-MIBG myocardial scintigrams by using image fusion method with chest X-ray images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Ryosuke; Hara, Takeshi; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Ishihara, Tadahiko; Zhou, Xiangrong; Muramatsu, Chisako; Abe, Yoshiteru; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    MIBG (iodine-123-meta-iodobenzylguanidine) is a radioactive medicine that is used to help diagnose not only myocardial diseases but also Parkinson's diseases (PD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The difficulty of the segmentation around the myocardium often reduces the consistency of measurement results. One of the most common measurement methods is the ratio of the uptake values of the heart to mediastinum (H/M). This ratio will be a stable independent of the operators when the uptake value in the myocardium region is clearly higher than that in background, however, it will be unreliable indices when the myocardium region is unclear because of the low uptake values. This study aims to develop a new measurement method by using the image fusion of three modalities of MIBG scintigrams, 201-Tl scintigrams, and chest radiograms, to increase the reliability of the H/M measurement results. Our automated method consists of the following steps: (1) construct left ventricular (LV) map from 201-Tl myocardium image database, (2) determine heart region in chest radiograms, (3) determine mediastinum region in chest radiograms, (4) perform image fusion of chest radiograms and MIBG scintigrams, and 5) perform H/M measurements on MIBG scintigrams by using the locations of heart and mediastinum determined on the chest radiograms. We collected 165 cases with 201-Tl scintigrams and chest radiograms to construct the LV map. Another 65 cases with MIBG scintigrams and chest radiograms were also collected for the measurements. Four radiological technologists (RTs) manually measured the H/M in the MIBG images. We compared the four RTs' results with our computer outputs by using Pearson's correlation, the Bland-Altman method, and the equivalency test method. As a result, the correlations of the H/M between four the RTs and the computer were 0.85 to 0.88. We confirmed systematic errors between the four RTs and the computer as well as among the four RTs. The variation range of the H

  4. Joint x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  5. Follow-up of oncological patients with reduced X-ray exposure using high-speed screen-film combinations for plain-film radiography of the chest - ROC-analysis for detection of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-speed screen/film combinations (s400) fulfil the qualifications for plain-film radiography of the chest, because a receiver-operating-characteristics(ROC)-analysis indicates equally good results in detecting pulmonary nodules comparing the screen/film combinations RP 1L/MR 200 and ortho ST L/regular (s=400). The characteristic properties of both screen/film combinations, such as density, image noise, and modulation-transfer-function (MTF), are quite similar, with the exception of 10-15% lower MTF for the high-speed screen/film combination. This difference is discussed to be responsible for somewhat lower detection rates of structure details, such as pulmonary nodules, although without significant differences. Using high-speed plain-film systems we are able to reduce the X-ray exposure to half compared to established screen/film combinations at a speed of 200 as an important contribution to minimize X-ray exposure of sound organs. (orig.)

  6. Determination of diagnostic reference levels in Cote d'Ivoire: the cases of the chest X-ray standard front and abdomen adult in the district of Abidjan and in the region of Sud Comoé

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entrance surface dose measurements were performed for 194 adults using Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLD) placed on a 10 liters cane of water, during the X-rays examinations of the chest of face and abdomen at the Institut of Cardiology of Abidjan (District of Abidjan), at the Regional Hospital complex of Aboisso and at the General Hospital of Ayamé (Region of Sud Comoé). This preliminary study, the first one in Cote d'Ivoire, was to assess doses released to patients during their exposure to X-rays in medical radiology with various radiological practices in order to determine the national diagnostic reference levels (DRL) . The results show that the irradiation levels in the selected services are comparable to the dose levels indicated by international publications. They give us a glimpse on doses received in Cote d'Ivoire and show that these initial values of DRL measured are acceptable in the District of Abidjan and in the region of Sud Comoé. This study proves the feasibility and the great interest of a national campaign of measurements in radiology in all the hospitals of the country. This permits to determine ivorian DRL and facilitate their periodic review. (author)

  7. Radiation exposure of children in pediatric radiology. Pt. 3. Conversion coefficients for reconstruction of organ doses achieved during chest X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: calculation of conversion coefficients for the reconstruction of organ doses from entrance doses for chest radiographs of 0, 1, 5, 10, 15, and 30-year-old patients in conventional pediatric radiology for the radiographic settings recommended by the German and European guidelines for quality management in diagnostic radiology. Materials und methods: the conversion coefficients for pediatric chest radiographs were calculated using the commercially available personal computer program PCXMC developed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Saeteilyturvakeskus STUK). PCXMC is a Monte Carlo program for computing organ and effective doses in about 40 organs of mathematical hermaphrodite phantom models describing patients of different ages. The possible clinical variation of beam collimation was taken into consideration by defining optimal and suboptimal radiation fields on the phantoms' surfaces. Results: conversion coefficients for the reconstruction of organ doses from measured entrance doses during chest radiographs for 0, 1, 5, 10, 15, and 30-year-old pediatric patients were presented. Conversion coefficients were calculated for the standard sagittal and lateral beam projections and the standard focus film distances of 100 cm, 115 cm, and 150 cm using the standard radiation qualities according to the recommendations of the German and European guidelines for quality management in diagnostic radiology. These conversion coefficients allow the reconstruction of the absorbed dose in about 40 organs and tissues of the human body for optimal and suboptimal radiation field collimations. (orig.)

  8. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... care provider's office. You will lie on the x-ray table in different positions. If the x-ray ...

  9. Effects of tube potential and scatter rejection on image quality and effective dose in digital chest X-ray examination: An anthropomorphic phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tube potential and scatter rejection techniques on image quality of digital posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs. Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom was imaged using a range of tube potentials (81–125 kVp) without scatter rejection, with an anti-scatter grid, and using a 10 cm air gap. Images were anonymised and randomised before being evaluated using a visual graded analysis (VGA) method. Results: The effects of tube potential on image quality were found to be negligible (p > 0.63) for the flat panel detector (FPD). Decreased image quality (p = 0.031) was noted for 125 kVp relative to 109 kVp, though no difference was noted for any of the other potentials (p > 0.398) for computed radiography (CR). Both scatter rejection techniques improved image quality (p p. Scatter rejection improved image quality, but with no difference found between techniques. The air-gap resulted in a smaller increase in effective dose than the anti-scatter grid and would be the preferred scatter rejection technique

  10. Product estimate of air kerma-area and the air kerma in the input surface of the skin of pediatric patients undergoing chest X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the entrance air kerma (Ka,e) and the product air kerma-area (Pka) for chest examinations performed with pediatric patients in a large public hospital of Recife. For this study 89 examinations of patient with ages from zero to 10 years old were evaluated. The results showed that the mean Ka,e values, for patients of 0-1 years old, 1-5 years old and 5-10 years old, were, respectively, 100 mGy, 120 mGy and 100 mGy. The Pka values for newborn patients range from 11,9 to 58,4 mGy.cm2, for patients with 1 to 5 years old range from 17 to 192 mGy.cm2, and from 30,4 to 136,2 mGy.cm2 for patients with ages from 5 to 10 years old. The differences in the Pka values are due the different dimensions of the radiation field. For the results its possible to conclude that the Pka values are high, in special for patients with ages from 1 to 5 years old, indicating that the collimation of the radiation field is not adequate. (author)

  11. Chronic cough and a normal chest X-ray - a simple systematic approach to exclude common causes before referral to secondary care: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Richard D; Bothamley, Graham H

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cough is common in the community and can cause significant morbidity. It is not clear how closely treatment guidelines are used in general practice, or how often specialist referral is indicated. We aimed to assess the management of chronic cough in primary care before referral to a cough clinic, and to assess the outcome of managing chronic cough with an approach of simple investigation and empirical treatment trials. Data were extracted from the records of all patients attending a district general hospital respiratory clinic over a two-year period with isolated chronic cough lasting ⩾8 weeks. The clinic assessed symptoms with a cough-severity visual analogue scale and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire. Among 266 patients, the most frequent diagnoses were asthma (29%), gastro-oesophageal reflux (22%) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use (14%). In all, 12% had unexplained chronic cough. Common diagnoses had often not been excluded in primary care: only 21% had undergone spirometry, 86% had undergone chest radiography and attempts to exclude asthma with corticosteroids had been made only in 39%. In the clinic few investigations were conducted that were not available in primary care. Substantial improvements in symptoms occurred with a median (interquartile range) total of 2 (2-3) clinic visits. We estimated that 87% of patients could have been managed solely in primary care; we did not identify distinguishing characteristics among this group. Most cases of chronic cough referred to secondary care could be managed with a simple and systematic approach, which is potentially transferrable to a community setting. PMID:26937758

  12. Dental x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some are: Bitewing Periapical Palatal (also called occlusal) ...

  13. X-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation that can penetrate the body to form an image on ... will be shades of gray depending on density. X-rays can provide information about obstructions, tumors, and other ...

  14. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  15. Pulmonary complications of induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia in adults. Findings of chest X-rays and computed tomography; Pulmonale Komplikationen der Induktionstherapie bei akuter myeloischer Leukaemie des Erwachsenen. Befunde in Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahme und Computertomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, J.; Huettmann, C.; Jacobi, V. [Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Boehme, A. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik 3

    1998-03-01

    To exclude pulmonary complications, 359 chest radiographs and 50 computed tomographs of the lung were performed in 95 patients suffering from acute myeloid leukemia. The radiological findings were registered, described and correlated with clinical findings in the present study on 2395 days of observation. Results: In summary, 52 patients showed alterations of the lung. Pulmonary hyperhydration was seen in 21 cases, bacterial pneumonia was found in 18 cases, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was documented in 14 cases, and 5 cases of severe haemorrhage were seen. An unexplained pulmonary edema in 13 patients with interstitial and alveolar infiltrates is considered to be a complication of treatment with cytosine-arabinoside. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that chest X-ray and computed tomography have a high impact in detection and treatment of pulmonary complications following intensive chemotherapy. We may expect the development of diffuse opacity following administration of cytosine-arabinoside in medium-sized doses. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zum Ausschluss pulmonaler Komplikationen durchgefuehrte Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahmen (n=359) und computertomographische Untersuchungen der Lunge (n=50) von 95 Patienten mit akuter myeloischer Leukaemie werden in der vorliegenden Arbeit systematisch erfasst, beschrieben und mit den klinischen Symptomen an insgesamt 2395 Beobachtungstagen korreliert. Ergebnisse: Hierbei wiesen 52 Patienten Lungenveraenderungen auf. Eine pulmonale Ueberwaesserung wurde in 21 Faellen beobachtet, bakterielle Pneumonien in 18 Faellen, eine invasive pulmonale Aspergillose in 14 Faellen. Es wurden 5 Lungenblutungen beobachtet. Ein bei 13 Patienten aufgetretenes unklares Lungenoedem mit diffuser interstitieller Zeichnungsvermehrung und auch alveolaerer Komponente wird von uns als Komplikation der Anwendung von Cytosin-Arabinosid angenommen. Schlussfolgerung: Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahme und Computertomographie besitzen einen hohen Stellenwert bei der Erkennung

  16. The sensitivity and specificity of using a computer aided diagnosis program for automatically scoring chest X-rays of presumptive TB patients compared with Xpert MTB/RIF in Lusaka Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monde Muyoyeta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD program for scoring chest x-rays (CXRs of presumptive tuberculosis (TB patients compared to Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert. METHOD: Consecutive presumptive TB patients with a cough of any duration were offered digital CXR, and opt out HIV testing. CXRs were electronically scored as normal (CAD score ≤ 60 or abnormal (CAD score > 60 using a CAD program. All patients regardless of CAD score were requested to submit a spot sputum sample for testing with Xpert and a spot and morning sample for testing with LED Fluorescence Microscopy-(FM. RESULTS: Of 350 patients with evaluable data, 291 (83.1% had an abnormal CXR score by CAD. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of CXR compared to Xpert were 100% (95%CI 96.2-100, 23.2% (95%CI 18.2-28.9, 33.0% (95%CI 27.6-38.7 and 100% (95% 93.9-100, respectively. The area under the receiver operator curve (AUC for CAD was 0.71 (95%CI 0.66-0.77. CXR abnormality correlated with smear grade (r = 0.30, p<0.0001 and with Xpert CT(r = 0.37, p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first time that a CAD program for TB has been successfully tested in a real world setting. The study shows that the CAD program had high sensitivity but low specificity and PPV. The use of CAD with digital CXR has the potential to increase the use and availability of chest radiography in screening for TB where trained human resources are scarce.

  17. X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of your ... different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat and ...

  18. X-Ray Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Surgery Imaging Clinical Trials Basics Patient Information X-Ray Imaging Print This Page X-ray imaging is perhaps the most familiar type of imaging. Images produced by X-rays are due to the different absorption rates of ...

  19. Radiograma de tórax e tomografia computadorizada na avaliação do enfisema pulmonar Chest X-ray and computed tomography in the evaluation of pulmonary emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Loureiro Irion

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O enfisema é uma condição do pulmão, caracterizada pelo aumento acima do normal no tamanho dos espaços aéreos distais ao bronquíolo terminal. Atualmente, o enfisema é a quarta causa de morte nos EUA, afetando 14 milhões de pessoas. O presente artigo descreve as principais ferramentas no diagnóstico por imagem do enfisema, desde o início até os dias de hoje. Relata as técnicas tradicionais, como radiograma de tórax, e as evoluções no campo da tomografia computadorizada (TC, como a TC de alta resolução e a densitovolumetria pulmonar por TC tridimensional.Emphysema is a condition of the lung, characterized by the abnormal increase in the size of the airspace distal to the terminal bronchioles. Currently, emphysema is the fourth leading cause of death in the USA, affecting 14 million people. The present article describes the principal tools in the imaging diagnosis of emphysema, from the early days until the present. We describe traditional techniques, such as chest X-ray, together with the evolution of computed tomography (CT to more advanced forms, such as high resolution CT, as well as three-dimensional CT densitometry and volumetric assessment.

  20. Pulmonary manifestations of pyoderma gangrenosum - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a case of pyoderma gangrenosum with cutaneous and pulmonary involvement. A 74-year old patient presented hemoptysis, weight loss and a cavitary mass on the chest X-ray. Pulmonary manifestations started in 1984 and presented a great pleomorfism of lesions during the progression of the disease. A literature review is also presented. (author)

  1. Out-Of-Pocket X-Ray, CT Scan Costs Vary Widely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_158853.html Out-of-Pocket X-Ray, CT Scan Costs Vary Widely And trying to get hospitals ... pocket price for a standard chest X-ray, CT scan or ultrasound can vary by hundreds of dollars, ...

  2. X-Ray Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kaaret, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We review the basic principles of X-ray polarimetry and current detector technologies based on the photoelectric effect, Bragg reflection, and Compton scattering. Recent technological advances in high-spatial-resolution gas-filled X-ray detectors have enabled efficient polarimeters exploiting the photoelectric effect that hold great scientific promise for X-ray polarimetry in the 2-10 keV band. Advances in the fabrication of multilayer optics have made feasible the construction of broad-band ...

  3. X-ray interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved type of amplitude-division x-ray interferometer is described. The wavelength at which the interferometer can operate is variable, allowing the instrument to be used to measure x-ray wavelength, and the angle of inclination is variable for sample investigation. (U.K.)

  4. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A skeletal x-ray is an imaging test used to look at the bones. It is used to detect fractures , tumors, or ... in the health care provider's office by an x-ray technologist. You will lie on a table or ...

  5. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extremity x-ray is an image of the hands, wrist, feet, ankle, leg, thigh, forearm humerus or upper arm, hip, shoulder ... term "extremity" often refers to a human limb. X-rays are a form of radiation that passes through ...

  6. Dental x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... addition, many dentists are taking x-rays using digital technology. The image runs through a computer. The amount of radiation given off during the procedure is less than traditional methods. Other types of dental x-rays can create a 3-D picture ...

  7. Management of diagnostic x-ray radiation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to provide a simple, inexpensive, and effective method to prevent the scattering of x-ray radiation by using a lead apron in the x-ray rooms of developing countries. In developed countries, the scattering of x-ray radiation among patients and radiographers in diagnostic x-ray rooms has been minimized by various methods. However, in some developing countries, scattered x-ray radiation has not yet been adequately contained. The policy of As Law As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) requires that patients who are waiting for their examinations must be protected from scattered x-ray radiation. However, from the author's experience, protection from scattered x-ray radiation in x-ray rooms is often insufficient in developing countries. In addition, major public hospitals in big cities are overwhelmed with patients because radiology resources in developing countries are concentrated in the big cities. Moreover, the situation is made worse by short working hours in public hospitals. Hours from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. are typical. Because of the circumstances, radiographers, who are in a rush to finish all of the examinations within their normal working hours, sometimes allow patients to enter the x-ray rooms while they are waiting for their examinations. Chest and abdominal x-rays are the most common kinds of diagnostic x-ray examination in developing countries. Thus, in this study, anthropomorphic chest and abdominal phantoms were x-rayed for measuring the scattered x-ray radiation with and without protection using a 0.25mmPb lead apron at specific points from the anthropomorphic phantoms in the x-ray room. The lead apron was hung on a mobile apron-hanger and placed next to the anthropomorphic phantom. The scattered radiation dosimetry for chest x-rays proves that this simple method reduces scattered x-ray radiation to 15% at one-meter point and to almost 0% at the two-meter point from the anthropomorphic phantom in the x-ray room. Lead aprons are

  8. Pulmonary manifestation of leptospirosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors analysed and present chest X-ray findings of serologically proven leptospirosis from Seoul National University Hospital, either admitted or referred for serological verification, during recent 2 years. Radiological findings were correlated with the lung specimen findings of experimentally induced leptospirosis in guinea pig. The results are as follows: 1. 24 cases (56%) showed positive X-ray findings. 2. Predominant radiological patterns of involved lung were tiny dot, small nodule, rosette density in 11 cases, massive confluent consolidation in 4 cases, and diffuse ill-defined velly increased density in 9 cases. 3. Distribution of pulmonary lesions were bilateral (100%), non-lobar, non-segmental (95%), and there were conspicuous tendency of peripheral lung predominance. 4. Extrapulmonary manifestation, such as pleural effusion or cardiomegaly was rate. 5. Pulmonary lesions resolved completely usually 5 to 10 days after their appearance. 6. From the gross and microscopic findings of serially sacrificed guinea pig's lung and a case of autopsy, authors concluded that fine dot-like density in chest X-ray was due to paleolithic hemorrhage in intraalveolar space at initial stage, growing up to ressette density or confluent consolidation as the pathetic extends to surrounding lung forming purpura and coalescent hemorrhage.

  9. Pulmonary manifestation of leptospirosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jung Gi; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan; Lee, Jung Sang; Kim, Suhng Gwon; Han, Yong Chol; Chang, Woo Hyun; Chi, Je Geun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    Authors analysed and present chest X-ray findings of serologically proven leptospirosis from Seoul National University Hospital, either admitted or referred for serological verification, during recent 2 years. Radiological findings were correlated with the lung specimen findings of experimentally induced leptospirosis in guinea pig. The results are as follows: 1. 24 cases (56%) showed positive X-ray findings. 2. Predominant radiological patterns of involved lung were tiny dot, small nodule, rosette density in 11 cases, massive confluent consolidation in 4 cases, and diffuse ill-defined velly increased density in 9 cases. 3. Distribution of pulmonary lesions were bilateral (100%), non-lobar, non-segmental (95%), and there were conspicuous tendency of peripheral lung predominance. 4. Extrapulmonary manifestation, such as pleural effusion or cardiomegaly was rate. 5. Pulmonary lesions resolved completely usually 5 to 10 days after their appearance. 6. From the gross and microscopic findings of serially sacrificed guinea pig's lung and a case of autopsy, authors concluded that fine dot-like density in chest X-ray was due to paleolithic hemorrhage in intraalveolar space at initial stage, growing up to ressette density or confluent consolidation as the pathetic extends to surrounding lung forming purpura and coalescent hemorrhage.

  10. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  11. Dose levels in conventional X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There were a series of measures in the General Hospital of Fresnillo in the X-ray Department in the areas of X-1 and X-2-ray rooms and in the neonatal intensive care unit 2, was determined the dose surface entry in eyes, thyroid and gonads for patients undergoing to X-ray study of chest Tele by thermoluminescent dosimetry. Five dosemeters were used in each one of the scans; so find the following dose ranges 20 +- 23 mGy to 350 +- 41 mGy. With the results obtained we can conclude that the procedures used and the equipment calibration is adequate. (Author)

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  15. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... The test is done in a hospital x-ray department or your health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie on the x-ray table ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  17. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  18. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient support system for X-ray equipment in arteriographic studies of the heart is described in detail. The support system has been designed to overcome many of the practical problems encountered in using previous types of arteriographic X-ray equipment. The support system is capable of horizontal movement and, by a series of shafts attached to the main support system, the X-ray source and image intensifier or detector may be rotated through the same angle. The system is highly flexible and details are given of several possible operational modes. (U.K.)

  19. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  20. A Multi-Scale Matched Filter for Nodule Detection in Chest X-Ray Radiography%一种胸部X射线摄影图像中结节检测的多尺度匹配滤波器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗涛; 牟轩沁

    2011-01-01

    为了提高胸部X射线摄影图像中肺结节的正确检测率,提出一种基于通道化Hotelling模型的多尺度匹配滤波算法.以X射线胸片中的正样本和负样本图像作为训练集合,用Hotelling分类器训练出不同尺度的匹配滤波器组,并与待检测的胸片图像做滤波.计算滤波输出图像的视觉检测差异,以最大差异为约束条件寻找最优尺度的滤波器,计算待检测图像中的结节尺寸和检测能力.实验结果表明,基于通道化Hotelling的匹配滤波算法的病灶检测能力与主观评价结果取得了较好的一致性,并具有较高的病灶检测准确率,滤波处理后的图像中仅含少量的假阳性区域,计算出的病灶的相对半径误差主要位于-0.21和0.18之间,该误差范围的图像占实验数据库图像的比例为86%.%A multi-scale matched filter based on Hotelling classifier is presented to improve the accuracy of nodule detection in chest X-ray radiography. The positive and negative radiography samples are used to train multi-dimension matched filters by Hotelling model. The visual detection difference is calculated using the filter outputs of radiography,and the optimal dimension filter is searched subject to the maximum detection difference. Then the nodule size and detection capability are calculated based on the optimal filter. Experimental results show that there is good accordance of the detection performances between the presented method and subjective observers.The method improves the detection accuracy and reduces the false-positive regions in the processed images. Errors of the calculated relative nodule sizes mainly distribute between -0. 21 and 0.18 and the proportion of the images in this range is 86%.

  1. X-Ray Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  2. Medical X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) publishes Suggested State Regulations for the Control of Radiation , ... eSubmitter Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff - Assembler's Guide to Diagnostic X-Ray Equipment ...

  3. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved form of x-ray tube is described which consists of a rotatable anode disc and an electron beam source enclosed in an envelope. The beam of electrons strikes the edge of the anode disc at an acute angle, producing x-rays which are transmitted through a window in the envelope. To improve performance and life of the anode disc it is additionally reciprocated back and forth along its axis of rotation. Dimensions are specified. (U.K.)

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no ... might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  7. X-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray is among the most important research tools today, and has given priceless contributions to all disciplines within the natural sciences. State of the art in this field is called XFEL, X-ray Free Electron Laser, which may be 10 thousand million times stronger than the x-rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble. In addition XFEL has properties that allow the study of processes which previously would have been impossible. Of special interest are depictions on atomic- and molecular level by the use of x-ray holographic methods, and being able to study chemical reactions in nature's own timescale, the femtosecond. Conclusion: The construction of x-ray lasers is a natural development in a scientific field which has an enormous influence on the surrounding society. While the discovery of x-ray was an important breakthrough in itself, new applications appear one after the other: Medical depiction, dissemination, diffraction, DNA and protein structures, synchrotron radiation and tomography. There is reason to believe that XFEL implies a technological leap as big as the synchrotrons some decades ago. As we are now talking about studies of femtosecond and direct depiction of chemical reactions, it is obvious that we are dealing with a revolution to come, with extensive consequences, both scientifically and culturally. (EW)

  8. X-ray nanotomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasov, Alexander

    2004-10-01

    A compact laboratory x-ray "nano-CT" scanner has been created for 3D non-invasive imaging with 150-200 nanometers 3D spatial resolution, using advanced x-ray technologies and specific physical phenomena for signal detection. This spatial resolution in volume terms is 3 orders better than can be achieved in synchrotron tomography, 5 orders better then in existing laboratory micro-CT instruments and 10-12 orders better in comparison to clinical CT. The instrument employs an x-ray source with a 300-400nm x-ray spot size and uses small-angle scattering to attain a detail detectability of 150-200nm. An object manipulator allows positioning and rotation with an accuracy of 150nm. The x-ray detector is based on an intensified CCD with single-photon sensitivity. A typical acquisition cycle for 3D reconstruction of the full object volume takes from 10 to 60 minutes, with the collection of several hundred angular views. Subsequent volumetric reconstruction produces results as a set of cross sections with isotropic voxel size down to 140 x 140 x 140nm, or as a 3D-model, which can be virtually manipulated and measured. This unique spatial resolution in non-invasive investigations gives previously unattainable 3D images in several application areas, such as composite materials, paper and wood microstructure, biomedical applications and others.

  9. X-ray Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Roland

    2016-01-01

    X-ray pulsars shine thanks to the conversion of the gravitational energy of accreted material to X-ray radiation. The accretion rate is modulated by geometrical and hydrodynamical effects in the stellar wind of the pulsar companions and/or by instabilities in accretion discs. Wind driven flows are highly unstable close to neutron stars and responsible for X-ray variability by factors $10^3$ on time scale of hours. Disk driven flows feature slower state transitions and quasi periodic oscillations related to orbital motion and precession or resonance. On shorter time scales, and closer to the surface of the neutron star, X-ray variability is dominated by the interactions of the accreting flow with the spinning magnetosphere. When the pulsar magnetic field is large, the flow is confined in a relatively narrow accretion column, whose geometrical properties drive the observed X-ray emission. In low magnetized systems, an increasing accretion rate allows the ignition of powerful explosive thermonuclear burning at t...

  10. Observation and theory of X-ray mirages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnitskiy, Sergey; Nagorskiy, Nikolay; Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tatiana; Tanaka, Mamoko; Ishino, Masahiko; Nishikino, Masaharu; Fukuda, Yuji; Kando, Masaki; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2013-06-01

    The advent of X-ray lasers allowed the realization of compact coherent soft X-ray sources, thus opening the way to a wide range of applications. Here we report the observation of unexpected concentric rings in the far-field beam profile at the output of a two-stage plasma-based X-ray laser, which can be considered as the first manifestation of a mirage phenomenon in X-rays. We have developed a method of solving the Maxwell-Bloch equations for this problem, and find that the experimentally observed phenomenon is due to the emergence of X-ray mirages in the plasma amplifier, appearing as phase-matched coherent virtual point sources. The obtained results bring a new insight into the physical nature of amplification of X-ray radiation in laser-induced plasma amplifiers and open additional opportunities for X-ray plasma diagnostics and extreme ultraviolet lithography.

  11. Urological complications after X-ray-therapy and their treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early reactions on X-ray-therapy in the bladder region usually begin with pain. Sterile irritations are reversible under symptomatic therapy. Real bladder infections should be dealt with according to antibiogram intensively and for a long time before the X-ray-stress is continued. Late reactions on X-ray-therapy mostly are organised and irreversible. The different manifestations are referred to and the respective therapy is recommended. (orig./)

  12. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  13. CRL X-RAY TUBE

    OpenAIRE

    Kolchevsky, N. N.; Petrov, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed.

  14. X-raying with low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    with higher frequency of a pulsation the share of unproductive radiation is higher. At x-raying controlled by the grid pulses are generated by the x-ray tube with the grid control. The grid, located between the cathode and the anode, passes the electron cloud without the expenses of time for dispersal and attenuation. It gives sharply outlined, rectangular x-ray pulses with homogeneous quality of radiation. Function GC F -x-raying controlled by the grid - enables to receive precisely outlined contours of moving objects: a heart, a gullet, - and also to carry out examination of the children without information loss during simultaneous dose decrease. Besides the image remains precise even during the movement of the electron-optical converter. Owing to radiation parameters adjustment during the examination the effect of the lighted image is eliminated. X-raying devices Easy Diagnose and Diagnose-76 'Philips' are equipped with the system of digital x-ray image processing besides they are completed with the x-ray tube with Grid Controlled Fluoroscopy that allows to carry out pulse x-raying with number of pulses 2, 3, 6 and 12 per a second. So, with 12 pulses per second the irradiation dose in comparison with continuous radiation decreases on 40%. The examinations of a chest, gullet, stomach and thick gut were carried out at the frequency of 12 and 6 pulses per second. In the hospital of the Ministry of Internal Affairs where device Easy Diagnose is established, at examinations of a gastro enteric path (stomach x-raying, irrigoscopy) usually pulse x-raying is used with frequency 12 pulses per second. It allows significantly reduce the beam load on a patient. The calculation of beam loads on a patient was carried out on the basis of exposition dose level at the beam input in the body of a patient (entrance dose). The way is applied for especially exact calculations, as definitions of effective doses on separate organs and all body are difficult. The irradiation dose is in

  15. Value of ICU Bedside B-ultrasound and Chest X-ray in the Diagnosis of Traumatic Pneumothorax%重症监护病房床旁B超与胸部X线片检查对创伤性气胸的诊断价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许庆林; 陈淑娟

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较重症监护病房(ICU)床边B超与胸部X线片检查对创伤性气胸的诊断价值.方法 选取我院ICU收治的84例钝性胸部创伤患者,均行CT检查,随机分为 B超组和X线组,各42例.B超组行床边B超检查,X线组行床边胸部X线片检查,将两组检查结果与CT结果对比.结果 B超组CT检查结果示气胸34例37侧,其中3例为双侧气胸,B超检查结果示气胸26例28侧,其中2例为双侧气胸;X线组CT检查结果示气胸33例35侧,其中2例为双侧气胸,胸部X线片检查结果示气胸25例26侧,其中1例为双侧气胸.B超组和X线组敏感度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值、准确度比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 ICU床边B超与胸部X线片诊断气胸敏感性、特异性无显著差异,B超检查方便、无创、可动态观察,方便实用.%Objective To investigate the value of bedside ultrasonography and chest X - ray in the diagnosis of pneumothorax. Methods 84 patients with blunt chest trauma admitted to the ICU of our hospital were given CT examination and were randomly divided into B - ultrasonography group and X - ray group with each group 42 cases. B - ultrasonography group was given bedside B - ultrasonography examination while X - ray group was given bedside chest X - ray examination. The results of the two groups were compared with the CT results. Results In B - ultrasonography group, CT examination results showed 37 sides of pneumothorax in 34 cases and 3 cases were bilateral pneumothorax. While B - ultrasonography examination results showed 28 sides of pneumothorax in 26 cases and 2 cases were bilateral pneumothorax. In X - ray group, CT examination results showed 35 sides of pneumothorax in 33 cases and 2 cases were bilateral pneumothorax. While X - ray examination results showed 26 sides of pneumothorax in 25 cases and one case were bilateral pneumothorax. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive

  16. X-ray astronomical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Stephen S.

    1987-01-01

    The contributions of the Goddard group to the history of X-ray astronomy are numerous and varied. One role that the group has continued to play involves the pursuit of techniques for the measurement and interpretation of the X-ray spectra of cosmic sources. The latest development is the selection of the X-ray microcalorimeter for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) study payload. This technology is likely to revolutionize the study of cosmic X-ray spectra.

  17. Application of microcomputer to X-ray radiometric ore separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practical use of microcomputers as universal means for converting information for solving applied problems of X-ray radiometric ore separation method is considered. Laboratory tests of two metals - tungsten and tin manifested high efficiency of the developed system. X-ray radiometric separator software is developed

  18. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention discloses an X-ray apparatus that can be used for tomography with the aid of a computer. With this apparatus plus computer, it is possible to quickly achieve the required edge values whereby the influence of the movement is diminished

  19. Medical x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes the fundamental subject about medical radiography. It is a multidisciplinary field that requires cross professional input from scientists, engineers and medical doctors. However, it is presented in simple language to suit different levels of readers from x-ray operators and radiographers to physists, general practitioners and radiology specialists.The book is written in accordance to the requirements of the standard syllabus approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia for the training of medical x-ray operator and general practitioners. In general, the content is not only designed to provide relevant and essential subject for related professionals in medical radiological services such as x-ray operator, radiographer and radiologists, but also to address those in associated radiological services including nurses, medical technologists and physicists.The book is organized and arranged sequentially into 3 parts for easy reference: Radiation safety; X-ray equipment and associated facilities; Radiography practices. With proper grasping of all these parts, the radiological services could be provided with confident and the highest professional standard. Thus, medical imaging with highest quality that can provide useful diagnostic information at minimum doses and at cost effective could be assured

  20. Pyroelectric x-ray detectors and x-ray pyrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses pyroelectric detectors which are very promising x-ray detectors for intense pulsed x-ray/γ-ray measurements and can be used as x-ray pyrometers. They are fast, passive, and inherently flat in spectral response for low energy x-rays. The authors report tests of LiTaO3, Sr.5Ba.5Nb2O6 and LiNbO3 detectors at Nova laser with 1 ns low energy x-rays and at Zapp Z-pinch machine with 100 ns x-rays. The temporal and spectral responses are discussed

  1. Pyroelectric x-ray detectors and x-ray pyrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyroelectric detectors are very promising x-ray detectors for intense pulsed x-ray/γ-ray measurements and can be used as x-ray pyrometers. They are fast, passive, and inherently flat in spectral response for low-energy x rays. We report our tests of LiTaO3 detectors at Nova laser with 1-ns low-energy x rays and at Zapp Z-pinch machine with 100-ns x rays. The temporal and spectral responses are discussed

  2. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Vejle-Sørensen, Jens Kristian; Thomsen, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials:A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from...... one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years of age are included in the study. The clinical research is performed between September and November 2014 where 3rd year Radiography students collect data on four Danish x-ray departments using identical procedures under guidance of...... conference. Conclusion: Collimation improvement in basic chest radiography can reduce the radiation to female patients at chest x-ray examinations....

  3. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Thomsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chest radiography is one of the most common examinations in radiology departments. In 2013 approximately 80,000 chest x-rays were performed on women in the fertile age. Even low dose for the examinationCorrect collimation Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing on...... collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years...... of age are included in the study. The clinical research is performed between September and November 2014 where 3rd year Radiography students collect data on four Danish x-ray departments using identical procedures under guidance of clinical supervisors. Optimal collimation is determined by European...

  4. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4

  5. X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors describe the application of a new high-resolution X-ray tomographic microscope to the study of porous media. The microscope was designed to exploit the properties of a synchrotron X-ray source to perform three dimensional tomography on millimeter sized objects with micron resolution and has been used in materials science studies with both synchrotron and conventional and synchrotron sources will be compared. In this work the authors have applied the microscope to measure the three dimensional structure of fused bead packs and berea sandstones with micron resolution and have performed preliminary studies of flow in these media with the microscope operated in a digital subtraction radiography mode. Computer graphics techniques have been applied to the data to visually display the structure of the pore body system. Tomographic imaging after flow experiments should detect the structure of the oil-water interface in the pore network and this work is ongoing

  6. X-ray generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 4 provides a comparative survey on generators for stationary applications as available on the German market. It provides decision-making tools, physical characteristics, suggestions for radiation protection and for safe appliance operation as well as a concept for inspections all of which have been developed jointly by physicians of various specialities, physicists, engineers, business men, hospital experts and medicotechnical X-ray staff on the basis of a well-tried working concept. The systematic representation of correlations relevant to decision-making processes is based on a profile of technico-physical characteristics (standard product information) which was established by way of interdisciplinary dialog and which will enable any hospital or clinic to easily equip its X-ray department in an economic and purposeful way. The information on device data, device descriptions and market survey furnish the data tested by the manufacturers without guarantee and subject to correction. (orig./HP)

  7. X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An invention relating to the development of photo-resists used in X-ray lithography is described. A COP resist which has been exposed to X-ray radiation, is developed with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) developer and an ethanol solvent. The resist is first developed in a strong developing solution and then with a weaker developer whose concentration is slightly above that required to obtain complete development. Preferably the resist is exposed so as to obtain about a fifty per cent developed thickness and the developing is carried out in steps, the first with a concentration of 5:1.8 (MEK to ethanol) for five seconds, the second using concentrations of 5:1.8 and 5:2.7 for ten seconds and the third with a concentration of 5:2.7 for five seconds. (author)

  8. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is ... care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ...

  11. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic radiography is described in detail. It comprises a tubular target carrier supporting at its distal end a target with an inclined forward face. Image definition is improved by positioning in the path of the X-rays a window of X-ray transmitting ceramic material, e.g. 90% oxide of Be, or Al, 7% Si02. The target carrier forms a probe which can be positioned in the patient's mouth. X-rays are directed forwardly and laterally of the target to an X-ray film positioned externally. The probe is provided with a detachable sleeve having V-form arms of X-ray opaque material which serve to depress the tongue out of the radiation path and also shield the roof of the mouth and other regions of the head from the X-ray pattern. A cylindrical lead shield defines the X-ray beam angle. (author)

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  13. Soft X-ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, John

    1999-05-20

    The contents of this report cover the following: (1) design of the soft x-ray telescope; (2) fabrication and characterization of the soft x-ray telescope; and (3) experimental implementation at the OMEGA laser facility.

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations ... patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... and Media Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to X-ray ( ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... As a result, bones appear white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on large film sheets (much ...

  18. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of ... oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page ... the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is ...

  1. Active X-ray Optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Inneman, A.; Pina, L.; Černá, D.; Tichý, V.

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2013 - (Juha, L.; Bajt, S.; London, R.; Hudec, R.; Pína, L.), 877718/1-877718/7. (Proceedings of SPIE. 8777). ISBN 9780819495792. [Damage to VUV, EUV, and X-ray Optics IV; and EUV and X-ray Optics: Synergy between Laboratory and Space III. Praha (CZ), 15.04.2013-18.04.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : X-ray optics * active optics * active X-ray optics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  2. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Edward Snell, a National Research Council research fellow at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), prepares a protein crystal for analysis by x-ray crystallography as part of NASA's structural biology program. The small, individual crystals are bombarded with x-rays to produce diffraction patterns, a map of the intensity of the x-rays as they reflect through the crystal.

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lies. A drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... that is extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  5. Tunable X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, James R.

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  6. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Ankle Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: tobillo What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  7. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Finger Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: dedo What It Is A finger X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  8. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Wrist Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: muñeca What It Is A wrist X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  9. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Hip Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: cadera What It Is A hip X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  10. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Forearm Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: brazo What It Is A forearm X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  11. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Pelvis Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: pelvis What It Is A pelvis X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  12. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Foot Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: pie What It Is A foot X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ...

  14. Pubic bone metastasis as first manifestation of lung cancer:

    OpenAIRE

    HOMMA, SHINSUKE; KODAMA, TAKAHIDE; SATOH, HIROAKI; Sekizawa, Kiyohisa; Ueno, Takahiro

    2003-01-01

    Background. Pubic bone metastasis as the initial manifestation of lung cancer is very rare, and it may simulate parasymphyseal insufficiency fracture of thepubic bone, which is observed in postmenopausal women and elderly people. Case report. A 65-year-old woman developed pain in the right flank, which extended to the anterior aspect of the thigh. A pelvic X-ray showed osteolyticlesion in the right pubic ramus. Chest radiograph revealed a nodularmass in the right middle lobe of the lung. Tran...

  15. X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging and hip arthroscopy manifestations of acetabular labral tears%髋臼盂唇损伤的X线、磁共振成像与关节镜表现分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚西亮; 陈疾忤; 吴子英; 陈世益

    2013-01-01

    Objective  To analyse the X-ray and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of acetabular labral tears, so that to improve the recognition of the disease. Methods  Imaging features of 19 patients with acetabular labral tears confirmed by arthroscopy were analyzed retrospectively (All cases were examined by X-ray, 14 patients underwent MRI examinations). Results  ①17 of the 19 patients had at least one osseous abnormality consistent with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) under arthroscopy, among them 7 cases were cam impingement, 3 cases were pincer impingement and 7 cases were mixed impingement.  ② X-ray manifestations: 12 of the 19 patients had FAI, among them 6 cases were cam impingement, 2 cases were pincer impingement and 4 cases were mixed impingement. 5 cases showed various degrees of degenerations of hip joint. 2 patients had no identifiable structural abnormalities. ③MRI showed various degrees of injury of labrum in 6 patients, joint effusion in 5 cases, bone marrow edema of femoral head in 3 cases. Conclusion  FAI has much to do with acetabular labral tears. X-ray examination is important for FAI diagnosis. Given its high sensitivity and accuracy, MRI is an effective preoperative tool for defining the location and extent of labral tears. Combined with X-ray imaging and clinical manifestation, MRI can provide a reliable basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.%  目的  分析髋臼盂唇损伤的X线及MRI表现,为临床诊断髋臼盂唇损伤提供影像学依据.方法  回顾性分析19例经关节镜

  16. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of literature on X-ray diffraction begins with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips' organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. This is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is divided according to the equipment (cameras, diffractometers, monochromators) and its applications. The applications are subdivided into sections for high/low temperature and pressure, effects due to the equipment, small angle scattering and a part for stress, texture and phase analyses of metals and quantitative analysis of minerals

  17. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multicell X-ray or gamma detector is used in computer tomography. To achieve good spatial resolution, the electrode plates are narrowly spaced in each cell and are designed identical over the whole length of the detector group. The uniform spacing and precise check of the angles between the electrodes and accurate control of the dimensions of the whole detector structure are achieved by depositing, in the fabrication process, a viscous, resin type material (e.g., epoxy resin) or glue at selected points between the electrodes and insulators. (ORU)

  18. Radiation doses for X-ray diagnosis teeth in dental medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-rays are the first ionizing radiation, which are applied in medicine for diagnostic radiology and X-ray therapy. While in the beginning they are mainly used for X-ray photos of the chest /lungs and in severe fractures of the limbs, then in recent years they are widely applied in diagnostics of teeth in dental medicine. Considering that caries is a widespread disease, both in children and adults, and it requires repeated x-ray photographs of the damaged teeth for the individual, the total radiation doses, which reflect on people from the X-rays are at high values. In order to reduce external exposure to other organs /mainly thyroid gland/ by X-ray pictures of teeth, it should be used with special lead aprons with large coefficient of reduction. Keywords: doses of radiation, X-ray machines, dental, x-ray pictures of teeth, protection sources

  19. The PG X-Ray QSO Sample Links among X-ray, UV & Optical Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Wills, B J; Laor, A; Wills, D; Wilkes, B J; Ferland, G J; Wills, Beverley J.

    1998-01-01

    A unique, essentially complete sample of 22 QSOs, with high quality soft X-ray spectra from ROSAT, as well as HST and optical spectrophotometry from below Ly-alpha to above H-alpha, is being used to investigate the relationships among the ionizing continuum and the optical and UV continuum, emission and absorption lines. Here we present a first analysis showing that optical `Eigenvector 1' linking steeper soft X-ray spectra with increasing optical Fe II strength, decreasing [O III] 5007 emission, and narrower BLR H-beta emission, extends to the UV emission lines, and is manifested by weaker C IV 1549 emission, stronger Si III] 1892/C III] 1909 ratio, and narrower C III] 1909 emission. Steeper soft X-ray spectra have been linked to higher L/L_Edd ratios, thus apparently linking BLR densities, high and low ionization gas, and kinematics, to the accretion process.

  20. X-ray instrumentation for SR beamlines

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalchuk, M V; Zheludeva, S I; Aleshko-Ozhevsky, O P; Arutynyan, E H; Kheiker, D M; Kreines, A Y; Lider, V V; Pashaev, E M; Shilina, N Y; Shishkov, V A

    2000-01-01

    The main possibilities and parameters of experimental X-ray stations are presented: 'Protein crystallography', 'X-ray structure analysis', 'High-precision X-ray optics', 'X-ray crystallography and material science', 'X-ray topography', 'Photoelectron X-ray standing wave' that are being installed at Kurchatov SR source by A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography.

  1. X-ray lithography sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron from dipole magnets in electron storage rings has emerged as a useful source of x-rays for lithography. To meet the need for these sources numerous groups around the world have embarked on projects to design and construct storage rings for x-ray lithography. Both conventional electromagnets as well as superconducting (SC) dipoles have been incorporated into the various designs. An overview of the worldwide effort to produce commercial x-ray sources will be presented. To better illustrate the elements involved in these sources a closer examination of the Superconducting X-ray Lithography Source Project (SXLS) at BNL will be presented. 11 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  2. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  3. X-ray Fluorescence Sectioning

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Wenxiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an x-ray fluorescence imaging system for elemental analysis. The key idea is what we call "x-ray fluorescence sectioning". Specifically, a slit collimator in front of an x-ray tube is used to shape x-rays into a fan-beam to illuminate a planar section of an object. Then, relevant elements such as gold nanoparticles on the fan-beam plane are excited to generate x-ray fluorescence signals. One or more 2D spectral detectors are placed to face the fan-beam plane and directly measure x-ray fluorescence data. Detector elements are so collimated that each element only sees a unique area element on the fan-beam plane and records the x-ray fluorescence signal accordingly. The measured 2D x-ray fluorescence data can be refined in reference to the attenuation characteristics of the object and the divergence of the beam for accurate elemental mapping. This x-ray fluorescence sectioning system promises fast fluorescence tomographic imaging without a complex inverse procedure. The design can be ad...

  4. Radioisotope x-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope x-ray fluorescence and x-ray preferential absorption (XRA) techniques are used extensively for the analysis of materials, covering such diverse applications as analysis of alloys, coal, environmental samples, paper, waste materials, and metalliferous mineral ores and products. Many of these analyses are undertaken in the harsh environment of industrial plants and in the field. Some are continuous on-line analyses of material being processed in industry, where instantaneous analysis information is required for the control of rapidly changing processes. Radioisotope x-ray analysis systems are often tailored to a specific but limited range of applications. They are simpler and often considerably less expensive than analysis systems based on x-ray tubes. These systems are preferred to x-ray tube techniques when simplicity, ruggedness, reliability, and cost of equipment are important; when minimum size, weight, and power consumption are necessary; when a very constant and predictable x-ray output is required; when the use of high-energy x-rays is advantageous; and when short x-ray path lengths are required to minimize the absorption of low-energy x-rays in air. This chapter reviews radioisotope XRF, preferential absorption, and scattering techniques. Some of the basic analysis equations are given. The characteristics of radioisotope sources and x-ray detectors are described, and then the x-ray analytical techniques are presented. The choice of radioisotope technique for a specific application is discussed. This is followed by a summary of applications of these techniques, with a more detailed account given of some of the applications, particularly those of considerable industrial importance. 79 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs

  5. A Typical Manifestation of Birthmark-Becker's Nevus Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Dutt, Rajdhar; Dutt, Chandrakala

    2013-01-01

    Full born term male baby having hyperpigmentation over back of neck and back of chest. The colour of nevus is black coloured. Hyperpigmented area is slightly hypertrophy. Imaging, X-ray spine, X-ray fingers and toes, X-ray chest, ultrasound of abdomen, CT scan of brain-normal. Treatment advised: Pigmentation can be reduced by pigment laser.

  6. Soft tissue mass of the chest wall as the sole manifestation of brucellosis in a 7-year-old boy

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a child who presented with a subcutaneous mass on the left side of the chest wall of one month's duration. The mass was painful and increasing in size over time. He had a history of weight loss and a decrease in appetite, but no history of fever or trauma. He had ingested raw camel milk, but had no history of contact with animals. He was diagnosed by the standard tube agglutination titer and tissue culture for brucellosis, treated with surgery and three months of antibru...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing ...

  8. X-ray Dynamic Defectoscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavřík, Daniel; Visschers, J.; Jakůbek, J.; Ponchut, C.

    Orosei : IMC S.r.l., 2001. s. 47. [International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors /3./. 23.09.2001-27.09.2001, Orosei] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/00/D064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 210000018 Keywords : X-ray Defectoscopy * Damage * X-ray Detectors Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  9. X-ray diagnostic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An X-ray tube is connected to several different image processing devices in X-ray diagnostic equipment. Only a single organ selector is allocated to it, for which the picture parameters for each image processing device are selected. The choice of the correct combination of picture parameters is made by means of a selector switch. (DG)

  10. X-ray tube arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An x-ray tube is described incorporating an elongated target/ anode over which the electron beam is deflected and from which x-rays are emitted. Improved methods of monitoring and controlling the amplitude of the beam deflection are presented. (U.K.)

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? The technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ...

  13. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods and results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the study of plasmons, alloys and gold compounds are discussed. After a comprehensive introduction, seven papers by the author, previously published elsewhere, are reprinted and these cover a wide range of the uses of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (W.D.L.)

  14. Imaging of chest disease due to intravenous heroin abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the imaging findings of the chest disease due to intravenous heroin abuse. Methods: Twenty-five cases of clinically confirmed chest disease due to intravenous heroin abuse were retrospectively analyzed. 25 cases had conventional X-ray film, 6 cases had CT scanning, and 6 cases had echocardiography scanning. Results: On X-ray and CT, the following signs were found: lung making manifold (n = 5), small patchy shadow (n = 15), pneumatocele (n = 16), small cavity (n = 16), small node (n = 7), pleural effusion (n = 8 ), pneumothorax (n = 2), hydropneumothorax (n = 6), pulmonary edema (n = 2), megacardia (n = 11), multiple-shaped lesion (n = 20). On echocardiography, tricuspid vegetation (n = 4) and tricuspid insufficiency (n = 4) were found. Conclusion: The X-ray and CT manifestations of chest inflammation due to intravenous heroin abuse are multiple. The multiple small cavities and pneumatoceles sign are of some value in the diagnosis of lung inflammation due to intravenous heroin abuse among young patients

  15. X-ray image of male breast papilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of the frequency of detection of breast papillae of men on X-ray units without amplifiers of X-ray imaging and with X-ray TV has shown that papilla imaging is a common feature in the performance of a modern X-ray unit: the papillae were detected in 2 to 28% of the cases, respectively. A total of 100 men aged 30 to 80 were investigated to study the shape and height of the papillae because these factors predetermined papilla imaging. The maximum diameter and height of the papillae did not exceed 10 mm. Papilla imaging on a TV screen or a panoramic chest X-ray was formed in a cylindrical or similar shape with the papilla height of 4 mm and over. The shape and structure of 23 detected papilla images were analyzed. The problems of differential diagnosis were considered. Imaging of breast papillae of men was proposed for including them in the list of the so-called chest ''soft tissues''

  16. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  17. X-ray quasars and the X-ray background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Einstein X-ray observations of a sample of 202 radio-and optically-selected quasars due to Ku, Helfand and Lucy and to Zamorani et al. are analysed. Correlations between X-ray, optical and radio luminosities are examined. The contribution of radio-loud quasars to the 2-keV X-ray background is estimated using high-frequency radio-source counts, and the contribution due to radio-quiet, optically bright quasars using optical counts. It is shown that radio-loud quasars and radio-quiet optically bright quasars together contribute approximately 15 per cent of the observed 2-keV X-ray background. The contribution of optically faint radio-quiet quasars is uncertain, but may be limited to a maximum of approximately 30 per cent if recent indications of a flattening in optical counts at faint magnitudes are correct. (author)

  18. X-ray diffraction apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention provides an x-ray diffraction apparatus permitting the rotation of the divergence sit in conjunction with the rotation of the x-ray irradiated specimen, whereby the dimensions of the x-ray irradiated portion of the specimen remain substantially constant during the rotation of the specimen. In a preferred embodiment, the divergence slit is connected to a structural element linked with a second structural element connected to the specimen such that the divergence slit rotates at a lower angular speed than the specimen

  19. X-ray crystal interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various configurations of the X-ray crystal interferometer are reviewed. The interferometer applications considered include metrology, the measurement of fundamental physical constants, the study of weakly absorbing phase objects, time-resolved diagnostics, the determination of hard X-ray beam parameters, and the characterization of structural defects in the context of developing an X-ray Michelson interferometer. The three-crystal Laue interferometer (LLL-interferometer), its design, and the experimental opportunities it offers are given particular attention. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  20. Unilateral lower lung field opacities on chest radiography: A comparison of the clinical manifestations of tuberculosis and pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The radiological manifestations of lower lung field (LLF) tuberculosis (LLFTB) are similar to those of LLF pneumonia (LLFP), making diagnosis challenging. The aim of this study was to determine if there are differences in the clinical manifestations of LLFTB and LLFP in patients with unilateral LLF opacities. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patient records to identify those with unilateral LLF opacities who were subsequently diagnosed with LLFTB or LLFP. We compared demographics, clinical manifestations, hematological data, and radiographic findings between the groups of patients. Results: We identified 22 and 72 patients diagnosed with LLFTB and LLFP, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.99–1.11, P = 0.072), lack of fever > 38 °C (OR = 9.04, 95% CI = 1.69–48.40, P = 0.001), duration of symptoms ≥ 7 days (OR = 4.57, 95% CI = 1.09–19.26, P = 0.038), and the lack of air bronchograms upon radiography (OR = 12.08, 95% CI = 1.98–73.64, P = 0.007) were significant predictors of LLFTB in patients with LLF opacities. We used these predictors to construct a mathematical model for predicting LLFTB in patients with LLF opacities. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that older age, prolonged duration of symptoms, lack of fever > 38°C, and the absence of air bronchograms are more common in patients with LLFTB than patients with LLFP. These findings may help clinicians differentiate between LLFTB and LLFP and thus initiate timely and appropriate treatment.

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x- ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and ...

  3. Duodenal X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication provides an overview of duodenal X-ray diagnostics with the aid of barium meals in 1362 patients. The introducing paragraphs deal with the topographic anatomy of the region and the methodics of X-ray investigation. The chapter entitled ''processes at the duodenum itself'' describes mainly ulcers, diverticula, congenital anomalies, tumors and inflammations. The neighbourhood processes comprise in the first place diseases having their origin at the pancreas and bile ducts. As a conclusion, endoscopic rectograde cholangio-pancreaticography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography are pointed out as advanced X-ray investigation methods. In the annex of X-ray images some of the described phenomena are shown in exemplary manner. (orig./MG)

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient lies. A drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . ... when feasible to protect from radiation. You must hold very still and may be asked to keep ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray table ... bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the examination is complete, you may be asked to wait ...

  8. Picosecond x-ray science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report discusses the exciting times for short pulse X-rays and the current users of the technology in the United States. Tracking nuclear motions with X-rays transcends scientific disciplines and includes Biology, Materials Science, Condensed Matter and Chemistry. 1 picosecond accesses many phenomena previously hidden at 100ps. Synchrotron advantage over laser plasma and LCLS is that it's easily tunable. There is a large and diverse user community of this technology that is growing rapidly. A working group is being formed to implement 'fast track' Phases 1 and 2 which includes tunable, polarized, monochromatic, focused X-rays; variable pulse length (1 to 100ps) and 1 kHz, 109 X-rays/s with 1% bandwidth. ERL would be a major advance for ultrafast time-resolved studies.

  9. X-ray microtomographic scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syryamkin, V. I., E-mail: klestov-simon@mail.ru; Klestov, S. A., E-mail: klestov-simon@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The article studies the operating procedures of an X-ray microtomographic scanner and the module of reconstruction and analysis 3D-image of a test sample in particular. An algorithm for 3D-image reconstruction based on image shadow projections and mathematical methods of the processing are described. Chapter 1 describes the basic principles of X-ray tomography and general procedures of the device developed. Chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to the problem of resources saving by the system during the X-ray tomography procedure, which is achieved by preprocessing of the initial shadow projections. Preprocessing includes background noise removing from the images, which reduces the amount of shadow projections in general and increases the efficiency of the group shadow projections compression. In conclusion, the main applications of X-ray tomography are presented.

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special ... to 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  12. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic dental radiography is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun having an elongated tubular target carrier extending into the patient's mouth. The carrier supports an inclined target for direction of an X-ray pattern towards a film positioned externally of the patient's mouth. Image definition is improved by a focusing anode which focuses the electron beam into a sharp spot (0.05 to 0.10 mm diameter) on the target. The potential on the focusing anode is adjustable to vary the size of the spot. An X-ray transmitting ceramic (oxides of Be, Al and Si) window is positioned adjacent to the front face of the target. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ... around joints, and in evaluating the hips of children with congenital problems. top of page This page ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be taken to the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray ... and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way ...

  17. X-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New design of X-ray gauge of rolled product thickness is suggested. It is supplied with self-compensation unit, removing the error, caused by changes of half-cycles of supply voltage of radiation source

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray tube is connected to ... equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  7. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  8. Manifestations of infection by the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus at chest computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: the objective of this study was to describe chest computed tomography findings in confirmed cases of infection by the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus. Materials and methods: computed tomography studies of nine patients with laboratory-confirmed infection by the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus were consensually evaluated by three observers. The sample of the present study included five male and four female patients with ages ranging from 14 to 64 years (mean, 40 years). Four of the patients were previously healthy, four were kidney transplant recipients and one was pregnant at the time of diagnosis. Presence, extent and distribution of the following findings were evaluated: ground-glass opacities; centrilobular nodules; consolidation; interlobular septa thickening; pleural effusion; lymphadenopathy. Results: The most frequent findings were ground-glass opacities, centrilobular nodules and consolidations, present in nine (100%), five (55%) and four (44%) of cases, respectively. Pleural effusions and lymphadenopathy were less common findings, occurring in only two (22%) of the cases. Conclusion: ground-glass opacities, centrilobular nodules and consolidation were the most frequent findings in cases of infection by the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus. These changes are not typical or unique to this agent and may also occur in other viral or bacterial infections. (author)

  9. X-rays in the eye of the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a pilot study, a random sample of 181 office personnel in steel companies were interviewed about their knowledge and feelings on X-rays and other forms of ionizing radiation. The general knowledge about the beneficial and detrimental aspects of X-rays was good, with education at school and news media reports being the main sources of information (70%). In general, the news media are considered to give objective and correct reports on this matter. 85% of the interviewed held ionizing radiation to be at least somewhat dangerous. Those with higher education (college/university) were significantly more vocal on the dangerous aspects. Concerning personal fear of X-rays, 30% were at least somewhat fearful. A significant correlation was found between statements on the dangerous aspects and subjective feelings of fear (anxiety). Interestingly, there was no correlation between general fearfulness (manifest anxiety) and fear of X-rays. (orig.)

  10. X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  11. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  12. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  13. X-ray laser; Roentgenlaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsen, Emil J.; Breiby, Dag W.

    2009-07-01

    X-ray is among the most important research tools today, and has given priceless contributions to all disciplines within the natural sciences. State of the art in this field is called XFEL, X-ray Free Electron Laser, which may be 10 thousand million times stronger than the x-rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble. In addition XFEL has properties that allow the study of processes which previously would have been impossible. Of special interest are depictions on atomic- and molecular level by the use of x-ray holographic methods, and being able to study chemical reactions in nature's own timescale, the femtosecond. Conclusion: The construction of x-ray lasers is a natural development in a scientific field which has an enormous influence on the surrounding society. While the discovery of x-ray was an important breakthrough in itself, new applications appear one after the other: Medical depiction, dissemination, diffraction, DNA and protein structures, synchrotron radiation and tomography. There is reason to believe that XFEL implies a technological leap as big as the synchrotrons some decades ago. As we are now talking about studies of femtosecond and direct depiction of chemical reactions, it is obvious that we are dealing with a revolution to come, with extensive consequences, both scientifically and culturally. (EW)

  14. X-ray diagnostic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A falling load type X-ray diagnostic apparatus comprises a low voltage power source, AC-DC converting means connected to the low voltage power source so as to apply a rectified low DC voltage, chopping means connected to the AC-DC converting means and chopping said DC voltage into a low AC voltage, high voltage applying means for transforming said low AC voltage into a high AC voltage, said high AC voltage being applied as a tube voltage to an X-ray tube from which X-rays are irradiated toward an object to be examined, means for controlling a filament heating power of the X-ray tube, programming means for supplying a control signal to said filament heating control means so as to reduce the emission current of said X-ray tube during the irradiation, and chopper control means for controlling the chopping ratio of said chopping means by evaluating said rectified DC voltage with a preset tube voltage generated in said programming means, said programming means compensating said tube voltage by receiving said control signal in such a manner that said tube voltage is maintained substantially constant during the irradiation by varying said preset tube voltage so as to control the chopping ratio based upon the reduction of the filament heating power for the X-ray tube

  15. Low energy (soft) x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetry of low-energy (soft) X rays produced by the SOFTEX Model CMBW-2 was performed using Nuclear Associates Type 30 - 330 PTW, Exradin Type A2, and Shonka-Wyckoff ionization chambers with a Keithley Model 602 electrometer. Thermoluminescent (BeO chip) dosimeters were used with a Harshaw Detector 2000-A and Picoammeter-B readout system. Beam quality measurements were made using aluminum absorbers; exposure rates were assessed by the current of the X-ray tube and by exposure times. Dose distributions were established, and the average factors for non-uniformity were calculated. The means of obtaining accurate absorbed and exposed doses using these methods are discussed. Survival of V79 cells was assessed by irradiating them with soft X rays, 200 kVp X rays, and 60Co gamma rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for soft X rays with 0, 0.2, 0.7 mm added thicknesses of aluminum were 1.6, which were compared to 60Co. The RBE of 200 kVp X rays relative to 60Co was 1.3. Results of this study are available for reference in future RERF studies of cell survival. (author)

  16. Tokamak x ray diagnostic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three classes of x-ray diagnostic instruments enable measurement of a variety of tokamak physics parameters from different features of the x-ray emission spectrum. (1) The soft x-ray (1 to 50 keV) pulse-height-analysis (PHA) diagnostic measures impurity concentrations from characteristic line intensities and the continuum enhancement, and measures the electron temperature from the continuum slope. (2) The Bragg x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) measures the ion temperature and neutral-beam-induced toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler broadening and wavelength shift, respectively, of spectral lines of medium-Z impurity ions. Impurity charge state distributions, precise wavelengths, and inner-shell excitation and recombination rates can also be studied. X rays are diffracted and focused by a bent crystal onto a position-sensitive detector. The spectral resolving power E/ΔE is greater than 104 and time resolution is 10 ms. (3) The x-ray imaging system (XIS) measures the spatial structure of rapid fluctuations (0.1 to 100 kHZ) providing information on MHD phenomena, impurity transport rates, toroidal rotation velocity, plasma position, and the electron temperature profile. It uses an array of silicon surface-barrier diodes which view different chords of the plasma through a common slot aperture and operate in current (as opposed to counting) mode. The effectiveness of shields to protect detectors from fusion-neutron radiation effects has been studied both theoretically and experimentally

  17. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors

  18. X-ray instrumentation for SR beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalchuk, M.V.; Shilin, Yu.N.; Zheludeva, S.I. E-mail: zheludeva@ns.crys.ras.ru; Aleshko-Ozhevsky, O.P.; Arutynyan, E.H.; Kheiker, D.M.; Kreines, A.Ya.; Lider, V.V.; Pashaev, E.M.; Shilina, N.Yu.; Shishkov, V.A

    2000-06-21

    The main possibilities and parameters of experimental X-ray stations are presented: 'Protein crystallography', 'X-ray structure analysis', 'High-precision X-ray optics', 'X-ray crystallography and material science', 'X-ray topography', 'Photoelectron X-ray standing wave' that are being installed at Kurchatov SR source by A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography.

  19. X-rays and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is one of the specialized books issued by the Arab Atomic Energy Agency about the key technologies of interest to Arab researchers . The book contains 10 chapters as follows: the nature of X-ray, methods of production and measurement of X-rays, X-ray and materials, X-ray crystallography, X-ray and chemistry, X-ray and physics, biological effects of X-ray, radiography in the field of medicine and biology, X-ray in the field of industry, other applications in agriculture, imaging artifacts and paintings and geology.

  20. Chest imaging characteristics of hand-foot-mouth disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study radiological characteristics of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Methods: The chest X-ray films of 1295 children patients of HFMD were analyzed, for the general X-ray manifestations and the evolution. Results: A total of 1427 films was obtained from all patients, in which 1203 cases were normal and 224 cases were abnormal. The interstitial changes characterized the abnormal group, mainly as increased and vague lung markings, increased hilar shadows (137 cases). The parenchyma changes appeared as patchy exudative shadows(49 cases). Short-term dynamic observation was applied in 62 cases, 38 cases pulmonary disease progression manifested as normal and the interstitial type changing into the parenchyma type and the mixed type, the localized type changing into the diffuse type. Conclusions: Most children patients of' HFMD showed normal chest films, while the abnormal patients were characterized by interstitial and parenchyma pulmonary edema. Serial chest X-ray examination and short-term dynamic observation were important to identify the severe cases and assess patients' condition. (authors)

  1. X-ray face mask and bib device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An x-ray protective face mask is made of a relatively transparent lead containing radiation shielding plastics material, and is removably attachable to a chest or bib shield for application of the device to and support upon the shoulders of a technician or a patient. Alternatively, the face mask is formed of a lens portion supported in a plastics frame, upon the lower portion of which is removably attached a bib shield that in turn is removably attachable to an apron. The frame of the face mask, bib shield and apron are preferably lined with lead sheets to protect the neck, face, chest and body of the technician from the random secondary or scatter x-ray beams. The face mask and bib shield can be formed of a moulded plastics material as a unitary device, the lens portion being attached to the frame therefor. (author)

  2. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >108 ) with broadband ≃5 - 13 meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 103 signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains.

  3. X-ray echo spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin-echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a point-like x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x-rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1--0.02-meV ultra-high-resolution IXS applications (resolving power $> 10^8$) with broadband $\\simeq$~5--13~meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than $10^3$ signal e...

  4. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral X-ray apparatus which reduces the number of exposures necessary to obtain panoramic dental radiographs is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun, a tubular target carrier projecting from the gun along the beam axis and carrying at its distal end a target surrounded by a shield of X-ray opaque material. This shield extends forward and laterally of the target and has surfaces which define a wedge or cone-shaped radiation pattern delimited vertically by the root tips of the patient's teeth. A film holder is located externally of the patient's mouth. A disposable member can fit on the target carrier to depress the patient's tongue out of the radiation pattern and to further shield the roof of the mouth. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  5. Extragalactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 40% of the X-ray sources in the third UHURU catalogue are extragalactic. One, SMC X-1 has been identified with a binary star in the lesser Magellanic Cloud, while five sources, three probably binary stars, have been found in the greater Magellanic Cloud. X-ray sources in normal galaxies (M31), radiogalaxies (NGC5128), Seyfert galaxies (NGC4151), quasars (3C273) and galaxy clusters (Virgo X-1 and Perseus X-1) are briefly discussed. The most probable explanation for the origin of X-ray emissions from galaxy clusters appears at present to be that the cluster is filled with a thin, very hot gas which emits X-radiation by thermal bremsstrahlung. The main alternative is a socalled inverse Compton effect. (JIW)

  6. X-ray imaging: Perovskites target X-ray detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Wolfgang; Brabec, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Single crystals of perovskites are currently of interest to help fathom fundamental physical parameters limiting the performance of perovskite-based polycrystalline solar cells. Now, such perovskites offer a technology platform for optoelectronic devices, such as cheap and sensitive X-ray detectors.

  7. Morphological changes of mouse ovary by X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Chul Ho; Yoon, Surk Hwan [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Woon [Daejeon Health Science College, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    This research was performed to investigate the morphological changes of folliculus ovary according to the radiation dose. The whole body radiation of 200 cGy, 400 cGy, and 600 cGy was given to the each groups of 5 months-aged female mouse. Various staining methods used in this research are: Hematosylin-Eosin method, and immunohistochemistrical methods using BrdU, TUNEL, p53, p21, PCNA and inhibin. The minute structural changes of folliculus ovary were observed through an electron microscope with high magnification. The morphological changes of growing folliculus ovary became distinct as the dose of X-rays increased. Especially, the nuclei of granular cells showed manifest condensation and the changes of the transparent zone were distinct. As a result of histochemical reaction according to Masson's trichrome method and reticular fiber method, the changed granular cells, the deformed basilar membrane of folliculus ovary and the abnormal arrangement of the reticular fiber were observed. In the reaction of BrdU, the granular cells of normal folliculus ovary with positive reaction rapidly decreased according to the increase of the dose of X-rays. In TUNEL study, granular cells showing positive reaction in retarded folliculus ovary were expanded to growing folliculus ovary and primordial folliculus ovary according to the increase of the dose of X-rays. In case of 600 cGy of X-rays, oocyte underwent apoptosis. In p53 immunohistochemistry, p53 manifested to be stronger as the dose of X-rays increased. p53 reactivity was manifested distinctively in all cells comprising folliculus ovary following irradiation of 600 cGy. p21 was manifested in granular cells of folliculus ovary and showed very positive reaction around follicular antrum according to the increase of the dose of X-rays. In PCNA, positive reaction was manifested in growing folliculus ovary, mature folliculus ovary and primordial folliculus ovary, but the extent of the reaction decreased as the dose of the X-rays

  8. X-ray hot plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray plasma emission study is powerful diagnostic tool of hot plasmas. In this review article the main techniques of X-ray plasma emission measurement are shortly presented: X-ray spectrometry using absorbent filters, crystal and grating spectrometers, imaging techniques using pinhole cameras, X-ray microscopes and Fresnel zone plate cameras, X-ray plasma emission calorimetry. Advances in these techniques with examples for different hot plasma devices are also presentes. (author)

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam requires little to no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there is any possibility you are pregnant. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What are some ...

  10. X-ray image converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention pertains to rare earth phosphor admixtures utilizing thulium-activated lanthanum or gadolinium oxyhalide phosphor material. These materials increase the relative speed and resolution of an X-ray image compared with conventional phosphors as well as reducing the still serious crossover problem now experienced with conventional phosphors. (Auth.)

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray ( ... are the fastest and easiest way for your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and ...

  13. X-Ray Diffractive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian; Li, Mary; Skinner, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    X-ray optics were fabricated with the capability of imaging solar x-ray sources with better than 0.1 arcsecond angular resolution, over an order of magnitude finer than is currently possible. Such images would provide a new window into the little-understood energy release and particle acceleration regions in solar flares. They constitute one of the most promising ways to probe these regions in the solar atmosphere with the sensitivity and angular resolution needed to better understand the physical processes involved. A circular slit structure with widths as fine as 0.85 micron etched in a silicon wafer 8 microns thick forms a phase zone plate version of a Fresnel lens capable of focusing approx. =.6 keV x-rays. The focal length of the 3-cm diameter lenses is 100 microns, and the angular resolution capability is better than 0.1 arcsecond. Such phase zone plates were fabricated in Goddard fs Detector Development Lab. (DDL) and tested at the Goddard 600-microns x-ray test facility. The test data verified that the desired angular resolution and throughput efficiency were achieved.

  14. X-ray diagnostic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lateral and orbital scanning movements can be carried out with the equipment. The assessment is carried out by a computer. Differences in sensitivity of the detectors can be compensated for by displacement of the electron beam of the X-ray tube compared to the anti-cathode or by bending of the electron beam by electromagnetic coils. (RW)

  15. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of Literature on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry starts with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. It is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is subdivided according to spectra, equipment, applications and absorption analysis

  16. X-ray film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray films have to be highly sensitive, for radiation protection reasons. The films used in radiology are coated on both sides with a photosensitive emulsion. This applies to all dental films. Their properties and the development of the different exposed films are explained. (DG)

  17. X-ray backscatter imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Dan-Cristian; Schubert, Jeffrey R.; Callerame, J.

    2008-04-01

    In contrast to transmission X-ray imaging systems where inspected objects must pass between source and detector, Compton backscatter imaging allows both the illuminating source as well as the X-ray detector to be on the same side of the target object, enabling the inspection to occur rapidly and in a wide variety of space-constrained situations. A Compton backscatter image is similar to a photograph of the contents of a closed container, taken through the container walls, and highlights low atomic number materials such as explosives, drugs, and alcohol, which appear as especially bright objects by virtue of their scattering characteristics. Techniques for producing X-ray images based on Compton scattering will be discussed, along with examples of how these systems are used for both novel security applications and for the detection of contraband materials at ports and borders. Differences between transmission and backscatter images will also be highlighted. In addition, tradeoffs between Compton backscatter image quality and scan speed, effective penetration, and X-ray source specifications will be discussed.

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. The effective radiation dose for this procedure varies. ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. The effective ... more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is ... encourage linking to this site. × Recommend RadiologyInfo to a friend Send to (friend's e-mail address): From ( ...

  5. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    de Groot, F. M. F.

    2001-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption process. Section II discusses 1s X-ray absorption, i.e., the K edges, and section III deals with 2p X-ray absorption, the L edges. X-ray emission is discussed in, respectively, the L edges. X-ray emis...

  6. Endobronchial Tuberculosis and Chest Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sasani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endobronchial tuberculosis and chest radiography I read, with interest, the article entitled “Clinical and Para-clinical Presentations of Endobronchial Tuberculosis” by Ahmadi Hoseini H. S. et al. (1 published in this journal. I would like to focus on some details about the chest X-ray of patients as elaborated by the authors in the results section. Accordingly, the findings of chest radiography in the available patients were as follows: pulmonary consolidation (75%, reduced pulmonary volume (20%, and hilar adenopathy (10%. This is an incomplete statement because the authors did not explain whether there was any normal chest radiography in the study population. In addition, it is not clear whether the X-ray examinations of the patients were normal, how many abnormal plain films yielded the presented data. On the other hand, the fact that the studied patients had no normal chest radiography is  controversial since in the literature, 10-20% of the patients with endobronchial tuberculosis are reported to have normal chest X-ray (2, 3. In fact, this is one of the problems in the diagnosis of the disease, as well as a potential cause of delayed diagnosis and treatment of the patients. Therefore, the absence of normal chest radiographs is in contrast to the available literature, and if not an error, it could be a subject of further investigation.

  7. Chest X-ray Manifestations of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease in Children%儿童普通型手足口病的胸部X线表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦红星

    2010-01-01

    @@ 手足口病(hand-foot-mouth disease,HFMD)是由肠道病毒引起的急性传染病,以柯萨奇A组16型(CoxA16)和肠道病毒71型(EV71)多见[1].笔者收集本院感染科2008-05-13-2009-04-10普通型患儿HFMD的X线影像学资料,分析X线表现特点,旨在提高对HFMD患儿胸部影像表现的认识.

  8. Learning chest imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrozo Pupo, John C. (ed.) [Magdalena Univ., Santa Maria (Colombia). Respire - Inst. for Respiratory Care

    2013-03-01

    Useful learning tool for practitioners and students. Overview of the imaging techniques used in chest radiology. Aid to the correct interpretation of chest X-ray images. Radiology of the thorax forms an indispensable element of the basic diagnostic process for many conditions and is of key importance in a variety of medical disciplines. This user-friendly book provides an overview of the imaging techniques used in chest radiology and presents numerous instructive case-based images with accompanying explanatory text. A wide range of clinical conditions and circumstances are covered with the aim of enabling the reader to confidently interpret chest images by correctly identifying structures of interest and the causes of abnormalities. This book, which will be an invaluable learning tool, forms part of the Learning Imaging series for medical students, residents, less experienced radiologists, and other medical staff. Learning Imaging is a unique case-based series for those in professional education in general and for physicians in prarticular.

  9. 20 CFR 718.102 - Chest roentgenograms (X-rays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY...-0046, and from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), located in Cincinnati... physician interpreting the film is a Board-certified or Board-eligible radiologist or a certified “B”...

  10. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center for X-Ray Optics has made substantial progress during the past year on the development of very high resolution x-ray technologies, the generation of coherent radiation at x-ray wavelengths, and, based on these new developments, had embarked on several scientific investigations that would not otherwise have been possible. The investigations covered in this report are topics on x-ray sources, x-ray imaging and applications, soft x-ray spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation, advanced light source and magnet structures for undulators and wigglers

  11. Relationship between functional and X-ray alterations in patients with cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Andréia Kist; Mallmann Felipe; John Ângela Beatriz; Faccin Carlo Sasso; Dalcin Paulo de Tarso Roth; Barreto Sérgio Saldanha Menna

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease marked by airway inflammation and airflow obstruction, resulting in air trapping in the lungs. OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between airflow limitation, pulmonary volume and X-ray findings in patients with cystic fibrosis. METHOD: A cross-sectional retrospective study. Review of spirometric, plethysmographic, and chest X-ray findings of outpatients (age ³ 16 years). The airflow findings were classified as within normal limits or as airflow...

  12. Digital x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital radiography is progressively replacing conventional (film-based) radiographic techniques promising consistently high levels of image quality, more effective use of radiation and more efficient work practices. At the same time its introduction poses new challenges to those physical scientists who design radiological imaging systems and those who provide scientific/technical support to a clinical radiology service. In this review scientific aspects of those digital x-ray imaging systems which are proving most successful are described. Physical measurement techniques developed to evaluate the imaging performance and radiation dose efficiency of clinical digital radiography systems are outlined. Finally, directions in which digital x-ray imaging technology may evolve in the coming decade are discussed. (author)

  13. Soft x-ray tomoholography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate an x-ray imaging method that combines Fourier transform holography with tomography (‘tomoholography’) for three-dimensional (3D) microscopic imaging. A 3D image of a diatom shell with a spatial resolution of 140 nm is presented. The experiment is realized by using a small gold sphere as the reference wave source for holographic imaging. This setup allows us to rotate the sample and to collect a number of 2D projections for tomography. (paper)

  14. Soft x-ray tomoholography

    OpenAIRE

    Guehrs, E.; Stadler, A.M.; Flewett, S.; Frömmel, S.; Geilhufe, J.; Pfau, B; Rander, T.; Schaffert, S.; Büldt, G; Eisebitt, S.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate an x-ray imaging method that combines Fourier transform holography with tomography ('tomoholography') for three-dimensional (3D) microscopic imaging. A 3D image of a diatom shell with a spatial resolution of 140 nm is presented. The experiment is realized by using a small gold sphere as the reference wave source for holographic imaging. This setup allows us to rotate the sample and to collect a number of 2D projections for tomography.

  15. X-ray tube arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

  16. Abreu system - A dosimetric system to evaluate basic parameters of photofluorographic X-ray machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, photofluorographic X-ray machines are used for cuberculosis mass screening throughout the country. The exact number of these X-ray equipment is unknown but it is estimated to be around 1000 operating units. Twelve million miniature chest radiographs are taken per year. In order to make local inspections speedier and also aiming at its postal use, a system has been developed wich evaluates the entrace exposure of the patient, the X-ray beam half-value layer ( leading to the evaluation of the tube's total filtration ) and the beam's field size. It consists of a piece of cardboard where filters, TLDs and X-ray films are inserted. So far the system has been tested in 53 X-ray machines in Rio de Janeiro. The results show that it can be used in a national survey program. (Author)

  17. New remote-controlled x-ray television system Shimavision 900

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new remote-controlled X-ray television system, SHIMAVISION 900, has been developed. This system is compact in design and is best suited for use in clinics and small hospitals for gastro-intestinal examination, chest radiography and so on. The X-ray diagnostic table of this system has realized superb maneuvrability by a cassetteless spotfilm changer, and space saving of X-ray examination room by the longitudinal movement of the X-ray tube and the image-receptor. The X-ray high voltage generator has succeeded in enhancing ease-of-operation in routine work by the adoption of automatic exposure control of fluoroscopy and radiography. Furthermore, much consideration has been given to improving the cost-performance of this system. (author)

  18. X-ray-powered macronovae

    CERN Document Server

    Kisaka, Shota; Nakar, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    A macronova (or kilonova) was observed as an infrared excess several days after short gamma-ray burst, GRB 130603B. Although the $r$-process radioactivity is widely discussed as an energy source, it requires huge mass of ejecta from a neutron star (NS) binary merger. We propose that the X-ray excess simultaneously observed with the infrared excess can naturally heat the ejecta, leading to the thermal re-emission as observed in infrared. This X-ray-powered model explains both the X-ray and infrared excesses with a single energy source by the central engine like a black hole, and allows for broader parameter region, in particular smaller ejecta mass $\\sim10^{-3}-10^{-2}M_{\\odot}$ with iron mixed as suggested by general relativistic simulations for typical NS-NS mergers, than the previous models. We also discuss the other macronova candidates in GRB 060614 and GRB 080503, and implications for the search of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves.

  19. X-Ray Crystallography Reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Microcapsules prepared by encapsulating an aqueous solution of a protein, drug or other bioactive substance inside a semi-permeable membrane by are disclosed. The microcapsules are formed by interfacial coacervation under conditions where the shear forces are limited to 0-100 dynes per square centimeter at the interface. By placing the microcapsules in a high osmotic dewatering solution. the protein solution is gradually made saturated and then supersaturated. and the controlled nucleation and crystallization of the protein is achieved. The crystal-filled microcapsules prepared by this method can be conveniently harvested and stored while keeping the encapsulated crystals in essentially pristine condition due to the rugged. protective membrane. Because the membrane components themselves are x-ray transparent, large crystal-containing microcapsules can be individually selected, mounted in x-ray capillary tubes and subjected to high energy x-ray diffraction studies to determine the 3-D smucture of the protein molecules. Certain embodiments of the microcapsules of the invention have composite polymeric outer membranes which are somewhat elastic, water insoluble, permeable only to water, salts, and low molecular weight molecules and are structurally stable in fluid shear forces typically encountered in the human vascular system.

  20. X-Ray-powered Macronovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisaka, Shota; Ioka, Kunihito; Nakar, Ehud

    2016-02-01

    A macronova (or kilonova) was observed as an infrared excess several days after the short gamma-ray burst GRB 130603B. Although the r-process radioactivity is widely discussed as an energy source, it requires a huge mass of ejecta from a neutron star (NS) binary merger. We propose a new model in which the X-ray excess gives rise to the simultaneously observed infrared excess via thermal re-emission, and explore what constraints this would place on the mass and velocity of the ejecta. This X-ray-powered model explains both the X-ray and infrared excesses with a single energy source such as the central engine like a black hole, and allows for a broader parameter region than the previous models, in particular a smaller ejecta mass ˜ {10}-3{--}{10}-2{M}⊙ and higher iron abundance mixed as suggested by general relativistic simulations for typical NS-NS mergers. We also discuss the other macronova candidates in GRB 060614 and GRB 080503, and the implications for the search of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves.

  1. X-ray linear dichroism dependence on ferroelectric polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoemission electron microscopy are techniques commonly used to determine the magnetic properties of thin films, crystals, and heterostructures. Recently, these methods have been used in the study of magnetoelectrics and multiferroics. The analysis of such materials has been compromised by the presence of multiple order parameters and the lack of information on how to separate these coupled properties. In this work, we shed light on the manifestation of dichroism from ferroelectric polarization and atomic structure using photoemission electron microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Linear dichroism arising from the ferroelectric order in the PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 thin films was studied as a function of incident x-ray polarization and geometry to unambiguously determine the angular dependence of the ferroelectric contribution to the dichroism. These measurements allow us to examine the contribution of surface charges and ferroelectric polarization as potential mechanisms for linear dichroism. The x-ray linear dichroism from ferroelectric order revealed an angular dependence based on the angle between the ferroelectric polarization direction and the x-ray polarization axis, allowing a formula for linear dichroism in ferroelectric samples to be defined. (paper)

  2. Stabilized x-ray generator power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analysis are very much adopted in laboratories to determine the type and structure of the constituent compounds in solid materials, chemical composition of materials, stress developed on metals etc. These experiments need X-ray beam of fixed intensity and wave length. This can only be achieved by X-ray generator having highly stabilized tube voltage and tube current. This paper describes how X-ray tube high voltage and electron beam current are stabilized. This paper also highlights generation of X-rays, diffractometry and X-ray fluorescence analysis and their wide applications. Principle of operation for stabilizing the X-ray tube voltage and current, different protection circuits adopted, special features of the mains H.V. transformer and H.T. tank are described in this report. (author)

  3. Patient dosimetry in conventional X ray examinations of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air-kerma-area product (PKA), Organ Doses and Effective Doses were evaluated in a public pediatric hospital in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Patient data (age, sex, weight and height) and x-ray exposure parameters (kV, mA.s, time, focus to patient surface distance and X-ray field size) were collected in the most frequent examinations. PKA was estimated by indirect method and organ doses by using PCXMC software. X-ray tube output measurements were done with a RADCAL/MDH 10X5-6 ionisation chamber traceable to a secondary national standard laboratory. The machines utilised by the hospital were 2 monophase full-wave rectified x-ray equipments: one for young children (without antiscatter grid) and another for older children (with antiscatter grid). The sample size (N) and the mean kV, mA.s and PKA with the standard deviation (SD), for the most frequent examinations are shown as well as the average values of the Organ Doses and Effective Doses for chest AP/PA/LAT examinations

  4. Anteroposterior chest radiograph vs. chest CT scan in early detection of pneumothorax in trauma patients

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Hesham R.; Mangar, Devanand; Khetarpal, Suneel; Shapiro, David H; Kolla, Jaya; Rashad, Rania; Helal, Engy; Camporesi, Enrico M

    2011-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a common complication following blunt chest wall trauma. In these patients, because of the restrictions regarding immobilization of the cervical spine, Anteroposterior (AP) chest radiograph is usually the most feasible initial study which is not as sensitive as the erect chest X-ray or CT chest for detection of a pneumothorax. We will present 3 case reports which serve for better understanding of the entity of occult pneumothorax. The first case is an example of a true occult ...

  5. Phase-sensitive X-ray imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kevin Louis

    2013-01-08

    X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

  6. Optical element for X-ray microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Chadzitaskos, G.

    2008-01-01

    We present a proposal for a X-ray optical element suitable for X-ray microscopy and other X-ray-based display systems. Its principle is based on the Fresnel lenses condition and the Bragg condition for X-ray scattering on a slice of monocrystal. These conditions are fulfilled simultaneously due to a properly machined shape of the monocrystal with a stress at its ends.

  7. The recent development of an X-ray grating interferometer at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haohua; Kou, Bingquan; Xi, Yan; Qi, Juncheng; Sun, Jianqi; Mohr, Jürgen; Börner, Martin; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Lisa X.; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yujie

    2012-07-01

    An X-ray grating interferometer has been installed at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). Three sets of phase gratings were designed to cover the wide X-ray energy range needed for biological and soft material imaging capabilities. The performance of the grating interferometer has been evaluated by a tomography study of a PMMA particle packing and a new born mouse chest. In the mouse chest study, the carotid artery and carotid vein inside the mouse can be identified in situ without contrast agents.

  8. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source.

  9. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Neck KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Neck Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: cuello What It Is A neck X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  10. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  11. Electron beam parallel X-ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, P.

    1967-01-01

    Broad X ray source produces a highly collimated beam of low energy X rays - a beam with 2 to 5 arc minutes of divergence at energies between 1 and 6 keV in less than 5 feet. The X ray beam is generated by electron bombardment of a target from a large area electron gun.

  12. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source

  13. X-ray tracing using Geant4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an extension to the Geant4 software package that allows it to be used as a general purpose X-ray tracing package. We demonstrate the use of our extension by building a model of the X-ray optics of the X-ray observatory XMM-Newton, calculating its effective area, and comparing the results with the published calibration curves.

  14. Zernike x-ray ptychography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Ismo; Mohacsi, Istvan; Stachnik, Karolina; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; David, Christian; Meents, Alke

    2016-02-15

    We present an imaging technique combining Zernike phase-contrast imaging and ptychography. The contrast formation is explained by following the theory of Zernike phase-contrast imaging. The method is demonstrated with x-rays at a photon energy of 6.2 keV, showing how ptychographic reconstruction of a phase sample leads to a Zernike phase-contrast image appearing in the amplitude reconstruction. In addition, the results presented in this Letter indicate an improvement of the resolution of the reconstructed object in the case of Zernike ptychography compared with the conventional one. PMID:26872172

  15. Protonium X-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gotta, D

    1999-01-01

    The Lyman and Balmer transitions from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium were studied extensively at the low-energy-antiproton ring LEAR at CERN in order to determine the strong interaction effects. A first series of experiments $9 was performed with semiconductor and gaseous X-ray detectors. In the last years of LEAR operation using a Bragg crystal spectrometer, strong interaction parameters in the 2p states of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium were measured $9 directly. The results of the measurements support the meson-exchange models describing the medium and long range part of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction. (39 refs).

  16. X-ray tomographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An x-ray tomographic system consists of a radiation source such as gamma or x radiation which produces a fan-shaped beam. The fan is wide enough to encompass the patient circle. The system further includes means for rotating the radiation source about the patient for less than a full rotation, and detectors for detecting the radiation at positions that surround the patient by 1800 plus the angle of the fan beam plus the angle between adjacent fan detectors. Attenuation data from the detectors is sorted into detector fans of attenuation data, then processed. The convolved data is back-projected into an image memory and displayed on a video monitor

  17. X-ray Pulsations in the Supersoft X-ray Binary CAL 83

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidtke, P. C.; Cowley, A. P.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray data reveal that the supersoft X-ray binary CAL 83 exhibits 38.4 minute pulsations at some epochs. These X-ray variations are similar to those found in some novae and are likely to be caused by nonradial pulsations the white dwarf. This is the first detection of pulsations in a classical supersoft X-ray binary.

  18. Comets: mechanisms of x-ray activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibadov, Subhon

    2016-07-01

    Basic mechanisms of X-ray activity of comets are considered, including D-D mechanism corresponding to generation of X-rays due to production of hot short-living plasma clumps at high-velocity collisions between cometary and interplanetary dust particles as well as M-M one corresponding to production of X-rays due to recombination of multicharge ions of solar wind plasma via charge exchange process at their collisions with molecules/atoms of the cometary atmospheres. Peculiarities of the variation of the comet X-ray spectrum and X-ray luminosity with variation of its heliocentric distance are revealed.

  19. Swift Observations of X-ray supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Li, K. L.; Pun, Chun. S. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a result of X-ray supernovae (SNe) survey using the Swift satellite public archive. An automatic searching program was designed to search X-ray SNe among all of the Swift archival observations between November 2004 and February 2011. Using the C++ program, 24 X-ray detectable supernovae have been found in the archive and 3 of them were newly-discovered in X-rays which are SN 1986L, SN 2003lx, and SN 2007od. In addition, SN 2003lx is a Type Ia supernova which may be the second X-ray...

  20. X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.R.; /SLAC; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.

    2006-01-17

    We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

  1. Symbiotic stars in X-rays

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, G. J. M.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K; Nelson, T.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, symbiotic binary systems in which a white dwarf accretes from a red giant were thought to be mainly a soft X-ray population. Here we describe the detection with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Swift satellite of nine white dwarf symbiotics that were not previously known to be X-ray sources and one that had previously been detected as a supersoft X-ray source. The nine new X-ray detections were the result of a survey of 41 symbiotic stars, and they increase the number of symbi...

  2. Inelastic x-ray scattering from phonons under multibeam conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on an experimental observation of a previously neglected multibeam contribution to the inelastic x-ray scattering cross section. Its manifestation is a substantial modification of the apparent phonon selection rules when two (or more) reciprocal lattice points are simultaneously intercepted by the Ewald sphere. The observed multibeam contributions can be treated semi-quantitatively in the frame of Renninger's 'simplest approach'. A few corollaries, relevant for experimental work on inelastic scattering from phonons, are presented

  3. Digital chest radiography: collimation and dose reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Vejle-Sørensen, Jens Kristian;

    Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials:A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from...... one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years of age are included in the study. The clinical research is performed between September and November 2014 where 3rd year Radiography students collect data on four Danish x-ray departments using identical procedures under guidance of...... conference. Conclusion: Collimation improvement in basic chest radiography can reduce the radiation to female patients at chest x-ray examinations....

  4. Miniature x-ray point source for alignment and calibration of x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A miniature x-ray point source of high brightness similar to that of Rovinsky, et al. is described. One version of the x-ray source is used to align the x-ray optics on the Argus and Shiva laser systems. A second version is used to determine the spatial and spectral transmission functions of the x-ray optics. The spatial and spectral characteristics of the x-ray emission from the x-ray point source are described. The physical constraints including size, intensity and thermal limitations, and useful lifetime are discussed. The alignment and calibration techniques for various x-ray optics and detector combinations are described

  5. Management of dental x-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of dental x-ray exposure and how they might be minimized were reviewed. The frequency of dental x-ray exposures in Japan was presented for each year, sex, age group and site of x-ray photography separately. The doses of exposure at various parts of the body per x-ray examination were also presented, and the probabilities of genetic damage, and of development of leukemia or cancer were calculated. The allowable dose of exposure for radiation workers was discussed. It is important to take account of radiation quality, area of irradiation field, and posture of patients to minimize the radiation effect. The actual statistics on the x-ray exposure at the dentists, distribution of the dispersed radiation in the x-ray room, methods of protection against exposure, and plans and designs of the x-ray room were discussed. (Kaihara, S.)

  6. X ray imaging microscope for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Baker, Phillip C.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA technology employed during the Stanford MSFC LLNL Rocket X Ray Spectroheliograph flight established that doubly reflecting, normal incidence multilayer optics can be designed, fabricated, and used for high resolution x ray imaging of the Sun. Technology developed as part of the MSFC X Ray Microscope program, showed that high quality, high resolution multilayer x ray imaging microscopes are feasible. Using technology developed at Stanford University and at the DOE Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Troy W. Barbee, Jr. has fabricated multilayer coatings with near theoretical reflectivities and perfect bandpass matching for a new rocket borne solar observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). Advanced Flow Polishing has provided multilayer mirror substrates with sub-angstrom (rms) smoothnesss for the astronomical x ray telescopes and x ray microscopes. The combination of these important technological advancements has paved the way for the development of a Water Window Imaging X Ray Microscope for cancer research.

  7. Parametric X-Ray Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchagin, Alexander

    1997-10-01

    The main PXR properties [1,2] are considered in the paper: energy, width, smooth tuning of monochromatic PXR spectral line; fine structure and absolute differential yields of PXR in the vicinity of and at angular distances from Brag directions; angular spread of the PXR beam; the influence of incident electron energy and of the density effect on the PXR properties; linear polarization of PXR; background in PXR spectra. Experimental setups for linacs and the results of measurements are discussed. Experimental data are compared to theoretical calculations at PXR energies between 5 and 400 keV for incident electron energies ranging from 15 to 1200 MeV. Possible applications of PXR as a new source of a bright, tunable X-ray beam in science and industry are discussed. [1] A.V. Shchagin and N.A. Khizhnyak, NIM B119, 115-122 (1996). [2] A.V. Shchagin and X.K. Maruyama, "Parametric X-rays", a chapter in the book "Accelerator-based Atomic Physics Techniques and Applications", edited by S.M. Shafroth and J.C. Austin, AIP Press, 1997, pp 279-307.

  8. Full-field transmission x-ray imaging with confocal polycapillary x-ray optics

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tianxi; MacDonald, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    A transmission x-ray imaging setup based on a confocal combination of a polycapillary focusing x-ray optic followed by a polycapillary collimating x-ray optic was designed and demonstrated to have good resolution, better than the unmagnified pixel size and unlimited by the x-ray tube spot size. This imaging setup has potential application in x-ray imaging for small samples, for example, for histology specimens.

  9. 新生儿气胸的临床与X线分析%Clinical and X-ray Analysis of Pneumothorax in Newborn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘华兴; 夏瑞明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyse the clinical and X-ray characteristics of pneumothorax in newborn, so that to improve the knowledge of pneumothorax in newborn. Methods 52 cases of pneumothorax in newborn underwent chest anterioposterior radiography at supine position and horizontal supine lateral position in some cases. All cases followed-up with X-ray. Results According to X-ray manifestations of pneumothorax, pneumothorax in newborn included four types : adult type in 5 cases , medial margin type in 29 cases ,superior diaphragm type in 12 cases and anterior chest wall type in 6 cases,which appeared as lateral pneumothorax,medial mediastinum side pneumothorax, diaphragmatic surface nearby pneumothorax and prethoracic pneumothorax on X-ray images , respectively. 13 infants simultaneously suffered from pneumomediastinum. Conclusion X-ray manifestations of pneumothorax in newborn are of certain characteristics.%目的 分析新生儿气胸的临床与X线特点,提高对新生儿气胸的认识与X线诊断水平.方法 52例新生儿气胸,摄取仰卧前后位胸片,部分患者加摄仰卧水平侧位片,所有病例均经X线片随访复查.结果 根据气胸X线表现,新生儿气胸可分为4种类型:成人型,内侧缘型,膈上型和前胸壁型.X线分别表现为外侧气胸、内侧纵隔旁气胸、膈面附近气胸及胸前部气胸.52例气胸患儿中,成人型5例,内侧缘型29例,膈上型12例,前胸壁型6例.另外,同时伴有纵隔积气13例.结论 新生儿气胸有一定X线特征.

  10. X-ray microtomography: applications and developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: X-ray microtomography has followed a classical development path being originally available only to those with the expertise to piece together the often cumbersome components to required to make a practical x-ray microtomography system. Subsequent technological and scientific advances have meant that x-ray microtomography instruments are now off-the-shelf items with a cost well within the equipment budgets of research institutions and industry. The technological advances that have contributed to the development of x-ray microtomography include commercially available x-ray micro-sources, high-resolution CCD cameras and highspeed, low-cost computers. The scientific developments have been predominantly in image reconstruction. Some of these scientific developments are, with the advantage of hindsight, very simple while others, such as resolution enhancement using the Fresnel fringes in x-ray projection images, are not so intuitive. As a consequence of the availability of 'black-box' instruments, x-ray microtomography is spreading to a wide range of applications. The materials most suited to examination by x-ray microtomography are those with a medium level of x-ray absorption such as bone, teeth, rocks, porous metals, composite materials and plant materials. For these materials, 3D information can be obtained at resolutions comparable to the resolution of a high-quality optical microscope. A few of these applications will be demonstrated in the presentation. Technological advances that aid x-ray microtomography will continue with x-ray sources becoming smaller, computers becoming faster and CCD cameras having increased numbers of pixels. It will be interesting to see if nano x-ray microtomography is achieved. Developments in x-ray microtomography are required in areas such as contrast enhancement particularly for problematic materials such as soft tissue and low-density polymers. For low-density polymers x-ray absorption is very low while for soft tissue

  11. Dose optimization in pediatric cardiac x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gislason, Amber J.; Davies, Andrew G.; Cowen, Arnold R. [LXi Research, Division of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, Worsley Building, Clarendon Way, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to explore x-ray beam parameters with intent to optimize pediatric x-ray settings in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. This study examined the effects of peak x-ray tube voltage (kVp) and of copper (Cu) x-ray beam filtration independently on the image quality to dose balance for pediatric patient sizes. The impact of antiscatter grid removal on the image quality to dose balance was also investigated. Methods: Image sequences of polymethyl methacrylate phantoms approximating chest sizes typical of pediatric patients were captured using a modern flat-panel receptor based x-ray imaging system. Tin was used to simulate iodine-based contrast medium used in clinical procedures. Measurements of tin detail contrast and flat field image noise provided the contrast to noise ratio. Entrance surface dose (ESD) and effective dose (E) measurements were obtained to calculate the figure of merit (FOM), CNR{sup 2}/dose, which evaluated the dose efficiency of the x-ray parameters investigated. The kVp, tube current (mA), and pulse duration were set manually by overriding the system's automatic dose control mechanisms. Images were captured with 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.9 mm added Cu filtration, for 50, 55, 60, 65, and 70 kVp with the antiscatter grid in place, and then with it removed. Results: For a given phantom thickness, as the Cu filter thickness was increased, lower kVp was favored. Examining kVp alone, lower values were generally favored, more so for thinner phantoms. Considering ESD, the 8.5 cm phantom had the highest FOM at 50 kVp using 0.4 mm of Cu filtration. The 12 cm phantom had the highest FOM at 55 kVp using 0.9 mm Cu, and the 16 cm phantom had highest FOM at 55 kVp using 0.4 mm Cu. With regard to E, the 8.5 and 12 cm phantoms had the highest FOM at 50 kVp using 0.4 mm of Cu filtration, and the 16 cm phantom had the highest FOM at 50 kVp using 0.25 mm Cu. Antiscatter grid removal improved the FOM for a given set of x-ray

  12. Pubic bone metastasis as first manifestation of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Pubic bone metastasis as the initial manifestation of lung cancer is very rare, and it may simulate parasymphyseal insufficiency fracture of the pubic bone, which is observed in postmenopausal women and elderly people. Case report. A 65-year-old woman developed pain in the right flank, which extended to the anterior aspect of the thigh. A pelvic X-ray showed osteolytic lesion in the right pubic ramus. Chest radiograph revealed a nodular mass in the right middle lobe of the lung. Transbronchal biopsy of the mass led to the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma. The patient was given radiotherapy of osteolytic lesion in her right pubic ramus and the pain was controlled with a combination of morphine sulfate. Conclusions. When unusual bone metastasis is found in the absence of a primary tumor, investigation must include chest radiographs. (author)

  13. Anomalous x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation has made it possible systematically to perform x-ray diffraction studies in regions of anomalous scattering near absorption edges, e.g. in order to derive phase information for crystal structure determination. An overview is given of recent experimental and theoretical work and discuss the properties of the anomalous atomic scattering factor, with emphasis on threshold resonances and damping effects. The results are applied to a discussion of the very strong anomalous dispersion recently observed near the L3 edge in a cesium complex. Also given is an overview of elements and levels where similar behavior can be expected. Finally, the influence of solid state and chemical effects on the absorption edge structure is discussed. 64 references

  14. Submicron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley the authors have instrumented a beam line that is devoted exclusively to x-ray micro diffraction problems. By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the sub-micron range. The beam line has a unity magnification toroidal mirror that produces a 50 by 200 micron focus just inside an x-ray hutch at the position of an x-y slit. The beam path in the hutch consists of source defining slits, a four bounce Ge or Si monochromator, followed by elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror pair which focuses the beam from the slits to sub micron dimensions (0.8 x 0.8 microns). An important feature of this arrangement is the ability to switch between white and monochromatic beams that are essential for characterizing crystals or crystal grains in the sub-micron range. Since sample rotation is fixed they have facilities for precision translation of the specimen to allow them to scan different crystal regions or grains. The sample stage rests on a state of the art six-circle diffractometer equipped with encoders in the main rotation stages calibrated to a second of arc. The detector is a 4K x 4K CCD (Bruker) with a 9 x 9 cm view area mounted on a detector arm that can be positioned around the sample. The detector itself can also be positioned to better than 1 micron along the detector arm. Using this facility they have been able to measure the orientation structure of single grains of passivated or buried Al interconnect test structures. Such structures or their equivalents are important in connecting individual components on integrated circuits. Their sub-micron dimensions result in very high current densities that can result in interconnect failures. The variation in sub-grain structure in a single grain is rich in detail. They have obtained detailed maps of misorientations in single grains using white beam Laue diffraction patterns From these they have been

  15. X-ray intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An x-ray intensifying screen comprises a support which has a luminescent composition comprising an isotropic phosphor and a polymer having an index of refraction within 0.02 of that of the phosphor over at least 80 percent of its emission spectrum. The support has an index of refraction up to or equal to 0.05 units higher than that of the phosphor and has a reflection optical density of at least 1.7 to light emitted by the phosphor. A preferred luminescent composition comprises Kl:Tl, Rbl:Tl at BaSrFCl:Eu mixed with two monomers such as 1-naphthylmethylmethacrylate, S(1-naphthylmethyl) thioacrylate, 1-bromo-2-naphthylacrylate, and benzyl methacrylate, coated on black anodised Al and polymerised in situ. The ratio of monomers is adjusted to give the desired refractive index. Other phosphors, polymers and supports are specified together with the preparation of the monomers and polymers. (author)

  16. X-ray flat panel detectors and X-ray tubes contributing to development of X-ray diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray flat panel detectors (FPDs) and X-ray tubes are key devices allowing X-ray diagnostic systems to support more sophisticated medical care. FPDs provide valuable information for the diagnosis of various diseases through the conversion of X-ray images of the human body into electronic signals, while X-ray tubes are used in a wide range of applications such as computed tomography (CT), angiography, fluoroscopy, mammography, and dental systems. Toshiba Electron Tubes and Devices Co., Ltd. has developed and commercialized FPDs providing high-quality diagnostic X-ray images with low dose exposure through the development of cutting-edge technologies including a fine crystal formation technology for cesium iodide (CsI) scintillators, thin-film transistor (TFT) arrays with photodiodes, and so on. In the field of X-ray tubes that can generate a high output of X-rays, we have developed a liquid metal hydrodynamic bearing (LM bearing) technology for various diagnostic systems including medical CT systems with a long lifetime and high rotation speed, and cardiovascular imaging systems with quiet operation. Furthermore, LM bearing technology reduces the burden on the environment by replacing insulating oil with water coolant for the cooling system and making the X-ray tubes more compact. (author)

  17. Development of confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using two X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument was developed. This instrument has two independent micro X-ray tubes with Mo targets. A full polycapillary X-ray lens was attached to each X-ray tube. Another half polycapillary lens was attached to a silicon drift X-ray detector (SDD). The focal spots of the three lenses were adjusted to a common position. The effects of the excitation of two X-ray beams were investigated. The instrument enabled highly sensitive three-dimensional X-ray fluorescence analysis. We confirmed that the X-ray fluorescence intensity from the sample increased by applying the two independent X-ray tubes in confocal configuration. Elemental depth profiling of black wheat was demonstrated with the result that each element in the surface coat of a wheat grain showed unique distribution

  18. Acoustooptics of x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakhanov, M.V.; Pustovoyt, V.I.; Radzhabov, R.U.; Khabibullayev, P.K.

    Scattering of x-rays by acoustic phonons in crystals during excitation of a noise phonon flux thermodynamically at equilibrium is analyzed from the standpoint of the dynamic diffraction theory, emphasis being put on the differences with the conventional acoustooptic effect attributable to lower frequencies and smaller amplitudes. The structural peak and the diffusional peak are calculated from known relations for the intensity of scattering in each mode, assuming that the Laue condition is satisfied. Interaction of x-rays and an acoustic wave is considered, the conditions for a diffraction peak being determined by the relations between location of that peak and angular dimensions of the structural peak. Experiments were performed in crystals of photosensitive piezoelectric semiconductors with phonon generation. Rectangular or variable-shape voltage pulses with amplitudes up to 800 V were applied to 6-60 ..mu..m thick CdS crystals at repetition rates up to 800 Hz. The electron concentration was (1.3-4.5) x 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/ and the electron mobility, according to saturation of the current-voltage characteristics, was differentially in time. The results reveal sharp anisotropy of scattering, evident in the dependence of scattering intensity on the angle of crystal rotation and the resulting lobar scattering pattern. Structural scattering varies exponentially and diffusional scattering varies linearly with increasing amplitude of the applied voltage. According to the dependence of the spectral density of phonon generation on the concentration of charge carriers, the phase of the scattering effect changes upon transition from the structural range to the diffusional range. 8 references, 3 figures.

  19. Soft x-ray interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument's components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200 angstrom wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency

  20. Assessment of organ equivalent doses and effective doses from diagnostic X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIRD-type adult male, female and age 10 phantoms were constructed to evaluate organ equivalent dose and effective dose of patient due to typical diagnostic X-ray examination. These phantoms were constructed with external and internal dimensions of Korean. The X-ray energy spectra were generated with SPEC78. MCNP4B ,the general-purposed Monte Carlo code, was used. Information of chest PA , chest LAT, and abdomen AP diagnostic X-ray procedures was collected on the protocol of domestic hospitals. The results showed that patients pick up approximate 0.02 to 0.18 mSv of effective dose from a single chest PA examination, and 0.01 to 0.19 mSv from a chest LAT examination depending on the ages. From an abdomen AP examination, patients pick up 0.17 to 1.40 mSv of effective dose. Exposure time, organ depth from the entrance surface and X-ray beam field coverage considerably affect the resulting doses. Deviation among medical institutions is somewhat high, and this indicated that medical institutions should interchange their information and the need of education for medical staff. The methodology and the established system can be applied, with some expansion, to dose assessment for other medical procedures accompanying radiation exposure of patients like nuclear medicine or therapeutic radiology

  1. Soft x-ray polarimeter laboratory tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kendrah D.; Marshall, Herman L.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Jenks, Kevin; Sommer, Sophie J. B.; Marshall, Eric A.

    2010-07-01

    Multilayer-coated optics can strongly polarize X-rays and are central to a new design of a broad-band, soft X-ray polarimeter. We have begun laboratory work to verify the performance of components that could be used in future soft X-ray polarimetric instrumentation. We have reconfigured a 17 meter beamline facility, originally developed for testing transmission gratings for Chandra, to include a polarized X-ray source, an X-ray-dispersing transmission grating, and a multilayer-coated optic that illuminates a CCD detector. The X-rays produced from a Manson Model 5, multi-anode source are polarized by a multilayer-coated flat mirror. The current configuration allows for a 180 degree rotation of the source in order to rotate the direction of polarization. We will present progress in source characterization and system modulation measurements as well as null and robustness tests.

  2. X-rays for medical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessenbruch, A.

    1995-11-01

    1995 is the centenary of the discovery of X-rays by the German physicist Wilhelm C Rontgen. In the past hundred years, the new rays have developed from being unknown to finding application in many walks of life, not least in medicine. This is so much so that in common speech the word `x-ray` refers not to a form of radiation but to an X-ray photograph taken for the purposes of diagnosis (as in: `I had an X-ray done to see if my leg was broken`). X-rays are now used routinely, and they are used both for diagnosis and for therapy. This paper will give an outline of the use of X-rays in medicine throughout our present century.

  3. Handbook of X-Ray Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornack, Günter

    2007-01-01

    This sourcebook is intended as an X-ray data reference for scientists and engineers working in the field of energy or wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry and related fields of basic and applied research, technology, or process and quality controlling. In a concise and informative manner, the most important data connected with the emission of characteristic X-ray lines are tabulated for all elements up to Z = 95 (Americium). This includes X-ray energies, emission rates and widths as well as level characteristics such as binding energies, fluorescence yields, level widths and absorption edges. The tabulated data are characterized and, in most cases, evaluated. Furthermore, all important processes and phenomena connected with the production, emission and detection of characteristic X-rays are discussed. This reference book addresses all researchers and practitioners working with X-ray radiation and fills a gap in the available literature.

  4. Clinical X-ray diagnostics. v. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After introductory remarks on historical aspects of the development of X-ray diagnostics, the physical and technological fundamentals of the generation and recording of radiographs are elaborated. In a comprehensive chapter such topics as X-rays, X-ray tubes, X-ray generators, contrast media, interrelations between X-rays and patients as well as classical and recent methods of recording with regard to geometrical conditions, and of picture quality are outlined. Brief notes on analysis, documentation and filing of radiographs are added. Physico-technological fundamentals of radiation protection, remarks concerning radiation protection in the GDR, and special problems of radiation protection as to X-ray diagnostics are discussed

  5. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2

  6. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2.

  7. X-ray microlaminography with polycapillary optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate layer-by-layer x-ray microimaging using polycapillary optics. The depth resolution is achieved without sample or source rotation and in a way similar to classical tomography or laminography. The method takes advantage from large angular apertures of polycapillary optics and from their specific microstructure, which is treated as a coded aperture. The imaging geometry is compatible with polychromatic x-ray sources and with scanning and confocal x-ray fluorescence setups.

  8. X-ray microlaminography with polycapillary optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, K. M.; Dul, D. T.; Wróbel, A.; Korecki, P.

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate layer-by-layer x-ray microimaging using polycapillary optics. The depth resolution is achieved without sample or source rotation and in a way similar to classical tomography or laminography. The method takes advantage from large angular apertures of polycapillary optics and from their specific microstructure, which is treated as a coded aperture. The imaging geometry is compatible with polychromatic x-ray sources and with scanning and confocal x-ray fluorescence setups.

  9. X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements are described in an X-ray spot film device which is used in conjunction with an X-ray table to make a selected number of radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. To date, the spot film devices consist of two X-ray field defining masks, one of which is moved manually. The present device is more convenient to use and speeds up the procedure. (U.K.)

  10. X-ray microlaminography with polycapillary optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowski, K. M.; Dul, D. T.; Wrobel, A.; Korecki, P. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2013-06-03

    We demonstrate layer-by-layer x-ray microimaging using polycapillary optics. The depth resolution is achieved without sample or source rotation and in a way similar to classical tomography or laminography. The method takes advantage from large angular apertures of polycapillary optics and from their specific microstructure, which is treated as a coded aperture. The imaging geometry is compatible with polychromatic x-ray sources and with scanning and confocal x-ray fluorescence setups.

  11. Applications of soft x-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, C.H.

    1993-08-01

    The high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. Imaging of biological specimens using x-ray lasers has been demonstrated by several groups. Other applications to fields such as chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography are beginning to emerge. We review the current status of soft x-ray lasers from the perspective of applications, and present an overview of the applications currently being developed.

  12. X-ray data booklet. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation of data is presented. Included are properties of the elements, electron binding energies, characteristic x-ray energies, fluorescence yields for K and L shells, Auger energies, energy levels for hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions, scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, and transmission bands of selected filters. Also included are selected reprints on scattering processes, x-ray sources, optics, x-ray detectors, and synchrotron radiation facilities

  13. X-ray data booklet. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, D. (ed.)

    1986-04-01

    A compilation of data is presented. Included are properties of the elements, electron binding energies, characteristic x-ray energies, fluorescence yields for K and L shells, Auger energies, energy levels for hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions, scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, and transmission bands of selected filters. Also included are selected reprints on scattering processes, x-ray sources, optics, x-ray detectors, and synchrotron radiation facilities. (WRF)

  14. Novel optics for X-ray telescopes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Pína, L.; Semencová, V.; Inneman, A.; Skulinová, Michaela; Nekola, Martin

    Berlin : Springer, 2009 - (Brandl, B.), s. 1-8 ISBN 978-90-481-2232-5. [400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes. Leiden (NL), 29.09.2008-02.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX01220701; GA ČR GP202/07/P510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : X-ray telescopes * X-ray optics * X-ray astronomy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  15. X-ray characteristics of heart failure in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of chest biomedical radiography in 250 men aged 22-69 years who had acute myocardial infarction were evaluated. Data were compared with the results of ECG, echocardiography, Judkins coronarography, and left ventriculography. X-ray signs of pulmonary venous hypertension in acute myocardial infarction, even not followed by cardiomegalia suggest lower left ventricular myocardial contractility. In this connection, the significance of follow-up X-ray monitoring becomes higher. In 25% of the young patients (aged 22-40 years) with prior acute myocardial infarction, the dimensions of the heart may be in the normal ranges even in the presence of X-ray signs of venous congestion. If there are no signs of mitral regurgitation in patients with ischremic heart disease, the enlarged left atrium may be regarded as an indirect X-ray sign of reduced left ventricular contractility. Extent of necrosis in patients with myocardial infarction effects hemodynamic changes in lungs

  16. X-ray diagnosis of predisposition to pulmonary nephrotic edema in patients with glomerulonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop criteria for determining predisposition to pulmonary edema in patients with glomerulonephritis, clinical, laboratory and X-ray examinations were made in 697 patients with glomerulonephritis at different stages of its development. X-ray examination included chest tele X-ray and its densitometric analysis. Twenty two patients underwent computerized tomography with gistographic analysis. In 106 patients, X-ray findings were compared with the volume of circulating blood, cardiac and stroke indices. CHanges in the lungs and pleural cavities were found in 22,7%, pulmonary edema was revealed in 15,7% of the patients. The prognostically unfavourable criteria for the development of pulmonary edema were found to be Stage 2 pulmonary venous hypertension with hypervolemia and peripheral edemas

  17. Chest MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance - chest; Magnetic resonance imaging - chest; NMR - chest; MRI of the thorax; Thoracic MRI ... healthy enough to filter the contrast. During the MRI, the person who operates the machine will watch ...

  18. X-ray transient AGN and galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Grupe, D.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray transience is the most extreme form of variability observed in AGN or normal in-active galaxies. While factors of 2-3 on timescales of days to years are quite commen among AGN, X-ray transients appear only once and vanish from the X-ray sky years later. The ROSAT All-Sky Survey was the tool to discover these sources. X-ray transience in AGN or galaxies can be caused by dramatic changes in the accretion rate of the central black hole or by changes of the properties of the accretion disk.

  19. Microfabrication of hard x-ray lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik

    characterization details that cannot be obtained by other means. The respective x-ray techniques largely benefit from continuously improved x-ray sources, x-ray detectors and x-ray optics. For instance, some techniques aiming for structural investigation of poly-crystalline materials directly benefit from more...... by their potential for compact integration, which makes them cost-effective, easy to handle and stable on-axis optics. A Si-CRL comprises multiple bi-parabolic cylindrical cavities. The bi-parabolic patterns are defined lithographically and vertically transferred into the Si substrate using deep reactive ion etching...

  20. Advanced X-ray diffractive optics

    OpenAIRE

    Vila-Comamala, J.; Jefimovs, K.; Pilvi, T.; Ritala, M; Sarkar, S S; Solak, H H; Guzenko, V.A.; Stampanoni, M.; Marone, F.; J. Raabe; G. Tzvetkov; Fink, R H; Grolimund, D.; Borca, C.N.; Kaulich, B

    2009-01-01

    X-ray microscopy greatly bene�ts from the advances in x-ray optics. At the Paul Scherrer Institut, developments in x-ray di�ractive optics include the manufacture and optimization of Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) and di�ractive optical elements for both soft and hard x-ray regimes. In particular, we demonstrate here a novel method for the production of ultra-high resolution FZPs. This technique is based on the deposition of a zone plate material (iridium) onto the sidewalls of a p...

  1. Microscopic x-ray luminescence computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Dianwen; Zhang, Kun; Li, Changqing

    2015-03-01

    X-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) was emerged as a new hybrid imaging modality, in which the x-rays are used to excite phosphors emitting optical photons to be measured for imaging. In this paper, we reported a microscopic x-ray luminescence computed tomography (microXLCT) with a spatial resolution up to hundreds of micrometers for deep targets. We use a superfine x-ray pencil beam to scan the phosphor targets. The superfine x-ray pencil beam is generated by a small collimator mounted in front of a powerful x-ray tube (93212, Oxford Instrument). A CT detector is used to image the x-ray beam. We have generated an x-ray beam with a diameter of 192 micrometers with a collimator of 100 micrometers in diameter. The emitted optical photons on the top surface of phantom are reflected by a mirror and acquired by an electron multiplier charge-coupled device (EMCCD) camera (C9100-13, Hamamatsu Photonics). The microXLCT imaging system is built inside an x-ray shielding and light tight cabinet. The EMCCD camera is placed in a lead box. All the imaging components are controlled by a VC++ program. The optical photon propagation is modeled with the diffusion equation solved by the finite element method. We have applied different regularization methods including L2 and L1 in the microXLCT reconstruction algorithms. Numerical simulations and phantom experiments are used to validate the microXLCT imaging system.

  2. Imaging with x-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, L.B.; Cauble, B.; Frieders, G.; Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.; Mrowka, S.; Ress, D.; Trebes, J.E.; Weiland, T.L.

    1993-11-01

    Collisionally pumped soft x-ray lasers now operate over a wavelength range extending from 35--300 {Angstrom}. These sources have high peak brightness and are now being utilized for x-ray imaging and plasma interferometry. In this paper we will describe our efforts to probe long scalelength plasmas using Moire deflectrometry and soft x-ray imaging. The progress in the development of short pulse x-ray lasers using a double pulse irradiation technique which incorporates a travelling wave pump will also be presented.

  3. X-ray Emission from Elliptical Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Sarazin, Craig L.

    1996-01-01

    Elliptical galaxies are generally luminous sources of X-ray radiation, and contain large amounts of hot, interstellar gas. In the brighter X-ray galaxies, the inferred masses of hot gas are consistent with those expected given the present rates of stellar mass loss. The required rates of heating of the gas are also roughly consistent with those expected from the motions of gas losing stars. X-ray observations, particularly X-ray spectra, require a low rate of Type Ia supernova heating and che...

  4. X-ray Observations of Planetary Nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, M. A.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R A

    2003-01-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) are an exciting addition to the zoo of X-ray sources. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations have detected diffuse X-ray emission from shocked fast winds in PN interiors as well as bow-shocks of fast collimated outflows impinging on the nebular envelope. Point X-ray sources associated with PN central stars are also detected, with the soft X-ray (>0.5 keV) emission from instability shocks in the fast stellar wind itself or from a low-mass companion's coronal activit...

  5. Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Fangjun

    2011-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) will be China's first astronomical satellite. On board HXMT there are three kinds of slat-collimated telescopes, the High Energy X-ray Telescope (HE, 20-250 keV, 5000 cm^2), the Medium Energy X-ray Telescope (ME, 5-30 keV, 952 cm^2), and the Low Energy X-ray Telescope (LE, 1-15 keV, 384 cm^2).

  6. X-ray pulsar rush in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present recent remarkable topics about discoveries of X-ray pulsars. 1. Pulsations from two Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters: These pulsars have enormously strong magnetic field (B ∼ 1015 G), thus these are called as 'magnetar', new type of X-ray pulsars. 2. New Crab-like pulsars: These discoveries lead to suggesting universality of Crab-like pulsars. 3. An X-ray bursting millisecond pulsar: This is strong evidence for the recycle theory of generating radio millisecond pulsars. 4. X-ray pulsar rush in the SMC: This indicates the younger star formation history in the SMC. (author)

  7. The Lunar X-ray Observatory (LXO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2008-01-01

    X-ray emission from charge exchange recombination between the highly ionized solar wind and neutral material i n Earth's magnetosheath has complicated x-ray observations of celestial objects with x-ray observatories including ROSAT, Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku. However, the charge-exchange emission can also be used as an important diagnostic of the solar-wind interacting with the magnetosheath. Soft x-ray observations from low-earth orbit or even the highly eccentric orbits of Chandra and XMM-Newton are likely superpositions of the celestial object of interest, the true extra-solar soft x-ray background, geospheric charge exchange, and heliospheric charge exchange. We show that with a small x-ray telescope placed either on the moon, in a similar vein as the Apollo ALSOP instruments, or at a stable orbit near L1, we can begin t o disentangle the complicated emission structure in the soft x-ray band. Here we present initial results of a feasibility study recently funded by NASA t o place a small x-ray telescope on the lunar surface. The telescope operates during lunar night to observe charge exchange interactions between the solar wind and magnetospheric neutrals, between the solar wind and the lunar atmosphere, and an unobstructed view of the soft x-ray background without the geospheric component.

  8. Ultrashort X-ray pulse science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Alan Hap [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    A variety of phenomena involves atomic motion on the femtosecond time-scale. These phenomena have been studied using ultrashort optical pulses, which indirectly probe atomic positions through changes in optical properties. Because x-rays can more directly probe atomic positions, ultrashort x-ray pulses are better suited for the study of ultrafast structural dynamics. One approach towards generating ultrashort x-ray pulses is by 90{sup o} Thomson scattering between terawatt laser pulses and relativistic electrons. Using this technique, the author generated {approx} 300 fs, 30 keV (0.4 {angstrom}) x-ray pulses. These x-ray pulses are absolutely synchronized with ultrashort laser pulses, allowing femtosecond optical pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed. Using the right-angle Thomson scattering x-ray source, the author performed time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies of laser-perturbated InSb. These experiments revealed a delayed onset of lattice expansion. This delay is due to the energy relaxation from a dense electron-hole plasma to the lattice. The dense electron-hole plasma first undergoes Auger recombination, which reduces the carrier concentration while maintaining energy content. Longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon emission then couples energy to the lattice. LO phonon decay into acoustic phonons, and acoustic phonon propagation then causes the growth of a thermally expanded layer. Source characterization is instrumental in utilizing ultrashort x-ray pulses in time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies. By measurement of the electron beam diameter at the generation point, the pulse duration of the Thomson scattered x-rays is determined. Analysis of the Thomson scattered x-ray beam properties also provides a novel means of electron bunch characterization. Although the pulse duration is inferred for the Thomson scattering x-ray source, direct measurement is required for other x-ray pulse sources. A method based on the laser-assisted photoelectric effect (LAPE) has

  9. X-ray pulsars: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, I

    2012-01-01

    Accreting X-ray pulsars are among the most luminous objects in the X-ray sky. In highly magnetized neutron stars (B~10^12 G), the flow of matter is dominated by the strong magnetic field. The general properties of accreting X-ray binaries are presented, focusing on the spectral characteristics of the systems. The use of cyclotron lines as a tool to directly measure a neutron star's magnetic field and to test the theory of accretion are discussed. We conclude with the current and future prospects for accreting X-ray binary studies.

  10. Ultrashort X-ray pulse science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of phenomena involves atomic motion on the femtosecond time-scale. These phenomena have been studied using ultrashort optical pulses, which indirectly probe atomic positions through changes in optical properties. Because x-rays can more directly probe atomic positions, ultrashort x-ray pulses are better suited for the study of ultrafast structural dynamics. One approach towards generating ultrashort x-ray pulses is by 90o Thomson scattering between terawatt laser pulses and relativistic electrons. Using this technique, the author generated ∼ 300 fs, 30 keV (0.4 (angstrom)) x-ray pulses. These x-ray pulses are absolutely synchronized with ultrashort laser pulses, allowing femtosecond optical pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed. Using the right-angle Thomson scattering x-ray source, the author performed time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies of laser-perturbated InSb. These experiments revealed a delayed onset of lattice expansion. This delay is due to the energy relaxation from a dense electron-hole plasma to the lattice. The dense electron-hole plasma first undergoes Auger recombination, which reduces the carrier concentration while maintaining energy content. Longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon emission then couples energy to the lattice. LO phonon decay into acoustic phonons, and acoustic phonon propagation then causes the growth of a thermally expanded layer. Source characterization is instrumental in utilizing ultrashort x-ray pulses in time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies. By measurement of the electron beam diameter at the generation point, the pulse duration of the Thomson scattered x-rays is determined. Analysis of the Thomson scattered x-ray beam properties also provides a novel means of electron bunch characterization. Although the pulse duration is inferred for the Thomson scattering x-ray source, direct measurement is required for other x-ray pulse sources. A method based on the laser-assisted photoelectric effect (LAPE) has been

  11. X-rays pinpoint tumour targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a surgeon in Birmingham used an X-ray photograph to guide the removal of a needle buried in a woman's hand in January 1896, it became the first X-ray guided operation in medical history. Since then X-rays have been widely used for medical imaging, and 'computed tomography' now provides us with exquisite 2D cross-sectional images of the human body. The technique creates images by passing X-rays along a plane through the body and recording the transmitted signals from various angles. A 'CT scan' lets us locate and visualize tumours with a resolution of 1 mm. But there is more to X-rays than imaging - they can also treat patients by killing cancerous tumours. When X-rays interact with tissue, they release highly reactive radicals that break the double strands in DNA molecules and cause the rapidly dividing cancerous cells to die. But because X-rays kill both healthy and diseased tissue in equal measure, it is vital to minimize the radiation received by healthy organs and tissue surrounding the tumour. The goal of radiotherapy is to find the precise location of a tumour using a CT scan - or other imaging technique - and then concentrate the X-rays on it to destroy the diseased tissue. In the August issue of Physics World Matin Durrani describes how intensity-modulated radiation therapy can deliver precise doses of X-rays to tumours while leaving surrounding, healthy tissue relatively unscathed. (U.K.)

  12. X-ray imaging using a tunable coherent X-ray source based on parametric X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel X-ray source based on parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) has been employed for X-ray imaging at the Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application (LEBRA), Nihon University. Notable features of PXR are tunable energy, monochromaticity with spatial chirp, narrow local bandwidth and spatial coherence. Since the X-ray beam from the PXR system has a large irradiation area with uniform flux density, the PXR-based source is suited for X-ray imaging, especially for application to phase-contrast imaging. Despite the cone-like X-ray beam, diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) can be employed as a phase contrast imaging technique. DEI experiments were performed using 14- to 34-keV X-rays and the phase-gradient images were obtained. The results demonstrated the capability of PXR as an X-ray source for phase-contrast imaging with a large irradiation field attributed to the cone-beam effect. Given the significant properties of the LEBRA-PXR source, the result suggests the possible construction of a compact linac-driven PXR-Imaging instrument and its application to medical diagnoses

  13. Plasma-based X-ray laser speckle and its application on ferroelectric material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAI Ren-Zhong; NAMIKAWA Kazumichi

    2005-01-01

    A new type of soft X-ray source, i.e. a plasma-based X-ray laser, is found to be promising to conduct transient measurement. By means of picosecond X-ray laser speckles, the dynamic microscopic polarization clusters within cubic (paraelectric) BaTiO3 was directly observed and characterized in a microscopic scale for the first time.This opens a way to study this type of clusters, which usually manifest large external-field response for ferroelectric materials.

  14. Delayed life-threatening hemothorax without rib fractures after blunt chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnan Nevin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed hemothorax in blunt chest trauma is described as a late presentation of hemothorax after a normal chest X-ray on admission. To detect this clinical entity a repeat chest X-ray is advised after six hours, especially when the first radiograph reveals rib or thoracic vertebral fractures or any significant injury to the thoracic viscera. However, this repeats chest X-ray examination is often not done in patients in whom a significant thoracic trauma has been excluded in the primary and secondary survey. Here, we discuss a case of massive delayed hemothorax after 16 hours of the blunt chest trauma despite a near normal admission chest X-ray and absence of significant chest trauma in the primary and secondary surveys.

  15. On the universal X-ray luminosity function of binary X-ray sources in galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Postnov, K. A.

    2002-01-01

    The empirically determined universal power-law shape of X-ray luminosity function of high mass X-ray binaries in galaxies is explained by fundamental mass-luminosity and mass-radius relations for massive stars.

  16. Wide field x-ray telescopes: Detecting x-ray transients/afterglows related to GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent discovery of X-ray afterglows of GRBs opens the possibility of analyses of GRBs by their X-ray detections. However, imaging X-ray telescopes in current use mostly have limited fields of view. Alternative X-ray optics geometries achieving very large fields of view have been theoretically suggested in the 70's but not constructed and used so far. We review the geometries and basic properties of the wide-field X-ray optical systems based on one- and two-dimensional lobster-eye geometry and suggest technologies for their development and construction. First results of the development of double replicated X-ray reflecting flats for use in one-dimensional X-ray optics of lobster-eye type are presented and discussed. The optimum strategy for locating GRBs upon their X-ray counterparts is also presented and discussed

  17. Multicell X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detector for X-radiation or other ionizing radiation is described comprising a pair of curved metal bars lying in spaced apart parallel planes. Ceramic members are bonded to the respective bars in facing relationship. Each ceramic member has a plurality of radially extending circumferentially spaced grooves facing similar grooves in the other member. A plurality of electrode plates are held in juxtaposed and circumferentially spaced apart relationship by disposing their respective upper and lower edges in the grooves of opposed ceramic members. The faces of adjacent electrode plates define gas-filled gaps in which photoelectron-ion pairs are produced when radiation enters from the front edges of the plates. The above described assembly is disposed within a pressurized gas-filled chamber having an X-ray transmissive window adjacent the front edges of the plates. A cover encloses the chamber. It has insulator feed-throughs for connecting the electrode plates with external electric circuits. Photoelectrons and/or ions, created by the ionizing radiation, are collected on the electrode plates and thereby generate an electrical signal which corresponds to the incident ionizing radiation. (Auth.)

  18. X-ray radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper described a radiographic apparatus containing a radiation source, a diaphragm with collimating windows and a cassette holder with a cassette for the X-ray film. In order to increase the efficiency and quality of monitoring, the diaphragm and the cassette are made in the form of cylindrical shells, the centre of curvature of which coincides with the position of the radiation source focus. Each collimating window of the diaphragm is made in the form of two coaxially connected truncated cones, joined at the large bases in such a way that the angle at the vertex of the cone nearer the source is not less than the central angle with the vertex at the focus of the radiation source supported by the larger base, and 15-300 less than the angle at the vertex of the cone further from the source. By this means monitoring efficiency is increased by a factor of 1.5-2 and the quality of the radiographs improved. The apparatus is used for flaw detection in cylindrical objects. (author)

  19. Diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2016-08-09

    A method and apparatus are provided for implementing Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MicroElectroMechanical systems (MEMS) based diffractive optics. An oscillating crystalline MEMS device generates a controllable time-window for diffraction of the incident X-ray radiation. The Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses includes isolating a particular pulse, spatially separating individual pulses, and spreading a single pulse from an X-ray pulse-train.

  20. Lenses for Soft X-Rays and X-ray Microscopy Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the development of zone plates as x-ray lenses by the use of a uv-holographic lithography technique. Condenser zone plates as well as scanning x-ray microscopes are described. In addition, results of x-ray microscopy experiments are presented, which have been performed with an imaging x-ray microscope installed at the BESSY electron storage ring in Berlin

  1. X-ray topography and multiple diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short summary on X-ray topography, which is based on the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction, is made. The applications and properties related to the use of the multiple diffraction technique are analized and discussed. (L.C.)

  2. Proton induced X-ray emission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developments in proton induced X-ray emission analysis are reviewed. Techniques for analyzing thick and thin samples of different origin are described. Discussions on the application of proton induced X-ray emission analysis in different fields, comparison of the sensitivity of this method with other analytical techniques, its limitations and possible improvements are presented

  3. Rotatable target for x-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distorsion of the focal trace results in reduction of X-ray intensity, which may stop the desired use of the X-ray tube early. This distorsion can be avoided almost by use of molybdenum alloys for base body and substrate. Different alloys together with belonging measured values are described. (J.K.)

  4. X-ray diagnosis in birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes techniques of X- ray examination in birds and the advantages of using contrast medium. He gives the medical indications of such examinations and lists the main anatomical features to be well known in birds for a better interpretation of X-ray pictures

  5. X-ray spectroscopy of magnetic CVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Giorgio

    I discuss two topics in X-ray spectroscopy of magnetic CVs: reflection from the white dwarf surface, and opacity effects in the post shock plasma. I also briefly mention future observational perspectives, with particular emphasis on the Constellation X-ray mission.

  6. Tracing the X-Ray Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    What you need to know about… Tracing the X-ray Trail If you’ve just completed an x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) Start here! or other diagnostic imaging procedure, you probably want to know when you will ... los rayos X Si acaba de hacerse una radiografía, tomografía ¡Empezar ...

  7. X-ray diagnosis of retropatellar diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reports on a comprehensive, stepwise diagnosis in diseases of the knee joints. This includes a description of the indication, the technique of taking X-ray films, and X-ray findings, as well as arthrography of the femoropatellar joint in retropatellar diseases such as chondropathia patellae, osteochondrosis dissecans, traumas of the knee joints and arthrosis deformans. (orig.)

  8. X-Ray Detection Visits the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Luis; Farinha, Ana; Pinto, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Film has been used to detect x-rays since the early days of their discovery by Rontgen. Although nowadays superseded by other techniques, film still provides a cheap means of x-ray detection, making it attractive in high-school or undergraduate university courses. If some sort of quantitative result is required, the film's optical absorbance or…

  9. Soft x rays for radiobiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lethal effects and chromosome aberrations induced in cells exposed to low energy (soft) X rays demonstrated that these relatively low energy X rays are just as effective as those of higher energy for radiobiological studies, and even more effective for irradiating cultured mammalian cells than laboratory animals. (author)

  10. X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child All About Food Allergies X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis Print A A A Text Size What's ... routinely check kids for scoliosis during regular physical exams, and some schools also test for scoliosis. If ...

  11. Large X-ray optics: lobster alternative

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Pína, L.; Inneman, A.

    Garching : MaxPlanck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, 2003 - (Hasinger, G.; Boller, T.; Parmer, A.), s. 271-277 [XEUS - studying the evolution of the hot Universe. Garching (DE), 11.03.2002-13.03.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : XEUS X-ray telescope * lobster eye X-ray optics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  12. Accelerator-driven X-ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-09

    After an introduction which mentions x-ray tubes and storage rings and gives a brief review of special relativity, the subject is treated under the following topics and subtopics: synchrotron radiation (bending magnet radiation, wiggler radiation, undulator radiation, brightness and brilliance definition, synchrotron radiation facilities), x-ray free-electron lasers (linac-driven X-ray FEL, FEL interactions, self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), SASE self-seeding, fourth-generation light source facilities), and other X-ray sources (energy recovery linacs, Inverse Compton scattering, laser wakefield accelerator driven X-ray sources. In summary, accelerator-based light sources cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Synchrotron radiation (bending magnet, wiggler and undulator radiation) has unique properties that can be tailored to the users’ needs: bending magnet and wiggler radiation is broadband, undulator radiation has narrow spectral lines. X-ray FELs are the brightest coherent X-ray sources with high photon flux, femtosecond pulses, full transverse coherence, partial temporal coherence (SASE), and narrow spectral lines with seeding techniques. New developments in electron accelerators and radiation production can potentially lead to more compact sources of coherent X-rays.

  13. X-ray scattering measurements from thin-foil x-ray mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; BYRNAK, BP; Hornstrup, Allan;

    1992-01-01

    Thin foil X-ray mirrors are to be used as the reflecting elements in the telescopes of the X-ray satellites Spectrum-X-Gamma (SRG) and ASTRO-D. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements from the Au coated and dip-lacquered Al foils are presented. These were obtained from SRG mirrors positioned...

  14. Soft X-Ray Spectra of AGN Discovered Via Their Hard X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    This final report is a study of the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Investigation of the soft x-ray spectra of AGN were performed by using their hard x-ray emission. ROSAT observations of AGN was also performed, which allowed for the study of these x-ray spectra and the structures of 7 clusters of galaxies.

  15. X-ray devices contributing to sophistication of X-ray diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray tubes to generate X-rays, as well as X-ray image intensifiers (I.I.s) and X-ray flat panel detectors (FPDs) to convert X-ray images into electronic signals, are key devices in X-ray diagnostic systems, which are playing a major role in the advancement of diagnosis and treatment. Toshiba Electron Tubes and Devices Co., Ltd. has been offering optimal products incorporating the most advanced technologies to customers through continuous technological innovations. These include a high-sensitivity technology for X-ray I.I.s and X-ray FPDs to suppress patient exposure doses, a focal spot design technology for X-ray tubes and high-resolution technologies for X-ray I.I.s and X-ray FPDs that enhance image quality and make it possible to detect smaller lesion areas, and a noise reduction technology for X-ray tubes to realize a comfortable medical environment with reduced stress on both patients and medical staff. (author)

  16. High Energy Vision: Processing X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    DePasquale, Joseph; Edmonds, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy is by nature a visual science. The high quality imagery produced by the world's observatories can be a key to effectively engaging with the public and helping to inspire the next generation of scientists. Creating compelling astronomical imagery can, however, be particularly challenging in the non-optical wavelength regimes. In the case of X-ray astronomy, where the amount of light available to create an image is severely limited, it is necessary to employ sophisticated image processing algorithms to translate light beyond human vision into imagery that is aesthetically pleasing while still being scientifically accurate. This paper provides a brief overview of the history of X-ray astronomy leading to the deployment of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, followed by an examination of the specific challenges posed by processing X-ray imagery. The authors then explore image processing techniques used to mitigate such processing challenges in order to create effective public imagery for X-ray astronomy. ...

  17. Requirements for industrial x-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety code is concerned with the protection of all individuals who may be exposed to radiation emitted by X-ray equipment operating at energies up to 1 MeV as used in industrial radiography. This code presents basic radiation safety information for the protection of personnel operating and servicing X-ray equipment and other workers and the general public in the vicinity of areas where X-ray equipment is in operation. It specifies general safety features of design, construction and functioning of X-ray equipment and facilities; describes the responsibilities of the user, operator and maintenance personnel; contains recommendations to ensure that the X-ray equipment is used and maintained in accordance with the ALARA principle; and describes a program of personnel monitoring and radiation safety surveys. ( 6 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.)

  18. Development of coherent x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposed x-ray laser applications such as interferometry and holography require coherent radiation. The fact that x-ray laser media are short-lived high-temperature plasmas leads to very different coherence properties from those of ordinary lasers. Research aimed at developing theoretical models and experimentally characterizing and improving x-ray laser coherence is discussed. Longitudinal coherence is already sufficient for several applications due to the narrow linewidths. However, transverse coherence is estimated to be poor for most current x-ray lasers. To quantify these estimates and to design better lasers, both wave and geometric optics propagation and coherence theories have been developed. These theories and resulting predictions of the coherence length are presented and compared. Measurements of x-ray laser beam patterns and coherence lengths are presented and compared to detailed theoretical simulations. Designs for more coherent lasers are given

  19. Perspectives of medical X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberger, J.; Hell, E.; Knüpfer, W.

    2001-06-01

    While X-ray image intensifiers (XII), storage phosphor screens and film-screen systems are still the work horses of medical imaging, large flat panel solid state detectors using either scintillators and amorphous silicon photo diode arrays (FD-Si), or direct X-ray conversion in amorphous selenium are reaching maturity. The main advantage with respect to image quality and low patient dose of the XII and FD-Si systems is caused by the rise of the Detector Quantum Efficiency originating from the application of thick needle-structured phosphor X-ray absorbers. With the detectors getting closer to an optimal state, further progress in medical X-ray imaging requires an improvement of the usable source characteristics. The development of clinical monochromatic X-ray sources of high power would not only allow an improved contrast-to-dose ratio by allowing smaller average photon energies in applications but would also lead to new imaging techniques.

  20. Perspectives of medical X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While X-ray image intensifiers (XII), storage phosphor screens and film-screen systems are still the work horses of medical imaging, large flat panel solid state detectors using either scintillators and amorphous silicon photo diode arrays (FD-Si), or direct X-ray conversion in amorphous selenium are reaching maturity. The main advantage with respect to image quality and low patient dose of the XII and FD-Si systems is caused by the rise of the Detector Quantum Efficiency originating from the application of thick needle-structured phosphor X-ray absorbers. With the detectors getting closer to an optimal state, further progress in medical X-ray imaging requires an improvement of the usable source characteristics. The development of clinical monochromatic X-ray sources of high power would not only allow an improved contrast-to-dose ratio by allowing smaller average photon energies in applications but would also lead to new imaging techniques

  1. Perspectives of medical X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberger, J. E-mail: joerg.freudenberger@med.siemens.de; Hell, E.; Knuepfer, W

    2001-06-21

    While X-ray image intensifiers (XII), storage phosphor screens and film-screen systems are still the work horses of medical imaging, large flat panel solid state detectors using either scintillators and amorphous silicon photo diode arrays (FD-Si), or direct X-ray conversion in amorphous selenium are reaching maturity. The main advantage with respect to image quality and low patient dose of the XII and FD-Si systems is caused by the rise of the Detector Quantum Efficiency originating from the application of thick needle-structured phosphor X-ray absorbers. With the detectors getting closer to an optimal state, further progress in medical X-ray imaging requires an improvement of the usable source characteristics. The development of clinical monochromatic X-ray sources of high power would not only allow an improved contrast-to-dose ratio by allowing smaller average photon energies in applications but would also lead to new imaging techniques.

  2. X-ray and CT Diagnosis of Lower Lobe Secondary Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Adult%成人下叶继发性肺结核的X线和CT诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨下叶继发性肺结核的影像学表现.方法 直接数字平板X线成像系统(DR)摄取常规胸部正侧位.采用美国GE16排螺旋CT机,患者采取仰卧位,扫描层厚0.5~1cm,必要时加扫薄层或HRCT扫描.下叶肺结核的X线和CT资料32例.结果 右肺下叶肺结核14例,左肺下叶11例,双肺下叶7例;X线和CT表现多样化.结论 下叶肺结核的X线和CT表现形态多样,应全面分析.%Objective To investigate the imaging manifestation of lower lobe secondary pulmonary tuberculosis in adult. Methods Direct digital tablet (DR) intake routine chest positive side by X-ray imaging system. Patients taking GE16 row spiral CT machine, the supine position, use the scan 0.5-1 cm thick, add scan thin layer or HRCT scan when necessary. Lower lobe tuberculosis X-ray and CT data of 32 cases. Results Pulmonary tuberculosis in lower lobe of right lung was found in 14 cases, pulmonary tuberculosis in lower lobe of left lung was found in 11 cases and the lower lobe of both lung of pulmonary tuberculosis was found in 7 cases;The X-ray and CT manifestations were diverse. Con?clusion The X-ray and CT manifestations of lower lobe secondary pulmonary tuberculosis were diverse,it shoud be com?prehensively analysed.

  3. Frequency of x-ray examinations of neonates classified according to their birth weight in NICU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For neonates, red bone marrow is distributed in the whole body, and it is reported that cancer susceptibility to radiation may be higher than fetuses. However, there are few reports about the frequency of X-ray examination for neonates. To clarify the X-ray examination of neonates in intensive care unit, we investigated the actual frequency of mobile X-ray, CT and fluoroscopy. We followed the 306 infants who were admitted in and discharged from neonatal intensive care unit of Oita Prefecture Hospital between October 1 in 1998 and June 30 in 1999. The investigated items were types of radiograph, the number of mobile X-ray, and CT and fluoroscopy examination, the body weight at birth (BWAB), and the body weight at the day when X-ray examination was performed (BWXE). These were classified according to the BWAB. The relation between the frequency of X-ray examination and the high-risk-infant classification was examined. For mobile X-ray, the 1053 radiographs were performed, including 258 chest radiographs, 685 combined abdominal and chest radiographs, 52 abdominal radiographs, 37 wrist radiographs, 21 others radiographs. For CT, the 118 examinations was performed, including 116 head, 2 abdominal. For fluoroscopy, the 24 examinations were performed, including 13-air contrast enema, 5 gastroduodenal, 2 cystoradiogram, 1 urethrography, 1 intestine, 2 cavitas nasi and 152 abdominal radiographs. These showed that for less BWAB, more X-ray examinations were carried out. In the high-risk-infant classification, a lot of X-ray frequencies were observed for infants with extremely low BWAB. The infant with extremely low BWAB was accompanied with complication such as respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, and meconium disease. The histogram of the BWXE had two peaks; one at 600g-800g, another at 2100g-2500g. This study revealed the current frequency of X-rays examination in neonatal intensive care unit. We evaluated the dose to neonates in another paper of IRPA-10

  4. MEASURING OF X-RAY SOURCE SIZE BY USING COMPOUND REFRACTIVE X-RAY LENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Dudchik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Compound refractive lens was used for measuring size of 2-3 beamline Standford synchrotron radiation source and a size of microfocus X-ray tube. X-ray beam from the source was focused by the lens and parameters of the beam at image plane were measured. Scanning diaphragm and X-ray CCD-camera were used for measuring X-ray beam. It was found that the vertical size of synchrotron source is equal to 0,6 mm and the size of the X-ray tube focal spot is equal to 60 micrometers. 

  5. Large area soft x-ray collimator to facilitate x-ray optics testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, Samuel L.

    1994-01-01

    The first objective of this program is to design a nested conical foil x-ray optic which will collimate x-rays diverging from a point source. The collimator could then be employed in a small, inexpensive x-ray test stand which would be used to test various x-ray optics and detector systems. The second objective is to demonstrate the fabrication of the x-ray reflectors for this optic using lacquer-smoothing and zero-stress electroforming techniques.

  6. First X-ray fluorescence CT experimental results at the SSRF X-ray imaging beamline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Biao; YANG Qun; XIE Hong-Lan; DU Guo-Hao; XIAO Wi-Qiao

    2011-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence CT is a non-destructive technique for detecting elemental composition and distribution inside a specimen. In this paper, the first experimental results of X-ray fluorescence CT obtained at the SSRF X-ray imaging beamline (BL13W1) are described. The test samples were investigated and the 2D elemental image was reconstructed using a filtered back-projection algorithm. In the sample the element Cd was observed. Up to now, the X-ray fluorescence CT could be carried out at the SSRF X-ray imaging beamline.

  7. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Miaja-Avila, L.; G. C. O'Neil; Uhlig, J.; C. L. Cromer; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary opti...

  8. X-ray Spectral Variation of Eta Carinae through the 2003 X-ray Minimum

    OpenAIRE

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Gull, Theodore; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Pittard, Julian M.; Hillier, D. John; Damineli, Augusto; Davidson, Kris; Nielsen, Krister E.; Kober, Gladys Vieira

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of an X-ray observing campaign on the massive, evolved star Eta Carinae, concentrating on the 2003 X-ray minimum as seen by the XMM-Newton observatory. These are the first spatially-resolved X-ray monitoring observations of the stellar X-ray spectrum during the minimum. The hard X-ray emission, believed to be associated with the collision of Eta Carinae's wind with the wind from a massive companion star, varied strongly in flux on timescales of days, but not significantl...

  9. Dose reduction and increase of X-ray tube life in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to reduce radiation dose and increase X-ray tube life in computed tomography. Head, upper abdomen and chest scans were evaluated. We assessed the techniques employed and if these could be changed, suggested new protocols and compared the quality of the images, the radiation dose and the X-ray tube heating. A mAs reduction could be done without interfering with the diagnostic quality, allowing a decrease of up to 20% in the average dose for adults' head exams and up to 45% for 0 to 6 years old children; patients with less than 50 kg had a reduction of 37% on the upper abdomen radiation average dose; for chest routine scans the reduction was 54%. The decrease in the heating of the X-ray tube for head, upper abdomen and chest scan was approximately 13%, 23% and 41%, respectively. As a conclusion, a change on the described protocols will produce a significant reduction on the radiation dose and an increasing in X-ray tube life without loss of diagnostic quality. (author)

  10. Dual-energy X-ray CT and the extension to polychromatic X-ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed dual energy X-ray CT using monochromatic X-ray beams. From the dual-energy X-ray CT, we can obtain distributions of an electron density and an effective atomic number in a human body. Especially, the electron density is very important for the heavy ion radiotherapy. Now, we adopted new array-detector to know the energy of incident photons as well as detect the position and the number of photons. We carry out the experiment of the dual-energy X-ray CT at the beamline of KEK and SPring-8 as a fundamental study for the polychromatic X-ray CT. We will show the preliminary result of this experiments and the feasibility of a quantitative polychromatic X-ray CT as an advanced method of monochromatic X-ray CT in this study. (author)

  11. Toward Adaptive X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Tim W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peer; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (less than 1 inch) optics with very-large-aperture (greater than 25 square meter) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the surface areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kilogram per square meter or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve adaptive (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, adaptive optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States, and the Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom. This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward adaptive x-ray telescopes.

  12. Toward active x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2011-09-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution ( 25 m2) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kg/m2 or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, active optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States (US). This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  13. Stellar coronas, X-rays, and Einstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of the sun at ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths reveal a structure connected with the configuration of the solar magnetic field. The Einstein Observatory (HEAO 2), the first satellite to use an imaging X-ray telescope, searched for faint coronas on the basis of visual brightness and their proximity to the sun. Observed temperatures of transition regions between the chromosphere and the corona exceed 1,000,000 K. A possible correlation between X-ray luminosity and rotation rate has been observed and Einstein observations also indicated that stellar coronas showed changes in X-ray brightness during the most stable period of a star's life. Solar flares and transients, which generate substantial amounts of X-rays, radio waves and charged particles, are believed to be other properties of stellar coronas which change with age. Future missions such as NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility and Space Telescope will enable astronomers to greatly increase their sampling of stellar coronas available for study. Observations also suggest the early development of a strong stellar dynamo due to X-ray activity in pre-main-sequence objects. It is hoped that the study of activity cycles in other stars will yield a greater understanding of the dynamo theory

  14. Cell survival studies using ultrasoft x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell survival was studied for V79 hamster, 10T1/2 mouse, and human skin fibroblast cell lines, using carbon K (0.28 keV), copper K (8.0 keV), and 250 kVp x rays. Because of the rapid attenuation of the carbon x rays, cellular dimensions at the time of exposure were measured using optical and electron microscopy, and frequency distributions of mean dose absorbed by the cell nucleus were obtained. The results indicate that the differences in cell killing between ultra-soft and hard x rays may depend on the nuclear thickness of the cells. Studies of the effects of hypoxia on V79 and 10T1/2 cells using carbon K, aluminum K (1.5 keV), and copper K x rays show decreasing OER values with decreasing x-ray energy and no difference between the two cell lines. Age response studies with V79 cells show similar cell-cycle variation of survival for carbon K and aluminum K x rays as for hard x rays

  15. X-ray diffraction imaging and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first papers dealing with the very important application of x-ray diffraction to crystal structure analysis were also published in 1912 by W.L. Bragg, while a student at Cambridge. Bragg performed an analysis of the Laue diffraction pattern of zinc blend and determined the correct structure of the crystal lattice. There have been many practical applications for x-ray diffraction techniques. Historically conventional x-ray machines were used as generators and film used as the recording medium. Prior to 1966, all attempts to directly image x-ray diffraction patterns used a large format x-ray image intensifier tube of the same type as conventionally used for medical and industrial fluoroscopy. Since the 1960's numerous electro-optical systems have been developed which are far better suited for real-time viewing and recording of x-ray diffraction patterns. Modern x-ray diffraction imaging systems incorporating rotating anode and pulsed x-ray generators, synchrotron x-ray sources, and optimized electro-optical systems have been used to orient single crystals, to study crystal lattice rotation accompanying plastic deformation, to measure the rate of grain boundary migration during recrystallization annealing of cold-worked metals, to determine the physical state of exploding metals, to rapidly measure residual stress (strain), to study the dynamics of structural phase transitions in ferroelectric crystals, to monitor the amorphous to crystalline phase transformation of rapidly solidified metals, and to record topographic images of lattice defects in quartz, gallium arsenide and nickel alloy turbine blade crystals

  16. X-ray hazards - diagnostic and therapeutic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: introduction; nature of X-rays; X-rays - effect on biological materials; X-ray measurement; radiation dosages to exposed groups; organizational structure of radiological protection; duties of the Radiological Safety Officer; general measures for radiological protection; protection of staff; protection of patients; safety measures in radiotherapy work - sealed sources laboratory -general safety rules; radiotherapy - duties of the Radiological Safety Officer (Radiotherapy); the custodian of sealed sources -duties and relevant radiological protection information; external beam therapy - radionuclide source unit - emergency procedure in the event of technical failure; safety aspects of brachytherapy in the patient's vicinity; diagnostic radiology; conclusion. (U.K.)

  17. X-ray microscopy using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system for x-ray microscopy now being developed at the X-26 beam line of the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is described here. Examples of the use of x-ray microscopy for trace element geochemistry, biology and medicine, and materials investigations are given to emphasize the scientific applications of the technique. Future directions for the improvement and further development of the X-26 microscope and of the x-ray microscopy field in general are discussed. 11 refs., 7 figs

  18. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  19. X-ray Variability of Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Pian, Elena

    2002-01-01

    Critical progress in our understanding of high energy emission from AGN has been determined in the last 10 years by X-ray monitoring campaigns with many space missions, notably ROSAT, ASCA, RXTE, BeppoSAX, and XMM, often in conjunction with observations at other frequencies. The emphasis of the present review is on recent findings about X-ray variability of blazars. Among AGN, these exhibit the largest amplitude variations of the X-ray emission, often well correlated with variations at higher...

  20. Imaging Cellular Architecture with X-rays

    OpenAIRE

    Larabell, Carolyn A.; Nugent, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray imaging of biological samples is progressing rapidly. In this paper we review the progress to date in high resolution imaging of cellular architecture. In particular we survey the progress in soft X-ray tomography and argue that the field is coming of age and that important biological insights are starting to emerge. We then review the new ideas based on coherent diffraction. These methods are at a much earlier stage of development but, as they eliminate the need for X-ray optics, have ...