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Sample records for chest x-ray findings

  1. Chest x-ray findings of opportunistic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chest x-ray findings of 20 cases of pulmonary opportunistic infection were analyzed according to causative agents. The results were as follows: 1. Final diagnoses of 20 cases of opportunistic infections were tuberculosis in 6 cases, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in 5 cases, bacterial infection in 7 cases, and fungal infection in 2 cases. 2. The underlying diseases were leukemia in 6 cases, kidney transplantation in 6 cases, lymphoma in 3 cases, nephrotic syndrome in 1 case, nasopharyngeal cancer in 1 case, multiple myeloma in 1 case, agranulocytosis in 1 case, and hypogammaglobulinemia in 1 case. 3. In tuberculosis, all the 6 cases showed severe manifestations such as military tuberculosis, tuberculous pneumonia, moderately advanced tuberculosis and tuberculous pericarditis. 4. In pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the most frequent findings were bilateral alveolar densities and peripheral field of the lung was saved in most cases. 5. In 2 cases of fungal infections bilateral multiple cavity nodules were noted. 6. In cases of bacterial infection there was more cases of gram negative infection than gram positive and 2 cases of pseudomonas revealed bilateral multiple cavitary nodules

  2. Chest x-ray findings of opportunistic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yul; Jeon, Suk Chul; Lim, Jeong Ki; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    The chest x-ray findings of 20 cases of pulmonary opportunistic infection were analyzed according to causative agents. The results were as follows: 1. Final diagnoses of 20 cases of opportunistic infections were tuberculosis in 6 cases, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in 5 cases, bacterial infection in 7 cases, and fungal infection in 2 cases. 2. The underlying diseases were leukemia in 6 cases, kidney transplantation in 6 cases, lymphoma in 3 cases, nephrotic syndrome in 1 case, nasopharyngeal cancer in 1 case, multiple myeloma in 1 case, agranulocytosis in 1 case, and hypogammaglobulinemia in 1 case. 3. In tuberculosis, all the 6 cases showed severe manifestations such as military tuberculosis, tuberculous pneumonia, moderately advanced tuberculosis and tuberculous pericarditis. 4. In pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the most frequent findings were bilateral alveolar densities and peripheral field of the lung was saved in most cases. 5. In 2 cases of fungal infections bilateral multiple cavity nodules were noted. 6. In cases of bacterial infection there was more cases of gram negative infection than gram positive and 2 cases of pseudomonas revealed bilateral multiple cavitary nodules.

  3. Chest x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest radiography; Serial chest x-ray; X-ray - chest ... You stand in front of the x-ray machine. You will be told to hold your breath when the x-ray is taken. Two images are usually taken. You will ...

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by: Image/Video Gallery Your radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to ... to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit ...

  6. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used ... diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A ...

  7. Chest X-ray findings in children with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the chest X-ray radiographic findings in children with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Methods: The chest X-ray radiographs in 67 children with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection were reviewed in this study. The chest radiographs were obtained 3-8 days after the onset of symptoms and for the follow-up. Results: The abnormalities were bilateral in 53 patients and unilateral in 7 patients. The predominant radiographic findings were bilateral patchy consolidation (n=42) with rapid confluence in 10 patients, lobular consolidation (n=7) with interstitial hyperplasia in 1 patient 3 month later, diffuse consolidation (n=11) with interstitial hyperplasia in all patients after 3 month. Conclusion: The predominant chest X-ray radiographic findings are bilateral patchy consolidation and diffuse consolidation with interstitial hyperplasia afterward. (authors)

  8. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also be useful to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  10. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Angioplasty & vascular stenting Video: Arthrography Video: Contrast Material Radiology and You Take our survey About this Site ... radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight June is Men's Health Month Recently posted: Focused Ultrasound for Uterine Fibroids ... to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny ...

  13. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript ... time! Spotlight Recently posted: Pediatric MRI Intravascular Ultrasound Video: Chest CT Video:Thyroid Ultrasound Video: Head CT ...

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ultrasound Video: Angioplasty & vascular stenting Video: Arthrography Radiology and You About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is ... radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  15. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript ... Recently posted: Focused Ultrasound for Uterine Fibroids Dementia Video: General Ultrasound Video: Pediatric Nuclear Medicine Radiology and ...

  16. HRCT findings of disseminated small nodular shadow in plain chest x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) was done in 22 cases of disseminated small nodular shadow from plain chest X-ray, which was included in metastatic lesion, Miliary tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis etc. and following results were obtained. Most of metastatic nodule (n=8) showed more than 1.5mm in diameter and the margin of nodule was discrete (n=8) and many cases (n=8) were associated with thickened bronchovascular sheath or interlobular septum and hilar and mediastinal lymphnode enlargement (n=6). One case turned out to be not true nodule in HRCT but revealed thickened interlobular septum and bronchovascular bundles. All cases of miliary tuberculosis (n=8) showed even sized, well marginate and less than 3mm in diameter of nodule without evidence of thickening of bronchovascular bundle or interlobular septum. Ease cases of pneumoconiosis, histiocytosis X, diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) showed ill defined nodule and associate finding of DPB was peripheral bronchioloectasis. HRCT is useful method to exact evaluation of nodular lesion and find out associate findings for differential diagnosis of disseminate small nodular shadow in plain chest X-rays

  17. Chest X-ray findings in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the chest X-ray (CXR) findings and clinical courses of 129 patients with Kawasaki disease and found abnormal CXR findings in 14.7% of the patients. Reticulogranular pattern was the most frequent abnormality (89.5%), while peribronchial cuffing (21.1%), pleural effusion (15.8%), atelectasis (10.5%) and air trapping (5.3%) were also seen. In each of these patients, CXR abnormalities appeared within 10 days after the onset of illness. In the group with abnormal CXR findings, a statistically significant increase was noted in duration of fever, incidence of adventitious sounds, serum CPR levels and incidence of coronary arterial lesions and pericardial effusion, as compared with the group having normal CXR findings. The pathological basis of these CXR changes is not clear, since no biopsy or autopsy specimen was obtained from these patients. Since none of these patients showed definite heart failure, it is difficult to consider that abnormal CXR findings were due to heart failure. On the other hand, physical signs and previous pathological reports suggested that the causes of abnormal CXR findings were lower respiratory tract inflammation and/or pulmonary arteritis. (orig.)

  18. Coccidioidomycosis - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chest x-ray shows the affects of a fungal infection, coccidioidomycosis. In the middle of the left lung (seen on the ... defined borders. Other diseases that may explain these x-ray findings include lung abscesses, chronic pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic ...

  19. Extrapleural hematoma as an unexpected finding on a follow-up chest X-ray after coronary surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present two cases of an extrapleural hematoma, on a follow-up chest X-ray after coronary artery bypass surgery using an internal mammary artery (IMA). In both cases, the finding was disclosed on a routine chest film obtained 1 month post-operatively, in a patient who was either asymptomatic or had nonspecific symptoms. Follow-up chest films showed spontaneous resolution in both patients. We emphasize the recognition and significance of such a self-limited post-operative radiological finding

  20. Pulmonary complications of induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia in adults. Findings of chest X-rays and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To exclude pulmonary complications, 359 chest radiographs and 50 computed tomographs of the lung were performed in 95 patients suffering from acute myeloid leukemia. The radiological findings were registered, described and correlated with clinical findings in the present study on 2395 days of observation. Results: In summary, 52 patients showed alterations of the lung. Pulmonary hyperhydration was seen in 21 cases, bacterial pneumonia was found in 18 cases, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was documented in 14 cases, and 5 cases of severe haemorrhage were seen. An unexplained pulmonary edema in 13 patients with interstitial and alveolar infiltrates is considered to be a complication of treatment with cytosine-arabinoside. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that chest X-ray and computed tomography have a high impact in detection and treatment of pulmonary complications following intensive chemotherapy. We may expect the development of diffuse opacity following administration of cytosine-arabinoside in medium-sized doses. (orig.)

  1. Aspergillosis - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. Here, a chest x-ray shows that the fungus has invaded the lung ... are usually seen as black areas on an x-ray. The cloudiness on the left side of this ...

  2. Comparison of Chest X-Ray Findings of Smear Positive and Smear Negative Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis is a chronic pulmonary infectious disease that has affected one-third of the people in the world. It causes nine million new cases and two million deaths per year. Chest radiography associated with Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining procedure significantly helps the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Chest radiography can help the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with a negative smear sample result that is mainly diagnosed with delay. In this study, chest X-ray findings of PTB were compared in two groups of smear positive and smear negative patients. In this retrospective descriptive-analytical study, 376 patients who had been confirmed with PTB were referred to Birjand Health Care Center from 2001 to 2006. Out of the 376 patients, 100 patients with a positive smear based on WHO criteria were selected. In addition, among negative smear patients, 100 were selected in whom similar demographic characteristics with positive smear patients were seen. All of them had undergone chest radiographies that were then interpreted by two expert radiologists independently. Moreover, all patients’ sputa were examined by an expert laboratory technician at the reference laboratory of the health center. The obtained data were analyzed by means of frequency distribution table and descriptive statistics using SPSS (version 15) and Chi-square statistical test. Except reticulo-nodular infiltration, the relative frequency of other radiographic findings in positive smear patients were more than negative smear patients; and only differences in calcification variables, mediastinal widening, patchy infiltration and hilar adenopathy were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Based on the results of this study, although radiographic findings are not diagnostic in PTB, they are helpful if the assessment associates with the view of clinical manifestations and sputum smears

  3. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes inflammation, the formation of tubercules and other growths within tissue, ... death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light areas (opacities) of varying ...

  4. Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chest x-ray shows adenocarcinoma of the lung. There is a rounded light spot in the right upper lung (left side ... density. Diseases that may cause this type of x-ray result would be tuberculous or fungal granuloma, and ...

  5. Impact of positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures on adverse outcomes following hospitalized pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Benfield, Thomas Lars Vibe;

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the clinical presentation and outcome of pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) without positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures. We investigated the prognostic impact of a pulmonary infiltrate and bacteraemia on the clinical course of hospitalized...... patients with confirmed pneumococcal LRTI....

  6. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung tissue absorbs little radiation and will appear dark on the image. Until recently, x-ray images ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  7. Routine chest X-ray in the allergy clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether routine chest X-ray is indicated in allergy patients when there is no evidence of cardiopulmonary involvement. A retrospective study to analyze the indications and radiologic findings in 515 consecutive patients who underwent chest X-ray: Positive findings were considered to be any radiological sing that led to the performance of additional diagnostic measures or a change in the therapeutic management of the patient. Positive radiologic findings were observed in 39 cases (7.59%). Only two patients (0.38%) were diagnosed as having diseases that were susceptible to proper treatment. In one of them (0.19%), the failure to perform chest X-ray would have impeded the introduction of proper treatment. We do not recommend carrying out routine chest X-ray in this patient population. (Author) 7 refs

  8. Why x-ray chests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the validity of screening chest radiography at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, the yield of occult major disease and its significance to the afflicted employees have been examined over a ten year period. The study suggests that the incidence rate of occult disease which in retrospect proved to have been of major or life-threatening importance to the afflicted employee approximates 1 per 1000 population per annum. Major benefit accrued only to about 1 in 3 of these employees, the remainder gaining little more than that which would have followed treatment had their diseases presented symptomatically. These results are considered in relation to the health surveillance needs of a population generally and selectively exposed to diverse health hazards within the nuclear industry. (auth)

  9. Clinical and Laboratory Findings in Patients With Acute Respiratory Symptoms That Suggest the Necessity of Chest X-ray for Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pneumonia is a common illness in all parts of the world and is considered as a major cause of death among all age groups. Nevertheless, only about 5% of patients referring to their primary care physicians with acute respiratory symptoms will develop pneumonia. This study was performed to derive practical criteria for performing chest radiographs for the evaluation of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A total of 420 patients with acute respiratory symptoms and positive findings on chest radiograph were evaluated from December 2008 to December 2009. The subjects were referred to outpatient clinics or emergency departments of Birjand's medical university hospitals, Iran, and were enrolled as positive cases. A checklist was completed for each patient including their demographic information, clinical signs and symptoms (cough, sputum production, dyspnea, chest pain, fever, tachycardia, and tachypnea), abnormal findings in pulmonary auscultation and laboratory findings (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein levels, and white blood cell count). An equal number of age-matched individuals with acute respiratory symptoms, but insignificant findings on chest radiography, were included as the control group. Finally, the diagnostic values of different findings were compared. The data showed that vital signs and physical examination findings are useful screening parameters for predicting chest radiograph findings in outpatient settings. Therefore, by implementing a prediction rule, we would be able to determine which patients would benefit from a chest X-Ray (sensitivity, 94% and specificity, 57%). This study's findings suggest that requesting chest radiographs might not be necessary in patients with acute respiratory symptoms unless the vital signs and/or physical examination findings are abnormal. Considering the 94% sensitivity of this rule for predicting CAP, a chest radiograph is required for patients with unreliable follow-ups or moderate to high

  10. Natural History of Disease in Atomic Bomb Exposed Twins in Hiroshima : Findings of Chest X-Ray and Electrocardiogram

    OpenAIRE

    Satow, Yukio; Ohmae, Kiyokazu; Okamoto, Naomasa; Abe, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Shoji

    1982-01-01

    The subjects of this study are mainly pairs of monozygotic twins, one of whom was exposed to the atomic bomb and the other not exposed, and the natural history of the diseases of these twins was analyzed to find out genetic and environmental factors of the diseases and some biological effect of the atomic bomb exposure or other. In this study, 13 pairs of monozygotic and 5 pairs of dizygotic twins and other 34 cases of non-twins were examined by means of heart and lung X-ray films and electro...

  11. Chest x-ray following heart transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the cardio vascular Surgery Departiment of the University of Padua, where the first heart transplant operation in Italy took place in November, 14, 1985, in a period of six months, nine heart transplants have been performed. The post-operative follow-up of these patients included, among other tests, a chest X-ray, which has given us many morphological and functional data concerning both the circulatory and the pulmonary systems

  12. Do preliminary chest X-ray findings define the optimum role of pulmonary scintigraphy in suspected pulmonary embolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To investigate if preliminary chest radiograph (CXR) findings can define the optimum role of lung scintigraphy in subjects investigated for pulmonary embolism (PE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CXR and scintigraphy findings from 613 consecutive subjects investigated for suspected PE were retrieved from a radiological database. Of 393 patients with abnormal CXRs, a subgroup of 238 was examined and individual radiographic abnormalities were characterized. CXR findings were related to the scintigraphy result. RESULTS: Scintigraphy was normal in 286 subjects (47%), non-diagnostic in 207 (34%) and high probability for PE in 120 (20%). In 393 subjects (64%) the preliminary CXR was abnormal and 188 (48%) of scintigrams in this group were non-diagnostic. Individual radiographic abnormalities were not associated with significantly different scintigraphic outcomes. If the preliminary CXR was normal (36%), the proportion of non-diagnostic scintigrams decreased to 9% (19 of 220 subjects) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In subjects investigated for PE, an abnormal CXR increases the prevalence of non-diagnostic scintigrams. A normal pre-test CXR is more often associated with a definitive (normal or high probability) scintigram result. The chest radiograph may be useful in deciding the optimum sequence of investigations. Forbes, K.P.N., Reid, J.H., Murchison, J.T. (2001)

  13. Errors in chest x-ray interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Reporting of adult chest x-rays by appropriately trained radiographers is frequently used in the United Kingdom as one method to maintain a patient focused radiology service in times of increasing workload. With models of advanced practice being developed in Australia, New Zealand and Canada, the spotlight is on the evidence base which underpins radiographer reporting. It is essential that any radiographer who extends their scope of practice to incorporate definitive clinical reporting perform at a level comparable to a consultant radiologist. In any analysis of performance it is important to quantify levels of sensitivity and specificity and to evaluate areas of error and variation. A critical review of the errors made by reporting radiographers in the interpretation of adult chest x-rays will be performed, examining performance in structured clinical examinations, clinical audit and a diagnostic accuracy study from research undertaken by the authors, and including studies which have compared the performance of reporting radiographers and consultant radiologists. overall performance will be examined and common errors discussed using a case based approach. Methods of error reduction, including multidisciplinary team meetings and ongoing learning will be considered

  14. Lung mass, right upper lung - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This picture is a chest x-ray of a person with a lung mass. This is a front view, where the lungs are the two dark areas and ... visible in the middle of the chest. The x-ray shows a mass in the right upper lung, ...

  15. Ordering chest X-rays in Australian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Julie; Miller, Graeme; Pan, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Data from the BEACH program between 2012–14 were used to examine general practice encounters where chest X-rays were ordered. This included the most common problems associated with chest X-ray ordering and patient characteristics. Changes in ordering between 2004–05 and 2013–14 were also investigated. The rate of chest X-ray ordering between 2004–05 and 2013–14 decreased significantly. In 2012–14, chest X-rays were most often ordered in the management of acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis, cough and pneumonia. Pleurisy/pleural effusion had the highest likelihood of resulting in a chest X-ray order, followed by shortness of breath/dyspnoea and pneumonia. PMID:26510138

  16. High-Resolution Computed Tomography and Chest X-Ray Findings of Interstitial Lung Disease Related to Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sheikh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Interstitial lung disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with scleroderma. For this reason an early diagnosis of lung involvement is warranted. The best approach to detect pulmonary disease particularly alveolitis (inflammatory NSIP as a reversible phase is controversial. The aim of this study is estimating the advantage of HRCT as a noninvasive screening test to detect the pattern of ILD related to systemic sclerosis.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study, 52 patients with scleroderma who referred to rheumatologic medical center from 2010 to 2011 were evaluated for ILD by the use of history, physical examination, CXR and HRCT. Finally, all the data were analyzed using SPSS13 software.Results: HRCT was normal in 21 patients (40.4%, and NSIP in 19 patients (36.5% and UIP in 12 patients (23.1% were reported. CXR was normal in 19 (36.5% and mild reticular pattern in 15 (28.8%, overt reticular pattern in 14 (26.9% and honey combing in 4 (7.7% were seen. HRCT findings were abnormal in 6(11.5% patients without dyspnea, 22(42.3% without cough, 20(38.4% without crackle in lung auscultation and 26(50% without clubbing in physical examination. In 2(3.8% patients no pulmonary signs and symptoms UIP were reported.Conclusion: HRCT is a noninvasive method to detect lung involvement in early phases independent of presence or absence of pulmonary signs and symptoms.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(2:16-22

  17. X-ray face mask and chest shield device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protective face mask is designed to shield an x-ray technician or machine operator primarily from random secondary or scatter x-rays deflected towards his face, head and neck by the table, walls, equipment and other reflecting elements in an x-ray room or chamber. The face mask and chest shield device can be mounted on a patient's shoulders in reverse attitude to protect the back of a patient's head and neck from the x-ray beam. The face mask is relatively or substantially transparent and contains lead in combination with a plastic ionomer or comonomer, which to a degree absorbs or resists penetration of the random deflected secondary or scatter x-rays or the x-ray beam through the mask. The face mask is removably attachable to the chest shield for easy application of the device to and support upon the shoulders of the technician or the patient. (author)

  18. Coal worker's lungs - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chest x-ray shows coal worker's lungs. There are diffuse, small, light areas on both sides (1 to 3 mm) in ... the lungs. Diseases that may result in an x-ray like this include: simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) - ...

  19. Quality criteria for chest X-ray image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A distinction has to be made between invariable and variable criteria in the determination of chest X-ray picture quality criteria. The invariable criteria are defined by the properties of the object and the psychophysiological laws of perception and cognition, and the variable criteria are determined by the prevailing state of the art of technology. An agreement on these criteria is based on the knowledge of the nature and the technical conditions of X-ray picture production and reproduction. The slogan 'the best picture at the lowest dose' dominates, too, the discussion centering around the X-ray picture of the chest, its quality and criteria. (orig./MG)

  20. Chest X-ray in newborns and infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest X-ray in newborns and infants shows great differences to that in adults. Therefore all radiologists, who engage in X-rays in this age group, must be familiar with the special features. At the beginning specific items of examination methods are explained, which must be strictly followed due to radiological protection. Focus of the paper is the discussion of the important chest diseases in newborn and infants, which are mostly unknown in chest diagnosis in adults. Many of them can be life-threatening, thus their knowledge is essential. Pathophysiological explanations shall make the special radiological signs understandable. (orig.)

  1. Chest X ray examination of workers exposed to pneumoconiosis risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest X-ray examination of workers exposed to pneumoconiosis risk: critical analysis of legal and radiation protection aspects. Chest X-ray examination is one of the most common radiological examinations practised in Italy. According to Presidential Decree 1124/65, workers exposed to risk of asbestosis and silicosis must undergo a chest radiography once a year, on occasion of the periodic medical examination. Basic requirements aimed at the radiation protection of the patient must therefore be complied with, and optimization of the chest radiography execution procedures is required. This paper illustrates the results obtained with the implementation of the NEXT programme in Italy for this kind of X-ray examination. The main objective of the NEXT programme is the optimization of radiological techniques. On the basis of the most recent publications in the field of radiation protection, a critical analysis is made of the laws in force in Italy

  2. X-ray face mask and chest shield device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protective face mask is disclosed that is designed to shield an x-ray technician or machine operator primarily from random secondary or scatter x-rays deflected toward his face, head and neck by the table, walls, equipment and other reflecting elements in an x-ray room or chamber, during the period of exposure while adjacent the object or person being exposed to the x-ray beam. The face mask and chest shield device can be mounted on a patient's shoulders in reverse attitude to protect the back of a patient's head and neck from the x-ray beam while being exposed to such beam for chest or upper body portion study and examination. The face mask is relatively or substantially transparent and contains lead in combination with a plastic ionomer or comonomer, which absorbs or resists penetration, to a degree, of the random deflected secondary or scatter x-rays or the x-ray beam through the mask. The face mask is removably attachable to the chest shield for facile application of the device to and support upon the shoulders of the technician or the patient

  3. Chest x-ray analysis by computer: final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of the automated analysis of chest x-rays for the classification of pneumoconiosis films according to the U.I.C.C./Cincinnati standard films. Toward this end, computer programs simulating the proposed systems were prepared. Using these programs, the authors then examined three sets of chest radiographs to determine the extent of pneumoconiosis present. The results of the examinations of these x-rays clearly indicated the feasibility of the proposed system. Based on the outcome of these examinations, a complete set of hardware and software specifications were established for a system which can be used for the large scale automatic analysis of chest x-rays

  4. Poor interpretation of chest X-rays by junior doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Janus Mølgaard; Gerke, Oke; Karstoft, Jens; Andersen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies targeting medical students and junior doctors have shown that their radiological skills are insufficient. Despite the widespread use of chest X-ray; however, a study of Danish junior doctors' skills has not previously been performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 22...... diagnosis, the participant's confidence in the diagnosis was assessed on a five-point Likert scale. The diagnoses were divided into four groups: normal findings, chronic diseases, acute diseases and hyperacute diseases or conditions. RESULTS: A total of 22 doctors receiving basic clinical education (BCE......) completed the study. Overall, participants correctly established 51% of the diagnoses. The participants' overall confidence in the primary diagnoses was 57.5% on the Likert scale, corresponding to 57.5% confidence in the proposed diagnoses. The sensitivity was calculated to 0.49 (95% confidence interval (CI...

  5. Lung mass, right upper lung - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chest x-ray of a person with a lung mass. This is a front view, where the lungs are the two dark areas and the heart ... ray shows a mass in the right upper lung, indicated with the arrow (seen on the left ...

  6. The chest X-ray appearances of SARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To report the chest X-ray appearances of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Methods: The chest films of 105 SARS patients were analyzed. All the patients were admitted by our hospital from January 30 to March 31, 2003, and the diagnoses met the diagnostic criterion of IAP made by the Ministry of Public Health, P. R. China. According to their first X-ray film appearances and progression, the patterns of lung lesions were categorized to four types: (1) focal lesion : the single and focal consolidation developed to diffuse lesion. (2) multiple lesions: the first X-ray film showed multiple patchy lesions or/and noodles. (3) interstitial-parenchyma: the major appearance on the first X-ray film was interstitial abnormality, followed by the major parenchymal lesion. (4) interstitial lesion: interstitial abnormality was predominant. Results: The chest radiological appearances of SARS were multiform. 75 cases (57 cases of focal lesion and 18 cases of multiple lesions) showed exudation and consolidation lesions, and 25 cases showed predominant interstitial lesion, followed by the lung consolidation. The interstitial lesions were showed in the other 5 cases , without obvious parenchymal exudation. There was a median interval of 19 days (range 7-46 days) from the onset of abnormality on the first X-ray film to the resolution. Conclusion: The predominant abnormalities of SARS on the first X-ray film were parenchymal exudation or/and interstitial lesion. The lesions progressed quickly at the early stage and reached at a peak within 7-10 days. The lesions in most patients would be fully resolved. Most patients have good prognosis , and sequela haven't been found yet so far

  7. X-ray face mask and chest shield device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The face mask and chest shield device of this invention comprises two principal components removably attachable together for mounting upon the shoulders of a person in facing or reverse attitude whereby the person's head, face, neck and shoulders are protected from random deflected x-rays or the direct x-ray beam during the x-ray exposure period. The face mask is preferably made of and comprises a substantially semi-circular or arcuate relatively transparent plate or sheet of plastic material designed to cover the front and sides of the head and neck in one aspect when used by x-ray technician, and the back and sides of the head and neck in another aspect when used by a patient being exposed to the x-ray beam for chest or upper body study. The thickness of the face mask can be varied, as can the density or proportion of the lead salt contained in the plastic material. The face mask is preferably made of a plastic material such as, but not limited to, DuPont's 'SURLYN' (trademark) material which is a nylon, relatively transparent, lead saltinomer compound containing a weight percent of lead up to about 18 percent to 20 percent. Higher proportions of lead salt can also be used. The chest shield is preferably fabricated of a rubber or plastic sheet material suitably impregnated or filled with a lead material such as lead sheet or film, or with lead particles or salt compound. It need not be transparent. The chest shield is designed for removable attachment to the face mask by suitable fasteners, such as for example snap-type fasteners which are relatively easily engaged and disengaged

  8. Chest X ray effective doses estimation in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional chest radiography is technically difficult because of wide in tissue attenuations in the chest and limitations of screen-film systems. Computed radiography (CR) offers a different approach utilizing a photostimulable phosphor. photostimulable phosphors overcome some image quality limitations of chest imaging. The objective of this study was to estimate the effective dose in computed radiography at three hospitals in Khartoum. This study has been conducted in radiography departments in three centres Advanced Diagnostic Center, Nilain Diagnostic Center, Modern Diagnostic Center. The entrance surface dose (ESD) measurement was conducted for quality control of x-ray machines and survey of operators experimental techniques. The ESDs were measured by UNFORS dosimeter and mathematical equations to estimate patient doses during chest X rays. A total of 120 patients were examined in three centres, among them 62 were males and 58 were females. The overall mean and range of patient dosed was 0.073±0.037 (0.014-0.16) mGy per procedure while the effective dose was 3.4±01.7 (0.6-7.0) mSv per procedure. This study compared radiation doses to patients radiographic examinations of chest using computed radiology. The radiation dose was measured in three centres in Khartoum- Sudan. The results of the measured effective dose showed that the dose in chest radiography was lower in computed radiography compared to previous studies.(Author)

  9. Chest X-ray: routine indication in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hospital files of 609 patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer were analysed. Pulmonary formation of metastases was diagnosed in 50 patients. The thyroglobulin value at the time of diagnosis was compared with the chest X-ray findings and, if present, additional diagnostic information such as Iodine-131 whole body scintigraphy (WBS) and thorax CT. The sensitivity of the chest X-ray to detect pulmonary metastases was at 52% lower than that of WBS (64%), thorax CT (82%) and thyroglobulin during suppression therapy (86%). Among the patients with papillary carcinoma stage I and II (UICC 1987), only 1 patient developed pulmonary metastases during follow up. In this low risk group of patients, detection of lung metastases exclusively by chest X-ray, without elevation of thyroglobulin level is extremely rare (calculated probability 1/4000) and associated with considerable costs. (orig.)

  10. Lung boundary detection in pediatric chest x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candemir, Sema; Antani, Sameer; Jaeger, Stefan; Browning, Renee; Thoma, George R.

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem worldwide, and highly prevalent in developing countries. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over 95% of TB deaths occur in low- and middle- income countries that often have under-resourced health care systems. In an effort to aid population screening in such resource challenged settings, the U.S. National Library of Medicine has developed a chest X-ray (CXR) screening system that provides a pre-decision on pulmonary abnormalities. When the system is presented with a digital CXR image from the Picture Archive and Communication Systems (PACS) or an imaging source, it automatically identifies the lung regions in the image, extracts image features, and classifies the image as normal or abnormal using trained machine-learning algorithms. The system has been trained on adult CXR images, and this article presents enhancements toward including pediatric CXR images. Our adult lung boundary detection algorithm is model-based. We note the lung shape differences during pediatric developmental stages, and adulthood, and propose building new lung models suitable for pediatric developmental stages. In this study, we quantify changes in lung shape from infancy to adulthood toward enhancing our lung segmentation algorithm. Our initial findings suggest pediatric age groupings of 0 - 23 months, 2 - 10 years, and 11 - 18 years. We present justification for our groupings. We report on the quality of boundary detection algorithm with the pediatric lung models.

  11. A population-based cohort study of chest x-ray screening in smokers: lung cancer detection findings and follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case-control studies of mass screening for lung cancer (LC) by chest x-rays (CXR) performed in the 1990s in scarcely defined Japanese target populations indicated significant mortality reductions, but these results are yet to be confirmed in western countries. To ascertain whether CXR screening decreases LC mortality at community level, we studied a clearly defined population-based cohort of smokers invited to screening. We present here the LC detection results and the 10-year survival rates. The cohort of all smokers of > 10 pack-years resident in 50 communities of Varese, screening-eligible (n = 5,815), in July 1997 was invited to nonrandomized CXR screening. Self-selected participants (21% of cohort) underwent screening in addition to usual care; nonparticipants received usual care. The cohort was followed-up until December 2010. Kaplan-Meier LC-specific survival was estimated in participants, in nonparticipants, in the whole cohort, and in an uninvited, unscreened population (control group). Over the initial 9.5 years of study, 67 LCs were diagnosed in screening participants (51% were screen-detected) and 178 in nonparticipants. The rates of stage I LC, resectability and 5-year survival were nearly twice as high in participants (32% stage I; 48% resected; 30.5% 5-year survival) as in nonparticipants (17% stage I; 27% resected; 13.5% 5-year survival). There were no bronchioloalveolar carcinomas among screen-detected cancers, and median volume doubling time of incidence screen-detected LCs was 80 days (range, 44-318), suggesting that screening overdiagnosis was minimal. The 10-year LC-specific survival was greater in screening participants than in nonparticipants (log-rank, p = 0.005), and greater in the whole cohort invited to screening than in the control group (log-rank, p = 0.001). This favourable long-term effect was independently related to CXR screening exposure. In the setting of CXR screening offered to a population-based cohort of smokers, screening

  12. Annual Screening with Chest X-Ray Does Not Reduce Lung Cancer Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual screening for lung cancer using a standard chest x-ray does not reduce the risk of dying from lung cancer when compared with no annual screening, according to findings from the NCI-led Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) screening trial.

  13. Is it useful to perform a chest X-ray in asymptomatic patients with late latent syphilis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabis, R; Radcliffe, K

    2011-02-01

    According to the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) guidelines, a chest X-ray is recommended as part of the assessment of patients with late latent syphilis to exclude cardiovascular complications. The aims of this study were firstly to audit all cases of late latent syphilis seen at our centre since 1994 and to see whether a chest X-ray was requested and secondly to assess whether performing a chest X-ray was clinically useful. Of the 456 case notes audited, 298 chest X-rays were requested; 182 (61%) were reported as normal. Results were not available for 64 (21%) and 32 (11%) patients either declined or did not attend for follow-up. There were 20 (7%) chest X-rays that were reported as abnormal, yet none of these radiological findings were consistent with the cardiovascular complications of syphilis. In view of the lack of significant chest X-ray findings in asymptomatic patients with late latent syphilis, a chest X-ray should not be requested. PMID:21427433

  14. Clinical importance of digitized chest X-ray for detection of pulmonary infiltrations in bone marrow transplant patients during aplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of digitized chest X-ray for the detection of pulmonary infiltrations in bone marrow transplant patients during aplasia. Methods: Digitized chest X-rays of 40 patients (21 female, 19 male) with 'Fever of unknown origin' (FUO) were evaluated concerning radiological signs of pulmonary infiltrations and correlated to clinical findings, blood chemistry, microbiology and bronchoscopy. Additionally, an individual risk profile was established. Results: In 11/40 patients pulmonary infiltrations were detected in digitized chest X-rays (group 1). 10/11 developed an infectious pulmonary infiltration. 29/40 patients developed no pulmonary infiltration (group 2). When fever increased for the first time (initial chest X-ray) a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 46%, 86%, 56%, 81% and for the chest X-rays in process of 61%, 79%, 68% and 73% was found. C-reactive protein and temperature increase occured statistically significantly earlier (p<0.05) in group 1 compared to group 2. The average latency of digital chest X-rays in comparison to c-reactive protein and temperature increase was 6 days. The incidence of risk factors was significantly higher in group 1 in comparison to group 2 (p<0.05). Conclusion: Digitized chest X-rays are not a reliable method for primary detection of pulmonary infiltrations after bone marrow transplantation. Individual risk factors have to be taken into consideration to indicate further diagnostic methods such as computed tomography at an earlier time. (orig.)

  15. Diagnostic modalities x-ray and CT chest differ in the management of thoracic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Chapagain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe difference in the management of blunt trauma to the chest on the basis of conventional xray and computerised tomography of the chest. Methods: This prospective study was conducted between December 2011 to October 2012 in COMS in Bharatpur,a tertiary referral centre in central Nepal . Clinically stable thoracic injury patients were first evaluated with chest x-ray and the management on this basis was recorded. The findings of the CT chest were assessed and the type of management on the basis of CT was also recorded. Outcome was assessed in terms of mortality, morbidity, hospital and ICU stay with respect to the management on the basis of chest x-ray and CT scan. Results: Of the 129 patients, 74.4% were male and 25.6% were female with the patients ranging in age from 7 to 87 years (mean = 40.41 years. The most common mechanism of trauma to the chest was as a result of a motor vehicle accident (69.8%, followed by fall injury (20.2%. X-ray chest diagnosed rib fracture in 62%, haemothorax in 37%, pneumothorax in 27%, lung contusion in 10% and haemopneumothorax in 21% patients. Similarly CT chest diagnosed rib fracture in 86%, haemothorax in 54%, pneumothorax in 36%, lung contusion in 30% and haemopneumothorax in 30% patients. Mean hospital stay was 9.5 days in the group of patients having management on the basis of x-ray chest relative to mean stay of 10.2 days in the CT- chest group. In the management on the basis of xray group, there was a mean ICU stay of 2.8days compared to mean stays of 3.2 days in CT chest group. Conclusion: Though CT scan of the chest is more informative and differs the management of the blunt chest trauma, one should not forget to advise the cost effective, easily available and initial guiding agent, xray chest for early management of the chest injury patient. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i1.12764 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(1; 22-31

  16. Chest x-ray in Q-fever pneumonia: a series of 71 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest X ray features of 71 cases of Q-fever serologically confirmed and with clinical manifestations of acute respiratory disease were retrospectively assessed in order to evaluate the radiographic features. In 68 cases (96%) The X-ray films were abnormal. Segmental consolidation, sometimes multiple and bilateral were tue most usual findings. Nodular opacities were found in 6 cases (9%) and can mimic a tumor. Cavitacion , a very unusual findings, was found in two nodular consolidations(two patients). Laminar atelectasis was less common than proviously reported. As in other series, total resolution or with minimal scars occurs within 3 months 15 refs

  17. Pulmonary complications of induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia in adults. Findings of chest X-rays and computed tomography; Pulmonale Komplikationen der Induktionstherapie bei akuter myeloischer Leukaemie des Erwachsenen. Befunde in Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahme und Computertomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, J.; Huettmann, C.; Jacobi, V. [Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Boehme, A. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik 3

    1998-03-01

    To exclude pulmonary complications, 359 chest radiographs and 50 computed tomographs of the lung were performed in 95 patients suffering from acute myeloid leukemia. The radiological findings were registered, described and correlated with clinical findings in the present study on 2395 days of observation. Results: In summary, 52 patients showed alterations of the lung. Pulmonary hyperhydration was seen in 21 cases, bacterial pneumonia was found in 18 cases, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was documented in 14 cases, and 5 cases of severe haemorrhage were seen. An unexplained pulmonary edema in 13 patients with interstitial and alveolar infiltrates is considered to be a complication of treatment with cytosine-arabinoside. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that chest X-ray and computed tomography have a high impact in detection and treatment of pulmonary complications following intensive chemotherapy. We may expect the development of diffuse opacity following administration of cytosine-arabinoside in medium-sized doses. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zum Ausschluss pulmonaler Komplikationen durchgefuehrte Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahmen (n=359) und computertomographische Untersuchungen der Lunge (n=50) von 95 Patienten mit akuter myeloischer Leukaemie werden in der vorliegenden Arbeit systematisch erfasst, beschrieben und mit den klinischen Symptomen an insgesamt 2395 Beobachtungstagen korreliert. Ergebnisse: Hierbei wiesen 52 Patienten Lungenveraenderungen auf. Eine pulmonale Ueberwaesserung wurde in 21 Faellen beobachtet, bakterielle Pneumonien in 18 Faellen, eine invasive pulmonale Aspergillose in 14 Faellen. Es wurden 5 Lungenblutungen beobachtet. Ein bei 13 Patienten aufgetretenes unklares Lungenoedem mit diffuser interstitieller Zeichnungsvermehrung und auch alveolaerer Komponente wird von uns als Komplikation der Anwendung von Cytosin-Arabinosid angenommen. Schlussfolgerung: Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahme und Computertomographie besitzen einen hohen Stellenwert bei der Erkennung

  18. Dynamic chest radiography: flat-panel detector (FPD) based functional X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Rie

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic chest radiography is a flat-panel detector (FPD)-based functional X-ray imaging, which is performed as an additional examination in chest radiography. The large field of view (FOV) of FPDs permits real-time observation of the entire lungs and simultaneous right-and-left evaluation of diaphragm kinetics. Most importantly, dynamic chest radiography provides pulmonary ventilation and circulation findings as slight changes in pixel value even without the use of contrast media; the interpretation is challenging and crucial for a better understanding of pulmonary function. The basic concept was proposed in the 1980s; however, it was not realized until the 2010s because of technical limitations. Dynamic FPDs and advanced digital image processing played a key role for clinical application of dynamic chest radiography. Pulmonary ventilation and circulation can be quantified and visualized for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Dynamic chest radiography can be deployed as a simple and rapid means of functional imaging in both routine and emergency medicine. Here, we focus on the evaluation of pulmonary ventilation and circulation. This review article describes the basic mechanism of imaging findings according to pulmonary/circulation physiology, followed by imaging procedures, analysis method, and diagnostic performance of dynamic chest radiography. PMID:27294264

  19. 20 percent lower lung cancer mortality with low-dose CT vs chest X-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have found a 20 percent reduction in deaths from lung cancer among current or former heavy smokers who were screened with low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) versus those screened by chest X-ray.

  20. A survey on respiratory diseases of atomic bomb survivors using chest X-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From April 1981 through March 1986, 39,363 A-bomb survivors older than 50 years of age underwent chest X-ray examination. The incidence of abnormal findings was higher in men (28 %) than in women (13 %). The most common disease was old pulmonary tuberculosis in both men and women. The incidence of pulmonary fibrosis was remarkably high in survivors exposed directly to A-bomb radiation, when compared with controls. There was no data suggesting the relationship between the incidence of respiratory disease and exposure status such as the distance from ground zero. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Chest X-ray in newborns and infants; Konventionelle Thoraxdiagnostik bei Neugeborenen und Kleinkindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritz, Joerg D. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer diagnostische Radiologie, Paediatrische Radiologie und Sonographie

    2012-12-15

    Chest X-ray in newborns and infants shows great differences to that in adults. Therefore all radiologists, who engage in X-rays in this age group, must be familiar with the special features. At the beginning specific items of examination methods are explained, which must be strictly followed due to radiological protection. Focus of the paper is the discussion of the important chest diseases in newborn and infants, which are mostly unknown in chest diagnosis in adults. Many of them can be life-threatening, thus their knowledge is essential. Pathophysiological explanations shall make the special radiological signs understandable. (orig.)

  2. Quantitative Ga-67 scintigraphy in patients with silicosis: comparison with chest X-ray and pulmonary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international Labor Organizatin (ILO) has established an international standard for chest X-ray diagnosis of pneumoconiosis since 1980. However, there is a need for improved diagnosis and staging in occupational disease. We evaluated Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy quantitatively and correlated the scintigraphic findings with pulmonary function tests and chest X-ray results. Twenty-five patients underwent whole body scintigraphy with additional chest and abdomen images 48 hrs after intravenous injection of 185 MBq of Ga-67 citrate. Ten normal controls were also studied. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn on the posterior image to measure counts from the liver and lungs (Lung/Liver Ratio). L/L ratio according to the stages of chest X-ray classification were as follows; stage 0 (normal, n=10): 0.3948 ±0.0692, stage 1(n=10): 0.5763±0.1837, stage 2(n=11): 0.6849±0.1459, stage 3 (n=4): 0.9913±0.0712. There was a significant correlation between the scintigraphic L/L ratio and the X-ray state (r=0.618, p0.05). Quantitative Ga-67 scintigraphy can be a useful method for staging of silicosis. However, it is not a method to assess pulmonary functional impairment

  3. Analysis of the expressivity of chest X-ray in newborns with respiratory distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the role of chest X-ray in the diagnosis, clinical evaluation and follow-up of the infant born with lung disease-related respiratory distress. To establish general radiological patterns, studying their utility in orienting the differential diagnosis between primary diseases and pulmonary complications responsible for the distress. The necropsy and radiological findings of 71 infants born with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) were correlated with the clinical records. The etiology was hyaline membrane disease in 40 newborns, neonatal pneumonia in 17, aspiration of clear or meconium-stained amniotic fluid in 6 and 7, respectively, and primary pulmonary lymphangiectasis in the remaining case. Additional lung complications consisted of loss of alveolar airspace in 17 infants, massive pulmonary hemorrhage in 7 and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in 8. There was a high incidence of normal X-rays (25.35%) during the initial period despite the presence of well-established and severe disease. The sensitivity of chest X-ray for each of the underlying lung diseases causing NRDS was as follows: 80% for hyaline membrane disease, 71.4% for aspiration of meconium-stained amniotic fluid 70.6% for neonatal pneumonia, 50% for massive aspiration of clear amniotic fluid and 100% for the remaining causes. Although there are no radiological patterns showing significant sensitivity and specificity for a given primary disease or pulmonary complication, the radiological differential diagnosis serves to orient the study. Given the complexity and lack of clinical specificity of NRDS, it is necessary to approach this disease from both the clinical and radiological points of view. (Author) 25 refs

  4. Reading and interpretation of chest X-ray in adults with community-acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Moncada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Traditional reading of chest X-rays usually has a low prognostic value and poor agreement. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the interobserver and intraobserver agreement using two reading formats in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, and to explore their association with etiology and clinical outcomes. METHODS: A pulmonologist and a radiologist, who were blind to clinical data, interpreted 211 radiographs using a traditional analysis format (type and location of pulmonary infiltrates and pleural findings, and a quantitative analysis (pulmonary damage categorized from 0 to 10. For both, the interobserver and intraobserver agreement was estimated (Kappa statistic and intraclass correlation coefficient. The latter was assessed in a subsample of 25 radiographs three months after the initial reading. Finally, the observers made a joint reading to explore its prognostic usefulness via multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Seventy-four chest radiographs were discarded due to poor quality. With the traditional reading, the mean interobserver agreement was moderate (0.43. It was considered good when the presence of pleural effusion, and the location of the infiltrates in the right upper lobe and both lower lobes, were evaluated; moderate for multilobar pneumonia; and poor for the type of infiltrates. The mean intraobserver agreement for each reviewer was 0.71 and 0.5 respectively. The quantitative reading had an agreement between good and excellent (interobserver 0.72, intraobserver 0.85 and 0.61. Radiological findings were neither associated to a specific pathogen nor to mortality. CONCLUSION: In patients with pneumonia, the interpretation of the chest X-ray, especially the smallest of details, depends solely on the reader.

  5. X-ray fluorescence in investigations of archaeological finds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cechak, T. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Hlozek, M. [Institute of Archaeology and Museology, Masaryk University, Arna Novaka 1, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Musilek, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: musilek@fjfi.cvut.cz; Trojek, T. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2007-10-15

    X-ray fluorescence can be successfully used for analysing the elemental composition of the superficial layers of a measured object, especially for investigating surface coatings, deposits of adventitious materials on the surface, etc. An energy dispersive version of X-ray fluorescence analysis is used in our investigations for analysing various historic objects, art works and archaeological finds. Examples of the application of X-ray fluorescence to various archaeological finds from excavations in the Czech Republic are presented - shards of ancient glazed ceramics, moulds for casting metal products, the remains of a human finger with traces of brass, probably from a ring, etc.

  6. X-ray fluorescence in investigations of archaeological finds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray fluorescence can be successfully used for analysing the elemental composition of the superficial layers of a measured object, especially for investigating surface coatings, deposits of adventitious materials on the surface, etc. An energy dispersive version of X-ray fluorescence analysis is used in our investigations for analysing various historic objects, art works and archaeological finds. Examples of the application of X-ray fluorescence to various archaeological finds from excavations in the Czech Republic are presented - shards of ancient glazed ceramics, moulds for casting metal products, the remains of a human finger with traces of brass, probably from a ring, etc

  7. Chest X-ray : a cost-diagnostic benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although plain chest radiography is one of the most useful diagnostic tools available to the physician, this procedure has not evolved into a consistent method. Two Large Field of View Image Intensifiers (LFOV-II) became available; the large imaging area makes them suitable for chest imaging. Both modalities supply 100 mm images to the radiologist. In this thesis the 'diagnostic benefits and 'costs' of these modalities are evaluated and related to the 'gold' standard (conventional full-size). The emphasis is on diagnostic image quality using phantoms for observer performance qualities. (author). 170 refs.; 21 figs.; 47 tabs

  8. Computer-aided detection of tubes and lines in portable chest X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer-aided detection method for highlighting lines and tubes in a portable chest X-ray image is developed. The method determines a region of interest in the image, and processes the image to provide edge enhancement forming an edge-enhanced image. Edge segments in the edge-enhanced image are detected. Connected lines from the edge segments are formed to obtain a set of connected lines. A tube structure is identified by pairing, from the set of connected lines, one or more pairs of edges separated by a width dimension in a predetermined range. A tip is detected according to the convergence or divergence of paired connected lines. Tube and tip are outlined on the radiographic image. Preliminary results showed that computer-aided detection of tubes in portable chest X-ray images is promising. It is expected that computer-aided interpretation of portable chest X-ray images improve the overall workflow and efficiency. (orig.)

  9. Quality control of pediatric chest X-rays in diagnostic centers with and without pediatric competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation protection in pediatric radiology is very important because of the particular sensitivity of radiosensitive organs in younger patients. Optimized image quality supports radiation protection and should be targeted. In our study we examined the quality of pediatric chest X-rays at diagnostic centers (university hospitals and other large clinics). We then evaluated differences in image quality in departments without pediatric competence (R) and departments with pediatric competence (PR). Materials and Methods: Our study was based on 313 conventional chest X-rays from 207 patients (192 p.a./a.p. and 121 lateral, 43 from R, 258 from PR and 12 neither from R nor KR) and 38 digital chest X-rays from 26 patients (25 p.a./a.p. and 13 lateral, 1 from R and 37 from PR). All patients (age 0 - 18 years) are from Nephroblastoma-Study SIOP-93/01-GPOH. We examined all initial chest X-rays, which were sent to us for evaluation upon request between 4/3/2002 and 6/14/2002. The examined parameters were: exposure, centering of the X-rays/patient positioning, collimation and sharpness. The X-rays were evaluated on a scale from 1 (best result) to 5 (worst result), resulting in an overall score of A = optimum, B = minor problems, C = major problems, or D = unusable. The optical density, the center of the image and the relative field size were also measured. Statistical tests (Mann-Whitney-U and log regression) were carried out on the conventional images. The study was performed retrospectively. The exposure, sharpness and optical density of the digital X-rays were not analyzed. Results: In the case of all conventional X-rays, the quality of the centering of the X-rays/patient positioning and collimation was moderate (average scale value: 2.4 and 2.8), and the quality of the exposure and sharpness was good and very good (average scale value: 1.9 and 1.5). The quality of the chest X-rays in departments with additional pediatric radiological expertise was better mainly in

  10. The chest X-ray in children with pulmonic stenosis and intact ventricular septum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 89 children with angiographically-documented pulmonic stenosis and intact ventricular septum (PST), 76 had valvular, 11 infundibular and 2 had supravalvular lesions. Standard, p.a. view, chest X-rays of children with a mean age of 6 7/12 years were evaluated with respect to 1. cardiac enlargement; 2. prominence of the pulmonic trunk; 3. diminished pulmonary vascular markings. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the gradient measured across the pulmonic valve: 1: systolic pressure gradient less than 30 mm Hg (mild PST), 28 children; 2: systolic pressure gradient between 30 and 80 mm Hg (moderate PST), 37 children; 3: systolic pressure gradient greater than 80 mm Hg (severe PST), 24 children. Cardiac enlargement was found in a total of 56.2% of the children with no statistical difference in the severity of the lesion. A markedly ectatic pulmonary segment was observed in 12.5% of the children in group 3 but only in 2.7% of those in groups 1 and 2 respectively. Diminished pulmonary vascular markings were observed in a total of 9% with a distribution including no patient in group 1, 10.8% in group 2 and 16.6% in group 3. On combining all three of the radiologic criteria, 9% demonstrated completely normal findings of the heart and lungs, 5.6% showed cardiac enlargement with marked prominence of the pulmonic trunk and diminished pulmonary vascular markings. In the remaining patients, no statistically significant relationship between the constellation of findings and the severity of the stenosis was found. Thus, the results show that, in the individual case, the diagnosis of pulmonic stenosis with intact ventricular septum cannot be established from the standard chest X-ray. (orig./MG)

  11. Examination of funnel chests by X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography: First results and experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funnel chest (pectus excavatum) is a congenital malformation of the thorax. Operative correction must presently be regarded as the treatment of choise. In addition to cosmetical and psychological reasons, there are mainly functional aspects justifying a surgery. The indication for surgery results mostly from the objective clinical-diagnostical findings. This article describes the efficiency of both X-ray computerized tomography and also nuclear magnetic resonance tomography (NMR-CAT) which has only recently been introduced to clinical diagnostics. (orig./BWU)

  12. Most frequent causes, complications and differential diagnosis of neonatal respiratory distress in chest X-ray

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    Ponhold, W. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Kinderklinik)

    1982-01-01

    The radiologic changes of the chest X-ray of 270 newborns with respiratory distress were analyzed. In cases of Hyaline Membranes the chest X-Ray showed finely granular evenly disseminated structures combined with signs of hypoventilation. Localized, patchy, streaky, homogenous and reticulonodular shadows were found in cases of pneumonia and hemorrhage. Hyperinflation were an additional sign for an inflammatory disease. This symptom was also demonstrated in pulmonary bleeding, but was less common. The bilateral interstitial augmentation of the pulmonary structure in combination with cardiomegaly was mainly a symptom for cardial insufficiency and transient tachypnea. The differentiation between fine granular and reticulo-nodular structures should create no problem if the chest X-ray is of good quality. Extrapulmonary air collections were found in a high percentage in the course of artificial ventilation as a consequence of the 'baro-trauma'. The radiologic diagnosis of BPD was no problem. The value of the chest X-ray lies in the demonstration of a pulmonary cause for the respiratory distress, in the demonstration of complications and in the radiological observation of the disease.

  13. Viewing Another Person's Eye Movements Improves Identification of Pulmonary Nodules in Chest X-Ray Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Damien; Ball, Linden J.; Donovan, Tim; Manning, David J.; Crawford, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    Double reading of chest x-rays is often used to ensure that fewer abnormalities are missed, but very little is known about how the search behavior of others affects observer performance. A series of experiments investigated whether radiographers benefit from knowing where another person looked for pulmonary nodules, and whether the expertise of…

  14. Entrance skin dose measurements for paediatric chest x-rays examinations in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It estimates the Entrance Skin Dose (ESD) and the scattered dose in different organs (thyroid, gonad, ovary) for the frontal and lateral chest X-ray exposure to paediatric patients and to compare this result with the criteria of the European Commission for radiation dose to patients

  15. Radiation exposure during chest X-ray examinations in a premature intensive care unit: phantom studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duetting, T.; Foerste, B.; Darge, K.; Troeger, J. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology; Knoch, T. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Central Radiation Protection

    1999-03-01

    Background. There are few reports on the radiation dose received by infants, their family and radiographers exposed to scatter radiation in a premature baby intensive care unit. Objective. To evaluate the degree of radiation exposure from diagnostic X-ray examinations with mobile X-ray machines in a premature intensive care unit. Materials and methods. The radiation exposure of an adjacent newborn, the radiographer and other persons in the room was simulated using phantoms during X-ray examination of the chest using vertical and horizontal beams. Results. Most of the measured doses were below the registration limit of the measuring apparatus and had to be extrapolated by multiple exposures. Without exception, the maximal doses were significantly lower than the permitted limit for persons not professionally exposed to X-rays. Conclusions. Recommendations to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure are given. (orig.) With 2 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  16. Radiation exposure during chest X-ray examinations in a premature intensive care unit: phantom studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. There are few reports on the radiation dose received by infants, their family and radiographers exposed to scatter radiation in a premature baby intensive care unit. Objective. To evaluate the degree of radiation exposure from diagnostic X-ray examinations with mobile X-ray machines in a premature intensive care unit. Materials and methods. The radiation exposure of an adjacent newborn, the radiographer and other persons in the room was simulated using phantoms during X-ray examination of the chest using vertical and horizontal beams. Results. Most of the measured doses were below the registration limit of the measuring apparatus and had to be extrapolated by multiple exposures. Without exception, the maximal doses were significantly lower than the permitted limit for persons not professionally exposed to X-rays. Conclusions. Recommendations to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure are given. (orig.)

  17. Training program for radiologic technologists for performing chest X-rays at inspiration in uncooperative children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program was created to train technologists to perform chest X-rays in crying infants at maximum inspiration. Videos of 4 children were used. Using a computer program, the moment of deepest inspiration was determined in the video in the single frame view. During the normal running video, 14 technologists (3 with significant experience, 3 with little experience and 8 with very little experience in pediatric radiography) simulated a chest radiograph by pushing a button. The computer program stopped the video and the period of time to the optimal moment for a chest x-ray was calculated. Every technologist simulated 10 chest X-rays in each of the 4 video clips. The technologists then trained themselves to perform chest X-rays at optimal inspiration like playing a computer game. After training, the test was repeated. Changes were evaluated by t-test for unpaired samples (level of significance p < 0.05). Although the differences improved in all children, minimal deviation from the optimal moment for taking an X-ray at inspiration occurred in the periodically crying child (0.21 sec before and 0.13 sec after training). In a non-periodically crying infant, the largest differences were shown. The values improved significantly from 0.29 sec to 0.22 sec. The group with substantial experience in pediatric radiology improved significantly from 0.22 sec to 0.15 sec. The group with very little experience in pediatric radiology showed worse results (improvement from 0.29 sec to 0.21 sec). (orig.)

  18. Safety related to the implantation of jugular catheters for haemodialysis and usefulness of PA chest X rays post procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to determine how safe the implantation of transient double lumen jugular catheters is for hemodialysis in patients with renal disease, and who require dialysis therapy and Posterior Anterior (PA) chest X-Ray post procedure. Design: observational descriptive study. Site: renal units at RTS Ltda. Sucursal Caldas (Hospital Santa Sofia y Hospital Infantil Rafael Henao Toro de la Cruz Roja). Patients: all patients with renal disease in whom it was necessary to do hemodyalitic therapy with implantation of a jugular catheter, with medical records of the events and complications that occurred during the procedure, with subsequent control AP chest X Ray and that showed reports made by the radiologist or physician who carried out the procedure, about the findings in the chest X Ray. Patients with renal disease, in whom jugular catheters had been inserted: Methods: variables such as age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI) etiology of the renal failure,time of evolution of the disease, indications for insertion, priority of catheter insertion, type of catheter inserted, amount of punctures, physician who carried out the procedure and patient's co-morbidities were analyzed. The events considered as complicated were analyzed as well as if there was any relationship with co-morbidities and the analyzed variables. Findings in the PA chest X-Ray were recorded and their relationship with the difficulties encountered during the procedure. A bi-variance analysis was done. The dependent and independent variables were classified in the nominal measurement scale. Results: 774 clinical histories were reviewed. 562 were excluded due to lack of variables and impossibility to read the notes. Men older than de 55 (45,7%). 212 (97.1%) patients with diagnosis of chronic renal disease (CRD) and in whom 238 procedures were carried out. seven patients (2,85%) had acute renal failure (ARF). The fi rst indication for central catheter insertion was in patients with chronic uremia

  19. Diagnosis and X-ray findings in aluminium dust pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite effective regulations established by professional organizations and business health programs, aluminiumcaused pneumoconiosis still occurs. Therefore, the etiology, clinical appearance, histological confirmation, and X-ray findings are presented from a case which was followed for ten years. The differential diagnosis indicated by the radiologic findings are discussed. (orig.)

  20. 小儿重症EV71感染早期临床特征和胸部X线表现以及临床转归%The early clinical features,chest X-ray findings and prognosis in infants and young children with severe enterovirus 71 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓辉; 章毅英; 贾绚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical features and chest X-ray manifestations and prognosis of enterovirus71 (EV71) infection in children. Methods 15 cases with severe EV71 infection in children confirmed by Centers for Disease Control of Zhejiang Province were retrospectively analysed. Of them,8 cases were dead and 7 cases were mended or cured. The characteristics of age, symptoms , laboratory tests and special inspections and particularly the relationship between chest X-ray findings and prognosis were analysed with literature review. Results There were significant differences between dead cases and improved/cured cases in the pulmonary edema whether or not presented on chest X-ray films (P0. 05). All the dead cases had pulmonary edema/pulmonary hemorrhage and all the improved/cured cases had no obvious abnormalities on chest X-ray. Conclusion It is extremely dangerous situation and it has a very high mortality rate in the cases with EV71 infection with acute pulmonary edema in children, the chest X-ray images show a certain characteristic to improve the awareness of this disease, chest X-ray findings can contribute to the understanding the diagnosis, treatment, differential diagnosis of lung diseases.%目的 探讨小儿肠道病毒71型(enterovirus71,EV71)感染早期临床特征与胸部X线表现及预后的关系.方法 回顾性分析15例经浙江省疾控中心确诊为EV71感染的重症患儿,其中8例经抢救无效死亡,7例好转或治愈出院.分析年龄及早期症状、实验室检查及特殊检查等临床特征,尤其是胸部X线表现与预后的关系,探讨胸片改变的特征,并结合有关文献进行讨论.结果 死亡病例与好转/治愈病例在胸片肺水肿出现与否存在显著差异(P0.05);8例死亡病例均有肺水肿/肺出血胸片表现,7例好转/治愈病例胸片未见明显异常征象.结论 小儿EV71感染若出现两肺渗出性改变,提示病情凶险,有非常高的死亡率,且其胸部X线表现具有一

  1. Effective dose evaluation for chest and abdomen X-ray tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation doses resulting from diagnostic X-ray examinations are routinely measured in terms of entrance skin exposure (ESE). In this study, for the purpose of radiation protection, the radiation doses received from chest and abdomen X-ray tests were evaluated in terms of equivalent dose and effective dose. The dose calculations were conducted by using the MCNP Monte Carlo code and an adult hermaphrodite mathematical phantom. The effects of both operating high voltage and projection geometry on the effective dose were investigated. The absolute values of the effective doses may be provided from the national average ESE. (authors)

  2. Posteroanterior chest X-ray for the diagnosis of pneumothorax: methods, usage, and resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Rossato Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Denise Rossato Silva, Sandra Jungblut Schuh, Paulo de Tarso Roth DalcinUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre-RS, BrazilAbstract: Most pneumothoraces are demonstrated on fully inspired erect posteroanterior (PA chest X-ray (CXR. Expiratory films may have a role in the clinical management of patients with a small respiratory reserve in whom pneumothorax is suspected and not demonstrated on the inspiratory film. PA CXR can be used for the diagnosis of spontaneous and ­nonspontaneous pneumothoraces. When digital radiography is used, for most authors, a 2.5-lp/mm spatial ­resolution is satisfactory to detect a pneumothorax.Keywords: radiography, computed tomography, pneumothorax, posteroanterior chest X-ray

  3. Correlation of breast cancer metastases in chest X-rays to symptoms and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virkkunen, P.; Hietanen, P.; Nyman, M.

    1987-05-01

    The sizes and locations of pulmonary and pleural metastases in chest X-rays of 50 symptomatic and 65 asymptomatic breast cancer patients were compared and correlated to survival. The diameters of the metastases were about the same in both groups as also their distribution. The incidence of pleural fluid was higher in symptomatic patients. The survival curve of symptomatic patients did not deviate from that of the asymptomatic ones. Symptoms in pulmonary metastatic disease do not mean rapid progress of the disease but may be beneficial in that they cause the patient to visit the oncologist early. The cost-effectiveness of chest X-rays in the follow-up is questionable.

  4. Radiation exposure to chest X-rays in the neonatal nursery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure how much very low birth-weight infants are exposed to chest X-rays during nursery, skin doses were calculated using phantoms under the same condition as that used in chest X-rays. Skin doses obtained were multiplied by the number of X-rays performed in 86 very low birth-weight infants (mean birth weight+-SD, 1163.0+-232.8 g; mean gestational age+-SD, 29.3+-3.0 week). Exposure doses per film ranged from 4.9 to 14.4 mR, with a mean dose of 6.1+-2.0 mR. Exposure doses per neonate ranged from 6.3 to 794.3 mR, with a mean dose of 170.4+-151.5 mR. The number of films per neonate ranged from one to 107, with a mean of 28.0+-24.9. Eighty-seven percent of X-rays were performed when the body weight was 1,500 g or less. Fourteen patients received 300 mR or more that may be the potential dose of radiation effects. (Namekawa, K)

  5. Automatic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis by texture analysis of chest X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study on automatic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis by texture analysis of chest X-ray images. A pre-processing method for normalizing distribution of film density is proposed and its effectiveness is studied experimentally. Dominant causes of the deviations of texture features for evaluating the profusion of small opacities are excluded by the pre-processing. New texture features based on the distribution of gradient vectors are also proposed. Experiments to evaluate the proposed system are demonstrated

  6. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures on lateral chest X-ray: Intraobserver agreement of semi-quantitative vertebral fracture assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagt-Willems, H.C. van der, E-mail: Hvanderjagt@spaarneziekenhuis.nl [Department of Geriatrics, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Internal Medicine, Spaarne Hospital, Hoofddorp (Netherlands); Munster, B.C. van [Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Geriatrics, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Leeflang, M. [Department of Geriatrics, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Beuerle, E. [Department of Radiology, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tulner, C.R. [Department of Geriatrics, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lems, W.F. [Department of Rheumatology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • (Lateral) chest X-ray's are often performed in older individuals for various reasons. • Vertebral fractures are visualized on lateral chest X-ray, but the diagnosis of vertebral fractures is until now only validated on (lateral) spine X-ray's. • This study shows that a (lateral) chest X-ray is sufficient for the diagnosis of vertebral fractures. • Older individuals with a vertebral fracture on a (lateral) chest X-ray do not need further radiography with thoracic spine X-ray or vertebral fracture assessment with DXA. - Abstract: Background: In clinical practice lateral images of the chest are performed for various reasons. As these lateral chest X rays show the vertebrae of the thoracic and thoraco-lumbar region, we wondered if these X-rays can be used for evaluation of vertebral fractures instead of separate thoracic spine X-rays. Methods: To evaluate the agreement and intraobserver reliability of the semi-quantitative method for vertebral fractures on the lateral chest X-ray (X-chest) in comparison to the lateral thoracic spine X-ray (X-Tspine), two observers scored vertebral fractures on X-Tspine and twice on X-chest, separately, blinded and in different time periods. Agreement and Cohens’ kappa were calculated for a diagnosis of any fracture on patient level and on vertebral body level. The study was done in patients visiting an outpatient geriatric day clinic, with a high prevalence of vertebral fractures. Results: 109 patients were included. The intraobserver agreement for X-chest versus X-Tspine was 95–98% for the two levels of fracturing, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.88–0.91. The intraobserver agreement and reliability of the re-test on the X-chest showed an agreement between 91 and 98% with a Cohen's kappa of 0.81–0.93. More vertebrae were visible on the X-chest, mean 10.2, SD 0.66 versus mean 9.8, SD 0.73 on the X-Tspine (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results show good agreement and intraobserver reliability on

  7. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures on lateral chest X-ray: Intraobserver agreement of semi-quantitative vertebral fracture assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • (Lateral) chest X-ray's are often performed in older individuals for various reasons. • Vertebral fractures are visualized on lateral chest X-ray, but the diagnosis of vertebral fractures is until now only validated on (lateral) spine X-ray's. • This study shows that a (lateral) chest X-ray is sufficient for the diagnosis of vertebral fractures. • Older individuals with a vertebral fracture on a (lateral) chest X-ray do not need further radiography with thoracic spine X-ray or vertebral fracture assessment with DXA. - Abstract: Background: In clinical practice lateral images of the chest are performed for various reasons. As these lateral chest X rays show the vertebrae of the thoracic and thoraco-lumbar region, we wondered if these X-rays can be used for evaluation of vertebral fractures instead of separate thoracic spine X-rays. Methods: To evaluate the agreement and intraobserver reliability of the semi-quantitative method for vertebral fractures on the lateral chest X-ray (X-chest) in comparison to the lateral thoracic spine X-ray (X-Tspine), two observers scored vertebral fractures on X-Tspine and twice on X-chest, separately, blinded and in different time periods. Agreement and Cohens’ kappa were calculated for a diagnosis of any fracture on patient level and on vertebral body level. The study was done in patients visiting an outpatient geriatric day clinic, with a high prevalence of vertebral fractures. Results: 109 patients were included. The intraobserver agreement for X-chest versus X-Tspine was 95–98% for the two levels of fracturing, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.88–0.91. The intraobserver agreement and reliability of the re-test on the X-chest showed an agreement between 91 and 98% with a Cohen's kappa of 0.81–0.93. More vertebrae were visible on the X-chest, mean 10.2, SD 0.66 versus mean 9.8, SD 0.73 on the X-Tspine (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results show good agreement and intraobserver reliability on

  8. X-ray chest mass screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1980, the law which instituted the National Health Service (NHS) in Italy, attributing both the organization and the administration of all public health services to local government bodies referred to as 'Regioni', is being gradually enforced. One result is that the mass screening services are now set up on local basis, involving important practice and regulatory changes. These in particular concern chest X-ray mass screening centers, which were formerly organized as Provincial Antituberculosis Services, supervised by the Ministry of Health and dealing almost exclusively with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Today, chest X-ray mass screening is carried on the 'Centri Sociali di Pneumologia', which in some case inherited the staff and diagnostic facilities of Provincial Antituberculosis Services, but are directed by the Councillorship of Health of the 'Regioni' and, in most cases, deal with the diagnosis and care of general pulmonary diseases. Therefore, regulations and practices of mass screening are eventually different in most Italian 'Regioni', depending on different economic and social situations. In this connection, this paper reports up-to-date information and data on frequency, effectiveness, cost and radiation risks of chest X-ray screening in the 'Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia' (FVG), North-East Italy, population 1,300,000

  9. Generation and use of sketches for chest X-ray image data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the use of image processing technique extends into various fields, the realization of am image data base has been desired, which accumulates and manages images in large volume and takes the efficient retrieval and further the operative ability for processing into account. In this paper, the use of a kind of compressed images called ''sketch'' is proposed to do high grade retrieval based on image contents at high speed, and its usefulness is shown with the data base of actual chest X-ray images. The sketch must well express the main features of chest X-ray images (heart, ribs, blood vessels, forcuses, etc.) and minimize the quantity of data. The application of the developed sketch automatic extraction procedure to about 400 actual examples in the data base resulted in almost satisfactory extracted results. As an application of sketches, the retrieval using image pattern recognition technique and diagnostic results were recorded. In the experiment of extracting the cases of cardiomegaly out of 226 image sheets using the cardiothoracic ratio measured from the sketches, 11 sheets out of 14 true symptom cases were correctly retrieved to prove the usefulness of sketches to some extent. This data base of chest X-ray images is composed of an image input assembly which converts the directly and indirectly photographed images into digital density images of 3000 x 300 points, 8 bits per each point, and of five files, or master, control, header, temporary and sketch files. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. Chest X-ray quality in the diagnosis of pneumonia in children: from prescription to optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI), primarily pneumonia, is the leading cause of childhood death in developing countries. The increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistance and the high cost of vaccines lead to considering the first strategy to reduce pneumonia deaths the early detection of the disease. Case management begins with the clinical examination and may continue with the prescription of a chest x-ray. Consequently, the radiograph should meet quality standards, and radiologists and paediatricians must know how to interpret the images. Special attention should be paid on patient dose due to children radiosensitivity, high frequency and chest x rays rejection rate. This paper is a retrospective study of chest radiographs performed in 5731 children with clinical diagnosis of ALRI assisted in three Uruguayan hospitals during the three year investigation supported by the Division of Vaccines and Immunization of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) that had the aim of estimating the burden of pneumonia (from 2001 to 2004). It is analyzed the prescription of radiographs during the diagnosis and in later controls (2220 children assisted in two of the three hospitals). Patient doses are estimated from technical parameters and equipment specifications. The investigation also analyzes patient doses that could have been avoided if paediatricians had managed the disease according to the established protocols. Results show that 82.4 % of chest X-rays diagnosed pneumonia and that some children underwent up to ten radiographs. Significant differences were found in patient dose in the three hospitals, concluding that education on image quality on chest radiographs of radiologists, paediatricians and radiological technologists is the first and best tool for the earlier diagnosis of pneumonia in children and for the application of Radiation Protection (RP) principles in medical exposures. (author)

  11. Chest x-ray quality in the diagnosis of pneumonia in children: From prescription to optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI), primarily pneumonia, is the leading cause of childhood death in developing countries. The increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistance and the high cost of vaccines lead to considering the first strategy to reduce pneumonia deaths the early detection of the disease. Case management begins with the clinical examination and may continue with the prescription of a chest x-ray. Consequently, the radiograph should meet quality standards, and radiologists and paediatricians must know how to interpret the images. Special attention should be paid on patient dose due to children radiosensitivity, high frequency and chest x rays rejection rate. This paper is a retrospective study of chest radiographs performed in 5731 children with clinical diagnosis of ALRI assisted in three Uruguayan hospitals during the three year investigation supported by the Division of Vaccines and Immunization of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) that had the aim of estimating the burden of pneumonia (from 2001 to 2004). It is analyzed the prescription of radiographs during the diagnosis and in later controls (2220 children assisted in two of the three hospitals). Patient doses are estimated from technical parameters and equipment specifications. The investigation also analyzes patient doses that could have been avoided if paediatricians had managed the disease according to the established protocols. Results show that 82.4 % of chest x-rays diagnosed pneumonia and that some children underwent up to ten radiographs. Significant differences were found in patient dose in the three hospitals, concluding that education on image quality on chest radiographs of radiologists, paediatricians and radiological technologists is the first and best tool for the earlier diagnosis of pneumonia in children and for the application of Radiation Protection (RP) principles in medical exposures. (author)

  12. Chest radiographic findings of leptospirosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. A study on chest radiographic findings of 54 cases with pneumonia like symptoms was performed. Of 54 cases, 8 cases were confirmed to be leptospirosis and 7 cases were leptospirosis combined with Korean hemorrhagic fever. 2. Of 8 cases of leptospirosis, 4 cases showed abnormal chest radiographic findings: acinar nodular type 2, massive confluent consolidation type 2. Of 7 cases of leptospirosis combined with Korean hemorrhagic fever: acinar nodular type 3, massive confluent consolidation type 1, and increased interstitial markings type 1 respectively. 3. It was considered to be difficult to diagnose the leptospirosis on chest radiographic findings alone, especially the case combined with Korean hemorrhagic fever.

  13. Chest radiographic findings of leptospirosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mee Hyun; Jung, Hee Tae; Lee, Young Joong; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    1. A study on chest radiographic findings of 54 cases with pneumonia like symptoms was performed. Of 54 cases, 8 cases were confirmed to be leptospirosis and 7 cases were leptospirosis combined with Korean hemorrhagic fever. 2. Of 8 cases of leptospirosis, 4 cases showed abnormal chest radiographic findings: acinar nodular type 2, massive confluent consolidation type 2. Of 7 cases of leptospirosis combined with Korean hemorrhagic fever: acinar nodular type 3, massive confluent consolidation type 1, and increased interstitial markings type 1 respectively. 3. It was considered to be difficult to diagnose the leptospirosis on chest radiographic findings alone, especially the case combined with Korean hemorrhagic fever.

  14. Development of a stationary chest tomosynthesis system using carbon nanotube x-ray source array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jing

    X-ray imaging system has shown its usefulness for providing quick and easy access of imaging in both clinic settings and emergency situations. It greatly improves the workflow in hospitals. However, the conventional radiography systems, lacks 3D information in the images. The tissue overlapping issue in the 2D projection image result in low sensitivity and specificity. Both computed tomography and digital tomosynthesis, the two conventional 3D imaging modalities, requires a complex gantry to mechanically translate the x-ray source to various positions. Over the past decade, our research group has developed a carbon nanotube (CNT) based x-ray source technology. The CNT x-ray sources allows compacting multiple x-ray sources into a single x-ray tube. Each individual x-ray source in the source array can be electronically switched. This technology allows development of stationary tomographic imaging modalities without any complex mechanical gantries. The goal of this work is to develop a stationary digital chest tomosynthesis (s-DCT) system, and implement it for a clinical trial. The feasibility of s-DCT was investigated. It is found that the CNT source array can provide sufficient x-ray output for chest imaging. Phantom images have shown comparable image qualities as conventional DCT. The s-DBT system was then used to study the effects of source array configurations and tomosynthesis image quality, and the feasibility of a physiological gated s-DCT. Using physical measures for spatial resolution, the 2D source configuration was shown to have improved depth resolution and comparable in-plane resolution. The prospective gated tomosynthesis images have shown substantially reduction of image blur associated with lung motions. The system was also used to investigate the feasibility of using s-DCT as a diagnosis and monitoring tools for cystic fibrosis patients. A new scatter reduction methods for s-DCT was also studied. Finally, a s-DCT system was constructed by

  15. Is Pneumothorax Size on Chest X-Ray a Predictor of Neonatal Mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yurtseven

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pneumothorax in newborns may result in a significant mortality and morbidity. To predict who will survive or die is of great importance in the clinical management. The aim of this study is to address whether assessment of pneumothorax size on chest X-ray may be a predictor of prognosis in newborns presenting with pneumothorax.Methods: Of 5929 infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU from January 2007 to April 2011, 60 (1.0% newborns presenting with pneumothorax were included in the present study. Pneumothorax size was calculated by measuring the widest transverse diameter of pneumothorax area in the posteroanterior view and dividing it by the widest transverse diameter of thoracic cavity above the diaphragm. Clinical data were collected from the patients’ records.Findings: Overall mortality rate was 30% (18 patients. Pneumothorax size was significantly higher in non-survivors (31.1±2.8 vs 16.4±1.4, P<0.001. The cut-off point of pneumothorax size for predicting survival was determined as 20%. The sensitivity was 72% whereas the specificity 83%. Preterm birth, low birth weight, resuscitation at birth, need for mechanical ventilation and chest tube insertion were of great significance in predicting mortality. However, of overall significant parameters, only pneumothorax size was the independent prognostic factor by regression analysis (P=0.02Conclusion: We conclude that the calculation of pneumothorax size in the newborns is a predictor of prognosis with high sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore newborns with pneumothorax size greater than 20% are likely to have worse prognosis.

  16. The chest X-ray image features of patients with severe SARS: a preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晋新; 唐小平; 江松峰; 陈碧华; 张烈光; 黄德扬; 黄务枝; 史红玲; 尹炽标; 陈金城

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the chest X-ray image features of patients with severe SARS.Methods Chest X-ray image features in 36 patients with severe SARS were retrospectively analyzed. The image characteristics were compared with those of 224 patients with common SARS. Results The important chest X-ray imaging features of 36 patients with severe SARS included small patch of infiltration (n=27, 75.0%), large patch of infiltration (n=22, 61.1%), large area of lung consolidation (n=10, 27.3%), interstitial lung lesion (n=26, 72.2%), ground-glass shadow (n=28, 77.8%), irregular linear opacity (n=15, 41.7%), diffuse lung lesion (n=12, 33.3%), with single lung involved (n=9, 25.0%), and both lungs involved (n=32, 88.9%). The rates of large patch of infiltration, large area of lung consolidation, ground-glass shadow, diffuse lung lesion and involvement of both lungs in patients with severe SARS were significantly higher than those in patients with common type of SARS (all P<0.01). Out of the 11 severe SARS patients who died, nine had large area of ground-glass shadow with air bronchogram in both lungs before death.Conclusions Large patch of infiltration, large area of consolidation, ground-glass shadow, diffuse lung lesion and involvement of both lungs were the main X-ray image characteristics of patients with severe SARS. Large area of ground-glass shadow with air bronchogram in both lungs indicated a bad prognosis.

  17. STUDY OF TIME LAPSE IN FOREIGN BODY ASPIRATION IN RELATION TO CHEST X - RAY AND TYPE OF FOREIGN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON: Foreign body aspiration in pediatrics is a potentially fatal accident which will continue until children explore their surroundings with their hand and mouth. Pediatric aspirations will persist until mankind exists. Not all foreign body aspirations are witnessed hence chances of delay in diagnosing an aspiration are high. Delay in diagnosis depends on site and character of foreign body aspirated. The chest x - ray findings and type of foreign body extracted vary depending on the duration the foreign body remains in airway . OBJECTIVE: To study the X - ray finding in pediatric airway aspiration and its relation to time lapse, the type and site of lodgment of foreign body extracted via bronchoscopy. The type of foreign body in relation to time lapse in aspiration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective study done in Bapuji child health institute and research center, JJM Medical College, Davangere . History and pre bronchoscopy x - Ray finding were noted for 65 children who were posted for suspicious bronchoscopy from August 2011 to September 2013. 11 children were excluded from study as they showed no foreign body on bronchoscopy. Time lapse in aspir ation and seeking medical care was noted. The bronchoscopic findings regarding site of foreign body lodgment and type of foreign body were recorded. The type of foreign body and variation of x - ray picture in relation to time lapse in aspiration were noted. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULT: It was observed that mean age was 28 months. About 80% of the cases were between 1 to 3 years age. 82% (n=53/54 were radio lucent foreign body, only 1.5% (n=1/54 were radio o paque. Site of lodgment of foreign body was right main bronchus in 48% (n=26/54, left main bronchus 46% (n=25/54 , tracheal 1.85% (n=1/54, subglottic 1.85% (n=1/54, carinal 1.85% (n=1/54, multiple site i.e. left bronchus +right bronchus+ carinal 1.85% (n=1/54. Groundnut was most common

  18. Prospective gated chest tomosynthesis using CNT X-ray source array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jing; Burk, Laurel; Wu, Gongting; Lee, Yueh Z.; Heath, Michael D.; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2015-03-01

    Chest tomosynthesis is a low-dose 3-D imaging modality that has been shown to have comparable sensitivity as CT in detecting lung nodules and other lung pathologies. We have recently demonstrated the feasibility of stationary chest tomosynthesis (s-DCT) using a distributed CNT X-ray source array. The technology allows acquisition of tomographic projections without moving the X-ray source. The electronically controlled CNT x-ray source also enables physiologically gated imaging, which will minimize image blur due to the patient's respiration motion. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of prospective gated chest tomosynthesis using a bench-top s-DCT system with a CNT source array, a high- speed at panel detector and realistic patient respiratory signals captured using a pressure sensor. Tomosynthesis images of inflated pig lungs placed inside an anthropomorphic chest phantom were acquired at different respiration rate, with and without gating for image quality comparison. Metal beads of 2 mm diameter were placed on the pig lung for quantitative measure of the image quality. Without gating, the beads were blurred to 3:75 mm during a 3 s tomosynthesis acquisition. When gated to the end of the inhalation and exhalation phase the detected bead size reduced to 2:25 mm, much closer to the actual bead size. With gating the observed airway edges are sharper and there are more visible structural details in the lung. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of prospective gating in the s-DCT, which substantially reduces image blur associated with lung motion.

  19. Chandra Finds Most Distant X-ray Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    The most distant X-ray cluster of galaxies yet has been found by astronomers using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory. Approximately 10 billion light years from Earth, the cluster 3C294 is 40 percent farther than the next most distant X-ray galaxy cluster. The existence of such a distant galaxy cluster is important for understanding how the universe evolved. "Distant objects like 3C294 provide snapshots to how these galaxy clusters looked billions of years ago," said Andrew Fabian of the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, England and lead author of the paper accepted for publication in the Monthly Notices of Britain’s Royal Astronomical Society. "These latest results help us better understand what the universe was like when it was only 20 percent of its current age." Chandra’s image reveals an hourglass-shaped region of X-ray emission centered on the previously known central radio source. This X-ray emission extends outward from the central galaxy for at least 300,000 light years and shows that the known radio source is in the central galaxy of a massive cluster. Scientists have long suspected that distant radio-emitting galaxies like 3C294 are part of larger groups of galaxies known as "clusters." However, radio data provides astronomers with only a partial picture of these distant objects. Confirmation of the existence of clusters at great distances - and, hence, at early stages of the universe - requires information from other wavelengths. Optical observations can be used to pinpoint individual galaxies, but X-ray data are needed to detect the hot gas that fills the space within the cluster. "Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe," said Fabian. "We do not expect to find many massive objects, such as the 3C294 cluster, in early times because structure is thought to grow from small scales to large scales." The vast clouds of hot gas that envelope galaxies in clusters are thought to be heated by collapse toward the

  20. The correlation between the chest X-ray classifications and the pathogens of hand–foot–mouth disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-guo Li

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: There was some relativity between clinical grade and pathogens. The severe and critical HFMD were caused mainly by EV71, and the mild HFMD was caused mainly by other pathogens except EV71. There was no significant correlation between chest X-ray classification and pathogens, but in the same chest X-ray classification, the distribution of pathogens was not identical. For the limitations of this study, we will do more research in the future work.

  1. Stationary chest tomosynthesis using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jing; Tucker, Andrew W.; Lee, Yueh Z.; Heath, Michael D.; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David H.; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Chest tomosynthesis is a low-dose, quasi-3D imaging modality that has been demonstrated to improve the detection sensitivity for small lung nodules, compared to 2D chest radiography. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility and system requirements of stationary chest tomosynthesis (s-DCT) using a spatially distributed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array, where the projection images are collected by electronically activating individual x-ray focal spots in the source array without mechanical motion of the x-ray source, detector, or the patient. A bench-top system was constructed using an existing CNT field emission source array and a flat panel detector. The tube output, beam quality, focal spot size, system in-plane and in-depth resolution were characterized. Tomosynthesis slices of an anthropomorphic chest phantom were reconstructed for image quality assessment. All 75 CNT sources in the source array were shown to operate reliably at 80 kVp and 5 mA tube current. Source-to-source consistency in the tube current and focal spot size was observed. The incident air kerma reading per mAs was measured as 74.47 uGy mAs-1 at 100 cm. The first half value layer of the beam was 3 mm aluminum. An average focal spot size of 2.5  ×  0.5 mm was measured. The system MTF was measured to be 1.7 cycles mm-1 along the scanning direction, and 3.4 cycles mm-1 perpendicular to the scanning direction. As the angular coverage of 11.6°-34°, the full width at half maximum of the artifact spread function improved greatly from 9.5 to 5.2 mm. The reconstructed tomosynthesis slices clearly show airways and pulmonary vascular structures in the anthropomorphic lung phantom. The results show the CNT source array is capable of generating sufficient dose for chest tomosynthesis imaging. The results obtained so far suggest an s-DCT using a distributed CNT x-ray source array is feasible.

  2. Simple X-ray findings of airway foreign bodies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of a foreign body in the respiratory tract is a serious and, on occasion, fatal condition. The early diagnosis and removal of the aspirated material may save the patient's chronic illness, invalidation, or possibly death. Chest X-ray plays an important role in the diagnosis of airway foreign bodies in children. This retrospective study was performed to detect the lodgment site of aspirated foreign bodies, roentgenographic findings, and changes in chest X-ray pattern according to time interval following aspiration. We reviewed the record and X-ray findings of 63 patients examined at the department of Radiography, Catholic University, Medical College, from January 1983 to December 1988. The results are as follows; 1. The laterality of the occurrence of foreign body aspiration was right bronchial tree 26 cases (41.2%), left bronchial tree 22 cases (34.9%), trachea 8 cases (12.7%), coughed out 6 cases (9.5%), bilateral lower lobe bronchi 1 case (1.6%). The relatively equal incidence of right (41.2%), and left (34.9%) sided bronchial aspiration of foreign body was noted. 2. The roentgenographic findings after bronchial foreign body aspiration were unilateral hyperlucent lung 32 cases (52.4%), mixed pattern 10 cases (16.3%), normal 8 cases (13.1%), atelectasis 7 cases (11.4%), pneumonia 3 cases (4.9%), subcutaneous emphysema 1 case (1.6%). The most common findings was unilateral hyperlucent lung (52.4%), regardless of time interval between foreign body aspiration to hospitalization. 3. Pneumonia and mixed pattern were increased with long time interval between the inhalation of foreign body and admission to the hospital. 4. A follow-up chest film should be performed, even if there were no abnormal findings on the initial film

  3. Ward chest X-rays and extra-vascular lung water estimations in patients in intensive care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological staging of pulmonary oedema was compared with the determination of extra-vascular lung water by means of a double indicator dilution technique. One hundred and forty-six ward chest radiographs were evaluated and compared with the results of simultaneous measurements of lung water. Seventy-seven cases could be evaluated statistically. Chest x-rays regarded as normal corresponded to extra-vascular lung water of 5 to 9 ml./kg. body weight. Interstitial oedema (radiological stage I and II) correspond to extravascular lung water levels of 8 to 12 ml./kg. Differentiation of stages I and II was not possible. During stage III, extra-vascular lung water was 15 to 21 ml./kg. A comparative analysis of these findings revealed a discrepancy of 34%. The reasons for this are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Chest X-rays in detecting injuries caused by blunt trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agladioglu, Kadir; Serinken, Mustafa; Dal, Onur; Beydilli, Halil; Eken, Cenker; Karcioglu, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The appropriate sequence of different imagings and indications of thoracic computed tomography (TCT) in evaluating chest trauma have not yet been clarified at present. The current study was undertaken to determine the value of chest X-ray (CXR) in detecting chest injuries in patients with blunt trauma. METHODS: A total of 447 patients with blunt thoracic trauma who had been admitted to the emergency department (ED) in the period of 2009–2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients met inclusion criteria (age>8 years, blunt injury to the chest, hemodynamically stable, and neurologically intact) and underwent both TCT and upright CXR in the ED. Radiological imagings were re-interpreted after they were collected from the hospital database by two skilled radiologists. RESULTS: Of the 447 patients, 309 (69.1%) were male. The mean age of the 447 patients was 39.5±19.2 (range 9 and 87 years). 158 (35.3%) patients were injured in motor vehicle accidents (MVA). CXR showed the highest sensitivity in detecting clavicle fractures [95%CI 78.3 (63.6–89)] but the lowest in pneuomediastinum [95%CI 11.8 (1.5–36.4)]. The specificity of CXR was close to 100% in detecting a wide array of entities. CONCLUSION: CXR remains to be the first choice in hemodynamically unstable patients with blunt chest trauma. Moreover, stable patients with normal CXR are candidates who should undergo TCT if significant injury has not been ruled out. PMID:27006740

  5. The diagnosis of pneumonia requires a chest radiograph (x-ray – yes, no or sometimes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Gower Wootton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP remains a common condition associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Outcome is improved by early recognition and rapid institution of empirical antibiotic therapy. A number of international guidelines recommend a chest radiograph (x-ray is obtained when pneumonia is suspected; the argument forwarded is that chest radiographs are relatively inexpensive and enable pneumonia (lung consolidation to be confirmed or excluded. But, radiographs are not available in the community setting and introduce a delay in diagnosis and treatment. For these reasons, in mild CAP treated by primary care, guidelines suggest criteria for clinical diagnosis. However, there is debate as to whether clinical features alone are sufficiently reliable to support a diagnosis of CAP with some suggesting diagnostic precision is improved by chest radiographs. Conversely, several studies have demonstrated a lack of agreement in the interpretation of chest radiographs bringing their role as the ultimate arbiter of diagnosis into question. Below we debate the diagnostic role of the humble chest radiograph in the context of suspected CAP.

  6. Effective dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently developed MAX (Male Adult voXel) and the FAXht (Female Adult voXel) head and trunk phantoms have been used to calculate organ and tissue equivalent dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen as a function of source and field parameters, like voltage, filtration, field size, focus-to-skin distance, etc. Based on the equivalent doses to twenty three organs and tissues at risk, the effective dose has been determined and compared with corresponding data for others phantoms. The influence of different radiation transport codes, different tissue compositions and different human anatomies have been investigated separately. (Author)

  7. Effective dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, F.R.A. [Centro regional de Ciencias Nucleares, CRCN/CNEN, Rua Conego Barata, 999, Tamarineira, Recife, PE (Brazil); Kramer, R.; Vieira, J.W.; Khoury, H.J. [Departamento de Energia Nuclear, DEN/UFPE, Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    The recently developed MAX (Male Adult voXel) and the FAXht (Female Adult voXel) head and trunk phantoms have been used to calculate organ and tissue equivalent dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen as a function of source and field parameters, like voltage, filtration, field size, focus-to-skin distance, etc. Based on the equivalent doses to twenty three organs and tissues at risk, the effective dose has been determined and compared with corresponding data for others phantoms. The influence of different radiation transport codes, different tissue compositions and different human anatomies have been investigated separately. (Author)

  8. Chest X-ray and computed tomography in the evaluation of pulmonary emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irion, Klaus Loureiro [Liverpool NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom). Cardiothoracic Centre; Hochhegger, Bruno [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: brunorgs@mail.ufsm.br; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Porto, Nelson da Silva [Hospital da Santa Casa e Hospital Mae de Deus, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Pavilhao Pereira Filho; Baldisserotto, Sergio de Vasconcellos [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil); Santana, Pablo Rydz [Irion Radiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    Emphysema is a condition of the lung, characterized by the abnormal increase in the size of the airspace distal to the terminal bronchioles. Currently, emphysema is the fourth leading cause of death in the USA, affecting 14 million people. The present article describes the principal tools in the imaging diagnosis of emphysema, from the early days until the present. We describe traditional techniques, such as chest X-ray, together with the evolution of computed tomography (CT) to more advanced forms, such as high resolution CT, as well as three-dimensional CT densitometry and volumetric assessment. (author)

  9. Chest X-ray and computed tomography in the evaluation of pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emphysema is a condition of the lung, characterized by the abnormal increase in the size of the airspace distal to the terminal bronchioles. Currently, emphysema is the fourth leading cause of death in the USA, affecting 14 million people. The present article describes the principal tools in the imaging diagnosis of emphysema, from the early days until the present. We describe traditional techniques, such as chest X-ray, together with the evolution of computed tomography (CT) to more advanced forms, such as high resolution CT, as well as three-dimensional CT densitometry and volumetric assessment. (author)

  10. A pilot study evaluating erect chest imaging in children, using the Lodox Statscan digital X-ray machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Baloo Daya

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Chest radiography accounts for a significant proportion of ionising radiation in children. The radiation dose of radiographs performed on the Lodox Statscan system has been shown to be lower than that of a computed radiography (CR system. The role of the Lodox Statscan (hereafter referred to as the Statscan in routine erect chest radiography in children has not been evaluated. Objective: To evaluate the image quality and diagnostic accuracy of erect paediatric chest radiographs obtained with the Statscan and compare this with conventional erect chest images obtained with a CR system. Materials and Methods: Thirty three children with suspected chest pathology were enrolled randomly over a period of three months. Erect chest radiographs were obtained with the Statscan, and a Shimadzu R-20J X-ray machine coupled with a Fuji FCR 5000 CR system. Image quality and diagnostic accuracy and diagnostic capability were evaluated between the two modalities. Results: The erect Statscan allowed superior visualisation of the three major airways. Statscan images however, demonstrated exposure and movement artifacts with hemidiaphragms and ribs most prone to movement. Bronchovascular clarity was also considered unsatisfactory on the Statscan images. Conclusion: The Statscan has limitations in erect chest radiography in terms of movement artefacts, exposure fluctuations, and poor definition of lung markings. Despite this, the Statscan allows better visualisation of the major airways, equivalent to a ‘high KV’ film at a fraction of the radiation dose. This supports the finding of an earlier study evaluating Statscan images in trauma cases, where the images were taken supine. Statscan has great potential in assisting in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis where airway narrowing occurs as a result of nodal compression.

  11. A Design of a Computer-Aided Diagnostic Tool For Chest X-Ray Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Le

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of some chest diseases like heart failure, lung cancer or lung tuberculosis, etc. isoften based on chest X-ray images (CXR. The diseases are curable if they are detected in theirearly stages. Examining CXR is a time consuming process. In some cases, medical experts hadoverlooked the diseases in their firstexaminations on CXR, and when the images were reexamined,the disease signs could be detected.Furthermore, the number of CXR to examine isnumerous and far beyond the capability of available medical staff, especially in developingcountries.A computer-aided diagnosis (CAD system can mark suspected areas on CXR for carefulexamination by medical doctors, and can give alarm in the cases that need urgent attention.This paper reports our continuous work on the development of a CAD tool, which is anextended version of a conference paper [1]. In this version, we present some more works onCXR analysis and examination.

  12. Reading a radiologist's mind: monitoring rising and falling interest levels while scanning chest x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzubaidi, Mohammad; Patel, Ameet; Panchanathan, Sethuraman; Black, John A., Jr.

    2010-02-01

    Radiological images constitute a special class of images that are captured (or computed) specifically for the purpose of diagnosing patients. However, because these are not "natural" images, radiologists must be trained to interpret them through a process called "perceptual learning". However, because perceptual learning is implicit, experienced radiologists may sometimes find it difficult to explicitly (i.e. verbally) train less experienced colleagues. As a result, current methods of training can take years before a new radiologist is fully competent to independently interpret medical images. We hypothesize that eye tracking technology (coupled with multimedia technology) can be used to accelerate the process of perceptual training, through a Hebbian learning process. This would be accomplished by providing a radiologist-in-training with real-time feedback as he/she is fixating on important regions of an image. Of course this requires that the training system have information about what regions of an image are important - information that could presumably be solicited from experienced radiologists. However, our previous work has suggested that experienced radiologists are not always aware of those regions of an image that attract their attention, but are not clinically significant - information that is very important to a radiologist in training. This paper discusses a study in which local entropy computations were done on scan path data, and were found to provide a quantitative measure of the moment-by-moment interest level of radiologists as they scanned chest x-rays. The results also showed a striking contrast between the moment-by-moment deployment of attention between experienced radiologists and radiologists in training.

  13. Atlas-based rib-bone detection in chest X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candemir, Sema; Jaeger, Stefan; Antani, Sameer; Bagci, Ulas; Folio, Les R; Xu, Ziyue; Thoma, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates using rib-bone atlases for automatic detection of rib-bones in chest X-rays (CXRs). We built a system that takes patient X-ray and model atlases as input and automatically computes the posterior rib borders with high accuracy and efficiency. In addition to conventional atlas, we propose two alternative atlases: (i) automatically computed rib bone models using Computed Tomography (CT) scans, and (ii) dual energy CXRs. We test the proposed approach with each model on 25 CXRs from the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) dataset and another 25 CXRs from the National Library of Medicine CXR dataset. We achieve an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of about 95% for Montgomery and 91% for JSRT datasets. Using the optimal operating point of the ROC curve, we achieve a segmentation accuracy of 88.91±1.8% for Montgomery and 85.48±3.3% for JSRT datasets. Our method produces comparable results with the state-of-the-art algorithms. The performance of our method is also excellent on challenging X-rays as it successfully addressed the rib-shape variance between patients and number of visible rib-bones due to patient respiration. PMID:27156048

  14. Prospective feasibility study of chest X-ray vs. thoracic MRI in breath-hold technique at an open low-field scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: MR investigations using a breath-hold sequence at an open low-field MR had to be compared to chest X-rays in patients with a wide spectrum of cardio-thoracic pathologies. Material and Methods: 114 patients and three volunteers who actually received a chest X-ray due to different indications underwent triplanar breath-hold (17-20 s) True-FISP sequence using a 0.2 T low-field MR (Siemens Magnetom Open, TR/TE/α: 7.3/3.5/80 , SD: 10 mm, Pixel: 2.18 x 1.41 mm) a mean of 5.1 (±8.2) days later. Results: Signal-to-noise ratio as basics for pattern recognition was 3.2 in nodule, 5.0 in infiltration, and 12.0 in effusion, and therefore True-FISP is usable for the detection of these findings. MRI demonstrated nodules (89% vs. 57%), infiltration (81% vs. 71%), pleural effusions (86% vs. 75%), pericardial effusions (100% vs. 21%) and pulmonary congestion (90% vs. 80%) clearly more frequently compared to chest X-ray. Discussion: MRI of the lung has been implemented successfully at an open low-field MR system. Diagnostic safety and accuracy are at least comparable to those of chest X-ray. The lack of superimposition led to a major improvement in the detection of pericardial effusions and nodules, and an increase in identification of infiltration, pleural effusion, and pulmonary congestion. (orig.)

  15. Gray-scale transform and evaluation for digital x-ray chest images on CRT monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Isao; Suzuki, Junji; Ono, Sadayasu; Kitamura, Masayuki; Ando, Yutaka

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, an experimental evaluation of a super high definition (SHD) imaging system for digital x-ray chest images is presented. The SHD imaging system is proposed as a platform for integrating conventional image media. We are involved in the use of SHD images in the total digitizing of medical records that include chest x-rays and pathological microscopic images, both which demand the highest level of quality among the various types of medical images. SHD images use progressive scanning and have a spatial resolution of 2000 by 2000 pixels or more and a temporal resolution (frame rate) of 60 frames/sec or more. For displaying medical x-ray images on a CRT, we derived gray scale transform characteristics based on radiologists' comments during the experiment, and elucidated the relationship between that gray scale transform and the linearization transform for maintaining the linear relationship with the luminance of film on a light box (luminance linear transform). We then carried out viewing experiments based on a five-stage evaluation. Nine radiologists participated in our experiment, and the ten cases evaluated included pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, and pneumonia. The experimental results indicated that conventional film images and those on super high definition CRT monitors have nearly the same quality. They also show that the gray scale transform for CRT images decided according to radiologists' comments agrees with the luminance linear transform in the high luminance region. And in the low luminance region, it was found that the gray scale transform had the characteristics of level expansion to increase the number of levels that can be expressed.

  16. The Role of Human Factor in Radiation Protection of Children During Chest X Ray Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection depends on many factors. Our study deals with the human factor, the radiology technicians' routine work. If all technical malfunctions are excluded they are responsible for the patient dose. Depending on their education and experience, technicians perform X ray examinations with various end results: image quality, entrance surface dose, patient interaction etc. In hospital setting we have consecutively chosen the study group of 20 children that had a clinical indication for a chest X ray examination (standard PA radiogram), for each of three technicians working at the radiology ward. A Shimadzu X ray machine was used in all cases. 60 children were from 6 to 12 years old and all parents were informed about the aim and the experimental details of the study. All of them gave their informed consent. Radiophotoluminescent (RPL) and thermoluminescent (TLD) dosimeters were applied at the entrance of the beam in the center of the X ray field to measure the entrance surface dose (ESD). Three differently experienced technicians were unaware of the objective of the study. Parameters that were noted were the kV, mAs and the size of the radiation field. The results show a good correlation in ESD between two technicians. Doses were significantly higher for the third one. After the results were known, protocols were designed and after educational interference, we continued to measure ESD again on a group of 40 children. The doses were reduced and there was a good correlation between all three technicians. With this work we want to clarify and show the importance of continuous education and good teamwork for dose reduction. In a sequel study, with the same three technicians, we hope to have results that would show a better dose reduction. (author)

  17. Chest trauma in childhood. Radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunt thoracic trauma is frequently associated with further injuries (head and/or blunt abdominal trauma). The prognosis also depends on the concurrent injuries. The initial evaluation of an injured child is based on the chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasound examination. Additional information can be obtained by a CT scan in mediastinal injuries. (orig./MG)

  18. letter to editor: Swine Flu: Concern for Infection Control in the Procedure of Patient Preparation for Chest X-Ray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wiwanitkit

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dear editor:"n"nSwine flu is a new emerging atypical H1N1 influenza virus infection. Nowadays swine flu pandemic has become a global public health threat.1 As there are several epidemic foci of swine flu around the world and there are many infected cases, it is necessary for every country to prepare for management. Chest x-ray is an important investigation for the confirmed infected cases as well as highly suspicious cases. There must be specific concern for infection control in the procedure of patient preparation for chest x-ray. In routine clinical practice, separation of the patients and using specific isolated parts are suggested for general clinic; however, this might not be possible for the x-ray unit. It is routinely not possible to separate the x-ray room specifically for this group of patients. There must be a special communication system between the ward and the x-ray unit for early preparation. The process must be managed as a fast track procedure and preparation of a special room based on disinfectant principles before and after each x-ray procedure. In addition, preparation of the patients according to basic infection control process such as wearing masks and hand washing before the x-ray procedure are other precautionary measurements.    

  19. A study to compare chest X-ray reports on overseas nursing recruits.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, S

    2010-05-01

    This study was carried out to assess if there was a difference in the Chest X- ray (CXR) report on recruited nurses carried out overseas and later repeated in Ireland. This study was carried out in two Irish teaching hospitals. The subjects of this study comprised all overseas nurses recruited in each of the two hospitals within the defined period. The total number of subjects recruited from the 2 two centres was 84. Only nurses that had a repeat CXR were included in this study. 6\\/84 (7%) of the CXR that were initially reported as normal were subsequently reported as abnormal and were later diagnosed as Latent TB. 2\\/84(2%) of the CXR that were reported as abnormal were subsequently reported as normal. The data collected in this study has demonstrated that there was a significant difference in the CXR report from overseas and the CXR report in Ireland.

  20. The value of advanced multiple beam equalization radiography (AMBER) and storage phosphor radiography in chest X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study compared the quality of roentgenologic criteria in the evaluation of the heart and pulmonary vessels on chest X-rays obtained with different imaging systems. Fifty patients had four different chest radiographs, i.e. conventional chest X-rays, AMBER images, digital storage phosphor images, and digital storage radiographs that were obtained with the AMBER system. Comparison of techniques was based on 12 well-defined quality criteria of chest X-rays. Four radiologists with expertise reviewed the films according to these criteria. The AMBER technique was found to be superior to the remaining imaging modalities in visualization of the central pulmonary vessels, the descending aorta, and the left atrium. Peripheral pulmonary vessels were best appreciated with AMBER technique combined with storage phosphor technique. The same technique was superior in the assessment of all cardiovascular criteria. The superiority of this technique versus conventional chest X-rays can be explained on the basis of the linear slope of the gradation curve of AMBER and digital techniques. (orig.)

  1. Aspergillus and mucormycosis presenting with normal chest X-ray in an immunocompromised host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipin; Rajagopalan, Natarajan; Patil, Mahantesh; C, Shivaprasad

    2014-01-01

    Invasive aspergillus and mucormycosis infection are not uncommon in immunocompromised individuals. Endobronchial fungal infections have been reported in the literature, especially in patient's with diabetes complicated by diabetic ketoacidosis, but end bronchial coinfection with aspergillus and mucormycosis without pulmonary involvement has not been described in the literature. We report the case of a woman with diabetes who presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, ketoacidosis and respiratory distress, with an apparently normal chest X-ray. Investigations revealed a cavitatory lesion in the left lower lobe of the lungs on CT scan. Bronchoscopy revealed intense mucosal oedema and whitish plaques at the lower end of the trachea and right main stem bronchus with a normal left bronchial tree. Microbiological and pathological results confirmed aspergillus and mucormycosis. Despite aggressive medical management, the patient deteriorated and died of respiratory failure. Strong suspicion of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients with respiratory failure and minimal chest infiltrates, early fibreoptic bronchoscopy and early aggressive treatment is crucial for the patient's survival. PMID:24717585

  2. Notes on a local study on effectiveness and risk of X-ray mass chest screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution consists of some special remarks, which may be of general interest, on the results of a local investigation on effectiveness and radiological risk of mass chest screening carried out in Friuli Venezia Giulia, an area of North-East Italy limited by well defined geographical and administrative borders. Population is about 1,300,000, ten percent of which is undergoing X-ray chest screening each year. The results of the study are in the working report of the technical workshop on mass screening organized on 4-5 December 1984 in Luxembourg by CEC and CEA. The study itself does not intend to have any character of generality. It has been proposed as an example of syntetic methodology for other similar local investigations which could possibly constitute a reliable basis for putting together larger ones, of national range, as already mentioned in the report. The conclusions on the results of this study seem obvious to us, however, we are aware that any obvious conclusion must be considered very carefully especially when dealing with a very complex matter as epidemiologic statistic, and particularly if we consider the previous papers on this subject as well as other reports presented in the workshop. Finally, we hope that our remarks may at least contribute as a good background for further discussion

  3. Beam quality independent attenuation phantom for estimating patient exposure from x-ray automatic exposure controlled chest examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The periodic assessment of exposures in diagnostic radiology is an important part of a comprehensive quality assurance program. The most frequent radiologic examination conducted in the United States is chest radiography. Automatic exposure controlled (AEC) techniques are often used for this exam, and a standard patient-equivalent chest phantom is useful when estimating patient exposures on such systems. This is of particular importance if exposures are to be compared among AEC systems with different entrance x-ray spectra. Such a phantom has been developed to facilitate surveys of the average patient exposure from AEC posteroanterior chest radiography. The phantom is relatively lightweight and easily transportable, sturdy and made of readily available and relatively inexpensive materials (Lucite and aluminum). It accurately simulates the primary and scatter transmission through the lung-field regions of a patient-equivalent anthropomorphic phantom for x-ray spectra typically used in chest radiography. A clinical evaluation has been conducted to verify the patient equivalence of the phantom. Measurements of patient entrance skin exposure were obtained for a large number of patients on a variety of x-ray systems operated in the AEC mode using one or both lung-field detectors. Comparison of these data with exposure estimates derived from the phantom indicate that the phantom attenuates the x-ray beam in such a way that it can be employed to accurately and consistently estimate the mean exposure of the average patient under a variety of radiographic conditions

  4. Sonographic Findings of Variable Chest Wall Disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Mi Suk; Kim, Ji Young; Cho, Woo Ho; Kim, Joung Sook; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Variable chest wall disorders include hemorrhage, inflammation and a tumor on the chest wall. Especially in females, abnormal anterior chest wall findings can appear as breast lesions due to the anatomic relationship between the chest wall and the breast. Sonography is the first diagnostic tool to utilize for chest wall disorders and has an important role for the differential diagnosis. In this study, we introduce sonographic findings of the various chest wall disorders that are discovered incidentally during an examination for a palpable mass or pain in the breast. We also describe sonographic findings that additionally performed of sonography-guided core needle biopsy

  5. Routinely obtained chest X-rays after elective video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery can be omitted in most patients; a retrospective, observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars S; Jensen, Katrine; Petersen, René Horsleben;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the use of routinely obtained chest X-rays is necessary after elective VATS. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 1097 chest X-rays obtained routinely after elective VATS, performed in patients aged over 15 years during an 18-month period. VATS procedures were...

  6. X-ray findings in roofers with long-term exposure to asbestos cement fine dusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 404 roofers with long-term exposure of asbestos-cement fine dust we studied the possible fibrogenous effects on lung and pleura by chest radiographs. The standardfilm sets of the ILO U/C 1971 and ILO 80/BRD X-ray classification of pneumoconiosis were used. 410 non-asbestos-exposed craftsmen and workers of several industries served as control group. Roofers show in n = 58 cases (14,4%) significantly increased small irregular opacities of the size 's' and 't' with the profusion 1/0 (n = 53) and 1/1 (n = 5). Furthermore up to now, 3 cases of lung-cancer in our cohort have been occured. Our findings indicate the nessecity of further preventive measures on construction sites regarding the asbestos-cement problem. (orig.)

  7. X-ray findings in roofers with long-term exposure to asbestos cement fine dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauder, B.; Breuer, G.; Greven, U.; Woitowitz, R.H.; Roedelsperger, K.; Woitowitz, H.J.

    1982-11-01

    In 404 roofers with long-term exposure of asbestos-cement fine dust we studied the possible fibrogenous effects on lung and pleura by chest radiographs. The standardfilm sets of the ILO U/C 1971 and ILO 80/BRD X-ray classification of pneumoconiosis were used. 410 non-asbestos-exposed craftsmen and workers of several industries served as control group. Roofers show in n = 58 cases (14,4%) significantly increased small irregular opacities of the size 's' and 't' with the profusion 1/0 (n = 53) and 1/1 (n = 5). Furthermore up to now, 3 cases of lung-cancer in our cohort have occured. Our findings indicate the necessity of further preventive measures on construction sites regarding the asbestos-cement problem.

  8. X-ray and high resolution CT findings in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and their relationship with pulmonary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study X-ray and high resolution computed tomograghy (HRCT) features and their relationship with pulmonary function test in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Methods: The findings of X-ray and HRCT and the results of pulmonary function tests in 19 patients with PAP were reviewed retrospectively. X-ray and HRCT scores were rated in the aspects of opacity density, extent, and severity. The relationship between the imaging scores and pulmonary function tests were determined. Results X-ray showed a symmetrical perihilar predominance appearance in patients with PAP. HRCT scan showed bilateral clear-defined pathchy areas of ground-glass opacity and interlobular septal thickening, a pattern commonly characterized as crazy paving. Nineteen PAP respiratory function results were: DLCO/Pred (54.49 ± 16.78)%, FEV1/FVC=(86.00±6.70)%. Chest radiographic extent score and severity score correlated with diffusing capacity (r=-0.661, P1/FVC, r=0.573, P<0.05). Conclusions: In patients with PAP, there is close relationship between X-ray, HRCT findings and pulmonary function. HRCT correlates more closely with pulmonary function. (authors)

  9. Adaptive wiener filter based on Gaussian mixture distribution model for denoising chest X-ray CT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades, X-ray CT imaging has become more important as a result of its high-resolution performance. However, it is well known that the X-ray dose is insufficient in the techniques that use low-dose imaging in health screening or thin-slice imaging in work-up. Therefore, the degradation of CT images caused by the streak artifact frequently becomes problematic. In this study, we applied a Wiener filter (WF) using the universal Gaussian mixture distribution model (UNI-GMM) as a statistical model to remove streak artifact. In designing the WF, it is necessary to estimate the statistical model and the precise co-variances of the original image. In the proposed method, we obtained a variety of chest X-ray CT images using a phantom simulating a chest organ, and we estimated the statistical information using the images for training. The results of simulation showed that it is possible to fit the UNI-GMM to the chest X-ray CT images and reduce the specific noise. (author)

  10. A simple model for predicting skin dose for patients undergoing routine chest x-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the predicted skin doses of patients undergoing routine medical examinations at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi were carried out. We have used the Edmond's formula, the modified Edmond's formula and the regression method. Measurements were also made using phantoms and Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) in place of patients in order to compare the results obtained. The predicted mean chest dose for 100 patients undergoing routine medical examinations at Federal Medical Centre Makurdi was 0.73 mGy using Edmond's formula. The predicted average dose using our modified formula was 0.72 mGy. That using the regression method was 647.9 mGy. We repeated the above measurements with TLD badges using phantoms in place of patients. Twenty-four measurements were carried out. The average skin dose using TLD badges was 1.14 mGy. From these results, it can be seen that, the average dose from the modified Edmond's formula and the regression method closely agree with those obtained from the Edmond's formulae. On the other hand the average dose obtained using phantoms was significantly higher than the previous results. This significant difference may be due to the age associated with the X-ray machine used.

  11. Finding Supernova Ia Progenitors with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, M. T. B.; Nelemans, G.A.; Voss, R.

    2010-01-01

    We examine pre-supernova Chandra images to find X-ray luminosities of type Ia supernova progenitors. At present, we have one possible direct detection and upper limits for the X-ray luminosities of a number of other supernova progenitors. The method has also yielded a possible detection of a X-ray binary Wolf-Rayet system as the progenitor of a type Ib supernova.

  12. X-ray findings in patients with miliary appearance of metallic mercury after suicide attempt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case report evaluates X-ray findings in patients with miliary accumulation of mercury observed after parenteral application of metallic mercury in a suizide attempt. There are certain discrepancies between clinical symptoms and the X-ray findings. A clear demonstration of mercury in coronary blood vessels is possible by fluoroscopy. (orig.)

  13. Statistical Feature-based Neural Network Approach for the Detection of Lung Cancer in Chest X-Ray Images K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A.G. Udeshani, R.G.N. Meegama & T.G.I. Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer, if detected successfully at early stages, enables many treatment options,reduced risk of invasive surgery and increased survival rate. This paper presents a novelapproach to detect lung cancer from raw chest X-ray images. At the first stage, we use apipeline of image processing routines to remove noise and segment the lung from otheranatomical structures in the chest X-ray and extract regions that exhibit shape characteristicsof lung nodules. Subsequently, first and second order statistical texture features areconsidered as the inputs to train a neural network to verify whether a region extracted in thefirst stage is a nodule or not . The proposed approach detected nodules in the diseased areaof the lung with an accuracy of 96% using the pixel-based technique while the feature-basedtechnique produced an accuracy of 88%.

  14. The chest X-ray manifestations of children with highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection (a report of 1 final diagnosis case and 1 borderline case)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the chest X-ray manifestations of children with highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection. Methods: The pulmonary X-ray findings in 1 patient was confirmed by the World Health Organization infected H5N1 avian influenza vires and 1 borderline patient was retrospectively analyzed. Results: Both sides of lung field showed the cloudy and massive infiltration in chest X-ray film. The lesions of lung distributed extensively and symmetrically. Radiological dynamic changes showed the variation of the lesions of lung was quick in a short time. It had a characteristic of roving around. The lesions of lung appeared fibrosis at the period of the end. Conclusion: There are some radiographic characteristics in children with H5N1 avian influenza vires infection. It will be helpful for its diagnosis when getting familiar with its X-ray manifestations, but the final diagnosis is dependent on the epidemiology history and laboratory results. (authors)

  15. Quantitative assessment of radiation-induced lung changes by computerized optical densitometry of routine chest x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a quantitative assay of radiological lung changes after postmastectomy radiotherapy applicable for analysis of routine chest x-rays. Methods and Materials: The assay relies on measurement of the optical density of chest x-rays by means of a standard personal computer-controlled film densitometer used for scanning dosimetry films. Density profiles were recorded at 1 mm steps along two reference lines in each lung. The crossing between the clavicula and the first rib in the x-ray projection was used as an easily identifiable anatomical landmark and was used to establish two parallel cranio-caudal reference lines separated by 20 mm. The starting point for recording optical densities was 5 mm below a line perpendicular to the reference lines and tangent to the top of the lung. Data were stored in a computer file for subsequent processing. The optical film densities in the apex of the lungs were converted into equivalent absorber thickness (EAT). To minimize the dependency on technical factors, the unirradiated lung was used as a control. Lung density changes were quantified by the relative change in EAT (REAT), which was evaluated as the difference between the summed EATs along the reference lines in the two lungs, corrected for any pretreatment difference in lung density, and taken as a percentage of the pretreatment EAT value of the lung. Results: Four different tests were carried out to investigate the reproducibility and validity of the proposed assay. (a) An anthropomorphic phantom was used to test the relationship between REAT and the layer of plastic absorber placed in front of one lung. A linear relationship was found with a correlation coefficient of 0.9993. (b) A series of 10 repeat measurements of the same arbitrarily chosen x-ray showed a mean REAT value of 9.8%, with a standard deviation of 0.21%. (c) Forty-three chest x-rays exposed on the same day were available from the clinical series. These were treated as double determinations of

  16. Performing Chest X-Rays at Inspiration in Uncooperative Children: The Effect of Exercises with a Training Program for Radiology Technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is difficult to acquire a chest X-ray of a crying infant at maximum inspiration. A computer program was developed for technician training. Method. Video clips of 3 babies were used and the moment of deepest inspiration was determined in the single-frame view. 12 technicians simulated chest radiographs at normal video speed by pushing a button. The computer program stopped the video and calculated the period of time to the optimal instant for a chest X-ray. Demonstration software can be tested at website online. Every technician simulated 10 chest X-rays for each of the 3 video clips. The technicians then spent 40 minutes practicing performing chest X-rays at optimal inspiration. The test was repeated after 5, 20, and 40 minutes of practice. Results. 6 participants showed a significant improvement after exercises (collective 1). Deviation from the optimal instant for taking an X-ray at inspiration decreased from 0.39 to 0.22 s after 40 min of practice. 6 technicians showed no significant improvement (collective 2). Deviation decreased from a low starting value of 0.25 s to 0.21 s. Conclusion. The tested computer program improves the ability of radiology technicians to take a chest X-ray at optimal inspiration in a crying child

  17. European Guidelines for AP/PA chest X-rays: routinely satisfiable in a paediatric radiology division?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate collimation helps to reduce unnecessary irradiation and improves radiographic image quality, which is especially important in the radiosensitive paediatric population. For AP/PA chest radiographs in children, a minimal field size (MinFS) from ''just above the lung apices'' to ''T12/L1'' with age-dependent tolerance is suggested by the 1996 European Commission (EC) guidelines, which were examined qualitatively and quantitatively at a paediatric radiology division. Five hundred ninety-eight unprocessed chest X-rays (45 % boys, 55 % girls; mean age 3.9 years, range 0-18 years) were analysed with a self-developed tool. Qualitative standards were assessed based on the EC guidelines, as well as the overexposed field size and needlessly irradiated tissue compared to the MinFS. While qualitative guideline recommendations were satisfied, mean overexposure of +45.1 ± 18.9 % (range +10.2 % to +107.9 %) and tissue overexposure of +33.3 ± 13.3 % were found. Only 4 % (26/598) of the examined X-rays completely fulfilled the EC guidelines. This study presents a new chest radiography quality control tool which allows assessment of field sizes, distances, overexposures and quality parameters based on the EC guidelines. Utilising this tool, we detected inadequate field sizes, inspiration depths, and patient positioning. Furthermore, some debatable EC guideline aspects were revealed. (orig.)

  18. European Guidelines for AP/PA chest X-rays: routinely satisfiable in a paediatric radiology division?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschauner, Sebastian; Marterer, Robert; Guebitz, Michael; Weissensteiner, Sabine; Sorantin, Erich [Medical University of Graz, Division of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Kalmar, Peter I. [Medical University of Graz, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Talakic, Emina [Medical University of Graz, Division of General Radiological Diagnostics, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria)

    2016-02-15

    Accurate collimation helps to reduce unnecessary irradiation and improves radiographic image quality, which is especially important in the radiosensitive paediatric population. For AP/PA chest radiographs in children, a minimal field size (MinFS) from ''just above the lung apices'' to ''T12/L1'' with age-dependent tolerance is suggested by the 1996 European Commission (EC) guidelines, which were examined qualitatively and quantitatively at a paediatric radiology division. Five hundred ninety-eight unprocessed chest X-rays (45 % boys, 55 % girls; mean age 3.9 years, range 0-18 years) were analysed with a self-developed tool. Qualitative standards were assessed based on the EC guidelines, as well as the overexposed field size and needlessly irradiated tissue compared to the MinFS. While qualitative guideline recommendations were satisfied, mean overexposure of +45.1 ± 18.9 % (range +10.2 % to +107.9 %) and tissue overexposure of +33.3 ± 13.3 % were found. Only 4 % (26/598) of the examined X-rays completely fulfilled the EC guidelines. This study presents a new chest radiography quality control tool which allows assessment of field sizes, distances, overexposures and quality parameters based on the EC guidelines. Utilising this tool, we detected inadequate field sizes, inspiration depths, and patient positioning. Furthermore, some debatable EC guideline aspects were revealed. (orig.)

  19. Comparison of Tracheal Diameter Measured by Chest X-Ray and by Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeki Sakuraba; Ryohei Serita; Junya Kuribayashi; Shizuko Kosugi; Hirofumi Arisaka; Kazuichi Yoshida; Junzo Takeda

    2010-01-01

    Assessments of tracheal diameter (TD) are important to select proper endotracheal tubes. Previous studies have used X-ray and physical indices to estimate tracheal diameter but these may not reflect the actual TD. We compared TD measured by X-ray (TD-XP) and by computer tomography (TD-CT) in 200 patients. Also, we analyzed correlation of TD-CT with physical indices such as age, height, weight, and BMI. TD-XP and TD-CT were significantly correlated (male: n = 55, P = .0146; female: n = 91, P =...

  20. Improvement of Contrast in Digital X-ray Images Considering Exposure Dose for Stout Patients Undergoing Fluorography Chest Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to high level of tuberculosis in Ukraine, the fluorography chest screening is the most frequent diagnostic procedure which is performed annually for adult population and contributes to collective effective dose. During the diagnostic examination, the people with high body mass index obtain higher exposure dose, compared to average patients. The higher exposure dose is required for receiving diagnostic X-ray images with sufficient visual quality parameters. In present study, the approach in reduce of exposure dose for patients with high body mass index was explored in close to clinical fluorography examination conditions with application of contrast improvement methods

  1. Using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) to determine the gonadal dose of patients under-going chest X-ray examinations at NKST hospital, Mkar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The doses absorbed by the gonads of patients undergoing chest X-ray examinations at NKST Christian Hospital, Mkar was determined using the Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Technique of measurement. Also, the direct X-ray dose to the chest of patients undergoing the routine examinations was also determined using the Thermolumnescence Dosimetry technique of measurement. The mean gonadal dose and the X-ray dose to the patients were found to be 0.03±0.02μSv and 0.04±0.03mSv respectively after exposure. These X-ray doses to the patients is seen to be within the acceptable recommended X -ray dose limits of 1mGy recommended by ICRP.

  2. Entrance surface dose and image quality: Comparison of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in general practitioner clinics, public and private hospitals in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to compare the entrance surface dose (ESD) and image quality of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations conducted at general practitioner (GP) clinics, and public and private hospitals in Malaysia. The surveyed facilities were randomly selected within a given category (28 GP clinics, 20 public hospitals and 15 private hospitals). Only departmental X-ray units were involved in the survey. Chest examinations were done at all facilities, while only hospitals performed abdominal examinations. This study used the x-ray attenuation phantoms and protocols developed for the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey program in the United States. The ESD was calculated from measurements of exposure and clinical geometry. An image quality test tool was used to evaluate the low-contrast detectability and high-contrast detail performance under typical clinical conditions. The median ESD value for the adult chest X-ray examination was the highest (0.25 mGy) at GP clinics, followed by private hospitals (0.22 mGy) and public hospitals (0.17 mGy). The median ESD for the adult abdominal X-ray examination at public hospitals (3.35 mGy) was higher than that for private hospitals (2.81 mGy). Results of image quality assessment for the chest X-ray examination show that all facility types have a similar median spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability. For the abdominal X-ray examination, public hospitals have a similar median spatial resolution but larger low-contrast detectability compared with private hospitals. The results of this survey clearly show that there is room for further improvement in performing chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in Malaysia. (authors)

  3. X-ray findings in intra-arterial chemotherapy of tumours of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of X-ray-findings in 70 patients with tumours of the head and neck, who had intraarterial chemotherapy the authors demonstrate the varying approaches to an indirect catheterisation of the external carotid artery. Paying due attention to possible complications arising from i.a. catheterisation, they stress the need for X-ray checks of the correct position of the catheter before commencement of intraarterial chemotherapy. (orig.)

  4. Anatomy-based transmission factors for technique optimization in portable chest x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, Christopher L.; Tovey, Deborah; Segars, William P.; Dong, Frank D.; Li, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Portable x-ray examinations often account for a large percentage of all radiographic examinations. Currently, portable examinations do not employ automatic exposure control (AEC). To aid in the design of a size-specific technique chart, acrylic slabs of various thicknesses are often used to estimate x-ray transmission for patients of various body thicknesses. This approach, while simple, does not account for patient anatomy, tissue heterogeneity, and the attenuation properties of the human body. To better account for these factors, in this work, we determined x-ray transmission factors using computational patient models that are anatomically realistic. A Monte Carlo program was developed to model a portable x-ray system. Detailed modeling was done of the x-ray spectrum, detector positioning, collimation, and source-to-detector distance. Simulations were performed using 18 computational patient models from the extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) family (9 males, 9 females; age range: 2-58 years; weight range: 12-117 kg). The ratio of air kerma at the detector with and without a patient model was calculated as the transmission factor. Our study showed that the transmission factor decreased exponentially with increasing patient thickness. For the range of patient thicknesses examined (12-28 cm), the transmission factor ranged from approximately 21% to 1.9% when the air kerma used in the calculation represented an average over the entire imaging field of view. The transmission factor ranged from approximately 21% to 3.6% when the air kerma used in the calculation represented the average signals from two discrete AEC cells behind the lung fields. These exponential relationships may be used to optimize imaging techniques for patients of various body thicknesses to aid in the design of clinical technique charts.

  5. Diagnosis of IPA in HIV: The role of the chest X-ray and radiologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaspel, Uta [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut fuer Radiologie, Berlin (Germany); Denning, David W. [The University of Manchester, Education and Research Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Lemke, Arne J.; Roettgen, Rainer; Bittner, Roland; Oestmann, Joerg W. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Berlin (Germany); Greene, Reginald [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Schuermann, Dirk [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Infektiologie und Asthma-Poliklinik, Berlin (Germany); Maschmeyer, Georg [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Haematologie und Onkologie, Berlin (Germany); Ruhnke, Markus [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Onkologie und Haematologie, Berlin (Germany); Herbrecht, Raoul [Hopital de Hautepierre, Department d' Hematologie et d' Oncologie, Strasbourg (France); Ribaud, Patricia [Hopital Saint-Louis, Service d' Hematologie, Paris (France); Lortholary, Olivier [Universite Paris V, Centre National de Reference des Mycoses et des Antifongiques, Institut Pasteur, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Hopital Necker, Paris (France); Zonderland, Harmien [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Rabe, Klaus F. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Pulmology, Leiden (Netherlands); Neumann, Klaus [Krankenhaus und Herzzentrum Bernau, Bernau (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    The role of clinical information and chest film for the discrimination between invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and its differential diagnoses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was studied. The diagnostic performance of clinical information and chest film alone and in combination was studied for eight internists and eight radiologists with regular exposure to IPA patients. The multicenter case sample consisted of 25 patients with proven IPA and 25 with other pulmonary diseases typical for HIV. The cases were presented on a CD-ROM. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) methodology was employed. With clinical information alone, internists achieved the highest diagnostic performance (area under curve/AUC=0.84). Viewing the chest films did not contribute to their performance (AUC=0.80, P=0.26). The radiologist's performance on the basis of viewing the chest film (AUC=0.75) increased significantly (P=0.012) when clinical information (AUC=0.83) was supplied. IPA cases with characteristic radiological appearance were correctly identified in 90% with chest film. For radiologists with regular exposure to HIV patients, chest films hold relevant information and contribute to the determination in cases with characteristic radiological appearance. Overall and especially in cases with less characteristic radiological appearance, they have significant profit from full access to the clinical data. For internists with regular exposure to HIV patients, chest films do not provide information essential for the verification or differentiation of potential IPA. (orig.)

  6. Optimization of standard patient radiographic images for chest, skull and pelvis exams in conventional x-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimized radiographic techniques for clinical images of chest, skull and pelvis using conventional single-phase, three-phase and high-frequency x-ray units for a standard patient have been developed. Optimization of image contrast and optical density was obtained by using a homogeneous phantom (PEP) and an Anderson Rando anthropomorphic phantom. Image quality was evaluated by nine radiologists in independent analyses, leading to the choice of the optimized technique. A course of action to implement and validate these techniques in other radiographic systems has also been introduced. A realistic-analytic phantom (RAP) was constructed to certify the validation process. The optimized radiographic technique was implemented in the routine of our home hospital radiodiagnostic routine, enabling a reduction in patient doses around 25, 14 and 72%, respectively, for chest, skull and pelvis exams when compared with the previously used techniques. In addition, a corresponding reduction in the x-ray tube load of 68, 14 and 62% for the respective mentioned exams has been observed. In conclusion, implemented optimal techniques can lead to a reduction in the rate of film rejection, thus contributing to a better risk-benefit relationship for the patient and cost-benefit for the radiodiagnostic facility. (note)

  7. Ultrasonic and x-ray tomographic findings of Schistosomiasis Japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, attempts were made to classify the ultrasonic patterns of the liver infected with Schistosoma Japonicum. The calcification and fibrosis of the liver were evaluated by comparative investigation with an ultrasonogram and computed tomography (CT). Schistosomiasis Japonica was examined in 23 patients who were more than 45 years of age. It was diagnosed by liver needle biopsy, an intracutaneous test, or autopsy. The cases with a fish scale and network pattern had attenuation of the liver on ultrasonography and were unspecific on CT. Histological findings demonstrated moderate liver fibrosis. The cases with a sieve pattern had attenuation on ultrasonography, and the CT disclosed a retractive liver and the CT number of that liver was increased. Histological findings demonstrated a severe fibrotic liver. The cases with a mottled pattern had increased reflective spotty echo with an acoustic shadow, and the CT disclosed calcification. The histological findings demonstrated a marked calcification of the eggs. The cases with a mixed pattern, which consisted of mottled and sieve based on fish scale and network, had no retraction with less increase in the CT number. These results suggest that the peculiar reflective echo pattern of Schistosomiasis Japonica was due to not only calcification but also fibrosis of the liver. (author)

  8. Chandra Resolves Cosmic X-ray Glow and Finds Mysterious New Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    While taking a giant leap towards solving one of the greatest mysteries of X-ray astronomy, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory also may have revealed the most distant objects ever seen in the universe and discovered two puzzling new types of cosmic objects. Not bad for being on the job only five months. Chandra has resolved most of the X-ray background, a pervasive glow of X-rays throughout the universe, first discovered in the early days of space exploration. Before now, scientists have not been able to discern the background's origin, because no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. "This is a major discovery," said Dr. Alan Bunner, Director of NASA's Structure andEvolution of the universe science theme. "Since it was first observed thirty-seven years ago, understanding the source of the X-ray background has been aHoly Grail of X-ray astronomy. Now, it is within reach." The results of the observation will be discussed today at the 195th national meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, Georgia. An article describing this work has been submitted to the journal Nature by Dr. Richard Mushotzky, of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., Drs. Lennox Cowie and Amy Barger at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, and Dr. Keith Arnaud of the University of Maryland, College Park. "We are all very excited by this finding," said Mushotzky. "The resolution of most of the hard X-ray background during the first few months of the Chandra mission is a tribute to the power of this observatory and bodes extremely well for its scientific future," Scientists have known about the X-ray glow, called the X-ray background, since the dawn of X-ray astronomy in the early 1960s. They have been unable to discern its origin, however, for no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. The German-led ROSAT mission, now completed, resolved much of the lower

  9. Congenital Tuberculosis: The Diagnostic Value of Chest X-ray Film%先天性肺结核:胸片在诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晔; 甘兰丰; 余世才; 林兰荣

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate plain chest film in the diagnosis of congenital tuberculosis. Materials and Methods X-ray findings in 5 cases with congenital tuberculosis, proved with bacteriology or autopsy and encountered during 1992~1999 at the authors' hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. Results Though the pulmonary X-ray manifestations were complex and variable, two patterns were considered to be comparatively characteristic: (1) diffuse miliary pattern, and (2) wide-spread patch-nodular pattern. Conclusion Chest X-ray film plays a very important role in the diagnosis of congenital tuberculosis, providing physicians with radiological clues leading to the correct diagnosis.%目的 探讨胸部X线片在先天性肺结核中的诊断价值。 材料与方法 对1992年10月~1999年4月经细菌学检查或尸解证实的先天性肺结核5例进行分析。 结果 肺部X线表现虽复杂多变,但有两种形式的表现仍具有一定的特征性:(1)弥漫性粟粒病变; (2)广泛分布的斑片-结节病变。 结论 胸部X线片在先天性肺结核的诊断中具有十分重要的作用,它常能首先提出诊断,引导临床及时确诊和治疗,降低死亡率。

  10. Clinical importance of digitized chest X-ray for detection of pulmonary infiltrations in bone marrow transplant patients during aplasia; Wertigkeit der digitalen Thoraxaufnahme bei der Detektion von Lungeninfiltraten knochenmarktransplantierten Patienten in der Aplasie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.; Maas, R.; Steiner, P.; Kramer, J.; Bumann, D.; Buecheler, E. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Zander, A.R. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Zentrum fuer Knochenmarktransplantation

    1999-10-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of digitized chest X-ray for the detection of pulmonary infiltrations in bone marrow transplant patients during aplasia. Methods: Digitized chest X-rays of 40 patients (21 female, 19 male) with 'Fever of unknown origin' (FUO) were evaluated concerning radiological signs of pulmonary infiltrations and correlated to clinical findings, blood chemistry, microbiology and bronchoscopy. Additionally, an individual risk profile was established. Results: In 11/40 patients pulmonary infiltrations were detected in digitized chest X-rays (group 1). 10/11 developed an infectious pulmonary infiltration. 29/40 patients developed no pulmonary infiltration (group 2). When fever increased for the first time (initial chest X-ray) a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 46%, 86%, 56%, 81% and for the chest X-rays in process of 61%, 79%, 68% and 73% was found. C-reactive protein and temperature increase occured statistically significantly earlier (p<0.05) in group 1 compared to group 2. The average latency of digital chest X-rays in comparison to c-reactive protein and temperature increase was 6 days. The incidence of risk factors was significantly higher in group 1 in comparison to group 2 (p<0.05). Conclusion: Digitized chest X-rays are not a reliable method for primary detection of pulmonary infiltrations after bone marrow transplantation. Individual risk factors have to be taken into consideration to indicate further diagnostic methods such as computed tomography at an earlier time. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Wertigkeit der digitalen Thoraxaufnahme bei der Detektion pulmonaler Infiltrate bei knochenmarktransplantierten Patienten in der Aplasie. Methoden: Digitale Thoraxaufnahmen von 40 Patienten (21 Frauen, 19 Maenner) in Aplasie mit Fieber unklarer Genese wurden nach Zeichen pulmonaler Infiltrate ausgewertet und mit klinischen, laborchemischen, mikrobiologischen und bronchoskopischen Befunden korreliert. Zusaetzlich wurde ein

  11. Measurements of patient chest dose for multi-slice X-ray CT examinations using PIN photodiode dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organ and tissue doses delivered during chest CT examinations were measured as a function of scanning parameters including tube current, slice thickness, and pitch of the multi-slice CT scanner. Measurements were carried out by using a chest dosimetry phantom that incorporated lung and vertebra models, and by putting PIN photodiode dosimeters into the phantom at sites of the esophagus or stomach, lung, bone marrow, and skin. Absorbed doses at each site in the phantom measured for a constant scan area indicated that these values could be precisely calculated from the value obtained at any scanning parameter by using inverse proportionality of dose to pitch and the data of x-ray intensity as a function of tube current and slice thickness measured for the CT scanner used. Relative dose at each site was found to be constant regardless of the scanning parameters, indicating that the dose value at each site could be calculated from that measured at only one point in the phantom. Effective doses and effective dose equivalents were estimated from organ or tissue doses for chest CT examinations, and were found to be 1.5 to 3 times larger than the average values of effective dose equivalent appearing in the literature. (author)

  12. Computed tomography of the chest with model-based iterative reconstruction using a radiation exposure similar to chest X-ray examination: preliminary observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neroladaki, Angeliki; Botsikas, Diomidis; Boudabbous, Sana; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic image quality of ultra-low-dose chest computed tomography (ULD-CT) obtained with a radiation dose comparable to chest radiography and reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in comparison with standard dose diagnostic CT (SDD-CT) or low-dose diagnostic CT (LDD-CT) reconstructed with FBP alone. Unenhanced chest CT images of 42 patients acquired with ULD-CT were compared with images obtained with SDD-CT or LDD-CT in the same examination. Noise measurements and image quality, based on conspicuity of chest lesions on all CT data sets were assessed on a five-point scale. The radiation dose of ULD-CT was 0.16 {+-} 0.006 mSv compared with 11.2 {+-} 2.7 mSv for SDD-CT (P < 0.0001) and 2.7 {+-} 0.9 mSv for LDD-CT. Image quality of ULD-CT increased significantly when using MBIR compared with FBP or ASIR (P < 0.001). ULD-CT reconstructed with MBIR enabled to detect as many non-calcified pulmonary nodules as seen on SDD-CT or LDD-CT. However, image quality of ULD-CT was clearly inferior for characterisation of ground glass opacities or emphysema. Model-based iterative reconstruction allows detection of pulmonary nodules with ULD-CT with radiation exposure in the range of a posterior to anterior (PA) and lateral chest X-ray. (orig.)

  13. Contribution of chest x-ray to the diagnosis of HIV virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After revising literature concerning Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumoniae (PCP), the authors undertook a close examination of the immunological system of the HIVab-positive patients that suffered opportunistic pneumopathy from PCP. Hundred-forty-three cases of HIVab-positive (mean age of 29), prevalently heroine drugusers, were studied. There were 13 AIDS, 26 ARC, 91 LAS cases and 13 patients with only Ab positivity for HIV. Four hundred chest radiographs were examined without previous knowledge of case histories. A small number of hilum and/or mediastinal lymphoadenopathies was observed. Moreover, percentage increase in acute lung inflammatory diseases, mainly interstitial, was seen. These data were correlated to the worsening of the HIV infection and to the developing of LAS, ARC and ADIS. In a number of cases there was radiological evidence of pregressed inflammatory episodes. The clinical pattern of PCP patients is dramatic and often fatal. Clinical-radiological cases with special reference to acute interstitial disease, caused by opportunistic agents, are presented

  14. Frequent chest X-ray fluoroscopy and breast cancer incidence among tuberculosis patients in Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of breast cancer was determined in 4940 women treated for tuberculosis between 1925 and 1954 in Massachusetts. Among 2573 women examined by X-ray fluoroscopy an average of 88 times during lung collapse therapy and followed for an average of 30 years, 147 breast cancers occurred in contrast to 113.6 expected [observed/expected (O/E) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-1.5]. No excess of breast cancer was seen among 2367 women treated by other means: 87 observed versus 100.9 expected. Increased rates for breast cancer were not apparent until about 10 to 15 years after the initial fluoroscopy examination. Excess risk then remained high throughout all intervals of follow-up, up to 50 years after first exposure. Age at exposure strongly influenced the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer with young women being at highest risk and those over age 40 being at lowest risk [relative risk (RR) = 1.06]. Mean radiation dose to the breast was estimated to be 79 cGy, and there was strong evidence for a linear relationship between dose and breast cancer risk. Allowing for a 10-year minimum latent period, the relative risk at 1 Gy was estimated as 1.61 and the absolute excess as 10.7 per 10(4) woman-years per gray. When compared to other studies, our data suggest that the breast is one of the most sensitive tissues to the carcinogenic force of radiation, that fractionated exposures are similar to single exposures of the same total dose in their ability to induce breast cancer, that risk remains high for many years after exposure, and that young women are especially vulnerable to radiation injury

  15. Training program for radiologic technologists for performing chest X-rays at inspiration in uncooperative children; Trainingsprogramm fuer MTRA zur Anfertigung von Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahmen in Inspiration bei unkooperativen Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langen, Heinz Jakob; Muras, S. [Missionsaerztliche Klinik, Wuerzburg (Germany). Radiologische Abt.; Kohlhauser-Vollmuth, C. [Missionsaerztliche Klinik, Wuerzburg (Germany). Kinderklinik am Moenchberg; Stenzel, M.; Beer, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2009-03-15

    A computer program was created to train technologists to perform chest X-rays in crying infants at maximum inspiration. Videos of 4 children were used. Using a computer program, the moment of deepest inspiration was determined in the video in the single frame view. During the normal running video, 14 technologists (3 with significant experience, 3 with little experience and 8 with very little experience in pediatric radiography) simulated a chest radiograph by pushing a button. The computer program stopped the video and the period of time to the optimal moment for a chest x-ray was calculated. Every technologist simulated 10 chest X-rays in each of the 4 video clips. The technologists then trained themselves to perform chest X-rays at optimal inspiration like playing a computer game. After training, the test was repeated. Changes were evaluated by t-test for unpaired samples (level of significance p < 0.05). Although the differences improved in all children, minimal deviation from the optimal moment for taking an X-ray at inspiration occurred in the periodically crying child (0.21 sec before and 0.13 sec after training). In a non-periodically crying infant, the largest differences were shown. The values improved significantly from 0.29 sec to 0.22 sec. The group with substantial experience in pediatric radiology improved significantly from 0.22 sec to 0.15 sec. The group with very little experience in pediatric radiology showed worse results (improvement from 0.29 sec to 0.21 sec). (orig.)

  16. Optimization of exposure parameters for pediatric chest x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Ye-Seul; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2012-03-01

    The pediatric patients are more susceptible to the effects of ionizing radiation than adults. Pediatric patients are smaller, more radiosensitive than adult patients and many cannot stand unassisted. Their characteristics affect the method of imaging projection and how dose is optimized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various technical parameters for the dose optimization in pediatric chest radiological examinations by evaluating effective dose and effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) including the scatter radiation from the object, the blur caused by the focal spot, geometric magnification and detector characteristics. For the tube voltages ranging from 40 to 90 kV in 10 kV increments at the focus-to-detector distance of 100, 110, 120, 150, 180 cm, the eDQE was evaluated at same effective dose. The results showed that the eDQE was largest at 60 kVp without and with an anti-scatter grid. Especially, the eDQE was considerably higher without the use of an anti-scatter grid on equivalent effective dose. This indicates that the reducing the scatter radiation did not compensate for the loss of absorbed effective photons in the grid. When the grid is not used the eDQE increased with increasing focus-to-detector distance because of the greater effective modulation transfer function (eMTF) with the lower focal spot blurring. In conclusion, for pediatric patients, the amount of scattered radiation is less, and the amount of grid attenuation increased unnecessary radiation dose.

  17. Spirometry and X-Ray Findings in Cases of Interstitial Lung Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Gagiya, Ankur Patel, Gautam Bhagat, Vipul Bhadiyadra, Khusbu Patel, Pratik Patel

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are very few studies are done on spirometry and X-ray findings in interstitial lung diseases (ILD) in India. Methods: Pulmonary function tests were performed on computerized spirometer, through Kit Microsystems in 30 patients of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) proven interstitial lung diseases in tertiary care centre. Results: Majority were in age group 40-49 years (mean age-45.23 years) and 66.5% male patients. Restrictive pattern (96.57%) was present in majority...

  18. Analysis of ancient Egyptian finds of metal artefacts by alpha-induced x-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of the particle-induced X-ray fluorescence method for the determination of the quantitative composition of objects is described. This is a non-destructive method of analysis, is accurate and highly sensitive. The method is particularly attractive for the examination of valuable archeological finds. The results of the analyses of various Egyptian metal artefacts carried out with the method are presented and discussed

  19. Clinical and X-ray findings of mycetoma (report of 18 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the characteristic clinical and X-ray findings of mycetoma and to enhance the understanding of mycetoma. Methods: The clinical and X-ray findings of mycetoma in 18 cases were analyzed with the review of literatures. There were 11 males and 7 females, the age ranged from 21-65 years, with the average of 41.5 year. The cases were all peasants, barefoot and with the history of trauma, which lasted for 4-17 years with the average of 9.8 year. Results: Sixty-seven lesions of bone in 18 cases (30 metatarsal, 20 cuneiform, 7 cuboid, 5 phalanx, 3 tibia, 2 calcaneus) were presented, including 8 rodent, 3 osteolytic, 3 cystic, 2 rodent and sclerosis changes, 2 sclerosis, 9 irregular thickened bony cortex, 7 irregular deleted bony cortex, 12 periosteal reaction, 3 irregular crest of bone in lesion, 13 rarefaction of bone cortex, 11 swimmy of surface arthrosis, 8 constriction of interval arthrosis, 2 spot calcification in the soft tissue, 2 sequestrum, and 2 soft tissue mass. The mycelium had been discovered in grain in 18 cases and the colour of grain was from brown to black. Conclusion: Mycetoma involves extensively and tends to involve multiple bones. The main X-ray findings are rodent and osteolytic changes

  20. Applying the PCXMCR software for dose assessment in patients submitted to chest and skull X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission of radiation and Units (ICRU) has recommended the use of Monte Carlo calculation software to assess the organ doses in patient undergoing x-ray examinations. The PCXMCR is a largely used computational program for assessing organ doses in chest and skull diagnostic radiology. The aim of this work was assess doses in critical and relevant organs of several patients in a hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. The work was done by recording the patient and geometrical data during several exams in the xray sectors of the hospital. Patients were classified according to their biotype as A, B and C and they were chosen for dose assessment s. Patients A, B and C have the smallest, the medium and the largest dimensions, respectively. Simulation was dose using the PCXMCR and organ doses were assessed. Analyses were carried out only for the highest exposed organs in terms of their contribution to the effective dose; doses due to the posteroanterior followed by lateral projections were added. During the chest examinations, the lungs got the highest doses. The lung doses were 23.5, 33.6, 45.4 μSv in patients A, B and C, respectively. During the skull examinations, the thyroid was the critical organ that gave the highest contribution to the effective dose. The thyroid doses were 30.5, 27.6 and 22.3 μSv, in patient A, B and C, respectively. Doses variations suggested that there is space for standardization of the radiological techniques and for optimizing the radiographic procedures to reduce patient doses. (author)

  1. Comparison of image quality among three x-ray systems for chest radiography: first step in optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three digital X-ray systems [one flat-panel (DR) and two computed radiography (CR)] for chest radiography in terms of the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) delivered to a polymethyl methacrylate phantom of 20 cm (equivalent to an adult patient) and image quality through of numerical evaluations using a test object (TO). The tube charge applied was ranged from 0.6 to 32 mAs, to a fixed tension of 125 kVp. The DR system presented the highest mean values of ESAK (615.9 μGy) along with the highest signal-to-noise ratio values, whereas CR systems showed a better high-contrast spatial resolution. Differences were statistically significant in both cases regarding the tube charge used. Thus, this parameter should be mainly considered to optimise the radiological protection through exposure settings selected. This survey represents the first effort to achieve optimisation in digital radiology for Chile. (authors)

  2. HIV-Tuberculosis: A Study of Chest X-Ray Patterns in Relation to CD4 Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesha Padyana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Fight against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is incomplete without addressing problems associated with difficult diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-Tuberculosis coinfected patients. Chest X-ray is a primary tool to evaluate tuberculosis in HIV. Aim: To assess and compare various radiological patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV patients and compare these patterns in relation to CD4 counts. Materials and Methods : Prospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in South India from September 2009 to July 2011 with 200 HIV positive patients. WHO guidelines were used for diagnosis of HIV and tuberculosis. Results : 27% of the patients had sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis, with higher incidence (33% among CD4 less than 200 as compared to CD4 more than 200 (14%. Infiltration (39% followed by consolidation (30%, cavity (11%, and lymphadenopathy (9% seen with CD4 less than 200. Infiltration (37.5% followed by cavity (25% and miliary (25% with CD4 above 200. Bilateral (68.5% and mid and lower zones or all zone involvement more commonly seen. Conclusion : In patients with CD4 lower than 200 noncavitory infiltration and consolidation predominated. Involvement of lungs was atypical; diffuse or mid and lower zone involvement than classical upper lobe involvement. A high index of suspicion is necessary for the accurate and timely diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV positive patients.

  3. Finding AGN in Deep X-ray Flux States with Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Grupe, Dirk; Bush, Mason; Pruett, Chelsea; Ernst, Sonny; Barber, Taylor; Carter, Jen; Schartel, Norbert; Rodriguez, Pedro; Santos-Lleó, Maria

    2015-01-01

    We report on our ongoing project of finding Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that go into deep X-ray flux states detected by Swift. Swift is performing an extensive study on the flux and spectral variability of AGN using Guest Investigator and team fill-in programs followed by triggering XMM_Newton for deeper follow-up observations. So far this program has been very successful and has led to a number of XMM-Newton follow up observations, including Mkn 335, PG 0844+349, and RX J2340.8-5329. Recent analysis of new Swift AGN observations reveal several AGN went into a very low X-ray flux state, particularly Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies. One of these is RX J2317-4422, which dropped by a factor of about 60 when compared to the ROSAT All-Sky Survey.

  4. X-ray fluorescence as a tool for investigating archaeological finds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) is an outstanding method for investigations of various objects of historic and cultural significance, as it is non-destructive, can be used without any sampling of the analysed artefacts and, if necessary, measurements can be carried out in situ. The laboratory at CTU FNSPE is equipped for XRFA with radionuclides 55Fe, 238Pu and 241Am and with a small X-ray tube (30 kV) as excitation sources, and with Si(Li) and Si-PIN semiconductor spectrometers for detecting XRF spectra. This paper deals with XRFA of archaeological finds. Practical examples are selected from investigations of ceramic objects from excavations in the Czech Republic

  5. X-ray fluorescence as a tool for investigating archaeological finds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cechak, T. [Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionising Radiation, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Hlozek, M. [Department of Archaeology and Museology, Masaryk University, Faculty of Arts, Arna Novaka 1, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: musilek@fjfi.cvut.cz; Musilek, L.; Trojek, T. [Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionising Radiation, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2007-09-21

    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) is an outstanding method for investigations of various objects of historic and cultural significance, as it is non-destructive, can be used without any sampling of the analysed artefacts and, if necessary, measurements can be carried out in situ. The laboratory at CTU FNSPE is equipped for XRFA with radionuclides {sup 55}Fe, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am and with a small X-ray tube (30 kV) as excitation sources, and with Si(Li) and Si-PIN semiconductor spectrometers for detecting XRF spectra. This paper deals with XRFA of archaeological finds. Practical examples are selected from investigations of ceramic objects from excavations in the Czech Republic.

  6. The MRI features of chondroblastoma with correlation of X-ray and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the MR imaging features of chondroblastoma, and to address the correlation with findings of X-ray radiography and CT. Methods: The imaging findings including MRI, X-ray radiography and CT of 16 chondroblastomas proved by surgery and pathology were analyzed and correlated with each other. Results: All sixteen chondroblastomas involved the epiphyses of long bones, with varying sizes from 0.8 cm to 5.1 cm and lobulation. They were iso- and hypo-intense on T1WI and had heterogeneous signals on T2WI. They were of soft tissue density on CT, and had areas of calcifications and low density. The rims were hypointense on both T1WI and T2WI and showed hyperdensity on CT. The lesions were surrounded by edema of bone marrow which was hypointense on T1WI and hyperintense on fat suppressed T2WI, while on X-Ray film and CT it was hyperdense sclerotic area. The adjacent soft tissues were swelling. Nine cases had periosteal abnormalities on MRI in which 8 of 9 periosteal abnormalities were distant from the primary lesions, and 6 of them showed hyperdense perosteal new bone on CT. Twelve cases had joint effusion on MRI and CT detected 6 of them. The lesions had heterogeneous enhancement, and there was enhancement in areas of edema within bone marrow, periosteal reaction and adjacent soft tissue. Chondroblastoma was intermediate and hyperintense on DWI, and the intermediate areas on both T1WI and T2WI, together with areas of bone marrow edema, periosteal reaction and soft tissue swelling, were hyperintense on DWI. Conclusions: The MRI, X-ray and CT can reflect the pathological changes of chondroblastoma from different aspects. The characteristics of chondroblastoma can be better appreciated by combining different imaging methods. (authors)

  7. Teratoma do mediastino simulando derrame pleural no estudo radiológico do tórax Mediastinal teratoma mimicking pleural effusion on chest X-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angelo Martins de Castro Júnior

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas mediastinais representam 8 a 13% dos tumores nesta região. Uma paciente de 27 anos apresentou-se com dor torácica e dispnéia de evolução arrastada. O radiograma de tórax revelou opacidade quase total do hemitórax direito, levando à suspeita de derrame pleural. A tomografia de tórax evidenciou coleção pleural heterogênea, de contornos regulares (10,1 x 11,7 cm, nos dois terços inferiores do hemitórax direito, sem envolvimento de estruturas adjacentes. Na toracotomia exploradora, pela hipótese de teratoma cístico benigno do mediastino, realizou-se ressecção total da lesão, com boa evolução pós-operatória. A apresentação atípica e grande crescimento do tumor dificultaram o diagnóstico pré-operatório.Teratomas account for 8-13% of all mediastinal tumors. A 27-year-old patient presented with chest pain and dyspnea of prolonged evolution. A chest X-ray revealed near total opacification of the right hemithorax. On a tomography scan of the chest, a collection of heterogeneous fluid, with irregular borders and 10.1 x 11.7 cm in size, was seen in the pleura of the lower two-thirds of the right hemithorax but was not encroaching on any of the adjacent structures. Based on the hypothesis that these findings represented a benign mediastinal teratoma, an exploratory thoracotomy was performed, during which such a teratoma was found and completely excised. The post-operative evolution was favorable. The atypical presentation and considerable growth of the tumor hindered the pre-operative diagnosis.

  8. Radiation doses and image quality in pediatric chest X-ray for the diagnosis of pneumonia in selected Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Pneumonia and acute lower respiratory infections in general, is the leading cause of child death in developing countries. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 4 millions of children die annually due to this disease. Despite the growing use of vaccination as an alternate approach to reduce mortality, the increasing antimicrobial resistance and the high costs of vaccines remain important obstacles in the global struggle against the disease. The usual treatment strategy begins with a clinical examination of the patient followed by the prescription of a chest X-ray. Radiography would appear as the best available method for diagnosing pneumonia only if radiologists (and other health professionals such as pediatricians) knew how to interpret the images showed in the radiographs, and these meeting the standards of quality (anatomic structures, image contrast and optical density, and patient dose among other factors). On the other hand, special attention should be paid on patient doses due to children's specific radiosensitivity, repeated and extended use of chest x-ray in all Radiology Departments, and high rejection rate due to both equipment malfunction and to human skills shortcomings. Patient doses of chest X-ray performed to children less than 5 years old in PAHO Sentinel Hospitals for surveillance of bacterial pneumonias in various Latin American countries were estimated using technical parameters and equipment specifications. Image quality was compared to WHO criteria for chest X-rays quality. Results showing differences in patient doses translates on one hand the impact of specific characteristics of the radiological equipment, including equipment limitations and performance of the radiographs and on the other various and divers levels of health professionals skills and training on image quality interpretation and dose optimization. The study concludes that professionals' training and education on chest radiographs image quality constitutes

  9. Finding Rare AGN: X-ray Number Counts of Chandra Sources in Stripe 82

    CERN Document Server

    LaMassa, Stephanie M; Glikman, Eilat; Cappelluti, Nico; Civano, Francesca; Comastri, Andrea; Treister, Ezequiel; Arifin,; Boehringer, Hans; Cardamone, Carie; Chon, Gayoung; Kephart, Miranda; Murray, Stephen S; Richards, Gordon; Ross, Nic; Rozner, Joshua S; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We present the first results of a wide area X-ray survey within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, a 300 deg$^2$ region of the sky with a substantial investment in multi-wavelength coverage. We analyzed archival {\\it Chandra} observations that cover 7.5 deg$^2$ within Stripe 82 ("Stripe 82 ACX"), reaching 4.5$\\sigma$ flux limits of 7.9$\\times10^{-16}$, 3.4$\\times10^{-15}$ and 1.8$\\times10^{-15}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ in the soft (0.5-2 keV), hard (2-7 keV) and full (0.5-7 keV) bands, to find 774, 239 and 1118 X-ray sources, respectively. Three hundred twenty-one sources are detected only in the full band and 9 sources are detected solely in the soft band. Utilizing data products from the {\\it Chandra} Source Catalog, we construct independent Log$N$-Log$S$ relationships, detailing the number density of X-ray sources as a function of flux, which show general agreement with previous {\\it Chandra} surveys. We compare the luminosity distribution of Stripe 82 ACX with the smaller, deeper CDF-S + E-CDFS...

  10. Asbestos-related chest X-ray changes among Greek merchant marine seamen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred forty-one retired Greek mariners were examined radiologically for asbestos-related lung disease. Thirty-eight (27%) had small opacities classified as ILO category 1/0 or more; 37 (26%) had radiologic evidence of pleural lesions; 17 (12%) had both parenchymal and pleural lesions; and a total of 58 (41%) had one or more radiologic findings of asbestos-related lung disease. In discriminant analysis, duration of maritime employment was predictive of pleural lesions, but the association was not statistically significant (one-tail, p = .16). The prevalence of pleural lesions was also higher among sailors than among officers, and this association was statistically significant (one-tail, p = .05). In this group, none of the occupational variables studied (age, duration of maritime employment, and rank) was related to lung fibrosis. After controlling by multiple regression for mutual confounding effects, suggestive negative associations for the presence of pleural lesions were found with FVC (one-tail, p = .13) as well as with FEF25% (one-tail, p = .09) and FEF50% (one-tail, p = .07). By contrast, no association was found between pulmonary fibrosis and any of the respiratory volumes. The results of this study suggest that mariners may present evidence of asbestos-related disease after many years from onset of exposure on ships

  11. Actinomycosis involving the chest wall: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of pulmonary actinomycosis with extension to involve the chest wall that were evaluated using computerized tomography are reported. In both cases, the relation of pulmonary and chest wall disease was best shown using CT

  12. Pediatric thyroid carcinoma with lung metastases: A case of 7-years' follow-up by chest x-ray and scintigram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    Miliary lung metastasis is well known in thyroid carcinoma. However, thyroid carcinoma itself is very rare in children. We have seen a case of papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid in a 12 year old boy. He had extensive nodular lung metastasis on the chest x-ray, which were confirmed by 131-I scintigraphy and biopsy of a cervical lymph node. Radioactive iodine therapy was instituted for 5 years and nodular lung metastasis effectively disappeared on the follow-up chest x-rays. A lung scintigraphy with 131-I, however, showed residual uptake in the lung suggesting that scintigraphy is more sensitive and, therefore useful for evaluating the management of the thyroid carcinoma.

  13. The effect of dexamethasone on respirator-dependent very-low-birth-weight infants is best predicted by chest X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrod, L.; Neuhaus, T. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany); Horwitz, A.E. [Dept. of Radiology/Paediatric Radiology, Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany); Speer, C.P. [Dept. of Neonatology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    Background. Chronic lung disease (CLD) in premature infants shows a variable clinical course with different radiological manifestations. Objective. To evaluate the correlation between parameters of transmembrane permeability [albumin/secretory component (SC)] and oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA)/SC] in tracheal aspirate fluid (TAF) and radiological findings with the effect of a 5-day course of dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg per day). Materials and methods. Fifty ventilator-dependent premature infants with birth weights < 1,500 g (gestational ages 23-31 weeks) and radiological signs of early chronic lung disease (CLD) were treated with dexamethasone at day of life 5-27 (median 10 days) because of respiratory deterioration. TAF was collected serially. Chest X-rays taken before and 8-10 days after dexamethasone were scored for changes of opacification, consolidation and hyperinflation/emphysema, and classified into three groups. Results. Twenty-four infants had a positive response to dexamethasone, defined as a reduction of the ventilation index FiO{sub 2} x mean airway pressure > 40 % at day 5, compared to pretreatment values. About 80 % of the responders showed homogeneous lung opacification on chest X-ray, reflecting leaky lung syndrome. In contrast, seven of eight infants with predominantly emphysema on radiology were non-responders; 80 % of infants with a mixed radiological picture characterized by predominance of consolidations alternating with regions of emphysema were also non-responders. Ratios of albumin/SC and MDA/SC in TAF decreased significantly within 3 days after the onset of dexamethasone. However, MDA/SC was persistently higher in non-responders compared to responders. Opaque lungs were largely improved by dexamethasone, in contrast to streaky or patchy consolidations and emphysema. In a logistic regression model, radiographic classification was the most important factor influencing the response to dexamethasone with a positive predictive value of 86

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

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  15. Chest X-Ray

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  20. Chest X-Ray

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  1. Finding AGN in Deep X-ray Flux States with Swift

    OpenAIRE

    Grupe, Dirk; Komossa, S.; Bush, Mason; Pruett, Chelsea; Ernst, Sonny; Barber, Taylor; Carter, Jen; Schartel, Norbert; RODRIGUEZ, Pedro; Santos-Lleó, Maria

    2015-01-01

    We report on our ongoing project of finding Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that go into deep X-ray flux states detected by Swift. Swift is performing an extensive study on the flux and spectral variability of AGN using Guest Investigator and team fill-in programs followed by triggering XMM_Newton for deeper follow-up observations. So far this program has been very successful and has led to a number of XMM-Newton follow up observations, including Mkn 335, PG 0844+349, and RX J2340.8-5329. Recent...

  2. The effect of dexamethasone on respirator-dependent very-low-birth-weight infants is best predicted by chest X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Chronic lung disease (CLD) in premature infants shows a variable clinical course with different radiological manifestations. Objective. To evaluate the correlation between parameters of transmembrane permeability [albumin/secretory component (SC)] and oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA)/SC] in tracheal aspirate fluid (TAF) and radiological findings with the effect of a 5-day course of dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg per day). Materials and methods. Fifty ventilator-dependent premature infants with birth weights 2 x mean airway pressure > 40 % at day 5, compared to pretreatment values. About 80 % of the responders showed homogeneous lung opacification on chest X-ray, reflecting leaky lung syndrome. In contrast, seven of eight infants with predominantly emphysema on radiology were non-responders; 80 % of infants with a mixed radiological picture characterized by predominance of consolidations alternating with regions of emphysema were also non-responders. Ratios of albumin/SC and MDA/SC in TAF decreased significantly within 3 days after the onset of dexamethasone. However, MDA/SC was persistently higher in non-responders compared to responders. Opaque lungs were largely improved by dexamethasone, in contrast to streaky or patchy consolidations and emphysema. In a logistic regression model, radiographic classification was the most important factor influencing the response to dexamethasone with a positive predictive value of 86 %, followed by albumin/SC ratio. Conclusions. The optimum timing of dexamethasone treatment may be determined by the stage of developing CLD and radiological findings rather than by the age of the premature infant. (orig.)

  3. X-ray findings of foot lesions in young stored pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot lesions of young stored pigs detected macroscopically were investigated using hard and soft X-ray machines to study internal pathologic changes. Macroscopic findings: Lesions were observed in 83 of the 1, 400 feet examined (5.9%). Among them, 28 had “five common lesions”(heel, sole and toe erosions, white-line lesion, and false sand-crack), and 32 had disparity of claw size. Theothers were 7 “bush-foot”, 5 fetlock joint lesions, 2 overgrowth claws and 9 accessary claw lesions (5 “thimbling”, 2 swelling and 2 polyductyly). X-ray findings: 34 of 83 feet (41.0%) with macroscopical lesions showed internal pathologic changes upon radiographic examination. Malformations such as dysostosis and polydactyly were visualized in 22 of 34 feet (61.1%). In the other 12 feet, extremely severe changes such as periosteitis of the phalanx or suppurative arthritis were visualized. However, in all of 28 feet with “five common lesions”, no abnormal bone architecture was detected radiographically

  4. AORTIC KNOB DIAMETER IN CHEST X-RAY AND ITS RELATION WITH AGE, HEART DIAMETER AND TRANSVERSE DIAMETER OF THORAX IN A POPULATION OF BANKURA DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available : CONTEXT BACKGROUND: Aortic knob or aortic knuckle is an important finding in chest radiograph. It may give the first clue of cardiovascular disease. Though many sophisticated investigations are there to diagnose cardiovascular diseases, but these investigating tools are only available in urban developed areas. They are hardly available in rural developing areas of West Bengal, where low cost X-ray machine is available. So, still today chest X-ray is the first investigation in suspected cardiac disease especially in rural areas. There should be a normal reference value of aortic knob diameter (AD with variation of age and sex. The value may vary with Heart diameter (HD and Transverse thoracic diameter (TD. In our study we tried to find out all these parameters. SETTING: Sub-divisional hospitals in Bishnupur and Chhatna blocks, Bankura, West Bengal. DESIGN: Simple random sampling method DURATION OF STUDY: Two years. METHOD: 650 people attending the out-patient department, meeting the deserved criteria are selected. Their chest X-ray were taken, aortic diameter, heart diameter and transverse thoracic diameter were measured. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: From these data, we calculate the mean and standard deviation and lastly correlation coefficient. RESULT: We find the mean average diameter of aortic knob is 3.10cm±3.34 in male and 3.076cm±3.9 in female. We also note that aortic diameter in both male and female increases in increasing age. We also note that there lies positive correlation of aortic diameter with heart diameter and transverse diameter of thorax. CONCLUSION: Aortic knob diameter is slightly more in male than in female. It increases as age increases. It has got positive correlation with heart diameter and transverse thoracic diameter.

  5. INTEGRAL finds renewed X-ray activity of the Neutron star X-ray transient SAX J1750.8-2900

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Fernandez, Celia; Chenevez, Jérôme; Kuulkers, Erik;

    2015-01-01

    INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring observations (ATel #438) on UT 13 September 2015 18:50-22:32 reveal renewed X-ray activity from the low-mass X-ray binary transient and Type I X-ray burster SAX J1750.8-2900 (IAU Circ. #6597). The last outburst from this source was reported in 2011 (ATels #3170,...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Urography and X-ray Urography Findings of Congenital Megaureter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-ran Li; Xiang-ke Du; Tian-Iong Huo

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the imaging findings of congenital megaureter in order to enhance the understanding of this disease.Methods Image data of 5 patients with congenital megaureter and 2 misdiagnosed patients were analyzed, and image findings of congenital megaureter were summarized. Elscint Prestig 2.0T superconductive magnetic resonance urography (MRU) with conventional sequence (spin-echo, T1WI 560 ms/16 ms; fast spin-echo, T2WI 9600 ms/96 ms) was performed. Raw data were acquired with fast spin-echo sequence from heavy T2-weighted image (9600 ms/120 ms). Post-processing method of MRU was the maximum intensity projection with three-dimensional reconstruction in the workstation. Intravenous pyelography (IVP) was conducted, in which X-ray films were taken 7 minutes, 15 minutes, and 30 minutes after injecting contrast agent, except that in 2 patients the films were taken delayed at 60 and 90 minutes. X-ray retrograde pyelography was performed on 2 patients, successful in one but failed in the other. Results The dilated ureter showed hypointensity on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images in conventional MRI. The mass wall was intact, uniform in thickness, and showing hypointensity on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. The MRH images showed a retroperitoneal mass appearing as an elongated tubular cystic structure spreading from kidney to bladder. MRH also revealed dilated calices and renal pelvis, pelviureteric obstruction, and renal duplication. The main signs of congenital megaureter in X-urography was significant dilatation of ureter, or normal renal pelvis with ureter dilatation,hydronephrosis, deformity, and displacement.Conclusions MRU with X-urography could visualize the characteristics of congenital megaureter, including the dilation of renal pelvis and ureter, calculi, urinary tract duplication, and stenosis location. The two techniques can complement each other in disease diagnosis and provide more detailed information for

  7. X-ray and CT findings of soft tissue and bone infections secondary to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To summarize X-ray and CT findings of soft tissue and bone infections secondary to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: The data of X-ray and CT findings of soft tissue and bone infections in 18 patients with AIDS were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results: Of 18 patients with AIDS, the CT features of soft tissue demonstrated that subcutaneous patchy high density in 1 case which considered as cellulitis, round low density lesions with ring enhancement in 6 cases which considered as soft tissue abscesses, heterogeneous density lesions with peripheral enhancement in 1 case which considered as pyomyositis. Of 18 patients with AIDS, septic arthritis was found in 4 cases involving knee lesion in 3 cases and hip lesion. In the 4 case, the X-ray films showed bony destruction in 2 cases and the CT showed bone destruction in 3 cases and arthroedema in 4 cases. Of 18 patients with AIDS, osteomyelitis was found in 9 cases of which tuberculosis was considered in. 8 cases and vertebral involvement in 6 cases. In the 9 cases, the X-ray films and CT displayed bony destruction, hyperostosis, small sequestra, and intervertebral space narrowing. Of 18 patients with AIDS, costal lesions were found in 3 cases in which the CT showed expandable bony destruction. Of 18 patients with AIDS, ilium and sacroiliac joint lesions were found in 1 case in which the X-ray films and CT showed bony destruction, sequestra, and joint widening. Of 18 patients with AIDS, chronic pyogenic osteomyelitis of femur was found in 1 case in which the X-ray films showed bony destruction, hyperostosis osteosclerosis, and periosteal reaction. Conclusion: The X-ray and CT features of soft tissue and bone infections secondary to AIDS are characterized. The X-ray and CT are useful tools to early diagnose soft tissue and bone infections secondary to AIDS. (authors)

  8. Histiocytic disorders of the chest: imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jitesh; Kanne, Jeffrey P; Meyer, Cristopher A; Pipavath, Sudhakar N J; Schmidt, Rodney A; Swanson, Jonathan O; Godwin, J David

    2015-01-01

    Histiocytic disorders of the chest comprise a broad spectrum of diseases. The lungs may be involved in isolation or as part of systemic disease. Some of these disorders are primary and have unknown etiology, and others result from a histiocytic response to a known cause. Among primary histiocytic disorders, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is the most common; others include Erdheim-Chester disease and Rosai-Dorfman disease. Adult PLCH occurs almost exclusively in adults aged 20-40 years who smoke. Pediatric PLCH is extremely rare and typically occurs as part of multisystemic disease. Erdheim-Chester disease affects middle-aged and older adults; thoracic involvement usually occurs as part of systemic disease. Rosai-Dorfman disease affects children and young adults and manifests as painless cervical lymphadenopathy. Examples of secondary histiocytic disorders are storage diseases such as Gaucher disease, Niemann-Pick disease, and Fabry disease; pneumoconiosis such as silicosis and coal workers' pneumoconiosis; and infections such as Whipple disease and malakoplakia. These disorders are characterized at histopathologic examination on the basis of infiltration of alveoli or the pulmonary interstitium by histiocytes, which are a group of cells that includes macrophages and dendritic cells. Dendritic cells are a heterogeneous group of nonphagocytic antigen-presenting immune cells. Immunohistochemical markers help to distinguish among various primary histiocytic disorders. Characteristic radiologic findings in the appropriate clinical context may obviate biopsy to establish a correct diagnosis. However, in the absence of these findings, integration of clinical, pathologic, and radiologic features is required to establish a diagnosis. PMID:25763722

  9. Prevalence of occupational pleural thickening: a look at chest x-rays from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of occupational pleural thickening in the United States in the mid-1970s was estimated; since asbestos often reduces pleural thickening, this estimate in turn was used to estimate the presence of asbestos exposure. Chest x-rays obtained by the 1971-1975 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were reread by three readers using the International Labour Office criteria for diagnosis of pleural thickening consistent with dust exposure. All 289 x-rays showing any pleural abnormalities plus a 3-to-1 age-, sex-, and race-matched control series were reread. Using two of three readings as positive, and extrapolating to the US population from this defined sample, the authors showed that 2.3% of males and 0.2% of females had occupational pleural thickening on x-ray, with a strong increase with age in white males. This provides a US population estimate of 1.3 million people with occupational pleural thickening and approximately 8 million people with asbestos exposure in the mid-1970s. This cohort might make a substantial contribution to cancer mortality into the next century

  10. Chest Radiography Findings in Primary Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Milković, Đurđica; Richter, Darko; Zoričić-Letoja, Ivka; Raos, Miljenko; Koncul, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Plain chest radiography plays a major role in the diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary tuberculosis in childhood. The aim of our study was to investigate the distribution of characteristic chest radiographic findings at diagnosis in children with pulmonary tuberculosis. The age of the patients and the type and localization of radiographic changes at admission were retrospectively analyzed. We reviewed chest radiographs in 204 children admitted from January 1, 1991 until June 30, 1994 for newl...

  11. Prevalence of Radiologic Findings in Patients with Blunt Chest Trauma in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haghighi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Chest trauma due to its vital organs can be very dangerous and lethal. Our country has the first grade of accidents in the word, so rapid diagnosis and treatment in patients with chest trauma is necessary. One cost benefit and available imaging modality in each Region of our country is X-ray."nCXR interpretation needs to knowledge about prevalence of abnormal Radiologic findings and their accuracy. Therefore, it is necessary to perform a study about the rate of CXR abnormal findings in patients with blunt chest trauma."nPatients and Methods: In this descriptive and prospective study, CXR of patients with blunt chest trauma that admitted in Alzahra and Kashani hospitals studied and percent of vital radiologic findings prevalence determined."nResults: The final results were as below:"n1- Rib FX (18.5% (143, 2- Hemothorax (13.6% (105, 3- Pneumothorax (11.8% (91, 4- Sub cutaneous emphysema (10.2% (79, 5- Lung laceration (8.1% (63, 6- Mediastinal winding (6.4% (50, 7- Clavicular and sternal FX (5.8% (44, 8- Pneumo mediastinum (4.1% (32, 9- spinal FX (3.5% (27, 10- Great vessels injury signs (1.4% (11."nConclusion: According to above results, accurate investigation of CXR, helps physician and radiologist to find any threatened finding, so determination of next step as clinical follow up or spiral CT, angiography or surgery; accordingly.

  12. Evaluation of the occupational doses in the ward room of a public hospital of Sergipe, Brazil, during chest X-rays examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiology is one of the main tools for medical diagnosis. The substantial growth in the number of radiological interventions is being accompanied by the interest with the patient, technical and clinical body's safety. The use of portable X rays equipment for medical diagnosis in hospitals is a common practice different types of examinations. At ward room, the chest radiography is one of the most requested. During this X ray examination, besides the technical team involved, in the room are also exposed to the scattered radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate and to quantify the kerma rates, in the air, at different distances of the equipment and to evaluate the doses received by the workers in the ward room of a public hospital. Besides, safe distances were determined for two radiography techniques. Different exams were evaluated and the typical parameters for performing the examination were determined. From that, the kerma rates were measured in the air using a chest phantom. By the results, it was possible to draw a dose map of a ward room of a public hospital of Sergipe. The knowledge of the dose maps allows the technical body to execute the radiological procedures in a safer way, minimizing the risks for them and for the general public. (author)

  13. X-ray fluorescence in investigations of cultural relics and archaeological finds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musilek, Ladislav, E-mail: musilek@fjfi.cvut.cz [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Brehova 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); Cechak, Tomas; Trojek, Tomas [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Brehova 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-15

    Some characteristic features of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis make it an ideal method for investigations of cultural relics and archaeological finds. It has therefore become a standard method used in archaeometry. Paintings, frescos, manuscripts, pottery, metalwork, glass, and many other objects are analysed with the aim of recognising their materials, production technologies and origin, and for identifying counterfeits. This paper reviews various techniques used in XRF analyses of works of art, summarises the advantages and limitations of the method, and presents some typical examples of its use. The general review is supplemented by some techniques used and some results achieved at CTU-FNSPE in Prague. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review of XRF analysis in archaeometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Instrumentation for XRF analysis with various sources of radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Materials and artefacts, which can be measured and information, which can be obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XRF analysis of artworks at the CTU Prague.

  14. Detection of metastases in breast cancer patients. Comparison of FDG PET with chest X-ray, bone scintigraphy and ultrasound of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distant metastases at primary diagnosis are a prognostic key factor in breast cancer patients and play a central role in therapeutic decisions. To detect them, chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound, and bone scintigraphy are performed as standard of care in Germany and many centers worldwide. Although FDG PET detects metastatic disease with high accuracy, its diagnostic value in breast cancer still needs to be defined. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of FDG PET with conventional imaging. Patients, methods: a retrospective analysis of 119 breast cancer patients who presented for staging was performed. Whole-body FDG-PET (n = 119) was compared with chest X-ray (n = 106) and bone scintigraphy (n = 95). Each imaging modality was independently assessed and classified for metastasis (negative, equivocal and positive). The results of abdominal ultrasound (n = 100) were classified as negative and positive according to written reports. Imaging results were compared with clinical follow-up including follow-up imaging procedures and histopathology. Results: FDG-PET detected distant metastases with a sensitivity of 87.3% and a specificity of 83.3%. In contrast, the sensitivity and specificity of combined conventional imaging procedures was 43.1% and 98.5%, respectively. Regarding so-called equivocal and positive results as positive, the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET was 93.1% and 76.6%, respectively, compared to 61.2% and 86.6% for conventional imaging. Regarding different locations of metastases the sensitivity of FDG PET was superior in the detection of pulmonary metastases and lymph node metastases of the mediastinum in comparison to chest X-ray, whereas the sensitivity of FDG PET in the detection of bone and liver metastases was comparable with bone scintigraphy and ultrasound of the abdomen. Conclusions: FDG-PET is more sensitive than conventional imaging procedures for detection of distant breast cancer metastases and should be

  15. Near monochromatic X-rays for digital slot-scan mammography: initial findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray spectra are composed of a broad bremsspectrum and anode-characteristic emission lines. In mammography typically molybdenum (Mo), rhodium (Rh) or tungsten (W) anodes are used in combination with Mo, Rh or aluminium filters. Only the photons with energies between 17 and 22 keV of the resulting spectrum are suitable for the soft tissue imaging needed for mammography. The aim of this article is to present first results obtained with a monochromator module mounted at the exit of the X-ray tube of a conventional clinical mammography unit. The experimental setup consists of a Siemens Mammomat 300, an X-ray monochromator module and a linear array detector for image acquisition. The technique is similar to the slot-scan technique known from digital mammography. The experimental machine allows to obtain images both with polychromatic and monochromatic X-rays. Initial evaluation of the system was performed by examination of a contrast-detail phantom (CD-MAM-phantom, Nijmegen, The Netherlands). Images done with the new monochromatic technique were compared to images of the phantom done with polychromatic spectra, with film-screen mammography as well as with digital mammography. The new technique with monochromatic slot-scan mammography resulted in correct identification of 93% of the phantom. Digital slot-scan mammography with polychromatic beam resulted in correct identification of 87%, digital full-field mammography in 83% and conventional film-screen mammography in 70% of the phantom. The results suggest that monochromatization has a potential for improving image quality or decreasing dose in X-ray mammography. (orig.)

  16. Validation of dental X-ray by cytokine RANTES – comparison of X-ray findings with cytokine overexpression in jawbone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lechner J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Johann Lechner Clinic for Integrative Dentistry, Munich, Germany Introduction: There is a need to clarify the extent to which the most common diagnostic tool in dentistry – two-dimensional panoramic tomography (2D-OPG – is suitable for identifying fatty degenerative osteolysis of jawbone (FDOJ. Materials and methods: To obtain a qualitative assessment of edentulous jawbone sections, the results from 2D-OPG with a defined X-ray density (XrDn, expression of the cytokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted, and a transalveolar ultrasound system for measuring jawbone density were compared. Results: The difference in the XrDn of healthy jawbone and FDOJ are minimal, whereas RANTES is up to 25-fold higher in FDOJ. In contrast to 2D-OPG, transalveolar ultrasound showed coincidental findings in FDOJ areas. Discussion: Comparisons of the data revealed a discrepancy between the XrDn of 2D-OPGs and the medullary osteopathies in the jawbone like FDOJ. Conclusion: The data suggest that there is a critical attitude toward the use of 2D-OPG as a sole imaging diagnostic tool for assessing chronic inflammatory processes in the jawbone. Specifically, 2D-OPG is objectively not suitable for depicting FDOJ. Keywords: osteonecrotic jawbone, silent inflammation, RANTES, bone density measurement 

  17. Evaluation of the entrance skin dose due to paediatric chest X-rays examinations carried out at a great hospital in Rio de Janeiro city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dosimetric survey in paediatric radiology is currently being carried out at the paediatric unit of a great hospital in Rio de Janeiro city, aiming the assessment of patient doses and image quality. The aim of this work was to estimate the entrance skin dose for frontal and lateral chest X-rays exposure to paediatric patients. Three examination techniques were investigated, namely PA, AP and lateral positions. For entrance skin dose evaluation, two different TL dosimeters were used, namely LiF:Mg,Ti and CaSO4:Dy. The age intervals considered were 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results obtained with both dosimeters are similar and the entrance skin dose values evaluated for the different age intervals considered are compared with previous values found in Brazil and also in Europe. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the entrance skin dose due to paediatric chest X-rays examinations carried out at a great hospital in Rio de Janeiro city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamadain, K.E.M. [Sudan Univ. of Science and Technology, Khartoum (Sudan). Faculty of Sciences. Physics Dept.; Azevedo, A.C.P. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Rosa, L.A.R. da; Mota, H.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Medica; Goncalves, O.D. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Guebel, M.R.N. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Pediatria e Puericultura Martagao Gesteira

    2001-07-01

    A dosimetric survey in paediatric radiology is currently being carried out at the paediatric unit of a great hospital in Rio de Janeiro city, aiming the assessment of patient doses and image quality. The aim of this work was to estimate the entrance skin dose for frontal and lateral chest X-rays exposure to paediatric patients. Three examination techniques were investigated, namely PA, AP and lateral positions. For entrance skin dose evaluation, two different TL dosimeters were used, namely LiF:Mg,Ti and CaSO4:Dy. The age intervals considered were 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results obtained with both dosimeters are similar and the entrance skin dose values evaluated for the different age intervals considered are compared with previous values found in Brazil and also in Europe. (author)

  19. Therapeutic options in chronic heart failure. Findings on chest X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution covers drugless therapeutic options for chronic heart failure: the implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD), the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), the interventional catheter treatment of functional mitral insufficiency, and mechanical heart supporting systems and heart transplantation.

  20. Dose levels in conventional X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There were a series of measures in the General Hospital of Fresnillo in the X-ray Department in the areas of X-1 and X-2-ray rooms and in the neonatal intensive care unit 2, was determined the dose surface entry in eyes, thyroid and gonads for patients undergoing to X-ray study of chest Tele by thermoluminescent dosimetry. Five dosemeters were used in each one of the scans; so find the following dose ranges 20 +- 23 mGy to 350 +- 41 mGy. With the results obtained we can conclude that the procedures used and the equipment calibration is adequate. (Author)

  1. WE-E-18A-02: Enhancement of Lung Tumor Visibility by Dual-Energy X-Ray Imaging in An Anthropomorphic Chest Phantom Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Intrafractional lung tumor motion during radiotherapy can be compensated for by tracking the tumor position using x-ray imaging and adapting the treatment in real-time. However, locating the tumor with an automated template-matching algorithm is often challenging if the tumor is obscured by ribs. This study investigates the feasibility of creating dual-energy (DE) images of the chest with increased tumor visibility on an Elekta XVI system. Methods: An anthropomorphic chest phantom was imaged at two different energies. Low-energy images were obtained at 80 kVp (0.8 mAs); high-energy images at 129 kVp (0.6 mAs, additional 1.26 mm tin filter). A Geant4 Monte-Carlo framework was developed allowing simulation of the x-ray tube, flat-panel detector and phantom in order to optimize the beam energies, filtration and the weighting factor used to subtract the individual images into a synthetic DE image. The weighting factor was selected to minimize the visibility of bones while maintaining a sufficient tumor visibility. We scored the bone visibility as the contrast of tumor (with bone) to tumor (without bone), and similarly of lung tissue (with bone) to lung tissue (without bone). Tumor visibility was quantified as the contrast between tumor and lung tissue (both without bone). Results: In the experimentally obtained DE image the bone visibility was reduced by 79.2% in tumor and by 96.8% in lung tissue while the overall tumor visibility only decreased by 69.5%. The Monte-Carlo simulation yielded similar results reducing the scores by 90.0%, 85.3% and only 71.9%, respectively. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the feasibility of DE imaging to enhance lung tumor detectability. In the future, we hope to further refine the Monte-Carlo simulation to more accurately predict the weighting factors which would aid real-time implementation. Furthermore, we plan to use the Monte-Carlo framework to simulate DE images of actual lung tumors. The authors would like to thank Paul

  2. Dose on the entrance surface of thyroid, crystalline lens and gonads during the chest X-rays studies; Dosis en la superficie de entrada de tiroides, cristalino y gonadas durante los examenes radiologicos de torax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez G, R.; Guerra M, J. A.; Pinedo S, A.; Hernandez O, M.; Duran M, H. A.; Salas L, M. A.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, IPN, Av. Legaria No. 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolita, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail: rgg_df@hotmail.com

    2009-10-15

    There were a measurement series in General Hospital of Fresnillo in X-rays department in areas of X-1 and X-2 ray rooms and in a neonatal intensive care unit 2, the dose was determined on the entrance surface into eyes, thyroid and gonads for patients undergoing to X-rays study of tele chest by thermoluminescent dosimetry. 5 dosemeters were used in each of the scans, found the following dose ranges 20+{sub -} 23 {mu}Gy to 350 +{sub -} 41 {mu}Gy. With results we can conclude that the used procedures and the calibration equipment are adequate. (Author)

  3. The value of advanced multiple beam equalization radiography (AMBER) and storage phosphor radiography in chest X-rays; Zur Validierung des AMBER-Systems und der digitalen Speicherfolienradiographie fuer Thoraxaufnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, C.S. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Richter, K. [Franz-Volhard-Klinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin, Berlin-Buch (Germany); Stein, R. [Franz-Volhard-Klinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin, Berlin-Buch (Germany); Busch, H.P. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Heidelberg Univ., Klinikum Mannheim (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    The study compared the quality of roentgenologic criteria in the evaluation of the heart and pulmonary vessels on chest X-rays obtained with different imaging systems. Fifty patients had four different chest radiographs, i.e. conventional chest X-rays, AMBER images, digital storage phosphor images, and digital storage radiographs that were obtained with the AMBER system. Comparison of techniques was based on 12 well-defined quality criteria of chest X-rays. Four radiologists with expertise reviewed the films according to these criteria. The AMBER technique was found to be superior to the remaining imaging modalities in visualization of the central pulmonary vessels, the descending aorta, and the left atrium. Peripheral pulmonary vessels were best appreciated with AMBER technique combined with storage phosphor technique. The same technique was superior in the assessment of all cardiovascular criteria. The superiority of this technique versus conventional chest X-rays can be explained on the basis of the linear slope of the gradation curve of AMBER and digital techniques. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurde ein Guetevergleich der roentgenologischen Kriterien des Herzens und der Pulmonalgefaesse auf Thoraxaufnahmen unterschiedlicher Bilderzeugungssysteme durchgefuehrt. Von 50 Patienten lagen jeweils 4 miteinander zu vergleichende Aufnahmen vor, und zwar jeweils eine konventionelle Filmfolienaufnahme, eine Aufnahme am AMBER (Advanced Multiple Beam Equalization Radiography)-System, eine digitale Phosphorspeicherfolienaufnahme und eine am AMBER-System angefertigte Speicherfolienaufnahme. Der Vergleich erfolgte anhand von 12 definierten Merkmalen der Thoraxaufnahme. Vier erfahrene Radiologen gaben fuer jedes dieser Kriterien ein Gueteurteil ab. Resultate: Die AMBER-Technik wurde fuer die Darstellung der zentralen Pulmonalgefaesse, der Aorta descendens und des linken Vorhofs als beste Methode eingeschaetzt. Die periphere Lungengefaesszeichnung erhielt die beste Guetebewertung bei

  4. Radiographic findings in the chest of patients following cardiac transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The postoperative chest radiographic findings in 38 patients undergoing orthotopic (37 patients) and heterotopic (1 patient) cardiac transplantation were evaluated. Findings were correlated with those of echocardiograms, sputum and blood cultures, and lung and heart biopsies. The radiographic manifestations in the chest of these patients are classified in the following three main categories: 1) newly formed cardiac silhouette findings due to the transplanted heart itself, i.e., changes in size and shape of the new heart and pericardial effusion resulting from the placement of a smaller heart in a larger pericardial sac. 2) infectious complications due to bacteria, fungal, and other opportunistic agents secondary to immunosuppressive therapy, and 3) usual postoperatice complications following thoracomoty and open-heart surgery. (orig.)

  5. Chest wall tuberculosis; CT findings in 14 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To present CT findings of chest wall tuberculosis. CT scans were obtained in 14 patients with proven chest wall tuberculosis. Diagnosis was confirmed by means of right open thoracostomy with abscess evacuation (n=1), excision and curettage (n=11) or excision and curettage along with resection of the involved lung (n=2). The images were assessed with emphasis for the extrapleural, pleural, and pulmonary lesions. All patients showed juxtacostal soft tissue mass with central low attenuation and peripheral rim enhancement. The lesions were located in the left hemithorax in eight patients and in the right in six. Multiple lesions were found in three patients (two in one and three in two). Rib destruction was observed in four patients. Intercostal muscle involvement of thickening and enhancement were shown in all patients. Thirteen patients (93%) had evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis: active pulmonary tuberculosis in nine and stable tuberculosis in four. Pleural lesions, including empyema necessitatis in six, were observed in eleven (79%). On CT scan, chest wall tuberculosis is characterized by juxtacostal soft tissue lesion with central low attenuation and peripheral rim enhancement. Rib destruction may be associated. Additionally, enhancing intercostal muscle suggest direct inflammatory process of tuberculosis and spread channel to the chest wall involvement of pleuropulmonary tuberculosis

  6. The Evidence of Hyperinflation on Chest X Ray and its Correlation with Air Flow Obstruction in COPD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghobadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According  to  the  latest  statistical  and  epidemiological  studies,  COPD  will  become  the  fourth  leading  cause  of  death  in  2030  worldwide.  Scientists  are  studying  on  methods  to  diagnose  COPD  in  the  patients  in  early  stages,  because  it  is  a  curable  and  preventable  disease  in  early  stages.  In  this  study,  evidences  of  hyperinflation  on  CXR  of  COPD  patients  were  compared  with  pulmonary  function  test  (PFT  finding.    Materials  and  Methods: This  cross-sectional  study  was  done  on  100  patients  who  were  referred  to  the  pulmonary  clinic  with  symptoms  of  chronic  cough  and  dyspnea.  After  taking  history and  performing  physical  examination,  demographic  information,  history  of  smoking  and  bakery  and  frequency  of  exacerbations  were  recorded.  Standard  spirometry  was  performed  and  the  severity  of  COPD  was  determined  by  GOLD  (Global  initiative  for  chronic Obstructive  Lung  Disease  staging.  Additionally,  they  underwent  CXR  examination  (PA  and  lateral.  Collected  data  were  analyzed  in  SPSS  ver.  18. Results: In  this  study,  there  were  79  male  and  21  female. .. . .  The  patients,  64%  of  whom  were  urban  and  36%  were  rural  dwellers.  There  was  significant  correlation  between  FEF50%predict  with  sterno-diafragmatic  angle  and  retro-sternal  lucency  (p=0.01,  r=-0.26  and  p=0.01,  r=-0.25  respectively.  Also  there  were  significant  correlations  between  the  FEV1/FVC  with  retro-sternal  lucency  (p=0.006,  r=-0.27  and  FEV1%predict  with  sterno-diaphragmatic  angle  (p=0.002,  r=-0.31. Conclusion: The  study  showed  some  evidences  of  lung  hyperinflation  on  CXR  which

  7. Laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis: findings on computed tomography scans of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To present the findings of computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest in patients with laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed CT scans of eight patients, five males and three females, ranging from 5 to 18 years of age with a mean age of 10.5 years. Images were independently reviewed by two radiologists. In discrepant cases, a consensus was reached. Results: The most common CT findings were intratracheal polypoid lesions and pulmonary nodules, many of which were cavitated. Conclusions: In patients with laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis, the most common tomographic finding was the combination of intratracheal polypoid lesions and multiple pulmonary nodules, many of which were cavitated. (author)

  8. Laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis: findings on computed tomography scans of the chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Araujo Neto, Cesar de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Meirelles, Gustavo Souza Portes [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil); Irion, Klaus Loureiro [The Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Zanetti, Glaucia [Faculdade de Medicina de Petropolis (FMP), RJ (Brazil); Missrie, Israel [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Sato, Juliana [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeca e Pescoco

    2008-12-15

    Objectives: To present the findings of computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest in patients with laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed CT scans of eight patients, five males and three females, ranging from 5 to 18 years of age with a mean age of 10.5 years. Images were independently reviewed by two radiologists. In discrepant cases, a consensus was reached. Results: The most common CT findings were intratracheal polypoid lesions and pulmonary nodules, many of which were cavitated. Conclusions: In patients with laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis, the most common tomographic finding was the combination of intratracheal polypoid lesions and multiple pulmonary nodules, many of which were cavitated. (author)

  9. The diagnostic value of X-ray and CT scan of the chest trauma%X线平片和CT扫描对胸部创伤的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志勇; 陈俊

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the diagnostic value of X-ray and CT scan of the chest trauma.Methods:30 patients with chest trauma were selected,doing X-ray,CT examination. Results: 13 cases were pulmonary exudative change, in which X-ray showed normal in 2 cases, while CT lung found pale patchy and high-density shadow.6 cases were pneumothorax,in which it was difficult to see very little pneumothorax for X-ray, while CT scan was clear.In addition, X-ray and CT could clear diagnosis of pneumohemothorax in 6 cases,pulmonary hematoma in 5 cases,hemothorax in 8 cases,rib fracture in 9 cases, mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema in 6 cases,pulmonary atelectasis in 1 case.Conclusion:X-ray and CT scan are important methods in diagnosis of chest trauma,and CT is superior to X-ray.%目的:探讨 X 线平片和 CT 扫描对胸部创伤的诊断价值。方法:收治胸部创伤患者30例,行 X 线、CT 检查。结果:肺部渗出性改变13例,平片显示正常2例,而CT检查则均发现肺部的浅淡斑片状、云絮状高密度影。气胸6例,极少量的气胸,用平片很难看到,而CT扫描却十分清晰。另外,血气胸6例,肺血肿5例,胸腔积血8例,肋骨骨折9例,纵隔及皮下气肿6例,肺不张1例,X线和CT均能明确诊断。结论:X线平片和CT扫描是诊断胸部创伤的重要方法,而CT扫描明显优于X线平片。

  10. Electroencephalographic and computed X-ray tomographic findings in 99 Japanese cases of herpes simplex encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Satoshi; Takasu, Toshiaki; Tamura, Masato; Otani, Sugishi.

    1988-10-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of electroencephalograms (EEG) and computed tomograms (CT) obtained from 99 Japanese patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Abnormal findings of EEG were seen in 89 patients (99 %). Focal abnormality, which was frequently detected in the first EEG recording, was seen in 68 patients (76 %). Periodic synchronous discharge was observed in 25 patients (28 %). There were abnormal findings on CT in 88 patients (81 %). Low and high density areas were seen in 64 patients (73 %) and 26 patients (37 %), respectively, with the most frequent site being the temporal lobe. Mass effect was demonstrated in 33 patients (37 %). Electroencephalography detected the abnormal findings earlier than CT during the early stage of HSE in many instances. There was concordance between EEG and CT in the detection of HSE lesions in 45 patients (58 %). (Namekawa, K.).

  11. X-ray findings of small bowel taeniasis: A clinical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Soo; Kang, Hee Woong; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-12-15

    Unlike ascariasis of the small bowel, taeniasis can be detected radiologically with much difficulty because of the basic difference between the morphological features of each helminth. However once the characteristics of tape worms are appreciated and kept in mind, radiological diagnosis is fairly accurately made. In the present study we have reported typical radiological features of the small bowel taeniasis as observed in 6 adults patients seen at the Department of Radiology of St. Mary's Hospital and Holy Family Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Tapering tape-like or ribbon -like radiolucent shadows in distal small bowel appear unique. Compression spot film study of the ileum is most important in revealing such findings. An animal experiment using the swine small intestine and parasitological specimen of evacuated worm of taenia saginata was designed to help understand radiological manifestation in vivo.

  12. X-ray findings of small bowel taeniasis: A clinical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlike ascariasis of the small bowel, taeniasis can be detected radiologically with much difficulty because of the basic difference between the morphological features of each helminth. However once the characteristics of tape worms are appreciated and kept in mind, radiological diagnosis is fairly accurately made. In the present study we have reported typical radiological features of the small bowel taeniasis as observed in 6 adults patients seen at the Department of Radiology of St. Mary's Hospital and Holy Family Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Tapering tape-like or ribbon -like radiolucent shadows in distal small bowel appear unique. Compression spot film study of the ileum is most important in revealing such findings. An animal experiment using the swine small intestine and parasitological specimen of evacuated worm of taenia saginata was designed to help understand radiological manifestation in vivo

  13. Dose evaluation for paediatric chest x-ray examinations in Brazil and Sudan: low doses and reliable examinations can be achieved in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadain, K. E. M.; da Rosa, L. A. R.; Azevedo, A. C. P.; Guebel, M. R. N.; Boechat, M. C. B.; Habani, F.

    2004-03-01

    Radiation protection in paediatric radiology deserves special attention since it is assumed that children are more sensitive to radiation than adults. The aim of this work is to estimate the entrance skin dose (ESD), the body organ dose (BOD) and the effective dose (E) for chest x-ray exposure of paediatric patients in five large units, three in Sudan and two in Brazil, and to compare the results obtained in both countries with each other and with other values obtained by some European countries. Two examination projections have been investigated, namely, postero-anterior (PA) and antero-posterior (AP). The age intervals considered were: 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results have been obtained with the use of a software called DoseCal. Results of mean ESD for the age interval 1-5 years and AP projection are: 66 µGy (Instituto de Pediatria e Puericultura Martagão Gesteira—IPPMG Hospital), 41, 86 and 68 µGy (Instituto Fernandes Figueira—IFF Hospital), 161 µGy (Omdurman Hospital), 395 µGy (Khartoum Hospital) and 23 µGy (Ahmed Gasim Hospital). In the case of the IFF Hospital, the results refer, respectively, to rooms 1, 2 and for the six mobile equipments. The reference dose values given by the European Guidelines were exceeded in the Khartoum Hospital whilst in all the other hospitals results obtained were below CEC reference values and comparable with the results found in Sweden, Germany, Spain and Italy. The mean E for the same age interval was 11 µSv in the IPPMG, 6, 15 and 11 µSv in the IFF, respectively for rooms 1, 2 and the 6 mobiles, 25 µSv in the Omdurman Hospital, 45 µSv in the Khartoum Hospital and 3 µSv in the Ahmed Gasim Hospital. These are some examples of the large discrepancies that have been detected in this survey.

  14. Dose evaluation for paediatric chest x-ray examinations in Brazil and Sudan: low doses and reliable examinations can be achieved in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection in paediatric radiology deserves special attention since it is assumed that children are more sensitive to radiation than adults. The aim of this work is to estimate the entrance skin dose (ESD), the body organ dose (BOD) and the effective dose (E) for chest x-ray exposure of paediatric patients in five large units, three in Sudan and two in Brazil, and to compare the results obtained in both countries with each other and with other values obtained by some European countries. Two examination projections have been investigated, namely, postero-anterior (PA) and antero-posterior (AP). The age intervals considered were: 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results have been obtained with the use of a software called DoseCal. Results of mean ESD for the age interval 1-5 years and AP projection are: 66 μGy (Instituto de Pediatria e Puericultura Martagao Gesteira-IPPMG Hospital), 41, 86 and 68 μGy (Instituto Fernandes Figueira-IFF Hospital), 161 μGy (Omdurman Hospital), 395 μGy (Khartoum Hospital) and 23 μGy (Ahmed Gasim Hospital). In the case of the IFF Hospital, the results refer, respectively, to rooms 1, 2 and for the six mobile equipments. The reference dose values given by the European Guidelines were exceeded in the Khartoum Hospital whilst in all the other hospitals results obtained were below CEC reference values and comparable with the results found in Sweden, Germany, Spain and Italy. The mean E for the same age interval was 11 μSv in the IPPMG, 6, 15 and 11 μSv in the IFF, respectively for rooms 1, 2 and the 6 mobiles, 25 μSv in the Omdurman Hospital, 45 μSv in the Khartoum Hospital and 3 μSv in the Ahmed Gasim Hospital. These are some examples of the large discrepancies that have been detected in this survey

  15. Dose evaluation for paediatric chest x-ray examinations in Brazil and Sudan: low doses and reliable examinations can be achieved in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamadain, K E M [FIOCRUZ-Escola Nacional de Saude Publica-CESTEH, Rua Leopoldo Bulhoes 1480, Manguinhos, 21041-210 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rosa, L A R da [Departamento de FIsica Medica, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Azevedo, A C P [FIOCRUZ-Escola Nacional de Saude Publica-CESTEH, Rua Leopoldo Bulhoes 1480, Manguinhos, 21041-210 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Guebel, M R N [Instituto de Pediatria e Puericultura Martagao Gesteira, UFRJ, 21490-910 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Boechat, M C B [FIOCRUZ-Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Habani, F [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Khartoum University, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2004-03-21

    Radiation protection in paediatric radiology deserves special attention since it is assumed that children are more sensitive to radiation than adults. The aim of this work is to estimate the entrance skin dose (ESD), the body organ dose (BOD) and the effective dose (E) for chest x-ray exposure of paediatric patients in five large units, three in Sudan and two in Brazil, and to compare the results obtained in both countries with each other and with other values obtained by some European countries. Two examination projections have been investigated, namely, postero-anterior (PA) and antero-posterior (AP). The age intervals considered were: 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results have been obtained with the use of a software called DoseCal. Results of mean ESD for the age interval 1-5 years and AP projection are: 66 {mu}Gy (Instituto de Pediatria e Puericultura Martagao Gesteira-IPPMG Hospital), 41, 86 and 68 {mu}Gy (Instituto Fernandes Figueira-IFF Hospital), 161 {mu}Gy (Omdurman Hospital), 395 {mu}Gy (Khartoum Hospital) and 23 {mu}Gy (Ahmed Gasim Hospital). In the case of the IFF Hospital, the results refer, respectively, to rooms 1, 2 and for the six mobile equipments. The reference dose values given by the European Guidelines were exceeded in the Khartoum Hospital whilst in all the other hospitals results obtained were below CEC reference values and comparable with the results found in Sweden, Germany, Spain and Italy. The mean E for the same age interval was 11 {mu}Sv in the IPPMG, 6, 15 and 11 {mu}Sv in the IFF, respectively for rooms 1, 2 and the 6 mobiles, 25 {mu}Sv in the Omdurman Hospital, 45 {mu}Sv in the Khartoum Hospital and 3 {mu}Sv in the Ahmed Gasim Hospital. These are some examples of the large discrepancies that have been detected in this survey.

  16. Mucopolysaccharidosis: abnormal findings on abdomen and chest excluding musculoskeletal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KimHan, Bo Kyung; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Cho, Jae Min [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jeung Hee; Yoon, Dae Young; Seo, Young Lan; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Young Cheol; Park, Sang Joon [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a lysosomal storage disease that causes tissue distortion and dysfunction due to the infiltration of mucopolysaccharide in connective tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristic findings of abdominal CT and plain chest radiography in patients with MPS. Sixty-two children with MPS diagnosed by urine analysis were involved in this study; 24 of these underwent abdominal CT and the findings were reviewed by two radiologists, who reached a consensus. Organomegaly was classified as severe, moderate or mild. On chest PA radiographs of 42 of the children, the transverse diameter of the trachea was measured and compared with that of 42 normal controls. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis. At abdominal CT, hepatomegaly was observed in 22 patients (92%; 2 severe, 15 moderate and 5 mild); and splenomegaly was present in 18 (75%; 2 severe, 4 moderate and 12 mild). Among eight patients (33%) with pancreatic enlargement, one had a severly enlarged pancreas, while in the remaining seven, enlargement was mild. Also present were inguinal hernia (n=15), umbilical hernia (n=12), undulation with thickening of the diaphragmatic crura (n=10). abnormalities related to the male genitalia (n=5) and vascular anomaly (n=3). In MPS patients, the mid-point diameter of the trachea (range, 5.6-9 mm; mean, 6.9 mm) was significantly less than in normal controls (range, 8-14 mm; mean, 10.8 mm)(p<0.001). An awareness of the characteristic abnormalities observed at abdominal CT and chest PA radiography can lead to a better understanding of MPS in children.

  17. Mucopolysaccharidosis: abnormal findings on abdomen and chest excluding musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a lysosomal storage disease that causes tissue distortion and dysfunction due to the infiltration of mucopolysaccharide in connective tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristic findings of abdominal CT and plain chest radiography in patients with MPS. Sixty-two children with MPS diagnosed by urine analysis were involved in this study; 24 of these underwent abdominal CT and the findings were reviewed by two radiologists, who reached a consensus. Organomegaly was classified as severe, moderate or mild. On chest PA radiographs of 42 of the children, the transverse diameter of the trachea was measured and compared with that of 42 normal controls. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis. At abdominal CT, hepatomegaly was observed in 22 patients (92%; 2 severe, 15 moderate and 5 mild); and splenomegaly was present in 18 (75%; 2 severe, 4 moderate and 12 mild). Among eight patients (33%) with pancreatic enlargement, one had a severly enlarged pancreas, while in the remaining seven, enlargement was mild. Also present were inguinal hernia (n=15), umbilical hernia (n=12), undulation with thickening of the diaphragmatic crura (n=10). abnormalities related to the male genitalia (n=5) and vascular anomaly (n=3). In MPS patients, the mid-point diameter of the trachea (range, 5.6-9 mm; mean, 6.9 mm) was significantly less than in normal controls (range, 8-14 mm; mean, 10.8 mm)(p<0.001). An awareness of the characteristic abnormalities observed at abdominal CT and chest PA radiography can lead to a better understanding of MPS in children

  18. Mucopolysaccharidosis: abnormal findings on abdomen and chest excluding musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a lysosomal storage disease that causes tissue distortion and dysfunction due to the infiltration of mucopolysaccharide in connective tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristic findings of abdominal CT and plain chest radiography in patients with MPS. Sixty-two children with MPS diagnosed by urine analysis were involved in this study; 24 of these underwent abdominal CT and the findings were reviewed by two radiologists, who reached a consensus. Organomegaly was classified as severe, moderate or mild. On chest PA radiographs of 42 of the children, the transverse diameter of the trachea was measured and compared with that of 42 normal controls. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis. At abdominal CT, hepatomegaly was observed in 22 patients (92%; 2 severe, 15 moderate and 5 mild); and splenomegaly was present in 18 (75%; 2 severe, 4 moderate and 12 mild). Among eight patients(33%) with pancreatic enlargement, one had a severly enlarged pancreas, while in the remaining seven, enlargement was mild. Also present were inguinal hernia (n=15), umbilical hernia (n=12), undulation with thickening of the diaphragmatic crura (n=10), abnormalities related to the male genitalia (n=5) and vascular anomaly (n=3). In MPS patients, the mid-point diameter of the trachea (range, 5.6-9 mm; mean, 6.9 mm) was significantly less than in normal controls (range, 8-14 mm; mean, 10.8 mm) (p<0.001). An awareness of the characteristic abnormalities observed at abdominal CT and chest PA radiography can lead to a better understanding of MPS in children

  19. Mucopolysaccharidosis: abnormal findings on abdomen and chest excluding musculoskeletal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jeung Hee; Yoon, Dae Young; Seo, Young Lan; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Young Cheol; Park, Sang Joon [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim Han, Bok Yung; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Cho, Jae Min [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a lysosomal storage disease that causes tissue distortion and dysfunction due to the infiltration of mucopolysaccharide in connective tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristic findings of abdominal CT and plain chest radiography in patients with MPS. Sixty-two children with MPS diagnosed by urine analysis were involved in this study; 24 of these underwent abdominal CT and the findings were reviewed by two radiologists, who reached a consensus. Organomegaly was classified as severe, moderate or mild. On chest PA radiographs of 42 of the children, the transverse diameter of the trachea was measured and compared with that of 42 normal controls. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis. At abdominal CT, hepatomegaly was observed in 22 patients (92%; 2 severe, 15 moderate and 5 mild); and splenomegaly was present in 18 (75%; 2 severe, 4 moderate and 12 mild). Among eight patients(33%) with pancreatic enlargement, one had a severly enlarged pancreas, while in the remaining seven, enlargement was mild. Also present were inguinal hernia (n=15), umbilical hernia (n=12), undulation with thickening of the diaphragmatic crura (n=10), abnormalities related to the male genitalia (n=5) and vascular anomaly (n=3). In MPS patients, the mid-point diameter of the trachea (range, 5.6-9 mm; mean, 6.9 mm) was significantly less than in normal controls (range, 8-14 mm; mean, 10.8 mm) (p<0.001). An awareness of the characteristic abnormalities observed at abdominal CT and chest PA radiography can lead to a better understanding of MPS in children.

  20. Chest reporting by radiographers: Findings of an accredited postgraduate programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To analyse the objective structured examination (OSE) results of the first six cohorts of radiographers (n = 40) who successfully completed an accredited postgraduate programme in clinical reporting of adult chest radiographs. Methods: One hundred chest radiographs were used in the OSE which included a range of abnormal cases (prevalence of abnormal examinations approximated 50%) and included: cardiac, pulmonary, pleural, interstitial, inflammatory, neoplastic and traumatic appearances on patients referred from a range of referral sources. Normal variants and incidental findings were also included. True/false positive and negative fractions were used to mark the responses which were also scored for agreement with the previously agreed expected answers based on agreement between three consultant radiologists' reports. Results: Mean sensitivity and specificity rates, for all six cohorts (4000 reports), was 95.4% (95% CI 94.4%–96.3%) and 95.9% (95% CI 94.9%–96.7%), respectively. The mean agreement rate was 89% (95% CI 88.0%–89.0%) and the most common errors were related to heart size, hilar enlargement or pleural effusion (false positive); and skeletal appearances or pneumothoraces (false negative). Conclusions: These OSE results suggest therefore that in an academic setting, and following an accredited postgraduate education programme, this group of radiographers has the ability to correctly identify normal chest radiographs and are able to provide a report on the abnormal appearances to a high standard. Further work is required to confirm the clinical application of these findings

  1. Chest radiological findings in pakistani cement mill workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest radiological findings in Pakistani cement mill workers Even in the 21st century, in developing countries millions of people work daily in dusty environments. They are exposed to different types of health hazards namely, fumes, gases and dust, which are risk factors for developing occupational diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform chest radiology to determine the occupational hazards of cement dust on the lungs of cement mill workers. This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Hamdard University Karachi, Pakistan, during the period June to August 2000. In this study 50, apparently healthy volunteer male cement mill workers were randomly selected with an average of 13 years exposure with age ranging from 20-60 years. They were matched with 50, healthy male control subjects in terms of age, height, weight and socioeconomic status. Both groups met with exclusion criteria as per standard. Radiology was performed by Trophy radiology. Results: The present study demonstrated 12% of cases with interstitial lung disease and 2% of cases with pleural thickening and chronic bronchitis in cement mill workers. Conclusion: Exposure to cement dust causes interstitial lung disease, pleural thickening and chronic bronchitis in cement mill workers. (author)

  2. Relationship between functional and X-ray alterations in patients with cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Andréia Kist; Mallmann Felipe; John Ângela Beatriz; Faccin Carlo Sasso; Dalcin Paulo de Tarso Roth; Barreto Sérgio Saldanha Menna

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease marked by airway inflammation and airflow obstruction, resulting in air trapping in the lungs. OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between airflow limitation, pulmonary volume and X-ray findings in patients with cystic fibrosis. METHOD: A cross-sectional retrospective study. Review of spirometric, plethysmographic, and chest X-ray findings of outpatients (age ³ 16 years). The airflow findings were classified as within normal limits or as airflow...

  3. Chest Imaging Findings in Hospitalized Children with H1N1 Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Pekcan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to review the radiological findings and to find new prognostic factors that determine the need for pediatric intensive care unit (PICU in children with swine-origin influenza (H1N1 virus infection. Methods: Chest X-ray (CXR and computed tomography (CT findings of 18 children with laboratory-confirmed H1N1 infection (9 boys, 9 girls with a median age of 34 (1–216 months were retrospectively evaluated. Results: CXRs were performed in 15 (83.3% and thorax CT in 7 (38.8% children. Abnormal findings were detected in 60% of the patients who underwent CXR and 85.7% of the patients who underwent thorax CT. Radiological findings were mostly diffuse, bilateral, and asymmetric. Ground-glass opacity (GGO (66.6% was the leading abnormality and was followed by reticulation (38.8%, nodules (27.7%, consolidation only (16.6%, tree-in-bud pattern (11.1%, consolidation with GGO (5.5%, and septal lines (5.5%. Lymphadenopathy (22.2%, air trapping (5.5%, and parenchymal band (5.5% were other recorded findings. CXR was found to be insufficient to detect subpleural nodules, lymphadenopathies, and sometimes GGO. Only existence of nodules (p=0.04 affected the need for PICU admission. Conclusion: The most common radiological findings in children with H1N1 infection were bilateral, asymmetric GGO with or without associated multifocal areas of consolidation. CXR was insufficient to detect subpleural nodules, lymphadenopathies, and sometimes GGO. The existence of nodules is a bad prognostic factor in determining the need for PICU admission.

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement by N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I) iodoamphetamine. A comparison with X-ray CT findings in hemiplegic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Y.; Kuriyama, M.; Sudo, M.; Maeda, N.; Ishii, Y.; Konishi, K.; Nakamura, K.

    1987-05-01

    Eight patients with hemiplegia in chronic stages were studied with N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I) iodoamphetamine (IMP) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) comparing with X-ray CT findings. In three patients, focal decreases of IMP were observed and these areas were larger than the abnormal areas found by X-ray CT. In the other five patients, hemispherical low perfusion of IMP was observed by SPECT, but X-ray CT showed severe atrophy with normal density. In two patients, cerebral angiography showed no abnormalities in the arterial phase. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement using IMP would be of great value in evaluating abnormal cerebral functions in the chronic state of acute infantile hemiplegia and cerebral palsy.

  5. Assessment of lung X-ray computed tomographic findings in patients with nonspecific pneumothorax in late postoperative periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are studied of examination of 54 patients operated on for nonspecific spontaneous pneumothorax (NSP). Conclusion is drawn that X-ray computed tomography (CT) is of high value. In addition to external respiratory function that identifies pulmonary functional changes, it is recommended that a comprehensive examination should include X-ray CT with parenchymal densitometry of the upper, middle and lower lung to reveal lung tissue structural changes. The examination of patients should be performed as soon as possible when the disease is detected and in the late postoperative period for early surgical correction of an emphysematous process in the lung

  6. 新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征87例X线胸片分析%Analysis of chest X-ray in 87 cases of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnostic value of chest X-ray in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.Methods 87 children with NRDS were selected.Then bedside radiography was conducted with the Philip Pracelx100 mobile X-ray machine,and the children with confirmed NRDS were recorded,and the children screening by chest X-ray review were analyzed.Referenced the NRDS image diagnostic criteria,the disease grading was carried out according to the lung field light transmission reduction and air bronchogram extent.Results 20 cases in the first grade,35 cases in the second grade,28 cases in the third grade,4 cases in the fourth grade.Limitations of miliary shadows in 15 cases ;60 cases of impaired lung field transmittance,51 patients presented with ground-glass change and air bronchogram ;4 cases in “ white lung”.Conclusion Chest X-ray for NRDS had important value of diagnostic,differential diagnostic and prognosis.%目的 探讨X线胸片对新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征(NRDS)的诊断价值.方法 选取NRDS患儿87例,采用菲利浦Pracelx100型移动X线机床边摄片,对确诊NRDS的患儿进行记录,筛选经X线胸片复查的患儿进行整理分析.参考NRDS影像学诊断标准,根据肺野透光度减低和支气管充气征的程度对病情进行分级.结果 一级20例,二级35例,三级28例,四级4例.局限性粟粒阴影15例;肺野透光度减低60例,51例呈现毛玻璃样改变及支气管充气征;4例出现“白肺”.结论 X线胸片对NRDS的诊断、鉴别诊断及预后判断具有重要价值.

  7. Chest X-ray Plain Film Analysis Underlying 31 1 Case of HIV/AIDS Patients%311例 HIV/AIDS 患者胸部 X 线平片分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗洪云; 胡必富; 刘长华; 夏玉明; 江凤兰

    2015-01-01

    目的::分析 HIV/AIDS 患者胸部病变 X 线表现,为认知和诊断艾滋病提供医疗影像依据,为临床诊治提供指导。方法:收集本地区2006年1月~2014年1月门诊及住院确诊的311例 HIV/AIDS 患者胸部 X 线片,分析其病变的 X 线表现。结果:患者胸部 X 线表现为:心肺正常124例,肺门纵隔淋巴结增大20例(淋巴瘤4例)。肺纹理增强101例,肺炎36例,肺结核27例,肺癌3例(肝癌转移2例);结论:艾滋病患者胸部病变由呼吸道机遇性致病菌感染和 AIDS 相关恶性肿瘤所引起,胸部 X 线表现无明显特异性,为多种影像表现并存,结合临床表现和相关实验室检查,对诊断及治疗 HIV/AIDS 有一定参考价值。%Objective:To analyze the chest X-ray appearance of HIV / AIDS patients,so as to provide medical image basis and guidance for clinical diagnosis and treatment for HIV/AIDS patients.Methods:We collect the chest X ray films of local HIV/AIDS patients outpatient and inpatient from January 2006 to Janu-ary 2014,analyze the X-ray manifestation of lesions.Results:The manifestation of chest X-ray is shown as:124 cases of normal,enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes in 20 cases (lymphoma 4 cases).Lung marking disorder in 101 cases,36 cases of pneumonia,27 cases of tuberculosis,3 cases of lung cancer (2 cases of me-tastasis);Conclusion:The chest manifestation of HIV/AIDS patients are caused by respiratory opportunity pathogenic bacteria and AIDS related malignant tumor,the chest X-ray showed no obvious specificity,but a variety of imaging performance,it has certain reference value that combined with the clinical manifestations and related laboratory tests to the diagnosis and treatment of HIV/AIDS patients.

  8. Use of Fourier domain filtering and dynamic programming in finding a titanium coil implant in high voltage x-ray images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henning; Hansen, Jesper Carl

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of finding precise position and orientation of a titanium coil implant in humans. Analysis of high voltage X-rays stereo images are used to determine the true 3D position. High voltage images inherently presents with poor contrast. Various image processing techni...... determined the position of the titanium wire within less than 1 mm of ground truth determined from manual analysis of the images....

  9. The Image Quality of a Digital Chest X-Ray Radiography System: Comparison of Quantitative Image Quality Analysis and Radiologists' Visual Scoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ji Ho [Dept. of Radiology Oncology, Yongsan Hospital, Pusan National University College of Medicine, Yongsan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Darl; Kim, Won Taek; Kim, Yong Ho; Ki, Yong Kan; Kim, DFong Hyun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Dong Won [Dept. of Radiology Oncology, Yongsan Hospital, Pusan National University College of Medicine, Yongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ho Sang [Reserach Institue for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Yongsan Hospital, Pusan National University College of Medicine, Yongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    To evaluate the performance of imaging devices, which should be periodically monitored to maintain high quality images to the radiologists. Additionally, this evaluation may prevent patients from radiation over-exposure. The most suitable engineering standard for imaging performance evaluation of digital X-ray thoracic images was determined. IEC 62220-1 standards were used to evaluate the performance of the images. In succession, the visibilities of overall image, pneumothorax, and humerus head in anthropomorphic thoracic phantom images were used to evaluate the image qualities by radiologists. The rank correlation coefficient (p) of visual scoring by radiologists with system spatial resolution is not meaningful (p-value, p = 0.295), but is significant with image noise (p-value, p -0.9267). Finally, the noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) presents a high rank correlation for visual scoring of radiologists (p-value, p = 0.9320). Image quality evaluation of radiologists were mainly affected by imaging noise. Hence, the engineered standard for evaluating image noise is the most important index to effectively monitor the performance of X-ray images. Additionally, the NEQ can be used to evaluate the performance of radiographic systems, because it theoretically corresponds to the synthetic image quality of systems.

  10. Semi-automated measurements of heart-to-mediastinum ratio on 123I-MIBG myocardial scintigrams by using image fusion method with chest X-ray images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Ryosuke; Hara, Takeshi; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Ishihara, Tadahiko; Zhou, Xiangrong; Muramatsu, Chisako; Abe, Yoshiteru; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    MIBG (iodine-123-meta-iodobenzylguanidine) is a radioactive medicine that is used to help diagnose not only myocardial diseases but also Parkinson's diseases (PD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The difficulty of the segmentation around the myocardium often reduces the consistency of measurement results. One of the most common measurement methods is the ratio of the uptake values of the heart to mediastinum (H/M). This ratio will be a stable independent of the operators when the uptake value in the myocardium region is clearly higher than that in background, however, it will be unreliable indices when the myocardium region is unclear because of the low uptake values. This study aims to develop a new measurement method by using the image fusion of three modalities of MIBG scintigrams, 201-Tl scintigrams, and chest radiograms, to increase the reliability of the H/M measurement results. Our automated method consists of the following steps: (1) construct left ventricular (LV) map from 201-Tl myocardium image database, (2) determine heart region in chest radiograms, (3) determine mediastinum region in chest radiograms, (4) perform image fusion of chest radiograms and MIBG scintigrams, and 5) perform H/M measurements on MIBG scintigrams by using the locations of heart and mediastinum determined on the chest radiograms. We collected 165 cases with 201-Tl scintigrams and chest radiograms to construct the LV map. Another 65 cases with MIBG scintigrams and chest radiograms were also collected for the measurements. Four radiological technologists (RTs) manually measured the H/M in the MIBG images. We compared the four RTs' results with our computer outputs by using Pearson's correlation, the Bland-Altman method, and the equivalency test method. As a result, the correlations of the H/M between four the RTs and the computer were 0.85 to 0.88. We confirmed systematic errors between the four RTs and the computer as well as among the four RTs. The variation range of the H

  11. Joint x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  12. High-Resolution Computed Tomography and Chest X-Ray Findings of Interstitial Lung Disease Related to Systemic Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sheikh; Z. Basiri; F. Esna Ashari; M. Jabari; Y. Pishva

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Interstitial lung disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with scleroderma. For this reason an early diagnosis of lung involvement is warranted. The best approach to detect pulmonary disease particularly alveolitis (inflammatory NSIP) as a reversible phase is controversial. The aim of this study is estimating the advantage of HRCT as a noninvasive screening test to detect the pattern of ILD related to systemic sclerosis.Materials & Methods...

  13. Follow-up of oncological patients with reduced X-ray exposure using high-speed screen-film combinations for plain-film radiography of the chest - ROC-analysis for detection of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-speed screen/film combinations (s400) fulfil the qualifications for plain-film radiography of the chest, because a receiver-operating-characteristics(ROC)-analysis indicates equally good results in detecting pulmonary nodules comparing the screen/film combinations RP 1L/MR 200 and ortho ST L/regular (s=400). The characteristic properties of both screen/film combinations, such as density, image noise, and modulation-transfer-function (MTF), are quite similar, with the exception of 10-15% lower MTF for the high-speed screen/film combination. This difference is discussed to be responsible for somewhat lower detection rates of structure details, such as pulmonary nodules, although without significant differences. Using high-speed plain-film systems we are able to reduce the X-ray exposure to half compared to established screen/film combinations at a speed of 200 as an important contribution to minimize X-ray exposure of sound organs. (orig.)

  14. Determination of diagnostic reference levels in Cote d'Ivoire: the cases of the chest X-ray standard front and abdomen adult in the district of Abidjan and in the region of Sud Comoé

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entrance surface dose measurements were performed for 194 adults using Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLD) placed on a 10 liters cane of water, during the X-rays examinations of the chest of face and abdomen at the Institut of Cardiology of Abidjan (District of Abidjan), at the Regional Hospital complex of Aboisso and at the General Hospital of Ayamé (Region of Sud Comoé). This preliminary study, the first one in Cote d'Ivoire, was to assess doses released to patients during their exposure to X-rays in medical radiology with various radiological practices in order to determine the national diagnostic reference levels (DRL) . The results show that the irradiation levels in the selected services are comparable to the dose levels indicated by international publications. They give us a glimpse on doses received in Cote d'Ivoire and show that these initial values of DRL measured are acceptable in the District of Abidjan and in the region of Sud Comoé. This study proves the feasibility and the great interest of a national campaign of measurements in radiology in all the hospitals of the country. This permits to determine ivorian DRL and facilitate their periodic review. (author)

  15. Radiation exposure of children in pediatric radiology. Pt. 3. Conversion coefficients for reconstruction of organ doses achieved during chest X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: calculation of conversion coefficients for the reconstruction of organ doses from entrance doses for chest radiographs of 0, 1, 5, 10, 15, and 30-year-old patients in conventional pediatric radiology for the radiographic settings recommended by the German and European guidelines for quality management in diagnostic radiology. Materials und methods: the conversion coefficients for pediatric chest radiographs were calculated using the commercially available personal computer program PCXMC developed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Saeteilyturvakeskus STUK). PCXMC is a Monte Carlo program for computing organ and effective doses in about 40 organs of mathematical hermaphrodite phantom models describing patients of different ages. The possible clinical variation of beam collimation was taken into consideration by defining optimal and suboptimal radiation fields on the phantoms' surfaces. Results: conversion coefficients for the reconstruction of organ doses from measured entrance doses during chest radiographs for 0, 1, 5, 10, 15, and 30-year-old pediatric patients were presented. Conversion coefficients were calculated for the standard sagittal and lateral beam projections and the standard focus film distances of 100 cm, 115 cm, and 150 cm using the standard radiation qualities according to the recommendations of the German and European guidelines for quality management in diagnostic radiology. These conversion coefficients allow the reconstruction of the absorbed dose in about 40 organs and tissues of the human body for optimal and suboptimal radiation field collimations. (orig.)

  16. Endobronchial Tuberculosis and Chest Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sasani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endobronchial tuberculosis and chest radiography I read, with interest, the article entitled “Clinical and Para-clinical Presentations of Endobronchial Tuberculosis” by Ahmadi Hoseini H. S. et al. (1 published in this journal. I would like to focus on some details about the chest X-ray of patients as elaborated by the authors in the results section. Accordingly, the findings of chest radiography in the available patients were as follows: pulmonary consolidation (75%, reduced pulmonary volume (20%, and hilar adenopathy (10%. This is an incomplete statement because the authors did not explain whether there was any normal chest radiography in the study population. In addition, it is not clear whether the X-ray examinations of the patients were normal, how many abnormal plain films yielded the presented data. On the other hand, the fact that the studied patients had no normal chest radiography is  controversial since in the literature, 10-20% of the patients with endobronchial tuberculosis are reported to have normal chest X-ray (2, 3. In fact, this is one of the problems in the diagnosis of the disease, as well as a potential cause of delayed diagnosis and treatment of the patients. Therefore, the absence of normal chest radiographs is in contrast to the available literature, and if not an error, it could be a subject of further investigation.

  17. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... care provider's office. You will lie on the x-ray table in different positions. If the x-ray ...

  18. Effects of tube potential and scatter rejection on image quality and effective dose in digital chest X-ray examination: An anthropomorphic phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tube potential and scatter rejection techniques on image quality of digital posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs. Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom was imaged using a range of tube potentials (81–125 kVp) without scatter rejection, with an anti-scatter grid, and using a 10 cm air gap. Images were anonymised and randomised before being evaluated using a visual graded analysis (VGA) method. Results: The effects of tube potential on image quality were found to be negligible (p > 0.63) for the flat panel detector (FPD). Decreased image quality (p = 0.031) was noted for 125 kVp relative to 109 kVp, though no difference was noted for any of the other potentials (p > 0.398) for computed radiography (CR). Both scatter rejection techniques improved image quality (p p. Scatter rejection improved image quality, but with no difference found between techniques. The air-gap resulted in a smaller increase in effective dose than the anti-scatter grid and would be the preferred scatter rejection technique

  19. Product estimate of air kerma-area and the air kerma in the input surface of the skin of pediatric patients undergoing chest X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the entrance air kerma (Ka,e) and the product air kerma-area (Pka) for chest examinations performed with pediatric patients in a large public hospital of Recife. For this study 89 examinations of patient with ages from zero to 10 years old were evaluated. The results showed that the mean Ka,e values, for patients of 0-1 years old, 1-5 years old and 5-10 years old, were, respectively, 100 mGy, 120 mGy and 100 mGy. The Pka values for newborn patients range from 11,9 to 58,4 mGy.cm2, for patients with 1 to 5 years old range from 17 to 192 mGy.cm2, and from 30,4 to 136,2 mGy.cm2 for patients with ages from 5 to 10 years old. The differences in the Pka values are due the different dimensions of the radiation field. For the results its possible to conclude that the Pka values are high, in special for patients with ages from 1 to 5 years old, indicating that the collimation of the radiation field is not adequate. (author)

  20. Chronic cough and a normal chest X-ray - a simple systematic approach to exclude common causes before referral to secondary care: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Richard D; Bothamley, Graham H

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cough is common in the community and can cause significant morbidity. It is not clear how closely treatment guidelines are used in general practice, or how often specialist referral is indicated. We aimed to assess the management of chronic cough in primary care before referral to a cough clinic, and to assess the outcome of managing chronic cough with an approach of simple investigation and empirical treatment trials. Data were extracted from the records of all patients attending a district general hospital respiratory clinic over a two-year period with isolated chronic cough lasting ⩾8 weeks. The clinic assessed symptoms with a cough-severity visual analogue scale and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire. Among 266 patients, the most frequent diagnoses were asthma (29%), gastro-oesophageal reflux (22%) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use (14%). In all, 12% had unexplained chronic cough. Common diagnoses had often not been excluded in primary care: only 21% had undergone spirometry, 86% had undergone chest radiography and attempts to exclude asthma with corticosteroids had been made only in 39%. In the clinic few investigations were conducted that were not available in primary care. Substantial improvements in symptoms occurred with a median (interquartile range) total of 2 (2-3) clinic visits. We estimated that 87% of patients could have been managed solely in primary care; we did not identify distinguishing characteristics among this group. Most cases of chronic cough referred to secondary care could be managed with a simple and systematic approach, which is potentially transferrable to a community setting. PMID:26937758

  1. Dental x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some are: Bitewing Periapical Palatal (also called occlusal) ...

  2. X-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation that can penetrate the body to form an image on ... will be shades of gray depending on density. X-rays can provide information about obstructions, tumors, and other ...

  3. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  4. Cardiac findings on non-gated chest computed tomography: A clinical and pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanza, Rene Epunza; Allard, Christian; Berube, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The use of chest computed tomography (CT) as an imaging test for the evaluation of thoracic pathology has significantly increased during the last four decades. Although cardiopulmonary diseases often overlap in their clinical manifestation, radiologists tend to overlook the heart while interpreting routine chest CT. Recent advances in CT technology have led to significant reduction of heart motion artefacts and now allow for the identification of several cardiac findings on chest CT even without electrocardiogram (ECG) gating. These observations range from simple curiosity to both benign and malignant discoveries, to life-threatening discoveries. We here present a clinical and radiologic review of common and less common cardiac findings discovered on non-gated chest CT in order to draw the attention of radiologists and referring physicians to these possibilities. PMID:26781150

  5. Pulmonary Aspergillus chest wall involvement in chronic granulomatous disease: CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary Aspergillus infection in patients with chronic granulomatous disease tends to involve the chest wall and consequently carries a high mortality rate. We report the findings of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in three such cases. We suggest that CT and MRI have a complementary role in evaluating chest wall invasion by pulmonary Aspergillus infection in chronic granulomatous disease. (orig./GDG)

  6. The sensitivity and specificity of using a computer aided diagnosis program for automatically scoring chest X-rays of presumptive TB patients compared with Xpert MTB/RIF in Lusaka Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monde Muyoyeta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD program for scoring chest x-rays (CXRs of presumptive tuberculosis (TB patients compared to Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert. METHOD: Consecutive presumptive TB patients with a cough of any duration were offered digital CXR, and opt out HIV testing. CXRs were electronically scored as normal (CAD score ≤ 60 or abnormal (CAD score > 60 using a CAD program. All patients regardless of CAD score were requested to submit a spot sputum sample for testing with Xpert and a spot and morning sample for testing with LED Fluorescence Microscopy-(FM. RESULTS: Of 350 patients with evaluable data, 291 (83.1% had an abnormal CXR score by CAD. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of CXR compared to Xpert were 100% (95%CI 96.2-100, 23.2% (95%CI 18.2-28.9, 33.0% (95%CI 27.6-38.7 and 100% (95% 93.9-100, respectively. The area under the receiver operator curve (AUC for CAD was 0.71 (95%CI 0.66-0.77. CXR abnormality correlated with smear grade (r = 0.30, p<0.0001 and with Xpert CT(r = 0.37, p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first time that a CAD program for TB has been successfully tested in a real world setting. The study shows that the CAD program had high sensitivity but low specificity and PPV. The use of CAD with digital CXR has the potential to increase the use and availability of chest radiography in screening for TB where trained human resources are scarce.

  7. X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of your ... different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat and ...

  8. X-Ray Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Surgery Imaging Clinical Trials Basics Patient Information X-Ray Imaging Print This Page X-ray imaging is perhaps the most familiar type of imaging. Images produced by X-rays are due to the different absorption rates of ...

  9. Clinical Findings in Patients with Splenic Injuries: Are Injuries to the Left Lower Chest Important?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneir, Aaron

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical findings in patients with splenic injury and to determine if isolated left lower chest injury may be the single clinical indicator of splenic injury. The medical records of all adult blunt trauma patients with splenic injury over a 14 month period were reviewed. Significant left lower chest injury was considered present if the patient had left sided pleuritic chest pain with tenderness to ribs 7-12 or if these ribs were visualized as fractured on any imaging study. Patients were considered to have clinical findings suggestive of splenic injury if they had pre-hospital or emergency department hypotension, abdominal pain or tenderness, a Glasgow coma scale < 15, or gross hematuria. Ninety patients had splenic injury. Thirty-nine (43%. 95% CI 33, 54% patients had significant left lower chest injury. In five (6%. 95% CI 2, 12% patients, injury to this portion of the chest was the single indicator of splenic injury. Nearly half the patients with splenic injury will have significant injury to the left lower chest and this finding may be the only indicator of splenic injury.

  10. Radiograma de tórax e tomografia computadorizada na avaliação do enfisema pulmonar Chest X-ray and computed tomography in the evaluation of pulmonary emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Loureiro Irion

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O enfisema é uma condição do pulmão, caracterizada pelo aumento acima do normal no tamanho dos espaços aéreos distais ao bronquíolo terminal. Atualmente, o enfisema é a quarta causa de morte nos EUA, afetando 14 milhões de pessoas. O presente artigo descreve as principais ferramentas no diagnóstico por imagem do enfisema, desde o início até os dias de hoje. Relata as técnicas tradicionais, como radiograma de tórax, e as evoluções no campo da tomografia computadorizada (TC, como a TC de alta resolução e a densitovolumetria pulmonar por TC tridimensional.Emphysema is a condition of the lung, characterized by the abnormal increase in the size of the airspace distal to the terminal bronchioles. Currently, emphysema is the fourth leading cause of death in the USA, affecting 14 million people. The present article describes the principal tools in the imaging diagnosis of emphysema, from the early days until the present. We describe traditional techniques, such as chest X-ray, together with the evolution of computed tomography (CT to more advanced forms, such as high resolution CT, as well as three-dimensional CT densitometry and volumetric assessment.

  11. X-ray diagnosis of predisposition to pulmonary nephrotic edema in patients with glomerulonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop criteria for determining predisposition to pulmonary edema in patients with glomerulonephritis, clinical, laboratory and X-ray examinations were made in 697 patients with glomerulonephritis at different stages of its development. X-ray examination included chest tele X-ray and its densitometric analysis. Twenty two patients underwent computerized tomography with gistographic analysis. In 106 patients, X-ray findings were compared with the volume of circulating blood, cardiac and stroke indices. CHanges in the lungs and pleural cavities were found in 22,7%, pulmonary edema was revealed in 15,7% of the patients. The prognostically unfavourable criteria for the development of pulmonary edema were found to be Stage 2 pulmonary venous hypertension with hypervolemia and peripheral edemas

  12. The occurrence of recruitment supported from the finding of an increase in radiosensitivity of quiescent cells in solid tumors after fractionated irradiation with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the behavior of quiescent cells in solid tumors irradiated twice at various intervals with X-rays, using our recently developed method for selectively detecting the response of quiescent cells in solid tumors. To determine the labeling indices of tumors at the second irradiation, each mouse group included mice that were continuously administered BrdU until just before the second irradiation using mini-osmotic pumps which had been implanted before the first irradiation. Radiosensitivity of total tumor cells at the second irradiation decreased in proportion to the increase in interval time. However, radiosensitivity of quiescent cells was raised with increase in the interval time. In addition, the labeling index at the second irradiation was higher than that at the first irradiation. These findings supported the occurrence of recruitment from quiescent to proliferating state during fractionated irradiation. (author)

  13. Out-Of-Pocket X-Ray, CT Scan Costs Vary Widely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_158853.html Out-of-Pocket X-Ray, CT Scan Costs Vary Widely And trying to get hospitals ... pocket price for a standard chest X-ray, CT scan or ultrasound can vary by hundreds of dollars, ...

  14. A simple method for finding crystallite distribution by size based on the profile of x-ray diffraction lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present communication proposes a mathematical method of finding crystallite distribution by size. The method was developed in recent years to process small-angle scattering data and is based on a modified Laplace method. The proposed method is less sensitive to background level and requires fewer experimental points over a wide angle range than harmonic analysis of the form of the diffraction lines (HAFXL). Experimental verification of the method obtained from two powder samples of nickel oxide is presented. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Comparative study on findings of the brain computed tomography (X-ray-CT) and dynamic topography of VEP (VDT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative study between morphological Xray-CT and functional VDT was conducted on 20 cases of cerebral diseases with visual dysfunction. Subjects were patients with cerebral infarction, intracranial hemorrhage, hemispherectomy, traumatic brain atrophy, brain tumor, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, anoxic encephalopathy, porencephaly, microcephaly and optic tract lesion. VEP topography was performed by flash stimulation and brain electrical activity mappings were displayed by EEG topography computer. In 9 cases out of 20, abolished function in VDT was correlated to the defective findings of Xray-CT. Cases with homonymous hemianopsia showed 2 types of BEAM. In cases with a lesion in the inner surface of the occipital lobe, asymmetric electric activity was distributed along the sagittal axis of the scalp. While, in cases with outer surface lesion of the occipital lobe, asymmetric electric activity appeared along the coronary axis. In cases with multi focal brain lesions in Xray-CT, there was no regular tendency in abnormality of VDT. Various aberration of VEP and VDT, such as component defect, stagnation, reduction, condensation and abnormal flow were demonstrated. In a case of optic tract lesion, Xray-CT showed no pathological findings but VDT showed a remarkable asymmetry of brain activity. (author)

  16. A rare variant of Caffey's disease – X-rays, bone scan and FDG PET findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 18-month-old boy with history of fever of 4 months duration and with swelling of the limbs was referred for a bone scan. There were multiple swellings over his upper and lower limbs, with bowing of the lower limbs. His radiological skeletal survey revealed marked periosteal new bone formation surrounding the diaphysis of long bones. A bone scan done with 99m Tc-MDP showed diffusely increased tracer uptake in all the long bones. A fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scan done to assess the metabolic activity showed patchy FDG uptake in the long bones, ankle joint and anterior ends of few ribs. His clinical and imaging findings led to the diagnosis of Caffey's disease

  17. Do X-ray diagnosis and endoscopic findings agree in the case of Ulcus ventriculi and Ulcus duodeni?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work is a correlation of the radiological and endoscopic findings of a university clinic in cases of stomach and duodenal ulcers. The sensitivity of the radiological examinations with Ulcus ventriculi, respectively duodeni, was 89%, respectively 91%; the specificity was 74%, respectively 85%. From these results suggestions were made for the use of endoscopy with radiologically diagnosed ulcers of the duodenum or stomach. Whereas the endoscopy is superior for the recognition of florid ulcers in a deformed Bulbus duodeni, radiology is superior in determining sinus developments, stenotic areas and the extent of an evacuation disturbance. A proper diagnosis is made possible by a purposeful combination of radiological and endoscopic-bioptic methods. (TRV)

  18. X-Ray Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kaaret, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We review the basic principles of X-ray polarimetry and current detector technologies based on the photoelectric effect, Bragg reflection, and Compton scattering. Recent technological advances in high-spatial-resolution gas-filled X-ray detectors have enabled efficient polarimeters exploiting the photoelectric effect that hold great scientific promise for X-ray polarimetry in the 2-10 keV band. Advances in the fabrication of multilayer optics have made feasible the construction of broad-band ...

  19. Determining symptoms for chest radiographs in patients with swine flu (H1N1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question arises about the chest X-ray findings and clinical symptoms in swine flu and about the most important clinical finding when correlated with the chest radiograph. Should physicians order a chest X-ray in each patient suspected of having swine flu? There were 179 patients with a high suspicion of swine flu. All 179 patients had an initial chest radiograph. As many as 65 males (representing 56% of the projected study population) had a normal chest radiograph, while 35 males (representing 55.6% of the study population) had an abnormal chest X-ray. As many as 51 females (representing 44% of the population) had a normal chest X-ray, while 20 females (representing 44% of the study population) had abnormal chest X-rays. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal chest X-ray (CXR). Rapid antigen test was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Fever was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Cough appears to be a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Sore throat appears to be a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Chest pain was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Presence of cough with PCR was statistically significant. In my opinion, chest radiographs in patients with suspected H1N1 should only be obtained if there is a cough or sore throat. Other symptoms associated with H1N1 do not warrant a chest radiograph unless absolutely necessary

  20. The Influence of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Degenerative Disease on Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measurements in Middle-Aged Men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine degenerative features based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements at the lumbar spine in relation to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and to investigate whether bone mineral density (BMD) is reflected in the substitution of bone trabecular structure by fat at the vertebral body level indicated by MRI T1 relaxation time, endplate concavity, and hypertrophic (osteophytes and endplate sclerosis) MRI findings. Material and Methods: The sample for this cross-sectional study was composed of 102 subjects, 35-70 years old, from a population-based cohort. Data collection included DXA in the anterior-posterior projection at the L1-L4 vertebrae and right femoral neck, and MRI of the lumbar spine in the midsagittal plane. Results: Age, vertebral signal intensity, osteophytes, and endplate concavity collectively explained 20% of the variance in spine BMD. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that degenerative findings based on MRI measurements at the lumbar spine have an influence on bone assessment using DXA. Therefore, an overall bone assessment such as DXA might not offer an accurate measure of BMD

  1. The Influence of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Degenerative Disease on Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measurements in Middle-Aged Men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donescu, O.S.; Battie, M.C.; Videman, T. [Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine and Dept. of Physical Therapy, Univ. of Alberta (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To examine degenerative features based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements at the lumbar spine in relation to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and to investigate whether bone mineral density (BMD) is reflected in the substitution of bone trabecular structure by fat at the vertebral body level indicated by MRI T1 relaxation time, endplate concavity, and hypertrophic (osteophytes and endplate sclerosis) MRI findings. Material and Methods: The sample for this cross-sectional study was composed of 102 subjects, 35-70 years old, from a population-based cohort. Data collection included DXA in the anterior-posterior projection at the L1-L4 vertebrae and right femoral neck, and MRI of the lumbar spine in the midsagittal plane. Results: Age, vertebral signal intensity, osteophytes, and endplate concavity collectively explained 20% of the variance in spine BMD. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that degenerative findings based on MRI measurements at the lumbar spine have an influence on bone assessment using DXA. Therefore, an overall bone assessment such as DXA might not offer an accurate measure of BMD.

  2. Comparison of the results of X-ray, endoscopic and radionuclide investigations in patients with deforming bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensive investigation including panoramic chest X-ray, tomography, bronchofibroscopy with biopsy, bronchography, and comprehensive radionuclide investigation, were used in 233 patients with deforming bronchitis. All the patients were divided into 3 groups. Endoscopic findings corresponded to the results of comprehensive radionuclide investigation in all the groups

  3. Comparison of chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography findings in early and low-grade coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is more sensitive than chest X-ray (CXR) in the depiction of parenchymal abnormalities. We aimed to present and compare CXR and HRCT findings in coal workers with and without early and low-grade coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP). Materials and Methods: 71 coal workers were enrolled in this study. All workers were male. The CXR and HRCT of those workers were obtained and graded by two trained readers. HRCT's were graded according to Hosoda and Shida's Japanese classification. After grading, 67 workers with CXR profusion 0/0-2/2 were included in the study. Four patients with major opacity were excluded. Profusion 0/1 to 1/1 cases were accepted as early and profusion 1/2 and 2/2 cases as low-grade pneumoconiosis. Results: Discordance between CXR and HRCT was high. Discordance rate was found higher in the early pneumoconiosis cases with negative CXR than low-grade pneumoconiosis (60, 36 and 8%, respectively). When coal miners with normal CXR were evaluated by HRCT, six out of 10 cases were diagnosed as positive. In low-grade pneumoconiosis group, the number of patients with positive CXR but negative HRCT were low in comparison to patients with CXR negative and early pneumoconiosis findings. Most of the CXR category 0 patients (10/16) were diagnosed as category 1 by HRCT. Eleven cases diagnosed as CXR category 1 were diagnosed as category 0 (7/11) and category 2 (4/11) by HRCT. In CXR category 2 (eight cases), there were four cases diagnosed as category 1 by HRCT. Conclusions: Discordance between CXR and HRCT was high, especially for CXR negative and early pneumoconiosis cases. The role of CXR in screening coal workers to detect early pneumoconiosis findings should be questioned. We suggest using HRCT as a standard screening method instead of CXR to distinguish between normal and early pneumoconiosis

  4. X-rays for medical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessenbruch, A.

    1995-11-01

    1995 is the centenary of the discovery of X-rays by the German physicist Wilhelm C Rontgen. In the past hundred years, the new rays have developed from being unknown to finding application in many walks of life, not least in medicine. This is so much so that in common speech the word `x-ray` refers not to a form of radiation but to an X-ray photograph taken for the purposes of diagnosis (as in: `I had an X-ray done to see if my leg was broken`). X-rays are now used routinely, and they are used both for diagnosis and for therapy. This paper will give an outline of the use of X-rays in medicine throughout our present century.

  5. X-ray interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved type of amplitude-division x-ray interferometer is described. The wavelength at which the interferometer can operate is variable, allowing the instrument to be used to measure x-ray wavelength, and the angle of inclination is variable for sample investigation. (U.K.)

  6. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A skeletal x-ray is an imaging test used to look at the bones. It is used to detect fractures , tumors, or ... in the health care provider's office by an x-ray technologist. You will lie on a table or ...

  7. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extremity x-ray is an image of the hands, wrist, feet, ankle, leg, thigh, forearm humerus or upper arm, hip, shoulder ... term "extremity" often refers to a human limb. X-rays are a form of radiation that passes through ...

  8. Dental x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... addition, many dentists are taking x-rays using digital technology. The image runs through a computer. The amount of radiation given off during the procedure is less than traditional methods. Other types of dental x-rays can create a 3-D picture ...

  9. Prevalence and clinical significance of incidental cardiac findings in non-ECG-gated chest CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of incidental cardiac findings in non-ECG-gated chest CT. Non-ECG-gated chest CT examinations of 300 patients were retrospectively analyzed for incidental cardiac findings. Subsequently, these findings were evaluated for their clinical relevance by a cardiologist. A total of 107 out of 300 examined patients had 174 incidental cardiac findings including coronary calcification (90), aortic/mitral valve calcification (42), iatrogenic changes (23), pericardial effusion (6), dilatation of the heart (4), myocardial changes (3), thrombus in the left ventricle (2), constrictive pericarditis (2) and atrial myxoma (1). Of the cardiac findings 51% were described in the written report and in 53 out of the 107 patients the cardiac findings were unknown. Newly detected incidental findings from 8 patients were rated as clinically significant: pericardial effusion (4), constrictive pericarditis (1), thrombus in the left ventricle (1), atrial myxoma (1) and dilatation of the heart (1). Incidental cardiac findings are frequent in non-ECG-gated chest CT and may have a high clinical relevance. (orig.)

  10. Chest HRCT findings in acute transformation of adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with acute transformation of adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL). We retrospectively identified 72 consecutive patients at our institution with ATLL between October 2000 and March 2014. The cases included acute type (n = 20), lymphoma type (n = 21), smouldering type (n = 24) and chronic type (n = 7). Sixteen (7 men, 9 women; aged 36-85 years, mean 63.3 years) of 31 patients (24 with smouldering and seven with chronic type; 51.6 %) developed acute transformation of ATLL, and had undergone chest HRCT examinations. Parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes, pericardial effusion, pleural effusion and skin lesions were evaluated on HRCT. Chest HRCT of 15 of the 16 patients showed abnormal findings, including ground-glass opacity (GGO) (n = 8), consolidation (n = 5), interlobular septal thickening (n = 5) and nodules (n = 5). Pleural effusion was found in five patients, lymph node enlargement in 10 patients and multiple skin thickening in two patients. Almost all patients with acute transformation of ATLL had abnormal findings on chest HRCT, which consisted mainly of lymph node enlargement, GGO, interlobular septal thickening, nodules and bilateral pleural effusions. (orig.)

  11. Chest HRCT findings in acute transformation of adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Fumito; Sato, Haruka; Omeri, Ahmad Khalid; Ono, Asami; Tokuyama, Kouhei; Ando, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Akira; Mori, Hiromu [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yufu, Oita (Japan); Ogata, Masao; Kohno, Kazuhiro; Takano, Kuniko [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Yufu, Oita (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    To assess chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with acute transformation of adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL). We retrospectively identified 72 consecutive patients at our institution with ATLL between October 2000 and March 2014. The cases included acute type (n = 20), lymphoma type (n = 21), smouldering type (n = 24) and chronic type (n = 7). Sixteen (7 men, 9 women; aged 36-85 years, mean 63.3 years) of 31 patients (24 with smouldering and seven with chronic type; 51.6 %) developed acute transformation of ATLL, and had undergone chest HRCT examinations. Parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes, pericardial effusion, pleural effusion and skin lesions were evaluated on HRCT. Chest HRCT of 15 of the 16 patients showed abnormal findings, including ground-glass opacity (GGO) (n = 8), consolidation (n = 5), interlobular septal thickening (n = 5) and nodules (n = 5). Pleural effusion was found in five patients, lymph node enlargement in 10 patients and multiple skin thickening in two patients. Almost all patients with acute transformation of ATLL had abnormal findings on chest HRCT, which consisted mainly of lymph node enlargement, GGO, interlobular septal thickening, nodules and bilateral pleural effusions. (orig.)

  12. Management of diagnostic x-ray radiation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to provide a simple, inexpensive, and effective method to prevent the scattering of x-ray radiation by using a lead apron in the x-ray rooms of developing countries. In developed countries, the scattering of x-ray radiation among patients and radiographers in diagnostic x-ray rooms has been minimized by various methods. However, in some developing countries, scattered x-ray radiation has not yet been adequately contained. The policy of As Law As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) requires that patients who are waiting for their examinations must be protected from scattered x-ray radiation. However, from the author's experience, protection from scattered x-ray radiation in x-ray rooms is often insufficient in developing countries. In addition, major public hospitals in big cities are overwhelmed with patients because radiology resources in developing countries are concentrated in the big cities. Moreover, the situation is made worse by short working hours in public hospitals. Hours from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. are typical. Because of the circumstances, radiographers, who are in a rush to finish all of the examinations within their normal working hours, sometimes allow patients to enter the x-ray rooms while they are waiting for their examinations. Chest and abdominal x-rays are the most common kinds of diagnostic x-ray examination in developing countries. Thus, in this study, anthropomorphic chest and abdominal phantoms were x-rayed for measuring the scattered x-ray radiation with and without protection using a 0.25mmPb lead apron at specific points from the anthropomorphic phantoms in the x-ray room. The lead apron was hung on a mobile apron-hanger and placed next to the anthropomorphic phantom. The scattered radiation dosimetry for chest x-rays proves that this simple method reduces scattered x-ray radiation to 15% at one-meter point and to almost 0% at the two-meter point from the anthropomorphic phantom in the x-ray room. Lead aprons are

  13. Comparative analysis of chest radiological findings between avian human influenza and SARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the chest radiological findings of a mortal avian human influenza case. Methods: One patient in our hospital was proved to be infected avian human influenza in Guangdong province on March 1, 2006. The Clinical appearances and chest radiological findings of this case were retrospectively analyzed and compared with that of 3 mortal SARS cases out of 16 cases in 2003. Results: Large consolidated areas in left lower lobe was showed in pulmonary radiological findings of this patient and soon developed into ARDS (adult respiratory distress syndrome). However, the pulmonary radiological findings had no characteristic. Characteristics of soaring size and number during short term appeared in SARS instead of avian human influenza. Final diagnosis was up to the etiology and serology examination. Conclusion: Bronchial dissemination was not observed in this avian human influenza case. Pay attention to the avian human influenza in spite of no history of contract with sick or dead poultry in large city. (authors)

  14. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  15. X-ray diagnosis of retropatellar diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reports on a comprehensive, stepwise diagnosis in diseases of the knee joints. This includes a description of the indication, the technique of taking X-ray films, and X-ray findings, as well as arthrography of the femoropatellar joint in retropatellar diseases such as chondropathia patellae, osteochondrosis dissecans, traumas of the knee joints and arthrosis deformans. (orig.)

  16. X-rays pinpoint tumour targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a surgeon in Birmingham used an X-ray photograph to guide the removal of a needle buried in a woman's hand in January 1896, it became the first X-ray guided operation in medical history. Since then X-rays have been widely used for medical imaging, and 'computed tomography' now provides us with exquisite 2D cross-sectional images of the human body. The technique creates images by passing X-rays along a plane through the body and recording the transmitted signals from various angles. A 'CT scan' lets us locate and visualize tumours with a resolution of 1 mm. But there is more to X-rays than imaging - they can also treat patients by killing cancerous tumours. When X-rays interact with tissue, they release highly reactive radicals that break the double strands in DNA molecules and cause the rapidly dividing cancerous cells to die. But because X-rays kill both healthy and diseased tissue in equal measure, it is vital to minimize the radiation received by healthy organs and tissue surrounding the tumour. The goal of radiotherapy is to find the precise location of a tumour using a CT scan - or other imaging technique - and then concentrate the X-rays on it to destroy the diseased tissue. In the August issue of Physics World Matin Durrani describes how intensity-modulated radiation therapy can deliver precise doses of X-rays to tumours while leaving surrounding, healthy tissue relatively unscathed. (U.K.)

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  20. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... The test is done in a hospital x-ray department or your health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie on the x-ray table ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  2. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  3. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient support system for X-ray equipment in arteriographic studies of the heart is described in detail. The support system has been designed to overcome many of the practical problems encountered in using previous types of arteriographic X-ray equipment. The support system is capable of horizontal movement and, by a series of shafts attached to the main support system, the X-ray source and image intensifier or detector may be rotated through the same angle. The system is highly flexible and details are given of several possible operational modes. (U.K.)

  4. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  5. A Multi-Scale Matched Filter for Nodule Detection in Chest X-Ray Radiography%一种胸部X射线摄影图像中结节检测的多尺度匹配滤波器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗涛; 牟轩沁

    2011-01-01

    为了提高胸部X射线摄影图像中肺结节的正确检测率,提出一种基于通道化Hotelling模型的多尺度匹配滤波算法.以X射线胸片中的正样本和负样本图像作为训练集合,用Hotelling分类器训练出不同尺度的匹配滤波器组,并与待检测的胸片图像做滤波.计算滤波输出图像的视觉检测差异,以最大差异为约束条件寻找最优尺度的滤波器,计算待检测图像中的结节尺寸和检测能力.实验结果表明,基于通道化Hotelling的匹配滤波算法的病灶检测能力与主观评价结果取得了较好的一致性,并具有较高的病灶检测准确率,滤波处理后的图像中仅含少量的假阳性区域,计算出的病灶的相对半径误差主要位于-0.21和0.18之间,该误差范围的图像占实验数据库图像的比例为86%.%A multi-scale matched filter based on Hotelling classifier is presented to improve the accuracy of nodule detection in chest X-ray radiography. The positive and negative radiography samples are used to train multi-dimension matched filters by Hotelling model. The visual detection difference is calculated using the filter outputs of radiography,and the optimal dimension filter is searched subject to the maximum detection difference. Then the nodule size and detection capability are calculated based on the optimal filter. Experimental results show that there is good accordance of the detection performances between the presented method and subjective observers.The method improves the detection accuracy and reduces the false-positive regions in the processed images. Errors of the calculated relative nodule sizes mainly distribute between -0. 21 and 0.18 and the proportion of the images in this range is 86%.

  6. X-Ray Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  7. Medical X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) publishes Suggested State Regulations for the Control of Radiation , ... eSubmitter Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff - Assembler's Guide to Diagnostic X-Ray Equipment ...

  8. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved form of x-ray tube is described which consists of a rotatable anode disc and an electron beam source enclosed in an envelope. The beam of electrons strikes the edge of the anode disc at an acute angle, producing x-rays which are transmitted through a window in the envelope. To improve performance and life of the anode disc it is additionally reciprocated back and forth along its axis of rotation. Dimensions are specified. (U.K.)

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no ... might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  12. Severe adenovirus community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults: chest radiographic and CT findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dingyu; Fu, Yangyang; Wang, Zhiwei; Cao, Jian; Walline, Joseph; Zhu, Huadong

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe adenovirus pneumonia and its associated imaging features are well-described in immunocompromised patients but are rare and poorly understood in immunocompetent adults. We sought to describe the radiographic and CT findings of severe adenovirus community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in eight immunocompetent adults. Methods We reviewed systematically chest imaging manifestations of laboratory-confirmed severe adenovirus pneumonia in eight immunocompetent adults from April 2012 to April 2014. Results All patients showed abnormal results on initial chest radiograph and CT, with the exception of one normal initial chest radiograph. The abnormalities of the initial chest radiographs were unilateral (n=4) or bilateral (n=3), including consolidation (n=4), dense patchy opacity (n=3), ground glass opacity (GGO) (n=1), and pleural effusion (n=1). The initial CT findings consisted of unilateral (n=5) and bilateral (n=3) abnormalities, including consolidation (n=8), GGO (n=2), pleural effusion (n=3) and small nodules (n=1). Focal consolidation was the predominant finding in six patients whose initial CT scans were examined within one week after illness onset. Follow-up radiologic findings showed rapid development of bilateral consolidation within ten days after illness onset, usually accompanied by adjacent ground-glass opacity and pleural effusion. The parenchymal abnormalities began to absorb around two weeks after illness onset, with no appearances of fibrosis. Conclusions Severe adenovirus CAP in immunocompetent adults mainly appears as focal consolidation followed by rapid progression to bilateral consolidation, usually accompanied by adjacent GGO and pleural effusion, which may resemble bacterial pneumonia. Adenovirus should be considered in severe pneumonia cases with negative cultures and failure to respond to antibiotics.

  13. X-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray is among the most important research tools today, and has given priceless contributions to all disciplines within the natural sciences. State of the art in this field is called XFEL, X-ray Free Electron Laser, which may be 10 thousand million times stronger than the x-rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble. In addition XFEL has properties that allow the study of processes which previously would have been impossible. Of special interest are depictions on atomic- and molecular level by the use of x-ray holographic methods, and being able to study chemical reactions in nature's own timescale, the femtosecond. Conclusion: The construction of x-ray lasers is a natural development in a scientific field which has an enormous influence on the surrounding society. While the discovery of x-ray was an important breakthrough in itself, new applications appear one after the other: Medical depiction, dissemination, diffraction, DNA and protein structures, synchrotron radiation and tomography. There is reason to believe that XFEL implies a technological leap as big as the synchrotrons some decades ago. As we are now talking about studies of femtosecond and direct depiction of chemical reactions, it is obvious that we are dealing with a revolution to come, with extensive consequences, both scientifically and culturally. (EW)

  14. CT staging of colorectal cancer: What do you find in the chest?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQueen, A.S., E-mail: andrewmcqueen7@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Scott, J. [Department of Radiology, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15

    Aim: To clarify the chest computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with a new diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods: Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) over a 3-year period were retrospectively studied. All CT examinations were performed within a single NHS Trust using the same CT system and protocol. Two primary outcomes were assessed: the presence of pulmonary metastases and the identification of a significant, unexpected chest abnormality. Results: Five hundred and fourteen out of 568 (90.5%) CRC patients underwent complete CT staging. Thirty-one patients (6%) had lung metastases, of which four (0.8%) were isolated. Three hundred and fifty-three (68.7%) had no evidence of pulmonary metastases, but 130 (25.3%) had indeterminate lung nodules (ILNs). The ILNs of 12 patients were subsequently confirmed as metastases on follow-up. A major non-metastatic finding (pulmonary embolism or synchronous primary malignancy) was found in 15/514 patients (3%). Conclusions: Thoracic CT altered the initial TNM stage in fewer than 1% of CRC patients, but the detection of significant incidental chest disease and the establishment of an imaging baseline are useful outcomes of this imaging strategy. One-quarter of all staging examinations demonstrated ILNs.

  15. X-ray tube arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

  16. X-ray nanotomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasov, Alexander

    2004-10-01

    A compact laboratory x-ray "nano-CT" scanner has been created for 3D non-invasive imaging with 150-200 nanometers 3D spatial resolution, using advanced x-ray technologies and specific physical phenomena for signal detection. This spatial resolution in volume terms is 3 orders better than can be achieved in synchrotron tomography, 5 orders better then in existing laboratory micro-CT instruments and 10-12 orders better in comparison to clinical CT. The instrument employs an x-ray source with a 300-400nm x-ray spot size and uses small-angle scattering to attain a detail detectability of 150-200nm. An object manipulator allows positioning and rotation with an accuracy of 150nm. The x-ray detector is based on an intensified CCD with single-photon sensitivity. A typical acquisition cycle for 3D reconstruction of the full object volume takes from 10 to 60 minutes, with the collection of several hundred angular views. Subsequent volumetric reconstruction produces results as a set of cross sections with isotropic voxel size down to 140 x 140 x 140nm, or as a 3D-model, which can be virtually manipulated and measured. This unique spatial resolution in non-invasive investigations gives previously unattainable 3D images in several application areas, such as composite materials, paper and wood microstructure, biomedical applications and others.

  17. X-ray Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Roland

    2016-01-01

    X-ray pulsars shine thanks to the conversion of the gravitational energy of accreted material to X-ray radiation. The accretion rate is modulated by geometrical and hydrodynamical effects in the stellar wind of the pulsar companions and/or by instabilities in accretion discs. Wind driven flows are highly unstable close to neutron stars and responsible for X-ray variability by factors $10^3$ on time scale of hours. Disk driven flows feature slower state transitions and quasi periodic oscillations related to orbital motion and precession or resonance. On shorter time scales, and closer to the surface of the neutron star, X-ray variability is dominated by the interactions of the accreting flow with the spinning magnetosphere. When the pulsar magnetic field is large, the flow is confined in a relatively narrow accretion column, whose geometrical properties drive the observed X-ray emission. In low magnetized systems, an increasing accretion rate allows the ignition of powerful explosive thermonuclear burning at t...

  18. Pulmonary tuberculosis mimicking lung cancer on radiological findings: Evaluation of chest CT findings in pathologically proven 76 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate chest CT features of pulmonary tuberculosis mimicking lung malignancy. We retrospectively reviewed chest CT findings for 76 consecutive patients (21-84 years, average: 63 years; M : F = 30 : 46) who underwent an invasive diagnostic procedure under the suspicion of lung cancer and were pathologically diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis by bronchoscopic biopsy (n = 49), transthoracic needle biopsy (n = 17), and surgical resection (n = 10). We categorized the chest CT patterns of those lesions as follows: bronchial narrowing or obstruction without a central mass like lesion (pattern 1), central mass-like lesion with distal atelectasis or obstructive pneumonia (pattern 2), peripheral nodule or mass including mass-like consolidation (pattern 3), and cavitary lesion (pattern 4). CT findings were reviewed with respect to the patterns and the locations of the lesions, parenchymal abnormalities adjacent to the lesions, the size, the border and pattern of enhancement for the peripheral nodule or mass and the thickness of the cavitary wall in the cavitary lesion. We also evaluated the abnormalities regarding the lymph node and pleura. Pattern 1 was the most common finding (n = 34), followed by pattern 3 (n = 23), pattern 2 (n = 11) and finally, pattern 4 (n = 8). The most frequently involving site in pattern 1 and 2 was the right middle lobe (n = 14/45). However, in pattern 3 and 4, the superior segment of right lower lobe (n = 5/31) was most frequently involved. Ill-defined small nodules and/or larger confluent nodules were found in the adjacent lung and at the other segment of the lung in 31 patients (40.8%). Enlarged lymph nodes were most commonly detected in the right paratracheal area (n = 9/18). Pleural effusion was demonstrated in 10 patients. On the CT, pulmonary tuberculosis mimicking lung cancer most commonly presented with bronchial narrowing or obstruction without a central mass-like lesion, which resulted in distal atelectasis and obstructive

  19. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  20. CRL X-RAY TUBE

    OpenAIRE

    Kolchevsky, N. N.; Petrov, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed.

  1. In search of optimum chest radiography techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nation-wide study of chest radiography in Sweden previously revealed a large variation in the physical and technical factors involved, in particular radiation dose. In this study image quality could not be assessed unambiguously. The aim was to try to establish correlation between visual grading of radiographs and physical and technical factors in order to find the optimum chest X-ray system. The physical and technical performance of 24 chest units was evaluated. Radiographs were taken of an anthropomorphic chest phantom supplied with test structures simulating various pathologies. Image quality was assessed by visual grading analysis of the radiographs. The physical and technical parameters of the units rated best were used to exemplify good radiographic practice. Results were in agreement with the recommendations issued by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). It was also shown that low radiation dose is compatible with high-quality radiographic imaging of the chest. (Author)

  2. X-raying with low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    with higher frequency of a pulsation the share of unproductive radiation is higher. At x-raying controlled by the grid pulses are generated by the x-ray tube with the grid control. The grid, located between the cathode and the anode, passes the electron cloud without the expenses of time for dispersal and attenuation. It gives sharply outlined, rectangular x-ray pulses with homogeneous quality of radiation. Function GC F -x-raying controlled by the grid - enables to receive precisely outlined contours of moving objects: a heart, a gullet, - and also to carry out examination of the children without information loss during simultaneous dose decrease. Besides the image remains precise even during the movement of the electron-optical converter. Owing to radiation parameters adjustment during the examination the effect of the lighted image is eliminated. X-raying devices Easy Diagnose and Diagnose-76 'Philips' are equipped with the system of digital x-ray image processing besides they are completed with the x-ray tube with Grid Controlled Fluoroscopy that allows to carry out pulse x-raying with number of pulses 2, 3, 6 and 12 per a second. So, with 12 pulses per second the irradiation dose in comparison with continuous radiation decreases on 40%. The examinations of a chest, gullet, stomach and thick gut were carried out at the frequency of 12 and 6 pulses per second. In the hospital of the Ministry of Internal Affairs where device Easy Diagnose is established, at examinations of a gastro enteric path (stomach x-raying, irrigoscopy) usually pulse x-raying is used with frequency 12 pulses per second. It allows significantly reduce the beam load on a patient. The calculation of beam loads on a patient was carried out on the basis of exposition dose level at the beam input in the body of a patient (entrance dose). The way is applied for especially exact calculations, as definitions of effective doses on separate organs and all body are difficult. The irradiation dose is in

  3. Value of ICU Bedside B-ultrasound and Chest X-ray in the Diagnosis of Traumatic Pneumothorax%重症监护病房床旁B超与胸部X线片检查对创伤性气胸的诊断价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许庆林; 陈淑娟

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较重症监护病房(ICU)床边B超与胸部X线片检查对创伤性气胸的诊断价值.方法 选取我院ICU收治的84例钝性胸部创伤患者,均行CT检查,随机分为 B超组和X线组,各42例.B超组行床边B超检查,X线组行床边胸部X线片检查,将两组检查结果与CT结果对比.结果 B超组CT检查结果示气胸34例37侧,其中3例为双侧气胸,B超检查结果示气胸26例28侧,其中2例为双侧气胸;X线组CT检查结果示气胸33例35侧,其中2例为双侧气胸,胸部X线片检查结果示气胸25例26侧,其中1例为双侧气胸.B超组和X线组敏感度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值、准确度比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 ICU床边B超与胸部X线片诊断气胸敏感性、特异性无显著差异,B超检查方便、无创、可动态观察,方便实用.%Objective To investigate the value of bedside ultrasonography and chest X - ray in the diagnosis of pneumothorax. Methods 84 patients with blunt chest trauma admitted to the ICU of our hospital were given CT examination and were randomly divided into B - ultrasonography group and X - ray group with each group 42 cases. B - ultrasonography group was given bedside B - ultrasonography examination while X - ray group was given bedside chest X - ray examination. The results of the two groups were compared with the CT results. Results In B - ultrasonography group, CT examination results showed 37 sides of pneumothorax in 34 cases and 3 cases were bilateral pneumothorax. While B - ultrasonography examination results showed 28 sides of pneumothorax in 26 cases and 2 cases were bilateral pneumothorax. In X - ray group, CT examination results showed 35 sides of pneumothorax in 33 cases and 2 cases were bilateral pneumothorax. While X - ray examination results showed 26 sides of pneumothorax in 25 cases and one case were bilateral pneumothorax. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive

  4. X-ray astronomical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Stephen S.

    1987-01-01

    The contributions of the Goddard group to the history of X-ray astronomy are numerous and varied. One role that the group has continued to play involves the pursuit of techniques for the measurement and interpretation of the X-ray spectra of cosmic sources. The latest development is the selection of the X-ray microcalorimeter for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) study payload. This technology is likely to revolutionize the study of cosmic X-ray spectra.

  5. X-ray Variability of Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Pian, Elena

    2002-01-01

    Critical progress in our understanding of high energy emission from AGN has been determined in the last 10 years by X-ray monitoring campaigns with many space missions, notably ROSAT, ASCA, RXTE, BeppoSAX, and XMM, often in conjunction with observations at other frequencies. The emphasis of the present review is on recent findings about X-ray variability of blazars. Among AGN, these exhibit the largest amplitude variations of the X-ray emission, often well correlated with variations at higher...

  6. X-rays from jets and lobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of X-ray detections (and non-detections) of radio jets and lobes is reviewed. The author summarizes the findings and interpretation of several detections of jet and lobe X-ray emission made with the EINSTEIN observatory in Virgo A, Centaurus A, 3C273, and possibly other radio structures. The Vir A (=M27) and Cen A jet emission is probably synchrotron in origin, requiring in situ particle acceleration to extremely high energies. Inverse Compton emission is the likely cause of asymmetrical X-ray features in the halo of Vir A, supporting the assumption of equipartition. (Auth.)

  7. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention discloses an X-ray apparatus that can be used for tomography with the aid of a computer. With this apparatus plus computer, it is possible to quickly achieve the required edge values whereby the influence of the movement is diminished

  8. Medical x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes the fundamental subject about medical radiography. It is a multidisciplinary field that requires cross professional input from scientists, engineers and medical doctors. However, it is presented in simple language to suit different levels of readers from x-ray operators and radiographers to physists, general practitioners and radiology specialists.The book is written in accordance to the requirements of the standard syllabus approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia for the training of medical x-ray operator and general practitioners. In general, the content is not only designed to provide relevant and essential subject for related professionals in medical radiological services such as x-ray operator, radiographer and radiologists, but also to address those in associated radiological services including nurses, medical technologists and physicists.The book is organized and arranged sequentially into 3 parts for easy reference: Radiation safety; X-ray equipment and associated facilities; Radiography practices. With proper grasping of all these parts, the radiological services could be provided with confident and the highest professional standard. Thus, medical imaging with highest quality that can provide useful diagnostic information at minimum doses and at cost effective could be assured

  9. Pyroelectric x-ray detectors and x-ray pyrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses pyroelectric detectors which are very promising x-ray detectors for intense pulsed x-ray/γ-ray measurements and can be used as x-ray pyrometers. They are fast, passive, and inherently flat in spectral response for low energy x-rays. The authors report tests of LiTaO3, Sr.5Ba.5Nb2O6 and LiNbO3 detectors at Nova laser with 1 ns low energy x-rays and at Zapp Z-pinch machine with 100 ns x-rays. The temporal and spectral responses are discussed

  10. Pyroelectric x-ray detectors and x-ray pyrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyroelectric detectors are very promising x-ray detectors for intense pulsed x-ray/γ-ray measurements and can be used as x-ray pyrometers. They are fast, passive, and inherently flat in spectral response for low-energy x rays. We report our tests of LiTaO3 detectors at Nova laser with 1-ns low-energy x rays and at Zapp Z-pinch machine with 100-ns x rays. The temporal and spectral responses are discussed

  11. Combined bilateral idiopathic necrosis of the humerus and femur heads: Bone scan, X-ray, CT, and MRI findings. Kombinierte beidseitige idiopathische Nekrose der Humerus- und Femurkoepfe: Skelettszintigraphie, Roentgen-, CT- und MRT-Befunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepenburg, R.; Hahn, K. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin); Doll, G. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Roentgendiagnostik); Grimm, J. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Orthopaedische Klinik)

    1992-12-01

    Untreated aseptic bone necroses close to a joint commonly leads to severe secondary arthrosis and destruction of the joint within a short time. Therefore, only a diagnosis in an early stage of the disease offers the chance of a successful joint- preserving therapy. In cases of clinically suspected aseptic bone necrosis but still negative or doubtful X-ray findings, bone scans or MRI are reliable methods of verifying the diagnosis. (orig./MG).

  12. CT findings of the chest in adults with aspirated foreign bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zissin, R.; Shapiro-Feinberg, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba (Israel); Rozenman, J.; Apter, S.; Hertz, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Tel Aviv (Israel); Smorjik, J. [Dept. of Pulmonary Medicine, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba (Israel)

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the imaging findings in adult patients with tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration. Nineteen patients (11 men and 8 women; age range 26-89 years) with foreign-body aspiration were retrospectively reviewed. Nine patients were outpatients with non-specific symptoms and ten were hospitalized with nonresolving pneumonia (n=6), after detection of a dental fragment on a chest radiograph following intubation (n=3), and there was one mentally retarded patient with empyema. An aspirated dental fragment was seen on a chest radiograph in 3 patients and an endobronchial foreign body on CT in 16, appearing as a dense structure within the bronchial lumen. The foreign body was right sided in 14 cases and left sided in 5. Three cases were missed at first interpretation. Associated findings on CT were volume loss, hyperlucency with air trapping and bronchiectasis in the affected lobe. Thirteen patients were managed with bronchoscopy, whereas 2 needed thoracotomy. In 1 patient bronchoscopy failed to detect a foreign body, indicating a false-positive CT diagnosis. One patient expelled an aspirated tablet and two refused invasive procedure. The foreign bodies found mainly were bones and dental fragments. A high clinical suspicion is necessary to diagnose a foreign body. Since CT is often used to evaluate various respiratory problems in adults, it may be the first imaging modality to discover an unsuspected aspirated foreign body in the bronchial tree. (orig.) (orig.)

  13. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Vejle-Sørensen, Jens Kristian; Thomsen, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials:A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from...... one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years of age are included in the study. The clinical research is performed between September and November 2014 where 3rd year Radiography students collect data on four Danish x-ray departments using identical procedures under guidance of...... conference. Conclusion: Collimation improvement in basic chest radiography can reduce the radiation to female patients at chest x-ray examinations....

  14. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Thomsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chest radiography is one of the most common examinations in radiology departments. In 2013 approximately 80,000 chest x-rays were performed on women in the fertile age. Even low dose for the examinationCorrect collimation Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing on...... collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years...... of age are included in the study. The clinical research is performed between September and November 2014 where 3rd year Radiography students collect data on four Danish x-ray departments using identical procedures under guidance of clinical supervisors. Optimal collimation is determined by European...

  15. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4

  16. HIV-positive patients in Pusan servitude : clinical and chest radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the clinical and chest radiolographic findings of HIV-positive in Pusan survitude. We reviewed the medical records of 74 admission cases of 41 HIV-positive patients (38 mem and 3 women), confirmed in NIH and admitted to our hospital between May 1990 and September 1997. We evaluated the clinical findings including the pulmonary disease diagnosed at each admission, and using the pattern approach assessed the radiographic findings in 63 cases available among 74 admission cases. For statistical analysis the Pearson Chi-Square test was used, and the chest CT findings available in 19 cases among 17 patients were also evaluated. In all cases the mode of transmission was sexual contact, and they were more frequently contacted with foreigners (73%) than koreans (27%). During the follow-up period, pulmonary diseases were diagnosed in 52 (70%) of 74 admission cases. The diagnoses were pneumocystis cabrini pneumonia (PCP, n=15), pneumonia(n=15), pulmonary tuberculosis(n=15), combined infection with PCP and pulmonary tuberculosis(n=5), and combined infection with PCP and bacterial pneumonia(n=1). The count of CD4+ lymphocyte in 33 of 55 available admissions cases was less than 50 cells/mm?. In 28 patients(68%) who died, the time between confirmation of HIV-positive status to death ranged from 2 to 81 (mean, 39) months. Chest radiographs of 46 available admission cases (73%) showed the followingabnormal findings: interstitial opacities(n=26), consolidation(n=17), single or multiple nodules (n=9), hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement(n=10), pleural effusion(n=8), cyst(n=2), mass(n=1), and pericardial effusion(n=1). Diffuse ground glass opacity was observed in eight (89%) of nine PCP cases (p<0.05), and in cases of pulmonary tubercolosis, hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement was frequent (p<0.05). Pulmonary diseases in HIV-positive patients in Pusan servitude were diagnosed during follow-up in 70% of cases. The majority of these diseases were infectious

  17. X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors describe the application of a new high-resolution X-ray tomographic microscope to the study of porous media. The microscope was designed to exploit the properties of a synchrotron X-ray source to perform three dimensional tomography on millimeter sized objects with micron resolution and has been used in materials science studies with both synchrotron and conventional and synchrotron sources will be compared. In this work the authors have applied the microscope to measure the three dimensional structure of fused bead packs and berea sandstones with micron resolution and have performed preliminary studies of flow in these media with the microscope operated in a digital subtraction radiography mode. Computer graphics techniques have been applied to the data to visually display the structure of the pore body system. Tomographic imaging after flow experiments should detect the structure of the oil-water interface in the pore network and this work is ongoing

  18. X-ray generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 4 provides a comparative survey on generators for stationary applications as available on the German market. It provides decision-making tools, physical characteristics, suggestions for radiation protection and for safe appliance operation as well as a concept for inspections all of which have been developed jointly by physicians of various specialities, physicists, engineers, business men, hospital experts and medicotechnical X-ray staff on the basis of a well-tried working concept. The systematic representation of correlations relevant to decision-making processes is based on a profile of technico-physical characteristics (standard product information) which was established by way of interdisciplinary dialog and which will enable any hospital or clinic to easily equip its X-ray department in an economic and purposeful way. The information on device data, device descriptions and market survey furnish the data tested by the manufacturers without guarantee and subject to correction. (orig./HP)

  19. X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An invention relating to the development of photo-resists used in X-ray lithography is described. A COP resist which has been exposed to X-ray radiation, is developed with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) developer and an ethanol solvent. The resist is first developed in a strong developing solution and then with a weaker developer whose concentration is slightly above that required to obtain complete development. Preferably the resist is exposed so as to obtain about a fifty per cent developed thickness and the developing is carried out in steps, the first with a concentration of 5:1.8 (MEK to ethanol) for five seconds, the second using concentrations of 5:1.8 and 5:2.7 for ten seconds and the third with a concentration of 5:2.7 for five seconds. (author)

  20. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  1. Chest Radiographic Findings in Primary Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Observations from High School Outbreaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Won Jung; Kwon, O Jung; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yeon Joo [Pusan National University School of Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Jin; Lew, Woo Jin [Korean Institute of Tuberculosis, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, En Hi [4Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    To describe the radiographic findings of primary pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in previously healthy adolescent patients. The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study, with a waiver of informed consent from the patients. TB outbreaks occurred in 15 senior high schools and chest radiographs from 58 students with identical strains of TB were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis by two independent observers. Lesions of nodule(s), consolidation, or cavitation in the upper lung zones were classified as typical TB. Mediastinal lymph node enlargement; lesions of nodule(s), consolidation, or cavitation in lower lung zones; or pleural effusion were classified as atypical TB. Inter-observer agreement for the presence of each radiographic finding was examined by kappa statistics. Of 58 patients, three (5%) had normal chest radiographs. Cavitary lesions were present in 25 (45%) of 55 students. Lesions with upper lung zone predominance were observed in 27 (49%) patients, whereas lower lung zone predominance was noted in 18 (33%) patients. The remaining 10 (18%) patients had lesions in both upper and lower lung zones. Pleural effusion was not observed in any patient, nor was the mediastinal lymph node enlargement. Hilar lymph node enlargement was seen in only one (2%) patient. Overall, 37 (67%) students had the typical form of TB, whereas 18 (33%) had TB lesions of the atypical form. The most common radiographic findings in primary pulmonary TB by recent infection in previously healthy adolescents are upper lung lesions, which were thought to be radiographic findings of reactivation pulmonary TB by remote infection

  2. Chest Radiographic Findings in Primary Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Observations from High School Outbreaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the radiographic findings of primary pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in previously healthy adolescent patients. The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study, with a waiver of informed consent from the patients. TB outbreaks occurred in 15 senior high schools and chest radiographs from 58 students with identical strains of TB were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis by two independent observers. Lesions of nodule(s), consolidation, or cavitation in the upper lung zones were classified as typical TB. Mediastinal lymph node enlargement; lesions of nodule(s), consolidation, or cavitation in lower lung zones; or pleural effusion were classified as atypical TB. Inter-observer agreement for the presence of each radiographic finding was examined by kappa statistics. Of 58 patients, three (5%) had normal chest radiographs. Cavitary lesions were present in 25 (45%) of 55 students. Lesions with upper lung zone predominance were observed in 27 (49%) patients, whereas lower lung zone predominance was noted in 18 (33%) patients. The remaining 10 (18%) patients had lesions in both upper and lower lung zones. Pleural effusion was not observed in any patient, nor was the mediastinal lymph node enlargement. Hilar lymph node enlargement was seen in only one (2%) patient. Overall, 37 (67%) students had the typical form of TB, whereas 18 (33%) had TB lesions of the atypical form. The most common radiographic findings in primary pulmonary TB by recent infection in previously healthy adolescents are upper lung lesions, which were thought to be radiographic findings of reactivation pulmonary TB by remote infection

  3. Chest CT findings in patients with non-cardiovascular causes of chest pain: Focusing on pulmonary tuberculosis in a tuberculosis endemic country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So Won; Shim, Sung Shine; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Ryu, Yon Ju [Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To review the common causes of non-cardiovascular chest pain (NCCP) according to the location and lesion type as seen on chest CT, and to evaluate CT findings in tuberculosis (TB) as a cause of NCCP. In the period 2009 to 2012, patients having NCCP without definitive evidence of acute myocardial infarction, pulmonary thromboembolism, and aortic dissection, were included. In total, 162 patients (60.5% male; 39.5% female), with a mean age of 51 years, were enrolled. CT images were evaluated by location and lesion type, for causes of NCCP. Chest CT revealed that the most common location for the cause of NCCP was the pleura (45.1%), followed by the subpleural lung parenchyma (30.2%). The most common lesion causing NCCP was TB (33.3%), followed by pneumonia (19.1%). Of the 54 TB cases, 40 (74.1%) were stable TB and 14 (25.9%) were active TB; among these 54 patients, NCCP was most commonly the result of fibrotic pleural thickening (55.6%), followed by subpleural stable pulmonary TB (14.8%). Results of chest CT revealed that TB was a major cause of NCCP in a TB endemic area. Among the TB patients, fibrotic pleural thickening in patients with stable TB was the most common cause of NCCP.

  4. Chest CT findings in patients with non-cardiovascular causes of chest pain: Focusing on pulmonary tuberculosis in a tuberculosis endemic country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To review the common causes of non-cardiovascular chest pain (NCCP) according to the location and lesion type as seen on chest CT, and to evaluate CT findings in tuberculosis (TB) as a cause of NCCP. In the period 2009 to 2012, patients having NCCP without definitive evidence of acute myocardial infarction, pulmonary thromboembolism, and aortic dissection, were included. In total, 162 patients (60.5% male; 39.5% female), with a mean age of 51 years, were enrolled. CT images were evaluated by location and lesion type, for causes of NCCP. Chest CT revealed that the most common location for the cause of NCCP was the pleura (45.1%), followed by the subpleural lung parenchyma (30.2%). The most common lesion causing NCCP was TB (33.3%), followed by pneumonia (19.1%). Of the 54 TB cases, 40 (74.1%) were stable TB and 14 (25.9%) were active TB; among these 54 patients, NCCP was most commonly the result of fibrotic pleural thickening (55.6%), followed by subpleural stable pulmonary TB (14.8%). Results of chest CT revealed that TB was a major cause of NCCP in a TB endemic area. Among the TB patients, fibrotic pleural thickening in patients with stable TB was the most common cause of NCCP

  5. Dentistry 4. X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DIN pocketbook 267/4 gives an overview of the normative requirements of the new X-Ray and Radiation Protection Ordinance, which has been in effect since 1 November 2011. This DIN pocketbook is intended for anyone charged with professional responsibility for the use of ionizing radiation in dentistry, operators and users of x-ray devices, radiation protection officers, accredited experts, manufacturers as well as for anyone with an interest in radiation protection or optimal radiological diagnostics. It contains standards relating to the following areas: acceptance and constancy testing; devices for evaluating findings (monitors, film viewing devices), films, printers; archiving, designating, labelling. Adherence to the standards makes it possible to avoid distractive artefacts in x-ray images and optimise the quality of x-ray diagnostics in dentistry.

  6. The ROSAT X-ray Background Dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Plionis, M

    1998-01-01

    We estimate the dipole of the diffuse 1.5 keV X-ray background from the ROSAT all-sky survey map of Snowden et al (1995). We first subtract the diffuse Galactic emission by fitting to the data an exponential scale height, finite radius, disk model. We further exclude regions of low galactic latitudes, of local X-ray emission (eg the North Polar Spur) and model them using two different methods. We find that the ROSAT X-ray background (XRB) dipole points towards $(l,b) ~ (288, 25) \\pm 19 degrees within 30 degrees of the CMB dipole. Its direction is also in good agreement with the HEAO1 X-ray dipole at harder energies. The normalised amplitude of the ROSAT XRB dipole is about 1.7 per cent. Subtracting from the ROSAT map the expected X-ray background dipole due to the reflex motion of the observer with respect to the cosmic rest frame (Compton-Geting effect) we find the large-scale dipole of the X-ray emitting extragalactic sources having an amplitude 90% of the total XRB, in general agreement with the prediction...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is ... care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ...

  9. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic radiography is described in detail. It comprises a tubular target carrier supporting at its distal end a target with an inclined forward face. Image definition is improved by positioning in the path of the X-rays a window of X-ray transmitting ceramic material, e.g. 90% oxide of Be, or Al, 7% Si02. The target carrier forms a probe which can be positioned in the patient's mouth. X-rays are directed forwardly and laterally of the target to an X-ray film positioned externally. The probe is provided with a detachable sleeve having V-form arms of X-ray opaque material which serve to depress the tongue out of the radiation path and also shield the roof of the mouth and other regions of the head from the X-ray pattern. A cylindrical lead shield defines the X-ray beam angle. (author)

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  11. Soft X-ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, John

    1999-05-20

    The contents of this report cover the following: (1) design of the soft x-ray telescope; (2) fabrication and characterization of the soft x-ray telescope; and (3) experimental implementation at the OMEGA laser facility.

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations ... patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... and Media Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to X-ray ( ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... As a result, bones appear white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on large film sheets (much ...

  16. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of ... oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page ... the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is ...

  19. The X-ray Properties of z>4 Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspi, Shai; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2000-01-01

    We report on a search for X-ray emission from quasars with redshifts greater than four using the ROSAT public database. Our search has doubled the number of z>4 quasars detected in X-rays from 6 to 12. Most of those known prior to this work were radio-loud and X-ray selected sources; our study increases the number of X-ray detected, optically selected z>4 quasars from one to seven. We present their basic X-ray properties and compare these to those of lower redshift quasars. We do not find any...

  20. Active X-ray Optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Inneman, A.; Pina, L.; Černá, D.; Tichý, V.

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2013 - (Juha, L.; Bajt, S.; London, R.; Hudec, R.; Pína, L.), 877718/1-877718/7. (Proceedings of SPIE. 8777). ISBN 9780819495792. [Damage to VUV, EUV, and X-ray Optics IV; and EUV and X-ray Optics: Synergy between Laboratory and Space III. Praha (CZ), 15.04.2013-18.04.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : X-ray optics * active optics * active X-ray optics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  1. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Edward Snell, a National Research Council research fellow at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), prepares a protein crystal for analysis by x-ray crystallography as part of NASA's structural biology program. The small, individual crystals are bombarded with x-rays to produce diffraction patterns, a map of the intensity of the x-rays as they reflect through the crystal.

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lies. A drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... that is extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  4. Tunable X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, James R.

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  5. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Ankle Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: tobillo What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  6. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Finger Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: dedo What It Is A finger X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  7. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Wrist Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: muñeca What It Is A wrist X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  8. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Hip Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: cadera What It Is A hip X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  9. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Forearm Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: brazo What It Is A forearm X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  10. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Pelvis Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: pelvis What It Is A pelvis X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  11. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Foot Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: pie What It Is A foot X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ...

  13. New findings about sawtooth oscillations in LHCD plasmas on the HT-7 tokamak using tomography of soft x-ray signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new physical phenomena have been observed during the sawtooth (both with mid-cursor and without precursor) crash in lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) plasmas on the HT-7 tokamak by using tomography of high-resolution soft-x-ray emission together with the singular value decomposition technique. Firstly, there is no displacement of the hot core during the mid-cursor-sawtooth (sawtooth oscillations with mid-cursor) crash; secondly, magnetic reconnection does not occur during the precursorless-sawtooth (sawtooth oscillations without precursor) crash. These observations demonstrate that the crashes of the two typical sawtooth oscillations (mid-cursor-sawtooth and precursorless-sawtooth) are inconsistent with both full reconnection theory and Wesson's theory.

  14. Years of Magnetic X-Ray Dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Gerrit

    A historical overview of magnetic x-ray dichroism is presented. I describe the first theoretical and experimental results that have led to the development of this powerful technique for element-specific magnetometry. The theoretical progress of the sum rules is also described, starting with the spinorbit sum rule for the isotropic spectrum which led on to the spin and orbital moment sum rules for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The latter has been particularly useful to understand the magnetic anisotropy in thin films and multilayers. Further developments of circular dichroism in (resonant) photoemission and Auger, as well as x-ray detected optical activity, also are summarized. Currently, magnetic x-ray dichroism finds a wide application in x-ray spectroscopy and imaging for the study of magnetic materials and it is considered to be one of the most important discoveries in the field of magnetism in the last few decennia. It is hard to imagine modern research into magnetism without the aid of polarized x-rays.

  15. A million X-ray detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, N.; XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre (SSC)

    2016-06-01

    Part of the XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre responsibilities include producing an X-ray catalogue of all X-ray sources detected with XMM-Newton. The latest version, 3XMM, takes advantage of improvements made to the source characterisation, reducing the number of spurious detections, but providing better astrometric precision, greater net sensitivity, as well as spectra and timeseries for a quarter of all catalogue detections. The data release 5 (3XMM-DR5, April 2015) is derived from the first 13 years of observations with XMM-Newton. 3XMM-DR5 includes 565962 X-ray detections and 396910 unique sources, detected as many as 48 times. 3XMM-DR5 is therefore the largest X-ray source catalogue. 3XMM-DR6 will be made available during 2016 and will augment the catalogue with 70000 X-ray detections. Over the next decade the catalogue will reach 1 million X-ray detections, including galaxy clusters, galaxies, tidal disruption events, gamma-ray bursts, stars, stellar mass compact objects, supernovae, planets, comets and many other systems. Thanks to the wide range of data products for each catalogue detection, the catalogue is an excellent resource for finding populations of sources as well as new and extreme objects. Here we present results achieved from searching the catalogue and discuss improvements that will be provided in future versions.

  16. Therapeutic options in chronic heart failure. Findings on chest X-ray; Nicht medikamentoese Therapieoptionen der chronischen Herzinsuffizienz. Befunde in der Projektionsradiografie des Thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granitz, M.R.; Meissnitzer, T.; Meissnitzer, M.W.; Hergan, K.; Altenberger, J.; Granitz, C. [Uniklinikum Salzburg - Landeskrankenhaus (Austria)

    2016-05-15

    The contribution covers drugless therapeutic options for chronic heart failure: the implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD), the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), the interventional catheter treatment of functional mitral insufficiency, and mechanical heart supporting systems and heart transplantation.

  17. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of literature on X-ray diffraction begins with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips' organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. This is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is divided according to the equipment (cameras, diffractometers, monochromators) and its applications. The applications are subdivided into sections for high/low temperature and pressure, effects due to the equipment, small angle scattering and a part for stress, texture and phase analyses of metals and quantitative analysis of minerals

  18. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multicell X-ray or gamma detector is used in computer tomography. To achieve good spatial resolution, the electrode plates are narrowly spaced in each cell and are designed identical over the whole length of the detector group. The uniform spacing and precise check of the angles between the electrodes and accurate control of the dimensions of the whole detector structure are achieved by depositing, in the fabrication process, a viscous, resin type material (e.g., epoxy resin) or glue at selected points between the electrodes and insulators. (ORU)

  19. Observation and theory of X-ray mirages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnitskiy, Sergey; Nagorskiy, Nikolay; Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tatiana; Tanaka, Mamoko; Ishino, Masahiko; Nishikino, Masaharu; Fukuda, Yuji; Kando, Masaki; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2013-06-01

    The advent of X-ray lasers allowed the realization of compact coherent soft X-ray sources, thus opening the way to a wide range of applications. Here we report the observation of unexpected concentric rings in the far-field beam profile at the output of a two-stage plasma-based X-ray laser, which can be considered as the first manifestation of a mirage phenomenon in X-rays. We have developed a method of solving the Maxwell-Bloch equations for this problem, and find that the experimentally observed phenomenon is due to the emergence of X-ray mirages in the plasma amplifier, appearing as phase-matched coherent virtual point sources. The obtained results bring a new insight into the physical nature of amplification of X-ray radiation in laser-induced plasma amplifiers and open additional opportunities for X-ray plasma diagnostics and extreme ultraviolet lithography.

  20. Comparison of gated radionuclide scans and chest radiographs. Assessment of left ventricular impairment in patients with coronary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, J A; Reinke, D B; Makey, D G; Shafer, R B

    1980-03-01

    Diagnostic efficacy of gated cardiac blood pool imaging was studied in 41 consecutive patients with LV ejection fractions (LVEF) less than or equal to 0.50. Eighty percent of patients were receiving therapy for LV failure at the time of the study. All patients had documented coronary-artery disease (CAD). Chest x-ray films were interpreted blindly by a senior radiologist. Cardiothoracic ratio of less than or equal to 0.50 was recorded as normal. Radionuclide assessment of LV function contributes importantly to the diagnostic and screening value of chest x-ray films. Patients with coronary disease and clinical evidence of heart failure should have radioisotopic studies even if chest x-ray film findings are normal. In patients with coronary artery disease and enlarged LV on chest films, radionuclide study of left ventricular performance aids in defining LV impairment, and in the prognostication of subsequent clinical course. PMID:6444573

  1. Radiation doses for X-ray diagnosis teeth in dental medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-rays are the first ionizing radiation, which are applied in medicine for diagnostic radiology and X-ray therapy. While in the beginning they are mainly used for X-ray photos of the chest /lungs and in severe fractures of the limbs, then in recent years they are widely applied in diagnostics of teeth in dental medicine. Considering that caries is a widespread disease, both in children and adults, and it requires repeated x-ray photographs of the damaged teeth for the individual, the total radiation doses, which reflect on people from the X-rays are at high values. In order to reduce external exposure to other organs /mainly thyroid gland/ by X-ray pictures of teeth, it should be used with special lead aprons with large coefficient of reduction. Keywords: doses of radiation, X-ray machines, dental, x-ray pictures of teeth, protection sources

  2. 胸部X线对肺透明膜病病情程度的监测%A dynamic observation of the X-ray images in chest after applying cnrosurf to hyaline membrane disease in grade Ⅲ~Ⅳ of the premature infants' lungs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪建华; 肖飞鹰; 孙多成; 刘超凡

    2008-01-01

    目的 评价X线对肺表面活性物质(PS)固尔苏治疗肺透明膜病(HMD)的疗效监测.方法 回顾确诊为Ⅲ~Ⅳ级HMD、应用PS治疗的早产儿21例病例,采用用药后1/2 h、6 h、24 h、48 h、5 d胸片观察.结果 用药后1/2 h胸片双肺透亮度即有改善15例;肺部表现进行性改善,较前次朐片好转16例;病变无改变或进展5例,其中并发肺出血1例,出现气漏3例;伴有肺部炎症样改变3例;动脉导管开放(PDA)11例.结论 使用PS治疗后胸片动态观察能对Ⅲ~Ⅳ级HMD病变转归作出正确判断,短期复查能及时发现HMD并发症.%Objective To analyze the characteristics of the dynamic changes of the radiological X-ray images in chest after applying a pulmonary surfactant(PS) named curosurf to hyaline membrane disease in grade Ⅲ~Ⅳ of the premature lungs,and to study the clinical values of the follow-ups with chest films after applying PS to evaluate its effects and to detect the complications in chest. Methods To review the definite cases of HMD in grade Ⅲ~Ⅳ with final clinical and radiological diagnosis so as to analyze the radiological image manifestations in ehest after applying PS to the premature lungs for half an hour, for 6 hours,for 24 hours, for 48 hours and for 5 days. Results Shortly after the application of PS,according to the chest films,just half an hour later, 15 cases improved their degrees of the transmittance of the two lungs; 16 cases progressively ameliorated their manifestations in chest, taking the turn for the better than the previous images; 5 cases had no improvement, among which 1 developed a complication of pulmonary hemorrhage,and 3 developed pulmonary air leakage; 3 eases accompanied with pulmonary inflammation-like lesions; 11 cases presented patent arterial duets(PDA). Generally speaking, the X-ray image manifestation was the same as the clinical symptoms. Conclusion A dynamic observation of the X-ray films in chest after the application of PS

  3. The Correlation between Hard X-Ray Peak Flux and Soft X-Ray Peak Flux in the Outburst Rise of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, W.; Klis, van der, M.; Fender, R. P.

    2004-01-01

    We have analyzed Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer pointed observations of the outbursts of black hole and neutron star soft X-ray transients in which an initial low/hard state, or ``island'' state, followed by a transition to a softer state was observed. In three sources-the black hole transient XTE J1550-564, the neutron star transient Aquila X-1, and the quasi-persistent neutron star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1705-44-two such outbursts were found. We find that the flux of the soft X-ray peak, whi...

  4. Fluoroscopic findings in bovine mass-screening with an X-ray car for large animals: Occurrence and nature of abomasal foreign bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence and nature of abomasal foreign bodies were investigated in 1, 976 clinically healthy cows in mass-screening with an X-ray car for large animals within 23 months period from January 1981 to November 1982 in northern and eastern districts of Hokkaido.Metallic foreign bodies (MFB) and sand-like substance were observed in the abomasum in 35.3% and 96.5% of the cows, respectively. This result suggested that most of the clinically healthy cows might always be exposed to the occurrence of traumatic abomasitis and/or abomasal ulcer, and turned down the theory that MFB were very seldom encounted in the abomasum.Of the cows, 826 had a magnet in the reticulum. MFB were found in the abomasum in 25.7% of them.Abomasal MFB were detected from 42.2% of 1, 147 cows which had no magnet in the reticulum. The presence of a magnet in the reticulum was effective to some extent to prevent the migration of MFB to the abomasum. (author)

  5. Aspergillus infection of the respiratory tract after lung transplantation: chest radiographic and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of our study was to assess radiographic and CT findings in lung transplant patients with evidence of Aspergillus colonization or infection of the airways and correlate the findings with clinical, laboratory, bronchoalveolar lavage, biopsy and autopsy findings. The records of 189 patients who had undergone lung transplantation were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of Aspergillus colonization or infection of the airways. Aspergillus was demonstrated by culture or microscopy of sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or histologically from lung biopsies or postmortem studies in 44 patients (23 %). Notes and radiographs were available for analysis in 30 patients. In 12 of the 30 patients (40 %) chest radiographs remained normal. In 11 of 18 patients with abnormal radiographs pulmonary abnormalities were attributed to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in the absence of other causes for pulmonary abnormalities (8 patients) or because of histological demonstration of IPA (3 patients). In these 11 patients initial radiographic abnormalities were focal areas of patchy consolidation (8 patients), ill-defined pulmonary nodules (2 patients) or a combination of both (1 patient). In some of the lesions cavitation was demonstrated subsequently. At CT a ''halo'' of decreased density was demonstrated in some of the nodules and lesion morphology and location were shown more precisely. Demonstration of Aspergillus from the respiratory tract after lung transplantation does not necessarily reflect IPA but may represent colonization of the airways or semi-invasive aspergillosis. The findings in patients with IPA did not differ from those described in the literature in other immunocompromised patients, suggesting that surgical disruption of lymphatic drainage and nervous supply or effects of preservation and transport of the transplant lung do not affect the radiographic appearances. (orig.)

  6. Swine-origin influenza A viral (H1N1) infection in children. Chest computed tomography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to review the chest computed tomography (CT) findings in children with swine-origin influenza (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection. The radiologists retrospectively reviewed chest CT findings in 12 children with S-OIV infection and recorded the following findings: ground-glass opacities (GGO), consolidation, nodules, reticular opacities, peribronchial cuffing, and air trapping; distribution; affected lobes. The presence of pleural effusions, pneumomediastinum, pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE), and lymphadenopathy was also recorded. Chest CT revealed GGO (67%), consolidation (67%), nodules (25%), peribronchial cuffing (42%), and air trapping (33%). The distribution of the lesions was random (75%), peribronchial (17%), or subpleural (8%). The lobes affected were the lower (92%), upper (58%), and middle (17%) lobes. There were associated pleural effusions (42%), PIE (42%), pneumomediastinum (33%), and lymphadenopathy (75%). Among five patients with air-leak complications, three had a history of allergies and three required the intensive care unit. Chest CT findings in children with S-OIV infection were peribronchial thickening and a mixture of airspace consolidation and GGO with random distribution and lower lobe predominance. Pleural effusion, lymphadenopathy, PIE, and pneumomediastinum may be associated findings. (author)

  7. X-ray instrumentation for SR beamlines

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalchuk, M V; Zheludeva, S I; Aleshko-Ozhevsky, O P; Arutynyan, E H; Kheiker, D M; Kreines, A Y; Lider, V V; Pashaev, E M; Shilina, N Y; Shishkov, V A

    2000-01-01

    The main possibilities and parameters of experimental X-ray stations are presented: 'Protein crystallography', 'X-ray structure analysis', 'High-precision X-ray optics', 'X-ray crystallography and material science', 'X-ray topography', 'Photoelectron X-ray standing wave' that are being installed at Kurchatov SR source by A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography.

  8. Computed chest tomography in an animal model for decompression sickness: radiologic, physiologic, and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to investigate the early pulmonary effects of acute decompression in an animal model for human decompression sickness by CT and light microscopy. Ten test pigs were exposed to severe decompression stress in a chamber dive. Three pigs were kept at ambient pressure to serve as controls. Decompression stress was monitored by measurement of pulmonary artery pressure and arterial and venous Doppler recording of bubbles of inert gas. Chest CT was performed pre- and postdive and in addition the inflated lungs were examined after resection. Each lung was investigated by light microscopy. Hemodynamic data and bubble recordings reflected severe decompression stress in the ten test pigs. Computed tomography revealed large quantities of ectopic gas, predominantly intravascular, in three of ten pigs. These findings corresponded to maximum bubble counts in the Doppler study. The remaining test pigs showed lower bubble grades and no ectopic gas by CT. Sporadic interstitial edema was demonstrated in all animals - both test and control pigs - by CT of resected lungs and on histologic examination. A severe compression-decompression schedule can liberate large volumes of inert gas which are detectable by CT. Despite this severe decompression stress, which led to venous microembolism, CT and light microscopy did not demonstrate changes in lung structure related to the experimental dive. Increased extravascular lung water found in all animals may be due to infusion therapy. (orig.)

  9. Computed chest tomography in an animal model for decompression sickness: radiologic, physiologic, and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, M.; Struck, N.; Heller, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Christian Albrechts Univ., Kiel (Germany); Tetzlaff, K. [Dept. of Medicine, Christian Albrechts Univ., Kiel (Germany); Brasch, F.; Mueller, K.M. [Inst. of Pathology, Hospital Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany); Gerriets, T. [Dept. of Neurology, Medical Univ. at Luebeck (Germany); Weiher, M.; Hansen, J. [Dept. of Anaesthesiology and Hyperbaric Centre Northern Germany, Friedrich Ebert Hospital, Neumuenster (Germany); Hirt, S. [Dept. of Medicine, Cardiac and Vascular Surgery, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel (Germany)

    2000-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the early pulmonary effects of acute decompression in an animal model for human decompression sickness by CT and light microscopy. Ten test pigs were exposed to severe decompression stress in a chamber dive. Three pigs were kept at ambient pressure to serve as controls. Decompression stress was monitored by measurement of pulmonary artery pressure and arterial and venous Doppler recording of bubbles of inert gas. Chest CT was performed pre- and postdive and in addition the inflated lungs were examined after resection. Each lung was investigated by light microscopy. Hemodynamic data and bubble recordings reflected severe decompression stress in the ten test pigs. Computed tomography revealed large quantities of ectopic gas, predominantly intravascular, in three of ten pigs. These findings corresponded to maximum bubble counts in the Doppler study. The remaining test pigs showed lower bubble grades and no ectopic gas by CT. Sporadic interstitial edema was demonstrated in all animals - both test and control pigs - by CT of resected lungs and on histologic examination. A severe compression-decompression schedule can liberate large volumes of inert gas which are detectable by CT. Despite this severe decompression stress, which led to venous microembolism, CT and light microscopy did not demonstrate changes in lung structure related to the experimental dive. Increased extravascular lung water found in all animals may be due to infusion therapy. (orig.)

  10. X-ray lithography sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron from dipole magnets in electron storage rings has emerged as a useful source of x-rays for lithography. To meet the need for these sources numerous groups around the world have embarked on projects to design and construct storage rings for x-ray lithography. Both conventional electromagnets as well as superconducting (SC) dipoles have been incorporated into the various designs. An overview of the worldwide effort to produce commercial x-ray sources will be presented. To better illustrate the elements involved in these sources a closer examination of the Superconducting X-ray Lithography Source Project (SXLS) at BNL will be presented. 11 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  11. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  12. X-ray Fluorescence Sectioning

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Wenxiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an x-ray fluorescence imaging system for elemental analysis. The key idea is what we call "x-ray fluorescence sectioning". Specifically, a slit collimator in front of an x-ray tube is used to shape x-rays into a fan-beam to illuminate a planar section of an object. Then, relevant elements such as gold nanoparticles on the fan-beam plane are excited to generate x-ray fluorescence signals. One or more 2D spectral detectors are placed to face the fan-beam plane and directly measure x-ray fluorescence data. Detector elements are so collimated that each element only sees a unique area element on the fan-beam plane and records the x-ray fluorescence signal accordingly. The measured 2D x-ray fluorescence data can be refined in reference to the attenuation characteristics of the object and the divergence of the beam for accurate elemental mapping. This x-ray fluorescence sectioning system promises fast fluorescence tomographic imaging without a complex inverse procedure. The design can be ad...

  13. Polarisation modulation in X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Adam; Maccarone, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    X-ray polarimetry promises to provide a powerful new lever arm for studying accretion onto black holes with the next generation of X-ray telescopes. I will discuss how polarisation can be used to help constrain the physical origin of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in the X-ray light curves of accreting black holes. QPOs may be signatures of the frame dragging effect: in General Relativity, a spinning black hole twists up the surrounding space-time, causing vertical precession of nearby orbits. In the truncated disc / precessing inner flow model, the entire inner accretion flow precesses as a solid body causing a modulation in the X-ray flux through solid angle and Doppler effects. This model also predicts the observed polarisation of the X-ray signal to vary quasi-periodically. I will summarise our work to model the polarisation signal from a precessing accretion flow, starting with simple assumptions about the emission mechanism but taking General Relativity fully into account. We find that it should be possible to measure the predicted modulation in polarisation degree for a reasonable region of parameter space with a polarimeter capable of detecting ~60 counts per second from a bright black hole binary. I will also show that sensitivity can be greatly improved by correlating the signal with a high count rate reference band signal.

  14. Lung parenchymal change after the resolution of adenovirus pneumonia : chest radiographs and high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate lung parenchymal change as seen on chest radiographs and high-resolution CT (HRCT) after the resolution of adenovirus pneumonia (a common cause of lower respiratory infection in infants and children),and the usefulness of HRCT during follow-up. Material and Methods : Four to 13(mean, 8) months after recovery, ten patients infected with adenovirus pneumonia underwent HRCT and chest radiographs. Eight were boys and two were girls, and their mean age was 26(range, 14-45) months. Adenovirus pneumonia had been confirmed by viral isolation in culture or serologic test. CT scanning was performed during quiet breathing ; collimation was 2 mm and the interval from apex to diaphragm was 5-10 mm. Lung settings were 1600 HU (window width) and -700 HU(level). CT findings were assessed and compared with chest radiographs by two chest radiologists, who reached a consensus. The patients were clinically followed up for one year. Result : On chest radiographs, hyperlucent lung was seen in 8 of 10 patients (80%) ; in one other there was partial collapse, and in one, findings were normal. The most common HRCT finding was a mosaic pattern of lung attenuation with decreased pulmonary vascularity in the area of lower attenuation ; this was seen in 8 of 10 patients (80%). Other findings were partial collapse, bronchiectasis, and bronchial wall thickening, each seen in two patients, and reticulonodular density, seen in one. In two patients HRCT findings were normal ; in one of these, chest findings were normal but a mosaic pattern of lung attenuation was found in all lobes. During follow-up, three patients wheezed continuously. Conclusion : In cases of adenovirus pneumonia, HRCT demonstrated more specific parenchymal change than did chest radiographs ; a mosaic pattern of lung attenuation was seen, with decreased pulmonary vascularity in areas of lower attenuation ; bronchiectasis,bronchial wall thickening, and reticulo-odular density were also noted. These findings were

  15. Incidental finding of unilateral isolated aplasia of serratus anterior muscle and winged scapula on chest radiograph: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon Sung; Park, Hyun Jin; Ko, Jeong Min [Dept. of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The isolated aplasia of the serratus anterior muscle with winging of scapula is very rare, and only a few cases are reported. Here, we present a case of a 30-year-old Korean male who initially presented with a left flank pain. His physical exam did not show any significant finding in his right shoulder. However, his chest radiograph showed absence of right serratus anterior muscle and slightly elevated and medially rotated right scapula. Subsequent CT scan showed the right serratus anterior muscle aplasia and medial winging of the right scapula. This case is unique in two aspects. First, the combination of abnormalities is different from the typical congenital abnormalities involving shoulder girdle, such as Sprengel deformity or Poland syndrome. Secondly, this was incidentally diagnosed with chest radiograph, without clinical impression. Careful reading of chest radiograph can help the radiologists to detect such clinically silent abnormalities.

  16. Incidental finding of unilateral isolated aplasia of serratus anterior muscle and winged scapula on chest radiograph: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isolated aplasia of the serratus anterior muscle with winging of scapula is very rare, and only a few cases are reported. Here, we present a case of a 30-year-old Korean male who initially presented with a left flank pain. His physical exam did not show any significant finding in his right shoulder. However, his chest radiograph showed absence of right serratus anterior muscle and slightly elevated and medially rotated right scapula. Subsequent CT scan showed the right serratus anterior muscle aplasia and medial winging of the right scapula. This case is unique in two aspects. First, the combination of abnormalities is different from the typical congenital abnormalities involving shoulder girdle, such as Sprengel deformity or Poland syndrome. Secondly, this was incidentally diagnosed with chest radiograph, without clinical impression. Careful reading of chest radiograph can help the radiologists to detect such clinically silent abnormalities.

  17. 4. Preliminary Findings of a Prospective Study of FDG-PET in Patients with Possible Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen; Enevoldsen; Friberg;

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the value of PET in diagnosis and staging of suspected lung cancer.Methods: 20 (13 male; mean age: 56 yr., range: 22-83 yr.) patients with chest X-ray findings suspicious of malignancy were staged a) "clinically" (X-ray, history/physical examination, lung function), b) by chest...... clinical information, CT and PET findings. In principle, suspected metastatic lesions were biopsied before surgery. The gold standard was histology from biopsy or thoracotomy, or resolution of the X-ray findings and symptoms.Results: One patient was excluded because of uncertain diagnosis. In 3 (15...

  18. Cosmology with X-ray Cluster Baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2007-04-10

    X-ray cluster measurements interpreted with a universal baryon/gas mass fraction can theoretically serve as a cosmological distance probe. We examine issues of cosmological sensitivity for current (e.g., Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM-Newton) and next generation (e.g., Con-X, XEUS) observations, along with systematic uncertainties and biases. To give competitive next generation constraints on dark energy, we find that systematics will need to be controlled to better than 1percent and any evolution in f_gas (and other cluster gas properties) must be calibrated so the residual uncertainty is weaker than (1+z)0.03.

  19. Thin-section chest CT findings of primary Sjoegren's syndrome: correlation with pulmonary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to describe thin-section CT findings of lung involvement in patients with primary Sjoegren's syndrome (PSS), and to correlate them with pulmonary function tests (PFT). The chest thin-section CT examinations of 35 patients with proven diagnosis of PSS and respiratory symptoms were retrospectively assessed by two observers, in a first step independently with interobserver evaluation, and in a second step in consensus. The extent of the most frequent CT findings was scored. Correlation was made with PFT in 31 of these patients. Three main CT patterns were identified with good interobserver agreement (kappa coefficient 0.71): 19 of 35 (54%) large and/or small airways disease; 7 of 35 (20%) interstitial lung fibrosis (ILF); and 5 of 35 (14%) suggestive of lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP). The CT scans were normal in 2 patients (6%) and showed only dilatation of pulmonary vessels due to pulmonary arterial hypertension in two others (6%). Airway disease patients had predominantly obstructive profiles (mean FEV1/FVC ratio 69.7±12.7%, mean MEF25 50.1±22.9%), whereas patients with ILF and LIP had predominantly restrictive profiles and/or a decreased diffusing lung capacity (mean TLC 87.0±26.0 and 64.6±18.6%, mean DLCO 57.4±21.2 and 52.0±8.0%). Significant correlation (pCO (r=-0.70) and between the score of air trapping and FEV1 (r=-1.0). In patients with PSS and respiratory symptoms, thin-section CT may provide characterization of lung involvement which correlates with pulmonary function. (orig.)

  20. Chest radiography and thoracic computed tomography findings in children who have family members with active pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The chest radiography and TCT findings in children who had contacted with adult family members with active pulmonary tuberculosis were compared. The contributions of thoracic computed tomography to the diagnosis of tuberculosis were investigated. Methods and material: The children who were 0-16 years old (n=173) and children of families with an adult member which was diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis were evaluated. The children were considered in two groups based on the absence (n=125) or presence (n=48) of complaints and/or ambiguous symptoms such as lack of appetite, mild cough, sweating, history of lung infection, low body weight and those with suspicious chest radiography findings (12 cases) were included in this study. Asymptomatic patients (n=125) did not undergo TCT. Patients who had positive PPD skin tests only received isoniazid. If the TCT demonstrated enlarged lymph nodes or parenchymal lesions, minimally active pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed and antituberculous treatment was given. Results and discussions: TCT revealed lymph node enlargement or parenchymal lesions in 39 children (81.2%). Of the 12 children whose CXRs revealed suspicious lymph node enlargement and/or infiltration, five had normal findings in TCT whereas the initial findings were confirmed in the remaining seven. These data suggest that there is a correlation between the presence of ambiguous symptoms in exposed children and TCT findings; chest radiography and TCT findings do not yield parallel findings. All the patients who received anti-TB treatment were resolved in the control examinations. Conclusion: In this study there is a correlation between presence of ambiguous symptoms and TCT findings, but the chest radiography and TCT findings do not yield harmony in exposed children with ambiguous symptoms (suspicious tuberculosis cases). These observations should be considered in children with symptoms similar to those of exposed children, but with no definite history of

  1. Radioisotope x-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope x-ray fluorescence and x-ray preferential absorption (XRA) techniques are used extensively for the analysis of materials, covering such diverse applications as analysis of alloys, coal, environmental samples, paper, waste materials, and metalliferous mineral ores and products. Many of these analyses are undertaken in the harsh environment of industrial plants and in the field. Some are continuous on-line analyses of material being processed in industry, where instantaneous analysis information is required for the control of rapidly changing processes. Radioisotope x-ray analysis systems are often tailored to a specific but limited range of applications. They are simpler and often considerably less expensive than analysis systems based on x-ray tubes. These systems are preferred to x-ray tube techniques when simplicity, ruggedness, reliability, and cost of equipment are important; when minimum size, weight, and power consumption are necessary; when a very constant and predictable x-ray output is required; when the use of high-energy x-rays is advantageous; and when short x-ray path lengths are required to minimize the absorption of low-energy x-rays in air. This chapter reviews radioisotope XRF, preferential absorption, and scattering techniques. Some of the basic analysis equations are given. The characteristics of radioisotope sources and x-ray detectors are described, and then the x-ray analytical techniques are presented. The choice of radioisotope technique for a specific application is discussed. This is followed by a summary of applications of these techniques, with a more detailed account given of some of the applications, particularly those of considerable industrial importance. 79 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Bimodality of Wind-fed Accretion in High Mass X-ray Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Karino, S.

    2014-01-01

    We study an influence of X-ray photo-ionization from an accreting neutron star in a high mass X-ray binary. Our aim is to unveil a new principle governing X-ray luminosities of X-ray binaries, with a simple analysis of fluid equations simulating line-driven wind flow under influence of X-ray irradiation. In this study, we solve equation of motion of the accretion flow taking into account the line-driven acceleration and X-ray photo-ionization. Under the influence of X-ray irradiation, we find...

  3. Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K.A.; Gureyev, T.E.; Cookson, D.J.; Paganin, D.; Barnea, Z. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic, 3052 (Australia)]|[Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai, NSW, 2234 (Australia)

    1996-09-01

    The quantitative imaging of a phase object using 16keV xrays is reported. The theoretical basis of the techniques is presented along with its implementation using a synchrotron x-ray source. We find that our phase image is in quantitative agreement with independent measurements of the object. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. X-ray optics for axion helioscopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2013-01-01

    A method of optimizing grazing incidence x-ray coatings in ground based axion helioscopes is presented. Software has been been developed to find the optimum coating when taking both axion spectrum and Micromegas detector quantum efficiency into account. A comparison of the relative effective area...

  5. Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitative imaging of a phase object using 16keV xrays is reported. The theoretical basis of the techniques is presented along with its implementation using a synchrotron x-ray source. We find that our phase image is in quantitative agreement with independent measurements of the object. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. X-ray signals in renal osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieden, K.

    1984-10-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency is associated with metabolic disturbances which ultimately lead to typical, partly extremely painful changes in the skeletal system the longer the disease persists. Regular X-ray control of certain skeletal segments allows early detection of renal oesteopathy if the radiological findings described in this article are carefully scrutinised and interpreted.

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing ...

  8. X-ray Dynamic Defectoscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavřík, Daniel; Visschers, J.; Jakůbek, J.; Ponchut, C.

    Orosei : IMC S.r.l., 2001. s. 47. [International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors /3./. 23.09.2001-27.09.2001, Orosei] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/00/D064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 210000018 Keywords : X-ray Defectoscopy * Damage * X-ray Detectors Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  9. X-ray diagnostic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An X-ray tube is connected to several different image processing devices in X-ray diagnostic equipment. Only a single organ selector is allocated to it, for which the picture parameters for each image processing device are selected. The choice of the correct combination of picture parameters is made by means of a selector switch. (DG)

  10. X-ray tube arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An x-ray tube is described incorporating an elongated target/ anode over which the electron beam is deflected and from which x-rays are emitted. Improved methods of monitoring and controlling the amplitude of the beam deflection are presented. (U.K.)

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? The technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ...

  13. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods and results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the study of plasmons, alloys and gold compounds are discussed. After a comprehensive introduction, seven papers by the author, previously published elsewhere, are reprinted and these cover a wide range of the uses of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (W.D.L.)

  14. Analysis about X-ray and CT images of pleural mesothelioma case of death. Examination about 2003 mesothelioma case of death 878 examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated a clinical record and images for 212 examples in 878 examples diagnosed as mesothelioma in the death votes of 2003. CT images demonstrated pleural plaque to be obtained 42.0%, but in chest X-ray films only 9.8% demonstrated pleural plaque. For examination of CT findings of 117 examples, cases to present extensive irregular findings of pleura were 81.2%. Cases we made the ''no irregularity'' and ''slightness irregularity'' were 18.8%. (author)

  15. A study on findings from simple chest radiographs without any clinical symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the analysis on findings from simple chest radiography (CXR) test with total 1,669 subjects without any special clinical symptom came to the following conclusions: In terms of the general characteristics of subjects hereof, male and female group accounted for 55.2% and 44.8% respectively out of all 1,669 people. Pulmonary disease cases amounted to 249 persons (14.9%) out of all subjects. In the analysis on prevalence rate by age distribution, it was noted that the older age led to the more number of diseases, which was demonstrated by age 34 or younger (6.1%), age 35 ∼ 39 (9.7%), age 40 ∼ 49 (13.3%), and age 50 or older (30.8%). In regard of pulmonary disease alone, the region of onset was represented primarily by right upper lobe, which was followed by both upper lobe and left upper lobe, respectively. In terms of disease types, it was found that most cases were represented by pulmonary nodule (55.0%), which was followed by cardiomegaly (24.5%), CP angle blunting (4.8%), scoliosis (4.6%) tortuous aorta (2.8%), bronchial luminal dilatation(2.4%), and pleural thickening (2.0%). However, dextrocardia, cystic dilation of bronchus, cavitary lesion, and lung collapse accounted for relatively low rate (0.4% respectively). In terms of disease types by sex, it was found that male group accounted for higher percentage of having cardiomegaly, tortuous aorta and scoliosis than the former. In terms of disease types by age distribution, it was noted that age 34 or younger group accounted for higher percentage of scoliosis than any other age groups, while age 40 ∼ 49 group, age 35 ∼ 39 group, and age 50 or older group represented the case of CP angle blunting, pulmonary nodule, and cardiomegaly/tortuous aorta, respectively

  16. Chest roentgenographic findings of thymic size and shape in respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thymic size can be affected by both exogenous and endogenous glucocorticoids. Development of the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is influenced by adrenal cortical function. Thus, thymic size in RDS is considered to be enlarged due to decreased adrenal cortical function. To find whether the presence of RDS correlates with the thymus, the size and shape of the thymus were evaluated in the radiographs of premature infants with RDS, without RDS (control prematurity) and normal infants. The subjects were consisted of chest films of Korean premature infants, 120 with RDS, 60 without RDS, and 60 of normal infants taken at the Department of Radiology, Our Lady of Mercy Hospital during the period of 62 months since January 1978. Relative size of the thymus was determine by cardiothymic/thoracic ratio (CT /T ratio). Grading and location of the thymic prominence as well as incidence of the shape were examined. And all the relations among the radiographs of RDS, control prematurity and normal infants were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. The CT/T ratio of premature infants with RDS was significantly greater than that of control prematurity and normal infants (P< 0.01). 2. The incidence of bilateral thymic prominence was more frequent in premature infant with RDS than in control prematurity and normal infants (P<0.05). 3. The frequency of thymic prominence was greater in the right than left side in all the three groups (P<0.05). 4. As in the shape of the thymus, a rounded type was most frequent, and a triangular type was least frequent in all three groups. 5. Incident of RDS was very low (9.8%) when the CT/T ratio is below 0.3 and it was very high (90.9%) when the CT/T ratio is above 0.49.

  17. Radiation dose and radiation risk to foetuses and newborns during X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to determine the way in which the demands set by degree 423/2000 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health are fulfilled with respect to the most radiosensitive groups, the foetus and the child, by estimating the radiation dose and radiation risk to the foetus from x-ray examinations of an expectant mother's pelvic region, finding out the practice involved in preventing doses to embryos and foetuses and assessing dose practices in cases where an embryo or foetus is or shall be exposed, and by estimating radiation dose and risk due to the radiation received by a new-born being treated in a paediatric intensive care unit. No statistics are available in Finland to indicate how many x-ray examinations of the pelvic region and lower abdomen are made to pregnant patients or to show the dose and risk to the foetus due these examinations. In order to find out the practices in radiological departments concerning the pelvic x-ray examination of fertile woman and the number of foetuses exposed, a questionnaire was sent to all radiation safety officers responsible for the safe use of radiation (n = 290). A total of 173 questionnaires were returned. This study recorded the technique and Dose-Area Product of 118 chest examinations of newborns in paediatric intensive care units. Entrance surface doses and effective doses were calculated separately to each newborn. Based on the patient records, the number of all x-ray examinations during the study was calculated and the effective doses were estimated retrospectively to each child. The radiation risk was estimated both for the foetuses and for the newborns. According to this study, it is rare in Finland to expose a pregnant woman to radiation. On the other hand, with the exception of pelvimetry examinations, there are no compiled statistics concerning the number of pelvic x-ray examinations of a pregnant woman. There was no common practice on how to exclude the possibility of pregnancy. The dose to a

  18. Efficacy of pumping manipulation treatment for closed lock of the temporomandibular joint disorder. Correlation between arthrographic findings using limited cone beam X-ray CT for dental use and mouth opening distance in 20 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of pumping manipulation treatment for closed lock of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder using limited cone beam X-ray CT for dental use. The subjects were 20 patients with TMJ closed lock. Arthrography and pumping manipulation treatment were performed, and the correlation between maximal mouth opening and arthrographic findings was examined. Arthrography showed 16 cases of anterior disk displacement, and 4 cases of sideways displacement. Disk configuration showed 15 abnormal cases and 3 cases of disk perforation. Before treatment, mouth opening distance was 24.2 mm and 1 week after treatment it was 34.4 mm. After 3 months this had improved significantly to 41.0 mm. Comparison of mouth opening distance with arthrographic findings showed that disk perforation was significantly different after 3 months. These results suggest that pumping manipulation treatment might be useful in patients with TMJ closed lock without internal derangement or disk perforation. (author)

  19. Submicron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    able to determine the deviatoric part of the strain tensor. Switching to a monochromatic beam they can measure the strain in a single grain. They find that there are large variations in the strain and orientation from grain to grain and even within an individual grain, reflecting the highly strained and confined geometry of passivated metal lines deposited at high temperature. They can also follow quite easily the energy shift of a single reflection as they heat or cool the sample. With the facility to switch between white or monochromatic x-rays combined with sub-micron focusing it is evident that this technique can be applied to a host of problems in Materials Science and Technology and the Physics of sub micron crystallites

  20. X-ray image of male breast papilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of the frequency of detection of breast papillae of men on X-ray units without amplifiers of X-ray imaging and with X-ray TV has shown that papilla imaging is a common feature in the performance of a modern X-ray unit: the papillae were detected in 2 to 28% of the cases, respectively. A total of 100 men aged 30 to 80 were investigated to study the shape and height of the papillae because these factors predetermined papilla imaging. The maximum diameter and height of the papillae did not exceed 10 mm. Papilla imaging on a TV screen or a panoramic chest X-ray was formed in a cylindrical or similar shape with the papilla height of 4 mm and over. The shape and structure of 23 detected papilla images were analyzed. The problems of differential diagnosis were considered. Imaging of breast papillae of men was proposed for including them in the list of the so-called chest ''soft tissues''

  1. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  2. Commercial Applications of X Ray Spectrometric Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    diffraction (XRD) constitute about one third of the worldwide market for atomic spectroscopy or about $630 million. In the next few years this market is expected to expand at a rate from 4.7% to 5.5% per year. This growth is generated by improving economic conditions, especially in Asia and also due to increased investments for instrumentation for environmental monitoring and testing worldwide, in industrialized nations as well as in developing countries. Also other X-ray related techniques, requiring more sophisticated instrumentation, are finding routine applications. In particular the ion beam analysis (IBA) methods such as proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are of importance in air pollution studies. The increasing number of synchrotron facilities enables for a routine use of X ray microbeam techniques in environmental studies, material research, structural research, and many other fields. (author)

  3. Clinical study for findings of pneumothoraces on the plain chest film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two hundred and fifty cases of pneumothoraces in intensive care unit in the last seven and half years were reviewed. In intensive care unit, plain chest films are likely to be obtained on supine position that make difficult to diagnose pneumothorax, because of unusual distribution of air in the pleural cavity. In our institution, they were obtained in supine position in 75 %. In our series of 207 supine chest cases, anteromedial and subpulmonic recesses were involved in 11.6 % and 25.6 % respectively. Twenty five cases (12 %) showed unusual location of air. Several radiographic signs have been previously described to recognize this condition. Basilar hyperlucency was most reliable sign (100 %) of detecting subpulmonary pneumothorax. Double diaphragm sign (60 %) and distinct cardiac apex (46.6 %) were also reliable signs. Almost all cases of unusual pneumothoraces were recognized on supine radiographs. However, CT was useful to detect unusual pneumothorax in patient with pneumomediastinum or pulmonary contusion. Unusual pneumothoraces were seen only in traumatized patients. The importance of careful observation of plain chest films to detecte unusual pneumothorax in patients with blunt chest trauma was stressed. (author)

  4. Are There Intrinsically X-Ray Quiet Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, S. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Laor, A.; Elvis, Martin; Mathur, S.; Wills, Beverly J.; Iyomoto, N.; White, Nicholas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Recent ROSAT studies have identified a significant population of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that are notably faint in soft X-rays relative to their optical fluxes. Are these AGN intrinsically X-ray weak or are they just highly absorbed? Brandt, Laor & Wills have systematically examined the optical and UV spectral properties of a well-defined sample of these soft X-ray weak (SXW) AGN drawn from the Boroson & Green sample of all the Palomar Green AGN 00 with z < 0.5. We present ASCA observations of three of these SXW AGN: PG 1011-040, PG 1535+547 (Mrk 486), and PG 2112+059. In general, our ASCA observations support the intrinsic absorption scenario for explaining soft X-ray weakness; both PG 1535+547 and PG 2112+059 show significant column densities (NH is approximately 10(exp 22) - 10(exp 23)/sq cm) of absorbing gas. Interestingly, PG 1011-040 shows no spectral evidence for X-ray absorption. The weak X-ray emission may result from very strong absorption of a partially covered source, or this AGN may be intrinsically X-ray weak. PG 2112+059 is a Broad Absorption Line (BAL) QSO, and we find it to have the highest X-ray flux known of this class. It shows a typical power-law X-ray continuum above 3 keV; this is the first direct evidence that BAL QSOs indeed have normal X-ray continua underlying their intrinsic absorption. Finally, marked variability between the ROSAT and ASCA observations of PG 1535+547 and PG 2112+059 suggests that the soft X-ray weak designation may be transient, and multi-epoch 0.1-10.0 KeV X-ray observations are required to constrain variability of the absorber and continuum.

  5. X-ray quasars and the X-ray background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Einstein X-ray observations of a sample of 202 radio-and optically-selected quasars due to Ku, Helfand and Lucy and to Zamorani et al. are analysed. Correlations between X-ray, optical and radio luminosities are examined. The contribution of radio-loud quasars to the 2-keV X-ray background is estimated using high-frequency radio-source counts, and the contribution due to radio-quiet, optically bright quasars using optical counts. It is shown that radio-loud quasars and radio-quiet optically bright quasars together contribute approximately 15 per cent of the observed 2-keV X-ray background. The contribution of optically faint radio-quiet quasars is uncertain, but may be limited to a maximum of approximately 30 per cent if recent indications of a flattening in optical counts at faint magnitudes are correct. (author)

  6. Determination and Comparison of Echocardiographic Findings According to Cardio Thoracic Ratio (CTR in Chest X–Ray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bashardoost

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chest X–Ray is one of the most common method of imaging. Cardio Thoracic Ratio ( CTR is one of the parameters of Chest X–Ray that is used for determining cardiac enlargement. Echocardiography as compared to Chest X–Ray is expensive and all centers dont have it, but it can determine heart size, valvular diseases, Ejection Fraction, Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH, Pericardial effusion and diastolic dysfunction very well. So, this research was done in order to compare CTR with Echocardiographic findings and precent expensive investigations in the future. Methods: In this cross-sectional analytical study from Sep 2006 to Sep2007, CTR of 172 patients referring to Shohadaye Kargar and Goodarz hospitals was determined from their Chest X–Rays and echocardiography was done later. Data was analyzed with SPSS software and statiscal tests such as Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used. Results: The results of this research wereas folows: 1- The mean age for the patients with increased CTR was higher than patients with normal CTR. 2- Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH and increases of left and right ventricular diameters increased the CTR. 3- There was no statistical relation between sex, pericardial effusion, left and right atrium diameters and CTR. 4- Patients with increased CTR had more valvular heart diseases, systolic and diastolic dysfunction than patients with normal CTR. Conclusion: Increased CTR is one of the signs of cardiac pathologies and therefore echocardiography is advisable for more evaluation of patients with increased CTR.

  7. High-resolution computed tomography in silicosis: correlation with chest radiography and pulmonary function tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Agnaldo Jose [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Pedro Ernesto Univ. Hospital. Dept. of Respiratory Function]. E-mail: phel.lop@uol.com.br; Mogami, Roberto; Capone, Domenico; Jansen, Jose Manoel [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences; Tessarollo, Bernardo [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Image; Melo, Pedro Lopes de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. of Biology

    2008-05-15

    Objective: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function findings, as well as to compare chest X-ray findings with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, in patients with silicosis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 44 non-smoking patients without a history of tuberculosis. Chest X-ray findings were classified according to the International Labour Organization recommendations. Using a semiquantitative system, the following HRCT findings were measured: the full extent of pulmonary involvement; parenchymal opacities; and emphysema. Spirometry and forced oscillation were performed. Pulmonary volumes were evaluated using the helium dilution method, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was assessed. Results: Of the 44 patients studied, 41 were male. The mean age was 48.4 years. There were 4 patients who were classified as category 0 based on X-ray findings and as category 1 based on HRCT findings. Using HRCT scans, we identified progressive massive fibrosis in 33 patients, compared with only 23 patients when X-rays were used. Opacity score was found to correlate most closely with airflow, DLCO and compliance. Emphysema score correlated inversely with volume, DLCO and airflow. In this sample of patients presenting a predominance of large opacities (75% of the individuals), the deterioration of pulmonary function was associated with the extent of structural changes. Conclusions: In the early detection of silicosis and the identification of progressive massive fibrosis, HRCT scans are superior to X-rays. (author)

  8. High-resolution computed tomography in silicosis: correlation with chest radiography and pulmonary function tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function findings, as well as to compare chest X-ray findings with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, in patients with silicosis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 44 non-smoking patients without a history of tuberculosis. Chest X-ray findings were classified according to the International Labour Organization recommendations. Using a semiquantitative system, the following HRCT findings were measured: the full extent of pulmonary involvement; parenchymal opacities; and emphysema. Spirometry and forced oscillation were performed. Pulmonary volumes were evaluated using the helium dilution method, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was assessed. Results: Of the 44 patients studied, 41 were male. The mean age was 48.4 years. There were 4 patients who were classified as category 0 based on X-ray findings and as category 1 based on HRCT findings. Using HRCT scans, we identified progressive massive fibrosis in 33 patients, compared with only 23 patients when X-rays were used. Opacity score was found to correlate most closely with airflow, DLCO and compliance. Emphysema score correlated inversely with volume, DLCO and airflow. In this sample of patients presenting a predominance of large opacities (75% of the individuals), the deterioration of pulmonary function was associated with the extent of structural changes. Conclusions: In the early detection of silicosis and the identification of progressive massive fibrosis, HRCT scans are superior to X-rays. (author)

  9. X-ray diffraction apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention provides an x-ray diffraction apparatus permitting the rotation of the divergence sit in conjunction with the rotation of the x-ray irradiated specimen, whereby the dimensions of the x-ray irradiated portion of the specimen remain substantially constant during the rotation of the specimen. In a preferred embodiment, the divergence slit is connected to a structural element linked with a second structural element connected to the specimen such that the divergence slit rotates at a lower angular speed than the specimen

  10. X-ray crystal interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various configurations of the X-ray crystal interferometer are reviewed. The interferometer applications considered include metrology, the measurement of fundamental physical constants, the study of weakly absorbing phase objects, time-resolved diagnostics, the determination of hard X-ray beam parameters, and the characterization of structural defects in the context of developing an X-ray Michelson interferometer. The three-crystal Laue interferometer (LLL-interferometer), its design, and the experimental opportunities it offers are given particular attention. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  11. The X-ray analysis of pulmonary manifestations in acute aspiration of trichlorethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the X-ray pulmonary changes in patients with acute aspiration of trichlorethane. Methods: Among 48 cases with acute aspiration of trichlorethane, 7 were male and 41 female, with ages ranged from 5.5 to 50 years old, mean age was 13.5 years old. 4 patients were diagnosed as mild acute intoxication, 22 as aspirating reaction, and 22 as uncomfortable reaction. And chest radiography was performed in all the cases. Results Pneumonia and bronchopneumonia was found in 4 cases with acute intoxication, inflammation around bronchial branches in 22 cases with aspirating reaction. The other cases were negative findings. Conclusions: Acute aspiration of trichlorethane may cause pneumonia, bronchopneumonia and inflammation around bronchial branches, which can be detected by chest radiography. (authors)

  12. X-ray findings in high-medieval rests of skeletons from Schirmenitz, district of Oschatz, GDR, with special regard to the growth lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiographic examination of the skeletons not only confined the anthropological findings made by conventional methods but also enlarged their spectrum essentially concerning the poorly preserved bones. The analysis of the history of population and civilization will mainly benefit from the radiographic examination

  13. X-Ray Morphology,Kinematics and Geometry of the Eridanus Soft X-Ray Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiyu; Burrows, David N.; Sanders, Wilton T.; Snowden, Steve L.; Penprase, Bryan E.

    1994-12-01

    We present mosaics of X-ray intensity maps and spectral fit results for selected regions of the Eridanus soft X-ray Enhancement (EXE), as well as kinematics of the X-ray absorbing clouds in the EXE region and geometrical properties of this X-ray emitting bubble. The work is based on pointed observations with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter, 21 cm observations with the NRAO 140 foot telescope at Green Bank and interstellar Na D line observations with the NOAO Coude Feed telescope at Kitt Peak. The ROSAT pointed observations examine two regions of the EXE. The first is an X-ray absorption lane produced by an IR filament which is located at galactic coordinates of about (199(deg) , -45(deg) ). The second is in the vicinity of the northern (galactic) boundary of the 1/4 keV EXE, at galactic coordinates of about (200(deg) , -25(deg) ). Both our spatial and spectral analysis suggest that variations in emission measure and NH are primarily reponsible for the observed variations of the X-ray intensity. Using 100mu intensities obtained from IRAS maps and NH column densities obtained from our X-ray spectral fits, we find 100 microns/NH ratios across the IR filament that are compatible with typical high latitude values. Maps of the X-ray absorbing clouds in the EXE region at 21 cm reveal that these clouds may belong to two different expanding systems, with one possibly associated with our Local Bubble and the other with the boundary of the EXE. Combination of 21 cm data with interstellar Na D line observations toward stars in the directions of some of the X-ray absorbing clouds along (l,b) ~ (200(deg) ,-40(deg) ) indicate that the near side of the EXE is farther than 151 pc and the distance to the center of the EXE at this latitude is about 226 pc. The density and the thermal pressure found for this X-ray emitting superbubble are 0.015 cm(-3) and 4.9 times 10(4) cm(-3) K.

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x- ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and ...

  16. Duodenal X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication provides an overview of duodenal X-ray diagnostics with the aid of barium meals in 1362 patients. The introducing paragraphs deal with the topographic anatomy of the region and the methodics of X-ray investigation. The chapter entitled ''processes at the duodenum itself'' describes mainly ulcers, diverticula, congenital anomalies, tumors and inflammations. The neighbourhood processes comprise in the first place diseases having their origin at the pancreas and bile ducts. As a conclusion, endoscopic rectograde cholangio-pancreaticography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography are pointed out as advanced X-ray investigation methods. In the annex of X-ray images some of the described phenomena are shown in exemplary manner. (orig./MG)

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient lies. A drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . ... when feasible to protect from radiation. You must hold very still and may be asked to keep ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray table ... bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the examination is complete, you may be asked to wait ...

  1. Picosecond x-ray science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report discusses the exciting times for short pulse X-rays and the current users of the technology in the United States. Tracking nuclear motions with X-rays transcends scientific disciplines and includes Biology, Materials Science, Condensed Matter and Chemistry. 1 picosecond accesses many phenomena previously hidden at 100ps. Synchrotron advantage over laser plasma and LCLS is that it's easily tunable. There is a large and diverse user community of this technology that is growing rapidly. A working group is being formed to implement 'fast track' Phases 1 and 2 which includes tunable, polarized, monochromatic, focused X-rays; variable pulse length (1 to 100ps) and 1 kHz, 109 X-rays/s with 1% bandwidth. ERL would be a major advance for ultrafast time-resolved studies.

  2. X-ray microtomographic scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syryamkin, V. I., E-mail: klestov-simon@mail.ru; Klestov, S. A., E-mail: klestov-simon@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The article studies the operating procedures of an X-ray microtomographic scanner and the module of reconstruction and analysis 3D-image of a test sample in particular. An algorithm for 3D-image reconstruction based on image shadow projections and mathematical methods of the processing are described. Chapter 1 describes the basic principles of X-ray tomography and general procedures of the device developed. Chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to the problem of resources saving by the system during the X-ray tomography procedure, which is achieved by preprocessing of the initial shadow projections. Preprocessing includes background noise removing from the images, which reduces the amount of shadow projections in general and increases the efficiency of the group shadow projections compression. In conclusion, the main applications of X-ray tomography are presented.

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special ... to 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  5. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic dental radiography is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun having an elongated tubular target carrier extending into the patient's mouth. The carrier supports an inclined target for direction of an X-ray pattern towards a film positioned externally of the patient's mouth. Image definition is improved by a focusing anode which focuses the electron beam into a sharp spot (0.05 to 0.10 mm diameter) on the target. The potential on the focusing anode is adjustable to vary the size of the spot. An X-ray transmitting ceramic (oxides of Be, Al and Si) window is positioned adjacent to the front face of the target. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ... around joints, and in evaluating the hips of children with congenital problems. top of page This page ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be taken to the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray ... and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way ...

  10. X-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New design of X-ray gauge of rolled product thickness is suggested. It is supplied with self-compensation unit, removing the error, caused by changes of half-cycles of supply voltage of radiation source

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray tube is connected to ... equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  20. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  1. Outbursts in ultracompact X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hameury, J -M

    2016-01-01

    Very faint X-ray binaries appear to be transient in many cases with peak luminosities much fainter than that of usual soft X-ray transients, but their nature still remains elusive. We investigate the possibility that this transient behaviour is due to the same thermal/viscous instability which is responsible for outbursts of bright soft X-ray transients, occurring in ultracompact binaries for adequately low mass-transfer rates. More generally, we investigate the observational consequences of this instability when it occurs in ultracompact binaries. We use our code for modelling the thermal-viscous instability of the accretion disc, assumed here to be hydrogen poor. We also take into account the effects of disc X-ray irradiation, and consider the impact of the mass-transfer rate on the outburst brightness. We find that one can reproduce the observed properties of both the very faint and the brighter short transients (peak luminosity, duration, recurrence times), provided that the viscosity parameter in quiesce...

  2. X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  3. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  4. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  5. X-ray laser; Roentgenlaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsen, Emil J.; Breiby, Dag W.

    2009-07-01

    X-ray is among the most important research tools today, and has given priceless contributions to all disciplines within the natural sciences. State of the art in this field is called XFEL, X-ray Free Electron Laser, which may be 10 thousand million times stronger than the x-rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble. In addition XFEL has properties that allow the study of processes which previously would have been impossible. Of special interest are depictions on atomic- and molecular level by the use of x-ray holographic methods, and being able to study chemical reactions in nature's own timescale, the femtosecond. Conclusion: The construction of x-ray lasers is a natural development in a scientific field which has an enormous influence on the surrounding society. While the discovery of x-ray was an important breakthrough in itself, new applications appear one after the other: Medical depiction, dissemination, diffraction, DNA and protein structures, synchrotron radiation and tomography. There is reason to believe that XFEL implies a technological leap as big as the synchrotrons some decades ago. As we are now talking about studies of femtosecond and direct depiction of chemical reactions, it is obvious that we are dealing with a revolution to come, with extensive consequences, both scientifically and culturally. (EW)

  6. X-ray diagnostic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A falling load type X-ray diagnostic apparatus comprises a low voltage power source, AC-DC converting means connected to the low voltage power source so as to apply a rectified low DC voltage, chopping means connected to the AC-DC converting means and chopping said DC voltage into a low AC voltage, high voltage applying means for transforming said low AC voltage into a high AC voltage, said high AC voltage being applied as a tube voltage to an X-ray tube from which X-rays are irradiated toward an object to be examined, means for controlling a filament heating power of the X-ray tube, programming means for supplying a control signal to said filament heating control means so as to reduce the emission current of said X-ray tube during the irradiation, and chopper control means for controlling the chopping ratio of said chopping means by evaluating said rectified DC voltage with a preset tube voltage generated in said programming means, said programming means compensating said tube voltage by receiving said control signal in such a manner that said tube voltage is maintained substantially constant during the irradiation by varying said preset tube voltage so as to control the chopping ratio based upon the reduction of the filament heating power for the X-ray tube

  7. Low energy (soft) x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetry of low-energy (soft) X rays produced by the SOFTEX Model CMBW-2 was performed using Nuclear Associates Type 30 - 330 PTW, Exradin Type A2, and Shonka-Wyckoff ionization chambers with a Keithley Model 602 electrometer. Thermoluminescent (BeO chip) dosimeters were used with a Harshaw Detector 2000-A and Picoammeter-B readout system. Beam quality measurements were made using aluminum absorbers; exposure rates were assessed by the current of the X-ray tube and by exposure times. Dose distributions were established, and the average factors for non-uniformity were calculated. The means of obtaining accurate absorbed and exposed doses using these methods are discussed. Survival of V79 cells was assessed by irradiating them with soft X rays, 200 kVp X rays, and 60Co gamma rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for soft X rays with 0, 0.2, 0.7 mm added thicknesses of aluminum were 1.6, which were compared to 60Co. The RBE of 200 kVp X rays relative to 60Co was 1.3. Results of this study are available for reference in future RERF studies of cell survival. (author)

  8. Tokamak x ray diagnostic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three classes of x-ray diagnostic instruments enable measurement of a variety of tokamak physics parameters from different features of the x-ray emission spectrum. (1) The soft x-ray (1 to 50 keV) pulse-height-analysis (PHA) diagnostic measures impurity concentrations from characteristic line intensities and the continuum enhancement, and measures the electron temperature from the continuum slope. (2) The Bragg x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) measures the ion temperature and neutral-beam-induced toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler broadening and wavelength shift, respectively, of spectral lines of medium-Z impurity ions. Impurity charge state distributions, precise wavelengths, and inner-shell excitation and recombination rates can also be studied. X rays are diffracted and focused by a bent crystal onto a position-sensitive detector. The spectral resolving power E/ΔE is greater than 104 and time resolution is 10 ms. (3) The x-ray imaging system (XIS) measures the spatial structure of rapid fluctuations (0.1 to 100 kHZ) providing information on MHD phenomena, impurity transport rates, toroidal rotation velocity, plasma position, and the electron temperature profile. It uses an array of silicon surface-barrier diodes which view different chords of the plasma through a common slot aperture and operate in current (as opposed to counting) mode. The effectiveness of shields to protect detectors from fusion-neutron radiation effects has been studied both theoretically and experimentally

  9. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors

  10. X-ray instrumentation for SR beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalchuk, M.V.; Shilin, Yu.N.; Zheludeva, S.I. E-mail: zheludeva@ns.crys.ras.ru; Aleshko-Ozhevsky, O.P.; Arutynyan, E.H.; Kheiker, D.M.; Kreines, A.Ya.; Lider, V.V.; Pashaev, E.M.; Shilina, N.Yu.; Shishkov, V.A

    2000-06-21

    The main possibilities and parameters of experimental X-ray stations are presented: 'Protein crystallography', 'X-ray structure analysis', 'High-precision X-ray optics', 'X-ray crystallography and material science', 'X-ray topography', 'Photoelectron X-ray standing wave' that are being installed at Kurchatov SR source by A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography.

  11. X-rays and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is one of the specialized books issued by the Arab Atomic Energy Agency about the key technologies of interest to Arab researchers . The book contains 10 chapters as follows: the nature of X-ray, methods of production and measurement of X-rays, X-ray and materials, X-ray crystallography, X-ray and chemistry, X-ray and physics, biological effects of X-ray, radiography in the field of medicine and biology, X-ray in the field of industry, other applications in agriculture, imaging artifacts and paintings and geology.

  12. Correlation between Hard X-ray Peak Flux and Soft X-ray Peak Flux in the Outburst Rise of Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Wenfei; van der Klis, Michiel; Fender, Rob

    2004-01-01

    We have analyzed {\\it Rossi} X-ray timing explorer (RXTE) pointed observations of the outbursts of black hole and neutron star soft X-ray transients in which an initial low/hard state or `island' state, followed by a transition to a softer state, was observed. In three sources, the black hole transient XTE J1550-564, the neutron star transient Aquila X-1 and a quasi-persistent neutron star low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) 4U 1705-44, two such outbursts were found. We find that the flux of the sof...

  13. Ariel 5 hard X-ray observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from the hard X-ray detector (8cm2 area, 80 f.w.h.m. field of view, energy range 26-1200 keV) are reviewed in the context of observations by other groups. At least three different classes of galactic sources are studied by this detector. In the first, magnetospheric control of the emission, which seems to be a modified thermal spectrum is dominant. Examples are Cen X-3, Her X-1, AO535 + 26 and GX 301 - 2. So far, only direct evidence on the magnetic field strength from cyclotron line emission has come from Her X-1. In the second, the characteristics are a power law spectrum extending to over about 200 keV and fast aperiodic time variations with little evidence of the presence of strong magnetic fields. Inverse Compton production of the X-ray photons seems important here. Examples are Cyg X-1, AO620-00, Ser X-1 and perhaps Cir X-1, although this last object suffers periodic heavy low energy absorption. The third is the white dwarf emitted class, e.g. AM Herculis and possibly AM Canum Venaticorum; sources in this class surprisingly tend to exhibit a power law rather than a thermal spectral shape. Sco X-1 and Sco X-2 are perhaps a fourth class of object. Hard X-ray upper limits obtained from a survey of COS-B γ-ray source positions are discussed. Further attempts to find hard X-ray emission from the galactic centre X-ray burst sources are mentioned. (author)

  14. Implications of X-ray tube parameter deviations in X-ray reference fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, B; Hupe, O; Ambrosi, P

    2016-02-01

    For the purpose of radiation protection, ICRU Report 57/ICRP Publication 74 provides a list of monoenergetic conversion coefficients to be used with, among others, photon reference fields generated with X-ray tubes. A comprehensive definition of these photon reference fields can be found in international standard ISO 4037; however, it lacks thorough indication of the allowed deviations of essential parameters that influence these X-ray reference fields. These parameters are the high-voltage tube potential, the thickness of the beryllium window and the purity and thickness of the filter materials used to create different radiation qualities. Small variations of these parameters can lead to significant changes in the created X-ray spectra and, hence, the spectra-dependent conversion coefficients for phantom-related radiation-protection quantities. This can lead to situations in which the conversion coefficients listed in ISO 4037 cannot be used, resulting in time-consuming spectrometry measurements. In this work, the impact on the resulting conversion coefficients is investigated using a simplified mathematical approximation model. The findings are validated with an independent X-ray spectra calculation programme. As a result, well-founded upper limit values on the allowed deviations of the essential X-ray tube parameters are proposed to be used in a future revision of ISO 4037. PMID:25889609

  15. SZ/X-ray scaling relations using X-ray data and Planck Nominal maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, I.; Atrio-Barandela, F.

    2016-09-01

    We determine the relation between the Comptonization parameter predicted using X-ray data YC, Xray and the X-ray luminosity LX, both magnitudes derived from ROSAT data, with the Comptonization parameter YC, SZ measured on Planck 2013 foreground cleaned Nominal maps. The 560 clusters of our sample includes clusters with masses M ≥ 1013 M⊙, one order of magnitude smaller than those used by the Planck Collaboration in a similar analysis. It also contains eight times more clusters in the redshift interval z ≤ 0.3. The prediction of the β = 2/3 model convolved with the Planck antenna beam agrees with the anisotropies measured in foreground cleaned Planck Nominal maps within the X-ray emitting region, confirming the results of an earlier analysis. The universal pressure profile overestimates the signal by a 15-21 per cent depending on the angular aperture. We show that the discrepancy is not due to the presence of cool-core systems but it is an indication of a brake in the LX - M relation towards low mass systems. We show that relation of the Comptonization parameter averaged over the region that emits 99 per cent of the X-ray flux and and the X-ray luminosity is consistent with the predictions of the self-similar model. We confirm previous findings that the scaling relations studied here do not evolve with redshift within the range probed by our catalogue.

  16. Implications of X-ray tube parameter deviations in X-ray reference fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of radiation protection, ICRU Report 57/ICRP Publication 74 provides a list of monoenergetic conversion coefficients to be used with, among others, photon reference fields generated with X-ray tubes. A comprehensive definition of these photon reference fields can be found in international standard ISO 4037; however, it lacks thorough indication of the allowed deviations of essential parameters that influence these X-ray reference fields. These parameters are the high-voltage tube potential, the thickness of the beryllium window and the purity and thickness of the filter materials used to create different radiation qualities. Small variations of these parameters can lead to significant changes in the created X-ray spectra and, hence, the spectra-dependent conversion coefficients for phantom-related radiation-protection quantities. This can lead to situations in which the conversion coefficients listed in ISO 4037 cannot be used, resulting in time-consuming spectrometry measurements. In this work, the impact on the resulting conversion coefficients is investigated using a simplified mathematical approximation model. The findings are validated with an independent X-ray spectra calculation programme. As a result, well-founded upper limit values on the allowed deviations of the essential X-ray tube parameters are proposed to be used in a future revision of ISO 4037. (authors)

  17. Chest Radiographic Findings of Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, So Young; Hong, Eun Sook; Paik, Sang Hyun; Park, Seong Jin; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lee, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Yun Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    To analyze chest radiographic findings in children infected with laboratory confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus. Three hundred seventy-two out of 2,014 children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 infection and who also underwent a chest radiograph from September to November 2009 were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into in-patients, out-patients, and patients with co-infections and further subdivided into with underlying disease and without underlying disease as well as age (<2 years old, 2-5 years, 5-10 years, 10-18 years old). The initial radiographs were evaluated for radiographic findings and the anatomic distribution of abnormalities. The initial radiographs were abnormal in 154 (41.39%) patients. The predominant radiographic findings were peribronchial wall opacity found in 85 (22.84%) patients and hyperinflation observed in 69 (18.54%) patients. Further, 75 (71.42%) patients exhibited central predominance and the right lower lung zone was also commonly involved. There were statistically significant differences in the radiological findings between in-patient and out-patient groups. However, there were no significant differences in the radiographic findings between in-patients and the co-infection group with respect the presence of underlying disease and age. Initial radiographs of children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 virus were abnormal in 41.39% of cases. The common radiographic findings included peribronchial opacities, hyperinflation, lower lung zonal distribution, and central predominance

  18. Chest Radiographic Findings of Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze chest radiographic findings in children infected with laboratory confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus. Three hundred seventy-two out of 2,014 children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 infection and who also underwent a chest radiograph from September to November 2009 were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into in-patients, out-patients, and patients with co-infections and further subdivided into with underlying disease and without underlying disease as well as age (<2 years old, 2-5 years, 5-10 years, 10-18 years old). The initial radiographs were evaluated for radiographic findings and the anatomic distribution of abnormalities. The initial radiographs were abnormal in 154 (41.39%) patients. The predominant radiographic findings were peribronchial wall opacity found in 85 (22.84%) patients and hyperinflation observed in 69 (18.54%) patients. Further, 75 (71.42%) patients exhibited central predominance and the right lower lung zone was also commonly involved. There were statistically significant differences in the radiological findings between in-patient and out-patient groups. However, there were no significant differences in the radiographic findings between in-patients and the co-infection group with respect the presence of underlying disease and age. Initial radiographs of children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 virus were abnormal in 41.39% of cases. The common radiographic findings included peribronchial opacities, hyperinflation, lower lung zonal distribution, and central predominance

  19. Relationship between functional and X-ray alterations in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Andréia Kist

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF is a disease marked by airway inflammation and airflow obstruction, resulting in air trapping in the lungs. OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between airflow limitation, pulmonary volume and X-ray findings in patients with cystic fibrosis. METHOD: A cross-sectional retrospective study. Review of spirometric, plethysmographic, and chest X-ray findings of outpatients (age ³ 16 years. The airflow findings were classified as within normal limits or as airflow obstruction: mild, moderate or severe obstructive alteration. RESULTS: A total of 23 patients (15 male and eight female; mean age, 21 ± 5.9 years were studied. Six of them were within normal limits, four had a mild, five had a moderate, and eight had a severe obstructive alteration. There was an association between airflow limitation and the increase of residual volume (p = 0.006 and also with the Brasfield score (p = 0.001, but not with the total lung capacity (p = 0.33. There was a correlation between residual volume and Brasfield score (r = 0,73, p = 0,002, but not with the total pulmonary capacity. Moreover, according to X-ray criteria, the air trapping was correlated only with the residual volume (p = 0.006. CONCLUSION: In patients with cystic fibrosis (age ³ 16 years, the progressive airflow limitation is accompanied by an increase in residual volume, while the total pulmonary capacity remains normal or tends to decrease. The X-ray score was associated with airflow limitation and residual volume, but not with total lung capacity.

  20. Incoherent x-ray scattering in single molecule imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Slowik, Jan Malte; Dixit, Gopal; Jurek, Zoltan; Santra, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Imaging of the structure of single proteins or other biomolecules with atomic resolution would be enormously beneficial to structural biology. X-ray free-electron lasers generate highly intense and ultrashort x-ray pulses, providing a route towards imaging of single molecules with atomic resolution. The information on molecular structure is encoded in the coherent x-ray scattering signal. In contrast to crystallography there are no Bragg reflections in single molecule imaging, which means the coherent scattering is not enhanced. Consequently, a background signal from incoherent scattering deteriorates the quality of the coherent scattering signal. This background signal cannot be easily eliminated because the spectrum of incoherently scattered photons cannot be resolved by usual scattering detectors. We present an ab initio study of incoherent x-ray scattering from individual carbon atoms, including the electronic radiation damage caused by a highly intense x-ray pulse. We find that the coherent scattering pa...

  1. Models for x-ray emission from Tycho's remnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reexamine the x-ray emission from Tycho's remnant using results from hydrodynamic models computed with a detailed spherically symmetric code. The observed synchrotron radio contours appear to require a cloudy circumstellar medium. The authors explore the x-ray emission properties of similar models. They find that they tend to produce broad shells of x-ray emission that resemble the observed x-ray observations, but it has little similarity to the evolution of remnants in cloudy media dominated by thermal conduction. More work needs to be done to ensure that the spectrum as well as the x-ray map can be modeled with the same cloudy circumstellar medium, although we believe it will not be difficult to obtain as good as statistical agreement with the spectral data as other models have achieved

  2. X-ray diagnosis of colorectal endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative diagnosis of symptomatic colorectal endometriosis is often difficult. Hence, the X-ray findings of eight woman patients with confirmed affection of the colon with endometriosis foci were evaluated together with the clinical, surgical and histological findings. In 50 % of the cases rectal haemorrhages were the most frequently occurring sign. In three-quarters of the cases the colon sigmoideum was involved. Radiologically it was possible to prove in 37,5 % each of the cases that there was a polypoid lesion and an irregular concentric stenosis of the intestinal lumen. In 25 % of the cases we found a complete stenosis of the intestinal lumen combined with ileus. X-ray sign pattern of colorectal endometriosis, however, is not pathognomonic. (orig.)

  3. Chest radiographic staging in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: relationship with immunological findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, J L

    2012-02-03

    The question of whether a chest radiographic severity staging system could be correlated with standard blood\\/serum diagnostic indices in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) was addressed in 41 patients. Asthma and positive Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) serology were considered essential diagnostic inclusion criteria. Eosinophil count, serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E and immediate skin hypersensitivity were also tested to grade patients as "definite" or "likely" ABPA. Definite cases had all five of these factors present, whereas likely cases had three or more. Chest radiographs were examined by experienced radiologists blinded to the clinical data. The six-stage radiographic score (0-5) was based on the severity and duration of changes seen: stage 0: normal; stage 1: transient hyperinflation; stage 2: transient minor changes; stage 3: transient major changes; stage 4: permanent minor changes; and stage 5: permanent major changes. Significant positive correlations (p<0.05) were observed between peak AF titres (expressed as an index), peak eosinophil count and radiographic severity stage. When considered as subgroups, these correlations approached, but did not reach, significance for the group with "likely" ABPA (n=28), but in the group with definite ABPA (n=13), there was a high correlation between radiographic score and peak AF index (r=0.59), as well as peak eosinophil count (r=0.62). This study suggests that the peak Aspergillus fumigatus index and eosinophil counts correlate best with the severity of radiographic stages in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. This chest radiographic staging system may be useful in the clinical assessment and management of patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, particularly in those patients with more severe radiographic stages.

  4. X-ray face mask and bib device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An x-ray protective face mask is made of a relatively transparent lead containing radiation shielding plastics material, and is removably attachable to a chest or bib shield for application of the device to and support upon the shoulders of a technician or a patient. Alternatively, the face mask is formed of a lens portion supported in a plastics frame, upon the lower portion of which is removably attached a bib shield that in turn is removably attachable to an apron. The frame of the face mask, bib shield and apron are preferably lined with lead sheets to protect the neck, face, chest and body of the technician from the random secondary or scatter x-ray beams. The face mask and bib shield can be formed of a moulded plastics material as a unitary device, the lens portion being attached to the frame therefor. (author)

  5. X-ray reflection in oxygen-rich accretion discs of ultracompact X-ray binaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madej, O. K.; Garcia, Jeronimo; Jonker, P. G.;

    2014-01-01

    donor star in these sources is a carbon-oxygen or oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf. Hence, the accretion disc is enriched with oxygen which makes the O viii Ly alpha line particularly strong. Modelling the X-ray reflection off a carbon- and oxygen-enriched, hydrogen- and helium-poor disc with models...... assuming solar composition likely biases several of the best-fitting parameters. In order to describe the X-ray reflection spectra self-consistently, we modify the currently available xillver reflection model. We present initial grids that can be used to model X-ray reflection spectra in UCXBs with carbon-oxygen......-rich (and hydrogen- and helium-poor) accretion disc. We find that the new reflection model provides a better overall description of the reflection spectra of 4U 0614+091 and 4U 1543-624 than the reflection models that assume solar abundances....

  6. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >108 ) with broadband ≃5 - 13 meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 103 signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains.

  7. X-ray echo spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin-echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a point-like x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x-rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1--0.02-meV ultra-high-resolution IXS applications (resolving power $> 10^8$) with broadband $\\simeq$~5--13~meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than $10^3$ signal e...

  8. Chest pain due to Pinch-off syndrome: radiological findings and endovascular rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, E; Giribono, A M; Ferrara, D; Santagata, A; Narese, D; Midiri, F; Albano, D; Porcellini, M

    2016-01-01

    Port-a-cath is widely used as a route for administration of drugs in hematology and oncology patients and, recently, has been adapted also for hemodialysis patients. Major complications include infection, thrombosis, arrhythmia, and embolization. The Pinch-off-syndrome (POS) means the clavicle and the first rib compress the long-term central venous catheter. The reported incidence rate ranges from 1.4% to 4.1%. This syndrome can be recognized on chest radiography by observing a thinning of the catheter lumen through the passage between the clavicle and the first rib. Catheter fracture is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication that must be recognized and treated promptly. Management of dislodged ports includes percutaneous transcatheter retrieval, open thoracotomy retrieval and oral anticoagulant therapy. Among these techniques, percutaneous transcatheter retrieval is an easy, safe and efficient method. We report the successful percutaneous endovascular retrieval of dislodged intracardiac catheter, separated from its port, in a 58 year-old male patient who presented with chest pain. PMID:26980633

  9. Quantum effets in nonresonant X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slowik, Jan Malte

    2015-11-15

    experiments. In the quantum theory it has however been revealed that X-ray scattering patterns of electronic motion are related to complex spatio-temporal correlations, instead of the instantaneous electron density. I scrutinize the time-resolved scattering pattern from coherent electronic wave packets. I show that timeresolved PCI recovers the instantaneous electron density of electronic motion. For the far-field diffraction scattering pattern, I analyze the influence of photon energy resolution of the detector. Moreover, I demonstrate that X-ray scattering from a crystal of identical wave packets also recovers the instantaneous electron density. I point out that a generalized electron density propagator of the wave packet can be reconstructed from a scattering experiment. Finally, I propose timeresolved Compton scattering of electronic wave packets. I show that X-ray scattering with large energy transfer can be used to recover the instantaneous momentum space density of the target. The third topic of this dissertation is Compton scattering in single molecule coherent diffractive imaging (CDI). The structure determination of single macromolecules via CDI is one of the key applications of XFELs. The structure of the molecule can be reconstructed from the elastic diffraction pattern. Inelastic X-ray scattering generates a background signal, which I determine for typical high-intensity imaging conditions. I find that at high X-ray fluence the background signal becomes dominating, posing a problem for high resolution imaging. The strong ionization by the X-ray pulse may ionize several electrons per atom. Scattering from these free electrons makes a major contribution to the background signal. I present and discuss detailed numerical studies for different X-ray fluence and photon energy.

  10. Quantum effets in nonresonant X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    experiments. In the quantum theory it has however been revealed that X-ray scattering patterns of electronic motion are related to complex spatio-temporal correlations, instead of the instantaneous electron density. I scrutinize the time-resolved scattering pattern from coherent electronic wave packets. I show that timeresolved PCI recovers the instantaneous electron density of electronic motion. For the far-field diffraction scattering pattern, I analyze the influence of photon energy resolution of the detector. Moreover, I demonstrate that X-ray scattering from a crystal of identical wave packets also recovers the instantaneous electron density. I point out that a generalized electron density propagator of the wave packet can be reconstructed from a scattering experiment. Finally, I propose timeresolved Compton scattering of electronic wave packets. I show that X-ray scattering with large energy transfer can be used to recover the instantaneous momentum space density of the target. The third topic of this dissertation is Compton scattering in single molecule coherent diffractive imaging (CDI). The structure determination of single macromolecules via CDI is one of the key applications of XFELs. The structure of the molecule can be reconstructed from the elastic diffraction pattern. Inelastic X-ray scattering generates a background signal, which I determine for typical high-intensity imaging conditions. I find that at high X-ray fluence the background signal becomes dominating, posing a problem for high resolution imaging. The strong ionization by the X-ray pulse may ionize several electrons per atom. Scattering from these free electrons makes a major contribution to the background signal. I present and discuss detailed numerical studies for different X-ray fluence and photon energy.

  11. X-ray and optical counterparts of hard X-ray selected sources from the SHEEP survey: first results

    CERN Document Server

    Nandra, K; Brotherton, M; Papadakis, I E

    2004-01-01

    We present followup observations of five hard X-ray sources from the ASCA 5-10 keV SHEEP survey, which has a limiting flux of $\\sim 10^{-13}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. Chandra data have been obtained to improve the X-ray positions from a few arcmin to $<1''$, which allows unambiguous optical identification. While the objects almost certainly house AGN based on their X-ray luminosity, optical spectroscopy reveals a variety of properties. The identifications indicate that the SHEEP survey samples the same populations as deeper surveys which probe the origin of the X-ray background, but because the SHEEP sources are far brighter, they are more amenable to detailed followup work. We find a variety of classifications and properties, including a type II QSO, a galaxy undergoing star formation, and a broad-line AGN which has a very hard X-ray spectrum, indicating substantial absorption in the X-ray but none in the optical. Two objects have X-ray/optical flux ratios which, were they at an X-ray flux level typical of...

  12. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral X-ray apparatus which reduces the number of exposures necessary to obtain panoramic dental radiographs is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun, a tubular target carrier projecting from the gun along the beam axis and carrying at its distal end a target surrounded by a shield of X-ray opaque material. This shield extends forward and laterally of the target and has surfaces which define a wedge or cone-shaped radiation pattern delimited vertically by the root tips of the patient's teeth. A film holder is located externally of the patient's mouth. A disposable member can fit on the target carrier to depress the patient's tongue out of the radiation pattern and to further shield the roof of the mouth. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  13. Extragalactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 40% of the X-ray sources in the third UHURU catalogue are extragalactic. One, SMC X-1 has been identified with a binary star in the lesser Magellanic Cloud, while five sources, three probably binary stars, have been found in the greater Magellanic Cloud. X-ray sources in normal galaxies (M31), radiogalaxies (NGC5128), Seyfert galaxies (NGC4151), quasars (3C273) and galaxy clusters (Virgo X-1 and Perseus X-1) are briefly discussed. The most probable explanation for the origin of X-ray emissions from galaxy clusters appears at present to be that the cluster is filled with a thin, very hot gas which emits X-radiation by thermal bremsstrahlung. The main alternative is a socalled inverse Compton effect. (JIW)

  14. X-ray imaging: Perovskites target X-ray detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Wolfgang; Brabec, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Single crystals of perovskites are currently of interest to help fathom fundamental physical parameters limiting the performance of perovskite-based polycrystalline solar cells. Now, such perovskites offer a technology platform for optoelectronic devices, such as cheap and sensitive X-ray detectors.

  15. Horizontal fissure on neonatal plain chest radiographs: clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regardless of etiology, pleural fluid, even in small amounts, can be visualized on the neonatal chest x-ray picture within pulmonary fissures. It remains unclear whether a marked horizontal fissure unaccompanied by any other radiological symptoms is of diagnostic value or not. Ninety-one consecutive neonatal chest radiographs with marked horizontal fissure were retrospectively analyzed. The images were made between 1999 and 2005 on 69 newborns admitted to the Neonatology Department, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Gdansk. Analysis of the radiographs was conducted independently by three radiologists based on the following criteria: fissure thickness (marked or thickened), bronchovascular markings (increased or normal), size and shape of the heart (normal or abnormal), presence or absence of pulmonary infiltration, atelectasis, and changes related to wet lung syndrome. Due to divergent interpretations, the ultimate interpretation was established by consensus in 25 cases. The radiological findings were compared with clinical data. The compatibility of the three independent interpreters was statistically significant (p<0.0001). Marked transverse fissure was the only radiological finding on 66 x-rays. In 63 cases (69.2%) the children were asymptomatic as well. In 3 cases (3.3%) clinical symptoms of respiratory tract infection occurred. On the other 25 images, horizontal fissure was accompanied by other radiological symptoms. Chest x-ray results corresponded with clinical symptoms in 24 cases (26.4%). One child (1.1%) with radiological evidence of wet lung syndrome did not present any typical clinical symptoms of it. Horizontal fissure noted on a neonatal chest x-ray seems to be of minor diagnostic value if not accompanied by any other radiological symptoms. (author)

  16. Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boye, Pit

    2010-02-05

    This thesis is concerned with the optimization and development of the production of nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses. These optics made of either silicon or diamond are well-suited for high resolution X-ray microscopy. The goal of this work is the design of a reproducible manufacturing process which allows the production of silicon lenses with high precision, high quality and high piece number. Furthermore a process for the production of diamond lenses is to be developed and established. In this work, the theoretical basics of X-rays and their interaction with matter are described. Especially, aspects of synchrotron radiation are emphasized. Important in X-ray microscopy are the different optics. The details, advantages and disadvantages, in particular those of refractive lenses are given. To achieve small X-ray beams well beyond the 100 nm range a small focal length is required. This is achieved in refractive lenses by moving to a compact lens design where several single lenses are stacked behind each other. The, so-called nanofocusing refractive lenses (NFLs) have a parabolic cylindrical shape with lateral structure sizes in the micrometer range. NFLs are produced by using micro-machining techniques. These micro-fabrication processes and technologies are introduced. The results of the optimization and the final fabrication process for silicon lenses are presented. Subsequently, two experiments that are exemplary for the use of NFLs, are introduced. The rst one employs a high-resolution scanning fluorescence mapping of a geological sample, and the second one is a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiment. CXDI is able to reconstruct the illuminated object from recorded coherent diffraction patterns. In a scanning mode, referred to as ptychography, this method is even able to reconstruct the illumination and the object simultaneously. Especially the reconstructed illumination and the possibility of computed propagation of the wave field along the

  17. Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is concerned with the optimization and development of the production of nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses. These optics made of either silicon or diamond are well-suited for high resolution X-ray microscopy. The goal of this work is the design of a reproducible manufacturing process which allows the production of silicon lenses with high precision, high quality and high piece number. Furthermore a process for the production of diamond lenses is to be developed and established. In this work, the theoretical basics of X-rays and their interaction with matter are described. Especially, aspects of synchrotron radiation are emphasized. Important in X-ray microscopy are the different optics. The details, advantages and disadvantages, in particular those of refractive lenses are given. To achieve small X-ray beams well beyond the 100 nm range a small focal length is required. This is achieved in refractive lenses by moving to a compact lens design where several single lenses are stacked behind each other. The, so-called nanofocusing refractive lenses (NFLs) have a parabolic cylindrical shape with lateral structure sizes in the micrometer range. NFLs are produced by using micro-machining techniques. These micro-fabrication processes and technologies are introduced. The results of the optimization and the final fabrication process for silicon lenses are presented. Subsequently, two experiments that are exemplary for the use of NFLs, are introduced. The rst one employs a high-resolution scanning fluorescence mapping of a geological sample, and the second one is a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiment. CXDI is able to reconstruct the illuminated object from recorded coherent diffraction patterns. In a scanning mode, referred to as ptychography, this method is even able to reconstruct the illumination and the object simultaneously. Especially the reconstructed illumination and the possibility of computed propagation of the wave field along the

  18. Comparative X-ray investigation of lateral and anterior-posterior ankle-joint images - comparison with pathological and anatomical findings concerning lateral ankle-joint lesions and their clinical importance, studied in a special type of holding device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study reports on a possibility to interpret the relation of the different bone structures of the upper ankle-joint to one another in the X-ray picture without using contrast media. Modern funtional diagnostic methods increasingly make use of X-ray pictures taken in fixed position. It seems useful to standardize such X-ray images of the ankle-joint in order to make them reproducible. The author developed a device that would suit these purposes. A diagnosis required the reproduction of the accidental mechanism. The clinical symptoms do not permit to clearly state the extent of the lesion of the ligaments. The results of the post-operative follow-up examinations confirm the urgent necessity of the standardized diagnostic method presented and the success of the therapy applied. The presented X-ray method permits safe diagnosis of ruptures of the ligaments. Location of a certain rupture is not possible with the fixed-position X-ray screening. For a clear assessment of lesions of the ligaments at the lateral ankle-joint, X-ray pictures must be taken both in the anterior-posterior path of rays and in the lateral one. A normal result in the lateral path of rays does not exclude a pathologic result in the anterior-posterior path of rays, and vice versa. (orig./MG)

  19. X-rays from comets - a surprising discovery

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Comets are kilometre-size aggregates of ice and dust, which remained from the formation of the solar system. It was not obvious to expect X-ray emission from such objects. Nevertheless, when comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2) was observed with the ROSAT X-ray satellite during its close approach to Earth in March 1996, bright X-ray emission from this comet was discovered. This finding triggered a search in archival ROSAT data for comets, which might have accidentally crossed the field of view during observations of unrelated targets. To increase the surprise even more, X-ray emission was detected from four additional comets, which were optically 300 to 30 000 times fainter than Hyakutake. For one of them, comet Arai (C/1991 A2), X-ray emission was even found in data which were taken six weeks before the comet was optically discovered. These findings showed that comets represent a new class of celestial X-ray sources. The subsequent detection of X-ray emission from several other comets in dedicated observations confir...

  20. AGN dust tori: the X-ray-infrared connection

    CERN Document Server

    Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Nandra, Kirpal

    2009-01-01

    We have combined the CLASX Chandra survey in Lockman with the Spitzer SWIRE survey data to study the X-ray-infrared connection for AGN. The sample consists of 401 X-ray-sources, of which 306 are detected by Spitzer, and a further 257 AGN candidates detected through their dust torus, but not by Chandra. For X-ray sources the X-ray hardness ratio has been modelled in terms of a power-law with absorption N(H). The optical and infrared data have been modelled in terms of our well-established optical galaxy and QSO templates, and infrared templates based on radiative transfer models. Our estimate of the N(H) distribution is consistent with other studies, but we do find a higher proportion of low absorption objects at z 0.5. While we find only one X-ray AGN with N(H) > 10^{24} cm^{-2}, we argue that 10 objects with torus luminosity apparently exceeding the bolometric X-ray to 3 \\mu m luminosity are strong candidates for being heavily absorbed in X-rays. We also estimate that at least half of the infrared-detected ...

  1. X-ray hot plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray plasma emission study is powerful diagnostic tool of hot plasmas. In this review article the main techniques of X-ray plasma emission measurement are shortly presented: X-ray spectrometry using absorbent filters, crystal and grating spectrometers, imaging techniques using pinhole cameras, X-ray microscopes and Fresnel zone plate cameras, X-ray plasma emission calorimetry. Advances in these techniques with examples for different hot plasma devices are also presentes. (author)

  2. The optical and X-ray flickering of XTE J1118+480

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the complex correlations between optical and X-ray variability in the black hole X-ray nova XTE J1118+480. We find that the optical and X-ray fluctuations of very different shapes, amplitudes and time-scales are correlated in a similar mode where the optical light curve is seemingly related to the time derivative of the X-rays

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam requires little to no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there is any possibility you are pregnant. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What are some ...

  4. X-ray image converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention pertains to rare earth phosphor admixtures utilizing thulium-activated lanthanum or gadolinium oxyhalide phosphor material. These materials increase the relative speed and resolution of an X-ray image compared with conventional phosphors as well as reducing the still serious crossover problem now experienced with conventional phosphors. (Auth.)

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray ( ... are the fastest and easiest way for your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and ...

  7. X-Ray Diffractive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian; Li, Mary; Skinner, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    X-ray optics were fabricated with the capability of imaging solar x-ray sources with better than 0.1 arcsecond angular resolution, over an order of magnitude finer than is currently possible. Such images would provide a new window into the little-understood energy release and particle acceleration regions in solar flares. They constitute one of the most promising ways to probe these regions in the solar atmosphere with the sensitivity and angular resolution needed to better understand the physical processes involved. A circular slit structure with widths as fine as 0.85 micron etched in a silicon wafer 8 microns thick forms a phase zone plate version of a Fresnel lens capable of focusing approx. =.6 keV x-rays. The focal length of the 3-cm diameter lenses is 100 microns, and the angular resolution capability is better than 0.1 arcsecond. Such phase zone plates were fabricated in Goddard fs Detector Development Lab. (DDL) and tested at the Goddard 600-microns x-ray test facility. The test data verified that the desired angular resolution and throughput efficiency were achieved.

  8. X-ray diagnostic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lateral and orbital scanning movements can be carried out with the equipment. The assessment is carried out by a computer. Differences in sensitivity of the detectors can be compensated for by displacement of the electron beam of the X-ray tube compared to the anti-cathode or by bending of the electron beam by electromagnetic coils. (RW)

  9. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of Literature on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry starts with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. It is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is subdivided according to spectra, equipment, applications and absorption analysis

  10. X-ray film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray films have to be highly sensitive, for radiation protection reasons. The films used in radiology are coated on both sides with a photosensitive emulsion. This applies to all dental films. Their properties and the development of the different exposed films are explained. (DG)

  11. X-ray backscatter imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Dan-Cristian; Schubert, Jeffrey R.; Callerame, J.

    2008-04-01

    In contrast to transmission X-ray imaging systems where inspected objects must pass between source and detector, Compton backscatter imaging allows both the illuminating source as well as the X-ray detector to be on the same side of the target object, enabling the inspection to occur rapidly and in a wide variety of space-constrained situations. A Compton backscatter image is similar to a photograph of the contents of a closed container, taken through the container walls, and highlights low atomic number materials such as explosives, drugs, and alcohol, which appear as especially bright objects by virtue of their scattering characteristics. Techniques for producing X-ray images based on Compton scattering will be discussed, along with examples of how these systems are used for both novel security applications and for the detection of contraband materials at ports and borders. Differences between transmission and backscatter images will also be highlighted. In addition, tradeoffs between Compton backscatter image quality and scan speed, effective penetration, and X-ray source specifications will be discussed.

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. The effective radiation dose for this procedure varies. ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. The effective ... more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is ... encourage linking to this site. × Recommend RadiologyInfo to a friend Send to (friend's e-mail address): From ( ...

  19. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    de Groot, F. M. F.

    2001-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption process. Section II discusses 1s X-ray absorption, i.e., the K edges, and section III deals with 2p X-ray absorption, the L edges. X-ray emission is discussed in, respectively, the L edges. X-ray emis...

  20. OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON SUPERBUBBLE X-RAY ENERGY BUDGETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot, X-ray-emitting gas in superbubbles imparts energy and enriched material to the interstellar medium (ISM) and generates the hot ionized medium, the ISM's high-temperature component. The evolution of superbubble energy budgets is not well understood, however, and the processes responsible for enhanced X-ray emission in superbubbles remain a matter of debate. We present Chandra ACIS-S observations of two X-ray-bright superbubbles in the Large Magellanic Cloud, DEM L50 (N186), and DEM L152 (N44), with an emphasis on disentangling the true superbubble X-ray emission from non-related diffuse emission and determining the spatial origin and spectral variation of the X-ray emission. An examination of the superbubble energy budgets shows that on the order of 50% of the X-ray emission comes from regions associated with supernova remnant (SNR) impacts. We find some evidence of mass loading due to swept-up clouds and metallicity enrichment, but neither mechanism provides a significant contribution to the X-ray luminosities. We also find that one of the superbubbles, DEM L50, is likely not in collisional ionization equilibrium. We compare our observations to the predictions of the standard Weaver et al. model and to one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations including cavity supernova impacts on the shell walls. Our observations show that mass loading due to thermal evaporation from the shell walls and SNR impacts are the dominant source of enhanced X-ray luminosities in superbubbles. These two processes should affect most superbubbles, and their contribution to the X-ray luminosity must be considered when determining the energy available for transport to the ISM.