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Sample records for chest x-ray film

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the ... treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray ...

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ... of the inside of the chest. A chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and ...

  3. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I’d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most ... far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! ...

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a ... posted: How to Obtain and Share ...

  6. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x- ...

  7. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey Rubin, a radiologist ... about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! Spotlight Recently posted: ...

  8. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  10. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also be useful to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray ... posted: How to Obtain and Share Your Medical Images Movement Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  13. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  15. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  16. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... June is Men's Health Month Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  17. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Chest Chest x-ray uses a very small dose ... Radiography? What is a Chest X-ray (Chest Radiography)? The chest x-ray is the most commonly performed diagnostic ...

  18. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  19. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... change into a gown. You may have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to ... You Sponsored by About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 ...

  20. [Standard chest x-ray: from film to all digital!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducou Le Pointe, H

    2000-04-01

    Conventional imaging will be totally replaced by digital imaging because of the lower exposure dosage and the clear advantages in terms of image processing, transfer and storage. Reports in the literature have demonstrated that a 2.5 pl/mm spatial resolution is satisfactory to detect a pneumothorax, a parenchymal nodule or a mediastinal mass. For most authors, this resolution is also sufficient to detect an interstitial syndrome. Digitalization by amplification or by particle detectors using wire chambers are not, for the time being, acceptable for interpretation of a simple chest image because of the low spatial resolution. The selenium cylinder is an adapted technology dedicated to chest imaging. Memory display screens can be used to digitalize the entire radiology unit. They are perfectly adapted for bedside imaging. Flat detectors are based on direct or indirect conversion of the X photons into an electrical signal during the clinical evaluation. The early results appear most promising.

  1. [Value of chest x-ray films in the diagnosis of congenital heart defects in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczyński, A

    1982-01-01

    The respiratory distress and suspicion of the heart defects in newborns and infants is indicated by x-ray chest examinations. The right interpretation of the x-ray pictures is very important but it must be followed by other diagnostic procedures. In every child it is possible to take the linear measurements of the great vessels and arteries in parahilar lung areas as well as the heart and chest in two dimensions from x-ray plain films. The measurements let to establish the indices: cardio-thoracic (ICP), vasculo-cardiac (IVC) and sagittal one (IS), which play important role in radiological evaluation of the chest. It results from the investigated material, that the evaluation of the pulmonary vascular pattern and the indices particularly facilitate the diagnosis of heart deformities coexisting with higher blood flow in pulmonary circulation. Nevertheless the measurements and the indices play the relative role in establishing of the final opinion about the chest and should be considered together with clinical and cardiological data.

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and chest wall and may be used to help evaluate shortness of breath, persistent cough, fever, chest ... or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of ...

  3. Chest x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain from a chest injury (with a possible rib fracture or lung complication) or from heart problems Coughing ... arteries Evidence of heart failure In the bones: Fractures or other problems of the ribs and spine Osteoporosis

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluate shortness of breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to ... of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about ...

  5. Aspergillosis - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. Here, a chest x-ray shows that the fungus has invaded the lung ... are usually seen as black areas on an x-ray. The cloudiness on the left side of this ...

  6. X-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.; Wonacott, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of film as an X-ray detector is discussed and its behaviour is compared with that of a perfect Poissonian detector. The efficiency of microdensitometry as a method of extracting the information recorded on the film is discussed. More emphasis is placed in the precision of microdensitometric measurements than on the more obvious characteristic of film speed. The effects of chemical fog and background on the precision of the measurements is considered and it is concluded that the final limit to precision is set by the chemical fog. (B.D.)

  7. Preoperative chest x-ray findings in peptic ulcer perforation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. H.; Kim, S. W.; Lim, J. S.; Kim, Y. J. [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    This study was carried out to analyze the distribution of age, sex, chief complaint, physical examination and findings of chest x-ray films before operation in 59 cases of peptic ulcer perforation. The ratio of male to female was 1.7 : 1 and incidence of the ulcer perforation was most common in 5th decades. Thirty five among 59 cases showed pleural effusion, segmental atelectasis and pneumonic infiltration on chest x-ray film. Twenty nine among 50 cases of duodenal ulcer perforation and 6 of 9 cases of stomach ulcer perforation showed positive chest x-ray findings. No relationship was found between fever and preoperative chest x-ray findings.

  8. Preoperative chest x-ray findings in peptic ulcer perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. H.; Kim, S. W.; Lim, J. S.; Kim, Y. J.

    1981-01-01

    This study was carried out to analyze the distribution of age, sex, chief complaint, physical examination and findings of chest x-ray films before operation in 59 cases of peptic ulcer perforation. The ratio of male to female was 1.7 : 1 and incidence of the ulcer perforation was most common in 5th decades. Thirty five among 59 cases showed pleural effusion, segmental atelectasis and pneumonic infiltration on chest x-ray film. Twenty nine among 50 cases of duodenal ulcer perforation and 6 of 9 cases of stomach ulcer perforation showed positive chest x-ray findings. No relationship was found between fever and preoperative chest x-ray findings

  9. Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chest x-ray shows adenocarcinoma of the lung. There is a rounded light spot in the right upper lung (left side ... density. Diseases that may cause this type of x-ray result would be tuberculous or fungal granuloma, and ...

  10. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes inflammation, the formation of tubercules and other growths within tissue, ... death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light areas (opacities) of varying ...

  11. OBLITERATION OF COSTOPHRENIC ANGTE IN A PLAIN X - RAY CHEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Obliteration of Costophrenicangle can be a pleural effusion in a majority of cases but other causes of mediastinal masses , aortic aneurysm , postpneumonectomy , lung and pleural masses and consolidation and collapse of the lung can cause shadows mimicking pleural effusion. It is always essential to take the help of later al and decubitus films , ultrasonography of chest and CT scan chest to come to a proper diagnosis. Inadvertent pleural aspiration basing on chest x - ray PA alone can have disastrous consequences

  12. 20 CFR 718.102 - Chest roentgenograms (X-rays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chest roentgenograms (X-rays). 718.102... roentgenograms (X-rays). (a) A chest roentgenogram (X-ray) shall be of suitable quality for proper classification...-rays as described in Appendix A. (b) A chest X-ray to establish the existence of pneumoconiosis shall...

  13. Chest X-ray of the neonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, S.; Hoermann, M.; Rand, T.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.; Ponhold, W.; Kuhle, S.; Rebhandl, W.

    2000-01-01

    In diagnostic imaging of thoracic pathologies in mature and especially immature neonates, chest X-ray has a leading position. Profound knowledge of the normal chest X-ray and the potential physiological perinatal changes is the basic requirement for interpretation of the X-ray of a neonate. Childhood pathologie: Many congenital and acquired diseases that the radiologist is faced with in neonatology are unknown in the imaging of adults. Many of these changes are life-threatening or may have an impact on the patient's future quality of life. Therefore, early diagnosis in close cooperation with the paediatrician is essential. We give here an overview of the most important pathologic changes that the radiologist may be confronted with in daily routine. (orig.) [de

  14. Why x-ray chests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.W.S.

    1979-06-01

    In order to assess the validity of screening chest radiography at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, the yield of occult major disease and its significance to the afflicted employees have been examined over a ten year period. The study suggests that the incidence rate of occult disease which in retrospect proved to have been of major or life-threatening importance to the afflicted employee approximates 1 per 1000 population per annum. Major benefit accrued only to about 1 in 3 of these employees, the remainder gaining little more than that which would have followed treatment had their diseases presented symptomatically. These results are considered in relation to the health surveillance needs of a population generally and selectively exposed to diverse health hazards within the nuclear industry. (auth)

  15. X-ray film calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, G.F.; Dittmore, C.H.; Henke, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of silver halide x-ray films for imaging and spectroscopy which is limited by the range of intensities that can be recorded and densitometered. Using the manufacturers processing techniques can result in 10 2-3 range in intensity recorded over 0-5 density range. By modifying the chemistry and processing times, ranges of 10 5-6 can be recorded in the same density range. The authors report on x-ray film calibration work and dynamic range improvements. Changes to the processing chemistry and the resulting changes in dynamic range and x-ray sensitivity are discussed

  16. X-ray filter for chest X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A description is given of an X-ray filter comprised of a sheet of radiation absorbing material with an opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. The upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter. This filter will permit an acceptable density level of x-ray exposure for the lungs while allowing a higher level of x-ray exposure for the mediastinum areas of the body. (author)

  17. X-ray filter for chest x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Filter for use in medical x-ray apparatus to permit higher intensity x-ray exposure in the heart and mediastinum area while maintaining a normal level of x-ray exposure in other areas of the body, particlarly in the lung area. The filter comprises a sheet of radiation absorbing material having an opening therein, said opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. Accordingly, the upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter

  18. Errors in chest x-ray interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woznitza, N.; Piper, K.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Reporting of adult chest x-rays by appropriately trained radiographers is frequently used in the United Kingdom as one method to maintain a patient focused radiology service in times of increasing workload. With models of advanced practice being developed in Australia, New Zealand and Canada, the spotlight is on the evidence base which underpins radiographer reporting. It is essential that any radiographer who extends their scope of practice to incorporate definitive clinical reporting perform at a level comparable to a consultant radiologist. In any analysis of performance it is important to quantify levels of sensitivity and specificity and to evaluate areas of error and variation. A critical review of the errors made by reporting radiographers in the interpretation of adult chest x-rays will be performed, examining performance in structured clinical examinations, clinical audit and a diagnostic accuracy study from research undertaken by the authors, and including studies which have compared the performance of reporting radiographers and consultant radiologists. overall performance will be examined and common errors discussed using a case based approach. Methods of error reduction, including multidisciplinary team meetings and ongoing learning will be considered

  19. Chest X ray effective doses estimation in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Esra Abdalrhman Dfaalla

    2013-06-01

    Conventional chest radiography is technically difficult because of wide in tissue attenuations in the chest and limitations of screen-film systems. Computed radiography (CR) offers a different approach utilizing a photostimulable phosphor. photostimulable phosphors overcome some image quality limitations of chest imaging. The objective of this study was to estimate the effective dose in computed radiography at three hospitals in Khartoum. This study has been conducted in radiography departments in three centres Advanced Diagnostic Center, Nilain Diagnostic Center, Modern Diagnostic Center. The entrance surface dose (ESD) measurement was conducted for quality control of x-ray machines and survey of operators experimental techniques. The ESDs were measured by UNFORS dosimeter and mathematical equations to estimate patient doses during chest X rays. A total of 120 patients were examined in three centres, among them 62 were males and 58 were females. The overall mean and range of patient dosed was 0.073±0.037 (0.014-0.16) mGy per procedure while the effective dose was 3.4±01.7 (0.6-7.0) mSv per procedure. This study compared radiation doses to patients radiographic examinations of chest using computed radiology. The radiation dose was measured in three centres in Khartoum- Sudan. The results of the measured effective dose showed that the dose in chest radiography was lower in computed radiography compared to previous studies.(Author)

  20. The forgotten view: Chest X-ray - Lateral view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M. Ittyachen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With CT (computed tomography chest gaining more importance as a diagnostic tool, chest X-ray especially the lateral view is taken less commonly nowadays. Besides CT chest is also proven to be superior to chest X-ray in patients with major blunt trauma. We are presenting a 68-year old male who was partially treated from outside for a left sided pneumonia. He came to our hospital because of persisting chest pain. Chest X-ray, frontal view (postero-anterior was almost normal except for a mild opacity in the left lower zone. CT scan of the chest revealed a fluid collection posteriorly enclosed within enhancing pleura. Chest X-ray, left lateral view showed a corresponding posterior pleural based opacity. We are presenting this case to highlight the importance of the lateral view of the chest X-ray. In selected cases there is still a role for the lateral view. With the three dimensional visualization provided by the CT, the lateral view of the chest may be easier to understand. Consequent to the initial diagnosis by CT further follow up can be done with the chest X-ray. In a limited way this mitigates unnecessary expenditure and more importantly prevents the patient from exposure to harmful radiation in the form of repeated CT.

  1. Clinical assessment compared with chest X-Ray after removal of chest tube to diagnose pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, F. A.; Noor, Q. U. H.; Mehmood, U.; Imtiaz, T.; Zafar, U.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical judgment in ruling out pneumothorax during the removal of the chest tube by auscultating the chest before removal and after the extubation of the chest tube in comparison to x ray radiological results. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Lahore Pakistan, from August 2015 to March 2016. Material and Methods: A sample size of 100 was calculated. Patients were selected via non probability purposive sampling. Children under 14 years were not included. The patients with mal-positioned chest tube, surgical site infection, air leak and the patients with more than one chest tube on one side were excluded. A proforma was made and filled by one person. Chest tubes were removed by two trained senior registrars according to a protocol devised. It was ensured that there was no air leak present before removal clinically and radiologically. Another chest x-ray was done within 24 hours of extubation to detect any pathology that might have occurred during the process. Any complication in the patient clinically was observed till the x-ray film became available. Two sets of readings were obtained. Set A included auscultation findings and set B included x ray results. Results: Out of 100 patients, 60 (60 percent) were males and 40 (40 percent) females. The ages of the patients ranged between 17-77 years. Mean age of the patient was 43.27 ± 17.05 years. In set A out of 100 (100 percent) no pneumothorax developed clinically. In set B out of 100 patients 99 (99 percent) showed no pneumothorax on chest x ray, only 1 (1 percent) showed pneumothorax which was not significant (less than 15 percent on X ray). However, the patient remained asymptomatic clinically and there was no need of reinsertion of the chest tube. Conclusion: Auscultatory findings in diagnosing a significant pneumothorax are justified. Hence, if the chest tube is removed according to the protocol, clinically by

  2. X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Improvements are described in an X-ray spot film device which is used in conjunction with an X-ray table to make a selected number of radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. To date, the spot film devices consist of two X-ray field defining masks, one of which is moved manually. The present device is more convenient to use and speeds up the procedure. (U.K.)

  3. X-ray face mask and chest shield device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moti, S.

    1981-01-01

    A protective face mask is designed to shield an x-ray technician or machine operator primarily from random secondary or scatter x-rays deflected towards his face, head and neck by the table, walls, equipment and other reflecting elements in an x-ray room or chamber. The face mask and chest shield device can be mounted on a patient's shoulders in reverse attitude to protect the back of a patient's head and neck from the x-ray beam. The face mask is relatively or substantially transparent and contains lead in combination with a plastic ionomer or comonomer, which to a degree absorbs or resists penetration of the random deflected secondary or scatter x-rays or the x-ray beam through the mask. The face mask is removably attachable to the chest shield for easy application of the device to and support upon the shoulders of the technician or the patient. (author)

  4. Routine chest X-ray in the allergy clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Barredo, M.R.; Usamentiaga, E.; Fidalgo, I.

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether routine chest X-ray is indicated in allergy patients when there is no evidence of cardiopulmonary involvement. A retrospective study to analyze the indications and radiologic findings in 515 consecutive patients who underwent chest X-ray: Positive findings were considered to be any radiological sing that led to the performance of additional diagnostic measures or a change in the therapeutic management of the patient. Positive radiologic findings were observed in 39 cases (7.59%). Only two patients (0.38%) were diagnosed as having diseases that were susceptible to proper treatment. In one of them (0.19%), the failure to perform chest X-ray would have impeded the introduction of proper treatment. We do not recommend carrying out routine chest X-ray in this patient population. (Author) 7 refs

  5. Quality criteria for chest X-ray image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1985-01-01

    A distinction has to be made between invariable and variable criteria in the determination of chest X-ray picture quality criteria. The invariable criteria are defined by the properties of the object and the psychophysiological laws of perception and cognition, and the variable criteria are determined by the prevailing state of the art of technology. An agreement on these criteria is based on the knowledge of the nature and the technical conditions of X-ray picture production and reproduction. The slogan 'the best picture at the lowest dose' dominates, too, the discussion centering around the X-ray picture of the chest, its quality and criteria. (orig./MG) [de

  6. A survey of chest medical X-ray doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomba, M.; Conha, P.G. da; Almeida, C.E. de

    1996-01-01

    The medical X-ray exposures due to radiological examinations are responsible for the largest contribution to the population collective dose as result of the normal use of artificial sources of radiation. The relative impact of the medical exposures to the total dose received by the population from all kinds of radiation sources varies from country to country and in some cases within the same country. The dose variations observed for a specific type of examination are in general associated to several factors i.e. the type of film-ecran combination, the choice of the appropriate physical parameters of the X-ray generator (Kvp, filament current, exposure time) and finally to the film processing conditions. At the present moment the data available in Brazil are scarce and scanty to allow a complete analyzis of this question so needed by the health authorities to justify the implementation of a quality assurance and dose reduction programs. In addition, it is desirable to establish a cost effective operation based on simple administrative concepts in order to reduce the number of films retake, then increasing the life expectancy of the equipment and the number of radiological procedures. The aim of this work was to assess the typical doses of an PA and LAT chest wall X-ray examinations in five different public hospitals (a University Hospital, a Cancer Hospital, a Navy Hospital, an Emergency Hospital and a State General Hospital), as representative of the city of Rio de Janeiro, and compare the results with the international data and recommendations available. (author)

  7. Chest X ray examination of workers exposed to pneumoconiosis risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indovina, P.L.; Reggiani, A.; Calicchia, A.; Nicolosi, A.

    1986-01-01

    Chest X-ray examination of workers exposed to pneumoconiosis risk: critical analysis of legal and radiation protection aspects. Chest X-ray examination is one of the most common radiological examinations practised in Italy. According to Presidential Decree 1124/65, workers exposed to risk of asbestosis and silicosis must undergo a chest radiography once a year, on occasion of the periodic medical examination. Basic requirements aimed at the radiation protection of the patient must therefore be complied with, and optimization of the chest radiography execution procedures is required. This paper illustrates the results obtained with the implementation of the NEXT programme in Italy for this kind of X-ray examination. The main objective of the NEXT programme is the optimization of radiological techniques. On the basis of the most recent publications in the field of radiation protection, a critical analysis is made of the laws in force in Italy

  8. Measurement of Heart size by mass chest X-ray in Medical students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wai, Khin San; Mon, Khin Aye [Department of Physiology, Institute of Medicine, Mandalay (Myanmar)

    1971-07-01

    Mass miniature P-A view chest X-ray films of 83 students were taken at the TB clinic and were used for measuring the heart size. Measurements taken on 70 mm film were changed to the equivalent values for standard 6 foot chest films, by multiplying with a factor 5.23 which is the ratio between 70 mm mass miniature X-ray film and 6 foot chest film. Frontal cardiac area was also calculated. The mean heart diameters and frontal cardiac area for 54 male students were transverse diameter-11.30 cm, length-11.98 cm, breadth-10.32 cm, frontal area-106.50 sq cm and aortic diameter-5.31 cm. Those for 28 female students were:transverse diameter-10.27 cm, length-11.56, breadth-9.45 cm, frontal area-88.70 sq cm and aortic diameter-4.75 cm.

  9. Measurement of Heart size by mass chest X-ray in Medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin San Wai; Khin Aye Mon

    1971-01-01

    Mass miniature P-A view chest X-ray films of 83 students were taken at the TB clinic and were used for measuring the heart size. Measurements taken on 70 mm film were changed to the equivalent values for standard 6 foot chest films, by multiplying with a factor 5.23 which is the ratio between 70 mm mass miniature X-ray film and 6 foot chest film. Frontal cardiac area was also calculated. The mean heart diameters and frontal cardiac area for 54 male students were transverse diameter-11.30 cm, length-11.98 cm, breadth-10.32 cm, frontal area-106.50 sq cm and aortic diameter-5.31 cm. Those for 28 female students were:transverse diameter-10.27 cm, length-11.56, breadth-9.45 cm, frontal area-88.70 sq cm and aortic diameter-4.75 cm

  10. Poor interpretation of chest X-rays by junior doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Janus Mølgaard; Gerke, Oke; Karstoft, Jens

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies targeting medical students and junior doctors have shown that their radiological skills are insufficient. Despite the widespread use of chest X-ray; however, a study of Danish junior doctors' skills has not previously been performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 22...

  11. Incidental findings in chest X-rays; Zufallsbefunde im Roentgenthorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielpuetz, M.O.; Kauczor, H.U. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaet Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Deutsches Zentrum fuer Lungenforschung (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie mit Nuklearmedizin, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Weckbach, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaet Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Deutsches Zentrum fuer Lungenforschung (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Conventional projection radiography (chest x-ray) is one of the most frequently requested procedures in radiology. Even though chest x-ray imaging is frequently performed in asymptomatic patients for preoperative assessment, clinically relevant incidental findings are relatively scarce. This is due to the relatively low sensitivity of chest x-rays where few clinically relevant incidental findings are to be expected, as any detectable pathologies will as a rule already be clinically symptomatic. Recommendations from relevant societies for the management of incidental findings, apart from the clarification of incidental nodules, do not exist. This review article therefore describes the most frequent and typical incidental findings of lung parenchyma (apart from pulmonary nodules), mediastinal structures including the hilum of the lungs, pleura, chest wall and major vessels. Also described are those findings which can be diagnosed with sufficient certainty from chest x-rays so that further clarification is not necessary and those which must be further clarified by multislice imaging procedures or other techniques. (orig.) [German] Eine der haeufigsten Untersuchungen in der Radiologie ist die konventionelle Projektionsradiographie des Thorax (Roentgenthorax). Auch wenn projektionsradiographische Aufnahmen im Rahmen einer praeoperativen Abklaerung haeufig als orientierende Untersuchung angefertigt werden, sind - bedingt durch die relativ geringe Sensitivitaet des Roentgenthorax - wenig klinisch relevante Zufallsbefunde zu erwarten, da nachweisbare Pathologien in der Regel bereits auch klinisch apparent sind. Empfehlungen entsprechender Fachgesellschaften zu Zufallsbefunden im Roentgenthorax jenseits der Abklaerung von Rundherden liegen nicht vor. Die vorliegende Arbeit beleuchtet daher haeufige und typische Zufallsbefunde des Lungenparenchyms (ausser den Lungenrundherden), der mediastinalen Strukturen einschliesslich der Hili, der Pleura, der Thoraxwand sowie der

  12. Effective high voltage at X-ray tube in hard X-ray chest imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.

    1987-01-01

    The FRG standard TGL 36 661 (March 1980) for synoptical chest pictures of large size in adults specifies the 120 kV voltage at the X-ray tube together with maximal, 100% use of the capacity of the tube (hard picture, short exposure time). By means of circular recording and by measuring the high voltage at the X-ray tube it was quantitatively shown that the effective voltage during exposure is (according to the exposure time and the attenuation phase of the generator) always lower than the set-up voltage of 120 kV. This phenomenon is the more marked the shorter the actual exposure time in comparison with the attenuation phase of the generator. The typical characteristic of a hard X-ray chest picture is thus not given only by the setting-up of voltage. The impact of the reduction in voltage is thus quantitatively shown also from the aspect of the radiation burden for the patient. (author). 7 figs., 8 refs

  13. Chest x-ray screening practices: an annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torchia, M.; DuChez, J.

    1980-03-01

    This annotated bibliography is a review of the scientific literature on the selection of asymptomatic patients for chest x-ray screening examinations. Selected articles cover a period of time from 1969 through 1979. The articles are organized under 10 main topics which correspond to various categories of chest x-ray screening examinations performed in the United States today. Within each main topic, the articles are presented in chronological order. To aid the reader in identifying specific citations, an author index and a list of citations by journal have been included for user reference. The standard format for each citation includes the title of each article, the author(s), journal, volume, page, date, and abstract

  14. X-ray film spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Trelles, F.; Caputo, M.C. (Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Lab. de Fisica del Plasma; Ministerio de Defensa, Buenos Aires (Argentina). DIGID)

    1982-02-15

    A multi-pinhole camera using film as a detector is described. Separation of variables in the master-curve sense leads to integral exposure equations which are solved by regularization. A filter-selection method is used to maximize the information content of a given set of measurements. Numerical simulation examples of the unfolding procedure are shown and the inversion error is evaluated. The essential role of absorption edges of filters and detectors for increasing the information content is emphasized and the method is compared with other absorption-edge techniques. A discussion of the present limitations of the method is given.

  15. Chest x-ray in Q-fever pneumonia: a series of 71 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encinas, B.; Cerezal, L.F.; Fidalgo, I.; Bustamente, M.; Lopez Calderon, M.

    1995-01-01

    Chest X ray features of 71 cases of Q-fever serologically confirmed and with clinical manifestations of acute respiratory disease were retrospectively assessed in order to evaluate the radiographic features. In 68 cases (96%) The X-ray films were abnormal. Segmental consolidation, sometimes multiple and bilateral were tue most usual findings. Nodular opacities were found in 6 cases (9%) and can mimic a tumor. Cavitacion , a very unusual findings, was found in two nodular consolidations(two patients). Laminar atelectasis was less common than proviously reported. As in other series, total resolution or with minimal scars occurs within 3 months 15 refs

  16. Does a chest x-ray alter the management of new patients attending a geriatric day hospital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J A; Vallance, R; Williams, B O; Paul, H

    1997-01-01

    Studies have suggested that routine chest x-ray is never indicated but all new attenders at our day hospitals have a chest x-ray carried out. Our aim was to determine if this investigation altered the clinical management of patients and to try to select those patients in whom a chest x-ray is indicated. A prospective study was carried out over a 7 month period from February to September 1995. All new patients had cardiorespiratory symptoms/signs documented and a management plan made. A chest x-ray was then carried out and change in management as a result of the x-ray report noted. Knightswood and Drumchapel Geriatric Day Hospitals, West Glasgow University NHS Trust. All new Day Hospital attenders. Of 207 new Day Hospital attenders, 53 had no clinical indication for a chest x-ray and although 70% had an abnormal film in no case was patient management changed as a result of this. A chest x-ray was indicated in 154 patients and of these 114 (74%) had an abnormal film with a resultant change in management in 23 patients (this comprised either a change in drug treatment or a further investigation.) Of those whose management was changed as a result of the x-ray report 61% had respiratory symptoms. We would recommend that chest x-ray should be performed in those patients who have a clear clinical indication and that the diagnostic yield is highest in the presence of respiratory symptoms or signs.

  17. Comparative Effectiveness of a Mnemonic-Use Approach vs. Self-Study to Interpret a Lateral Chest X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Johansen, Dallin; Stoner, Russell; Jarsted, Allison; Sorrells, Robert; McCarroll, Michele L.; Justice, Wade

    2017-01-01

    The chest X-ray is the most commonly performed medical imaging study; however, the lateral chest film intimidates many physicians and medical students. The lateral view is more difficult to interpret than the frontal view but provides important information that is either not visible or not as evident on frontal view, and inability to read it may…

  18. Radiation exposure to chest X-rays in the neonatal nursery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Toshio; Itabashi, Kazuo; Kawaguchi, Shigeru; Suzuka, Takahisa; Okuyama, Kazuo

    1989-01-01

    To measure how much very low birth-weight infants are exposed to chest X-rays during nursery, skin doses were calculated using phantoms under the same condition as that used in chest X-rays. Skin doses obtained were multiplied by the number of X-rays performed in 86 very low birth-weight infants (mean birth weight+-SD, 1163.0+-232.8 g; mean gestational age+-SD, 29.3+-3.0 week). Exposure doses per film ranged from 4.9 to 14.4 mR, with a mean dose of 6.1+-2.0 mR. Exposure doses per neonate ranged from 6.3 to 794.3 mR, with a mean dose of 170.4+-151.5 mR. The number of films per neonate ranged from one to 107, with a mean of 28.0+-24.9. Eighty-seven percent of X-rays were performed when the body weight was 1,500 g or less. Fourteen patients received 300 mR or more that may be the potential dose of radiation effects. (Namekawa, K)

  19. Thin Films for X-ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Raymond

    Focusing x-rays with refraction requires an entire array of lens instead of a single element, each contributing a minute amount of focusing to the system. In contrast to their visible light counterparts, diffractive optics require a certain depth along the optical axis in order to provide sufficient phase shift. Mirrors reflect only at very shallow angles. In order to increase the angle of incidence, contribution from constructive interference within many layers needs to be collected. This requires a multilayer coating. Thin films have become a central ingredient for many x-ray optics due to the ease of which material composition and thickness can be controlled. Chapter 1 starts with a short introduction and survey of the field of x-ray optics. This begins with an explanation of reflective multilayers. Focusing optics are presented next, including mirrors, zone plates, refractive lenses, and multilayer Laue lens (MLL). The strengths and weaknesses of each "species" of optic are briefly discussed, alongside fabrication issues and the ultimate performance for each. Practical considerations on the use of thin-films for x-ray optics fabrication span a wide array of topics including material systems selection and instrumentation design. Sputter deposition is utilized exclusively for the work included herein because this method of thin-film deposition allows a wide array of deposition parameters to be controlled. This chapter also includes a short description of two deposition systems I have designed. Chapter 2 covers a small sampling of some of my work on reflective multilayers, and outlines two of the deposition systems I have designed and built at the Advanced Photon Source. A three-stripe double multilayer monochromator is presented as a case study in order to detail specifications, fabrication, and performance of this prolific breed of x-ray optics. The APS Rotary Deposition System was the first deposition system in the world designed specifically for multilayer

  20. Improving of chest x-ray picture to state typical symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnakarkle, S.; Glazs, A.; Kadakovska, E.; Markovics, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Improving of quality of chest x-rays imagings to state plain films peculiarities of such lung diseases as tuberculosis and tumor is presented in this article. It is necessary to increase the confidence of physician in the diagnoses. The characteristics symptoms - size, shape, contours and margins definition of shadows and shift of trachea or mediastinum are hardly detected generally, more over in the cases when quality of pictures is bad. The computer, HP ScanJet 5370 scanner with transparency adapter and software Adobe Photoshop 6.0 were used. The scanning of plain film and developing of raster image file were done. Adobe Photoshop were used to improve the quality of x-rays imaging. It allows to state fluffy, smooth, radiate, wrinkled margins of shadows and in such way to differentiate above lung diseases. Ten unrelated plain films - tuberculosis and tumor were processed in our study and it demonstrates effectiveness of applied algorithm. (authors)

  1. Automatic film loader for X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A light tight tunnel extends over the top of a diagnostic X-ray table. A film cassette is mounted for reciprocating in the tunnel between an X-ray exposure position and a position in which the cassette is unloaded or loaded with film automatically. Unexposed films are dispensed one at a time into the cassette from a feed magazine at one end of the tunnel. After exposure, the film is ejected from the cassette into a receiving magazine at the same end of the tunnel. (Auth.)

  2. Diagnostic value of chest ultrasound after cardiac surgery: a comparison with chest X-ray and auscultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzani, Antonella; Manca, Tullio; Brusasco, Claudia; Santori, Gregorio; Valentino, Massimo; Nicolini, Francesco; Molardi, Alberto; Gherli, Tiziano; Corradi, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    Chest auscultation and chest x-ray commonly are used to detect postoperative abnormalities and complications in patients admitted to intensive care after cardiac surgery. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether chest ultrasound represents an effective alternative to bedside chest x-ray to identify early postoperative abnormalities. Diagnostic accuracy of chest auscultation and chest ultrasound were compared in identifying individual abnormalities detected by chest x-ray, considered the reference method. Cardiac surgery intensive care unit. One hundred fifty-one consecutive adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. All patients included were studied by chest auscultation, ultrasound, and x-ray upon admission to intensive care after cardiac surgery. Six lung pathologic changes and endotracheal tube malposition were found. There was a highly significant correlation between abnormalities detected by chest ultrasound and x-ray (k = 0.90), but a poor correlation between chest auscultation and x-ray abnormalities (k = 0.15). Chest auscultation may help identify endotracheal tube misplacement and tension pneumothorax but it may miss most major abnormalities. Chest ultrasound represents a valid alternative to chest x-ray to detect most postoperative abnormalities and misplacements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Are routine repeat chest x-rays before leaving the trauma room useful?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmers, M.; Saltzherr, T. P.; Beenen, L. F. M.; Ponsen, K. J.; Goslings, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Several guidelines advocate multiple chest x-rays during primary resuscitation of trauma patients. Some local hospital protocols include a repeat x-ray before leaving the trauma resuscitation room (TR). The purpose of this study was to determine the value of routine repeat x-rays. One-year data of

  4. Understanding Nickel Thin Film crystallization using X-Ray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microstructures of these Ni films were studied using X-ray diffractometry technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns depicted 100% and 42% relative intensity (RI) peaks identified for normal and helical deposited Ni films but none for the zigzag deposited Ni film. Higher degree of crystallinity of Ni was demonstrated ...

  5. Chest X-ray patterns of pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-18

    Mar 18, 2016 ... On evaluation of the chest X-ray patterns, 22 children (48.9%) had ≥2 findings on the chest X-ray, and 10 (22.2%) had no. †, World Health Organization. WHO case definitions of HIV for surveillance and revised clinical staging and immunological classification of HIV-related disease in adults and children.

  6. Is Routine Preoperative Chest X-ray Indicated in Elderly Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In our hospital pre-operative chest x-ray (CXR) are routinely requested without prior establishment of any medical indication for patients of 70 or more years of age who are undergoing elective surgery. The aim of this study was to determine if routine preoperative chest x-rays are justifiably indicated for elderly ...

  7. Assessment of irradiation of children certain organs resulted from X-ray chest examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostenetskij, M.I.; Sukhomlina, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    Specific absorbed doses were studied for cerfain critical organs due to X-ray chest examination of children. Dosimetric investigations were conducted using water-plexiglas phantom, imitating the body of 12 year old child. The error of measurements doesn't exceed +-3%, the low reshold of sensitivity equals 0.005 r/min. RUM-20 apparatus was used as an X-ray source. It was established that specific absorbed doses for lungs, as well as for mammary abd thyroid glands were the maximum ones under direct radiation. Doses for gonads are hundred times less, than those for lungs. It is recommended to shield both gonads and thyroid gland. Data on dose equivalents testify to the fact that to decrease the summary dose equivalent it is necessary to use the minimum radiation fields, decreasing voltage and exposition abd increasing source-surface distance with regard to the maximum information of the film image

  8. Lung boundary detection in pediatric chest x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candemir, Sema; Antani, Sameer; Jaeger, Stefan; Browning, Renee; Thoma, George R.

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem worldwide, and highly prevalent in developing countries. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over 95% of TB deaths occur in low- and middle- income countries that often have under-resourced health care systems. In an effort to aid population screening in such resource challenged settings, the U.S. National Library of Medicine has developed a chest X-ray (CXR) screening system that provides a pre-decision on pulmonary abnormalities. When the system is presented with a digital CXR image from the Picture Archive and Communication Systems (PACS) or an imaging source, it automatically identifies the lung regions in the image, extracts image features, and classifies the image as normal or abnormal using trained machine-learning algorithms. The system has been trained on adult CXR images, and this article presents enhancements toward including pediatric CXR images. Our adult lung boundary detection algorithm is model-based. We note the lung shape differences during pediatric developmental stages, and adulthood, and propose building new lung models suitable for pediatric developmental stages. In this study, we quantify changes in lung shape from infancy to adulthood toward enhancing our lung segmentation algorithm. Our initial findings suggest pediatric age groupings of 0 - 23 months, 2 - 10 years, and 11 - 18 years. We present justification for our groupings. We report on the quality of boundary detection algorithm with the pediatric lung models.

  9. Chest x-ray findings of opportunistic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yul; Jeon, Suk Chul; Lim, Jeong Ki; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1983-01-01

    The chest x-ray findings of 20 cases of pulmonary opportunistic infection were analyzed according to causative agents. The results were as follows: 1. Final diagnoses of 20 cases of opportunistic infections were tuberculosis in 6 cases, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in 5 cases, bacterial infection in 7 cases, and fungal infection in 2 cases. 2. The underlying diseases were leukemia in 6 cases, kidney transplantation in 6 cases, lymphoma in 3 cases, nephrotic syndrome in 1 case, nasopharyngeal cancer in 1 case, multiple myeloma in 1 case, agranulocytosis in 1 case, and hypogammaglobulinemia in 1 case. 3. In tuberculosis, all the 6 cases showed severe manifestations such as military tuberculosis, tuberculous pneumonia, moderately advanced tuberculosis and tuberculous pericarditis. 4. In pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the most frequent findings were bilateral alveolar densities and peripheral field of the lung was saved in most cases. 5. In 2 cases of fungal infections bilateral multiple cavity nodules were noted. 6. In cases of bacterial infection there was more cases of gram negative infection than gram positive and 2 cases of pseudomonas revealed bilateral multiple cavitary nodules

  10. Limitations of retarded (bisulfite) x-ray film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoering, J.P.; Dittmore, C.

    1979-01-01

    We demonstrate the limitations of using retarded (bisulfite) developer to abate film sensitivity of x-ray films that have been exposed to intense radiation. We compared the measured densities of a large number of Kodak Type-M x-ray film samples exposed to a known fluence of monochromatic x-rays. These film samples were processed in three separate batches of bisulfite developer mixed in the same proportions. We concluded that reproducible film-density information cannot be obtained using different batches of (bisulfite) developer solutions

  11. Extrapleural hematoma as an unexpected finding on a follow-up chest X-ray after coronary surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konen, O.; Hertz, M.; Klein, H.O.; Konen, E.; Zissin, R.

    2002-01-01

    We present two cases of an extrapleural hematoma, on a follow-up chest X-ray after coronary artery bypass surgery using an internal mammary artery (IMA). In both cases, the finding was disclosed on a routine chest film obtained 1 month post-operatively, in a patient who was either asymptomatic or had nonspecific symptoms. Follow-up chest films showed spontaneous resolution in both patients. We emphasize the recognition and significance of such a self-limited post-operative radiological finding

  12. A study on the digital image transfer application mass chest X-ray system up-grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Chil; Park, Jong Sam; Lee, Jon Il

    2003-01-01

    By converting movable indirect mass chest X-ray devices for vehicles into digital systems and upgrading it to share information with the hospital's medical image information system, excellencies have been confirmed as a result of installing and running this type of system and are listed hereinafter. Upgrading analog systems, such as indirect mass chest X-ray devices dependent on printed film, to digital systems allows them to be run and managed much more efficiently, contributing to the increase in the stability and the efficiency of the system. Unlike existing images, communication based on DICOM standards allow images to be compatible with the hospital's outer and inner network PACS systems, extending the scope of the radiation departments information system. Assuming chest-exclusive indirect mass chest X-rays, a linked development of CAD (Computer Aided Diagnosis, Detector) becomes possible. By applying wireless Internet, Web-PACS for movable indirect mass chest X-ray devices for vehicles will become possible. Research in these fields must continue and if the superior image quality and convenience of digital systems are confirmed, I believe that the conversion of systems still dependent on analog images to modernized digital systems is a must

  13. Accuracy of the diagnosis of pleural effusion on supine chest X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emamian, S.A.; Kaasboel, M.A.; Olsen, J.F.; Pedersen, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Diagnosis of pleural effusion (PE) on supine chest X-ray (SCXR) is considered difficult. This study aimed at evaluating the accuracy of the diagnosis of PE on SCXR and was performed in two phases. At phase 1, a formula for the sonographic estimation of the volume of PE was established by correlating 24 measurements (in 7 patients in whom complete drainage was achieved) with the drained volumes. At phase two, 112 consecutive SCXRs were supplemented by sonography of the chest. The films were evaluated for the presence of PE and for the presence of different radiologic signs of PE. Sonography showed PE in 41 right and 30 left hemithoraces. The overall accuracy of the diagnosis of PE on SCXR was 82 %. Only one of the undiagnosed PEs had a volume of > 300 ml. The most accurate signs were increased density of the hemithorax, blunted costophrenic angle, and loss of the hemidiaphragm silhouette. (orig.). With 2 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Thin film soft X-ray absorption filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stattin, H.

    1992-11-01

    This report discusses the composition, reparation and performance of soft x-ray transmission filters for a water window soft x-ray microscope. Unbacked thin films of aluminum, silver and vanadium/aluminum were made by evaporation on a substrate from which they were released. Measured transmittances agree reasonably well with calculations. The report also includes some related theory and discussions about film preparation methods, film contamination and evaluation methods. 33 refs

  15. Accuracy of portable chest X-ray film in detection of intrathoracic abnormal findings in patients after esophagectomy in comparison with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Muneaki; Takeda, Junzo; Ochiai, Ryoichi; Fukushima, Kazuaki; Kouda, Eiichi

    1992-01-01

    To determine an accuracy of portable chest radiographs (CXR) in the diagnosis of pneumothorax, consolidation, passive collapse, subsegmental atelectasis, left and right pleural effusion, findings of 35 pairs of chest CT (CT) and CXR were compared in 21 patients after esophagectomy. The presence of abnormal findings on CXR and CT was evaluated separately by radiologists. Assuming that the diagnoses through CT were correct, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for CXR were examined in each of 6 abnormal findings. Comparison of CT findings with those of CXR resulted in the following sensitivities (SN) and specificities (SP): pneumothorax: SN=0.17, SP=1.0; consolidation: SN=0.82, SP=1.0; passive collapse: SN=0.83, SP=0.58; subsegmental atelectasis: SN=0.61, SP=1.0; left pleural effusion: SN=0.79, SP=0.29; right pleural effusion: SN=0.9, SP=0.8. These results demonstrated that CXR might miss pneumothorax and overestimate left pleural effusion. Positive predictive value was over 0.79 in each of 6 abnormal findings, which indicated an accuracy of abnormal findings seen on CXR was high. However, negative predictive value in left pleural effusion, which was 0.25, indicated difficulty in correct estimation of left pleural effusion. (author)

  16. The abnormal chest X-ray – when to refer to a specialis t

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... Radiological changes on a chest X-ray are an indication of pul- monary pathology or ..... sign. Enlarged lymph nodes and hilar tumours are lobulated with clear lateral and inferior borders. .... Single Suture. Grumpy old men.

  17. The abnormal chest X-ray – when to refer to a specialis t

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... Radiological changes on a chest X-ray are an indication of pul- monary pathology or ... NB: Refer all cases of collapse for further investigation. Radiographic signs of lobar .... with areas of confluence producing consolidation.

  18. Ultrasound detection of pneumothorax compared with chest X-ray and computed tomography scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarsheth, Khanjan; Kurek, Stanley

    2011-04-01

    Pneumothorax after trauma can be a life threatening injury and its care requires expeditious and accurate diagnosis and possible intervention. We performed a prospective, single blinded study with convenience sampling at a Level I trauma center comparing thoracic ultrasound with chest X-ray and CT scan in the detection of traumatic pneumothorax. Trauma patients that received a thoracic ultrasound, chest X-ray, and chest CT scan were included in the study. The chest X-rays were read by a radiologist who was blinded to the thoracic ultrasound results. Then both were compared with CT scan results. One hundred and twenty-five patients had a thoracic ultrasound performed in the 24-month period. Forty-six patients were excluded from the study due to lack of either a chest X-ray or chest CT scan. Of the remaining 79 patients there were 22 positive pneumothorax found by CT and of those 18 (82%) were found on ultrasound and 7 (32%) were found on chest X-ray. The sensitivity of thoracic ultrasound was found to be 81.8 per cent and the specificity was found to be 100 per cent. The sensitivity of chest X-ray was found to be 31.8 per cent and again the specificity was found to be 100 per cent. The negative predictive value of thoracic ultrasound for pneumothorax was 0.934 and the negative predictive value for chest X-ray for pneumothorax was found to be 0.792. We advocate the use of chest ultrasound for detection of pneumothorax in trauma patients.

  19. Thin film characterisation by advanced X-ray diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappuccio, G.; Terranova, M.L.

    1996-09-01

    The Fifth School on X-ray diffraction from polycrystalline materials was devoted to thin film characterization by advanced X-ray diffraction techniques. Twenty contributions are contained in this volume; all twenty are recorded in the INIS Database. X-ray diffraction is known to be a powerful analytical tool for characterizing materials and understanding their structural features. The aim of these articles is to illustrate the fundamental contribution of modern diffraction techniques (grazing incidence, surface analysis, standing waves, etc.) to the characterization of thin and ultra-thin films, which have become important in many advanced technologies

  20. Reproducible positioning in chest X-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A device is described that can be used to ensure reproducibility in the positioning of the patient during X-ray radiography of the thorax. Signals are taken from an electrocardiographic monitor and from a device recording the respiratory cycle. Radiography is performed only when two preselected signals coincide

  1. X-ray film cassette and method of making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An x-ray film cassette which is capable of providing forces on the film that vary across the surface of the cassette is described. Methods of manufacture are discussed. The system is of particular use when large area films are used in conjunction with intensifying screens. (U.K.)

  2. Impact of X-ray irradiation on PMMA thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Saman, E-mail: saman.khan343@gmail.com [Physics Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Rafique, Muhammad Shahid [Physics Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Anjum, Safia [Physics Department, Lahore College for Woman University, Lahore (Pakistan); Hayat, Asma [Physics Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Iqbal, Nida [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) (Malaysia)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PMMA thin films were deposited at 300 Degree-Sign C and 500 Degree-Sign C using PLD technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These films were irradiated with different fluence of laser produced X-rays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation affects the ordered packing as well as surface morphology of film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardness of film decreases up to certain value of X-ray fluence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorption in UV-visible range exhibits a non linear behavior. - Abstract: The objective of this project is to explore the effect of X-ray irradiation of thin polymeric films deposited at various substrate temperatures. pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is used for the deposition of PMMA thin films on glass substrate at 300 Degree-Sign C and 500 Degree-Sign C. These films have been irradiated with various X-rays fluences ranging from 2.56 to 5.76 mJ cm{sup -2}. Characterization of the films (before and after the irradiation) is done with help of X-ray Diffractrometer, Optical Microscope, Vickers hardness tester and UV-vis spectroscopy techniques. From XRD data, it is revealed that ordered packing has been improved for the films deposited at 300 Degree-Sign C. However after irradiation the films exhibited the amorphous behavior regardless of the X-ray fluence. Film deposited at 500 Degree-Sign C shows amorphous structure before and after irradiation. Hardness and particle size of thin film have also increased with the increasing substrate temperature. However, the irradiation has reverse effect i.e. the particle size as well as the hardness has reduced. Irradiation has also enhanced the absorption in the UV-visible region.

  3. Impact of X-ray irradiation on PMMA thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Saman; Rafique, Muhammad Shahid; Anjum, Safia; Hayat, Asma; Iqbal, Nida

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PMMA thin films were deposited at 300 °C and 500 °C using PLD technique. ► These films were irradiated with different fluence of laser produced X-rays. ► Irradiation affects the ordered packing as well as surface morphology of film. ► Hardness of film decreases up to certain value of X-ray fluence. ► Absorption in UV–visible range exhibits a non linear behavior. - Abstract: The objective of this project is to explore the effect of X-ray irradiation of thin polymeric films deposited at various substrate temperatures. pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is used for the deposition of PMMA thin films on glass substrate at 300 °C and 500 °C. These films have been irradiated with various X-rays fluences ranging from 2.56 to 5.76 mJ cm −2 . Characterization of the films (before and after the irradiation) is done with help of X-ray Diffractrometer, Optical Microscope, Vickers hardness tester and UV–vis spectroscopy techniques. From XRD data, it is revealed that ordered packing has been improved for the films deposited at 300 °C. However after irradiation the films exhibited the amorphous behavior regardless of the X-ray fluence. Film deposited at 500 °C shows amorphous structure before and after irradiation. Hardness and particle size of thin film have also increased with the increasing substrate temperature. However, the irradiation has reverse effect i.e. the particle size as well as the hardness has reduced. Irradiation has also enhanced the absorption in the UV–visible region.

  4. Determination of chest x-ray cost using activity based costing approach at Penang General Hospital, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Muhammad; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Saleem, Fahad; Ahmad, Nafees

    2012-01-01

    Activity based costing (ABC) is an approach to get insight of true costs and to solve accounting problems. It provides more accurate information on product cost than conventional accounting system. The purpose of this study was to identify detailed resource consumption for chest x-ray procedure. Human resource cost was calculated by multiplying the mean time spent by employees doing specific activity to their per-minute salaries. The costs of consumables and clinical equipments were obtained from the procurement section of the Radiology Department. The cost of the building was calculated by multiplying the area of space used by the chest X-ray facility with the unit cost of public building department. Moreover, straight-line deprecation with a discount rate of 3% was assumed for calculation of equivalent annual costs for building and machines. Cost of electricity was calculated by multiplying number of kilo watts used by electrical appliance in the year 2010 with electricity tariff for Malaysian commercial consumers (MYR 0.31 per kWh). Five activities were identified which were required to develop one chest X-ray film. Human resource, capital, consumable and electricity cost was MYR 1.48, MYR 1.98, MYR 2.15 and MYR 0.04, respectively. Total cost of single chest X-ray was MYR 5.65 (USD 1.75). By applying ABC approach, we can have more detailed and precise estimate of cost for specific activity or service. Choice of repeating a chest X-ray can be based on our findings, when cost is a limiting factor.

  5. 20 CFR Appendix A to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Chest Roentgenograms (X-Rays)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Interpretation of Chest Roentgenograms (X-Rays) A Appendix A to Part 718 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS... 718—Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Chest Roentgenograms (X-Rays) The following... procedures are used in administering and interpreting X-rays and that the best available medical evidence...

  6. The chest X-ray in pulmonary capillary haemorrhage: correlation with carbon monoxide uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowley, N.B.; Hughes, J.M.B.; Steiner, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Serial changes in carbon monoxide uptake (Ksub(CO) or Dsub(L)CO/VA) were used to monitor episodes of pulmonary capillary haemorrhage in Goodpasture's syndrome (13 cases), immune complex nephritis (three cases) and idiopathic haemosiderosis (one case). Air-space shadowing on the chest X-ray (on a scoring system 0 to 12) was assessed in the light of the changes of Ksub(CO). In 14 out of 27 episodes of bleeding, the rise and fall of Ksub(CO) was matched in time by the appearance and disappearance of air-space shadowing on the chest X-ray. In six episodes the chest X-ray remained normal despite a rise of Ksub(CO). In two cases air-space shadowing appeared up to 48 h after the rise of Ksub(CO). On five occasions chest X-ray abnormalities preceded the rise of Ksub(CO) but chest infection or fluid overload accounted for three of these. In cases with suspected pulmonary capillary haemorrhage, measurements of carbon monoxide uptake will provide additional information and will assist in the interpretation of the chest X-ray. (author)

  7. Initial assessment of chest X-ray in thoracic trauma patients: Awareness of specific injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, Tjeerd S.; Beenen, Ludo F. M.; Hietbrink, Falco; Leenen, Luke Ph

    2012-01-01

    To compare the reported injuries on initial assessment of the chest X-ray (CXR) in thoracic trauma patients to a second read performed by a dedicated trauma radiologist. By retrospective analysis of a prospective database, 712 patients with an injury to the chest admitted to the University Medical

  8. Chest X-ray findings in children with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Min; Guo Wanliang; Wang Jian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the chest X-ray radiographic findings in children with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Methods: The chest X-ray radiographs in 67 children with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection were reviewed in this study. The chest radiographs were obtained 3-8 days after the onset of symptoms and for the follow-up. Results: The abnormalities were bilateral in 53 patients and unilateral in 7 patients. The predominant radiographic findings were bilateral patchy consolidation (n=42) with rapid confluence in 10 patients, lobular consolidation (n=7) with interstitial hyperplasia in 1 patient 3 month later, diffuse consolidation (n=11) with interstitial hyperplasia in all patients after 3 month. Conclusion: The predominant chest X-ray radiographic findings are bilateral patchy consolidation and diffuse consolidation with interstitial hyperplasia afterward. (authors)

  9. Quality control procedure for dental x-ray film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, D.R.C.

    1983-08-01

    Methods of obtaining the optimum processing from dental films are discussed. A method of quality control of developing conditions for dental x-ray films has been developed. It is relatively easy to maintain and is sufficiently accurate for practical purposes

  10. A survey on respiratory diseases of atomic bomb survivors using chest X-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsubara, Naoka; Isobe, Takeshi; Nakamura, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    Chest X-ray films, taken from 48,160 A-bomb survivors aged 40 years or more during a 5-year period 1988-1992, were reviewed. Abnormal X-ray findings were obtained in 26.7% for men and 18.2% for women. The incidence of necessary detailed examination was 2.6%. Of these A-bomb survivors, 93.7% participated in it. Pulmonary fibrosis, chronic emphysema, and pulmonary cyst yielded higher prevalence per population of 100,000 in men, irrespective of exposure distance. In comparing with the results obtained during a 5-year period 1981-1985, the detection rate of primary lung cancer was not different from that in the present 5-year survey. For active pulmonary tuberculosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and chronic emphysema, however, the prevalence tended to decrease. Primary lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis were more frequently detected with aging in both men and women. This was independent of exposure distance. (N.K.)

  11. Chest X-ray : a cost-diagnostic benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, L.H.L.

    1991-01-01

    Although plain chest radiography is one of the most useful diagnostic tools available to the physician, this procedure has not evolved into a consistent method. Two Large Field of View Image Intensifiers (LFOV-II) became available; the large imaging area makes them suitable for chest imaging. Both modalities supply 100 mm images to the radiologist. In this thesis the 'diagnostic benefits and 'costs' of these modalities are evaluated and related to the 'gold' standard (conventional full-size). The emphasis is on diagnostic image quality using phantoms for observer performance qualities. (author). 170 refs.; 21 figs.; 47 tabs

  12. Objective quantification of pulmonary effects in X-ray chest images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcela de; Giacomini, Guilherme; Alvarez, Matheus; Pereira, Paulo M.C.; Ribeiro, Sergio M.; Pina, Diana R. de

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious lung disease of great concern worldwide. Even after treatment, TB leaves pulmonary sequelae that compromise the quality of life of patients. The exam of diagnostic imaging done more frequently is the X-ray chest. The evaluation of pulmonary involvement of these patients is performed visually by the radiologist. The detection and quantification aided by computer systems are of great importance for the more accurate assessment of pulmonary involvement. The objective of this study was to evaluate computationally the reduction of lung damage in X-ray of chest in patients treated with two different medication regimens. (author)

  13. Diagnostic accuracy for X-ray chest in interstitial lung disease as confirmed by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, F.; Raza, S.; Shafique, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of x-ray chest in interstitial lung disease as confirmed by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) chest. Study Design: A cross-sectional validational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from Oct 2013 to Apr 2014. Material and Method: A total of 137 patients with clinical suspicion of interstitial lung disease (ILD) aged 20-50 years of both genders were included in the study. Patients with h/o previous histopathological diagnosis, already taking treatment and pregnant females were excluded. All the patients had chest x-ray and then HRCT. The x-ray and HRCT findings were recorded as presence or absence of the ILD. Results: Mean age was 40.21 ± 4.29 years. Out of 137 patients, 79 (57.66 percent) were males and 58 (42.34 percent) were females with male to female ratio of 1.36:1. Chest x-ray detected ILD in 80 (58.39 percent) patients, out of which, 72 (true positive) had ILD and 8 (false positive) had no ILD on HRCT. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of chest x-ray in diagnosing ILD was 80.0 percent, 82.98 percent, 90.0 percent, 68.42 percent and 81.02 percent respectively. Conclusion: This study concluded that chest x-ray is simple, non-invasive, economical and readily available alternative to HRCT with an acceptable diagnostic accuracy of 81 percent in the diagnosis of ILD. (author)

  14. Quantitative assessment of radiation-induced lung changes by computerized optical densitometry of routine chest x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, Soeren M.; Skoczylas, Jerzy Z.; Overgaard, Marie; Overgaard, Jens; Nielsen, Ole G.; Madsen, Erik Hjoellund

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a quantitative assay of radiological lung changes after postmastectomy radiotherapy applicable for analysis of routine chest x-rays. Methods and Materials: The assay relies on measurement of the optical density of chest x-rays by means of a standard personal computer-controlled film densitometer used for scanning dosimetry films. Density profiles were recorded at 1 mm steps along two reference lines in each lung. The crossing between the clavicula and the first rib in the x-ray projection was used as an easily identifiable anatomical landmark and was used to establish two parallel cranio-caudal reference lines separated by 20 mm. The starting point for recording optical densities was 5 mm below a line perpendicular to the reference lines and tangent to the top of the lung. Data were stored in a computer file for subsequent processing. The optical film densities in the apex of the lungs were converted into equivalent absorber thickness (EAT). To minimize the dependency on technical factors, the unirradiated lung was used as a control. Lung density changes were quantified by the relative change in EAT (REAT), which was evaluated as the difference between the summed EATs along the reference lines in the two lungs, corrected for any pretreatment difference in lung density, and taken as a percentage of the pretreatment EAT value of the lung. Results: Four different tests were carried out to investigate the reproducibility and validity of the proposed assay. (a) An anthropomorphic phantom was used to test the relationship between REAT and the layer of plastic absorber placed in front of one lung. A linear relationship was found with a correlation coefficient of 0.9993. (b) A series of 10 repeat measurements of the same arbitrarily chosen x-ray showed a mean REAT value of 9.8%, with a standard deviation of 0.21%. (c) Forty-three chest x-rays exposed on the same day were available from the clinical series. These were treated as double determinations of

  15. Quality control of pediatric chest X-rays in diagnostic centers with and without pediatric competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, C.D.; Engelmann, D.; Schenk, J.P.; Troeger, J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation protection in pediatric radiology is very important because of the particular sensitivity of radiosensitive organs in younger patients. Optimized image quality supports radiation protection and should be targeted. In our study we examined the quality of pediatric chest X-rays at diagnostic centers (university hospitals and other large clinics). We then evaluated differences in image quality in departments without pediatric competence (R) and departments with pediatric competence (PR). Materials and Methods: Our study was based on 313 conventional chest X-rays from 207 patients (192 p.a./a.p. and 121 lateral, 43 from R, 258 from PR and 12 neither from R nor KR) and 38 digital chest X-rays from 26 patients (25 p.a./a.p. and 13 lateral, 1 from R and 37 from PR). All patients (age 0 - 18 years) are from Nephroblastoma-Study SIOP-93/01-GPOH. We examined all initial chest X-rays, which were sent to us for evaluation upon request between 4/3/2002 and 6/14/2002. The examined parameters were: exposure, centering of the X-rays/patient positioning, collimation and sharpness. The X-rays were evaluated on a scale from 1 (best result) to 5 (worst result), resulting in an overall score of A = optimum, B = minor problems, C = major problems, or D = unusable. The optical density, the center of the image and the relative field size were also measured. Statistical tests (Mann-Whitney-U and log regression) were carried out on the conventional images. The study was performed retrospectively. The exposure, sharpness and optical density of the digital X-rays were not analyzed. Results: In the case of all conventional X-rays, the quality of the centering of the X-rays/patient positioning and collimation was moderate (average scale value: 2.4 and 2.8), and the quality of the exposure and sharpness was good and very good (average scale value: 1.9 and 1.5). The quality of the chest X-rays in departments with additional pediatric radiological expertise was better mainly in

  16. Hard X-ray quantum optics in thin films nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, Johann Friedrich Albert

    2017-05-01

    This thesis describes quantum optical experiments with X-rays with the aim of reaching the strong-coupling regime of light and matter. We make use of the interaction which arises between resonant matter and X-rays in specially designed thin-film nanostructures which form X-ray cavities. Here, the resonant matter are Tantalum atoms and the Iron isotope "5"7Fe. Both limit the number of modes available to the resonant atoms for interaction, and enhances the interaction strength. Thus we have managed to observe a number of phenomena well-known in quantum optics, which are the building blocks for sophisticated applications in e.g. metrology. Among these are the strong coupling of light and matter and the concurrent exchange of virtual photons, often called Rabi oscillations. Furthermore we have designed and tested a type of cavity hitherto unused in X-ray optics. Finally, we develop a new method for synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy, which not only promises to yield high-resolution spectra, but also enables the retrieval of the phase of the scattered light. The results open new avenues for quantum optical experiments with X-rays, particularly with regards to the ongoing development of high-brilliance X-ray free-electron lasers.

  17. Hard X-ray quantum optics in thin films nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Johann Friedrich Albert

    2017-05-15

    This thesis describes quantum optical experiments with X-rays with the aim of reaching the strong-coupling regime of light and matter. We make use of the interaction which arises between resonant matter and X-rays in specially designed thin-film nanostructures which form X-ray cavities. Here, the resonant matter are Tantalum atoms and the Iron isotope {sup 57}Fe. Both limit the number of modes available to the resonant atoms for interaction, and enhances the interaction strength. Thus we have managed to observe a number of phenomena well-known in quantum optics, which are the building blocks for sophisticated applications in e.g. metrology. Among these are the strong coupling of light and matter and the concurrent exchange of virtual photons, often called Rabi oscillations. Furthermore we have designed and tested a type of cavity hitherto unused in X-ray optics. Finally, we develop a new method for synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy, which not only promises to yield high-resolution spectra, but also enables the retrieval of the phase of the scattered light. The results open new avenues for quantum optical experiments with X-rays, particularly with regards to the ongoing development of high-brilliance X-ray free-electron lasers.

  18. Magnetic x-ray dichroism in ultrathin epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J.G.; Goodman, K.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Cummins, T.R. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The authors have used Magnetic X-ray Linear Dichroism (MXLD) and Magnetic X-ray Circular Dichroism (MXCD) to study the magnetic properties of epitaxial overlayers in an elementally specific fashion. Both MXLD and MXCD Photoelectron Spectroscopy were performed in a high resolution mode at the Spectromicroscopy Facility of the ALS. Circular Polarization was obtained via the utilization of a novel phase retarder (soft x-ray quarter wave plate) based upon transmission through a multilayer film. The samples were low temperature Fe overlayers, magnetic alloy films of NiFe and CoNi, and Gd grown on Y. The authors results include a direct comparison of high resolution angle resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy performed in MXLD and MXCD modes as well as structural studies with photoelectron diffraction.

  19. Magnetic x-ray dichroism in ultrathin epitaxial films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, J.G.; Goodman, K.W.; Cummins, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have used Magnetic X-ray Linear Dichroism (MXLD) and Magnetic X-ray Circular Dichroism (MXCD) to study the magnetic properties of epitaxial overlayers in an elementally specific fashion. Both MXLD and MXCD Photoelectron Spectroscopy were performed in a high resolution mode at the Spectromicroscopy Facility of the ALS. Circular Polarization was obtained via the utilization of a novel phase retarder (soft x-ray quarter wave plate) based upon transmission through a multilayer film. The samples were low temperature Fe overlayers, magnetic alloy films of NiFe and CoNi, and Gd grown on Y. The authors results include a direct comparison of high resolution angle resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy performed in MXLD and MXCD modes as well as structural studies with photoelectron diffraction

  20. The Interest of Performing "On-Demand Chest X-rays" after Lung Resection by Minimally Invasive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Laura; Bubenheim, Michael; Bernard, Alain; Melki, Jean; Peillon, Christophe; Baste, Jean-Marc

    2017-10-01

    Background  There is a lack of consensus in hospital centers regarding costly daily routine chest X-rays after lung resection by minimally invasive surgery. Indeed, there is no evidence that performing daily chest X-rays prevents postoperative complications. Our objective was to compare chest X-rays performed on demand when there was clinical suspicion of postoperative complications and chest X-rays performed systematically in daily routine practice. Methods  This prospective single-center study compared 55 patients who had on-demand chest X-rays and patients in the literature who had daily routine chest X-rays. Our primary evaluation criterion was length of hospitalization. Results  The length of hospitalization was 5.3 ± 3.3 days for patients who had on-demand X-rays, compared with 4 to 9.7 days for patients who had daily routine X-rays. Time to chest tube removal (4.34 days), overall complication rate (27.2%), reoperation rate (3.6%), and mortality rate (1.8%) were comparable to those in the literature. On average, our patients only had 1.22 ± 1.8 on-demand X-rays, compared with 3.3 X-rays if daily routine protocol had been applied. Patients with complications had more X-rays (3.4 ± 1.8) than patients without complications (0.4 ± 0.7). Conclusion  On-demand chest X-rays do not seem to delay the diagnosis of postoperative complications or increase morbidity-mortality rates. Performing on-demand chest X-rays could not only simplify surgical practice but also have a positive impact on health care expenses. However, a broader randomized study is warranted to validate this work and ultimately lead to national consensus. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Sensitometric curve of radiographic films by X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonçalves, E.A.S., E-mail: elicardo.goncalves@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, D.F.; Anjos, M.J. dos; Oliveira, L.F. de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Radiographic film exposure is traditionally measured by the transmittance of a beam of light through the film. There are many mathematical and computational models to characterize the curve behavior and its properties, but almost none of them considers the limitations caused by the equipment used. As long as exposure in film increases, light intensity measured after the film decreases in a way that from a certain exposure, light could not be distinguished from any kind of noise. This work aims to propose x-ray fluorescence as a solution for better measure high exposed films and show how it could be modeled mathematically. (author)

  2. Diagnostic modalities x-ray and CT chest differ in the management of thoracic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Chapagain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe difference in the management of blunt trauma to the chest on the basis of conventional xray and computerised tomography of the chest. Methods: This prospective study was conducted between December 2011 to October 2012 in COMS in Bharatpur,a tertiary referral centre in central Nepal . Clinically stable thoracic injury patients were first evaluated with chest x-ray and the management on this basis was recorded. The findings of the CT chest were assessed and the type of management on the basis of CT was also recorded. Outcome was assessed in terms of mortality, morbidity, hospital and ICU stay with respect to the management on the basis of chest x-ray and CT scan. Results: Of the 129 patients, 74.4% were male and 25.6% were female with the patients ranging in age from 7 to 87 years (mean = 40.41 years. The most common mechanism of trauma to the chest was as a result of a motor vehicle accident (69.8%, followed by fall injury (20.2%. X-ray chest diagnosed rib fracture in 62%, haemothorax in 37%, pneumothorax in 27%, lung contusion in 10% and haemopneumothorax in 21% patients. Similarly CT chest diagnosed rib fracture in 86%, haemothorax in 54%, pneumothorax in 36%, lung contusion in 30% and haemopneumothorax in 30% patients. Mean hospital stay was 9.5 days in the group of patients having management on the basis of x-ray chest relative to mean stay of 10.2 days in the CT- chest group. In the management on the basis of xray group, there was a mean ICU stay of 2.8days compared to mean stays of 3.2 days in CT chest group. Conclusion: Though CT scan of the chest is more informative and differs the management of the blunt chest trauma, one should not forget to advise the cost effective, easily available and initial guiding agent, xray chest for early management of the chest injury patient. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i1.12764 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(1; 22-31

  3. Determination of chest x-ray cost using activity based costing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Activity based costing (ABC) is an approach to get insight of true costs and to solve accounting problems. It provides more accurate information on product cost than conventional accounting system. The purpose of this study was to identify detailed resource consumption for chest x-ray procedure. Methods: ...

  4. Skin Entrance dose to patients from routine P-A chest X-ray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Radiation of any amount is potentially hazardous and it should be minimized as much as possible during health care delivery. Objective: To determine and assess the variation of the dose received by patients undergoing chest x-ray examination, and to provide a useful baseline data to evaluate the dose to the ...

  5. Positioning X-Ray Film Inside A Flow Splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darter, Charles; Pierce, Darryl

    1990-01-01

    Simple and inexpensive tool ensures secure placement for radiographic inspection. Holder places film positively and securely for x-ray inspection inside sections of tube with splitter welds. V-shaped piece of film fits on arms of holder. With arms squeezed together, holder inserted in opening of neck. Arms of holder cut from 0.020-in. (0.51-mm) thick stock of unspecified material.

  6. Training program for radiologic technologists for performing chest X-rays at inspiration in uncooperative children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langen, Heinz Jakob; Muras, S.; Kohlhauser-Vollmuth, C.; Stenzel, M.; Beer, M.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program was created to train technologists to perform chest X-rays in crying infants at maximum inspiration. Videos of 4 children were used. Using a computer program, the moment of deepest inspiration was determined in the video in the single frame view. During the normal running video, 14 technologists (3 with significant experience, 3 with little experience and 8 with very little experience in pediatric radiography) simulated a chest radiograph by pushing a button. The computer program stopped the video and the period of time to the optimal moment for a chest x-ray was calculated. Every technologist simulated 10 chest X-rays in each of the 4 video clips. The technologists then trained themselves to perform chest X-rays at optimal inspiration like playing a computer game. After training, the test was repeated. Changes were evaluated by t-test for unpaired samples (level of significance p < 0.05). Although the differences improved in all children, minimal deviation from the optimal moment for taking an X-ray at inspiration occurred in the periodically crying child (0.21 sec before and 0.13 sec after training). In a non-periodically crying infant, the largest differences were shown. The values improved significantly from 0.29 sec to 0.22 sec. The group with substantial experience in pediatric radiology improved significantly from 0.22 sec to 0.15 sec. The group with very little experience in pediatric radiology showed worse results (improvement from 0.29 sec to 0.21 sec). (orig.)

  7. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures on lateral chest X-ray: Intraobserver agreement of semi-quantitative vertebral fracture assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt-Willems, H.C.; van Munster, B.C.; Leeflang, M.; Beuerle, E.; Tulner, C.R.; Lems, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background In clinical practice lateral images of the chest are performed for various reasons. As these lateral chest X rays show the vertebrae of the thoracic and thoraco-lumbar region, we wondered if these X-rays can be used for evaluation of vertebral fractures instead of separate thoracic spine

  8. Selective chest imaging for blunt trauma patients: The national emergency X-ray utilization studies (NEXUS-chest algorithm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Robert M; Hendey, Gregory W; Mower, William R

    2017-01-01

    Chest imaging plays a prominent role in blunt trauma patient evaluation, but indiscriminate imaging is expensive, may delay care, and unnecessarily exposes patients to potentially harmful ionizing radiation. To improve diagnostic chest imaging utilization, we conducted 3 prospective multicenter studies over 12years to derive and validate decision instruments (DIs) to guide the use of chest x-ray (CXR) and chest computed tomography (CT). The first DI, NEXUS Chest x-ray, consists of seven criteria (Age >60years; rapid deceleration mechanism; chest pain; intoxication; altered mental status; distracting painful injury; and chest wall tenderness) and exhibits a sensitivity of 99.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 98.2-99.4%) and a specificity of 13.3% (95% CI, 12.6%-14.0%) for detecting clinically significant injuries. We developed two NEXUS Chest CT DIs, which are both highly reliable in detecting clinically major injuries (sensitivity of 99.2%; 95% CI 95.4-100%). Designed primarily to focus on detecting major injuries, the NEXUS Chest CT-Major DI consists of six criteria (abnormal CXR; distracting injury; chest wall tenderness; sternal tenderness; thoracic spine tenderness; and scapular tenderness) and exhibits higher specificity (37.9%; 95% CI 35.8-40.1%). Designed to reliability detect both major and minor injuries (sensitivity 95.4%; 95% CI 93.6-96.9%) with resulting lower specificity (25.5%; 95% CI 23.5-27.5%), the NEXUS CT-All rule consists of seven elements (the six NEXUS CT-Major criteria plus rapid deceleration mechanism). The purpose of this review is to synthesize the three DIs into a novel, cohesive summary algorithm with practical implementation recommendations to guide selective chest imaging in adult blunt trauma patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Glancing angle x-ray studies of oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, A.J.; Isaacs, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    High brightness synchrotron radiation incident at glancing angles has been used to study inhibiting species present in low concentrations in oxide films on aluminum. Glancing incident angle fluorescence measurements give surface-sensitive information on the valence state of elements from the shape of the x-ray absorption edge. Angle-resolved measurements show the depth distribution of the species present. 15 refs., 4 figs

  10. X-ray Tomography using Thin Scintillator Films

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyrev, E A; Lemzyakov, A G; Petrozhitskiy, A V; Popov, A S

    2017-01-01

    2-14 μm thin CsI:Tl scintillation screens with high spatial resolution were prepared by the thermal deposition method for low energy X-ray imaging applications. The spatial resolution was measured as a function of the film thickness. It was proposed that the spatial resolution of the prepared conversion screens can be significantly improved by an additional deposition of a carbon layer.

  11. Oblique Chest X-Ray: An Alternative Way to Detect Pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulay, Cumhur Murat; Yaldız, Sadık; Bilge, Adnan

    2018-03-16

    To identify occult pneumothorax with oblique chest X-ray (OCXR) in clinically suspected patients. In this retrospective study, we examined 1082 adult multitrauma patients who were admitted to our emergency service between January 2016 and January 2017. Clinical findings that suggest occult pneumothorax were rib fracture, flail chest, chest pain, subcutaneous emphysema, abrasion or ecchymosis and moderate to severe hypoxia in clinical parameters. All of these patients underwent anteroposterior chest X-ray (APCXR), but no pneumothorax could be detected. Upon this, OCXR was performed using mobile X-ray equipment. Traumatic pneumothorax was observed in 421 (38.9%) of 1082 patients. We applied OCXR to 26 multitrauma patients. Occult pneumothorax was evaluated at 22 patients (2.03%) in 1082 multitrauma patients. The 22 patients who had multitrauma occult pneumothorax on OCXR were internated at intensive care unit (ICU) and follow-up was done using OCXR and APCXR. OCXR can be an alternative imaging technique to identify occult pneumothorax in some trauma patients at emergency room and also follow period at ICU.

  12. Chest tube placement in thorax trauma - comparison chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, P.; Maas, R.; Buecheler, E.; Tesch, C.

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of chest tube placement in patients with thoracic trauma with regard to chest tube malposition in chest radiography in the supine position compared to additional computed tomography of the thorax. Material and methods: Apart from compulsory chest radiography after one or multiple chest tube insertions, 31 severely injured patients with thoracic trauma underwent a CT scan of the thorax. These 31 patients with 40 chest tubes constituted the basis for the present analysis. Results: In chest radiography in the supine position there were no chest tube malpositions (n=40); In the CT scans 25 correct positions, 7 pseudo-malpositions, 6 intrafissural and 2 intrapulmonary malpositions were identified. Moreover 16 sufficient, 18 insufficient and 6 indifferent functions of the chest tubes were seen. Conclusion: In case of lasting clinical problems and questionable function of the chest tube, chest radiography should be supplemented by a CT scan of the thorax in order to estimate the position of the chest tube. (orig.) [de

  13. PATIENT RADIATION DOSE FROM CHEST X-RAY EXAMINATIONS IN THE WEST BANK-PALESTINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahham, Adnan; Issa, Ahlam; ALMasri, Hussein

    2018-02-01

    Radiation doses to patients resulting from chest X-ray examinations were evaluated in four medical centers in the West Bank and East Jerusalem-Palestine. Absorbed organ and effective doses were calculated for a total of 428 adult male and female patients by using commercially available Monte Carlo based softwares; CALDOSE-X5 and PCXMC-2.0, and hermaphrodite mathematical adult phantoms. Patients were selected randomly from medical records in the time period from November 2014 to February 2015. A database of surveyed patients and exposure factors has been established and includes: patient's height, weight, age, gender, X-ray tube voltage, electric current (mAs), examination projection (anterior posterior (AP), posterior anterior (PA), lateral), X-ray tube filtration thickness in each X-ray equipment, anode angle, focus to skin distance and X-ray beam size. The average absorbed doses in the whole body from different projections were: 0.06, 0.07 and 0.11 mGy from AP, PA and lateral projections, respectively. The average effective dose for all surveyed patients was 0.14 mSv for all chest X-ray examinations and projections in the four investigated medical centers. The effect of projection geometry was also investigated. The average effective doses for AP, PA and lateral projections were 0.14, 0.07 and 0.22 mSv, respectively. The collective effective dose estimated for the exposed population was ~60 man-mSv. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The methods for detecting multiple small nodules from 3D chest X-ray CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayase, Yosuke; Mekada, Yoshito; Mori, Kensaku; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro; Natori, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a method for detecting small nodules, whose CT values and diameters are more than -600 Hounsfield unit (H.U.) and 2 mm, from three-dimensional chest X-ray CT images. The proposed method roughly consists of two submodules: initial detection of nodule candidates by discriminating between nodule regions and other regions such as blood vessels or bronchi using a shape feature computed from distance values inside the regions and reduction of false positive (FP) regions by using a minimum directional difference filter called minimum directional difference filter (Min-DD) changing its radius suit to the size of the initial candidates. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated by using seven cases of chest X-ray CT images including six abnormal cases where multiple lung cancers are observed. The experimental results for nodules (361 regions in total) showed that sensitivity and FP regions are 71% and 7.4 regions in average per case. (author)

  15. Chest x-ray generation and data augmentation for cardiovascular abnormality classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Ali; Moradi, Mehdi; Karargyris, Alexandros; Syeda-Mahmood, Tanveer

    2018-03-01

    Medical imaging datasets are limited in size due to privacy issues and the high cost of obtaining annotations. Augmentation is a widely used practice in deep learning to enrich the data in data-limited scenarios and to avoid overfitting. However, standard augmentation methods that produce new examples of data by varying lighting, field of view, and spatial rigid transformations do not capture the biological variance of medical imaging data and could result in unrealistic images. Generative adversarial networks (GANs) provide an avenue to understand the underlying structure of image data which can then be utilized to generate new realistic samples. In this work, we investigate the use of GANs for producing chest X-ray images to augment a dataset. This dataset is then used to train a convolutional neural network to classify images for cardiovascular abnormalities. We compare our augmentation strategy with traditional data augmentation and show higher accuracy for normal vs abnormal classification in chest X-rays.

  16. Assessment of patient radiation doses in chest X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsini, S.; Scribano, V.S.; Merluzzi, F.; Tosca, L.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the initial results of a radioprotection programme for diagnostic radiology carried out in a major hospital in Milan. The data cover chest X-ray examinations. The dose values were obtained using different techniques, according to the specific diagnostic requirements in each departement. A wide radiation dose range was observed between the different techniques, with a ratio between maximum and minimum dose > 30 for the skin and the spine. The doses were however lower than those capable of inducing non-stochastic effects by about 10000 and were so low that the probability of a stochastics effect is minimal. Nevertheless, because chest X-rays are performed so frequently, it is recommended that radiologists take greater account of patient dose, as far as compatible with diagnostic requirements. Radiology technicians must strictly observe the regulations for radioprotection of the patient

  17. Effect Of Small Doses On THE Thymus In Pediatric Chest X - Ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkovic, Dj.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Anzic, S. A.; Zagar, I.

    2015-01-01

    The thymus, pyramid-shaped lymphoid organ is immediately beneath the breastbone at the level of the heart, therefore chest X-ray covers the position of thymus. The thymus is divided into two lobes, lying on either side of the midline of the body. Unlike most other lymphoid structures, the thymus grows rapidly and attains its greatest size relative to the rest of the body during fetal life and the first years after birth. The thymus is a specialized organ of the immune system. It has big responsibility helping the body protect itself against autoimmunity diseases. It is well known from literature data that thymus size reduced at radiotherapy irradiation. After many years of experience in X-ray chest diagnostics with children a fairly regular thymus size reduction after exposure to diagnostic low doses was noticed. Therefore it was analysed at what percentage of children patients their control radiograms would exhibit a thymus shade decrease compared to the primary image taken at the illness out-set. In the Children Hospital Srebrnjak in one year 1972 children in the age group 0 - 5 years underwent X-ray exam. In our earlier study at PA and profile projections of lung examinations of this age group 0.15 mSv and 0.11 mSv average doses were measured on the back and on the chest, respectively. From this group the radiograms of those 119 children were analysed who were exposed, according to medical indication, to control examinations. 58 of the investigated patients showed enlarged thymus at the first exam. It could be seen from the control radiogram that 52 children of these 58 patients had significant or discrete decrease in size of thymus. Taking into account that thymus has very important role in maturity of T-lymphocytes and development of immunology tolerance these empiric statements are important for radiation protection of children in X-ray diagnostic of chest. (author).

  18. Significance of X-ray examination in the diagnosis of contralateral pneumonia in closed chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan'ina, G.V.; Parizhskij, Z.M.; Abramova, T.T.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that after unilateral closed chest traumas X-ray examination of both lungs should be conducted to except traumatic pneumonia as at the side of the trauma as in contralateral lung and to exclude pneumonia complications. Special attention must be paid to the patients with traumatic rib fractures and to those who has chromic nonspecific diseases of lungs and abused with alcochol

  19. Frontal chest X-ray in the actual study of the mediastinum. Technique and Semeiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicelli, G; Mattia, P; Mazzuoli, G and others

    1985-01-01

    The advantages of high kilovoltage and pulmonary filters in frontal chest X-ray are described, underliing the possibility of a simultaneous demostration of both pulmonary fields and mediastinal strctures. A description is given of the most important mediastinal lines and of their semeiological value in pathologic conditions. The execellent results obtained by means of hemifiltration in patients with opaque hemithorax are stressed. An increased diffusion of such technique could be justified by its semplicity, and by the low cost and high benefit.

  20. Evaluation of image quality when using grid during child chest x-ray examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeung Seung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, SeoSan JungAng General Hospital, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Beom Hul [Dept. of Radiological Science, SeoNam University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hong Ryang [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Since in case of children, they are sensitive to the radiation compared to the adult and the potential exposure damage lasts longer, the exposure dose should be managed better than for the adult. Therefore, this study was conducted to observe the change in the chest x-ray image by the use of grid, which eliminates the scattering rays but increases the exposure dose during the child chest x-ray examination. As a research method, SNR, CNR and V. Vuichi were measured at 100 cm and 180 cm with the grid varying the kVp to 70, 90 and 110. In addition, SNR, CNR and V. Vuichi were measured fixing 100 cm and 180cm without grid and varying the dose to 6, 8 and 10 mAs. In the results of measuring them by fixing kVp, SNR, VNR and V. Vuichi were represented high when FID is 100cm. And in the results of meaduring them varying mAs, SNR, VNR and V. Vuichi were represented high when FID is 100cm. Currently in our country, the chest x-ray examination is performed at 180 cm. However, as the image is measured high when FID is 100 cm, in case of child, FID is deemed to be 100 cm.

  1. X-ray chest mass screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbina, V.; Contento, G.; Padovani, R.; Pitzalis, G.; Nigris, C.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1980, the law which instituted the National Health Service (NHS) in Italy, attributing both the organization and the administration of all public health services to local government bodies referred to as 'Regioni', is being gradually enforced. One result is that the mass screening services are now set up on local basis, involving important practice and regulatory changes. These in particular concern chest X-ray mass screening centers, which were formerly organized as Provincial Antituberculosis Services, supervised by the Ministry of Health and dealing almost exclusively with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Today, chest X-ray mass screening is carried on the 'Centri Sociali di Pneumologia', which in some case inherited the staff and diagnostic facilities of Provincial Antituberculosis Services, but are directed by the Councillorship of Health of the 'Regioni' and, in most cases, deal with the diagnosis and care of general pulmonary diseases. Therefore, regulations and practices of mass screening are eventually different in most Italian 'Regioni', depending on different economic and social situations. In this connection, this paper reports up-to-date information and data on frequency, effectiveness, cost and radiation risks of chest X-ray screening in the 'Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia' (FVG), North-East Italy, population 1,300,000

  2. Evaluation of image quality when using grid during child chest x-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeung Seung Hun; Han, Beom Hul; Jung, Hong Ryang

    2017-01-01

    Since in case of children, they are sensitive to the radiation compared to the adult and the potential exposure damage lasts longer, the exposure dose should be managed better than for the adult. Therefore, this study was conducted to observe the change in the chest x-ray image by the use of grid, which eliminates the scattering rays but increases the exposure dose during the child chest x-ray examination. As a research method, SNR, CNR and V. Vuichi were measured at 100 cm and 180 cm with the grid varying the kVp to 70, 90 and 110. In addition, SNR, CNR and V. Vuichi were measured fixing 100 cm and 180cm without grid and varying the dose to 6, 8 and 10 mAs. In the results of measuring them by fixing kVp, SNR, VNR and V. Vuichi were represented high when FID is 100cm. And in the results of meaduring them varying mAs, SNR, VNR and V. Vuichi were represented high when FID is 100cm. Currently in our country, the chest x-ray examination is performed at 180 cm. However, as the image is measured high when FID is 100 cm, in case of child, FID is deemed to be 100 cm

  3. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures on lateral chest X-ray: Intraobserver agreement of semi-quantitative vertebral fracture assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagt-Willems, H.C. van der; Munster, B.C. van; Leeflang, M.; Beuerle, E.; Tulner, C.R.; Lems, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (Lateral) chest X-ray's are often performed in older individuals for various reasons. • Vertebral fractures are visualized on lateral chest X-ray, but the diagnosis of vertebral fractures is until now only validated on (lateral) spine X-ray's. • This study shows that a (lateral) chest X-ray is sufficient for the diagnosis of vertebral fractures. • Older individuals with a vertebral fracture on a (lateral) chest X-ray do not need further radiography with thoracic spine X-ray or vertebral fracture assessment with DXA. - Abstract: Background: In clinical practice lateral images of the chest are performed for various reasons. As these lateral chest X rays show the vertebrae of the thoracic and thoraco-lumbar region, we wondered if these X-rays can be used for evaluation of vertebral fractures instead of separate thoracic spine X-rays. Methods: To evaluate the agreement and intraobserver reliability of the semi-quantitative method for vertebral fractures on the lateral chest X-ray (X-chest) in comparison to the lateral thoracic spine X-ray (X-Tspine), two observers scored vertebral fractures on X-Tspine and twice on X-chest, separately, blinded and in different time periods. Agreement and Cohens’ kappa were calculated for a diagnosis of any fracture on patient level and on vertebral body level. The study was done in patients visiting an outpatient geriatric day clinic, with a high prevalence of vertebral fractures. Results: 109 patients were included. The intraobserver agreement for X-chest versus X-Tspine was 95–98% for the two levels of fracturing, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.88–0.91. The intraobserver agreement and reliability of the re-test on the X-chest showed an agreement between 91 and 98% with a Cohen's kappa of 0.81–0.93. More vertebrae were visible on the X-chest, mean 10.2, SD 0.66 versus mean 9.8, SD 0.73 on the X-Tspine (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results show good agreement and intraobserver reliability on

  4. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures on lateral chest X-ray: Intraobserver agreement of semi-quantitative vertebral fracture assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagt-Willems, H.C. van der, E-mail: Hvanderjagt@spaarneziekenhuis.nl [Department of Geriatrics, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Internal Medicine, Spaarne Hospital, Hoofddorp (Netherlands); Munster, B.C. van [Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Geriatrics, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Leeflang, M. [Department of Geriatrics, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Beuerle, E. [Department of Radiology, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tulner, C.R. [Department of Geriatrics, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lems, W.F. [Department of Rheumatology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • (Lateral) chest X-ray's are often performed in older individuals for various reasons. • Vertebral fractures are visualized on lateral chest X-ray, but the diagnosis of vertebral fractures is until now only validated on (lateral) spine X-ray's. • This study shows that a (lateral) chest X-ray is sufficient for the diagnosis of vertebral fractures. • Older individuals with a vertebral fracture on a (lateral) chest X-ray do not need further radiography with thoracic spine X-ray or vertebral fracture assessment with DXA. - Abstract: Background: In clinical practice lateral images of the chest are performed for various reasons. As these lateral chest X rays show the vertebrae of the thoracic and thoraco-lumbar region, we wondered if these X-rays can be used for evaluation of vertebral fractures instead of separate thoracic spine X-rays. Methods: To evaluate the agreement and intraobserver reliability of the semi-quantitative method for vertebral fractures on the lateral chest X-ray (X-chest) in comparison to the lateral thoracic spine X-ray (X-Tspine), two observers scored vertebral fractures on X-Tspine and twice on X-chest, separately, blinded and in different time periods. Agreement and Cohens’ kappa were calculated for a diagnosis of any fracture on patient level and on vertebral body level. The study was done in patients visiting an outpatient geriatric day clinic, with a high prevalence of vertebral fractures. Results: 109 patients were included. The intraobserver agreement for X-chest versus X-Tspine was 95–98% for the two levels of fracturing, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.88–0.91. The intraobserver agreement and reliability of the re-test on the X-chest showed an agreement between 91 and 98% with a Cohen's kappa of 0.81–0.93. More vertebrae were visible on the X-chest, mean 10.2, SD 0.66 versus mean 9.8, SD 0.73 on the X-Tspine (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results show good agreement and intraobserver reliability on

  5. Chest X-ray quality in the diagnosis of pneumonia in children: from prescription to optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevan, M.; Cotelo, E.; Hortal, M.; Iraola, I.

    2008-01-01

    Acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI), primarily pneumonia, is the leading cause of childhood death in developing countries. The increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistance and the high cost of vaccines lead to considering the first strategy to reduce pneumonia deaths the early detection of the disease. Case management begins with the clinical examination and may continue with the prescription of a chest x-ray. Consequently, the radiograph should meet quality standards, and radiologists and paediatricians must know how to interpret the images. Special attention should be paid on patient dose due to children radiosensitivity, high frequency and chest x rays rejection rate. This paper is a retrospective study of chest radiographs performed in 5731 children with clinical diagnosis of ALRI assisted in three Uruguayan hospitals during the three year investigation supported by the Division of Vaccines and Immunization of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) that had the aim of estimating the burden of pneumonia (from 2001 to 2004). It is analyzed the prescription of radiographs during the diagnosis and in later controls (2220 children assisted in two of the three hospitals). Patient doses are estimated from technical parameters and equipment specifications. The investigation also analyzes patient doses that could have been avoided if paediatricians had managed the disease according to the established protocols. Results show that 82.4 % of chest X-rays diagnosed pneumonia and that some children underwent up to ten radiographs. Significant differences were found in patient dose in the three hospitals, concluding that education on image quality on chest radiographs of radiologists, paediatricians and radiological technologists is the first and best tool for the earlier diagnosis of pneumonia in children and for the application of Radiation Protection (RP) principles in medical exposures. (author)

  6. X-ray diffraction and X-ray standing-wave study of the lead stearate film structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagov, A. E.; Dyakova, Yu. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Kohn, V. G.; Marchenkova, M. A.; Pisarevskiy, Yu. V.; Prosekov, P. A., E-mail: prosekov@crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    A new approach to the study of the structural quality of crystals is proposed. It is based on the use of X-ray standing-wave method without measuring secondary processes and considers the multiwave interaction of diffraction reflections corresponding to different harmonics of the same crystallographic reflection. A theory of multiwave X-ray diffraction is developed to calculate the rocking curves in the X-ray diffraction scheme under consideration for a long-period quasi-one-dimensional crystal. This phase-sensitive method is used to study the structure of a multilayer lead stearate film on a silicon substrate. Some specific structural features are revealed for the surface layer of the thin film, which are most likely due to the tilt of the upper layer molecules with respect to the external normal to the film surface.

  7. X-ray scattering from thin organic films and multilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.; Barberka, T. A.; Geue, Th.; Stoemmer, R.

    1997-01-01

    The real structure of LB-multilayers prepared with fatty-acid salts is dominated by finite-sized scattering aggregates. Their different length scales become visible using AFM. It shows that not the whole substrate is wetted by the film. The molecular order is restricted into domains. These micrometer domains are not homogeneous. They contain mesoscopic subdomains of different heights which vary in steps of double layers. Finally high-resolution AFM-maps display a nearly hexagonal arrangement of molecules within subgrains with a diameter of several 10 nm. This domain structure has to be taken into account when interpreting X-ray diffraction data. The size of the crystalline aggregates is obtained by means of X-ray grazing incidence diffraction. On the mesoscopic scale the domain size is determined by X-ray diffuse scattering experiments. Because Sinha's model fails for the present kind of multilayers, they used another approach for data analysis. The lateral correlation length caused by height fluctuations is estimated without knowledge of a definite correlation function. Additionally the mosaicity of the domain orientation can be taken into account

  8. Resonant soft x-ray GISAXS on block copolymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Araki, T.; Watts, B.; Ade, H.; Hexemer, A.; Park, S.; Russell, T. P.; Schlotter, W. F.; Stein, G. E.; Tang, C.; Kramer, E. J.

    2008-03-01

    Ordered block copolymer thin films may have important applications in modern device fabrication. Current characterization methods such as conventional GISAXS have fixed electron density contrast that can be overwhelmed by surface scattering. However, soft x-rays have longer wavelength, energy dependent contrast and tunable penetration, making resonant GISAXS a very promising tool for probing nanostructured polymer thin films. Our preliminary investigation was performed using PS-b-P2VP block copolymer films on beam-line 5-2 SSRL, and beam-line 6.3.2 at ALS, LBNL. The contrast/sensitivity of the scattering pattern varies significantly with photon energy close to the C K-edge (˜290 eV). Also, higher order peaks are readily observed, indicating hexagonal packing structure in the sample. Comparing to the hard x-ray GISAXS data of the same system, it is clear that resonant GISAXS has richer data and better resolution. Beyond the results on the A-B diblock copolymers, results on ABC block copolymers are especially interesting.

  9. Simulating X-ray diffraction of textured films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiby, Dag W.; Bunk, Oliver; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel

    2008-01-01

    Computationally efficient simulations of grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) are discussed, with particular attention given to textured thin polycrystalline films on supporting substrates. A computer program has been developed for simulating scattering from thin films exhibiting varying...... degrees of preferred orientation. One emphasized common case is that of a 'fibre' symmetry axis perpendicular to the sample plane, resulting from crystallites having one well defined crystal facet towards the substrate, but no preferred inplane orientation. Peak splitting caused by additional scattering......, the mathematically simplest possible descriptions are sought whenever feasible. The practical use of the program is demonstrated for a selected thin-film example, perylene, which is of relevance for organic electronics....

  10. Pediatrics chest x-ray examination in general hospitals in Khartoum State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elawad, S. O. A.

    2011-01-01

    Study was performed to evaluate radiation dose for pediatric patients undergoing chest x-ray examination in selected general radiography hospitals in Khartoum State in seven x-ray machines. x-ray tube output measurements were made in the range of typical exposure parameters using calibrated dose rate meter. To estimate entrance surface air kerma (ESA K), the radiographer in charge of the facility was asked to provide typical exposure parameters (kV, m As and FSD) for each age category (newborn (1-30 days), 1,5.10 and years). ESA K was estimated using the x-ray tube output measurements and the recorded exposure parameters. The obtained mean ESA K range from /27/ to 57/ μGy, /25 -103/ μGy, /45-128/ μGy, /47-139/ μGy and from /68-299/ μGy for newborn, 1,5,10, and 15 years patients, respectively. The estimated ESA K were within the established international reference dose values and also the values obtained in previous studies. However, variations were observed in ESA K values among hospitals under study which could be due to the differences in exposure parameters used. Also tube output has some difference on the obtained ESA K. (Author)

  11. The correlation between the chest X-ray classifications and the pathogens of hand–foot–mouth disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-guo Li

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: There was some relativity between clinical grade and pathogens. The severe and critical HFMD were caused mainly by EV71, and the mild HFMD was caused mainly by other pathogens except EV71. There was no significant correlation between chest X-ray classification and pathogens, but in the same chest X-ray classification, the distribution of pathogens was not identical. For the limitations of this study, we will do more research in the future work.

  12. Diagnosis of IPA in HIV: The role of the chest X-ray and radiologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaspel, Uta; Denning, David W.; Lemke, Arne J.; Roettgen, Rainer; Bittner, Roland; Oestmann, Joerg W.; Greene, Reginald; Schuermann, Dirk; Maschmeyer, Georg; Ruhnke, Markus; Herbrecht, Raoul; Ribaud, Patricia; Lortholary, Olivier; Zonderland, Harmien; Rabe, Klaus F.; Neumann, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    The role of clinical information and chest film for the discrimination between invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and its differential diagnoses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was studied. The diagnostic performance of clinical information and chest film alone and in combination was studied for eight internists and eight radiologists with regular exposure to IPA patients. The multicenter case sample consisted of 25 patients with proven IPA and 25 with other pulmonary diseases typical for HIV. The cases were presented on a CD-ROM. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) methodology was employed. With clinical information alone, internists achieved the highest diagnostic performance (area under curve/AUC=0.84). Viewing the chest films did not contribute to their performance (AUC=0.80, P=0.26). The radiologist's performance on the basis of viewing the chest film (AUC=0.75) increased significantly (P=0.012) when clinical information (AUC=0.83) was supplied. IPA cases with characteristic radiological appearance were correctly identified in 90% with chest film. For radiologists with regular exposure to HIV patients, chest films hold relevant information and contribute to the determination in cases with characteristic radiological appearance. Overall and especially in cases with less characteristic radiological appearance, they have significant profit from full access to the clinical data. For internists with regular exposure to HIV patients, chest films do not provide information essential for the verification or differentiation of potential IPA. (orig.)

  13. Stationary chest tomosynthesis using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Jing; Lee, Yueh Z; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Tucker, Andrew W; Heath, Michael D; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David H

    2015-01-01

    Chest tomosynthesis is a low-dose, quasi-3D imaging modality that has been demonstrated to improve the detection sensitivity for small lung nodules, compared to 2D chest radiography. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility and system requirements of stationary chest tomosynthesis (s-DCT) using a spatially distributed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array, where the projection images are collected by electronically activating individual x-ray focal spots in the source array without mechanical motion of the x-ray source, detector, or the patient. A bench-top system was constructed using an existing CNT field emission source array and a flat panel detector. The tube output, beam quality, focal spot size, system in-plane and in-depth resolution were characterized. Tomosynthesis slices of an anthropomorphic chest phantom were reconstructed for image quality assessment. All 75 CNT sources in the source array were shown to operate reliably at 80 kVp and 5 mA tube current. Source-to-source consistency in the tube current and focal spot size was observed. The incident air kerma reading per mAs was measured as 74.47 uGy mAs −1 at 100 cm. The first half value layer of the beam was 3 mm aluminum. An average focal spot size of 2.5  ×  0.5 mm was measured. The system MTF was measured to be 1.7 cycles mm −1 along the scanning direction, and 3.4 cycles mm −1 perpendicular to the scanning direction. As the angular coverage of 11.6°–34°, the full width at half maximum of the artifact spread function improved greatly from 9.5 to 5.2 mm. The reconstructed tomosynthesis slices clearly show airways and pulmonary vascular structures in the anthropomorphic lung phantom. The results show the CNT source array is capable of generating sufficient dose for chest tomosynthesis imaging. The results obtained so far suggest an s-DCT using a distributed CNT x-ray source array is feasible. (paper)

  14. Dynamic chest radiography: flat-panel detector (FPD) based functional X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Rie

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic chest radiography is a flat-panel detector (FPD)-based functional X-ray imaging, which is performed as an additional examination in chest radiography. The large field of view (FOV) of FPDs permits real-time observation of the entire lungs and simultaneous right-and-left evaluation of diaphragm kinetics. Most importantly, dynamic chest radiography provides pulmonary ventilation and circulation findings as slight changes in pixel value even without the use of contrast media; the interpretation is challenging and crucial for a better understanding of pulmonary function. The basic concept was proposed in the 1980s; however, it was not realized until the 2010s because of technical limitations. Dynamic FPDs and advanced digital image processing played a key role for clinical application of dynamic chest radiography. Pulmonary ventilation and circulation can be quantified and visualized for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Dynamic chest radiography can be deployed as a simple and rapid means of functional imaging in both routine and emergency medicine. Here, we focus on the evaluation of pulmonary ventilation and circulation. This review article describes the basic mechanism of imaging findings according to pulmonary/circulation physiology, followed by imaging procedures, analysis method, and diagnostic performance of dynamic chest radiography.

  15. Recovery of silver from waste photographic x-ray films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nartey, V.K.; Donkor, A.; Fianko, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, metallic silver has been recovered from disused X-ray films by leaching the silver (Ag) with 50% and 70% nitric acid(HNO 3 ) aqueous solutions. The films were collected from four hospitals in Accra. This method of retrieving Ag is more environmentally friendly compared with the current traditional technique employing dilute sulfuric acid (33%) by the indigenous population to win Ag. More so, the traditional method is characterized by the emission of toxic fuming gases (e.g. sulfur dioxide) and particulates (e.g. lead and arsenic compounds) during the refining of the Ag while reporting.Average yield of recovered Ag was 50.6% following the traditional method whereas 77.0% and 82.9% were obtained using 50% and 70% HNO 3 respectively. (au)

  16. Thin film characterization by total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danel, Adrien; Nolot, Emmanuel; Veillerot, Marc; Olivier, Segolene; Decorps, Tifenn; Calvo-Munoz, Maria-Luisa; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Lhostis, Sandrine; Kohno, Hiroshi; Yamagami, Motoyuki; Geoffroy, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Sensitive and accurate characterization of films thinner than a few nm used in nanoelectronics represents a challenge for many conventional production metrology tools. With capabilities in the 10 10 at/cm 2 , methods usually dedicated to contamination analysis appear promising, especially Total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF). This study shows that under usual configuration for contamination analysis, with incident angle smaller than the critical angle of the substrate, TXRF signal saturation occurs very rapidly for dense films (below 0.5 nm for HfO 2 films on Si wafers using a 9.67 keV excitation at 0.5 deg.). Increasing the incident angle, the range of linear results can be extended, but on the other hand, the TXRF sensitivity is degraded because of a strong increase of the measurement dead time. On HfO 2 films grown on Si wafers, an incident angle of 0.32 deg. corresponding to a dead time of 95% was used to achieve linear analysis up to 2 nm. Composition analysis by TXRF, and especially the detection of minor elements into thin films, requires the use of a specific incident angle to optimize sensitivity. Although quantitative analyses might require specific calibration, this work shows on Co-based films that the ratio between minor elements (W, P, Mo) and Co taking into account their relative sensitivity factors is a good direct reading of the composition

  17. Problems and image processing in X-ray film digitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Syousuke; Yoshita, Hisashi; Kuranishi, Makoto; Itoh, Hajime; Mori, Kouichi; Konishi, Minoru

    1992-01-01

    Aiming at the realization of PACS, a study was conducted on the present state of, and various problems associated with, X-ray film digitization using a He-Ne laser-type film digitizer. Image quality was evaluated physically and clinically. With regard to the gradation specificity, the linear specificity was shown in a dynamic range of 4 figures. With regard to resolution specificity, visual evaluation was performed using a Hawlet Chart, with almost no difference being found between the CRT and laser printer output images and the decrease in resolution becoming more pronounced as the sampling pitch became greater. Clinical evaluation was performed with reference to the literature. The general evaluation of the clinicians was that although there was some deterioration for all of the shadows, (I have read this many times, but could not understand the last part.) by performing each of the kinds of image-processing enhancement of diagnostic ability was achieved, with a diagnosis being possible. The problem of unhindered diagnosis due to the development of artifacts from optical interference of the grid images projected onto the clinical pictures and digitizer sampling pitch was studied. As countermeasures, the use of a high density grid and adoption of a low-pass filter were useful in impending the development of artifacts. Regarding the operating problems, the inputting of index information requires a considerable number of manhours and a method of automatic recognition from digital data was introduced to overcome this problem. As future-prospects, the concepts of a practical system of X-ray film digitization and a film-screen system adapted to digitization were described. (author)

  18. Problems and image processing in X-ray film digitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Syousuke; Yoshita, Hisashi; Kuranishi, Makoto; Itoh, Hajime; Mori, Kouichi; Konishi, Minoru (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Hospital)

    1992-11-01

    Aiming at the realization of PACS, a study was conducted on the present state of, and various problems associated with, X-ray film digitization using a He-Ne laser-type film digitizer. Image quality was evaluated physically and clinically. With regard to the gradation specificity, the linear specificity was shown in a dynamic range of 4 figures. With regard to resolution specificity, visual evaluation was performed using a Hawlet Chart, with almost no difference being found between the CRT and laser printer output images and the decrease in resolution becoming more pronounced as the sampling pitch became greater. Clinical evaluation was performed with reference to the literature. The general evaluation of the clinicians was that although there was some deterioration for all of the shadows, (I have read this many times, but could not understand the last part.) by performing each of the kinds of image-processing enhancement of diagnostic ability was achieved, with a diagnosis being possible. The problem of unhindered diagnosis due to the development of artifacts from optical interference of the grid images projected onto the clinical pictures and digitizer sampling pitch was studied. As countermeasures, the use of a high density grid and adoption of a low-pass filter were useful in impending the development of artifacts. Regarding the operating problems, the inputting of index information requires a considerable number of manhours and a method of automatic recognition from digital data was introduced to overcome this problem. As future-prospects, the concepts of a practical system of X-ray film digitization and a film-screen system adapted to digitization were described. (author).

  19. Survey on th incidence of homeless pulmonary tuberculosis infection rate through chest x-ray examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Shin, Sung Rae [Dept. of Nursing, Sahmyook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Young Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hwan Yeal [Dept. of Medical Business Administration, U1 University, Yeongdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study, Seoul City shelter, you are trying to seek medical cooperation and cure rate increase proposal Yu fndings’s current situation and tuberculosis of homeless tuberculosis. Inspector, and has a total 591 people is targeted to implement an interview after acquiring utilization agreement in studies conducted chest X-ray photography. Of the interview questions, three or more protons, it is determined that the TB symptomatic conducted sputum examination, chest X-ray examination confrms the physician radiology, when sputum examination primarily chromatic fndings the double implemented and conducted by requesting the ship inspection also said inspection sputum acid-fast bacteria if it is true one, respectively. confrmed case result of checking whether there is a difference due to risk factors (Jb) at the chi square black, it was found that there is no statistically significant difference at 95% confidence level. (χ{sup 2}=0.276, p>0.05), suspected case (Ac, Ae) results of examining whether there is a difference due to risk factors in chi square black, that there is a statistically significant difference at 99% confidence level is I found (χ{sup 2}=9.414, p<0.01). The nature of the homeless tuberculosis screening and directed to the distance homeless specifc location are likely to evaluate the actual incidence low and aggressive or management needs, the rationale is allowed insufficient reality is. Through this research, future, for tuberculosis high risk tuberculosis patient, such as homeless to expand the tuberculosis screening of infectious tuberculosis patients in private medical institutions, and one-stop service that chest X-ray examination and sputum examination is carried out at the same time introduced immediately to prevent the inspection and examination, cure, and should establish a foundation that can be up to post administration.

  20. Dosimetry of chest X-Ray examinations in emergency care units of Belo Horizonte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Renato H.; Oliveira, Paulo M.C.; Lacerda, Marco A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Entrance Surface Air Kerma (Ka,e) values for different radiographic procedures were internationally established and recommended aiming patient protection. In this work, we evaluated patient doses from chest X-ray examinations, postero-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) projections, in Belo Horizonte ECU, as well as the X-ray equipment performance. X-ray tube outputs were measured. Patient's biotype data and exposure radiographic factors were collected, allowing the Ka,e determination. For the dosimetric evaluation only the examinations parameters with its images approved according to the European Quality Criteria were considered. Data from 541 patients were collected from a total of 897 radiographic procedures, once not all patients were submitted also to the LAT incidence. For adult patients the third quartile of the Ka,e values were less than or equal to the radiodiagnostic reference levels recommended by Brazilian legislation in the 5 ECUs evaluated. For pediatric patients chest examinations in PA and LAT projections, Ka,e values for the age groups 1 to 5 and 5 to 10 years old were close to the values recommended by the European Community. However, for the age group 10 to 15 years, values were found above the reference level in both incidences. For chest LAT projection, Ka,e values were twice higher than the reference level. In general, although Ka,e distributions are below the radiodiagnostic reference levels recommended by the national and international agencies, there is still the possibility of optimization, through an effective quality assurance program and quality control. This work contributes for the proposal of regional reference levels, consistent with national reality. (author)

  1. Dosimetry of chest X-Ray examinations in emergency care units of Belo Horizonte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, Renato H.; Oliveira, Paulo M.C.; Lacerda, Marco A.S., E-mail: renatokawamoto@gmail.com, E-mail: paulomarcio2000@gmail.com, E-mail: masl@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Entrance Surface Air Kerma (Ka,e) values for different radiographic procedures were internationally established and recommended aiming patient protection. In this work, we evaluated patient doses from chest X-ray examinations, postero-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) projections, in Belo Horizonte ECU, as well as the X-ray equipment performance. X-ray tube outputs were measured. Patient's biotype data and exposure radiographic factors were collected, allowing the Ka,e determination. For the dosimetric evaluation only the examinations parameters with its images approved according to the European Quality Criteria were considered. Data from 541 patients were collected from a total of 897 radiographic procedures, once not all patients were submitted also to the LAT incidence. For adult patients the third quartile of the Ka,e values were less than or equal to the radiodiagnostic reference levels recommended by Brazilian legislation in the 5 ECUs evaluated. For pediatric patients chest examinations in PA and LAT projections, Ka,e values for the age groups 1 to 5 and 5 to 10 years old were close to the values recommended by the European Community. However, for the age group 10 to 15 years, values were found above the reference level in both incidences. For chest LAT projection, Ka,e values were twice higher than the reference level. In general, although Ka,e distributions are below the radiodiagnostic reference levels recommended by the national and international agencies, there is still the possibility of optimization, through an effective quality assurance program and quality control. This work contributes for the proposal of regional reference levels, consistent with national reality. (author)

  2. Survey on th incidence of homeless pulmonary tuberculosis infection rate through chest x-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young; Shin, Sung Rae; Ryu, Young Hwan; Lim, Hwan Yeal

    2017-01-01

    This study, Seoul City shelter, you are trying to seek medical cooperation and cure rate increase proposal Yu fndings’s current situation and tuberculosis of homeless tuberculosis. Inspector, and has a total 591 people is targeted to implement an interview after acquiring utilization agreement in studies conducted chest X-ray photography. Of the interview questions, three or more protons, it is determined that the TB symptomatic conducted sputum examination, chest X-ray examination confrms the physician radiology, when sputum examination primarily chromatic fndings the double implemented and conducted by requesting the ship inspection also said inspection sputum acid-fast bacteria if it is true one, respectively. confrmed case result of checking whether there is a difference due to risk factors (Jb) at the chi square black, it was found that there is no statistically significant difference at 95% confidence level. (χ 2 =0.276, p>0.05), suspected case (Ac, Ae) results of examining whether there is a difference due to risk factors in chi square black, that there is a statistically significant difference at 99% confidence level is I found (χ 2 =9.414, p<0.01). The nature of the homeless tuberculosis screening and directed to the distance homeless specifc location are likely to evaluate the actual incidence low and aggressive or management needs, the rationale is allowed insufficient reality is. Through this research, future, for tuberculosis high risk tuberculosis patient, such as homeless to expand the tuberculosis screening of infectious tuberculosis patients in private medical institutions, and one-stop service that chest X-ray examination and sputum examination is carried out at the same time introduced immediately to prevent the inspection and examination, cure, and should establish a foundation that can be up to post administration

  3. Effective dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, F.R.A. [Centro regional de Ciencias Nucleares, CRCN/CNEN, Rua Conego Barata, 999, Tamarineira, Recife, PE (Brazil); Kramer, R.; Vieira, J.W.; Khoury, H.J. [Departamento de Energia Nuclear, DEN/UFPE, Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    The recently developed MAX (Male Adult voXel) and the FAXht (Female Adult voXel) head and trunk phantoms have been used to calculate organ and tissue equivalent dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen as a function of source and field parameters, like voltage, filtration, field size, focus-to-skin distance, etc. Based on the equivalent doses to twenty three organs and tissues at risk, the effective dose has been determined and compared with corresponding data for others phantoms. The influence of different radiation transport codes, different tissue compositions and different human anatomies have been investigated separately. (Author)

  4. A survey on respiratory diseases of atomic bomb survivors using chest X-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Noma, Koji; Ito, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Kamitsuna, Akimitsu; Nishimoto, Yukio; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1986-01-01

    From April 1981 through March 1986, 39,363 A-bomb survivors older than 50 years of age underwent chest X-ray examination. The incidence of abnormal findings was higher in men (28 %) than in women (13 %). The most common disease was old pulmonary tuberculosis in both men and women. The incidence of pulmonary fibrosis was remarkably high in survivors exposed directly to A-bomb radiation, when compared with controls. There was no data suggesting the relationship between the incidence of respiratory disease and exposure status such as the distance from ground zero. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Intelligent retrieval of chest X-ray image database using sketches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Jun-ichi; Okada, Noritake; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents further experiments on intelligent retrieval in our chest X-ray image database system using 'sketches'. First, in the previous sketch extraction procedure, vertical-location-invariant thresholding and shape-oriented smoothing are newly developed to improve the precision of lung borders and rib images in each sketch, respectively. Then, two new ways for image retrieval using sketches; (1) image-description retrieval and (2) pattern-matching retrieval, are proposed. In each retrieval way, a procedure for understanding picture queries input through a sketch is described in detail. (author)

  6. Chest X-ray and computed tomography in the evaluation of pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Porto, Nelson da Silva; Santana, Pablo Rydz

    2007-01-01

    Emphysema is a condition of the lung, characterized by the abnormal increase in the size of the airspace distal to the terminal bronchioles. Currently, emphysema is the fourth leading cause of death in the USA, affecting 14 million people. The present article describes the principal tools in the imaging diagnosis of emphysema, from the early days until the present. We describe traditional techniques, such as chest X-ray, together with the evolution of computed tomography (CT) to more advanced forms, such as high resolution CT, as well as three-dimensional CT densitometry and volumetric assessment. (author)

  7. Effective dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, F.R.A.; Kramer, R.; Vieira, J.W.; Khoury, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The recently developed MAX (Male Adult voXel) and the FAXht (Female Adult voXel) head and trunk phantoms have been used to calculate organ and tissue equivalent dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen as a function of source and field parameters, like voltage, filtration, field size, focus-to-skin distance, etc. Based on the equivalent doses to twenty three organs and tissues at risk, the effective dose has been determined and compared with corresponding data for others phantoms. The influence of different radiation transport codes, different tissue compositions and different human anatomies have been investigated separately. (Author)

  8. Preventing bacterial growth on implanted device with an interfacial metallic film and penetrating X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jincui; Sun, An; Qiao, Yong; Zhang, Peipei; Su, Ming

    2015-02-01

    Device-related infections have been a big problem for a long time. This paper describes a new method to inhibit bacterial growth on implanted device with tissue-penetrating X-ray radiation, where a thin metallic film deposited on the device is used as a radio-sensitizing film for bacterial inhibition. At a given dose of X-ray, the bacterial viability decreases as the thickness of metal film (bismuth) increases. The bacterial viability decreases with X-ray dose increases. At X-ray dose of 2.5 Gy, 98% of bacteria on 10 nm thick bismuth film are killed; while it is only 25% of bacteria are killed on the bare petri dish. The same dose of X-ray kills 8% fibroblast cells that are within a short distance from bismuth film (4 mm). These results suggest that penetrating X-rays can kill bacteria on bismuth thin film deposited on surface of implant device efficiently.

  9. Information about radiographic films rejects of dental x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cezimbra, M.R.; Bernarsiuk, M.E.; Bauer V, E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to qualify and quantify the number of dental x-ray films rejected in a Porto Alegre clinic. As we analyzed the captured data, it was concluded that, our of 1066 peri-apical films, we had a total percentage of 4.5% in relation to the total of the exams made. This 4.5% consists of the following rejects: placement, patient movement, technical errors, diaphragm, too much clarity in the result, double exposure, prolongation, shortness, darkened for not have been shot, superposed film. Because of that, the rejection, due to the bad placement of the film, is the one with the larger percentage value, i.e., 1.22% of the 4.5%. With the knowledge of the types of rejects and their causes, it was possible to correct some sources of systematic errors minimizing the repetition of the exams, saving costs, time and diminishing the ionizing radiation exposure for the patient, odontologist and his technical staff, which will be proved. (authors). 4 refs., 1 tab

  10. X-ray diffractometer configurations for thin film analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, A.

    1996-01-01

    A presentation of various configurations of focusing Seemann-Bohlin diffractometer, parafocusing Bragg-Brentano diffractometer and parallel beam are demonstrated. Equipped with different thin film attachments a comparison to conventional measurements are given. The application of different detector types like scintillation, gas proportional, electroluminescence (LUX) and solid state are described. Typical instrument set-ups for reflectometry, grazing incidence diffraction, total reflection, high resolution X-ray diffraction are explained. Different elements like slits, soller slits, pinhole collimators, crystal monochromators, monofiber (FOX) and polycapillaries (multifiber lens, Kumakhov lens'), flat or curved multilayer with constant or variable d-spacing, and their combinations are presented. The comparison of different beam conditioners in peak-to-background ratios are given. Wavelength dispersive scans show the energy discrimination possibilities of different beam optics

  11. X-ray diffractometer configurations for thin film analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, A [Rich. Seifert and Co., Analytical X-ray Systems, Ahrensburg (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    A presentation of various configurations of focusing Seemann-Bohlin diffractometer, parafocusing Bragg-Brentano diffractometer and parallel beam are demonstrated. Equipped with different thin film attachments a comparison to conventional measurements are given. The application of different detector types like scintillation, gas proportional, electroluminescence (LUX) and solid state are described. Typical instrument set-ups for reflectometry, grazing incidence diffraction, total reflection, high resolution X-ray diffraction are explained. Different elements like slits, soller slits, pinhole collimators, crystal monochromators, monofiber (FOX) and polycapillaries (multifiber lens, Kumakhov lens`), flat or curved multilayer with constant or variable d-spacing, and their combinations are presented. The comparison of different beam conditioners in peak-to-background ratios are given. Wavelength dispersive scans show the energy discrimination possibilities of different beam optics.

  12. The Role of Human Factor in Radiation Protection of Children During Chest X Ray Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, N.; Knezevic, Z.; Miljanic, S.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Milkovic, Dj.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation protection depends on many factors. Our study deals with the human factor, the radiology technicians' routine work. If all technical malfunctions are excluded they are responsible for the patient dose. Depending on their education and experience, technicians perform X ray examinations with various end results: image quality, entrance surface dose, patient interaction etc. In hospital setting we have consecutively chosen the study group of 20 children that had a clinical indication for a chest X ray examination (standard PA radiogram), for each of three technicians working at the radiology ward. A Shimadzu X ray machine was used in all cases. 60 children were from 6 to 12 years old and all parents were informed about the aim and the experimental details of the study. All of them gave their informed consent. Radiophotoluminescent (RPL) and thermoluminescent (TLD) dosimeters were applied at the entrance of the beam in the center of the X ray field to measure the entrance surface dose (ESD). Three differently experienced technicians were unaware of the objective of the study. Parameters that were noted were the kV, mAs and the size of the radiation field. The results show a good correlation in ESD between two technicians. Doses were significantly higher for the third one. After the results were known, protocols were designed and after educational interference, we continued to measure ESD again on a group of 40 children. The doses were reduced and there was a good correlation between all three technicians. With this work we want to clarify and show the importance of continuous education and good teamwork for dose reduction. In a sequel study, with the same three technicians, we hope to have results that would show a better dose reduction. (author)

  13. Detection and quantification of coronary calcium from dual energy chest x-rays: Phantom feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Wen, Di; Nye, Katelyn; Gilkeson, Robert C; Eck, Brendan; Jordan, David; Wilson, David L

    2017-10-01

    We have demonstrated the ability to identify coronary calcium, a reliable biomarker of coronary artery disease, using nongated, 2-shot, dual energy (DE) chest x-ray imaging. Here we will use digital simulations, backed up by measurements, to characterize DE calcium signals and the role of potential confounds such as beam hardening, x-ray scatter, cardiac motion, and pulmonary artery pulsation. For the DE calcium signal, we will consider quantification, as compared to CT calcium score, and visualization. We created stylized and anatomical digital 3D phantoms including heart, lung, coronary calcium, spine, ribs, pulmonary artery, and adipose. We simulated high and low kVp x-ray acquisitions with x-ray spectra, energy dependent attenuation, scatter, ideal detector, and automatic exposure control (AEC). Phantoms allowed us to vary adipose thickness, cardiac motion, etc. We used specialized dual energy coronary calcium (DECC) processing that includes corrections for scatter and beam hardening. Beam hardening over a wide range of adipose thickness (0-30 cm) reduced the change in intensity of a coronary artery calcification (ΔI CAC ) by calcium signal (ΔI CAC ) in DECC images ±9%. If a simulated pulmonary artery fills with blood between exposures, it can give rise to a residual signal in DECC images, explaining pulmonary artery visibility in some clinical images. Residual misregistration can be mostly compensated by integrating signals in an enlarged region encompassing registration artifacts. DECC calcium score compared favorably to CT mass and volume scores over a number of phantom perturbations. Simulations indicate that proper DECC processing can faithfully recover coronary calcium signals. Beam hardening, errors in scatter estimation, cardiac motion, calcium residual misregistration etc., are all manageable. Simulations are valuable as we continue to optimize DE coronary calcium image processing and quantitative analysis. © 2017 American Association of Physicists

  14. Recovery of silver from used X-ray film using alkaline protease from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silver is an important industrial metal used in several areas such as photographic and x-ray films, jewelries, silver wares and electronic objects. Silver is used for photographic film/x-ray film because of its matchless quality as a light-sensitive material for making a photographic image. Silver is not destroyed in the ...

  15. Reflectivity and diffraction of X rays applied to organic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieutord, Francois

    1987-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of organic thin films by using X-ray-based technologies, and more particularly X-ray reflectivity. After some recalls on X ray diffraction, and on the fabrication of Langmuir-Blodgett films, the author shows how, by combining three X-ray-based techniques, it is possible to study a volume structure of a thin film. He describes the technique of measurement by X- ray reflexivity, its experimental implementation, and methods for result interpretation. In the next part, the author reports the study of peculiar interference effects which are noticed in reflexivity on Langmuir-Blodgett films, and then describes the nature of these films by correlating results of X ray reflexivity with direct observations performed by electronic microscopy on replica [fr

  16. Facility for testing and certification of medical x-ray films at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Reena; Jayalakshmi, V.; Nair, C.P.R.

    2006-12-01

    The major problem faced in the x-ray department with regard to x-ray films is the non consistent image quality of x-ray films leading to lesions missed/ wrong diagnosis and as a result retakes of the examination and increased radiation dosage to the patient. This report illustrates the methodology adopted by this Division towards implementation of quality assurance of the basic imaging devices namely the medical x-ray films. The characteristics properties desirable in x-ray films are the qualitative response of the emulsion to standard set of exposure and processing conditions in terms of speed, contrast and density. It should be consistent for exposure conditions in a custom built equipment simulating the quantum and type of energy that would be received by the film during diagnostic examinations. The phantom, geometrical set up and beam quality specifications as per the ISO standards required for x-ray sensitometry have been described in this report. (author)

  17. Tone control of overexposed and underexposed x-ray films by using duplicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Myeong Im; Jeon, Jung Soo; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Not infrequently overexposed or underexposed x-ray films impose difficulty in interpretation necessitating repeated radiography. However, repeated examination is not always possible because of the transfer, discharge, and dying of the patients. Then, retonning of improper films is much desirable especially when such films are of considerable clinical and academical importance. The authors carried out a series of experiment to improve the tone of the overexposed and underexposed x-ray films by different exposure times. During duplicating the overexposed film, the film density because bright and imaging details were improved by increasing the exposure time. Underexposed film, however, did not showing any improvement of imaging details but darkened only of overall film density. Therefore, qualified reproduction of overexposed x-ray film using the x-ray film duplicator was easy to do and valuable in the management of film quality without any damage to the original film

  18. The combination of an industrial X-ray-film with a vacuum-adapter instead of a foil-less industrial X-ray-film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, C.S.; Rotte, K.

    1980-01-01

    In clinical routine it was proved, how far an industrial X-ray-film in combination with the low-dose-system gives the same evidence as an foil-less industrial X-ray-film. Patients which had got in the past a mammography at both sides with a foil-less industrial X-ray-film received a mammography at both sides with the low-dose-system. Both X-rays were compared in the following criteria: artefacts, micro-calcifications, structure-differentiation, difinition, contrast, exposure, time of diagnosis and overal impression. Considering an evident dose reduction by the low-dose-system the result is, that a film-foil-combination with a vacuum-adapter is available without impairment of diagnostic evidence in clinical routine. (orig.) [de

  19. Radiographers' performance in chest X-ray interpretation: the Nigerian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, N O; Akpan, B E

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the performance of Nigerian radiographers in interpretation of plain chest radiographs and to assess whether age, years since qualification and sector of practice are associated with performance. Methods: A test set of 50 radiographs containing 23 cases with no pathology (normal) and 27 abnormal cases (cardiopulmonary conditions) independently confirmed by 3 radiologists were presented to 51 radiographers in a random order. Readers independently evaluated radiographs for absence or presence of disease and stated the location, radiographic features and diagnosis. Readers self-reported their age, years since qualification and sector of practice. Receiver operating characteristic was used to assess the performance. Mann–Whitney U test was used to assess whether age, years since qualification and sector of practice were associated with performance. Results: Mean location sensitivity was 88.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.787–0.980]. Mean sensitivity and specificity were 76.9 (95% CI, 0.658–0.864) and 79.8 (95% CI, 0.658–0.864), respectively. Age was not associated with performance (p = 0.07). Number of years qualified as radiographer (p = 0.005) and private practice (p = 0.004) were positively associated with performance. Conclusion: Nigerian radiographers can correctly report chest radiographs to a reasonable standard, and performance is associated with number of years since qualification and the sector of practice. Advances in knowledge: There are less than 300 radiologists serving a Nigerian population of about 170 million; therefore, X-ray interpretation by radiographers deserves consideration. Nigerian radiographers have potential to interpret chest X-ray in the clinical setting, and this may significantly improve radiology service delivery in this region. PMID:25966290

  20. Rare cause of multiple nodular opacities at chest x-ray: pulmonary hydatid cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inan, K.; Hamcan, S.; Gumus, S.; Turhan, U.; Karaman, B.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Hydatid disease is incidentally common in our country. Objectives and tasks: In this study, unlike the classical radiological appearance of hydatid disease of the lung, MDCT appearance of multiple nodules were demonstrated. Materials and methods: The patient who comes our hospital's Pulmonary Clinic with shortness of breath and with membranes that come from his mouth, referred to our clinic for chest radiography and chest HRCT. Results: In the conventional chest x-ray, multiple nodular opacities in both lungs were common. HRCT was performed with 5 mm and 1 mm thick sections of our patient. In both hemithorax, multiple nodular lesions were found in various sizes and configurations, some of them opened to the bronchus which is the largest one is 2 cm in diameter. Nodule in the left hemithorax inferior lingular segment has calcified wall. Patient's Echinococcus granulosus test was evaluated positive for IgG. Conclusion: Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation created by Echinococcus granulosus. Although seen most frequently in the liver, often seen in the lungs 10-30%.. 30 to 50% of cases are asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed radiologically. Although we know that the classic radiologic findings of hydatid cyst, different radiographic views (eg nodular mass) should be considered in rare circumstances

  1. X-ray film reject rate analysis at eight selected government hospitals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to identify the main causes of film faults as well as the pattern and magnitude of film ... ensure satisfactory performance of radiographic x-ray equipment on a day-to-day basis. Quality assurance programs are primarily concerned with maintaining of X- ray imaging equipment at the ...

  2. The sensitizing phenomenon of X-ray film in the experiment of metals loaded with deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Suhe; Wang Dalun; Chen Wenjang; Li Yijun; Fu Yibei; Zhang Xinwei

    1993-01-01

    The sensitizing phenomenon of X-ray film was studied, in metals loaded with deuterium, by a cycle method of temperature and pressure (CMTP). The experimental results showed that the sensitization of X-ray film was derived from the chemical reaction and the anomalous effect of metals loaded with deuterium. (author)

  3. Evaluation of skin entrance radiation dose in pediatric patients undergoing chest X-rays exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabardo, Farly Piantini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the incident air kerma of lateral (LAT) and anterior-posterior (AP) together with posterior-anterior (PA) projection chest X-ray exams in one of the largest pediatric hospitals in Brazil. Dosimetric results are accompanied with the detailed analysis of patient characteristics and radiographer strategy. The exams of 225 (119 male and 106 female) patients were studied and 389 X-ray exams (200 AP/PA projections and 189 LAT projections) of pediatric patients were acquired. Patient thickness can be restored from age, height or weight with the uncertainty of ∼20-30%. Very slight correlation between the patient dose and thickness was observed with the difference in dose for patients of the same thickness reaching 4 times. By standardization of radiological protocols, it should be possible to keep dose within the intervals 50-100 μGy for LAT projection and 40-80 μGy for AP/PA projection. The dose values are lower than those recommended by major European guidelines to good practice. (author)

  4. Evaluation of body simulator for chest and abdomen in digital X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Sidney S.; Cardoso, Gabriela P.; Oliveira, Giovanni Antônio P.; Batista, Adriana S.M.; Pereira, Esther Lorrayne M.

    2017-01-01

    The use of body simulators to control the quality of X-ray images is a practice that guarantees the control of essential parameters for diagnosis by the technique. The evolution of the equipment, between the analogue, digital computerized radiology (CR) and direct radiography (DR), requires evaluation of the equivalence in grayscale, of simulators, for an adjustment according to the specific technology of obtaining the image. In this sense, the present work presents the evaluation of a body simulator with regard to the representation of mean values of signal, noise and contrast obtained in chest radiographs and panoramic of the abdomen. For the thorax the cardiac region was considered as simulation target and for the abdomen simulation of the liver and small intestine. We used a retrospective study of images obtained with X-ray equipment - CR system, in which the images were studied using the ImageJ program, generating a data catalog. These were subsequently compared with those obtained experimentally using gel filled polymer body simulator. For the validation of the simulator, it was observed the gel equivalence of filling of the polymer box required to reach the image parameters of the cataloged radiographs. The results are discussed as to the physical principles of radiation interaction with biological and equivalent tissues

  5. Dose evaluation in paediatric patients undergoing chest X-ray examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantini, F.; Schelin, H. R.; Denyak, V.; Bunick, A. P.; Legnani, A.; Ledesma, J. A.; Filipov, D.; Paschuk, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to estimate the incident air kerma in chest X-ray examinations, for lateral (LAT) and anterior-posterior (AP) (together with posterior-anterior (PA)) projections, in one of the largest paediatric hospitals in Brazil, and to compare these with the results obtained in a general hospital of the same city. The dosimetric results were analysed along with the patient characteristics and radiographer strategies. The examinations of 225 (119 male and 106 female) patients were studied and 389 X-ray scans (200 AP/PA projections and 189 LAT projections) of paediatric patients were acquired. For analysis of the results, the patients were divided into the following age groups: 0-1 y, 1-5 y, 5-10 y, and 10-15 y. Patient's thickness can be determined from age, height or weight with an uncertainty of 20-30%. In different hospitals, the difference in patient's thicknesses between the same age groups can reach 25-55%. A minimal correlation between the patient dose and thickness was observed, with a 4-fold difference in the dose for patients of the same thickness. By standardizing radiological protocols, it should be possible to keep the dose within intervals of 50-100 μGy for LAT projection and 40-80 μGy for AP/PA projection.

  6. Routine X-ray of the chest is not justified in staging of cutaneous melanoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjorup, Caroline Asirvatham; Hendel, Helle Westergren; Pilegaard, Rita Kaae

    2016-01-01

    -up was 34 months (range: 13-75 months). Of the 603 patients, 25 (4%) had a positive CXR and 578 (96%) had a negative CXR. Four (0.7%) patients had lung metastases of whom two had a true positive and two a false negative CXR, respectively. The sensitivity was 50%, specificity was 96%, the positive predictive...... received funding from the Department of Plastic Surgery, the Research Council at Herlev Gentofte Hospital and the Danish Cancer Society. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Danish Regional Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics (r. no.: H-4-2014-127), the Danish Data Protection Agency (2012-58-0004, local record no......INTRODUCTION: The incidence of cutaneous melanoma is increasing in Denmark and worldwide. However, the prevalence of distant metastases at the time of diagnosis has decreased to 1%. We therefore questioned the value of routine preoperative chest X-ray (CXR) for staging asymptomatic melanoma...

  7. A study to compare chest X-ray reports on overseas nursing recruits.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, S

    2010-05-01

    This study was carried out to assess if there was a difference in the Chest X- ray (CXR) report on recruited nurses carried out overseas and later repeated in Ireland. This study was carried out in two Irish teaching hospitals. The subjects of this study comprised all overseas nurses recruited in each of the two hospitals within the defined period. The total number of subjects recruited from the 2 two centres was 84. Only nurses that had a repeat CXR were included in this study. 6\\/84 (7%) of the CXR that were initially reported as normal were subsequently reported as abnormal and were later diagnosed as Latent TB. 2\\/84(2%) of the CXR that were reported as abnormal were subsequently reported as normal. The data collected in this study has demonstrated that there was a significant difference in the CXR report from overseas and the CXR report in Ireland.

  8. Evaluation of the Beam Quality of Intraoral X-ray Equipment using Intraoral Standard Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Sub; Kwon, Hyok Rak; Sim, Woo Hyoun; Oh, Seung Hyoun; Lee, Ji Youn; Jeon, Kug Jin; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    2000-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the beam quality of intraoral X-ray equipment used at Yonsei University Dental Hospital (YUDH) using the half value layer (HVL) and the characteristic curve of intraoral standard X-ray film. The study was done using the intraoral X-ray equipment used at each clinical department at YUDH. Aluminum filter was used to determine the HVL. Intraoral standard film was used to get the characteristic curve of each intraoral X-ray equipment. Most of the HVLs of intraoral X-ray equipment were higher than the least recommended thickness, but the REX 601 model used at the operative dentistry department and the X-707 model used at the pediatric dentistry department had HVLs lower than the recommended thickness. The slopes of the characteristic curves of films taken using the PANPAS 601 model and REX 601 model at operative dentistry department, the X-70S model of prosthodontic dentistry department, and the REX 601 model at the student clinic were relatively low. HVL and the characteristic curve of X-ray film can be used to evaluate the beam quality of intraoral X-ray equipment. In order to get the best X-ray films with the least radiation exposure to patients and best diagnostic information in clinical dentistry, X-ray equipment should be managed in the planned and organized fashion.

  9. One Year Study of Chest X-Ray Changes in Opiate -poisoned Patients in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari M.R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Intoxication with opiates is one of the most common causes of referring to emergency departments in Iran. Because respiratory signs are one of the most common and important signs in these patients, this study was designed to evaluate the chest x-ray changes of the patients.Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional one. The changes noted in the Chest X-Ray (CXR of the patients having been intoxicated with opiates and referred with respiratory signs of intoxication during the one year period between July 2007 till July 2008 to Farshchian Hospital in Hamadan were studied. The data, then, were gathered and analyzed using T and chi-square statistical tests.Results: Out of 1698 patients having referred due to poisoning with drugs and chemical agents, 318(18.72% patients were admitted due to opiates intoxication. Among them, 214 (67.29% had respiratory signs. 84.1% were male and 15.9% were female. Their average age was 35.6. The most important substance used was opium (57.5%.Most of the cases (84.1% were due to abuse. The most common physical signs were: miosis (83.6%, respiratory distress (74.8%, rales & wheezing (67.3%. The most common radiographic abnormality was pulmonary edema (14.5%. And the most common substance causing pulmonary edema was crack (59.4% revealing a significant statistical difference (p=0.001. Conclusion: As expected, one of the most important complications and common causes of death in opiate-poisoned patients was respiratory problems; we suggest that physicians and staffs working in the emergency department be well-trained in management of such patients.Keywords: Radiography, Thoracic; Analgesics, Opioid; Poisoning; Pulmonary Edema.

  10. The completeness of chest X-ray procedure codes in the Danish National Patient Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjertholm P

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Peter Hjertholm,1 Kaare Rud Flarup,1 Louise Mahncke Guldbrandt,1 Peter Vedsted1,2 1Research Center for Cancer Diagnosis in Primary Care, Department of Public Health, 2University Clinic for Innovative Health Care Delivery, Diagnostic Centre, Silkeborg Hospital, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Objective: The aim of this validation study was to assess the completeness of the registrations of chest X-rays (CXR in two different versions of the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR. Material and methods: We included electronic record data on CXR performed on patients aged 40 to 99 years from nine radiology departments covering 20 Danish hospitals. From each department, we included data from three randomly selected weeks between 2004 and 2011 (reference standard. In two versions of the DNPR from the State Serum Institute (SSI and Statistics Denmark, respectively, we investigated the proportion of registered CXR compared to the reference standard. Furthermore, we compared the completeness of the recorded data according to the responsible department (main department. Results: We identified 11,235 patients and 12,513 CXR in the reference standard. The data from the SSI contained 12,265 (98% CXR, whereas the data from Statistics Denmark comprised 9,151 (73.1% CXR. The completeness of the SSI data was fairly constant across years, radiology departments, medical specialties, and age groups. The data from Statistics Denmark was almost complete in 2011 (95.8%. However, for the remaining study period, the data with radiology departments registered as the main department were lacking in the version from Statistics Denmark, and so the overall completeness was 73.1%. Conclusion: The completeness of CXR registrations varied between 98% and 73% depending on the information source, and this should be considered when investigating radiology services in the basis of DNPR. Keywords: chest X-ray, Danish National Patient Registry

  11. Provider perceptions concerning use of chest x-ray studies in adult blunt trauma assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Georgina; Perez, Daniel; Fortman, Jonathan; Kea, Bory; Rodriguez, Robert M

    2012-10-01

    Although they infrequently lead to management changing diagnoses, chest x-rays (CXRs) are the most commonly ordered imaging study in blunt trauma evaluation. To determine: 1) the reasons physicians order chest X-ray studies (CXRs) in blunt trauma assessments; 2) what injuries they expect CXRs to reveal; and 3) whether physicians can accurately predict low likelihood of injury on CXR. At a Level I Trauma Center, we asked resident and attending physicians treating adult blunt trauma patients: 1) the primary reason(s) for getting CXRs; 2) what, if any, significant intrathoracic injuries (SITI) they expected CXRs to reveal; and 3) the likelihood of these injuries. An expert panel defined SITI as two or more rib fractures, sternal fracture, pulmonary contusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax, or aortic injury on official CXR readings. There were 484 patient encounters analyzed--65% of participating physicians were residents and 35% were attendings; 16 (3.3%) patients had SITI. The most common reasons for ordering CXRs were: "enough concern for significant injury" (62.9%) and belief that CXR is a "standard part of trauma work-up" (24.8%). Residents were more likely than attendings to cite "standard trauma work-up" (mean difference = 13.5%, p = 0.003). When physicians estimated a 25% likelihood, 9.1% (95% CI 3.0-20.0%) had SITI. Physicians order CXRs in blunt trauma patients because they expect to find injuries and believe that CXRs are part of a "standard" work-up. Providers commonly do not expect CXRs to reveal SITI. When providers estimated low likelihood of SITI, the rate of SITI was very low. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Lead foil in dental X-ray film: Backscattering rejection or image intensifier?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hönnicke, M.G.; Delben, G.J.; Godoi, W.C.; Swinka-Filho, V.

    2014-01-01

    Dental X-ray films are still largely used due to sterilization issues, simplicity and, mainly, economic reasons. These films almost always are double coated (double emulsion) and have a lead foil in contact with the film for X-ray backscattering rejection. Herein we explore the use of the lead foil as an image intensifier. In these studies, spatial resolution was investigated when images were acquired on the dental X-ray films with and without the lead foil. Also, the lead foil was subjected to atomic analysis (fluorescent measurements) and structure analysis (X-ray diffraction). We determined that the use of the lead foil reduces the exposure time, however, does not affect the spatial resolution on the acquired images. This suggests that the fluorescent radiation spread is smaller than the grain sizes of the dental X-ray films

  13. Lead foil in dental X-ray film: Backscattering rejection or image intensifier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Delben, G. J.; Godoi, W. C.; Swinka-Filho, V.

    2014-11-01

    Dental X-ray films are still largely used due to sterilization issues, simplicity and, mainly, economic reasons. These films almost always are double coated (double emulsion) and have a lead foil in contact with the film for X-ray backscattering rejection. Herein we explore the use of the lead foil as an image intensifier. In these studies, spatial resolution was investigated when images were acquired on the dental X-ray films with and without the lead foil. Also, the lead foil was subjected to atomic analysis (fluorescent measurements) and structure analysis (X-ray diffraction). We determined that the use of the lead foil reduces the exposure time, however, does not affect the spatial resolution on the acquired images. This suggests that the fluorescent radiation spread is smaller than the grain sizes of the dental X-ray films.

  14. Quality assurance through constancy control for X-ray film processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weberling, R.

    1982-01-01

    A control method to check the reproduction of X-ray film processors and necessary instruments is presented. The application of a light sensitometer allows the production of test films daily, independent of X-ray exposures, X-ray film cassettes and X-ray intensifying screens. The optical densities on the test films will be read by means of a densitometer and the results are plotted on a special control chart. A limitation through optical densities of +-0,15 for Speed Index and +-0,20 for Contrast Index determines the tolerance variation for X-ray film processors. Targets of this control method are uniform image quality, dose reduction and saving of cost. (orig.) [de

  15. The relationship of over density to overexposure each film/screen systems in chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Min; Huo Joon [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Taro, Hayash; Yuji, Ishida; Tatsuya, Sakurai [The Chemotherapeutic Istitute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    This study is to calculate the exposed radiation dose using Bit method, NDD calculation method and monogram method without dosimeter. In addition,we can calculate the radiation dose from x-ray film density as a film badge. The authors examined the entrance skin dose from 2 {approx} 3 intercostal chest x-ray film density. We also studied the relationship between film density and equivalent dose in the each screen film system under the different radiation quality and the poor geometry condition of grid ratio. As results, we established the deductive method to define the entrance skin dose from chest x-ray film density. The error range was found in the range -13 percent {approx} +17 percent for between deductive entrance skin dose and the 2 {approx} 3 inter coastal chest x-ray film density to actual detective radiation dose with dosimeter. (author)

  16. Some complementary results to the granularity of industrial X-ray films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stade, J.

    1987-01-01

    The granularity of industrial x-ray films was examined by measurements of the Wiener spectra. The dependence of the Weiner spectra on film density, type of film, type of developer, energy of the exposing x-radiation, and light exposure, was also investigated. The results revealed that the Weiner spectrum or related quantities were suitable as a tool for measuring the influence of different radiographic parameters on the x-ray film, as well as to characterize its properties. (UK)

  17. The utility of chest X-ray as a screening tool for blunt thoracic aortic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Adam; Inaba, Kenji; Siboni, Stefano; Effron, Zachary; Haltmeier, Tobias; Jaffray, Paul; Reddy, Sravanthi; Lofthus, Alexander; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Dubose, Joseph; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2016-01-01

    The early and accurate identification of patients with blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) remains a challenge. Traditionally, a portable AP chest X-ray (CXR) is utilized as the initial screening modality for BTAI, however, there is controversy surrounding its sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to assess the sensitivity of CXR as a screening modality for BTAI. After IRB approval, all adult (≥18 yo) blunt trauma patients admitted to LAC+USC (01/2011-12/2013) who underwent CXR and chest CT were retrospectively reviewed. Final radiology attending CXR readings were reviewed for mediastinal abnormalities (widened mediastinum, mediastinal to chest width ratio greater than 0.25, irregular aortic arch, blurred aortic contour, opacification of the aortopulmonary window, and apical pleural haematoma) suggestive of aortic injury. Chest CT final attending radiologist readings were utilized as the gold standard for diagnosis of BTAI. The primary outcome analyzed was CXR sensitivity. A total of 3728 patients were included in the study. The majority of patients were male (72.6%); mean age was 43 (SD 20). Median ISS was 9 (IQR 4-17) and median GCS was 15 (IQR 14-15). The most common mechanism of injury was MVC (48.0%), followed by fall (20.6%), and AVP (16.9%). The total number of CXRs demonstrating a mediastinal abnormality was 200 (5.4%). Widened mediastinum was present on 191 (5.1%) of CXRs, blurred aortic contour on 10 (0.3%), and irregular aortic arch on 4 (0.1%). An acute aortic injury confirmed by chest CT was present in 17 (0.5%) patients. Only 7 of these with CT-confirmed BTAI had a mediastinal abnormality identified on CXR, for a sensitivity of 41% (95% CI: 19-67%). The results from this study suggest that CXR alone is not a reliable screening modality for BTAI. A combination of screening CXR and careful consideration of other factors, such as mechanism of injury, will be required to effectively discriminate between those who should and should not undergo chest

  18. Notes on a local study on effectiveness and risk of X-ray mass chest screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbina, V.; Leonardi, M.

    1987-01-01

    This contribution consists of some special remarks, which may be of general interest, on the results of a local investigation on effectiveness and radiological risk of mass chest screening carried out in Friuli Venezia Giulia, an area of North-East Italy limited by well defined geographical and administrative borders. Population is about 1,300,000, ten percent of which is undergoing X-ray chest screening each year. The results of the study are in the working report of the technical workshop on mass screening organized on 4-5 December 1984 in Luxembourg by CEC and CEA. The study itself does not intend to have any character of generality. It has been proposed as an example of syntetic methodology for other similar local investigations which could possibly constitute a reliable basis for putting together larger ones, of national range, as already mentioned in the report. The conclusions on the results of this study seem obvious to us, however, we are aware that any obvious conclusion must be considered very carefully especially when dealing with a very complex matter as epidemiologic statistic, and particularly if we consider the previous papers on this subject as well as other reports presented in the workshop. Finally, we hope that our remarks may at least contribute as a good background for further discussion

  19. Thin film characterisation by advanced X-ray diffraction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappuccio, G; Terranova, M L [eds.; INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1996-09-01

    This report described the papers presented at the 5. School on X-ray diffraction from polycrystalline materials held at Frascati (Rome) in 2-5 October 1996. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers.

  20. Complex of structural roentgenometric and optical parameters of chest X-ray picture for automated fluorograms processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodzaevskij, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The formalized description necessary for the development of algorithms for determination of main object boundaries by the roentgenologic picture during computerized photoroentgenograms processing is drawn up on the basis of the complex of structural roentgenometric parameters of the chest X-ray picture

  1. The chest X-ray manifestations of children with highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection (a report of 1 final diagnosis case and 1 borderline case)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Ke; Chen Hua; Tan Lihua; Yuan Youhong; Xiao Enhua; Luo Ruping; Li Wanging; Xu Heping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the chest X-ray manifestations of children with highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection. Methods: The pulmonary X-ray findings in 1 patient was confirmed by the World Health Organization infected H5N1 avian influenza vires and 1 borderline patient was retrospectively analyzed. Results: Both sides of lung field showed the cloudy and massive infiltration in chest X-ray film. The lesions of lung distributed extensively and symmetrically. Radiological dynamic changes showed the variation of the lesions of lung was quick in a short time. It had a characteristic of roving around. The lesions of lung appeared fibrosis at the period of the end. Conclusion: There are some radiographic characteristics in children with H5N1 avian influenza vires infection. It will be helpful for its diagnosis when getting familiar with its X-ray manifestations, but the final diagnosis is dependent on the epidemiology history and laboratory results. (authors)

  2. Routinely obtained chest X-rays after elective video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery can be omitted in most patients; a retrospective, observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars S; Jensen, Katrine; Petersen, René Horsleben

    2015-01-01

    divided into three groups according to the degree of pulmonary resection. The chest X-rays (obtained anterior-posterior in one plane with the patient in the supine position) were categorized as abnormal if showing pneumothorax >5 cm, possible intra-thoracic bleeding and/or a displaced chest tube. Medical....... Proportions of abnormal chest X-rays were unequally distributed between groups (p pneumothorax >5 cm and one showed a kinked chest...

  3. The X-ray sensitivity of semi-insulating polycrystalline CdZnTe thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jae Ho; Kim, Ki Hyun; Suh, Jong Hee; Cho, Shin Hang; Cho, Pyong Kon; Hong, Jin Ki; Kim, Sun Ung

    2008-01-01

    The X-ray sensitivity is one of the important parameters indicating the detector performance. The X-ray sensitivity of semi-insulating polycrystalline CdZnTe:Cl thick films was investigated as a function of electric field, mean photon energy, film thickness, and charge carrier transport parameters and, compared with another promising detector materials. The X-ray sensitivities of the polycrystalline CdZnTe films with 350 μm thickness were about 2.2 and 6.2 μC/cm 2 /R in the ohmic-type and Schottky-type detector at 0.83 V/μm, respectively

  4. Combined ellipsometry and X-ray related techniques for studies of ultrathin organic nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, Markus, E-mail: axo@standing-waves.d [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS-e.V., Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Str. 11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany); AXO DRESDEN GmbH, Siegfried-Raedel-Str. 31, 01809 Heidenau (Germany); Roodenko, Katy [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS-e.V.-Department Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Laboratory for Surface and Nanostructure Modification, University of Texas at Dallas-NSERL, 800W. Campbell Rd., Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Pollakowski, Beatrix [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Hinrichs, Karsten [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS-e.V.-Department Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Rappich, Joerg [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Abteilung Silizium-Photovoltaik, Kekulestr. 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Esser, Norbert [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS-e.V.-Department Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Bohlen, Alex von; Hergenroeder, Roland [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS-e.V., Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Str. 11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-07-30

    Ultrathin nanocomposite films of nitrobenzene on silicon were analyzed by Infrared Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (IRSE), X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and X-ray standing waves (XSW) before and after evaporation of gold. Infrared Spectroscopic Ellipsometry measurements were performed for identification of adsorbates and for investigation of the molecular orientation. Results for film thickness were correlated with XRR measurements. Further, XSW measurements of elements incorporated in nitrobenzene (C, N, and O) were performed with soft X-rays. The combination of the different methods allowed to confirm a model for the electrochemically deposited nitrobenzene films before and after gold evaporation. The characterization by XRR and XSW scans using hard X-rays showed that gold had penetrated into the nitrobenzene film and thus changed density and optical properties of this layer significantly. A depth profile correlated to the electron density is deduced from the XRR measurements. This profile allows to localize-in vertical direction-gold islands within the composite film.

  5. X-ray radiation damage of organic semiconductor thin films during grazing incidence diffraction experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhold, A., E-mail: alfred.neuhold@tugraz.at [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Novak, J.; Flesch, H.-G.; Moser, A.; Djuric, T. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Grodd, L.; Grigorian, S.; Pietsch, U. [Institute of Physics, University Siegen (Germany); Resel, R. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria)

    2012-08-01

    Since modern synchrotrons with highly intense X-ray beams are in use to investigate organic materials, the stability of soft matter materials during beam exposure is a crucial issue. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and specular X-ray reflectivity measurements were performed on thin films of organic semiconducting materials, like poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), sexithiophene and pentacene. These films were irradiated with an average flux density between 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 16} photons/(s mm{sup 2}) and evidenced a different stability in synchrotron X-ray radiation. The semi-crystalline P3HT showed a clear intensity decrease of the 1 0 0 Bragg peak and 0 2 0 Bragg peak compared to the rather stable diffraction features of the molecular crystals sexithiophene and pentacene. The difference in synchrotron X-ray radiation stability is explained by the interaction of the X-ray beam with the individual chemical components in the molecules as well as by the different crystallinities of the materials. Furthermore, the semi-crystalline P3HT film exhibited an increase of film thickness after irradiation and the surface roughness slightly decreased. To summarize, this study shows a strong influence of synchrotron X-ray radiation to specific organic thin films like e.g. P3HT, while others like pentacene and sexithiophene are observed as quite stable.

  6. Adaptive wiener filter based on Gaussian mixture distribution model for denoising chest X-ray CT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, Motohiro; Yamane, Nobumoto; Morikawa, Yoshitaka

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, X-ray CT imaging has become more important as a result of its high-resolution performance. However, it is well known that the X-ray dose is insufficient in the techniques that use low-dose imaging in health screening or thin-slice imaging in work-up. Therefore, the degradation of CT images caused by the streak artifact frequently becomes problematic. In this study, we applied a Wiener filter (WF) using the universal Gaussian mixture distribution model (UNI-GMM) as a statistical model to remove streak artifact. In designing the WF, it is necessary to estimate the statistical model and the precise co-variances of the original image. In the proposed method, we obtained a variety of chest X-ray CT images using a phantom simulating a chest organ, and we estimated the statistical information using the images for training. The results of simulation showed that it is possible to fit the UNI-GMM to the chest X-ray CT images and reduce the specific noise. (author)

  7. Chest x-ray as a screening tool for blunt thoracic trauma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchar, Natalie L; Woo, Kenneth; Brennan, Maureen; Palmer, Cameron S; Zs Ee, Michael; Sweeney, Brian; Crameri, Joe

    2013-10-01

    With the increasing use of thoracic computed tomography (CT) to screen for injuries in pediatric blunt thoracic trauma (BTT), we determined whether chest x-ray (CXR) and other clinical and epidemiologic variables could be used to predict significant thoracic injuries, to inform the selective use of CT in pediatric BTT. We further queried if these were discrepant from factors associated with the decision to obtain a thoracic CT. This retrospective cohort study included cases of BTT from three Level I pediatric trauma centers between April 1999 and March 2008. Pre-CT epidemiologic, clinical, and radiologic variables associated with CT findings of any thoracic injury or a significant thoracic injury as well as the decision to obtain a thoracic CT were determined using logistic regression. Of 425 patients, 40% patients had a significant thoracic injury, 49% had nonsignificant thoracic injury, and 11% had no thoracic injury at all. Presence of hydrothorax and/or pneumothorax on CXR significantly increased the likelihood of significant chest injury visualized by CT (adjusted odds ratio 10.8; 95% confidence interval, 6.5-18), as did the presence of isolated subcutaneous emphysema (adjusted odds ratio, 19.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.3-168). Although a normal CXR finding was not statistically associated with a reduced risk of significant thoracic injury, 8 of the 9 cases with normal CXR findings and significant injuries involved occult pneumothoraces or hemothoraces not requiring intervention. Converse to features suggesting increased risk of significant injury, the decision to obtain a thoracic CT was only associated with later period in the study and obtaining a CT scan of another body region. CXR can be used to screen for significant thoracic injuries and direct the selective use of thoracic CT in pediatric BTT. Prospective studies are needed to validate these findings and develop guidelines that include CXR to define indications for thoracic CT in pediatric BTT

  8. Surface characterization of selected polymer thin films by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and x-ray reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innis, Vallerie Ann A.

    2006-01-01

    Development of available x-ray characterizations tools for grazing incidence techniques was done to be able to probe nano-size thin films. Alignment of a Philips x-ray powder diffractometer was improved to let it perform as an x-ray reflectometer. X-ray reflectometry was coupled with total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Evaluation of the performance of this grazing incidence techniques was done by preparing polymer thin films of carboxymethylcellulose, carrageenan and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The thickness of the films were varied by varying the process parameters such as concentration, spin speed and spin time. Angle-dispersive total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy profiles of three films showed film formation only in carrageenan and PVP. For both carrageenan and PVP, an increase in concentration yielded a corresponding increase in intensity of the fluorescent or scattered peaks. XRR profiles of carrageenan thin films yielded a mean value for the critical angle close to quartz substrate. Thickness measurements of the prepared carrageenan thin films showed that concentration was the main determinant for final film thickness over the other process parameters. Sulfur fluorescent intensity derived from the TXRF measurement showed a linear relationship with the measured thickness by XRR. For PVP, measured critical angle is lower than quartz. Poor adhesion of the polymer onto the substrate yielded a limited number of thickness measurements made from the XRR profiles. (Author)

  9. Radiation levels and image quality in patients undergoing chest X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos de Oliveira, Paulo Márcio; Carmo Santana, Priscila do; Sousa Lacerda, Marco Aurélio de; Silva, Teógenes Augusto da

    2017-01-01

    Patient dose monitoring for different radiographic procedures has been used as a parameter to evaluate the performance of radiology services; skin entrance absorbed dose values for each type of examination were internationally established and recommended aiming patient protection. In this work, a methodology for dose evaluation was applied to three diagnostic services: one with a conventional film and two with digital computerized radiography processing techniques. The x-ray beam parameters were selected and “doses” (specifically the entrance surface and incident air kerma) were evaluated based on images approved in European criteria during postero-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) incidences. Data were collected from 200 patients related to 200 PA and 100 LAT incidences. Results showed that doses distributions in the three diagnostic services were very different; the best relation between dose and image quality was found in the institution with the chemical film processing. This work contributed for disseminating the radiation protection culture by emphasizing the need of a continuous dose reduction without losing the quality of the diagnostic image. - Highlights: • A methodology for dose evaluation was applied to three diagnostic services. • The doses in patients were evaluated when the images were adequate. • Data were collected from 200 patients. • Is possible doses optimization with digital system without an image quality reduction. • The best dose and image quality was found in chemical film processing.

  10. Radiation doses to paediatric patients and comforters undergoing chest x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Vlychou, M.; Tsougos, I.; Theodorou, K.

    2011-01-01

    Pneumonia is an important cause of hospital admission among children in the developed world and it is estimated to be responsible for 3-18 % of all paediatric admissions. Chest X ray is an important examination for pneumonia diagnosis and for evaluation of complications. This study aims to determine the entrance surface dose (ESD), organ, effective doses and propose a local diagnostic reference level. The study was carried out at the university hospital of Larissa (Greece). Patients were divided into three groups: organ and effective doses were estimated using National Radiological Protection Board software. The ESD was determined by thermoluminescent dosemeters for 132 children and 76 comforters. The average ESD value was 55±8 μGy. The effective dose for patients was 11.2±5 μSv. The mean radiation dose for comforter is 22±3 mGy. The radiation dose to the patients is well within dose constraint, in the light of the current practice. (authors)

  11. Quality image and incident air kerma evaluation in X-ray chest exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos de O, P. M.; Do Carmo S, P.; De Sousa L, M. A.; Da Silva, T. A.

    2017-10-01

    The procedures optimization for obtaining diagnostic quality images is an important factor to the patients radiation levels submitted to diagnostic radiology examinations was the lowest as reasonably practicable. Two methodologies for image quality parameters evaluation were applied in the routine of three diagnostic radiology clinics (A, B and C), two with digital image processing and one with chemical processing in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The incident air kerma was evaluated for the radiographic techniques used in the clinic routine chest exams, approved in accordance with European Image Quality Criteria. It was possible to determine that the Fluke Biomedical X-ray Phantom test objects coupled to the Leeds Test Objects (TOR CDR) obtained better results than Gammex s Radiographic Survey Phantom (RSV), because the low and high contrast structures present in the RSV were not visualized in lower energies. The three clinics presented very similar results in all image quality parameters in the evaluation with the TOR CDR test object. However, clinic C presented an low contrast structures result 28.1 % lower than clinical B, although the average Ka,i to obtain their images was 33.4 % superior. The clinic A results present the best relation between image quality and radiation dose in patients. It was verified the optimization doses possibility in diagnostic radiology services with digital processing system, without significant reduction in image quality. Patients submitted to the highest radiation levels belonged to the clinic that presented the worst results in the image quality parameters evaluated. (Author)

  12. Recovery of silver from used X-ray film using alkaline protease from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane Erike-Etchie

    2016-06-29

    Jun 29, 2016 ... Silver is an important industrial metal used in several areas such as photographic and x-ray films, jewelries, silver ... field of enzyme production. It is widely used in leather industry, diagnosis process, extraction of silver, animal.

  13. Filming Femtosecond Molecular Movies with X-ray Pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov

    of molecular species in solution, describing the interplay between electronic and structural dynamics, as well as the role of the solvent. This will be followed by an introduction of the three X-ray techniques used in this work, and it will be shown how the application of these techniques in a laser pump / X...

  14. Radiation levels and image quality in patients undergoing chest X-ray examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Paulo Márcio Campos; do Carmo Santana, Priscila; de Sousa Lacerda, Marco Aurélio; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2017-11-01

    Patient dose monitoring for different radiographic procedures has been used as a parameter to evaluate the performance of radiology services; skin entrance absorbed dose values for each type of examination were internationally established and recommended aiming patient protection. In this work, a methodology for dose evaluation was applied to three diagnostic services: one with a conventional film and two with digital computerized radiography processing techniques. The x-ray beam parameters were selected and "doses" (specifically the entrance surface and incident air kerma) were evaluated based on images approved in European criteria during postero-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) incidences. Data were collected from 200 patients related to 200 PA and 100 LAT incidences. Results showed that doses distributions in the three diagnostic services were very different; the best relation between dose and image quality was found in the institution with the chemical film processing. This work contributed for disseminating the radiation protection culture by emphasizing the need of a continuous dose reduction without losing the quality of the diagnostic image.

  15. X-ray fluorescence analysis of thin films at glancing-incident and -takeoff angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, K.; Sato, S.; Hirokawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a new analytical method, Glancing-Incidence and -Takeoff X-Ray Fluorescence (GIT-XRF) method for the first time. Here, we present an idea for a thin-film analysis and a surface analysis by the GIT-XRF method. In this method, the dependence of the fluorescent x-ray intensity on takeoff angle is measured at various incident angles of the primary x-ray. Compared with a total reflection x-ray fluorescence method, the GIT-XRF method allows a detailed thin-film analysis, because the thin film is cross-checked by many experimental curves. Moreover, a surface-sensitive analysis is also possible by the GIT-XRF method. (author)

  16. In situ X-ray studies of film cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuoss, Paul; Chang, Kee-Chul; You, Hoydoo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Synchrotron X-rays are used to study in operando the structural and chemical changes of LSM and LSCF film cathodes during half-cell operations. •A-site and B-site cations actively segregate or desegregate on the changes of temperature, pO 2 , and electrochemical potential. •Chemical lattice expansions show that oxygen-cathode interface is the primary source of rate-limiting processes. •The surface and subsurface of the LSM and LSCF films have different oxidation-states due to vacancy concentration changes. •Liquid-phase infiltration and coarsening processes of cathode materials into porous YSZ electrolyte backbone were monitored by USAXS. -- Abstract: Synchrotron-based X-ray techniques have been used to study in situ the structural and chemical changes of film cathodes during half-cell operations. The X-ray techniques used include X-ray reflectivity (XR), total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), high-resolution diffraction (HRD), ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS). The epitaxial thin film model cathodes for XR, TXRF, and HRD measurements are made by pulse laser deposition and porous film cathodes for USAX measurements are made by screen printing technique. The experimental results reviewed here include A-site and B-site segregations, lattice expansion, oxidation-state changes during cell operations and liquid-phase infiltration and coarsening of cathode to electrolyte backbone

  17. Safety related to the implantation of jugular catheters for haemodialysis and usefulness of PA chest X rays post procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Cesar A; Chacon, Jose Arnob; Mauricio Villota, Duvan

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to determine how safe the implantation of transient double lumen jugular catheters is for hemodialysis in patients with renal disease, and who require dialysis therapy and Posterior Anterior (PA) chest X-Ray post procedure. Design: observational descriptive study. Site: renal units at RTS Ltda. Sucursal Caldas (Hospital Santa Sofia y Hospital Infantil Rafael Henao Toro de la Cruz Roja). Patients: all patients with renal disease in whom it was necessary to do hemodyalitic therapy with implantation of a jugular catheter, with medical records of the events and complications that occurred during the procedure, with subsequent control AP chest X Ray and that showed reports made by the radiologist or physician who carried out the procedure, about the findings in the chest X Ray. Patients with renal disease, in whom jugular catheters had been inserted: Methods: variables such as age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI) etiology of the renal failure,time of evolution of the disease, indications for insertion, priority of catheter insertion, type of catheter inserted, amount of punctures, physician who carried out the procedure and patient's co-morbidities were analyzed. The events considered as complicated were analyzed as well as if there was any relationship with co-morbidities and the analyzed variables. Findings in the PA chest X-Ray were recorded and their relationship with the difficulties encountered during the procedure. A bi-variance analysis was done. The dependent and independent variables were classified in the nominal measurement scale. Results: 774 clinical histories were reviewed. 562 were excluded due to lack of variables and impossibility to read the notes. Men older than de 55 (45,7%). 212 (97.1%) patients with diagnosis of chronic renal disease (CRD) and in whom 238 procedures were carried out. seven patients (2,85%) had acute renal failure (ARF). The fi rst indication for central catheter insertion was in patients with chronic uremia

  18. Paediatric dose measurements for chest X-ray examinations at Maternity and Children Hospital in Najran - Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, M.K.; Al-Qahtani, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The entrance skin dose (ESD) of chest X-ray examinations for AP and PA projections of paediatric patients at Maternity and Children Hospital in Najran, Saudi Arabia have been obtained using DoseCal software. The majority of the results obtained show low measured ESD for chest X-ray examinations. The mean of ESD for the AP projection was found to be 37.5, 40.5, 41.3, and 52.3μGy for age groups 0−1, >1−5, >5−10, and >10−15 years respectively. However, the ESD for PA projection was found to be 50.7 and 56.7μGy for age groups >5−10, and >10−15 years respectively.

  19. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of tetragonal Mn72Ge28 epitaxial thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhyeok; Mizuguchi, Masaki; Inami, Nobuhito; Ueno, Tetsuro; Ueda, Shigenori; Takanashi, Koki

    2018-04-01

    An epitaxially grown Mn72Ge28 film with a tetragonal crystal structure was fabricated. It was clarified that the film had a perpendicular magnetization and a high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy of 14.3 Merg/cm3. The electronic structure was investigated by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The obtained X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectrum revealed that the Mn orbital magnetic moment governed the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the Mn72Ge28 film. A doublet structure was observed for the Mn 2p3/2 peak of hard X-ray photoelectron spectrum, indicating the spin exchange interaction between the 2p core-hole and 3d valence electrons.

  20. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  1. Reading a radiologist's mind: monitoring rising and falling interest levels while scanning chest x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzubaidi, Mohammad; Patel, Ameet; Panchanathan, Sethuraman; Black, John A., Jr.

    2010-02-01

    Radiological images constitute a special class of images that are captured (or computed) specifically for the purpose of diagnosing patients. However, because these are not "natural" images, radiologists must be trained to interpret them through a process called "perceptual learning". However, because perceptual learning is implicit, experienced radiologists may sometimes find it difficult to explicitly (i.e. verbally) train less experienced colleagues. As a result, current methods of training can take years before a new radiologist is fully competent to independently interpret medical images. We hypothesize that eye tracking technology (coupled with multimedia technology) can be used to accelerate the process of perceptual training, through a Hebbian learning process. This would be accomplished by providing a radiologist-in-training with real-time feedback as he/she is fixating on important regions of an image. Of course this requires that the training system have information about what regions of an image are important - information that could presumably be solicited from experienced radiologists. However, our previous work has suggested that experienced radiologists are not always aware of those regions of an image that attract their attention, but are not clinically significant - information that is very important to a radiologist in training. This paper discusses a study in which local entropy computations were done on scan path data, and were found to provide a quantitative measure of the moment-by-moment interest level of radiologists as they scanned chest x-rays. The results also showed a striking contrast between the moment-by-moment deployment of attention between experienced radiologists and radiologists in training.

  2. Measurements of reciprocity law failure in green-sensitive X-ray films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, B A; Eisenberg, H; Bjärngard, B E

    1978-02-01

    Reciprocity law failure was measured for four brands of medical x-ray films exposed with intensifying screens. Three of the films are green light-sensitized for use in combination with green light-emitting rare-earth screens. These films showed larger reciprocity failure effects than one conventional blue-sensitive film, Dupont Cronex-2. Development conditions had a small effect on reciprocity failure. As part of the investigation, a detector was constructed with a response that accurately monitors the light emission from the double screen-cassette combination over a wide range of x-ray photon energies.

  3. Density determination of langmuir-blodgett monolayer films using x-ray reflectivity technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damar Yoga Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    Monolayer deposition by Langmuir-Blodgett technique produces monolayer films that are uniform with controllable thickness down to nanometer scale. To evaluate the quality of the monolayer deposition, X-ray reflectivity technique are employed to monitor the monolayers density. Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer with good coverage and uniformity results in film density close to its macroscopic film counterpart whereas films with presence of air gaps shows lower density compared to its macroscopic film counterpart. (author)

  4. Spectral and spatial characteristics of x-ray film/screen combinations up to x-ray energy of 3 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, A.; Carmel, Y.; Segal, Y.; Notea, A.

    1986-01-01

    The present study is directed towards quantifying some of the parameters which define the quality of the image obtained on x-ray sensitive films and its usual accompanying intensifying screens. Both industrial (Agfa-Geveart D2,D4,D7) and medical (Kodak XAR-5) films with a variety of screens such as metallic (lead) and fluorescent (calcium tungstate, rare earth) were compared. A variety of sources were employed (radioactive, linear accelerators, flash) in order to cover the average x-ray energy spectrum from 100KeV to 3000KeV. This energy spectrum is of interest for non destructive testing, terminal ballistics and for medical purposes. The results indicate that the sensitivity of industrial x-ray films decreases with energy in the range of 100KeV to 1MeV, levels off and increases again with increasing energy. A 2.75MeV Na 24 radioactive source was used to achieve accurate calibration at the high end of the spectrum. Also, the noise level of x-ray industrial films versus film density was found to peak at a density of D=1.4. The line spread function (LSF) - or resolution - of both industrial and medical film/screen combinations were derived from the optical density of a step wedge response on the film. The noise level of medical films is twice as high compared to industrial films and their LSF is 4 to 8 times larger at x-ray energies of 3MeV. Using Pb screens in contact with common industrial x-ray films yields amplification of 2 (compared to a bare film)

  5. Thin film growth studies using time-resolved x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowarik, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Thin-film growth is important for novel functional materials and new generations of devices. The non-equilibrium growth physics involved is very challenging, because the energy landscape for atomic scale processes is determined by many parameters, such as the diffusion and Ehrlich-Schwoebel barriers. We review the in situ real-time techniques of x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray growth oscillations and diffuse x-ray scattering (GISAXS) for the determination of structure and morphology on length scales from Å to µm. We give examples of time resolved growth experiments mainly from molecular thin film growth, but also highlight growth of inorganic materials using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and electrochemical deposition from liquids. We discuss how scaling parameters of rate equation models and fundamental energy barriers in kinetic Monte Carlo methods can be determined from fits of the real-time x-ray data.

  6. Painful Vaso-occlusive Crisis as a  Prodromal Phase of Acute Chest Syndrome. Is Only One Chest X-ray Enough? A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Neocleous

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The predominant pathophysiological feature of homozygous sickle cell anemia (SCA is the vaso-occlusion. Vaso-occlusion can be associated with painful crises, which are the primary reason for those patients to seek medical care. Vaso-occlusion is responsible for the acute chest syndrome (ACS with large morbidity and mortality or more rarely (and especially in adults for priapism and acute neurological events (strokes. A 10-year-old boy with homozygous SCA was admitted to the Pediatric Emergencies with painful vaso-occlusive crisis and fever. Initially he had normal chest X-ray but, after 24-hour-hospitalization, he developed  ACS with new chest X-ray findings. He was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics, blood transfusions and bronchodilators and after a  six-day treatment, he was significantly improved. The patient was discharged 13 days later with no other therapy at home. The possibility of  ACS development should be still considered, even when a  known patient with SCA presents a  painful vaso-occlusive crisis with an initial normal chest X-ray. Therefore, repeated clinical examination is required and possible changes in  the clinical status could indicate the necessity of a  new radiographic examination. In  this way, early  ACS could be recognized and the catastrophic consequences due to this syndrome could be avoided.

  7. A new attempt of measurement film thickness by x-ray diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaka, Masao; Kobayashi, Hideo

    1987-01-01

    In order to make film thickness measurements independent from the property or the structure of the film materials or the substrate, it is needed to adopt instead of directly utilizing the X-ray diffraction intensity, or attenuation information obtained from the substrate or film material, other new methods for measurement. Among the information obtained by X-ray diffraction, if intensity is excluded, others are F.W.H.M. and diffraction angle, only. If it is possible to investigate the film thickness dependency of the diffraction angle, it should be possible to measure the film thickness by diffraction angle. However, since diffraction angle has no film thickness dependency, it cannot be used directly for measurement. However, if we consider the principle of the X-ray diffractometer method, although it may be very slight, the substrate will be eccentric from the revolving center of the goniometer on account of the thickness of the film. If eccentricity occurs, this will cause changes in the diffraction angle. If we set the radius of the goniometer as R, diffraction angle θ, and the eccentricity from the revolving center of the specimen surface X, the deflection angle Δ2θ of 2θ may be expressed by Δ2θ = -2X · COSθ/R Thus, if X is caused by the film thickness, and by measuring the Δ2θ, it will be possible to measure the film thickness. As a result of the experiment, it was found that X-ray diffraction method can be used for the measurement of the film thickness of a few microns or above by utilizing the eccentricity caused by the film thickness. Especially it has the advantage of being able to measure thick films that X-rays will not penetrate, without being influenced by the chemical structure of the film or the substrates. (author)

  8. Absorption spectra response of XRQA radiochromic film to x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnawaf, Hani; Cheung, Tsang; Butson, Martin J.; Yu, Peter K.N.

    2010-01-01

    Gafchromic XRQA, radiochromic film is a high sensitivity auto developing x-ray analysis films designed and available for kilovoltage x-ray, dose and QA assessment applications. The film is designed for reflective analysis with a yellow transparent top filter and white opaque backing materials. This allows the film to be visually inspected for colour changes with a higher level of contrast than clear coated radiochromic films such as Gafchromic EBT version 1. The spectral absorption properties in the visible wavelengths have been investigated and results show two main peaks in absorption located at 636 nm and 585 nm. These peaks are located in the same position as EBT Gafchromic film highlighting a similar chemical monomer/polymer for radiation sensitivity. A much higher sensitivity however is found at kilovoltage energies with an average 1.55 OD units per 20 cGy irradiation variation measured at 636 nm using 150 kVp x-rays. This is compared to approximately 0.12 OD units per 20 cGy measured at 636 nm for EBT film at 6 MV x-ray energy. That is, the XRQA film is more than 10 times more sensitive than EBT1 film. The visual colour change is enhanced by the yellow polyester coating. However this does not affect the absorption spectra properties in the red region of analysis which is the main area for use using desktop scanners in reflection mode.

  9. Radiochromic film measurement of spatial uniformity for a laser generated x-ray environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, J. H.; Newlander, C. D.; Horton, R.; Fournier, K. B.; Emig, J.; Patterson, R.; Davis, J. F.; Seiler, S.; Jenkins, P. P.

    2012-10-01

    n existing x-ray source application (XRSA) test cassette was modified to hold multiple x-ray filter materials followed by two radiochromic film types (FWT-60 and HD-810 Gafchromic® film) to qualitatively characterize the spectral-spatial uniformity over the XRSA sample field of view. Multiple sets of film were examined and nominal set was determined. These initial, qualitative measurements suggest a low-energy regime (E < 3 keV) spatial anisotropy and spatial isotropy at higher energies (E > 3 keV).

  10. Structure and x-ray density of electrochemically deposited rhenium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovich, V.A.; Fedenkov, A.L.; Shepurev, S.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    The electrodeposition of rhenium was carried out at a constant cathode-current density and room temperature. The backing was grade KEF-0.02 single-crystal silicon. The absorption coefficient μ of the film was determined for the K α radiation of the copper line. The investigation enabled us to conclude that electrochemically deposited rhenium films can be used as a material for the masking coatings of x-ray patterns, since the absorption coefficients of the x-ray radiation of the resultant films are superior to the similar parameters of traditionally employed materials, and surpass these materials in terms of corrosion resistance and simplicity of production

  11. Minimizing hospital losses in x-ray films using design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljohani, M.S.; Moreb, A.A.; Naser Al Qasabi; Bandar Sobahi

    2004-01-01

    Exposure of patients to excessive radiation increases an unnecessary risk of cancer. An X-ray film is considered a reject and is to be repeated if the contrast between the image (picture) of the organ and the films background is low. Applying a two stages approach of Design of Experiments (DOE), this paper considers the factors affecting the contrast of the X-ray film, sorts out the most influential factors and identifies the optimum settings for each factor. Furthermore, the contribution of each factor on the optimal contrast is statistically identified. (Author)

  12. The origin of stress in sputter-deposited tungsten films for x-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, M.; Hori, M.; Nadahara, S.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism for the cause of stress in a sputter-deposited tungsten (W) film has been clarified. The tensile stress of the film was calculated using the interatomic forces acting on the grain boundary. The average distance of the grain boundary gaps was determined from the measured film density assuming the film had homogeneous size rectangular grains. The calculated and measured stress values were in good agreement in the high working gas pressure region. The difference between these values in the low working gas pressure region has been able to be explained by the compressive stress due to the peening effect of Ar. The low stress in the high pressure region was obtained by large opened grain boundaries which produced low film density. A low film density causes a low x-ray stopping power. The film deposited in the low pressure region is suitable as an x-ray absorber because of its high film density

  13. Quality control for dental X-rays equipment and film developers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomares C, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Quality control in five dental X-ray equipments, film and film developers was done. It was for evaluating the radiologic practices in the odontologic services too. This work was made based on international standards, the results will be used for future works in quality assurance in dental radiology

  14. An Audit Of Rejected Repeated X-ray Films As A Quality Assurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To find out the causes, number, percentage and sizes of rejected radiographic filmswith a view of adopting measures that will reduce the rate and number of rejected films. Radiology Department of a University Teaching Hospital. Over a two-year period (1 April 2002 to 31 March 2004), the total number of x-ray films utilized ...

  15. European Guidelines for AP/PA chest X-rays: routinely satisfiable in a paediatric radiology division?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschauner, Sebastian; Marterer, Robert; Gübitz, Michael; Kalmar, Peter I; Talakic, Emina; Weissensteiner, Sabine; Sorantin, Erich

    2016-02-01

    Accurate collimation helps to reduce unnecessary irradiation and improves radiographic image quality, which is especially important in the radiosensitive paediatric population. For AP/PA chest radiographs in children, a minimal field size (MinFS) from "just above the lung apices" to "T12/L1" with age-dependent tolerance is suggested by the 1996 European Commission (EC) guidelines, which were examined qualitatively and quantitatively at a paediatric radiology division. Five hundred ninety-eight unprocessed chest X-rays (45% boys, 55% girls; mean age 3.9 years, range 0-18 years) were analysed with a self-developed tool. Qualitative standards were assessed based on the EC guidelines, as well as the overexposed field size and needlessly irradiated tissue compared to the MinFS. While qualitative guideline recommendations were satisfied, mean overexposure of +45.1 ± 18.9% (range +10.2% to +107.9%) and tissue overexposure of +33.3 ± 13.3% were found. Only 4% (26/598) of the examined X-rays completely fulfilled the EC guidelines. This study presents a new chest radiography quality control tool which allows assessment of field sizes, distances, overexposures and quality parameters based on the EC guidelines. Utilising this tool, we detected inadequate field sizes, inspiration depths, and patient positioning. Furthermore, some debatable EC guideline aspects were revealed. • European Guidelines on X-ray quality recommend exposed field sizes for common examinations. • The major failing in paediatric radiographic imaging techniques is inappropriate field size. • Optimal handling of radiographic units can reduce radiation exposure to paediatric patients. • Constant quality control helps ensure optimal chest radiographic image acquisition in children.

  16. Discussion of ALTERNATIVE systems for industrial radiography using X-ray films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaessen B.; Perdieus, P.; Proegler, H.

    1995-01-01

    Industrial radiography using X-ray films is an established method of NDE. In the last few years, ''novel developments'' have been put on the market as ''alternatives'' to conventional radiography, as e.g. fluorescent screen/film systems, cost-saving films, wide-latitude films, and storage phosphor films. AGFA as a market leader in the sector of X-ray films for industrial radiography has been testing these alternatives, taking into account image quality, sensitivity, handling in terms of portability, reliability, and the essential functions for NDE: (1) Detection of X-radiation; (2) conversion to optical image; (3) evaluation and validation; (4) documentation and archivation. The advantages and drawbacks, the information transfer capabilities, and the performance from the applications point of view are discussed primarily for fluorescent screen/film systems and storage phophor systems. (orig./MM) [de

  17. X-ray diffractometry of 10 nm thick YBa2Cu3O7-x films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdov, Yu.N.; Moldavskaya, L.D.; Parafin, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    We report on some specific features of the X-ray diffraction spectra for ultrathin c-axis-oriented YBCO films. The films were prepared by laser deposition on LaAlO 3 substrates. A DRON-4 powder diffractometer was used to analyze a structure and to measure thickness of the films. We find that this conventional technique can detect the YBCO films as thin as 5 nm. The X-ray interference fringes in the vicinity of the (005) YBCO reflections for the films from 10 to 20 nm thick were clearly visible. The oscillation period of the fringes depends on the thickness of the film and the intensity modulation yields some structural information. The I(-1)/I(+1) fringes intensity ratio was found to be sensitive to the type of atomic layer at the top and bottom of YBCO film [ru

  18. Correlating properties and microstructure of YBCO thin films by magnetic X-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoss, Stephen; Stahl, Claudia; Weigand, Markus; Schuetz, Gisela [Max-Planck-Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Zahn, Patrick; Bayer, Jonas [Max-Planck-Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Research Institute for Innovative Surfaces, FINO, Aalen University, Beethovenstrasse 1, 73430 Aalen (Germany); Albrecht, Joachim [Research Institute for Innovative Surfaces, FINO, Aalen University, Beethovenstrasse 1, 73430 Aalen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The magnetic flux distribution in high-temperature superconductors namely YBCO has been observed using a novel high-resolution technique based on the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). Therefore, a CoFeB layer is deposited on the superconductor which exhibits a strong XMCD-effect. X-ray absorption measurements with circular polarized radiation allows the analysis of the magnetic flux distribution in the superconductor via the soft-magnetic sensor layer [3,4]. In the total electron yield (TEY) mode of the scanning X-ray microscope (SXM) the surface structure and the magnetic domains can be imaged at the same time. Having obtained such high resolution images, the correlation of magnetic flux penetration and defect structure of YBCO thin films can be analyzed. The measurements have been performed at the scanning X-ray microscope MAXYMUS at Bessy II, HZB Berlin.

  19. Measurement of thickness of thin films by the X-ray diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, C.; Balasingh, C.; Singh, A.K.

    1979-07-01

    X-ray diffraction method can be used to measure the thickness of thin films (coatings). The principle and the experimental details of the x-ray diffraction methods are described. The intensities of the diffracted beams are derived assuming a random orientation of the crystallites in the diffracting medium. Consequently, the expressions are not valid when the sample has preferred orientation. To check the performance of the method, thicknesses of nickel deposits on mild steel plates were determined by the x-ray diffraction method and the results compared with those obtained by the weighing method and metallographic examination. The weighing method which gives an accuracy of +- 0.1 micron is taken as the standard. The x-ray diffraction methods and the metallographic examinations give values within +- 1 micron of the value obtained by the weighing method. (author)

  20. X-ray specular reflection and fluorescence study of nano-films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheludeva, S.; Novikova, N.

    2001-01-01

    The techniques that combine the advantages of high-resolution structure sensitive x-ray methods with spectroscopic selectivity of data obtained are shown to be extremely promising for characterization of organic and inorganic nano films and nano structures. Fluorescence yield angular dependences exited by complicated evanescent wave / x-ray standing wave pattern at total reflection and glancing incidence can be used to detect structure position of different ions in organic systems and alien interfacial layers in inorganic multilayers;, to get information about interdiffusion at the interfaces of Langmuir- Blodgett (L-B) films and artificial inorganic - x-ray mirrors; to study ion permeation through L-B nano structures - models of biomembrans; to obtain nano - film thickness and density; to get precisely the parameters of small d-space multilayer mirrors, ets

  1. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies of cobalt silicide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naftel, S.J.; Coulthard, I.; Hu, Y.; Sham, T.K.; Zinke-Allmang, M.

    1998-01-01

    Cobalt silicide thin films, prepared on Si(100) wafers, have been studied by X-ray absorption near edge structures (XANES) at the Si K-, L 2,3 - and Co K-edges utilizing both total electron (TEY) and fluorescence yield (FLY) detection as well as extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Co K-edge. Samples made using DC sputter deposition on clean Si surfaces and MBE were studied along with a bulk CoSi 2 sample. XANES and EXAFS provide information about the electronic structure and morphology of the films. It was found that the films studied have essentially the same structure as bulk CoSi 2 . Both the spectroscopy and materials characterization aspects of XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structures) are discussed

  2. Development and evaluation of gallium nitride-based thin films for x-ray dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, Markus; Thalhammer, Stefan; Howgate, John; Sharp, Ian D; Stutzmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    X-ray radiation plays an important role in medical procedures ranging from diagnostics to therapeutics. Due to the harm such ionizing radiation can cause, it has become common practice to closely monitor the dosages received by patients. To this end, precise online dosimeters have been developed with the dual objectives of monitoring radiation in the region of interest and improving therapeutic methods. In this work, we evaluate GaN thin film high electron mobility heterostructures with sub-mm 2 detection areas as x-ray radiation detectors. Devices were tested using 40-300 kV Bremsstrahlung x-ray sources. We find that the photoconductive device response exhibits a large gain, is almost independent of the angle of irradiation, and is constant to within 2% of the signal throughout this medical diagnostic x-ray range, indicating that these sensors do not require recalibration for geometry or energy. Furthermore, the devices show a high sensitivity to x-ray intensity and can measure in the air kerma rate (free-in-air) range of 1 μGy s -1 to 10 mGy s -1 with a signal stability of ±1% and a linear total dose response over time. Medical conditions were simulated by measurements of device responses to irradiation through human torso phantoms. Direct x-ray imaging is demonstrated using the index finger and wrist sections of a human phantom. The results presented here indicate that GaN-based thin film devices exhibit a wide range of properties, which make them promising candidates for dosimetry applications. In addition, with potential detection volumes smaller than 10 -6 cm 3 , they are well suited for high-resolution x-ray imaging. Moreover, with additional engineering steps, these devices can be adapted to potentially provide both in vivo biosensing and x-ray dosimetry.

  3. Clinical evaluation of wide-latitude HR-C film for chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sung; Hwang, Nam Sun; Yeo, Young Bok; Lee, In Ja; Huh, Joon

    1990-01-01

    In application of wide latitude HR-C film to chest x-ray examination, former x-ray diagnosis area is larger and diagnostic information has great deal of promotion. HR-C film is compare to former x-ray film is larger latitude and density level is small, reading is very easily. Especially, high estimate that is in characteristic curve linearity of toe part is good, contrast of low density made good shape and not good describe to overlap is diagnostic information increase mediastinum portion etc

  4. Performing Chest X-Rays at Inspiration in Uncooperative Children: The Effect of Exercises with a Training Program for Radiology Technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langen, H.J.; Sengenberger, C.; Bielmeier, J.; Jocher, R.; Kohlhauser-Vollmuth, Ch.; Eschmann, M.

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to acquire a chest X-ray of a crying infant at maximum inspiration. A computer program was developed for technician training. Method. Video clips of 3 babies were used and the moment of deepest inspiration was determined in the single-frame view. 12 technicians simulated chest radiographs at normal video speed by pushing a button. The computer program stopped the video and calculated the period of time to the optimal instant for a chest X-ray. Demonstration software can be tested at website online. Every technician simulated 10 chest X-rays for each of the 3 video clips. The technicians then spent 40 minutes practicing performing chest X-rays at optimal inspiration. The test was repeated after 5, 20, and 40 minutes of practice. Results. 6 participants showed a significant improvement after exercises (collective 1). Deviation from the optimal instant for taking an X-ray at inspiration decreased from 0.39 to 0.22 s after 40 min of practice. 6 technicians showed no significant improvement (collective 2). Deviation decreased from a low starting value of 0.25 s to 0.21 s. Conclusion. The tested computer program improves the ability of radiology technicians to take a chest X-ray at optimal inspiration in a crying child

  5. STUDY OF TIME LAPSE IN FOREIGN BODY ASPIRATION IN RELATION TO CHEST X - RAY AND TYPE OF FOREIGN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON: Foreign body aspiration in pediatrics is a potentially fatal accident which will continue until children explore their surroundings with their hand and mouth. Pediatric aspirations will persist until mankind exists. Not all foreign body aspirations are witnessed hence chances of delay in diagnosing an aspiration are high. Delay in diagnosis depends on site and character of foreign body aspirated. The chest x - ray findings and type of foreign body extracted vary depending on the duration the foreign body remains in airway . OBJECTIVE: To study the X - ray finding in pediatric airway aspiration and its relation to time lapse, the type and site of lodgment of foreign body extracted via bronchoscopy. The type of foreign body in relation to time lapse in aspiration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective study done in Bapuji child health institute and research center, JJM Medical College, Davangere . History and pre bronchoscopy x - Ray finding were noted for 65 children who were posted for suspicious bronchoscopy from August 2011 to September 2013. 11 children were excluded from study as they showed no foreign body on bronchoscopy. Time lapse in aspir ation and seeking medical care was noted. The bronchoscopic findings regarding site of foreign body lodgment and type of foreign body were recorded. The type of foreign body and variation of x - ray picture in relation to time lapse in aspiration were noted. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULT: It was observed that mean age was 28 months. About 80% of the cases were between 1 to 3 years age. 82% (n=53/54 were radio lucent foreign body, only 1.5% (n=1/54 were radio o paque. Site of lodgment of foreign body was right main bronchus in 48% (n=26/54, left main bronchus 46% (n=25/54 , tracheal 1.85% (n=1/54, subglottic 1.85% (n=1/54, carinal 1.85% (n=1/54, multiple site i.e. left bronchus +right bronchus+ carinal 1.85% (n=1/54. Groundnut was most common

  6. Radiation-hygienic assessment of theroid exposure in children resulted from X-ray examination of chest organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostenetskij, M.I.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation doses for thyroid in children in the case of X-ray examination of chest organs with the aim of optimization of investigation regimes are studied. Dosimetric measurements are performed in aqueous plexiglass phantoms imitating children of different age. It is shown that the maximum radiation dose for thyroid is registered in breast-fed children and constitutes, about 50% of the annual radiation background; in the older age it constiturotes 8-10% of the natural annual radiation backgund. The increase of intensity at the X-ray tube with the simultaneous decrease of explosure in the case of constant filtration of radiation gives the increase of radiation dose of thyroid in breast-fed children are inconsiderable; in older children, approximately in 1.7 times

  7. Chest x-ray in Q-fever pneumonia: a series of 71 cases; La radiografia de torax en la neumonia por fiebre-Q. Serie de 71 casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encinas, B; Cerezal, L F; Fidalgo, I; Bustamente, M; Lopez Calderon, M [Hospital Universitario Marques de valdecilla, Santander (Spain)

    1995-11-01

    Chest X ray features of 71 cases of Q-fever serologically confirmed and with clinical manifestations of acute respiratory disease were retrospectively assessed in order to evaluate the radiographic features. In 68 cases (96%) The X-ray films were abnormal. Segmental consolidation, sometimes multiple and bilateral were tue most usual findings. Nodular opacities were found in 6 cases (9%) and can mimic a tumor. Cavitacion , a very unusual findings, was found in two nodular consolidations(two patients). Laminar atelectasis was less common than proviously reported. As in other series, total resolution or with minimal scars occurs within 3 months 15 refs.

  8. Optical compensation device for chest film radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert G.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.; DeForest, Sherman E.; Schmidt, Gregory W.; Hier, Richard G.

    1990-07-01

    Although chest radiography is the most commonly performed radiographic examination and one of the most valuable and cost-effective studies in medicine it suffers from relatively high error rates in both missing pathology and false positive interpretations. Detectability of lung nodules and other structures in underpenetrated regions of the chest film can be improved by both exposure and optical compensation but current compensation systems require major capital cost or a significant change in normal clinical practice. A new optical compensation system called the " Intelligent X-Ray Illuminator" (IXI) automatically and virtually instantaneously generates a patient-specific optical unsharp mask that is projected directly on a radiograph. When a radiograph is placed on the IXI which looks much like a conventional viewbox it acquires a low-resolution electronic image of this film from which the film transmission is derived. The transmission information is inverted and blurred in an image processor to form an unsharp mask which is fed into a spatial light modulator (SLM) placed between a light source and the radiograph. The SLM tailors the viewbox luminance by decreasing illumination to underexposed (i. e. transmissive) areas of the radiograph presenting the observer with an optically unsharp-masked image. The IXI uses the original radiograph and will allow it to be viewed on demand with conventional (uniform illumination. Potentially the IXI could introduce the known beneficial aspects of optical unsharp masking into radiology at low capital

  9. European Guidelines for AP/PA chest X-rays: routinely satisfiable in a paediatric radiology division?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschauner, Sebastian; Marterer, Robert; Guebitz, Michael; Weissensteiner, Sabine; Sorantin, Erich [Medical University of Graz, Division of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Kalmar, Peter I. [Medical University of Graz, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Talakic, Emina [Medical University of Graz, Division of General Radiological Diagnostics, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria)

    2016-02-15

    Accurate collimation helps to reduce unnecessary irradiation and improves radiographic image quality, which is especially important in the radiosensitive paediatric population. For AP/PA chest radiographs in children, a minimal field size (MinFS) from ''just above the lung apices'' to ''T12/L1'' with age-dependent tolerance is suggested by the 1996 European Commission (EC) guidelines, which were examined qualitatively and quantitatively at a paediatric radiology division. Five hundred ninety-eight unprocessed chest X-rays (45 % boys, 55 % girls; mean age 3.9 years, range 0-18 years) were analysed with a self-developed tool. Qualitative standards were assessed based on the EC guidelines, as well as the overexposed field size and needlessly irradiated tissue compared to the MinFS. While qualitative guideline recommendations were satisfied, mean overexposure of +45.1 ± 18.9 % (range +10.2 % to +107.9 %) and tissue overexposure of +33.3 ± 13.3 % were found. Only 4 % (26/598) of the examined X-rays completely fulfilled the EC guidelines. This study presents a new chest radiography quality control tool which allows assessment of field sizes, distances, overexposures and quality parameters based on the EC guidelines. Utilising this tool, we detected inadequate field sizes, inspiration depths, and patient positioning. Furthermore, some debatable EC guideline aspects were revealed. (orig.)

  10. Radiodiagnostic errors by X-ray pictures of the chest taken at bed resting patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.; Deininger, H.K.

    1981-03-01

    The roentgenological findings of 383 cases have been compared with the anatomical and pathological diagnosis of the autopsy report. In 29% the radiodiagnosis was incorrect. About 70% of the X-ray examinations had to be carried out succenturiately at bed side in bedridden patients. The error rate of the interpretation of these examinations was higher than in examinations under standardized conditions. Especially, carcinomatous lymphangiosis, miliary tuberculosis and pulmonary embolism can be diagnosed badly in those incomplete X-ray pictures caused by the clinical situation of the bed resting patients. The publication analyses the most common errors in the diagnosis of cardiac and pulmonary diseases, and they will be demonstrated in examples.

  11. Problems with film processing in medical X-ray imaging in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sniureviciute, M.; Adliene, D.

    2005-01-01

    Optimisation in X-ray imaging in order to reduce patient doses during diagnostic X-ray examinations is a complex process given the high level of image quality required. When quality systems are implemented as a basis for optimisation, attention should be paid to the qualifications of the staff and quality control of the equipment and of the X-ray imaging procedures, as well as to the methods used to evaluate the quality of these procedures. Until recently, quality control procedures at health care institutions in Lithuania were limited to the testing of X-ray units. Since film processing is one of the most important factors influencing patient doses and image quality during X-ray examinations, in 2003 the Kaunas department of the Radiation Protection Centre organised inspections of film processing laboratories in 11 health care institutions - hospitals and outpatient departments - in the Kaunas region. Problems of non-compliance with requirements identified during these inspections are discussed in this paper. Most of the health care institutions inspected already had quality assurance programmes. However, the implementation of these programmes was sometimes erratic because of the insufficient attention paid to the film developing processes. The worst situation was found in 4 institutions where the films were developed manually. Only 3 of the 11 departments inspected had sensitometers and densitometers for quality control of the processing. In many cases there was no control of chemicals, film sensitivity and density, or else control was irregular. In only a few departments were the effects of repeated controls investigated and discussed. Despite the current problems occurring in medical X-ray diagnostic departments in Lithuania, the situation is rapidly improving. New equipment is being installed, new devices for quality control are being used and, last but not least, the view of hospital administrators, radiologists and laboratory workers towards quality

  12. Using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) to determine the gonadal dose of patients under-going chest X-ray examinations at NKST hospital, Mkar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agba, E.H.; Akaagerger, N.B.; Kungur, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    The doses absorbed by the gonads of patients undergoing chest X-ray examinations at NKST Christian Hospital, Mkar was determined using the Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Technique of measurement. Also, the direct X-ray dose to the chest of patients undergoing the routine examinations was also determined using the Thermolumnescence Dosimetry technique of measurement. The mean gonadal dose and the X-ray dose to the patients were found to be 0.03±0.02μSv and 0.04±0.03mSv respectively after exposure. These X-ray doses to the patients is seen to be within the acceptable recommended X -ray dose limits of 1mGy recommended by ICRP.

  13. Ultralow dose CT for pulmonary nodule detection with chest X-ray equivalent dose - a prospective intra-individual comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerli, Michael [University Zurich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Kluckert, Thomas; Knitel, Meinhard; Desbiolles, Lotus; Bauer, Ralf W.; Wildermuth, Simon [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Waelti, Stephan [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Gallen (Switzerland); University of Montreal, Department of Radiology, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Rengier, Fabian [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Warschkow, Rene [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Department of Surgery, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Leschka, Sebastian [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Gallen (Switzerland); University Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-08-15

    To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of ultralow radiation dose CT of the chest with tin filtration at 100 kV for pulmonary nodule detection. 202 consecutive patients undergoing clinically indicated chest CT (standard dose, 1.8 ± 0.7 mSv) were prospectively included and additionally scanned with an ultralow dose protocol (0.13 ± 0.01 mSv). Standard dose CT was read in consensus by two board-certified radiologists to determine the presence of lung nodules and served as standard of reference (SOR). Two radiologists assessed the presence of lung nodules and their locations on ultralow dose CT. Sensitivity and specificity of the ultralow dose protocol was compared against the SOR, including subgroup analyses of different nodule sizes and types. A mixed effects logistic regression was used to test for independent predictors for sensitivity of pulmonary nodule detection. 425 nodules (mean diameter 3.7 ± 2.9 mm) were found on SOR. Overall sensitivity for nodule detection by ultralow dose CT was 91%. In multivariate analysis, nodule type, size and patients BMI were independent predictors for sensitivity (p < 0.001). Ultralow dose chest CT at 100 kV with spectral shaping enables a high sensitivity for the detection of pulmonary nodules at exposure levels comparable to plain film chest X-ray. (orig.)

  14. Low-energy x-ray response of photographic films. Part I. Mathematical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, B.L.; Kwok, S.L.; Uejio, J.Y.; Yamada, H.T.; Young, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Relatively simple mathematical models are developed for optical density as a function of the x-ray intensity, its angle of incidence and photon energy in the 100 to 10,000 eV region for monolayer and emulsion types of photographic films. Semi-empirical relations have been applied to characterize a monolayer film, Kodak 101-07, and an emulsion type film, Kodak RAR 2497, which fit calibration data at nine photon energies well within typical experimental error

  15. Low-energy x-ray response of photographic films. I. Mathematical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, B.L.; Kwok, S.L.; Uejio, J.Y.; Yamada, H.T.; Young, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Relatively simple mathematical models are developed to determine the optical density as a function of the x-ray intensity, its angle of incidence, and its photon energy in the 100--10,000-eV region for monolayer and emulsion types of photographic films. Semiempirical relations are applied to characterize a monolayer film (Kodak 101-07) and an emilsion-type film (Kodak RAR 2497); these relations fit calibration data at nine photon energies well within typical experimental error

  16. Effects of film/foil interactions on X-ray image quality - experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, H.J.; Goos, F.

    1985-01-01

    When assessing the quality of X-ray images, the interaction between film and foil should never be left out of account. Except for the case of green-emitting foils which require green-emitting films, films and foils are normally regarded separately, so that many variations are possible. The authors review the interaction between film and foil under practical aspects. Studies published so far have concentrated either on the amplification factor of foils or an the object imaging characteristics of certain films. Systematic studies on the interaction between film and foil have never been carried out. (orig.) [de

  17. Densitometric evaluation of intraoral x-ray films: Ektaspeed versus Ultraspeed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaffe, I.; Littner, M.M.; Kuspet, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recently a new speed E intraoral dental x-ray film was introduced by the Eastman Kodak Company in order to reduce the radiation dose to the patient. In the present study the new higher-speed EP21 film was compared with the speed D DF58 film with regard to speed and quality (fog plus base, sharpness, resolution, and contrast) of the resulting images. Results showed no deterioration in the image with 50% dose reduction when the EP21 film was used as compared to the DF58 film. Therefore, this new type of film is highly recommended for routine radiographic examinations

  18. Soft x-ray transmission measurements on thin films used for XMM CCD-filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, K.-H.; Reppin, C.; Maier, H. J.; Frischke, D.; Fuchs, D.; Müller, P.

    1997-02-01

    We have been developing optical filters for ESA's X-ray astronomy project XMM (X-ray Multi Mirror Mission). Specific CCDs will be used as detectors in the focal plane on board the observatory (1). Since these detectors are sensitive from the X-ray to the near infrared spectral range, X-ray observations require optical filters, which combine a high transparency for photon energies in the soft X-ray region and a high opacity for ultraviolet and visible radiation as well. With respect to the mission goal in orbit three types of flight model filters are designed having different spectral transmittance functions. We report on one of these types, a so-called "thick" filter, which has been realized within the EQM (Electrical Qualification Model)-phase of the project. The filter features a cut-off in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range and suppresses radiation below ˜10 eV photon energy by more than 8 orders of magnitude. It has an effective aperture of 73 mm without any support structure. A 0.35 μm thick polypropylene carrier foil is coated with metallic films of Al and Sn. We describe transmission measurements in the soft X-ray photon energy range to determine the thickness of the individual layers and present the optical performance data of the filter.

  19. Entrance surface dose and image quality: Comparison of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in general practitioner clinics, public and private hospitals in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambali, A. S.; Ng, K. H.; Abdullah, B. J. J.; Wang, H. B.; Jamal, N.; Spelic, D. C.; Suleiman, O. H.

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the entrance surface dose (ESD) and image quality of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations conducted at general practitioner (GP) clinics, and public and private hospitals in Malaysia. The surveyed facilities were randomly selected within a given category (28 GP clinics, 20 public hospitals and 15 private hospitals). Only departmental X-ray units were involved in the survey. Chest examinations were done at all facilities, while only hospitals performed abdominal examinations. This study used the x-ray attenuation phantoms and protocols developed for the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey program in the United States. The ESD was calculated from measurements of exposure and clinical geometry. An image quality test tool was used to evaluate the low-contrast detectability and high-contrast detail performance under typical clinical conditions. The median ESD value for the adult chest X-ray examination was the highest (0.25 mGy) at GP clinics, followed by private hospitals (0.22 mGy) and public hospitals (0.17 mGy). The median ESD for the adult abdominal X-ray examination at public hospitals (3.35 mGy) was higher than that for private hospitals (2.81 mGy). Results of image quality assessment for the chest X-ray examination show that all facility types have a similar median spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability. For the abdominal X-ray examination, public hospitals have a similar median spatial resolution but larger low-contrast detectability compared with private hospitals. The results of this survey clearly show that there is room for further improvement in performing chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in Malaysia. (authors)

  20. Anatomy-based transmission factors for technique optimization in portable chest x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, Christopher L.; Tovey, Deborah; Segars, William P.; Dong, Frank D.; Li, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Portable x-ray examinations often account for a large percentage of all radiographic examinations. Currently, portable examinations do not employ automatic exposure control (AEC). To aid in the design of a size-specific technique chart, acrylic slabs of various thicknesses are often used to estimate x-ray transmission for patients of various body thicknesses. This approach, while simple, does not account for patient anatomy, tissue heterogeneity, and the attenuation properties of the human body. To better account for these factors, in this work, we determined x-ray transmission factors using computational patient models that are anatomically realistic. A Monte Carlo program was developed to model a portable x-ray system. Detailed modeling was done of the x-ray spectrum, detector positioning, collimation, and source-to-detector distance. Simulations were performed using 18 computational patient models from the extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) family (9 males, 9 females; age range: 2-58 years; weight range: 12-117 kg). The ratio of air kerma at the detector with and without a patient model was calculated as the transmission factor. Our study showed that the transmission factor decreased exponentially with increasing patient thickness. For the range of patient thicknesses examined (12-28 cm), the transmission factor ranged from approximately 21% to 1.9% when the air kerma used in the calculation represented an average over the entire imaging field of view. The transmission factor ranged from approximately 21% to 3.6% when the air kerma used in the calculation represented the average signals from two discrete AEC cells behind the lung fields. These exponential relationships may be used to optimize imaging techniques for patients of various body thicknesses to aid in the design of clinical technique charts.

  1. Retention Characteristics of CBTi144 Thin Films Explained by Means of X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biasotto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available CaBi4Ti4O15 (CBTi144 thin films were grown on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates using a soft chemical solution and spin-coating method. Structure and morphology of the films were characterized by the X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman analysis, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The films present a single phase of layered-structured perovskite with polar axis orient. The a/b-axis orientation of the ferroelectric film is considered to be associated with the preferred orientation of the Pt bottom electrode. XPS measurements were employed to understand the nature of defects on the retention behavior of CBTi144 films. We have observed that the main source of retention-free characteristic of the capacitors is the oxygen environment in the CBTi144 lattice.

  2. The chest X-ray in antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease (Goodpasture's syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowley, N.B.; Steiner, R.E.; Chin, W.S.

    1979-01-01

    The chest radiographs of 25 patients with proven antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease (Goodpasture's syndrome) were analysed. All except two of the patients had pulmonary haemorrhage at some stage of their disease. Altogether there were 39 episodes of pulmonary haemorrhage, 25 being relapses. During seven episodes the chest radiograph was normal. Relapses of pulmonary haemorrhage never occurred in isolation but were usually associated with infection (not necessarily a chest infection) or occasionally fluid overload. Conversely fluid overload or infection were always associated with pulmonary haemorrhage provided there were high or rising titres of circulating antibodies at the time. Therefore in a patient with antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease, the presence of shadowing in the lung fields on the chest radiograph almost invariably means the patient has pulmonary haemorrhage whether or not pulmonary oedema or a chest infection are present. Limitation of shadowing by a fissure, loss of major portions of the diaphragmatic or cardiac silhouette, involvement of the lung apex or costophrenic angles suggest an underlying chest infection. Septal lines suggest fluid overload. Pleural effusions are seen with chest infections and fluid overload. The carbon monoxide uptake (KCO) was invariably high in the presence of pulmonary haemorrhage even if the chest radiograph was normal. A combined use of KCO and chest radiographs is the best method of monitoring lung disease in these patients. (author)

  3. Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction study of 304 L stainless steel thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubeker, B.; Eymery, J.P.; Goudeau, P.; Sayouty, E.H.

    1994-01-01

    304 L stainless steel films (SS) were elaborated using an ion-beam sputtering technique. The target material was a sheet of commercial grade 304 L SS. The starting material was first analysed by both conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and X-ray diffraction. The nonmagnetic state and f.c.c. structure of this material were confirmed. The films were deposited on various substrates with thicknesses in the 175-800 nm range. The films are found to have both b.c.c. structure and ferromagnetic character. X-ray diffraction technique was also used in order to determine the residual stresses developed during the deposition process. The second stage of the work is devoted to the evolution of the film structure as a function of annealing treatments. So isochronal and isothermal kinetics at temperatures higher than 913 K have allowed to follow the alpha --> gamma phase transformation using X-ray diffraction and CEMS technique.The X-ray diffractograms reveal the existence of both b.c.c. and f.c.c. phases. Similar results can be deduced from Moessbauer spectra due to the single line coming from the non-magnetic phase and the sextet coming from the ferromagnetic phase. In addition the CEMS spectra reveal that the ferromagnetic component is split into two parts which indicates the existence of two iron sites. 1 fig., 4 refs.(author)

  4. Thin-film X-ray filters on microstructured substrates and their thermophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    It is shown that structured substrates having micron- or submicron-sized through holes and coated with an ultrathin organic film can be used for the fabrication of thin-film X-ray filters via direct growth of functional layers on a substrate by sputter deposition, without additional complex processing steps. An optimised process is considered for the fabrication of X-ray filters on support structures in the form of electroplated fine nickel grids and on track-etched polymer membranes with micron- and submicrondiameter through pores. 'Optimisation' is here taken to mean matching the sputter deposition conditions with the properties of substrates so as to avoid overheating. The filters in question are intended for both imaging and single-channel detectors operating in the soft X-ray and vacuum UV spectral regions, at wavelengths from 10 to 60 nm. Thermal calculations are presented for the heating of ultrathin layers of organic films and thin-film support substrates during the sputter deposition of aluminium or other functional materials. The paper discusses approaches for cooling thinfilm composites during the sputter deposition process and the service of the filters in experiments and gives a brief overview of the works that utilised filters produced by the described technique on microstructured substrates, including orbital solar X-ray research in the framework of the CORONAS programme and laboratory laser plasma experiments.

  5. Residual stress estimation of ceramic thin films by X-ray diffraction and indentation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, Erdem; Sarioglu, Cevat; Demirler, Ugur; Sabri Kayali, E.; Cimenoglu, Huseyin

    2003-05-15

    The residual stresses in ceramic thin films obtained by the indentation method have been found to be three times higher than those of the X-ray diffraction method. This discrepancy can be eliminated by setting the geometrical factor for the Vickers pyramid indenter to 1 in the relevant equation of the indentation method.

  6. Residual stress estimation of ceramic thin films by X-ray diffraction and indentation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atar, Erdem; Sarioglu, Cevat; Demirler, Ugur; Sabri Kayali, E.; Cimenoglu, Huseyin

    2003-01-01

    The residual stresses in ceramic thin films obtained by the indentation method have been found to be three times higher than those of the X-ray diffraction method. This discrepancy can be eliminated by setting the geometrical factor for the Vickers pyramid indenter to 1 in the relevant equation of the indentation method

  7. Microscopic analysis on showers recorded as single core on X-ray films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, N.M.; Arata, N.; Maldonado, R.H.C.

    1983-01-01

    Cosmic-ray particles recorded as single dark spots on X-ray films with use of the emulsion chamber data of Brazil-Japan Collaboration are studied. Some results of microscopic analysis of such single-core-like showers on nuclear emulsion plates are reported. (Author) [pt

  8. X-ray and neutron scattering from amorphous diamondlike carbon and hydrocarbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findeisen, E.

    1994-10-01

    In this report amorphous, diamondlike, carbon and hydrocarbon films are investigated by two different methods, namely, X-ray scattering and a combination of X-ray and neutron reflectivity. As specular reflectivity probes the scattering length density profile of a sample perpendicular to its surface, the combination of X-ray and neutron reflectivity reveals the nuclei density of both carbon and hydrogen separately. This allows to calculate the concentration of hydrogen in the films, which varies in the presented experiments between 0 and 36 atomic %. This method is a new and nondestructive technique to determine the concentration of hydrogen within an error of about ±1 at. % in samples with sharp interfaces. It is well suited for thin diamondlike carbon films. X-ray scattering is used to obtain structural information on the atomic scale, especially the average carbon-carbon distance and the average coordination number of the carbon atoms. As grazing incidence diffraction experiments were not successful, free-standing films are used for the scattering experiments with synchrotron light. However, the scattered intensity for large scattering vectors is, in spite of the intense primary beam, very weak, and therefore the accuracy of the obtained structural parameter is not sufficient to prove the diamondlike properties also on the atomic scale. (au) (10 tabs., 76 ills., 102 refs.)

  9. Thin-film thickness measurement using x-ray peak ratioing in the scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, N.E.; Anderson, W.E.; Archuleta, T.A.; Stupin, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    The procedure used to measure laser target film thickness using a scanning electron microscope is summarized. This method is generally applicable to any coating on any substrate as long as the electron energy is sufficient to penetrate the coating and the substrate produces an x-ray signal which can pass back through the coating and be detected

  10. In-line X-ray lensless imaging with lithium fluoride film detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfigli, F.; Cecilia, A.; Bateni, S. Heidari; Nichelatti, E.; Pelliccia, D.; Somma, F.; Vagovic, P.; Vincenti, M.A.; Baumbach, T.; Montereali, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present preliminary in-line X-ray lensless projection imaging results at a synchrotron facility by using novel solid-state detectors based on non-destructive readout of photoluminescent colour centres in lithium fluoride thin films. The peculiarities of LiF radiation detectors are high spatial resolution on a large field of view, wide dynamic range, versatility and simplicity of use. These properties offered the opportunity to test a broadband X-ray synchrotron source for lensless projection imaging experiments at the TopoTomo beamline of the ANKA synchrotron facility by using a white beam spectrum (3–40 keV). Edge-enhancement effects were observed for the first time on a test object; they are discussed and compared with simulations, on the basis of the colour centre photoluminescence linear response found in the investigated irradiation conditions. -- Highlights: ► We performed broadband X-ray imaging at synchrotron by novel LiF imaging detectors. ► X-ray phase contrast experiments on LiF crystals and thin films were performed. ► Photoluminescent high-quality X-images on a LiF film only 1 μm thick were obtained. ► Edge-enhancement effects were detected and compared with simulations. ► A linearity of colour centre fluorescence response of LiF film was found

  11. Pulmonary complications of induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia in adults. Findings of chest X-rays and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, J.; Huettmann, C.; Jacobi, V.; Boehme, A.

    1998-01-01

    To exclude pulmonary complications, 359 chest radiographs and 50 computed tomographs of the lung were performed in 95 patients suffering from acute myeloid leukemia. The radiological findings were registered, described and correlated with clinical findings in the present study on 2395 days of observation. Results: In summary, 52 patients showed alterations of the lung. Pulmonary hyperhydration was seen in 21 cases, bacterial pneumonia was found in 18 cases, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was documented in 14 cases, and 5 cases of severe haemorrhage were seen. An unexplained pulmonary edema in 13 patients with interstitial and alveolar infiltrates is considered to be a complication of treatment with cytosine-arabinoside. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that chest X-ray and computed tomography have a high impact in detection and treatment of pulmonary complications following intensive chemotherapy. We may expect the development of diffuse opacity following administration of cytosine-arabinoside in medium-sized doses. (orig.) [de

  12. Nodule detection by chest X-ray and evaluation of computer-aided detection (CAD) software using an originally developed phantom for instructional purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Norihisa; Takahashi, Masashi; Takazakura, Ryutaro

    2006-01-01

    Chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) are indispensable modalities for lung cancer examinations. CT technologies have dramatically improved and small nodules and obscure shadows have been detected more frequently. The new generation of radiologists feels that chest X-rays are not as useful as chest CT. Experiments using a newly-developed chest phantom were conducted to reconfirm blind spots in chest X-rays. Recent technological advances and high-definition capability have made chest X-rays more useful than ever. Even though development of multi-detector CT (MDCT) has facilitated detection of nodules, it has conversely incurred a problem of increasing data for analysis, taking tremendous time and effort. Here, employing a chest phantom and clinical samples, we evaluated the utility of two kinds of computer-aided detection (CAD) software (Image Checker CT and LungCARE NEV) as well as GGO CAD software that we have developed. More development of chest CT diagnostic software is urgently needed. (author)

  13. Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry for the Analysis of Organic Polymer Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Park, Yong Joon; Kim, Jong Yun

    2008-01-01

    Recently, many studies have been focused on the thin films because there are numerous industrial processes relevant to thin films such as fuel cells, sensors, lubricants, coatings, and so on. Physical and chemical properties of solid surface have been modified by ultra-thin coatings such as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method with a variety of types of organic functional materials for the specific purposes in many applications. In addition, the layer-by-layer technique using polyelectrolyte films are now of interest as biosensors, electrochromic and electroluminescent devices, etc. In general, several methods such as X-ray or neutron reflectivity, and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) have been utilized for the thin film analysis. These optical techniques can measure the film thicknesses up to hundreds of nanometers while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is widely used to study a few nanometers thick films. Other methods such as X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atom force microscopy (AFM) have also been used in the film analysis in spite of some disadvantages for each method. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has long been used as a rapid and simple analytical tool for the analysis of elemental composition of materials. XRF technique is suitable for on-line or in-line real-time monitoring because it is a non-destructive and rapid analysis with good precision and good accuracy at low cost. The aim of this work is to develop a new analytical technique for the quantitative analysis of polymer film on metal substrate. In the present study, Compton peak profile was investigated under different experimental conditions by using wavelength-dispersive XRF (WD-XRF). Compared to energy-dispersive XRF (ED-XRF), WD-XRF is more adequate in an accurate quantitative analysis of thin organic film

  14. Radiodiagnostic errors by X-ray pictures of the chest taken at bed resting patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.; Deininger, H.K.

    1981-01-01

    The roentgenological findings of 383 cases have been compared with the anatomical and pathological diagnosis of the autopsy report. In 29% the radiodiagnosis was incorrect. About 70% of the X-ray examinations had to be carried out succenturiately at bed side in bedridden patients. The error rate of the interpretation of these examinations was higher than in examinations under standardized conditions. Especially, carcinomatous lymphangiosis, miliary tuberculosis and pulmonary embolism can be diagnosed badly in those incomplete X-ray pictures caused by the clinical situation of the bed resting patients. The publication analyses the most common errors in the diagnosis of cardiac and pulmonary diseases, and they will be demonstrated in examples. (orig.) [de

  15. Quality control of X-ray films with blue spectral sensitivity: comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, F.; Ruiz Cruces, R.; Sendra, F.; Diez de los rios, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this work, seven X-ray films with blue-ultraviolet spectral sensitivity have been studied by means of light sensitometry, x-ray sensitometry and spatial resolution test. Three screens of different composition and speed were use. Only the films HPX44 and RG showed a high base plus for (>0,30), the remaining films maintained their values between 0,21 and 0,26. When blue light sensitometry was substituted by green light sensitometry, base plus fog practically did not show variations and gradient and speed changed less than 4% and 10% respectively. Speed and Gradient must be calculated from the relation between exposition and optical density, avoiding parameters referred to type optical density of a given step of the wedge. Two films with high speed (RG and HPX 44), four films with medium speed (Curix RP2, NewRX, Cronex 4 and X-Omat S) and one film with low speed but high resolution (Cronex 7) have been found. The obtained results present useful comparative data to select and adequate film according to the characteristic of the x-ray examination and the available screens. (Author)

  16. The Yield from Routine Chest X-Rays in Stage 3 Breast Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Cancer of the breast is a common malignancy in Nigerian women and various imaging examinations, including the chest radiograph are routinely requested in all patients with this disease. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the positive yield from routine chest radiographs in Nigerian patients ...

  17. Chest X-rays and associated clinical parameters in pulmonary Tubercolosis cases from the National Tubercolosis Program, Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatin N. Dholakia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB patients from the local Tuberculosis control programme, Mumbai, India. It examined features of chest X-rays and their correlation with clinical parameters for possible application in suspected multidrug resistant TB (MDRTB and to predict outcome in new and treatment failure PTB cases. X-ray features (infiltrate, cavitation, miliary shadows, pleural effusion, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and extent of lesions were analyzed to identify associations with biological/clinical parameters through univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Failures demonstrated associations between extensive lesions and high glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb levels (P=0.028 and male gender (P=0.03. An association was also detected between cavitation and MDR (P=0.048. In new cases, bilateral cavities were associated with MDR (P=0.018 and male gender (P=0.01, low body mass index with infiltrates (P=0.008, and smoking with cavitation (P=0.0238. Strains belonging to the Manu1 spoligotype were associated with mild lesions (P=0.002. Poor outcome showed borderline significance with extensive lesions at onset (P=0.053. Furthermore, amongst new cases, smoking, the Central Asian Strain (CAS spoligotype and high GHb were associated with cavitation, whereas only CAS spoligotypes and high GHb were associated with extensive lesions. The study highlighted associations between certain clinical parameters and X-ray evidence which support the potential of X-rays to predict TB, MDRTB and poor outcome. The use of Xrays as an additional tool to shorten diagnostic delay and shortlist MDR suspects amongst nonresponders to TB treatment should be explored in a setting with limited resources coping with a high MDR case load such as Mumbai.

  18. X-ray diffraction characterization of epitaxial CVD diamond films with natural and isotopically modified compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokhorov, I. A., E-mail: igor.prokhorov@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Materials Science Laboratory, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics”, Kaluga Branch (Russian Federation); Voloshin, A. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Ralchenko, V. G.; Bolshakov, A. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Romanov, D. A. [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Kaluga Branch (Russian Federation); Khomich, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Sozontov, E. A. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    Comparative investigations of homoepitaxial diamond films with natural and modified isotopic compositions, grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on type-Ib diamond substrates, are carried out using double-crystal X-ray diffractometry and topography. The lattice mismatch between the substrate and film is precisely measured. A decrease in the lattice constant on the order of (Δa/a){sub relax} ∼ (1.1–1.2) × 10{sup –4} is recorded in isotopically modified {sup 13}C (99.96%) films. The critical thicknesses of pseudomorphic diamond films is calculated. A significant increase in the dislocation density due to the elastic stress relaxation is revealed by X-ray topography.

  19. Lead iodide films as X-ray sensors tested in the mammography energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condeles, J.F.; Ghilardi Netto, T.; Mulato, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present an alternative method for the deposition of thin films of lead iodide (PbI 2 ), which is a promising semiconductor candidate for applications in medical digital radiography. The spray pyrolysis technique enables the fabrication of thick films with a deposition rate of about 3.3 As -1 . We investigate the influence of the main deposition parameters on the final properties of the films. They were substrate temperature from 150 up to 270 o C and nozzle-spray distance to substrate from 13.0 to 16.5 cm. The films were mainly investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Also, electrical characterizations were made in the dark as a function of temperature, and with the samples submitted to X-ray exposures in the energy range of mammography diagnosis

  20. Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of transition-metal oxide thin films and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadati, H.; Fujimori, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Photoemission spectroscopy is a powerful technique to study the electronic structures of transition-metal oxides. •Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HXPES) is a new type of photoemission spectroscopy which can probe bulk states. •HXPES is very suitable for studying oxide thin films such as the composition dependence and the film thickness dependence. -- Abstract: Photoemission spectroscopy is a powerful experimental technique to study the electronic structures of solids, especially of transition-metal oxides. Recently, hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HXPES) has emerged as a more relevant experimental technique to obtain clear information about bulk states. Here, we describe how HXPES can be conveniently applied to study the interesting subjects on oxide thin films such as the composition dependence and the film thickness dependence of the electronic structures and the interfacial electronic structure of multilayers

  1. Magnetism in heterogeneous thin film systems: Resonant X-ray scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortright, J.B.; Jiang, J.S.; Bader, S.D.; Hellwig, O.; Marguiles, D.T.; Fullerton, E.E.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic and chemical heterogeneity are common in a broad range of magnetic thin film systems. Emerging resonant soft x-ray scattering techniques are well suited to resolve such heterogeneity at relevant length scales. Resonant x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements laterally average over heterogeneity but can provide depth resolution in different ways, as illustrated in measurements resolving reversible and irreversible changes in different layers of exchange-spring heterostructures. Resonant small-angle scattering measures in-plane heterogeneity and can resolve magnetic and chemical scattering sources in different ways, as illustrated in measurements of granular alloy recording media

  2. Imaging Local Polarization in Ferroelectric Thin Films by Coherent X-Ray Bragg Projection Ptychography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruszkewycz, S. O.; Highland, M. J.; Holt, M. V.; Kim, Dongjin; Folkman, C. M.; Thompson, Carol; Tripathi, A.; Stephenson, G. B.; Hong, Seungbum; Fuoss, P. H.

    2013-04-01

    We used x-ray Bragg projection ptychography (BPP) to map spatial variations of ferroelectric polarization in thin film PbTiO3, which exhibited a striped nanoscale domain pattern on a high-miscut (001) SrTiO3 substrate. By converting the reconstructed BPP phase image to picometer-scale ionic displacements in the polar unit cell, a quantitative polarization map was made that was consistent with other characterization. The spatial resolution of 5.7 nm demonstrated here establishes BPP as an important tool for nanoscale ferroelectric domain imaging, especially in complex environments accessible with hard x rays.

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  4. Tuberculous mediastinal Lymphadenopathy; Simulating other mediastinal tumors in chest films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Kun Sang; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-12-15

    Radiographs of chest may hardly differentiate the tuberculous mediastinal lymphadenopathy in children or adults with other mediastinal tumors sometimes when markedly enlarged mediastinal lymph node is the main findings of tuberculosis. 6 cases of tuberculous mediastinal lymphadenopathy was collected which was confirmed histopathologically and of which findings in chest films are indistinguishable with other mediastinal tumors especially lymphomas. After analysing the findings in chest films, the followings: could be found 1) The locations of the lesions are mainly hilar and superior mediastinum but there are also many variations of them, so there are of no significance in differential diagnosis with other mediastinal tumors. 2) The contours of the lesions are unilateral in 5 cases, and scalloped or diffusely widened appearance in all cases. 3) When mediastinal lymphadenopathy is the sole evidence of tuberculosis and even when additional lesions are noted in lung parenchyme or pleura, occasional lyes chest x-ray only is insufficient to differentiate the lesion with other mediastinal tumors including lymphomas. 4) Considering the frequency of the tuberculosis in this country, whenever one suspects any mediastinal tumors in chest x-ray one should include the possibility of tuberculous mediastinal lymphadenopathy in differential diagnosis.

  5. Synchrotron x-ray methods in studies of thin organic film structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentle, I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, the study of the structures of organic films as thin as a single monolayer has been revolutionized by methods that take advantage of the characteristics of synchrotron radiation. In particular, the methods of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and X-ray reflectivity have led to a number of valuable insights into structural aspects of thin films at molecular resolution. Our group has been studying films formed at the air/water interface as insoluble monolayers and subsequently transferred to solid substrates using either the vertical (Langmuir-Blodgett) or horizontal (Langmuir-Schaeffer) methods. The main aim of these experiments is to exert control over film structure in the direction parallel to the substrate surface. This is highly desirable in order to design devices that exploit the optical and electrooptical properties of functional materials, but is difficult to do. By varying the chemical structure of the film materials and controlling deposition conditions a degree of control is possible, but only using synchrotron methods can it be easily verified. We have also developed a novel method of rapidly collecting data from GIXD measurements by the application of area detection (imaging plates), which has made possible measurements of dynamic processes such as in-situ annealing. Such measurements are not possible using traditional scanning methods. One area of current interest is films composed of porphyrins as functional materials, either alone or as mixed films with fatty acids. We have been investigating ways of assembling porphyrins in such a way as to overcome the tendency to aggregate, and to produce patterning and ordered structures in the plane of the interface. Examples will be given of how film composition and deposition method affects the final structure, and of how X-ray methods can be used to elucidate both the structures and the mechanisms. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  6. The use of a CCD imaging system for X-ray film intensity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigg, M.W.; Barnea, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The use of a simple CCD-based imaging system for digitizing and x-ray film image is demonstrated. A method of extending the region of linear response of the film based upon an analytic representation of the observed response to a series of increasing exposures is described. The validity of the procedure is illustrated through an example of the absolute intensity measurement of a reflection of cadmium sulphide. 3 refs., 7 figs

  7. Experimental elucidation: microscopic mechanism of resonant X-ray scattering in manganite films

    CERN Document Server

    Ohsumi, H; Kiyama, T

    2003-01-01

    Resonant X-ray scattering experiments have been performed on perovskite manganite La sub 0 sub . sub 5 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 5 MnO sub 3 thin films, which are grown on three distinct perovskite with a coherent epitaxial strain and have a forced ferro-type orbital ordering of Mn 3d orbitals. Using an interference technique, we have successfully observed the resonant X-ray scattering signal from the system having the ferro-type orbital ordering and also revealed the energy scheme of Mn 4p bands. For the forced ferro-type orbital ordering system, the present results evidence that the resonant X-ray scattering signal originates from the band structure effect due to the Jahn-Teller distortion of a MnO sub 6 octahedron, and not from the Coulomb interaction between 3d and 4p electrons. (author)

  8. Quality control of diagnostic x-ray equipment and film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the section 40 of the Radiation Act (592/92), the licensee is required in Finland to make the arrangements to control the function of the radiation equipment and related facilities used for medical procedures. The guide explains how quality control can be organized for diagnostic x-ray equipment. It also gives recommendations for constancy tests for conventional x-ray radiographic and fluoroscopic equipment and for film processing. The recommendations are based on the publications and statements of the International Committee for Radiation Protection (ICRP) and standardization organizations. The intention is that the operators of x-ray equipment or the maintenance personnel are able to perform the quality control tests presented in the guide

  9. Roles of Thin Film Stress in Making Extremely Lightweight X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William W.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray optics typically must be coated with one of the noble metals, gold, platinum, or iridium, to enhance their photon collection area. In general, iridium is preferred to the other two because it generates the highest X-ray reflectivity in the I to 10 keV band. Unfortunately, iridium films typically have also the highest stress that can severely degrade the optical figure of the mirror substrate, resulting in a poorer image quality. In this paper we will report our work in understanding this stress and our method to counterbalance it. In particular we will also report on potential ways of using this stress to improve the substrate's optical figure, turning a bug into a desirable feature. This work is done in the context of developing an enabling technology for the International X-ray Observatory which is a collaborative mission of NASA, ESA, and JAXA, and expected to be launched into an L2 orbit in 2021.

  10. [Quality assurance from the viewpoint of the x-ray film industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Volkmann, T

    1992-08-01

    The parameters of a film-screen-combination are listed in the directive to section 16 of the german X-ray Regulation. These parameters are determined by methods described in DIN standards and published by the manufacturer. Comparable but less precise parameters are determined in the Acceptance Test. For physical reasons it is not possible to determine the speed of an X-ray film or the intensification factor of a screen separately. The films, screens and processing chemicals delivered by the members of the manufacturer association ZVEI are kept below a deviation (expressed as relative contribution to the system speed S) of +/- 10% for the majority of products, the upper limit is +/- 15%. Poor storage and transport conditions may adversely affect the quality of X-ray films. A special labeling of the film box shall serve to guarantee safe distribution channels. The processing conditions are adjusted at the Acceptance Test according to the manufacturers recommendations. The Constancy Test of film processing serves to maintain these correct conditions. Methods deviating from the DIN-method are of limited (Bayerische method) or no value (Stuttgart method).

  11. Advances in thin film diffraction instrumentation by X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, A.

    1996-01-01

    The structural characterisation of thin films requires a parallel X-ray beam of high intensity. Parallel beam geometry is commonly used in high resolution and single crystal experiments, but also in the field of X-ray diffraction for polycrystalline material (e.g. in phase, texture and stress analysis). For grazing incidence diffraction (GID), the use of small slits on the primary side and of long soller slits with a flat monochromator on the secondary side is standard. New optical elements have been introduced with polychromatic or monochromatic radiation. By means of different applications the results are compared with those of classical beam optics. X-ray fiber optics utilize total external reflection of X-rays on smooth surfaces. Effects of monochromatization are presented. In many fields of application, fiber optics may replace conventional collimators. The use of primary and secondary channel cut crystals can also produce a high parallel monochromatic X-ray beam. A parabolically bent graded multilayer produces a monochromatic parallel beam of high intensity. Compared with classical Bragg-Brentano (focussing) geometry, excellent results have been obtained, especially for samples with an irregular shape. In combination with a channel cut monochromator there is a substantial gain in intensity leading to an increase of the dynamic intensity range of rocking curves

  12. Advances in thin film diffraction instrumentation by X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, A [Rich. Seifert and Co., Analytical X-ray Systems, Ahrensburg (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    The structural characterisation of thin films requires a parallel X-ray beam of high intensity. Parallel beam geometry is commonly used in high resolution and single crystal experiments, but also in the field of X-ray diffraction for polycrystalline material (e.g. in phase, texture and stress analysis). For grazing incidence diffraction (GID), the use of small slits on the primary side and of long soller slits with a flat monochromator on the secondary side is standard. New optical elements have been introduced with polychromatic or monochromatic radiation. By means of different applications the results are compared with those of classical beam optics. X-ray fiber optics utilize total external reflection of X-rays on smooth surfaces. Effects of monochromatization are presented. In many fields of application, fiber optics may replace conventional collimators. The use of primary and secondary channel cut crystals can also produce a high parallel monochromatic X-ray beam. A parabolically bent graded multilayer produces a monochromatic parallel beam of high intensity. Compared with classical Bragg-Brentano (focussing) geometry, excellent results have been obtained, especially for samples with an irregular shape. In combination with a channel cut monochromator there is a substantial gain in intensity leading to an increase of the dynamic intensity range of rocking curves.

  13. X-ray varieties of acute lung abscess course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churilyin, R.Yu.

    2009-01-01

    Chest of x-ray films of 52 patients with lung abscess aged of 18-78 were analyzed. Eight patients were performed radiography in 2 projections, liner and computed tomography. All patients underwent dynamic investigation.

  14. Study on the characteristics of insight dental x-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Han; Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of the newly marketed, Insight dental X-ray film. Kodak Ultraspeed (DF-58), E-speed, Agfa Dentus M2, and Kodak Insight (IP-21) films were radiographed using a Trophy intra-oral radiographic machine. 10 step exposure times were prepared and each step exposure was monitored using a FH 40G (ESM Eberline Instruments) dosimeter for each of the 4 types of intra-oral film. All films were manually processed and the radiographic densities at 6 site of each processed film were measured, and the characteristic curves of each of the 4 types intra-oral films were created utilizing these dosimetric data and radiographic densities, based on ISO 5779. The film contrast, speed, and base plus fog density of Insight film were compared with those of the 3 other films examined in this experiment. E-speed film showed greatest average gradients followed by Insight film. E-speed and Ultraspeed film showed great average gradients at low density levels. Insight film showed the fastest speed followed by E-speed, Dentus M2 and Ultraspeed film. Dentus M2 film showed greatest base plus fog density level followed by Insight film. Kodak Insight film showed fastest film speed with comparable film contrast on characteristic curve.

  15. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption of strained CoO and MnO thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csiszár, Szilárd Istvan; Tjeng, L.H

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this project was to study the influence of epitaxial strain on the electronic and magnetic structure of transition metal oxide layers. In the first part of the thesis the discovery of characteristic diffuse X-ray scattering patterns is reported. They are caused by the misfit dislocations,

  16. Sputter deposition of PZT piezoelectric films on thin glass substrates for adjustable x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Rudeger H T; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N; Reid, Paul B; Schwartz, Daniel A; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2013-05-10

    Piezoelectric PbZr(0.52)Ti(0.48)O(3) (PZT) thin films deposited on thin glass substrates have been proposed for adjustable optics in future x-ray telescopes. The light weight of these x-ray optics enables large collecting areas, while the capability to correct mirror figure errors with the PZT thin film will allow much higher imaging resolution than possible with conventional lightweight optics. However, the low strain temperature and flexible nature of the thin glass complicate the use of chemical-solution deposition due to warping of the substrate at typical crystallization temperatures for the PZT. RF magnetron sputtering enabled preparation of PZT films with thicknesses up to 3 μm on Schott D263 glass substrates with much less deformation. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the films crystallized with the perovskite phase and showed no indication of secondary phases. Films with 1 cm(2) electrodes exhibited relative permittivity values near 1100 and loss tangents below 0.05. In addition, the remanent polarization was 26 μC/cm(2) with coercive fields of 33 kV/cm. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient was as high as -6.1±0.6 C/m(2). To assess influence functions for the x-ray optics application, the piezoelectrically induced deflection of individual cells was measured and compared with finite-element-analysis calculations. The good agreement between the results suggests that actuation of PZT thin films can control mirror figure errors to a precision of about 5 nm, allowing sub-arcsecond imaging.

  17. A comparison of Kodak Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed plus dental X-ray films for the detection of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A; Monsour, P A; Moule, A J; Basford, K E

    2002-03-01

    Using the fastest dental X-ray film available is an easy way of reducing exposure to ionizing radiation. However, the diagnostic ability of fast films for the detection of proximal surface caries must be demonstrated before these films will become universally accepted. Extracted premolar and molar teeth were arranged to simulate a bitewing examination and radiographed using Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed Plus dental X-ray films. Three different exposure times were used for each film type. Six general dentists were used to determine the presence and depth of the decay in the proximal surfaces of the teeth radiographed. The actual extent of the decay in the teeth was determined by sectioning the teeth and examining them under a microscope. There was no significant difference between the two films for the mean correct diagnosis. However, there was a significant difference between the means for the three exposure times used for Ultraspeed film. The practitioners used were not consistent in their ability to make a correct diagnosis, or for the film for which they got the highest correct diagnosis. Ektaspeed Plus dental X-ray film is just as reliable as Ultraspeed dental X-ray film for the detection of proximal surface decay. The effect of underexposure was significant for Ultraspeed, but not for Ektaspeed Plus. Patient exposure can be reduced significantly with no loss of diagnostic ability by changing from Ultraspeed X-ray film to Ektaspeed Plus X-ray film.

  18. X-ray-induced thinning of 3He and 3He/4He mixture films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Fukuto, Masafumi; Silvera, Isaac F.; Pershan, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Films of isotopic mixtures of helium have been studied using x-ray specular reflectivity techniques. In contrast with superfluid 4 He films, x-ray exposure causes a reduction in the thickness of 4 He films above the superfluid transition as well as films of pure 3 He and 3 He/ 4 He mixtures. One proposed model that could account for this effect is a charging model, in which thinning is caused by electrostatic pressure of free charges that accumulate on the helium surface. Unfortunately, this model is not fully consistent with all of the experimental observations. A localized heating model, in which indirect heating of the film causes it to thin would explain the data if there were dissipative film flow in the 3 He/ 4 He mixtures at temperatures where the bulk is superfluid. We argue that various published experimental results suggest such an effect. In this model, film thinning data for dilute 3 He/ 4 He films indicates dissipation that is linear in 3 He content of the film over two orders of magnitude

  19. A method of simultaneous no-screen X-ray film taking with direct twofold magnification of hands and feet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajgner, J.; Szymanska-Prach, H.

    1978-01-01

    The authors propose an original method of X-ray examination of hands and feet which makes possible simultaneous radiography without screen and direct twofold magnified film taking. The method is not connected with the necessity of exposing the patient to an additional dose of X-rays. It has been tried in 20 patients with suspected rheumatoid arthritis. It requires an X-ray tube with 0.3 x 0.3 mm microfocus. (author)

  20. Is chest x-ray an adequate screening tool for the diagnosis of blunt thoracic aortic injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeh, Akpofure Peter; Peterson, Wylan; Woods, Randy J; Walusimbi, Mbaga; Nwuneli, Nancy; Saxe, Jonathan M; McCarthy, Mary C

    2008-11-01

    Blunt thoracic aortic injuries (BTAI) have a high mortality rate. For survivors, chest X-ray (CXR) findings are used to determine the need for further diagnostic testing with chest computerized tomography with angiography (CTA) or conventional angiography. We set to determine the adequacy of utilizing CXR alone as a screening tool for BTAI. All patients diagnosed with BTAI at a level I trauma-center during a 7-year-period were identified. CXRs of these patients and those of a control group of blunt trauma patients with an injury severity score >15 were reviewed by four trauma surgeons blinded to the diagnosis. Based on each CXR viewed, the surgeons decided if they would have proceeded to chest CTA, angiography, or required no further studies to rule out BTAI. In the 7-year-period, 83 patients had BTAI. CXRs were available in 45 patients. The four surgeons viewed 96 CXRs including those of 51 controls. Based on the CXR appearance in patients with BTAI, the surgeons chose to proceed to chest CTA in 38 patients (84.4%), conventional aortography in two patients (4.4%), and no further testing in five patients (11.2%). A widened mediastinum (75%) and loss of the aorto-pulmonary window (40%) were the most frequent CXR abnormalities. Patients with BTAI were more likely to have an abnormal CXR-40 of 45 (88.8%) patients when compared with the controls-25 of 51 (49%)patients-p < 0.001. Although CXR is a sensitive screening modality, it failed to identify the possibility of BTAI in 11% of patients. The liberal use of chest CTA after high speed motor vehicle crashes is recommended to minimize the incidence of missed BTAI.

  1. Development of NaI(Tl) scintillating films for imaging soft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Thin film NaI(Tl) scintillators, of areas of up to 130 cm 2 , have been fabricated and characterized for use on soft x-ray imaging photomultiplier tubes. Relevant parameters of photon-counting imaging detectors are defined and used to predict the performance of several materials, including CsI(Na), CsI(Tl), CaF 2 (Eu), Lu 2 (SiO 4 )O:Ce, and NaI(Tl), as thin film scintillators on fiber optic substrates. Also, x-ray imaging methodologies are compared. The NaI(Tl) films were vapor-deposited onto quartz and fiber optic substrates using a powder flash deposition technique. When compared to single crystal NaI(Tl), the films were found to have equally high light yield but lower energy resolution. Light yield optimization was studied in detail including the effects of substrate temperature, activator concentration in the evaporant, and boat temperature. Spatial resolution as well as parallax errors are discussed and measured for film thicknesses up to 61 μm. A technique is described that can substantially increase the light collection of high index films on fiber optic disks. The light collection was improved by 20% by coating the disk with potassium silicate before the NaI(Tl) deposition. Large area films, up to 130 cm 2 , had a spatial uniformity of response within ±1.5% for count rate and ±3.5% for light yield, and their spatial resolution exceeded 16.6 lp mm -1 when deposited onto fiber optic substrates. The 8-keV x-ray detection efficiency of the microchannel plate imaging photomultiplier tube coupled to a NaI(Tl) film scintillator is predicted to be 88%. Other uses for the films are also described

  2. Chest X-ray and chest CT findings in patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis following solid organ transplantation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Irai Luis; Schuhmacher Neto, Roberto; Marchiori, Edson; Pereira, Marisa; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to select articles including chest X-ray or chest CT findings in patients who developed pulmonary tuberculosis following solid organ transplantation (lung, kidney, or liver). The following search terms were used: "tuberculosis"; "transplants"; "transplantation"; "mycobacterium"; and "lung". The databases used in this review were PubMed and the Brazilian Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (Virtual Health Library). We selected articles in English, Portuguese, or Spanish, regardless of the year of publication, that met the selection criteria in their title, abstract, or body of text. Articles with no data on chest CT or chest X-ray findings were excluded, as were those not related to solid organ transplantation or pulmonary tuberculosis. We selected 29 articles involving a collective total of 219 patients. The largest samples were in studies conducted in Brazil and South Korea (78 and 35 patients, respectively). The imaging findings were subdivided into five common patterns. The imaging findings varied depending on the transplanted organ in these patients. In liver and lung transplant recipients, the most common pattern was the classic one for pulmonary tuberculosis (cavitation and "tree-in-bud" nodules), which is similar to the findings for pulmonary tuberculosis in the general population. The proportion of cases showing a miliary pattern and lymph node enlargement, which is most similar to the pattern seen in patients coinfected with tuberculosis and HIV, was highest among the kidney transplant recipients. Further studies evaluating clinical data, such as immunosuppression regimens, are needed in order to improve understanding of the distribution of these imaging patterns in this population.

  3. Nondestructive characterization of surface chemical wear films via X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershberger, J.; Ajayi, O.O.; Fenske, G.R

    2004-01-15

    This work describes and demonstrates a suite of techniques for the non-destructive examination of surface films formed from oil additives. X-Ray diffraction, reflectivity and fluorescence have been used in grazing-incidence geometry to provide information on the thickness, roughness, density, structure and composition of the layers that compose reaction films. The lubricating oils were not rinsed off the surfaces of the samples before analysis. Films were formed from neat polyalphaolefin (PAO) oil and PAO with chloroform, dimethyl disulfide, or zinc or molybdenum dialkyl dithiophosphate additive. A thick layer of crystalline FeO formed during wear lubricated by neat PAO.

  4. Crossover And MTF Characteristics Of A Tabular-Grain X-Ray Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, K. E.; Wagner, P. W.

    1984-08-01

    An orthochromatic x-ray film made with tabular silver halide grains has a significantly higher MTF when exposed with green-emitting intensifying screens than do conventional films with similar sensitometric properties. The primary reason for the improved MTF is a decrease in the amount of crossover exposure, i.e., exposure by light that has crossed the support one or more times. Two well-established sensitometric procedures for measuring crossover have been compared. One produces results accurate enough for calculations of MTF relationships. Calculated MTF relationships for tabulargrain and conventional films are compared with measured values.

  5. X-ray film interferometer as an instrument for semiconductor heterostructure investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Vasilenko, A P; Nikitenko, S G; Fedorov, A A; Sokolov, L V; Nikiforov, A I; Trukhanov, E M

    2001-01-01

    Translation Moire pictures were first observed in interference topographs obtained using Synchrotron radiation. A film interferometer was prepared on the base of the GeSi heterosystem. Another film interferometer, which presents the heterosystem of epitaxial Si/ porous Si/ substrate Si, permitted us to observe a decrease in the bending of the film atomic planes at annealing of the heterosystem. This bend smoothing was calculated with the sensitivity better than 1 A with the use of X-ray interference topographs. Contrast peculiarities in Moire pictures are discussed for nondiffracting layers and crystal quantum wells.

  6. The value of chest X-ray in the Scottish Referral Guidelines for suspected head and neck cancer in 2144 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingland, P; Carswell, V; Tikka, T; Douglas, C M; Montgomery, J

    2018-04-30

    In Scotland, patients with suspected head and neck cancer are referred on the basis of the Scottish Referral Guidelines for Suspected Cancer, rather than the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines. A chest X-ray should be requested by the general practitioner at the same time as referral for persistent hoarseness. The evidence for this is level 4. This audit identified adherence to this recommendation and X-ray results. All 'urgent suspicion of cancer' referrals to the ENT department in the National Health Service Greater Glasgow and Clyde for 2015-2016 were audited. Persistent hoarseness for more than 3 weeks instigated referral in 318 patients (15.7 per cent). Chest X-ray was performed in 120 patients (38 per cent), which showed: no abnormality in 116 (96.7 per cent), features of infection in 2 (1.7 per cent) and something else in 2 patients (1.7 per cent). No chest X-ray altered the management of a patient. Performance of chest X-ray does not alter management and its removal from the Scottish Referral Guidelines for Suspected Cancer is recommended.

  7. X-ray picture of lung contusion in penetrating chest wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishchenko, B.I.; Bisenkov, L.N.; Bol'shakov, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    From the view-point of an x-ray appearance gUnshot lUng in uries are characterized by nonhomogeneous darkening of an oblong or spheroidal shape which is more intense in the center with unclear contours UsUally sited in the peripheral zones of the lung. Sometimes a cavity of 4-5 cm in diame-- ter is determined in the zone of contUsion. In half of the patients contusion injuries of the lungs were combined with hemopneumothorax. With respect to differential diagnosis it is necessary to distinguish lung contusions from atelectasis, pneumonia and abscesses. Importance shoUld be attached to the peculiarities of a skialogical picture, the time of development and the time course of changes in the lungs, the nature and degree of clinical minifestations

  8. Probing molecular orientations in thin films by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Li, P.; Lu, Z.-H.

    2018-03-01

    A great number of functional organic molecules in active thin-film layers of optoelectronic devices have highly asymmetric structures, such as plate-like, rod-like, etc. This makes molecular orientation an important aspect in thin-films as it can significantly affect both the optical and electrical performance of optoelectronic devices. With a combination of in-situ ultra violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigations for organic molecules having a broad range of structural properties, we discovered a rigid connection of core levels and frontier highest occupied molecular orbital levels at organic interfaces. This finding opens up opportunities of using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy as an alternative tool to UPS for providing an easy and unambiguous data interpretation in probing molecular orientations.

  9. Probing molecular orientations in thin films by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A great number of functional organic molecules in active thin-film layers of optoelectronic devices have highly asymmetric structures, such as plate-like, rod-like, etc. This makes molecular orientation an important aspect in thin-films as it can significantly affect both the optical and electrical performance of optoelectronic devices. With a combination of in-situ ultra violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS investigations for organic molecules having a broad range of structural properties, we discovered a rigid connection of core levels and frontier highest occupied molecular orbital levels at organic interfaces. This finding opens up opportunities of using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy as an alternative tool to UPS for providing an easy and unambiguous data interpretation in probing molecular orientations.

  10. Calibration of screen-type X-ray films for electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Sato, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Tateyama, N.; Komori, Y.; Nakabayashi, T.; Oyamada, M.; Nishimura, J.

    2002-01-01

    In order to extract the maximum performance of the screen-type X-ray film for the detection of cascade showers in emulsion chambers, we examined the effect of the thickness of the phosphor screen by irradiation with 200 MeV electron beams. The observed data is in agreement with our analytical prediction of the radiative transfer of photons in a phosphor screen. If we use a combination of the specially prepared screen, HR16B, with a phosphor layer of 400 μm and a green-sensitive X-ray film, HA30, the detection threshold energy of cascade showers can be considerably lowered down to 140 GeV. (author)

  11. Calibration of screen-type X-ray films for electron beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, T; Yoshida, K; Tateyama, N; Komori, Y; Nakabayashi, T; Oyamada, M; Nishimura, J

    2002-01-01

    In order to extract the maximum performance of the screen-type X-ray film for the detection of cascade showers in emulsion chambers, we examined the effect of the thickness of the phosphor screen by irradiation with 200 MeV electron beams. The observed data is in agreement with our analytical prediction of the radiative transfer of photons in a phosphor screen. If we use a combination of the specially prepared screen, HR16B, with a phosphor layer of 400 mu m and a green-sensitive X-ray film, HA30, the detection threshold energy of cascade showers can be considerably lowered down to 140 GeV. (author)

  12. Quantitation of pulmonary nodule's border structure by means of Fourier transform by using chest X-ray CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikata, Hidenori; Masuyama, Hiroshi; Kido, Shoji

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate quantitatively the border structure of pulmonary nodules by using chest X-ray CT images, we investigated whether the sum of high-frequency elements of the power spectrum in a Fourier-transformed nodule's contour line becomes a valuable measure of the border structure of pulmonary nodules. We expect that this measure clearly reflects the radiologic characteristics of a nodule, that is, the contour line is clear or unclear in benign or malignant nodules, respectively. We evaluated and analyzed images statistically for 31 patients (15 benign, 16 malignant), and we were able to recognize a measurable difference between the benign and malignant cases. We conclude that we can evaluate the border structure of a nodule by our proposed measure, and that this measure is valuable for quantitative differential diagnosis. (author)

  13. Objective quantification of pulmonary effects in X-ray chest images; Quantificacao objetiva das sequelas pulmonares em imagens de raios-X de torax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcela de; Giacomini, Guilherme; Alvarez, Matheus; Pereira, Paulo M.C.; Ribeiro, Sergio M.; Pina, Diana R. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious lung disease of great concern worldwide. Even after treatment, TB leaves pulmonary sequelae that compromise the quality of life of patients. The exam of diagnostic imaging done more frequently is the X-ray chest. The evaluation of pulmonary involvement of these patients is performed visually by the radiologist. The detection and quantification aided by computer systems are of great importance for the more accurate assessment of pulmonary involvement. The objective of this study was to evaluate computationally the reduction of lung damage in X-ray of chest in patients treated with two different medication regimens. (author)

  14. Dose reduction by x-ray beam filtration in screen-film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koedooder, C.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical aspects of dose reduction by x-ray beam filtration in screen-film radiography. The thesis deals mainly with dose reduction under the constraint of constant image quality; an analytical approach is chosen. Therefore, part of the thesis deals with the development of an algorithm to calculate patient dose and exposure for different filter materials and different tube load conditions, under the constraint of constant contrast and constant optical density. (Auth.)

  15. Thin films and buried interfaces characterization with X-ray standing waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomarsino, S [CNR, Rome (Italy). Istituto Elettronica Stato Solido

    1996-09-01

    The X-ray standing wave techniques is a powerful, non destructive method to study interfaces at the atomic level. Its basic features are described here together with the peculiarities of its applications to epitaxial films and buried interfaces. As examples of applications, experiments carried out on Si/silicide interfaces, on GaAs/InAs/GaAs buried interfaces and on Si/Ge superlattices are shown.

  16. Design and construction of a computerized optical densitometer for X-ray films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicuna V, H.G.; Picon C, C.; Zaharia B, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Radiotherapy Departments, where it is disposed of radiation units, these require of a control quality of their parameters as: dose in depth, real size, symmetry and levelling of the radiation field. In order to fulfil above it was designed and built a totally automated system for scanning and analysing the X-ray films or plates, which serve to have the parameter information to be measured. (Author)

  17. X-ray quantum optics with Moessbauer nuclei in thin-film cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeg, Kilian Peter

    2014-12-09

    In this thesis thin-film cavities with embedded Moessbauer nuclei probed by near-resonant X-ray light are studied from a quantum optical perspective. A theoretical framework is developed and compact expressions for the observables are derived for the linear excitation regime, which is encountered in current experiments. Even advanced cavity layouts can be modeled in excellent agreement with the results of previous experiments and semi-classical approaches. In the absence of magnetic hyperfine splitting, the spectral response of the system is found to be formed by tunable Fano profiles. An experimental implementation of this line shape control allows to extract spectroscopic signatures with high precision and to reconstruct the phase of the nuclear transition in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The alignment of medium magnetization and polarization control of the X-rays enable to engineer advanced quantum optical level schemes, in which vacuum induced coherence effects are predicted and successfully demonstrated in an experiment. Furthermore, it is shown that group velocity control for x-ray pulses can be achieved in the cavity. A scheme for its observation is proposed and then employed to experimentally confirm sub-luminal X-ray propagation. Finally, non-linear effects, which could become accessible with future light sources, are explored and a non-linear line shape control mechanism is discussed.

  18. MRI of atlantoaxial subluxation; Correlating with plain X-ray films and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikawa, Yuko; Nishi, Naoko; Saitoh, Yoko; Akimura, Rumiko; Sasaki, Taisuke; Yodono, Hiraku; Takekawa, Shoichi; Harata, Seikou; Sannohe, Akio (Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-04-01

    Twenty-three patients with atlantoaxial subluxation (14 with rheumatoid arthritis, one each with rheumatoid arthritis and Arnold-Chiari malformation, os odontoideum, Klippel-Feil syndrome, trauma, and 5 with unknown causes) were evaluated with MRI. We used 0.5 T MRI unit (RESONA; Yokogawa Medical Systems, Japan) and 1.5 T MRI unit (SMT 150; Shimazu, Japan) with head or flexible coils. We compared the usefulness of MRI with those of plain X-ray films and CT regarding several points. MRI provided better image of the soft tissue mass around the odontoid process, compression of cord or subarachnoid space than plain X-ray films and CT. Atlanto-odontoid distance on MRI is nearer to that on plain X-ray films than CT. MRI is useful in analyzing the anatomic details such as transverse ligament, alar ligament, tectorial membrane and thickened synovium. Both MRI and CT provided detailed bony changes. High correlation was observed between MRI grading of cord compression and the degree of myelopathy. (author).

  19. What is the clinical significance of chest CT when the chest x-ray result is normal in patients with blunt trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kea, Bory; Gamarallage, Ruwan; Vairamuthu, Hemamalini; Fortman, Jonathan; Lunney, Kevin; Hendey, Gregory W; Rodriguez, Robert M

    2013-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been shown to detect more injuries than plain radiography in patients with blunt trauma, but it is unclear whether these injuries are clinically significant. This study aimed to determine the proportion of patients with normal chest x-ray (CXR) result and injury seen on CT and abnormal initial CXR result and no injury on CT and to characterize the clinical significance of injuries seen on CT as determined by a trauma expert panel. Patients with blunt trauma older than 14 years who received emergency department chest imaging as part of their evaluation at 2 urban level I trauma centers were enrolled. An expert trauma panel a priori classified thoracic injuries and subsequent interventions as major, minor, or no clinical significance. Of 3639 participants, 2848 (78.3%) had CXR alone and 791 (21.7%) had CXR and chest CT. Of 589 patients who had chest CT after a normal CXR result, 483 (82.0% [95% confidence interval [CI], 78.7-84.9%]) had normal CT results, and 106 (18.0% [95% CI, 15.1%-21.3%]) had CTs diagnosing injuries-primarily rib fractures, pulmonary contusion, and incidental pneumothorax. Twelve patients had injuries classified as clinically major (2.0% [95% CI, 1.2%-3.5%]), 78 were clinically minor (13.2% [95% CI, 10.7%-16.2%]), and 16 were clinically insignificant (2.7% (95% CI, 1.7%-4.4%]). Of 202 patients with CXRs suggesting injury, 177 (87.6% [95% CI, 82.4%-91.5%]) had chest CTs confirming injury and 25 (12.4% [95% CI, 8.5%-17.6%]) had no injury on CT. Chest CT after a normal CXR result in patients with blunt trauma detects injuries, but most do not lead to changes in patient management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and exploitation of the slit method for the characterization of x-ray screen-film combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeschen, D.

    1987-01-01

    For the determination of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of screen-film combinations which are used in medical x-ray diagnostics a measuring method has been developed: the screen-film combination is exposed to x-rays behind a thin slit and the modulation transfer function is calculated from the resulting rather broad slit images on the film. After solving many technical and photographic problems, the slit method provides high precision in the MTF determination. The only objection against this method is the necessary high dose variation which has to be provided by the x-ray machine

  1. Comparison of Chest X-Ray Findings of Smear Positive and Smear Negative Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Azadeh; Mohammadifard, Mahyar; Naseh, Godratallah

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a chronic pulmonary infectious disease that has affected one-third of the people in the world. It causes nine million new cases and two million deaths per year. Chest radiography associated with Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining procedure significantly helps the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Chest radiography can help the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with a negative smear sample result that is mainly diagnosed with delay. In this study, chest X-ray findings of PTB were compared in two groups of smear positive and smear negative patients. In this retrospective descriptive-analytical study, 376 patients who had been confirmed with PTB were referred to Birjand Health Care Center from 2001 to 2006. Out of the 376 patients, 100 patients with a positive smear based on WHO criteria were selected. In addition, among negative smear patients, 100 were selected in whom similar demographic characteristics with positive smear patients were seen. All of them had undergone chest radiographies that were then interpreted by two expert radiologists independently. Moreover, all patients’ sputa were examined by an expert laboratory technician at the reference laboratory of the health center. The obtained data were analyzed by means of frequency distribution table and descriptive statistics using SPSS (version 15) and Chi-square statistical test. Except reticulo-nodular infiltration, the relative frequency of other radiographic findings in positive smear patients were more than negative smear patients; and only differences in calcification variables, mediastinal widening, patchy infiltration and hilar adenopathy were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Based on the results of this study, although radiographic findings are not diagnostic in PTB, they are helpful if the assessment associates with the view of clinical manifestations and sputum smears

  2. Assessment of dose to patients undergoing computed radiography and film screen x-ray examinations in some Khartoum Hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Khair, Haiffa Daffa Allah Mustafa

    2015-12-01

    Medical ionizing radiation sources give by far the largest contribution to the population dose from man made sources and most of the contribution comes from diagnostic x-rays. The optimization principle of radiation protection requires the minimization of radiation dose to patients while acquiring diagnostic quality images in radiology. In radiography, the extent of patient dose reduction is limited by the characteristics of the system used and the quality (or penetrating ability) of the x-ray beam. In this study, the entrance surface air kerma doses (ESA Ks) to patients undergoing 7 selected x-ray examinations were estimated. The study was conducted in eight hospitals in Khartoum State, comprising nine x-ray units and a total of 1200 patients were involved. Four of the hospitals involved in this study use computed radiography (CR) technology while the other four use film screen (FS) technology. The selected examinations were, abdomen (AP), chest (PA), pelvis (AP), skull (AP/PA), skull (LAT), thoracic spine (AP) and thoracic spine (LAT). The entrance surface air kerma was calculated by two methods, utilizing software CAL Dose X-3.5 and a mathematical model. Average ESAK values calculated using the two methods for hospitals using (CR) technology in mGy were 2.99 and 2.98, 0.34 and 0.31, 2.79 and 2.58, 0.76 and 0.71, 0.94 and 0.79, 3.4 and 3,2 and 5.9 and 5.03, for the above mentioned selected investigations respectively. And average ESAK values calculated using two methods for hospital using FS technology in mGy were found 4.98 and 4.19, 0.37 and 0.34, 4.15 and 3.95, 2.2 and 2. 1.3 and 1.1, 3.9 and 3.9, 9.4 and 8.3 for the above mentioned selected investigations respectively. Average ESAK values obtained by two methods for FS were higher values than the obtained by CR by 37 and 29%, 50 and 25%, 8%, 32 and 34%, 65 and 64%, 27 and 28%, 12% and 73% and 39% for the above mentioned selected investigations, respectively. This shows that CR technique allows diagnostically

  3. In-situ x-ray absorption study of copper films in ground water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvashnina, K.O.; Butorin, S.M.; Modin, A.; Soroka, I.; Marcellini, M.; Nordgren, J.; Guo, J.-H.; Werme, L.

    2007-01-01

    This study illustrates how the damage from copper corrosion can be reduced by modifying the chemistry of the copper surface environment. The surface modification of oxidized copper films induced by chemical reaction with Cl - and HCO 3 - in aqueous solutions was monitored by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that corrosion of copper can be significantly reduced by adding even a small amount of sodium bicarbonate. The studied copper films corroded quickly in chloride solutions, whereas the same solution containing 1.1 mM HCO 3 - prevented or slowed down the corrosion processes

  4. Structure of ordered polyelectrolyte films from atomic-force microscopy and X-ray reflectivity data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.V.; Tolstikhina, A.L.; Stepina, N.D.; Kayushina, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The possible application of atomic-force microscopy and X-ray reflectometry methods to structural studies of polyelectrolyte films obtained due to alternating adsorption of oppositely charged polyanion [sodium polysterenesulfonate (PSS)] and polycation [poly(allylamine) hydrochloride (PAA)] layers on solid substrates has been considered. The atomic-force microscopy study has revealed the characteristic features of the surface topography of samples consisting of different numbers of polyelectrolyte layers deposited from solutions characterized by different ionic strength values. It is shown that the shape of the reflectivity curves obtained from thin polyelectrolyte films depends on their surface structure

  5. Analysis of Ti/Mo film by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Fangming; Tu Bing; Yao Bing; Liu Jinhua; Long Xinggui

    2002-01-01

    Chemical elements and their electronic binding energy on surface of Ti film and bulk are analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Ar + etching. The results show that the surface of specimens is contaminated by carbon and oxygen. Mo on surface of Ti film is from substrate. The XPS spectra of Ti 2p of the etched specimens are fitted on. The results show that Ti chemical states on surface of Ti film are TiO 2 with a content of approaching to 100% and a little Ti. Some TiO 2 will be reduced to low chemical states with the increasing of etching time. The chemical states of Mo on surface of Ti film are MoO 3 and Mo. The content of Mo increases as etching time increasing. Chemical state of carbon on the surface of film is graphite and carbide with binding energy of 288.2-288.9 eV

  6. Grazing incidence X-ray absorption characterization of amorphous Zn-Sn-O thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, S. L.; Ma, Q.; Buchholz, D. B.; Chang, R. P. H.; Bedzyk, M. J.; Mason, T. O.

    2016-05-01

    We report a surface structure study of an amorphous Zn-Sn-O (a-ZTO) transparent conducting film using the grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy technique. By setting the measuring angles far below the critical angle at which the total external reflection occurs, the details of the surface structure of a film or bulk can be successfully accessed. The results show that unlike in the film where Zn is severely under coordinated (N < 4), it is fully coordinated (N = 4) near the surface while the coordination number around Sn is slightly smaller near the surface than in the film. Despite a 30% Zn doping, the local structure in the film is rutile-like.

  7. Can routine trauma bay chest x-ray be bypassed with an extended focused assessment with sonography for trauma examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soult, Michael C; Weireter, Leonard J; Britt, Rebecca C; Collins, Jay N; Novosel, Timothy J; Reed, Scott F; Britt, L D

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using ultrasound (US) in place of portable chest x-ray (CXR) for the rapid detection of a traumatic pneumothorax (PTX) requiring urgent decompression in the trauma bay. All patients who presented as a trauma alert to a single institution from August 2011 to May 2012 underwent an extended focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST). The thoracic cavity was examined using four-view US imaging and were interpreted by a chief resident (Postgraduate Year 4) or attending staff. US results were compared with CXR and chest computed tomography (CT) scans, when obtained. The average age was 37.8 years and 68 per cent of the patients were male. Blunt injury occurred in 87 per cent and penetrating injury in 12 per cent of activations. US was able to predict the absence of PTX on CXR with a sensitivity of 93.8 per cent, specificity of 98 per cent, and a negative predictive value of 99.9 per cent compared with CXR. The only missed PTX seen on CXR was a small, low anterior, loculated PTX that was stable for transport to CT. The use of thoracic US during the FAST can rapidly and safely detect the absence of a clinically significant PTX. US can replace routine CXR obtained in the trauma bay and allow more rapid initiation of definitive imaging studies.

  8. In situ X-ray diffraction studies on the piezoelectric response of PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydok, A., E-mail: davydok@mpie.de [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397 Marseille (France); Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Department Structure and Nano-/Micromechanics of Materials, D-40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Cornelius, T.W. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397 Marseille (France); Mocuta, C. [SOLEIL Synchrotron, DiffAbs beamline, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lima, E.C. [Universidade Federal do Tocantins, 77500-000 Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil); Araujo, E.B. [Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. Brasil, 56 Centro, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Thomas, O. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397 Marseille (France)

    2016-03-31

    Piezoelectric properties of randomly oriented self-polarized PbZr{sub 0.50}Ti{sub 0.50}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films were investigated using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Possibilities for investigating the piezoelectric effect using micro-sized hard X-ray beams are demonstrated and perspectives for future dynamical measurements on PZT samples with variety of compositions and thicknesses are given. Studies performed on the crystalline [100, 110] directions evidenced piezoelectric anisotropy. The piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} was calculated in terms of the lab reference frame (d{sub perp}) and found to be two times larger along the [100] direction than along the [110] direction. The absolute values for the d{sub perp} amount to 120 and 230 pm/V being in good agreement with experimental and theoretical values found in literature for bulk PZT ceramics. - Highlights: • We performed in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies on (PZT) thin films. • We discuss anisotropy of piezo effect in different crystallographic directions. • Perpendicular component Piezo coefficient of thin PZT layer is defined.

  9. Design and Development of a New Multi-Projection X-Ray System for Chest Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Amarpreet S.; Boyce, Sarah; Washington, Lacey; McAdams, H. Page; Samei, Ehsan

    2009-02-01

    Overlapping anatomical structures may confound the detection of abnormal pathology, including lung nodules, in conventional single-projection chest radiography. To minimize this fundamental limiting factor, a dedicated digital multi-projection system for chest imaging was recently developed at the Radiology Department of Duke University. We are reporting the design of the multi-projection imaging system and its initial performance in an ongoing clinical trial. The system is capable of acquiring multiple full-field projections of the same patient along both the horizontal and vertical axes at variable speeds and acquisition frame rates. These images acquired in rapid succession from slightly different angles about the posterior-anterior (PA) orientation can be correlated to minimize the influence of overlying anatomy. The developed system has been tested for repeatability and motion blur artifacts to investigate its robustness for clinical trials. Excellent geometrical consistency was found in the tube motion, with positional errors for clinical settings within 1%. The effect of tube-motion on the image quality measured in terms of impact on the modulation transfer function (MTF) was found to be minimal. The system was deemed clinic-ready and a clinical trial was subsequently launched. The flexibility of image acquisition built into the system provides a unique opportunity to easily modify it for different clinical applications, including tomosynthesis, correlation imaging (CI), and stereoscopic imaging.

  10. Computed tomography of the chest with model-based iterative reconstruction using a radiation exposure similar to chest X-ray examination: preliminary observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neroladaki, Angeliki; Botsikas, Diomidis; Boudabbous, Sana; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic image quality of ultra-low-dose chest computed tomography (ULD-CT) obtained with a radiation dose comparable to chest radiography and reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in comparison with standard dose diagnostic CT (SDD-CT) or low-dose diagnostic CT (LDD-CT) reconstructed with FBP alone. Unenhanced chest CT images of 42 patients acquired with ULD-CT were compared with images obtained with SDD-CT or LDD-CT in the same examination. Noise measurements and image quality, based on conspicuity of chest lesions on all CT data sets were assessed on a five-point scale. The radiation dose of ULD-CT was 0.16 {+-} 0.006 mSv compared with 11.2 {+-} 2.7 mSv for SDD-CT (P < 0.0001) and 2.7 {+-} 0.9 mSv for LDD-CT. Image quality of ULD-CT increased significantly when using MBIR compared with FBP or ASIR (P < 0.001). ULD-CT reconstructed with MBIR enabled to detect as many non-calcified pulmonary nodules as seen on SDD-CT or LDD-CT. However, image quality of ULD-CT was clearly inferior for characterisation of ground glass opacities or emphysema. Model-based iterative reconstruction allows detection of pulmonary nodules with ULD-CT with radiation exposure in the range of a posterior to anterior (PA) and lateral chest X-ray. (orig.)

  11. Application of X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF): thickness and chemical composition determination of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Valdirene de Oliveira.

    2004-01-01

    In this work a procedure is described for thickness and quantitative chemical composition of thin films by wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) using Fundamental Parameters method. This method was validated according to quality assurance standard and applied sample Al, Cr, TiO2, Ni, ZrO2 (single thickness) and Ni/Cr (double thickness) on glass; Ni on steel and metallic zinc and TiO2 on metallic iron (single thickness), all the sample were prepared for physical deposition of vapor (PVD). The thickness had been compared with Absorption (FRX-A) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) methods; the result showed good efficiency of the fundamental parameters method. Sample structural characteristics analyzed by X ray diffraction (XRD) showed any influence in the thickness determinations. (author)

  12. Determination of diffusion profiles in thin film couples by means of X-ray-diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagendristel, A.

    1975-01-01

    An X-ray method for the determination of concentration profiles in thin film diffusion couples is presented. This method is based on the theory of Fourier analysis of X-ray diffraction profiles which is generalized to polycrystalline samples showing non-uniform lattice parameter. A Fourier synthesis of the concentration spectrum is possible when the influences of the particle size and the strain in the sample as well as the instrumental function are eliminated from the measured diffraction profile. This can be done by means of reference profiles obtained from layers of the diffusion components. Absorption of the radiation in the sample is negligible when diffusion couples of symmetrical sandwich structure are used. The method is tested experimentally in the system Au-Cu. (orig.) [de

  13. In situ X-ray synchrotron study of organic semiconductor ultra-thin films growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, J.-F.; Dinelli, F.; Massi, M.; Albonetti, C.; Kshirsagar, R.; Biscarini, F.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we present an X-ray diffraction study of the early stages of growth of an organic semiconductor (sexithiophene, T 6 ) thin film prepared by high vacuum sublimation. Specular reflectometry and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction were used to monitor the formation of T 6 films on silicon oxide. Our results show that T 6 grows as a crystalline layer from the beginning of the evaporation. The reflectometry analysis suggests that, in the range of rates and temperatures studied, the growth is never layer by layer but rather 3D in nature. In-plane GIXD has allowed us to observe for the first time a thin film phase of T 6 formed of molecules standing normal to the substrate and arranged in a compressed unit cell with respect to the bulk, i.e. the unit cell parameters b and c are relatively smaller. We have followed the dynamics of formation of this new phase and identified the threshold of appearance of the bulk phase, which occurs above ∼5-6 monolayers. These results are relevant to the problem of organic thin film transistors, for which we have previously demonstrated experimentally that only the first two monolayers of T 6 films are involved in the electrical transport. The layers above the second one do not effectively contribute to charge mobility, either because they are more 'disordered' or because of a screening of the gate field

  14. Boron Doped diamond films as electron donors in photovoltaics: An X-ray absorption and hard X-ray photoemission study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapilashrami, M.; Zegkinoglou, I. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Conti, G.; Nemšák, S.; Conlon, C. S.; Fadley, C. S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Törndahl, T.; Fjällström, V. [Ångström Solar Center, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Lischner, J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Louie, Steven G. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Hamers, R. J.; Zhang, L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Guo, J.-H. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Himpsel, F. J., E-mail: fhimpsel@wisc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Highly boron-doped diamond films are investigated for their potential as transparent electron donors in solar cells. Specifically, the valence band offset between a diamond film (as electron donor) and Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ (CIGS) as light absorber is determined by a combination of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is more depth-penetrating than standard soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, a theoretical analysis of the valence band is performed, based on GW quasiparticle band calculations. The valence band offset is found to be small: VBO=VBM{sub CIGS} – VBM{sub diamond}=0.3 eV±0.1 eV at the CIGS/Diamond interface and 0.0 eV±0.1 eV from CIGS to bulk diamond. These results provide a promising starting point for optimizing the band offset by choosing absorber materials with a slightly lower valence band maximum.

  15. Boron Doped diamond films as electron donors in photovoltaics: An X-ray absorption and hard X-ray photoemission study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapilashrami, M.; Zegkinoglou, I.; Conti, G.; Nemšák, S.; Conlon, C. S.; Fadley, C. S.; Törndahl, T.; Fjällström, V.; Lischner, J.; Louie, Steven G.; Hamers, R. J.; Zhang, L.; Guo, J.-H.; Himpsel, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Highly boron-doped diamond films are investigated for their potential as transparent electron donors in solar cells. Specifically, the valence band offset between a diamond film (as electron donor) and Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) as light absorber is determined by a combination of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is more depth-penetrating than standard soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, a theoretical analysis of the valence band is performed, based on GW quasiparticle band calculations. The valence band offset is found to be small: VBO = VBM CIGS – VBM diamond  = 0.3 eV ± 0.1 eV at the CIGS/Diamond interface and 0.0 eV ± 0.1 eV from CIGS to bulk diamond. These results provide a promising starting point for optimizing the band offset by choosing absorber materials with a slightly lower valence band maximum.

  16. Impact of positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures on adverse outcomes following hospitalized pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Benfield, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the clinical presentation and outcome of pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) without positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures. We investigated the prognostic impact of a pulmonary infiltrate and bacteraemia on the clinical course of hospitalized...

  17. Contribution of chest x-ray to the diagnosis of HIV virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, C.; Sabbarani, S.

    1987-01-01

    After revising literature concerning Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumoniae (PCP), the authors undertook a close examination of the immunological system of the HIVab-positive patients that suffered opportunistic pneumopathy from PCP. Hundred-forty-three cases of HIVab-positive (mean age of 29), prevalently heroine drugusers, were studied. There were 13 AIDS, 26 ARC, 91 LAS cases and 13 patients with only Ab positivity for HIV. Four hundred chest radiographs were examined without previous knowledge of case histories. A small number of hilum and/or mediastinal lymphoadenopathies was observed. Moreover, percentage increase in acute lung inflammatory diseases, mainly interstitial, was seen. These data were correlated to the worsening of the HIV infection and to the developing of LAS, ARC and ADIS. In a number of cases there was radiological evidence of pregressed inflammatory episodes. The clinical pattern of PCP patients is dramatic and often fatal. Clinical-radiological cases with special reference to acute interstitial disease, caused by opportunistic agents, are presented

  18. Computer-assisted diagnosis: applications in chest and breast X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, P.; Souto, M.; Correa, J.; Carrascal, F.; Mendez, A.; Martin Carreira, J.; Lado, J.M.; Vidal, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Progress in the area of computers during the last years has focussed attention on its potential benefits as applied to computer aided diagnosis (CAD) in radiology. these CAD systems are being dedicated mainly to chest and breast radiology. Different schemes have been under investigation at our laboratory. Both automatic discrimination between normal and abnormal interstitial patterns by fractal dimension analysis and measurement of total lung capacity (TLC) have shown encouraging results (r=0.967, p<0.001). Automatic classification of mammograms in patterns with different risk to develop breast carcinoma and computer detection of breast masses with a sensitivity of 65% for a total number of 2.6 false positives per image suggest that CAD is a realistic goal in selected areas. (Author) 42 refs

  19. Sizes of X-ray radiation coherent domains in thin SmS films and their visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharenkova, N. V.; Kaminskii, V. V.; Petrov, S. N.

    2011-09-01

    The size of X-ray radiation coherent domains (250 ± 20 Å) is determined in a thin polycrystalline SmS film using X-ray diffraction patterns (θ-2θ scanning, DRON-2 diffractometer, Cu K α radiation) and the Selyakov-Scherrer formula with allowance for the effect of microstrains. An image of this film is taken with a transmission electron microscope, and regions with a characteristic size of 240 Å are clearly visible in it. It is concluded that X-ray radiation coherent domains are visualized.

  20. Synchrotron X-ray studies of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Jeffrey A.

    The study of ferroelectric thin films is a field of considerable scientific and technological interest. In this dissertation synchrotron x-ray techniques were applied to examine the effects of lateral confinement and epitaxial strain in ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures. Three materials systems were investigated: laterally confined epitaxial BiFeO3 nanostructures on SrTiO3 (001), ultra-thin commensurate SrTiO 3 films on Si (001), and coherently strained films of BaTiO3 on DyScO3 (110). Epitaxial films of BiFeO3 were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on SrRuO3 coated SrTiO 3 (001) substrates. Laterally confined nanostructures were fabricated using focused ion-beam processing and subsequently characterized with focused beam x-ray nanodiffraction measurements with unprecedented spatial resolution. Results from a series of rectangular nanostructures with lateral dimensions between 500 nm and 1 mum and a comparably-sized region of the unpatterned BiFeO3 film revealed qualitatively similar distributions of local strain and lattice rotation with a 2-3 times larger magnitude of variation observed in those of the nanostructures compared to the unpatterned film. This indicates that lateral confinement leads to enhanced variation in the local strain and lattice rotation fields in epitaxial BiFeO3 nanostructures. A commensurate 2 nm thick film of SrTiO3 on Si was characterized by the x-ray standing wave (XSW) technique to determine the Sr and Ti cation positions in the strained unit cell in order to verify strain-induced ferroelectricity in SrTiO3/Si. A Si (004) XSW measurement at 10°C indicated that the average Ti displacement from the midpoint between Sr planes was consistent in magnitude to that predicted by a density functional theory (DFT) calculated ferroelectric structure. The Ti displacement determined from a 35°C measurement better matched a DFT-predicted nonpolar structure. The thin film extension of the XSW technique was employed to

  1. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of excimer laser treated alumina films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, D. G.; Kolev, K.; Laude, L. D.; Mednikarov, B.; Starbov, N.

    1998-01-01

    Amorphous alumina layers are deposited on a single crystal Si substrate by a e-gun evaporation technique. These films are then thermally annealed in oxygen to be crystallized and, further, irradiated with an excimer laser beam. At each stage of the film preparation, an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis is performed at the film surface and in depth, upon ion beam grinding. Results give evidence for the formation of an aluminosilicate upon thermal annealing of the film in oxygen. At the surface itself, this compound is observed to decompose upon excimer laser irradiation at energy densities exceeding 1.75 J/cm2, giving rise to free Si atoms and SiO2, however with complete disappearance of Al atoms. Model photochemical reactions are proposed to explain such transformations.

  2. Determining surface coverage of ultra-thin gold films from X-ray reflectivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossoy, A.; Simakov, D.; Olafsson, S.; Leosson, K.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes usage of X-ray reflectivity for characterization of surface coverage (i.e. film continuity) of ultra-thin gold films which are widely studied for optical, plasmonic and electronic applications. The demonstrated method is very sensitive and can be applied for layers below 1 nm. It has several advantages over other techniques which are often employed in characterization of ultra-thin metal films, such as optical absorption, Atomic Force Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy or Scanning Electron Microscopy. In contrast to those techniques our method does not require specialized sample preparation and measurement process is insensitive to electrostatic charge and/or presence of surface absorbed water. We validate our results with image processing of Scanning Electron Microscopy images. To ensure precise quantitative analysis of the images we developed a generic local thresholding algorithm which allowed us to treat series of images with various values of surface coverage with similar image processing parameters. - Highlights: • Surface coverage/continuity of ultra-thin Au films (up to 7 nm) was determined. • Results from X-ray reflectivity were verified by scanning electron microscopy. • We developed local thresholding algorithm to treat non-homogeneous image contrast

  3. Comparison of light and x-ray sensitometric responses of double-emulsion films for different processing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blendl, Christian; Buhr, Egbert

    2001-01-01

    The effects of different film processing conditions on light and x-ray sensitometric responses were compared for a variety of double-emulsion x-ray films. The processing conditions were altered by changes of the developer temperature. Three different exposure variants were applied: x-ray sensitometry using two stepped neutral density attenuators between film and screens, simultaneous double-sided light sensitometry, and single-sided light sensitometry. 13 different types of double-emulsion x-ray films were investigated, among them three asymmetric films. In the special case of exposing the asymmetric films with the single-sided light sensitometer, a method was investigated where each side of the film is exposed at different locations and the sum effect is analyzed. From each sensitometric curve shape two parameters, the logarithmic speed (log S) and the average gradient (G), were evaluated. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: (1) Single-sided and double-sided light sensitometers revealed almost equal changes of log S when the processing conditions are altered. Thus, single-sided light sensitometers can serve as a substitute for double-sided light sensitometers provided that suited exposure methods are used and appropriate sensitometric parameters are evaluated. (2) Light sensitometry quantitatively indicated changes of the film processing that affect the x-ray speed. Hence, light sensitometry is a useful method to monitor changes in film processing

  4. Dose measurements in chest diagnostic X rays: Adult and paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M. B.; Yoshimura, E. M.

    2004-01-01

    This survey was carried out in the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil)). The health services located in the state perform approximately 321 radiological examinations per 1000 inhabitants. A representative sample of 200 health services was selected using sampling techniques, and a postal dosimetric kit was sent to each one who agreed to participate. The kit evaluates entrance surface dose (ESD), making use of thermoluminescence dosemeters attached to the skin of patients. The radiographic technique employed and some physical data of patients were also gathered. In this stage of the survey, only chest examinations, projections AP, PA and LAT, were evaluated. A total of 917 ESD values were measured, which correspond to 588 patients and 74 examination rooms. The ESD to patients were analysed according to weight and age. Groups of standard patients (children and adults) were selected, and reference doses were determined. Large variations of ESD were observed, indicating that much can be done in order to reduce the patient doses by changing the technical parameters. Moreover, the results of ESD in paediatric radiology point to the necessity of special attention in the practice of radiological examinations in this age group. (authors)

  5. Nanostructure and bonding of zirconium diboride thin films studied by X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, David M., E-mail: david.stewart@maine.edu; Meulenberg, Robert W.; Lad, Robert J., E-mail: rjlad@maine.edu

    2015-12-01

    Zirconium diboride (ZrB{sub 2}) is an important ceramic due to its extremely high melting temperature of 3245 °C and metallic electrical conductivity, properties that make it an ideal candidate thin film electrode material for high temperature electronics. In this report, thin films of varying B:Zr ratio ranging from 3–0.67 have been grown by e-beam evaporation from elemental sources. X-ray absorption spectra at the Zr K-edge were measured before and after annealing in ultra-high vacuum for 9 h at 1000 °C. Films with compositions near ZrB{sub 2} stoichiometry show X-ray absorption fine structure that can be well modeled by crystalline ZrB{sub 2} with a small portion of a coexisting tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO{sub 2}) phase. Films far from stoichiometry show substantial disorder beyond the nearest-neighbor distances, and after vacuum annealing exhibit high levels of oxidation. Contributions to the X-ray absorption fine structure from a pure Zr phase are very small compared to ZrB{sub 2} and t-ZrO{sub 2} phases. The fact that nearly stoichiometric (3 < B:Zr < 1.6) as-deposited amorphous films form the same crystalline ZrB{sub 2} nanostructure after annealing is particularly encouraging for high temperature thin film electronics applications, because it would allow the production of highly stable electrodes with e-beam evaporation without the need of any high temperature heating during film growth. - Highlights: • Zr–B thin films of different compositions were grown at low substrate temperatures. • EXAFS analysis indicates a ZrB{sub 2} crystal structure after vacuum annealing. • The coexistence of crystalline and amorphous Zr–B phases is also observed. • Films with excess Zr readily form t-ZrO{sub 2} during deposition, which coexists with ZrB{sub 2}. • Low temperature synthesis routes are important for technological applications.

  6. Study on the management of the Boohung X-Dol 90 developer and fixing solution for automatic X-ray film processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyan, Yong Sil; Kim, Heung Tae; Kwon, Dal Gwan; Choi, Myung Joon; Cheung, Hwan

    1986-01-01

    Recently, Demands of Automatic X-ray film Processors are increasing more and more at University Hospitals and general Hospitals and Private clinics, but various troubles because of incorrect control were found out. Authors have researched to find out the function and Activity of Automatic X-ray film processor for 2 weeks Kodak RPX-OMAT Processor and Sakura GX3000 Processor and Doosan parka 2000 Processor and results obtained were as follows: 1. Automatic X-ray film processor have an advantage to conduct the rapid treatment of X-ray film processing but incorrect handling of developing and fixing agents were brought about a great change in Contrast and Optical density of X-ray film pictures. 2. About 300 X-ray film could be finished by same developing and fixing solution without exchanging any other solutions in each Automatic X-ray film processor

  7. Use of fluorescent-metal intensifying screens with RT-type films for X-ray radiography using pulse devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgovskij, L.Ya.; Khakim'yanov, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on characteristics of combination of fluorescent-metal Kyokko SMP-308 (Japan) and RCF (Agfa-Gevert) screens with domestic X-ray RT-1, RT-2, RT-5 films. Pulse X-ray MIRA-3D and NORA devices at 200 kV voltage amplitude in X-ray tube were used as radiation source. Testing was conducted for steel samples of 5-40 mm thickness. Comparative exposures for various film combinations with fluorescent-metal screens, fluorescent VP-2 screens and lead foils of 27 μm thickness were determined at that. It is shown that fluorescent-metal screens can be successfully applied with domestic X-ray technical films. They enable to decrease exposure by one order with insignificant deterioration of sensitivity. It is important for testing of pipeline welds

  8. About some practical aspects of X-ray diffraction : From powder to thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valvoda, V [Charles Univ. Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

    1996-09-01

    Structure of thin films can be amorphous, polycrystalline or epitaxial, and the films can be prepared as a single layer films, multilayers or as graded films. A complete structure analysis of thin films by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) usually needs more than one diffraction geometry to be used. Their principles, advantages and disadvantages will be shortly described, especially with respect to their different sampling depth and different response to orientation of diffracting crystallographic planes. Main differences in structure of thin films with respect to powder samples are given by a singular direction of their growth, by their adhesion to a substrate and often also by a simultaneous bombardment by atomic species during the growth. It means that a thermodynamically unstable atomic structures can be found too. These special features of growth of thin polycrystalline films are reflected in often found strong preferred orientation of grains and in residual stresses conserved in the films. The methods of structure analysis of thin films by XRD will be compared with other techniques which can supply structure images on different scales.

  9. Optimization of exposure parameters for pediatric chest x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Ye-Seul; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2012-03-01

    The pediatric patients are more susceptible to the effects of ionizing radiation than adults. Pediatric patients are smaller, more radiosensitive than adult patients and many cannot stand unassisted. Their characteristics affect the method of imaging projection and how dose is optimized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various technical parameters for the dose optimization in pediatric chest radiological examinations by evaluating effective dose and effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) including the scatter radiation from the object, the blur caused by the focal spot, geometric magnification and detector characteristics. For the tube voltages ranging from 40 to 90 kV in 10 kV increments at the focus-to-detector distance of 100, 110, 120, 150, 180 cm, the eDQE was evaluated at same effective dose. The results showed that the eDQE was largest at 60 kVp without and with an anti-scatter grid. Especially, the eDQE was considerably higher without the use of an anti-scatter grid on equivalent effective dose. This indicates that the reducing the scatter radiation did not compensate for the loss of absorbed effective photons in the grid. When the grid is not used the eDQE increased with increasing focus-to-detector distance because of the greater effective modulation transfer function (eMTF) with the lower focal spot blurring. In conclusion, for pediatric patients, the amount of scattered radiation is less, and the amount of grid attenuation increased unnecessary radiation dose.

  10. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  11. Element selective X-ray magnetic circular and linear dichroisms in ferrimagnetic yttrium iron garnet films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogalev, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Goulon, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)], E-mail: goulon@esrf.fr; Wilhelm, F. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Brouder, Ch. [Institut de Mineralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condenses, UMR-CNRS 7590, Universite Paris VI-VII, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Yaresko, A. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Ben Youssef, J.; Indenbom, M.V. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS FRE 2697, UFR Sciences et Techniques, F-29328 Brest Cedex (France)

    2009-12-15

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) was used to probe the existence of induced magnetic moments in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films in which yttrium is partly substituted with lanthanum, lutetium or bismuth. Spin polarization of the 4d states of yttrium and of the 5d states of lanthanum or lutetium was clearly demonstrated. Angular momentum resolved d-DOS of yttrium and lanthanun was shown to be split by the crystal field, the two resolved substructures having opposite magnetic polarization. The existence of a weak orbital moment involving the 6p states of bismuth was definitely established with the detection of a small XMCD signal at the Bi M{sub 1}-edge. Difference spectra also enhanced the visibility of subtle changes in the Fe K-edge XMCD spectra of YIG and {l_brace}Y, Bi{r_brace}IG films. Weak natural X-ray linear dichroism signatures were systematically observed with all iron garnet films and with a bulk YIG single crystal cut parallel to the (1 1 1) plane: this proved that, at room temperature, the crystal cannot satisfy all requirements of perfect cubic symmetry (space group: Ia3-bar d), crystal distortions preserving at best trigonal symmetry (R3-bar or R3m). For the first time, a very weak X-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) was also measured in the iron K-edge pre-peak of YIG and revealed the presence of a tiny electric quadrupole moment in the ground-state charge distribution of iron atoms. Band-structure calculations carried out with fully relativistic LMTO-LSDA methods support our interpretation that ferrimagnetically coupled spins at the iron sites induce a spin polarization of the yttrium d-DOS and reproduce the observed crystal field splitting of the XMCD signal.

  12. Element selective X-ray magnetic circular and linear dichroisms in ferrimagnetic yttrium iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogalev, A.; Goulon, J.; Wilhelm, F.; Brouder, Ch.; Yaresko, A.; Ben Youssef, J.; Indenbom, M.V.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) was used to probe the existence of induced magnetic moments in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films in which yttrium is partly substituted with lanthanum, lutetium or bismuth. Spin polarization of the 4d states of yttrium and of the 5d states of lanthanum or lutetium was clearly demonstrated. Angular momentum resolved d-DOS of yttrium and lanthanun was shown to be split by the crystal field, the two resolved substructures having opposite magnetic polarization. The existence of a weak orbital moment involving the 6p states of bismuth was definitely established with the detection of a small XMCD signal at the Bi M 1 -edge. Difference spectra also enhanced the visibility of subtle changes in the Fe K-edge XMCD spectra of YIG and {Y, Bi}IG films. Weak natural X-ray linear dichroism signatures were systematically observed with all iron garnet films and with a bulk YIG single crystal cut parallel to the (1 1 1) plane: this proved that, at room temperature, the crystal cannot satisfy all requirements of perfect cubic symmetry (space group: Ia3-bar d), crystal distortions preserving at best trigonal symmetry (R3-bar or R3m). For the first time, a very weak X-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) was also measured in the iron K-edge pre-peak of YIG and revealed the presence of a tiny electric quadrupole moment in the ground-state charge distribution of iron atoms. Band-structure calculations carried out with fully relativistic LMTO-LSDA methods support our interpretation that ferrimagnetically coupled spins at the iron sites induce a spin polarization of the yttrium d-DOS and reproduce the observed crystal field splitting of the XMCD signal.

  13. Mechanical design of thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Deming; Shvyd’ko, Yuri V.; Stoupin, Stanislav; Kim, Kwang-Je

    2016-01-01

    A new thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus has been designed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics with optimized thermal contact and minimized crystal strain. This novel mechanical design can be applied to new development in the field of: x-ray optics cavities for hard x-ray free-electron laser oscillators (XFELOs), self-seeding monochromators for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) with high average thermal loading, high heat load diamond crystal monochromators and beam-sharing/beam-split-and-delay devices for XFEL facilities and future upgraded high-brightness coherent x-ray source in the MBA lattice configuration at the APS.

  14. Mechanical design of thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming, E-mail: shu@aps.anl.gov; Shvyd’ko, Yuri V.; Stoupin, Stanislav; Kim, Kwang-Je [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, U.S.A (United States)

    2016-07-27

    A new thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus has been designed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics with optimized thermal contact and minimized crystal strain. This novel mechanical design can be applied to new development in the field of: x-ray optics cavities for hard x-ray free-electron laser oscillators (XFELOs), self-seeding monochromators for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) with high average thermal loading, high heat load diamond crystal monochromators and beam-sharing/beam-split-and-delay devices for XFEL facilities and future upgraded high-brightness coherent x-ray source in the MBA lattice configuration at the APS.

  15. Comparative investigations of high resolution scanning systems for digitising X-ray films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessel, H.; Rose, P.

    1992-01-01

    The visual or computer-aided evaluation of digitised X-ray films in non-destructive material testing requires highly sensitive scanning systems. They must be able to resolve differences in blackening and convert them into digital data without loss, if possible. Only in this way is the detection of the finest cracks in weld seams or contraction in areas of great sudden changes in blackening of cast parts guaranteed. In the context of this work, measurements were carried out which describe the reproduction properties of different scanning systems. After a short explanation of the different scanning systems, the results of the measurements are shown and evaluated. (orig.) [de

  16. Characterization of thermally evaporated lead iodide films aimed for the detection of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldeira Filho, A.M.; Mulato, M.

    2011-01-01

    Some semiconductor materials such as lead iodide (PbI 2 ) have applications in the detection of ionizing radiation at room temperature using the direct detection method. In this work we investigate lead iodide films deposited by thermal evaporation. The morphology, structure, and electric properties were investigated as a function of deposition height, i.e. the distance between evaporation-boat and substrates. The results show a morphology of vertical leaves and X-ray diffraction shows just one preferential orientation along the direction 110. Energy dispersive spectroscopy reveals that the films are not stoichiometric, with excess iodine atoms. Electrical resistivity of about 10 8 Ω cm was measured. This is smaller than for the bulk due to structural defects. The values of activation energy for electric transport increase from 0.52 up to 1.1 eV with decreasing deposition height, what indicates that the best film is the one deposited at the shortest distance. Exposure under X-ray mammographic energy shows a linear behavior up to 500 mR. No variation in sensibility was observed between 22 and 30 kVp.

  17. Setup for in situ X-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth by magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Ellmer, K; Weiss, V; Rossner, H

    2001-01-01

    A novel method is described for the in situ-investigation of nucleation and growth of thin films during magnetron sputtering. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction with synchrotron light is used for the structural analysis during film growth. An in situ-magnetron sputtering chamber was constructed and installed at a synchrotron radiation beam line with a bending magnet. The white synchrotron light (1-70 keV) passes the sputtering chamber through Kapton windows and hits one of the substrates on a four-fold sample holder. The diffracted beam, observed under a fixed diffraction angle between 3 deg. and 10 deg., is energy analyzed by a high purity Ge-detector. The in situ-EDXRD setup is demonstrated for the growth of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering from a metallic target.

  18. Improved analytical formulas for x-ray and neutron reflection from surface films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.; Chen, S.; Felcher, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    A general and exact expression for x-ray and neutron reflectance and transmittance is given in terms of an integral of the real-space scattering-length-density profile fluctuation of the film, with respect to an arbitrary constant reference density level, over the wave function inside the film. Various special cases and approximations are then derived from this exact form by suitable approximations of the wave function. In particular, two practical approximate formulas are derived which are improvement over the corresponding distorted-wave Born approximations. One is for an arbitrary film deposited on a known substrate and the other for a free liquid surface. Numerical results are used to illustrate the accuracy of these formulas

  19. Quantitative orientational characterization if low - density polyethylene blow films by x-ray and birefringence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri Qazvini, N.; Mohammadi, N.; Ghaffarian, R.; Assempour, H.; Haghighatkish, M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two important parameters of film blowing processes, i.e., take-up ration and blow-up ratio, on the overall orientation of low-density blown films have been investigated using birefringence measurements. Furthermore, by combining x-ray diffraction pole figure analysis and birefringence, the White and Spruiell biaxial orientation functions have been determined for aforementioned sample. Within the range of processing condition studied, increasing take-up ratio, increases orientation in both machine and transverse direction. Upon increasing blow-up ratio, orientation in the transverse direction increases and the overall orientation state approaches to equal biaxial one. Characterization of the crystalline regions by pole figure analysis reveals that a and b crystallographic axes preferentially orientate in the film plane and the direction normal to it, respectively. The amorphous regions do not have any preferential orientation

  20. The quality of X-ray film processing. Report of a sensitometric field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stargardt, A.; Buehler, G.

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and eighty of about 800 X-ray film processors used in the GDR were checked sensitometrically. Sensitometric control strips, pre-exposed at a certain level, were mailed, processed and re-mailed; fog, the density of a medium-density step and a density difference were then determined. Reference data were obtained by processing exactly according to the recommendations of the film manufacturer; the mean of fog measurements equals the reference value. Seven per cent of processors produced fog which was unacceptable. The mean of the medium density measurements was 10% below the reference value. Five per cent of all processors operated at unacceptably high, and 16% at unacceptably low, density. Since failures in processing are commonly compensated for by changing radiation doses, consequences for radiation exposure are obvious. Analysis of data on operating parameters supplied by the users identified the disproportion between developer replenisher rate and film load as the main reason for this unsatisfactory situation. (author)

  1. Structural anisotropy in amorphous SnO2 film probed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q.; Ma, Q.; Buchholz, D. B.; Chang, R. P. H.; Bedzyk, M. J.; Mason, T. O.

    2013-07-01

    Polarization-dependent X-ray absorption measurements reveal the existence of structural anisotropy in amorphous (a-) SnO2 film. The anisotropy is readily seen for the second neighbor interaction whose magnitude differs along three measured directions. The differences can be well accounted for by 10%-20% variation in the Debye-Waller factor. Instead of a single Gaussian distribution found in crystalline SnO2, the Sn-O bond distribution is bimodal in a-SnO2 whose separation shows a weak angular dependence. The oxygen vacancies, existing in the a-SnO2 film in the order of 1021 cm-3, distribute preferentially along the film surface direction.

  2. A simple calculation for the determination of organ or tissue dose from medical x-ray diagnosis for stomach and chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Kanae

    1984-01-01

    A simple calculation method has been developed to determine the organ or tissue doses of patients for typical X-ray diagnoses. The absorbed doses related to radiation-induced stochastic effects were calculated based on the dosimetric parameters experimentally determined and technical parameters for X-ray diagnostic examinations. The present method is principally based on the TRA method for the beam therapy. The dosimetric parameters such as percentage depth-dose curves and isodose curves were measured with ionization chambers in the MixDP phantom. The distance from the incident surface of X-ray beams to the organ or tissue of interest was determined with a mathematical phantom, which was the modified version of the MIRD phantom for the average Japanese adult. The absorbed doses were determined with a simple table look-up method using a computer. The calculated doses were tabulated for various technical parameters of stomach and chest X-ray examinations. The present calculation was applied to the Rando woman phantom to compare with the phantom measurements. The calculated values agree with the experimental doses within 20% discrepancy. It was concluded that the present calculation method can determine organ or tissue doses very simply for various X-ray examinations and that it was valuable for the estimation of population doses and risks from X-ray diagnoses. (author)

  3. An analysis of line-drawings based upon automatically inferred grammar and its application to chest x-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Akira; Yoshida, Yuuji; Fukumura, Teruo

    1984-01-01

    There is a technique using inferring grammer as image- structure analyzing technique. This technique involves a few problems if it is applied to naturally obtained images, as the practical grammatical technique for two-dimensional image is not established. The authors developed a technique which solved the above problems for the main purpose of the automated structure analysis of naturally obtained image. The first half of this paper describes on the automatic inference of line drawing generation grammar and the line drawing analysis based on that automatic inference. The second half of the paper reports on the actual analysis. The proposed technique is that to extract object line drawings out of the line drawings containing noise. The technique was evaluated for its effectiveness with an example of extracting rib center lines out of thin line chest X-ray images having practical scale and complexity. In this example, the total number of characteristic points (ends, branch points and intersections) composing line drawings per one image was 377, and the total number of line segments composing line drawings was 566 on average per sheet. The extraction ratio was 86.6 % which seemed to be proper when the complexity of input line drawings was considered. Further, the result was compared with the identified rib center lines with the automatic screening system AISCR-V3 for comparison with the conventional processing technique, and it was satisfactory when the versatility of this method was considered. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  4. Comparison of image quality among three x-ray systems for chest radiography: first step in optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocetti, D.; Ubeda, C.; Calcagno, S.; Acevedo, J.; Pardo, D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three digital X-ray systems [one flat-panel (DR) and two computed radiography (CR)] for chest radiography in terms of the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) delivered to a polymethyl methacrylate phantom of 20 cm (equivalent to an adult patient) and image quality through of numerical evaluations using a test object (TO). The tube charge applied was ranged from 0.6 to 32 mAs, to a fixed tension of 125 kVp. The DR system presented the highest mean values of ESAK (615.9 μGy) along with the highest signal-to-noise ratio values, whereas CR systems showed a better high-contrast spatial resolution. Differences were statistically significant in both cases regarding the tube charge used. Thus, this parameter should be mainly considered to optimise the radiological protection through exposure settings selected. This survey represents the first effort to achieve optimisation in digital radiology for Chile. (authors)

  5. Detection of tuberculosis patterns in digital photographs of chest X-ray images using Deep Learning: feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A S; Blüthgen, C; Phi van, V D; Sekaggya-Wiltshire, C; Castelnuovo, B; Kambugu, A; Fehr, J; Frauenfelder, T

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of Deep Learning-based detection and classification of pathological patterns in a set of digital photographs of chest X-ray (CXR) images of tuberculosis (TB) patients. In this prospective, observational study, patients with previously diagnosed TB were enrolled. Photographs of their CXRs were taken using a consumer-grade digital still camera. The images were stratified by pathological patterns into classes: cavity, consolidation, effusion, interstitial changes, miliary pattern or normal examination. Image analysis was performed with commercially available Deep Learning software in two steps. Pathological areas were first localised; detected areas were then classified. Detection was assessed using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, and classification using a confusion matrix. The study cohort was 138 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and TB co-infection (median age 34 years, IQR 28-40); 54 patients were female. Localisation of pathological areas was excellent (area under the ROC curve 0.82). The software could perfectly distinguish pleural effusions from intraparenchymal changes. The most frequent misclassifications were consolidations as cavitations, and miliary patterns as interstitial patterns (and vice versa). Deep Learning analysis of CXR photographs is a promising tool. Further efforts are needed to build larger, high-quality data sets to achieve better diagnostic performance.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of interferon-γ release assay versus chest X-ray for tuberculosis screening of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowada, Akiko

    2011-12-01

    Currently, an annual chest X-ray examination (CXR) for detection of active tuberculosis (TB) in employees aged ≥40 years is recommended in the guidelines of the Japan Industrial Safety and Health Law. Interferon-γ release assays are new alternatives to the tuberculin skin test for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, with higher specificity than the tuberculin skin test and without cross-reactivity with the Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine. This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of employee TB screening using QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) versus CXR. Markov models were constructed. The target population was a hypothetical cohort of immunocompetent 40-year-old individuals, using a societal perspective and a lifetime horizon. All costs and clinical benefits were discounted at a fixed annual rate of 3%. In a base-case analysis, the QFT strategy was the most cost-effective ($US 262.84; 22.87049 quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) compared with no screening ($448.38; 22.85452 QALYs) and CXR ($543.50; 22.85453 QALYs) [year 2009 values]. The QFT strategy is currently robust for screening Bacille Calmette-Guérin- vaccinated employees in Japan. There appears to be little role for CXR. These findings may be applicable to other countries in terms of choosing optimal TB screening for employees. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A device for checking the speeds and quality of X-ray films and efficiency of film processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, H.E.

    1980-01-01

    In order to carry out quality assurance tests of X-ray films, screens and processors, a standard exposure source of utmost reliability is desirable. The performance of apparatus containing yellow-green light emitting radioactive tritium activated phosphor, known as Betalight, is described. Over a period of 2 1/2 years, variations in film speeds up to +- 20% from nominally the same types of film have been observed. Additionally, substandard developer has been easily identified with the use of this device. The device is cheap and easy to manufacture, accurate and simple to use. (U.K.)

  8. Ordering phenomena in FeCo-films and Fe/Cr-multilayers: an X-ray and neutron scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, B.

    2001-07-01

    The following topics are covered: critical phenomena in thin films, critical adsorption, finite size scaling, FeCo Ising model, kinematical scattering theory for thin films, FeCo thin films, growth and characterisation of single crystal FeCo thin films, X-ray study of ordering in FeCo films, antiferromagnetic coupling in Fe/Cr multilayers, neutron scattering on Fe/Cr multilayers (WL)

  9. High resolution hard X-ray photoemission using synchrotron radiation as an essential tool for characterization of thin solid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.; Ikenaga, E.; Kobata, M.; Takeuchi, A.; Awaji, M.; Makino, H.; Chen, P.P.; Yamamoto, A.; Matsuoka, T.; Miwa, D.; Nishino, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Yao, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using undulator X-rays at SPring-8 is quite feasible with both high resolution and high throughput. Here we report an application of hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to the characterization of electronic and chemical states of thin solid films, for which conventional PES is not applicable. As a typical example, we focus on the problem of the scatter in the reported band-gap values for InN. We show that oxygen incorporation into the InN film strongly modifies the valence and plays a crucial role in the band gap problem. The present results demonstrate the powerful applicability of high resolution photoemission spectroscopy with hard X-rays from a synchrotron source

  10. X-ray beam monitor made by thin-film CVD single-crystal diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E; Prestopino, G; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Angelone, M; Pillon, M; Kachkanov, V; Tartoni, N; Benetti, M; Cannatà, D; Di Pietrantonio, F

    2012-11-01

    A novel beam position monitor, operated at zero bias voltage, based on high-quality chemical-vapor-deposition single-crystal Schottky diamond for use under intense synchrotron X-ray beams was fabricated and tested. The total thickness of the diamond thin-film beam monitor is about 60 µm. The diamond beam monitor was inserted in the B16 beamline of the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Harwell (UK). The device was characterized under monochromatic high-flux X-ray beams from 6 to 20 keV and a micro-focused 10 keV beam with a spot size of approximately 2 µm × 3 µm square. Time response, linearity and position sensitivity were investigated. Device response uniformity was measured by a raster scan of the diamond surface with the micro-focused beam. Transmissivity and spectral responsivity versus beam energy were also measured, showing excellent performance of the new thin-film single-crystal diamond beam monitor.

  11. Capability of X-ray diffraction for the study of microstructure of metastable thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rafaja

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Metastable phases are often used to design materials with outstanding properties, which cannot be achieved with thermodynamically stable compounds. In many cases, the metastable phases are employed as precursors for controlled formation of nanocomposites. This contribution shows how the microstructure of crystalline metastable phases and the formation of nanocomposites can be concluded from X-ray diffraction experiments by taking advantage of the high sensitivity of X-ray diffraction to macroscopic and microscopic lattice deformations and to the dependence of the lattice deformations on the crystallographic direction. The lattice deformations were determined from the positions and from the widths of the diffraction lines, the dependence of the lattice deformations on the crystallographic direction from the anisotropy of the line shift and the line broadening. As an example of the metastable system, the supersaturated solid solution of titanium nitride and aluminium nitride was investigated, which was prepared in the form of thin films by using cathodic arc evaporation of titanium and aluminium in a nitrogen atmosphere. The microstructure of the (Ti,AlN samples under study was tailored by modifying the [Al]/[Ti] ratio in the thin films and the surface mobility of the deposited species.

  12. Radiation doses and image quality in pediatric chest X-ray for the diagnosis of pneumonia in selected Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, P.; Fleitas, I.; Cotelo, E.; Estevan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Pneumonia and acute lower respiratory infections in general, is the leading cause of child death in developing countries. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 4 millions of children die annually due to this disease. Despite the growing use of vaccination as an alternate approach to reduce mortality, the increasing antimicrobial resistance and the high costs of vaccines remain important obstacles in the global struggle against the disease. The usual treatment strategy begins with a clinical examination of the patient followed by the prescription of a chest X-ray. Radiography would appear as the best available method for diagnosing pneumonia only if radiologists (and other health professionals such as pediatricians) knew how to interpret the images showed in the radiographs, and these meeting the standards of quality (anatomic structures, image contrast and optical density, and patient dose among other factors). On the other hand, special attention should be paid on patient doses due to children's specific radiosensitivity, repeated and extended use of chest x-ray in all Radiology Departments, and high rejection rate due to both equipment malfunction and to human skills shortcomings. Patient doses of chest X-ray performed to children less than 5 years old in PAHO Sentinel Hospitals for surveillance of bacterial pneumonias in various Latin American countries were estimated using technical parameters and equipment specifications. Image quality was compared to WHO criteria for chest X-rays quality. Results showing differences in patient doses translates on one hand the impact of specific characteristics of the radiological equipment, including equipment limitations and performance of the radiographs and on the other various and divers levels of health professionals skills and training on image quality interpretation and dose optimization. The study concludes that professionals' training and education on chest radiographs image quality constitutes

  13. A search for strain gradients in gold thin films on substrates using x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, O. S.; Munkholm, A.; Brennan, S.; Nix, W. D.

    2000-01-01

    The high strengths of gold thin films on silicon substrates have been studied with particular reference to the possible effect of strain gradients. Wafer curvature/thermal cycling measurements have been used to study the strengths of unpassivated, oxide-free gold films ranging in thickness from 0.1 to 2.5 μm. Films thinner than about 1 μm in thickness appear to be weakened by diffusional relaxation effects near the free surface and are not good candidates for the study of strain gradient plasticity. Our search for plastically induced strain gradients was thus limited to thicker films with correspondingly larger grain sizes. Three related x-ray diffraction techniques have been used to investigate the elastic strains in these films. The standard d hkl vs sin2 Ψ technique has been used to find the average strain through the thickness of the films. The results are consistent with wafer curvature measurements. We have also measured a number of d hkl 's as a function of penetration depth to construct depth-dependent d hkl vs sin2 Ψ plots. These data show that the residual elastic strain is essentially independent of depth in the film. Finally, a new technique for sample rotation has been used to measure the d hkl 's for a fixed set of grains in the film as a function of penetration depth. Again, no detectable gradient in strain has been observed. These results show that the high strengths of unpassivated gold films relative to the strength of bulk gold cannot be rationalized on the basis of strain gradients through the film thickness. However, a sharp gradient in strain close to the film substrate interface cannot be ruled out. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  14. H and D curves of screen--film systems: factors affecting their dependence on x-ray energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyborny, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    The sensitometric properties of radiographic screen--film systems are investigated with regard to their dependence on x-ray energy. Sensitometric measurements and a heuristic model for density formation are used to show that variation in the relative amount of light emitted by front and back screens may be the most important factor influencing the change in system H and D curves with x-ray energy

  15. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) Approach for the Quantification of Thin Al Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, G; Zahraman, K; Nsouli, B; Soueidan, M; Ferro, G

    2008-01-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) has been used as a fast and non-destructive technique for sensitive characterization of ultra thin Al films deposited by evaporation onto Si substrate. In this work the PIXE technique was optimized, using proton beam at different energies and different angles of incidence, for the characterization of ultra thin Al films (few nanometers) deposited onto Si substrate. The PIXE results showed that a proton beam of 300 keV under tilting angle of 80 degree permits an accurate determination of Al with high sensitivity within few minutes of acquisition time and a LOD of less than 0.2 nm. The LOD versus energy and tilting angle will be presented and discussed. (author)

  16. Local Plasticity of Al Thin Films as Revealed by X-Ray Microdiffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolenak, R.; Brown, W. L.; Tamura, N.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Valek, B.; Bravman, J. C.; Marieb, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Batterman, B. W.; Patel, J. R.

    2003-03-01

    Grain-to-grain interactions dominate the plasticity of Al thin films and establish effective length scales smaller than the grain size. We have measured large strain distributions and their changes under plastic strain in 1.5-μm-thick Al0.5%Cu films using a 0.8-μm-diameter white x-ray probe at the Advanced Light Source. Strain distributions arise not only from the distribution of grain sizes and orientation, but also from the differences in grain shape and from stress environment. Multiple active glide plane domains have been found within single grains. Large grains behave like multiple smaller grains even before a dislocation substructure can evolve.

  17. Film-based X-ray tomography combined with digital image processing: investigation of an ancient pattern-welded sword

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindegaard-Andersen, A.; Vedel, T.; Jeppesen, L.; Gottlieb, B.

    1988-01-01

    Film-based X-ray tomography and digital image processing have been used to investigate an inhomogeneous object of non-circular cross-section. The feasibility of using digital image processing to compensate for the poor contrast resolution inherent in film-based tomography has been demonstrated. (author)

  18. Performance evaluation of 3-D enhancement filters for detection of lung cancer from 3-D chest X-ray CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Akinobu; Hagai, Makoto; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of several three dimensional enhancement filters used in procedures for detecting lung cancer shadows from three dimensional (3D) chest X-ray CT images. Two dimensional enhancement filters such as Min-DD filter, Contrast filter and N-Quoit filter have been proposed for enhancing cancer shadows in conventional 2D X-ray images. In this paper, we extend each of these 2D filters to a 3D filter and evaluate its performance experimentally by using CT images with artificial and true lung cancer shadows. As a result, we find that these 3D filters are effective for determining the position of a lung cancer shadow in a 3D chest CT image, as compared with the simple procedure such as smoothing filter, and that the performance of these filters become lower in the hilar area due to the influence of the vessel shadows. (author)

  19. Correlative analysis of longitudinal changes in bronchoalveolar lavage, 67Gallium scanning, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, chest x-ray, and pulmonary function tests in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Mitsuko; Takahashi, Hideki; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Matsuoka, Rokuro; Furuse, Makoto; Kitamura, Satoshi; Kira, Shiro.

    1987-01-01

    Despite the relatively high cost and complicated procedures, Gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) scanning and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) are increasingly advocated as more sensitive indicators of disease activity in sarcoidosis than chest X-ray and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (SACE). To evaluate the clinical usefulness of 67 Ga scanning and BAL, we followed 31 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, using these four parameters, at 9- to 24-month intervals over periods of 9 to 48 months. We obtained 68 complete evaluations. Close correlations were observed among chest X-ray, 67 Ga scanning, SACE, and the percent-age of lymphocytes in BAL fluid (p 67 Ga scanning and BAL are not necessarily indicated in the long-term management of pulmonary sarcoidosis. (author)

  20. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site ...

  1. Chest X-Ray

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  2. Chest X-Ray

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  3. Chest X-Ray

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  4. Chest X-Ray

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  5. Chest X-Ray

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  6. Chest X-Ray

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  7. Chest X-Ray

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  8. Chest X-Ray

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  9. Chest X-Ray

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  12. Chest X-Ray

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  13. Chest X-Ray

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  14. Chest X-Ray

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  16. Routine Chest X-ray: Still Valuable for the Assessment of Left Ventricular Size and Function in the Era of Super Machines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Maria-Aurora; Prediletto, Renato; Rossi, Giuseppe; Catapano, Giosuè; Lombardi, Massimo; Rovai, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The development of technologically advanced, expensive techniques has progressively reduced the value of chest X-ray in clinical practice for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) dilatation and dysfunction. Although controversial data are reported on the role of this widely available technique in cardiac assessment, it is known that the cardio-thoracic ratio is predictive of risk of progression in the NYHA Class, hospitalization, and outcome in patients with LV dysfunction. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability of the transverse diameter of heart shadow [TDH] by chest X-ray for detecting LV dilatation and dysfunction as compared to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) performed for different clinical reasons. In 101 patients, TDH was measured in digital chest X-ray and LV volumes and ejection fraction (EF) by MRI, both exams performed within 2 days. A direct correlation between TDH and end-diastolic volumes (r = .75, Pvalues of 14.5 mm in females identified LV end-diastolic volumes >150 mL (sensitivity: 82%, specificity: 69%); in males a cut-off value of 15.5 mm identified LV end-diastolic volumes >210 mL (sensitivity: 84%; specificity: 72%). A negative relation was found between TDH and LVEF (r = -.54, Pvalues of TDH discriminated patients with LV systolic dysfunction - LVEF <35% (sensitivity and specificity: 67% and 57% in females; 76% and 59% in males, respectively). Chest X-ray may still be considered a reliable technique in predicting LV dilatation by the accurate measurement of TDH as compared to cardiac MRI. Technologically advanced, expensive, and less available imaging techniques should be performed on the basis of sound clinical requests.

  17. Comparative review of computed tomography of the spinal column and conventional x-ray films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, H.; Yamaura, A.; Horie, T.; Makino, H. (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-04-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) of the cervical spinal column was carried out in 39 patients using a GE.CT/T or Toshiba TCT60A scanner. There were 22 cervical disk lesions, 4 spinal neoplasms, 5 narrow spinal canals with or without ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, 2 syringomyelias, 5 traumas, and one Arnold-Chiari malformation. In all the patients, tomography was done after conventional spinal X-ray studies. The correlation between the CT findings and conventional X-ray films revealed the excellent capability of the CT. The measurement of the midline sagittal diameter of the spinal canal in the patient with the narrowest canal in this series showed 7.4 mm when done by CT and 9.6 mm when done by the conventional plain film at the C/sub 5/ level. To ascertain the precise sagittal diameter of the cord itself, CT myelography is indispensable after the intrathecal injection of metrizamide A; metrizamide CT myelogram is useful in determining the nature of the disease, the risk of and best approach to surgery, and the evaluation after a surgical procedure. Although the range of motion of cervical joints and intervertebral foramen are visible with the conventional films, the size of the spinal tumors, the degree of bony change, and the tumor extension to the paraspinal connective tissue can be precisely demonstrated only by CT. A CT study of the spine is a simple procedure and is less likely to produce complication, even with a metrizamide CT myelogram, though there are certain limitations in the examination.

  18. Structure analysis of InN film using extended X-ray absorption fine structure method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Hirata, S. [Core Technology Development Center, Core Technology and Network Company, Sony Corporation, 4-14-1 Asahi-cho, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan); Kudo, Y.; Liu, K.L. [Technology Solutions Center, Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0021 (Japan); Uruga, T.; Honma, T. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Mikazuki-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Saito, Y.; Hori, M.; Nanishi, Y. [Department of Photonics, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We investigated the local atomic structure around In atoms of MBE-grown InN which has a direct bandgap energy of 0.8 eV, using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) oscillation of In K-edge. The signals from the first-nearest neighbor atoms (N) and second-nearest atoms (In) from In atoms were clearly observed and the atomic bond length of In-N and In-In was estimated to be d{sub In-N}=0.215 nm and d{sub In-In}=0.353 nm, respectively. The In-N bond length of d{sub In-In}=0.353 nm was closed to the a-axis lattice constant of a=0.3536 nm, which was determined using X-ray diffraction measurements. The obtained local atomic structure agreed with the calculated ideal structure. We conclude, therefore, that the InN film with a bandgap energy of 0.8 eV has a high structural symmetry in the range of a few A around In atoms. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Structure analysis of InN film using extended X-ray absorption fine structure method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Hirata, S.; Kudo, Y.; Liu, K.L.; Uruga, T.; Honma, T.; Saito, Y.; Hori, M.; Nanishi, Y.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the local atomic structure around In atoms of MBE-grown InN which has a direct bandgap energy of 0.8 eV, using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) oscillation of In K-edge. The signals from the first-nearest neighbor atoms (N) and second-nearest atoms (In) from In atoms were clearly observed and the atomic bond length of In-N and In-In was estimated to be d In-N =0.215 nm and d In-In =0.353 nm, respectively. The In-N bond length of d In-In =0.353 nm was closed to the a-axis lattice constant of a=0.3536 nm, which was determined using X-ray diffraction measurements. The obtained local atomic structure agreed with the calculated ideal structure. We conclude, therefore, that the InN film with a bandgap energy of 0.8 eV has a high structural symmetry in the range of a few A around In atoms. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study of catalyst based zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S.S.; Rajpure, K.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The two step approach for quantitative XPS analysis of ZnO films has been reported. → Surface composition and chemical states of F and In/ZnO catalysts have been studied. → The chemical shifts and Auger parameter have been investigated. - Abstract: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a powerful tool for surface and interface analysis, providing an elemental composition of surfaces and the local chemical environment of adsorbed species. The surface composition and chemical states of the F/ZnO and In/ZnO catalysts deposited using spray technique have been studied by high resolution and high sensitivity X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A hybrid multiline method is proposed for quantitative XPS analysis that combines the first principles approach with the experimental determination of overall response function. The chemical shifts of XPS core lines for Zn (2P 3/2 , F 1s and In 3d) and Auger parameter for zinc (β Zn = 2012.6, 2011.48 eV for F/ZnO and In/ZnO, respectively) have been calculated. The results have been used to determine the bond iconicity (0.55).

  1. X-ray absorption study of silicon carbide thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaco, G.; Suman, M.; Garoli, D.; Pelizzo, M.G.; Nicolosi, P.

    2011-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is an important material for several applications ranging from electronics to Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) space optics. Crystalline cubic SiC (3C-SiC) has a wide band gap (near 2.4 eV) and it is a promising material to be used in high frequency and high energetic electronic devices. We have deposited, by means of pulsed laser deposition (PLD), different SiC films on sapphire and silicon substrates both at mild (650 o C) and at room temperature. The resulted films have different structures such as: highly oriented polycrystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous which have been studied by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) near the Si L 2,3 edge and the C K edge using PES (photoemission spectroscopy) for the analysis of the valence bands structure and film composition. The samples obtained by PLD have shown different spectra among the grown films, some of them showing typical 3C-SiC absorption structure, but also the presence of some Si-Si and graphitic bonds.

  2. Ultrathin Pt films on Ni(111): Structure determined by surface x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robach, O.; Isern, H.; Quiros, C.; Ferrer, S.; Steadman, P.; Peters, K. F.

    2003-01-01

    The growth of platinum on a nickel (111) single crystal under ultrahigh vacuum conditions was studied using surface x-ray diffraction on the ID03 beamline of the ESRF. Film thickness ranged from one to eight monoatomic layers (ML). Specular reflectivity was used to determine the growth mode and vertical lattice parameter of the Pt film. A two-dimensional (2D) growth up to 1 ML followed by more 3D growth was found. A small expansion of the Pt vertical lattice parameter was found. The Pt in-plane lattice parameter was measured. Its relaxation was found to be very slow, with a residual contraction of 2.3% in an 8-ML-thick film (with respect to bulk Pt). A Ni crystal truncation rod measured before and after growing 1 ML of Pt revealed the presence of a small amount of pseudomorphic Pt, adsorbed on both fcc and hcp sites. The stacking of the (111) Pt planes was investigated by measuring stacking-sensitive Pt diffraction rods. A strong tendency to stacking reversal was found at room temperature, with an amount of 'reversed' Pt about ten times higher than the amount of Pt with the same stacking as the Ni. An eight-layer Ni film on Pt(111) was also studied for comparison

  3. X-Ray fluorescence of microquantities of hafnium in zirconium by precipitation as thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigoda de Leyt, Dora; Caridi, A.F.; Deibe, Jorge

    1988-01-01

    The importance of Zr and Hf in the nuclear industry represents and increasing need for the development of reliable chemical methods to determine Hf traces in Zr matrix. A precipitation method in amoniacal medium was developed. A thin film is obtained where matrix effects are absent or minimized. Hf in the range of 5-70.10 -9 Kg in a 5.10 -6 Kg Zr matrix was studied. Fluorescence Hf Lα and Hf Lβ X-rays are excited by a W-anode tube 17 kV-25mA and 50kV-25mA. Radiation scattered by the tube was used as internal standard. Bartlett criterion was used for the regression analysis. Determination limit was fixed in 5±4. 10 -9 Kg Hf at a 95 % probability. (Author) [es

  4. On the problem of knee joint articular space in the X-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saure, D.; Emminger, A.; Freyschmidt, J.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the width of the intraarticular space were performed in X-ray films of 64 human knee joints (32 patients), taken laterally, and in standing position after 24 hours of rest in bed or after exposure to load for one hour. In more than half of the knee joints, the width of the intraarticular space increased after load. However, the distance between the articular surfaces rarely changed in the same patient in the same sense in the right and left knee joint, respectively medially and laterally. Hence, this method of indirect measurement of the cartilaginous layer is unsuitable, and the question raised in literature regarding the cartilaginous changes under load can be explained as being due to influx of fluid or as an expression of the viso-elastic properties of the articular cartilage. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB [de

  5. X-ray fluorescence system for thin film composition analysis during deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formica, Sarah P.; Lee, Susanne M.

    2005-01-01

    A fast-response-time X-ray fluorescence (XRF) system was designed with a monolithic polycapillary focusing optic for in situ composition profiling during materials deposition. The polycapillary optic produced 10 5 times more intensity at the sample than a pinhole, allowing the detector placement to be outside most deposition chambers. The resultant XRF signals were so strong that measurement times were comparable to monolayer growth times. XRF line scans from Ge 1-x Sn x thin films were used to map Sn concentration versus surface position with a 10 μm resolution. The extrapolated instrumental detection limit using a 20 W Cu source was 10 12 atoms (ng). XRF from a 100-nm ion-implanted Ge 0.72 Sn 0.28 sample demonstrated the system's ability to monitor initial growth stages during deposition

  6. X-ray magnetic absorption in Fe-Tb amorphous thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chan Wook; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the magnetic structure of Fe-Tb amorphous thin films, we have performed magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements by using the circularly polarized X-ray at the Fe K- and the Tb L2,3-edges in Fe sub 8 sub 8 Tb sub 1 sub 2 , Fe sub 8 sub 0 Tb sub 2 sub 0 , and Fe sub 6 sub 2 Tb sub 3 sub 8. In all samples, the spin-dependent absorption effects, DELTA mu t, were observed. Also, elementary information was obtained on the spin polarizations of the p- and the d-projected electrons lying in the unoccupied states near the Fermi levels in the samples.

  7. The behaviour of the pulmonary vessels on X-ray films of children with asthma bronchiale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegenbarth, R.; Toeroek, M.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1986-01-01

    On X-ray films of 51 children with asthma bronchiale the authors determined the vascular diameter of the right ascending pulmonary artery, the right vein of the upper lobe, and the peripheral vessels in the upper and lower pulmonary fields at an exactly defined distance from the hilus point, and compared these data with those of a control group of 143 healthy children. During the asthma attack the width of the right descending pulmonary artery and of the vein of the upper lobe corresponded to the values of the control group, whereas the vascular diameters in the upper and lower fields were clearly narrowed. Moreover, in most of the asthmatic children the authors found arc-shaped vessels and irregularly occluded vessels in the periphery of the lungs. (orig.) [de

  8. In-Situ Synchrotron X-ray Study of the Phase and Texture Evolution of Ceria and Superconductor Films Deposited by Chemical Solution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude; He, Dong

    2012-01-01

    In situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction is used to study the phase and texture formation of ceria based films and superconductor films deposited by the chemical solution method on technical substrates. Combined analysis using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry/differential ther......In situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction is used to study the phase and texture formation of ceria based films and superconductor films deposited by the chemical solution method on technical substrates. Combined analysis using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry...

  9. Film replacement by digital x-ray detectors - the correct procedure and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewert, U.; Zscherpel, U.; Bavendiek, K.

    2004-01-01

    New digital detectors were developed for medical applications, which have the potential to substitute the X-ray film and revolutionise the radiological technique. Digital Detector Arrays (DDA: Flat Panel Detectors, Line Detectors) and Imaging Plates (Computed Radiography) allow a fast detection of radiographic images in a shorter time and with higher dynamic than film applications. Companies report about a reduction of exposure time down to 5 - 25% in comparison to NDT film exposures. This provides together with the reduction of consumables economical (and also ecological) benefits and short amortisation periods. But this does not always provide the same image quality as NDT film. The requirements of the European and USA standards for film radiography are analysed to derive correct requirements for the digital image quality and procedures for prediction and measurement of image quality. Basically the USA standards seem to be more tolerant for these new innovative technologies. New standard proposals use signal/noise ratio and unsharpness as dominant parameters for image quality. Specialised measurement procedures are described. The properties of the new detectors can be controlled by electronics and exposure conditions. New names appear in literature like 'direct radiography' and 'film replacement techniques'. The basic advantage of the new digital techniques is the possibility to use numeric procedures for image interpretation. Industrial radiology can be optimised for crack detection as well as for analysis of flaw depth and shape measurement. Automated flaw detection, measurement of part dimensions and detection of completeness are used for serial part inspection devices. Parallel to the development of DDA's, an extraordinary increase of Computed Tomography (CT) applications can be observed. (author)

  10. Dose and absorption spectra response of EBT2 Gafchromic film to high energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, M.J.; Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Alnawaf, H.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: With new advancements in radiochromic film designs and sensitivity to suit different niche applications, EBT2 is the latest offering for the megavoltage radiotherapy market. New construction specifications including different physical construction and the use of a yellow coloured dye has provided the next generation radiochromic film for therapy applications. The film utilises the same active chemical for radiation measurement as its predecessor, EBT Gafchromic. Measurements have been performed using photo spectrometers to analyse the absorption spectra properties of this new EBT2 Gafchromic, radiochromic film. Results have shown that whilst the physical coloration or absorption spectra of the film, which turns yellow to green as compared to EBT film, (clear to blue) is significantly different due to the added yellow dye, the net change in absorption spectra properties for EBT2 are similar to the original EBT film. Absorption peaks are still located at 636 n m and 585 n m positions. A net optical density change of 0.590 ± 0.020 (2SD) for a 1 Gy radiation absorbed dose using 6 MV x-rays when measured at the 636 n m absorption peak was found. This is compared to 0.602 ± 0.025 (2SD) for the original EBT film (2005 Batch) and 0.557 ± 0.027 (2009 Batch) at the same absorption peak. The yellow dye and the new coating material produce a significantly different visible absorption spectra results for the EBT2 film compared to EBT at wavelengths especially below approximately 550 n m. At wavelengths above 550 n m differences in absolute OD are seen however, when dose analysis is performed at wavelengths above 550 n m using net optical density changes, no significant variations are seen. If comparing results of the late production EBT to new production EBT2 film, net optical density variations of approximately 10 % to 15 % are seen. As all new film batches should be calibrated for sensitivity upon arrival this should not be of concern.

  11. Characterization of titanium silicide thin films by X-ray diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis deals with characterization techniques of thin films by means of X-ray diffraction. This includes phase identification and residual stress, microstress and crystallite size calculations. The techniques developed were applied on the study of the titanium silicide formation obtained by means of Rapidy Thermal Processing (RTP) pf Ti films deposited on silicon substratum. The different phases were studied in relation with processing temperature and time in one and two anneling steps. The low resistivity TiSi 2 phase was observed for temperature of 700 0 C and higher. The experimental results indicate that the residual stress of TiSi 2 films doesn't vary significantly with the annealing conditions. On the other hand, the microstress is reduced with annealing time at 800 0 C, while the crystallite size is almost not affected. For the microstress and the crystallite size determination technique, two methods were implemented and compared. The Riella's method appeared to be very efficient, while the Gangulle's method seemed to be inadequate, because the results oscillate too much [pt

  12. Degradation of poly(vinyl chloride) films by X-rays radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbampato, M.E.; Kawano, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The degradation of pure poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films has been studied by X-rays radiation in vacuum. The films are transparent and become yellow with the exposure of radiation and this colour is enhanced with the time of irradiation. The infrared, ultraviolet and visible spectra changed in the irradiated material. The IR spectra show changes in itensities and band shifting, particularly in the region of C-Cl stretching vibrations indicating the occurrence of dehydrochlorination and a change in the conformation of the degraded PVC. The ultraviolet and visible spectra of irradiated films show a strong absorption band at 240 nm and many shoulders which are associated to dyenes, carbonyl and polyenes with few double bonds formed. The shoulder numbers increase in the spectra of samples kept for three months. This effect indicates that with irradiation, HCl is evolved resulting in the formation of polyenyl radicals, which propagate after irradiation. At the same time, should occur the reaction of these radicals with the atmospheric oxygen with formation of C=0 bonds. (Author) [pt

  13. Measurement of high energy x-ray beam penumbra with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung Tsang; Butson, Martin J.; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2006-01-01

    High energy x-ray beam penumbra are measured using Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film. Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT, due to its limited energy dependence and high spatial resolution provide a high level of accuracy for dose assessment in penumbral regions. The spatial resolution of film detector systems is normally limited by the scanning resolution of the densitometer. Penumbral widths (80%/20%) measured at D max were found to be 2.8, 3.0, 3.2, and 3.4 mm (±0.2 mm) using 5, 10, 20, and 30 cm square field sizes, respectively, for a 6 MV linear accelerator produced x-ray beam. This is compared to 3.2 mm±0.2 mm (Kodak EDR2) and 3.6 mm±0.2 mm (Kodak X-Omat V) at 10 cmx10 cm measured using radiographic film. Using a zero volume extrapolation technique for ionization chamber measurements, the 10 cmx10 cm field penumbra at D max was measured to be 3.1 mm, a close match to Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT results. Penumbral measurements can also be made at other depths, including the surface, as the film does not suffer significantly from dosimetric variations caused by changing x-ray energy spectra. Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film provides an adequate measure of penumbral dose for high energy x-ray beams

  14. Influence of annealing on X-ray radiation sensing properties of TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, M. P.; Kalita, J. M.; Wary, G.

    2018-03-01

    A recent study shows that the titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film synthesised by a chemical bath deposition technique is a very useful material for the X-ray radiation sensor. In this work, we reported the influence of annealing on the X-ray radiation detection sensitivity of the TiO2 film. The films were annealed at 333 K, 363 K, 393 K, 473 K, and 573 K for 1 hour. Structural analyses showed that the microstrain and dislocation density decreased whereas the average crystallite size increased with annealing. The band gap of the films also decreased from 3.26 eV to 3.10 eV after annealing. The I-V characteristics record under the dark condition and under the X-ray irradiation showed that the conductivity increased with annealing. The influence of annealing on the detection sensitivity was negligible if the bias voltage applied across the films was low (within 0.2 V‒1.0 V). At higher bias voltage (>1.0 V), the contribution of electrons excited by X-ray became less significant which affected the detection sensitivity.

  15. Structural and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of Al-Doped Zinc-Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Ju Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-doped zinc-oxide (AZO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures and substrate temperatures. The charge-carrier concentrations in the films decreased from 1.69 × 1021 to 6.16 × 1017 cm−3 with increased gas flow rate from 7 to 21 sccm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns show that the (002/(103 peak-intensity ratio decreased as the gas flow rate increased, which was related to the increase of AZO thin film disorder. X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS of the O1s were decomposed into metal oxide component (peak A and the adsorbed molecular oxygen on thin films (peak B. The area ratio of XPS peaks (A/B was clearly related to the stoichiometry of AZO films; that is, the higher value of A/B showed the higher stoichiometric properties.

  16. X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Study on Dynamics of the Free Surface in Entangled Polystyrene Melt Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Tadanori; Li Chunhua; Endoh, Maya K; Narayanan, Suresh; Lurio, Laurence; Sinha, Sunil K

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of polymer chains near the surface of a melt and within thin films remains a subject of inquiry along with the nature of the glass transition in these systems. Recent studies show that the properties of the free surface region are crucial in determining the anomalous glass transition temperature (T g ) reduction of polymer thin films. In this study, by embedding 'dilute' gold nanoparticles in polystyrene (PS) thin films as 'markers', we could successfully probe the diffusive Brownian motion which tracks the local viscosity both at the free surface and within the rest of the single PS thin film far above bulk T g . The technique used was X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy with resonance-enhanced X-rays that allows us to independently measure the motion in the regions of interest at the nanometer scale. We found the presence of the surface reduced viscosity layer in entangled PS thin films at T>>T g .

  17. Recent Developments in the X-Ray Reflectivity Analysis for Rough Surfaces and Interfaces of Multilayered Thin Film Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Fujii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available X-ray reflectometry is a powerful tool for investigations on rough surface and interface structures of multilayered thin film materials. The X-ray reflectivity has been calculated based on the Parratt formalism, accounting for the effect of roughness by the theory of Nevot-Croce conventionally. However, in previous studies, the calculations of the X-ray reflectivity often show a strange effect where interference effects would increase at a rough surface. And estimated surface and interface roughnesses from the X-ray reflectivity measurements did not correspond to the TEM image observation results. The strange result had its origin in a used equation due to a serious mistake in which the Fresnel transmission coefficient in the reflectivity equation is increased at a rough interface because of a lack of consideration of diffuse scattering. In this review, a new accurate formalism that corrects this mistake is presented. The new accurate formalism derives an accurate analysis of the X-ray reflectivity from a multilayer surface of thin film materials, taking into account the effect of roughness-induced diffuse scattering. The calculated reflectivity by this accurate reflectivity equation should enable the structure of buried interfaces to be analyzed more accurately.

  18. Structural analysis of polymer thin films using GISAXS in the tender X-ray region: Concept and design of GISAXS experiments using the tender X-ray energy at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, H., E-mail: takagih@post.kek.jp; Igarashi, N.; Mori, T.; Saijo, S.; Nagatani, Y.; Shimizu, N. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ohta, H. [Mitsubishi Electric System & Service Co., Ltd, Accelerator Engineering Center, 2-8- 8 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0045 (Japan); Yamamoto, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Materials Science & Technology, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2016-10-14

    If small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) utilizing the soft X-ray region is available, advanced and unique experiments, which differ from traditional SAXS methods, can be realized. For example, grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) using hard X-ray is a powerful tool for understanding the nanostructure in both vertical and lateral directions of thin films, while GISAXS utilizing the tender X-ray region (SX-GISAXS) enables depth-resolved analysis as well as a standard GISAXS analysis in thin films. Thus, at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory, a dedicated diffractometer for SX-GISAXS (above 2.1 keV) was constructed. This diffractometer is composed of four vacuum chambers and can be converted into the vacuum state from the sample chamber in front of the detector surface. Diffractions are clearly observed until 12th peak when measuring collagen by SAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV and a camera length of 825 mm. Additionally, we conducted the model experiment using SX-GISAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV to confirm that a poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) block copolymer thin film has a microphase-separated structure in the thin film, which is composed of lamellae aligned both parallel and perpendicular to the substrate surface. Similarly, in a polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) block copolymer thin film, SX-GISAXS with 3.60 keV and 5.73 keV revealed that hexagonally packed cylinders are aligned parallel to the substrate surface. The incident angle dependence of the first order peak position of the q{sub z} direction obtained from experiments at various incident X-ray energies agrees very well with the theoretical one calculated from the distorted wave Born approximation.

  19. Structural analysis of polymer thin films using GISAXS in the tender X-ray region: Concept and design of GISAXS experiments using the tender X-ray energy at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, H.; Igarashi, N.; Mori, T.; Saijo, S.; Nagatani, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Ohta, H.; Yamamoto, K.

    2016-01-01

    If small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) utilizing the soft X-ray region is available, advanced and unique experiments, which differ from traditional SAXS methods, can be realized. For example, grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) using hard X-ray is a powerful tool for understanding the nanostructure in both vertical and lateral directions of thin films, while GISAXS utilizing the tender X-ray region (SX-GISAXS) enables depth-resolved analysis as well as a standard GISAXS analysis in thin films. Thus, at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory, a dedicated diffractometer for SX-GISAXS (above 2.1 keV) was constructed. This diffractometer is composed of four vacuum chambers and can be converted into the vacuum state from the sample chamber in front of the detector surface. Diffractions are clearly observed until 12th peak when measuring collagen by SAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV and a camera length of 825 mm. Additionally, we conducted the model experiment using SX-GISAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV to confirm that a poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) block copolymer thin film has a microphase-separated structure in the thin film, which is composed of lamellae aligned both parallel and perpendicular to the substrate surface. Similarly, in a polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) block copolymer thin film, SX-GISAXS with 3.60 keV and 5.73 keV revealed that hexagonally packed cylinders are aligned parallel to the substrate surface. The incident angle dependence of the first order peak position of the q_z direction obtained from experiments at various incident X-ray energies agrees very well with the theoretical one calculated from the distorted wave Born approximation.

  20. On X-ray diffraction study of microstructure of ZnO thin nanocrystalline films with strong preferred grain orientation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kužel, R.; Čížek, J.; Novotný, Michal

    44A, č. 1 (2013), s. 45-57 ISSN 1073-5623 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0958 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : zinc oxide thin film * X-ray diffraction * Mg0 * fused silica Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2013

  1. Quantitative X-ray spectral microanalysis of bioorganic films by means of a crystal-diffraction spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelov, A.G.; Pogorelova, V.N.; Khrenova, E.V.; Gol'dshtejn, D.V.; Aksirov, A.M.; Kantor, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The details of the quantitative X-ray spectral microanalysis performed with a wave dispersive spectrometer are described. Hydration of biological tissues, light element composition, low concentration of analyzed elements and their nonuniform distribution are the specific features of bioorganic film and tissue section. This paper is aimed to discuss the general approaches to both preparation technique and quantitative analysis principles [ru

  2. Correlation of conventional simulation x-ray films and CT images for HDR-brachytherapy catheters reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, M.; Reddy, K.D.; Reddy, R.M.; Reddy, J.M.; Reddy, B.V.N.; Kiran Kumar; Gopi, S.; Dharaniraj; Janardhanan

    2002-01-01

    In order to plan a brachytherapy implant, it is imperative that implant reconstruction is done accurately. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether implant reconstruction done with transverse CT images is comparable to reconstruction done with conventional x-ray films

  3. Hydrogen concentration and mass density of diamondlike carbon films obtained by x-ray and neutron reflectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findeisen, E.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Vigild, Martin Etchells

    1994-01-01

    Specular reflectivity of neutrons and x rays can be used to determine the scattering length density profile of a material perpendicular to its surface. We have applied these techniques to study amorphous, diamondlike, hydrocarbon films. By the combination of these two techniques we obtain not onl...

  4. A More Efficient, Radiation-Free Alternative to Systematic Chest X-Ray for the Detection of Embolized Seeds to the Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrier, Janelle; Chretien, Mario; Martin, Andre-Guy; Vigneault, Eric; Beaulieu, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a seed-migration detector and to compare its performance to fluoroscopy and postoperative chest radiographs. Methods and Materials: A gamma scintillation survey meter was converted to a seed-migration detector by adding a shield on the probe detection window. The detector response to three 125 I seed activities was characterized for different source-to-detector distances in water. The detector was used to perform a chest evaluation on 737 patients at their first postoperative visit. When the detector showed positive activity, seed migration was confirmed by taking a chest radiograph and by looking at the region with fluoroscopy. Results: One hundred and three patients (14.0%) presented at least one embolized seed. This accounts for 123 of the 39,887 seeds. Eighty-seven, 12, and 4 patients had respectively one, two, and three seed embolization. Compared with the seed-migration detector, detection based on fluoroscopy would have led to 13 false-negative detections (of 103, or 12.6%), and the radiograph would have resulted in 31 or 30.1%. More important, standard chest X-ray would have required a survey and extra radiation dose to lung to 100% of the patients, rather than the 14% who required it. Conclusions: The usual recommendation to perform chest radiographs at the first follow-up visit to scan lungs for embolized seeds should be revised because of the high false-negative rate. Scintillator-based gamma counter detector provides superior detection sensitivity and should be adopted as a standard of practice. Chest X-ray could be limited to documenting cases of positive migration.

  5. Orientation of One-Dimensional Silicon Polymer Films Studied by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Mannan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular orientations for thin films of one-dimensional silicon polymers grown by vacuum evaporation have been assigned by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS using linearly polarized synchrotron radiation. The polymer investigated was polydimethylsilane (PDMS which is the simplest stable silicon polymer, and one of the candidate materials for one-dimensional molecular wire. For PDMS films deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG, four resonance peaks have been identified in the Si K-edge NEXAFS spectra. Among these peaks, the intensities of the two peaks lower-energy at 1842.0 eV and 1843.2 eV were found to be strongly polarization dependent. The peaks are assigned to the resonance excitations from the Si 1s to σ∗ pyz and σ∗ px orbitals localized at the Si–C and Si–Si bonds, respectively. Quantitative evaluation of the polarization dependence of the NEXAFS spectra revealed that the molecules are self-assembled on HOPG surface, and the backbones of the PDMS are oriented nearly parallel to the surface. The observed orientation is opposite to the previously observed results for PDMS on the other surfaces such as oxide (indium tin oxide and metal (polycrystalline copper. The flat-lying feature of PDMS observed only on HOPG surface is attributed to the interaction between CH bonds in PDMS and π orbitals in HOPG surface.

  6. Relationship between images of risk and anxiety toward radiation. Comparison of radiation from chest X-rays and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Yuko

    2003-01-01

    In order to clarify the components of people's images of radiation risk and the determinants for the degree of anxiety about radiation exposure, an investigation was conducted. Two kinds of radiation, from nuclear power plants and during a chest X-ray, which are relatively familiar to people, were focused on. As a result, only a 'dread' factor was common to both radiation types of. Although the degree of anxiety toward both types of radiation showed a positive correlation with the 'dread' image, the anxiety toward X-ray radiation showed a negative correlation with the 'feeling of conquest'. Anxiety toward radiation from nuclear power plants had a negative correlation with 'control by experts'. These results suggest that the words radiation from nuclear power plants' evoke an image of a situation with high radiation exposure, which is beyond the experts' control abilities. (author)

  7. Yield of chest X-ray tuberculosis screening of immigrants during the European refugee crisis of 2015: a single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Diel, Roland; Sauer, Markus; Henes, Frank Oliver; Meywald-Walter, Karen; Adam, Gerhard; Schön, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), the number needed to screen (NNS), and the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray (CXR) screening to detect active pulmonary TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis. We evaluated data of all refugees who underwent CXR screening in a single-centre of one German metropolitan area in 2015. We determined the prevalence of TB, NNS, and accuracy of CXR to detect active pulmonary TB. Reference method for active TB was the database of all definite TB cases registered at the Department of Public Health. A total of 17,487 immigrants underwent single-centre CXR screening in 2015; prevalence of definite pulmonary TB was 0.103%. The NNS for detecting one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. CXR had a sensitivity of 55.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 30.8-78.5%) and a specificity 98.3% (CI 98.1-98.5%) to reveal one case of active TB. Our single-centre study indicates that chest X-ray screening for TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis was of low yield due the low prevalence of TB and high number needed to screen, thus implicating the need for improved screening algorithms adapted to the overwhelming number of refugees. • Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among refugees in 2015 was low (0.103%). • The number needed to screen to detect one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. • Tuberculosis X-ray screening resulted in a low sensitivity and high specificity. • Tuberculosis X-ray screening during the European refugee crisis is of low yield. • Improved screening algorithms are needed due to the overwhelming the number of refugees.

  8. Development of flat panel X-ray detector utilizing a CdZnTe film as conversion layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Satoshi; Kishihara, Hiroyuki; Kaino, Masatomo; Sato, Toshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    A polycrystalline CdZnTe film formed by the CSS (closed-spaced sublimation) method is one of the most promising materials as a conversion layer of next-generation highly efficient flat-panel X-ray detectors. Therefore, we have developed a prototype of a new flat-panel X-ray detector (a sensing region of 3 inches by 3 inches) with the film and evaluated its commercial feasibility. This paper describes evaluation of the physical and imaging properties of the prototype and explains the features of the CdZnTe film and the construction, specifications, and fabrication procedures of the prototype. Also included in this paper are formation of a semiconductor thin film barrier layer by the CBD (chemical bath deposition) method and conjunction of a sensor substrate and a TFT array substrate with the bump electrodes formed by screen printing, both of which we have developed during the course of the development of the prototype. (author)

  9. Chemical state analysis of oxide thin films using a high resolution double crystal X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Hirohisa; Morinaga, Kenji; Ohta, Yoshio.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical state analysis of r.f.-sputtered amorphous oxide thin films was determined by a high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with double crystals. The polymerization degree of silicate anions in the silicate film was as same as a target (α-Quartz). The oxygen coordination number of Al 3+ ions in the aluminate film was different from a target (α-Al 2 O 3 ), and it was a mixture of 4 and 6 in a spinel-like structure. In CaO-SiO 2 and CaO-Al 2 O 3 films, when the film thickness is thin at the beginning of sputtering, the composition of films are in the shortage of CaO. But when the film thickness become thicker, the composition of films become as same as the target. From the results above, the chemical state of films and their variations with film thickness can be clarified by using the apparatus. (author)

  10. Improving screen-film chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, N.; Baker, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally symmetric screens and double emulsion symmetric films with medium to wide latitutde are used for radiography of the chest. Beacuse of mismatch of transmitted exposure through the chest with limited latitude of the film, most of the dense areas of the chest are underexposed. Kodak's recent innovation of a unique asymmetry screen-film system (InSight) alleviates this problem. Our phantom measurement indicates that the InSight system offers wider recording range, and the flexible grid permits more positional latitude than conventional grids. Our five-year extensive clinical experience indicates that dense anatomic structures, such as mediastinum, retrocardiac and subdiaphragmatic, are more visible in the InSight system than in the conventional symmetric system. Similarly, a substantial improvement in image quality in portable chest imaging is realized by use of flexible grids because of scatter rejection and invisible grid lines. (author)

  11. A comparison of Kodak Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed Plus dental X-ray films for use in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moule, A J; Wong, A; Monsour, P A; Basford, K E

    2001-06-01

    The advantage of using a faster film for length determination in endodontic therapy is obvious. However, for such a film to be generally accepted, it must demonstrate comparable diagnostic quality to traditionally used films. The comparative accuracy of canal length determination of Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed Plus dental X-ray films was assessed in maxillary first and second molars; for different canals, for different teeth, for different exposures, and for different examiners (five general dentists and three endodontic specialists). In general, there were no significant differences between films, among examiners, or any interaction between films and exposures. That is, an assessor's ability to estimate lengths was not significantly influenced by the film type or by exposure used. There was a wide divergence in the individual assessor's ability to estimate lengths. Specialists estimated lengths more accurately than general practitioners and estimated lengths more accurately with Ektaspeed Plus film. Length determination in distobuccal and mesiobuccal canals was more accurate than in palatal canals. Most palatal canals were underestimated in length by more than 1mm. The use of file sizes larger in number than size 15 is recommended in these canals. For length determination, Ektaspeed Plus dental X-ray film is as effective as Ultraspeed film. Given the acceptable quality and accuracy of Ektaspeed Plus film, there seems to be no clinical reason to subject patients to greater radiation by using a slower film during endodontic therapy.

  12. Unit cell determination of epitaxial thin films based on reciprocal space vectors by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ping; Liu, Huajun; Chen, Zuhuang; Chen, Lang; Wang, John

    2013-01-01

    A new approach, based on reciprocal space vectors (RSVs), is developed to determine Bravais lattice types and accurate lattice parameters of epitaxial thin films by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry (HR-XRD). The lattice parameters of single crystal substrates are employed as references to correct the systematic experimental errors of RSVs of thin films. The general procedure is summarized, involving correction of RSVs, derivation of raw unit cell, subsequent conversion to the Niggli unit ...

  13. Structural studies on Langmuir-Blodgett ultra-thin films on tin (IV) stearate using X-ray diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Deraman; Muhamad Mat Salleh; Mohd Ali Sulaiman; Mohd Ali Sufi

    1991-01-01

    X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out on Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) ultra-thin films of tin (IV) stearate for different numbers of layers. The structural information such as interplanar spacing, unit cells spacing, molecular length and orientation of molecular chains were obtained from the diffraction data. This information is discussed and compared with that previously published for LB ultra-thin films of manganese stearate and cadmium stearate

  14. Thin-film-based scintillators for hard x-ray microimaging detectors: the ScinTAX Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, A.; Cecilia, A.; Douissard, P.-A.; Dupré, K.; Wesemann, V.; Baumbach, T.; Couchaud, M.; Rochet, X.; Riesemeier, H.; Radtke, M.; Martin, T.

    2014-09-01

    The project ScinTAX developed novel thin scintillating films for the application in high performance X-ray imaging and subsequent introduced new X-ray detectors to the market. To achieve this aim lutetium orthosilicate (LSO) scintillators doped with different activators were grown successfully by liquid phase epitaxy. The high density of LSO (7.4 g/cm3), the effective atomic number (65.2) and the high light yield make this scintillator highly applicable for indirect X-ray detection in which the ionizing radiation is converted into visible light and then registered by a digital detector. A modular indirect detection system has been developed to fully exploit the potential of this thin film scintillator for radiographic and tomographic imaging. The system is compatible for high-resolution imaging with moderate dose as well as adaptable to intense high-dose applications where radiation hard microimaging detectors are required. This proceedings article shall review the achieved performances and technical details on this high-resolution detector system which is now available. A selected example application demonstrates the great potential of the optimized detector system for hard X-ray microimaging, i.e. either to improve image contrast due to the availability of efficient thin crystal films or to reduce the dose to the sample.

  15. X-ray film digitization using a personal computer and hand-held scanner: a simple technique for storing images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Nunez, C. F.; Lloret-Alcaniz, A.

    1998-01-01

    To develop a simple, low-cost technique for the digitization of X-ray films for personal use. A 66-MHz 486 PC with 8 MB of RAM, a Logitech ScanMan 256 hand-held scanner and a standard negatoscope with the power source converted to direct current. Although the system was originally designed for the digitization of mammographies, it has also been used with computed tomography, magnetic resonance, digital angiography and ultrasonographic images, as well as plain X-rays. After a minimal training period, the system digitized X-ray films easily and rapidly. Although the scanning values vary depending on the type of image to be digitized, an input spatial resolution of 200 dpi and a contrast resolution of 256 levels of gray are generally adequate. Of the storage formats tested, JPEG presented the best quality/image size ratio. A simple, low-cost technique has been developed for the digitization of X-ray films. This technique enables the storage of images in a digital format, thus facilitating their presentation and transmission. (Author) 9 refs

  16. A flexible and accurate quantification algorithm for electron probe X-ray microanalysis based on thin-film element yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalm, O.; Janssens, K.

    2003-04-01

    Quantitative analysis by means of electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) of low Z materials such as silicate glasses can be hampered by the fact that ice or other contaminants build up on the Si(Li) detector beryllium window or (in the case of a windowless detector) on the Si(Li) crystal itself. These layers act as an additional absorber in front of the detector crystal, decreasing the detection efficiency at low energies (philosophy often employed in quantitative analysis of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) data. This approach is based on the (experimental) determination of thin-film element yields, rather than starting from infinitely thick and single element calibration standards. These thin-film sensitivity coefficients can also be interpolated to allow quantification of elements for which no suitable standards are available. The change in detector efficiency can be monitored by collecting an X-ray spectrum of one multi-element glass standard. This information is used to adapt the previously determined thin-film sensitivity coefficients to the actual detector efficiency conditions valid on the day that the experiments were carried out. The main advantage of this method is that spectra collected from the standards and from the unknown samples should not be acquired within a short period of time. This new approach is evaluated for glass and metal matrices and is compared with a standard ZAF method.

  17. Analysis of Order Formation in Block Copolymer Thin Films UsingResonant Soft X-Ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgili, Justin M.; Tao, Yuefei; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Balsara,Nitash P.; Segalman, Rachel A.

    2006-11-27

    The lateral order of poly(styrene-block-isoprene) copolymer(PS-b-PI) thin films is characterized by the emerging technique ofresonant soft X-ray scattering (RSOXS) at the carbon K edge and comparedto ordering in bulk samples of the same materials measured usingconventional small-angle X-ray scattering. We show resonance using theoryand experiment that the loss of scattering intensity expected with adecrease in sample volume in the case of thin films can be overcome bytuning X-rays to the pi* resonance of PS or PI. Using RSOXS, we study themicrophase ordering of cylinder- and phere-forming PS-b-PI thin films andcompare these results to position space data obtained by atomic forcemicroscopy. Our ability to examine large sample areas (~;9000 mu m2) byRSOXS enables unambiguous identification of the lateral lattice structurein the thin films. In the case of the sphere-forming copolymer thin film,where the spheres are hexagonally arranged, the average sphere-to-spherespacing is between the bulk (body-centered cubic) nearest neighbor andbulk unit cell spacings. In the case of the cylinder-forming copolymerthin film, the cylinder-to-cylinder spacing is within experimental errorof that obtained in the bulk.

  18. Study of Fe-Ni-Si-B alloy and films on its base by X-ray photospectroscopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlenko, V.G.; Parfenenok, M.A.; Pukhov, I.K.; Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Shirkov, A.V.

    1983-01-01

    By the method of X ray photoelectron spectroscopy the chemical composition of Fe-Ni-Si-B alloy and films on its base prepared by ion-plasma sputtering is investigated. The identity of chemical bonds in film samples and initial target is revealed, realized are in them mostly Fe-B, Ni-C, Si-Si interatomic bonds. It is shown that lono. films contact with atmosphere is the cause of difference of film composition in the near-surface region (up to 100 nm) from its main volume composition

  19. Image research on acetabular teardrop shadow by X-ray plain-film and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoxuan; Zhai Yuejie; Yu Hongguang; Yang Yijun; Zhang Daiwei; Chen Aili; Song Quanjun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anatomical structure of bone in the formation of acetabular teardrop shadow. Methods: The acetabular teardrop shadow of the X-ray plain-film in 100 children and 300 adults, and of CT in 43 cases were analysed, measured and compared. Results: In children, teardrop shadow appeared 'U' in 80.00%, 14.00% in teardrop, 6.00% in line. In adult teardrop shadow appeared 'U' in 41.33%, 53.33% in teardrop, 5.34% in line. There were significant differences between children and adult in the frequency of 'U' and teardrop (x 2 = 43.34, P 2 = 45.62, P < 0.01). In children, inpeduncle of teardrop shadow was formed of middle 1/3 substantia-line of acetabular concavity inside of pelvis; outpeduncle was formed of middle 1/3 substantia-line of bottom of acetabular. In adult, inpeduncle was formed of middle 1/3 or back 1/3 substantia line of acetabular concavity inside of pelvis; outpeduncle was formed of middle 1/3 or back 1/3 substantia-line of bottom of acetabular. Conclusion: In children, acetabular teardrop shadow was mainly formed of middle 1/3 bone of acetabular concavity. In adult, middle 1/3 or back 1/3 bone of acetabular concavity contribute to the shadow. The ahead 1/3 bone of acetabular concavity is not involved

  20. INVESTIGATIONS THE EFFECT OF EOSIN B DYE ON X- RAY DIFFRACTION PATTERN OF SILVER NITRATE DOPED PVP FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasin F. Hadi Al-Kadhemy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, X-ray diffraction of the powder (PVP polymer, Eosin B dye, and silver nitrate and (EB/PVP, AgNO3/PVP, EB/AgNO3/PVP films have been studied. Casting method is used to prepare homogeneous films on plastic petri dishes. All parameters accounted for the X-ray diffraction; full width half maximum (FWHM, Miller indices (hkl, size of crystalline (D, Specific Surface Area (S and Dislocation Density (δ.The nature of the structural of materials and films will be investigated. The XRD pattern of PVP polymer was amorphous structure with two broader peaks and the Eosin B dye and silver nitrate have crystalline structure. While the mixture between these materials led to appearing some crystalline peaks into XRD pattern of PVP polymer.

  1. Quantitative analysis of phosphosilicate glass films on silicon wafers for calibration of x-ray fluorescence spectrometry standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    The phosphorus and silicon contents of phosphosilicate glass films deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on silicon wafers were determined. These films were prepared for use as x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry standards. The thin films were removed from the wafer by etching with dilute hydrofluoric acid, and the P and Si concentrations in solution were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP). The calculated phosphorus concentration ranged from 2.2 to 12 wt %, with an uncertainty of 2.73 to 10.1 relative percent. Variation between the calculated weight loss (summation of P 2 O 5 and SiO 2 amounts as determined by ICP) and the measured weight loss (determined gravimetrically) averaged 4.9%. Results from the ICP method, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dispersive infrared spectroscopy, electron microprobe, and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for the same samples are compared

  2. X-ray Reciprocal Space Mapping of Graded Al x Ga1 - x N Films and Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanchu, Hryhorii V; Kuchuk, Andrian V; Kladko, Vasyl P; Ware, Morgan E; Mazur, Yuriy I; Zytkiewicz, Zbigniew R; Belyaev, Alexander E; Salamo, Gregory J

    2016-12-01

    The depth distribution of strain and composition in graded Al x Ga1 - x N films and nanowires (NWs) are studied theoretically using the kinematical theory of X-ray diffraction. By calculating [Formula: see text] reciprocal space maps (RSMs), we demonstrate significant differences in the intensity distributions from graded Al x Ga1 - x N films and NWs. We attribute these differences to relaxation of the substrate-induced strain on the NWs free side walls. Finally, we demonstrate that the developed X-ray reciprocal space map model allows for reliable depth profiles of strain and Al composition determination in both Al x Ga1 - x N films and NWs.

  3. X-ray line profile analysis of BaTiO3 thin film prepared by sol-gel deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Zeen Vee; Saif, Ala'eddin A.; Wahab, Yufridin; Jamal, Zul Azhar Zahid

    2017-04-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3) thin film was prepared using sol-gel method and spun-coated on SiO2/Si substrate. The phase and crystallinity of the synthesized film were identified using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), which scanned at the range of 20° to 60°. The phase and lattice parameters of the fabricated film were extracted from the recorded XRD patterns using lattice geometry equations. The crystallite size and lattice strain were determined using X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA) with various approaches. The Scherrer equation was applied to the perovskite peaks of the film to explore the size contribution on the peak broadening. Meanwhile, the Williamson-Hall and size-strain plot (SSP) methods were used to review two main independent contributions, i.e. crystallite sizes and lattice strain, on the X-ray line broadening. From the analysis, it is found that Scherrer method gives smallest crystallite size value by ignoring the strain-induced broadening effect. On the other hand, Williamson-Hall and SSP graphs revealed the existence of the lattice strain within the film, which contributes to the broadening in the Bragg peak. The results that analyzed via both techniques show a linear trend with all data points fitted. However, result obtained from SSP method gives better settlement due to the best fit of the data.

  4. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigation of the surface film on magnesium powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Paul J; Bayindir, Zeynel; Kipouros, Georges J

    2012-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys are attractive for use in automotive and aerospace applications because of their low density and good mechanical properties. However, difficulty in forming magnesium and the limited number of available commercial alloys limit their use. Powder metallurgy may be a suitable solution for forming near-net-shape parts. However, sintering pure magnesium presents difficulties due to surface film that forms on the magnesium powder particles. The present work investigates the composition of the surface film that forms on the surface of pure magnesium powders exposed to atmospheric conditions and on pure magnesium powders after compaction under uniaxial pressing at a pressure of 500 MPa and sintering under argon at 600 °C for 40 minutes. Initially, focused ion beam microscopy was utilized to determine the thickness of the surface layer of the magnesium powder and found it to be ~10 nm. The X-ray photoelectron analysis of the green magnesium sample prior to sintering confirmed the presence of MgO, MgCO(3)·3H(2)O, and Mg(OH)(2) in the surface layer of the powder with a core of pure magnesium. The outer portion of the surface layer was found to contain MgCO(3)·3H(2)O and Mg(OH)(2), while the inner portion of the layer is primarily MgO. After sintering, the MgCO(3)·3H(2)O was found to be almost completely absent, and the amount of Mg(OH)(2) was also decreased significantly. This is postulated to occur by decomposition of the compounds to MgO and gases during the high temperature of sintering. An increase in the MgO content after sintering supports this theory.

  5. Long-term follow-up of ventilator treated low birthweight infants. I. Chest X-ray, pulmonary mechanics, clinical lung disease and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, M; Mortensson, W

    1986-09-01

    Chest X-ray, pulmonary mechanics, clinical lung disease and growth were studied in 48 low birthweight infants surviving after ventilator treatment in the neonatal period. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) was present in 14 infants shortly after weaning off ventilator. At 4 to 6 years of age most patients had normal chest radiographs but 13 still showed signs of pulmonary fibrosis and hyperinflation. Most patients had low dynamic compliance and high pulmonary resistance shortly after ventilator treatment. All but 8, however, had normal findings at 1 to 1 1/2 years of age. Pneumonias and bronchitis were common during the first two years but thereafter declined in frequency. Weight and length development were retarded for BPD patients during the first two years and for non-BPD patients for the first year. Both groups had a complete catch-up.

  6. Significance of findings of both emergency chest X-ray and thoracic computed tomography routinely performed at the emergency unit in 102 polytrauma patients. A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieser, T.; Buehne, K.H.; Haeuser, H.; Bohndorf, K.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate prospectively whether and to what extent both thoracic computed tomography (Tx-CT) and supine X-ray of the chest (Rx-Tx) are able to show additional findings that are therapeutically relevant. Patients and Methods: According to a fixed study protocol, we performed Rx-Tx and Tx-CT in 102 consecutive, haemodynamically stable polytrauma patients (mean age, 41.2 yrs; age range, 12-93 yrs). Findings of therapeutical relevance drawn from both Tx-CT and Rx-Tx, and urgent interventions indicated by an attending trauma team were documented on a standardized evaluation sheet immediately. Any change in the patient's management that is different from routine life-saving procedures, and any therapeutical intervention done in the emergency room or elsewhere (operating theatre, angiographic facility) were considered therapeutically relevant. Results: Of 102 patients, 43 (42.2%) had a total of 51 therapeutically relevant findings. Rx-Tx alone yielded 23 relevant findings (45.1%) in 23 patients (22.5%). Of them, Tx-CT has shown additional important findings in 7 patients (30.4%). When Tx-CT alone is considered, it revealed 22 new findings of therapeutical relevance (43.2%) in 20 patients (46.5%). Altogether, Tx-CT was able to show 30 relevant findings in 27 patients, i.e., there was a therapeutical benefit for 26.5% of all polytrauma patients included. Most frequently, there was a need for chest-tube insertion (n=29). Conclusions: Polytrauma patients if haemodynamically stable may profit from computed tomography of the chest when therapeutically relevant thoracic injuries are looked for or early therapeutical interventions are to be checked. However, chest X-ray should stay as a 'front-line' screening method because of its superbly quick feasibility and availability. (orig.) [de

  7. Experimental study and analytical model of deformation of magnetostrictive films as applied to mirrors for x-ray space telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Knapp, Peter; Vaynman, S; Graham, M E; Cao, Jian; Ulmer, M P

    2014-09-20

    The desire for continuously gaining new knowledge in astronomy has pushed the frontier of engineering methods to deliver lighter, thinner, higher quality mirrors at an affordable cost for use in an x-ray observatory. To address these needs, we have been investigating the application of magnetic smart materials (MSMs) deposited as a thin film on mirror substrates. MSMs have some interesting properties that make the application of MSMs to mirror substrates a promising solution for making the next generation of x-ray telescopes. Due to the ability to hold a shape with an impressed permanent magnetic field, MSMs have the potential to be the method used to make light weight, affordable x-ray telescope mirrors. This paper presents the experimental setup for measuring the deformation of the magnetostrictive bimorph specimens under an applied magnetic field, and the analytical and numerical analysis of the deformation. As a first step in the development of tools to predict deflections, we deposited Terfenol-D on the glass substrates. We then made measurements that were compared with the results from the analytical and numerical analysis. The surface profiles of thin-film specimens were measured under an external magnetic field with white light interferometry (WLI). The analytical model provides good predictions of film deformation behavior under various magnetic field strengths. This work establishes a solid foundation for further research to analyze the full three-dimensional deformation behavior of magnetostrictive thin films.

  8. Yield of chest X-ray tuberculosis screening of immigrants during the European refugee crisis of 2015: a single-centre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Sauer, Markus; Henes, Frank Oliver; Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hamburg (Germany); Diel, Roland [University Medical Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Airway Research Center North (ARCN), Institute for Epidemiology, Kiel (Germany); Meywald-Walter, Karen [Public Health Department Hamburg Central, Hamburg (Germany); Schoen, Gerhard [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), the number needed to screen (NNS), and the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray (CXR) screening to detect active pulmonary TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis. We evaluated data of all refugees who underwent CXR screening in a single-centre of one German metropolitan area in 2015. We determined the prevalence of TB, NNS, and accuracy of CXR to detect active pulmonary TB. Reference method for active TB was the database of all definite TB cases registered at the Department of Public Health. A total of 17,487 immigrants underwent single-centre CXR screening in 2015; prevalence of definite pulmonary TB was 0.103%. The NNS for detecting one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. CXR had a sensitivity of 55.6% 95% confidence interval (CI 30.8-78.5%) and a specificity 98.3% (CI 98.1-98.5%) to reveal one case of active TB. Our single-centre study indicates that chest X-ray screening for TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis was of low yield due the low prevalence of TB and high number needed to screen, thus implicating the need for improved screening algorithms adapted to the overwhelming number of refugees. (orig.)

  9. Yield of chest X-ray tuberculosis screening of immigrants during the European refugee crisis of 2015: a single-centre experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Sauer, Markus; Henes, Frank Oliver; Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter; Diel, Roland; Meywald-Walter, Karen; Schoen, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), the number needed to screen (NNS), and the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray (CXR) screening to detect active pulmonary TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis. We evaluated data of all refugees who underwent CXR screening in a single-centre of one German metropolitan area in 2015. We determined the prevalence of TB, NNS, and accuracy of CXR to detect active pulmonary TB. Reference method for active TB was the database of all definite TB cases registered at the Department of Public Health. A total of 17,487 immigrants underwent single-centre CXR screening in 2015; prevalence of definite pulmonary TB was 0.103%. The NNS for detecting one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. CXR had a sensitivity of 55.6% 95% confidence interval (CI 30.8-78.5%) and a specificity 98.3% (CI 98.1-98.5%) to reveal one case of active TB. Our single-centre study indicates that chest X-ray screening for TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis was of low yield due the low prevalence of TB and high number needed to screen, thus implicating the need for improved screening algorithms adapted to the overwhelming number of refugees. (orig.)

  10. Characterization of thin-film multilayers using magnetization curves and modeling of low-angle X-ray diffraction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, M. [Emory & Henry College, VA (United States); Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    We have characterized thin-film multilayers grown by ion-beam sputtering using magnetization curves and modeling of low-angle x-ray diffraction data. In our films, we use ferromagnetic layer = Co, Fe, and NiFe and spacer layer = Si, Ge, FeSi{sub 2}, and CoSi{sub 2}. We have studied the effects of (1) deposition conditions; (2) thickness of layers; (3) different layer materials; and (4) annealing. We find higher magnetization in films grown at 1000V rather than 500V and in films with spacer layers of 50{angstrom} rather than 100{angstrom}. We find higher coercivity in films with cobalt grown on germanium rather than silicon, metal grown on gold underlayers rather than on glass substrates, and when using thinner spacer layers. Finally, modeling reveals that films grown with disilicide layers are more thermally stable than films grown with silicon spacer layers.

  11. Oxidation of nanostructured Ti films produced by low energy cluster beam deposition: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, Monica de; Snidero, Elena; Coreno, Marcello; Bongiorno, Gero; Giorgetti, Luca; Amati, Matteo; Cepek, Cinzia

    2012-01-01

    We used in-situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to study the oxidation process of a cluster-assembled metallic titanium film exposed to molecular oxygen at room temperature. The nanostructured film has been grown on a Si(111) substrate, in ultra high vacuum conditions, by coupling a supersonic cluster beam deposition system with an XPS experimental chamber. Our results show that upon in-situ oxygen exposure Ti 3+ is the first oxidation state observed, followed by Ti 4+ , whereas Ti 2+ is practically absent during the whole process. Our results compare well with the existing literature on Ti films produced using other techniques.

  12. X-ray spectral determination of chemical state of phosphorus and sulfur in anodic oxide films on niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokij, L.P.; Kostikov, Yu.P.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical forms of phosphorus and sulfur in niobium oxide anodic film, obtained by electrochemical technique using niobium in H 2 SO 4 and H 3 PO 4 aqueous solutions, are determined using data on chemical shifts of X-ray emission lines. Films represent Nb 2 O 5(1-γ) (SO 4 ) 5γ and Nb 2 O 5(1-γ) (PO 4 ) 10γ/3 (γ -share of oxygen substituted by acid anion) composition oxosalts. Electrolyte role in formation of niobium anodic oxide structure and effect of phosphorus and sulfur compounds on anodic film conductivity are determined

  13. Relaxation mechanisms in a gold thin film on a compliant substrate as revealed by X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, Pierre; Renault, Pierre-Olivier; Faurie, Damien; Thiaudière, Dominique

    2017-05-01

    The fact that the polymeric substrate does not relax after a load jump allows realizing an original relaxation experiment of a metallic thin film. Thanks to the combination of two strain probes done at different scales, namely, X-ray synchrotron diffraction and digital image correlation techniques, the apparent activation volumes are monitored and their values help to capture leading deformation mechanisms in thin films. Such experiments have been performed on a nanocrystalline gold thin film, and deformation mechanisms involved during a biaxial straining have been distinguished between different texture components.

  14. A method for thickness determination of thin films of amalgamable metals by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennun, L.; Greaves, E.D.; Barros, H.; Diaz-Valdes, J.

    2009-01-01

    A method for thickness determination of thin amalgamable metallic films by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is presented. The peak's intensity in TXRF spectra are directly related to the surface density of the sample, i.e. to its thickness in a homogeneous film. Performing a traditional TXRF analysis on a thin film of an amalgamated metal, and determining the relative peak intensity of a specific metal line, the layer thickness can be precisely obtained. In the case of gold thickness determination, mercury and gold peaks overlap, hence we have developed a general data processing scheme to achieve the most precise results.

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ...

  16. High spatial resolution grain orientation and strain mapping in thin films using polychromatic submicron x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, N.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Valek, B.; Bravman, J. C.; Spolenak, R.; Brown, W. L.; Marieb, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Batterman, B. W.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    The availability of high brilliance synchrotron sources, coupled with recent progress in achromatic focusing optics and large area two-dimensional detector technology, has allowed us to develop an x-ray synchrotron technique that is capable of mapping orientation and strain/stress in polycrystalline thin films with submicron spatial resolution. To demonstrate the capabilities of this instrument, we have employed it to study the microstructure of aluminum thin film structures at the granular and subgranular levels. Due to the relatively low absorption of x-rays in materials, this technique can be used to study passivated samples, an important advantage over most electron probes given the very different mechanical behavior of buried and unpassivated materials.

  17. Comparison of simulated light sensitometer and x-ray sensitometer for screen-film system in medical radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuyama, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Yoshinori.

    1983-01-01

    Sensitometric techniques are used for determining the characteristic curve in medical imaging. In this study intensity-scale (inverse square law, simulated light) methods are used in the determination of radiographic screen-film system characteristic curve. Films which were exposed to simulated light and x-ray were processed in the same automatic processor simultaneously. These curves were overlapped at Net density of 1.0 to compare the curve shapes. The results show there is a good correlation between the density of x-ray sensitometry and that of simulated light sensitometry. The differences of density are within +- 0.12 (+- 10 % log exposure). This applies to both blue sensitive and green sensitive systems. (author)

  18. Texture, residual stress and structural analysis of thin films using a combined X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutterotti, L.; Chateigner, D.; Ferrari, S.; Ricote, J.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thin films for today's industrial and research needs require highly specialized methodologies for a successful quantitative characterization. In particular, in the case of multilayer and/or unknown phases a global approach is necessary to obtain some or all the required information. A full approach has been developed integrating novel texture and residual stress methodologies with the Rietveld method (Acta Cryst. 22 (1967) 151) (for crystal structure analysis) and it has been coupled with the reflectivity analysis. The complete analysis can be done at once and offers several benefits: the thicknesses obtained from reflectivity can be used to correct the diffraction spectra, the phase analysis help to identify the layers and to determine the electron density profile for reflectivity; quantitative texture is needed for quantitative phase and residual stress analyses; crystal structure determination benefits of the previous. To achieve this result, it was necessary to develop some new methods, especially for texture and residual stresses. So it was possible to integrate them in the Rietveld, full profile fitting of the patterns. The measurement of these spectra required a special reflectometer/diffractometer that combines a thin parallel beam (for reflectivity) and a texture/stress goniometer with a curved large position sensitive detector. This new diffraction/reflectivity X-ray machine has been used to test the combined approach. Several spectra and the reflectivity patterns have been collected at different tilting angles and processed at once by the special software incorporating the aforementioned methodologies. Some analysis examples will be given to show the possibilities offered by the method

  19. Study on the influence of X-ray tube spectral distribution on the analysis of bulk samples and thin films: Fundamental parameters method and theoretical coefficient algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitko, Rafal

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of X-ray tube spectral distribution is necessary in theoretical methods of matrix correction, i.e. in both fundamental parameter (FP) methods and theoretical influence coefficient algorithms. Thus, the influence of X-ray tube distribution on the accuracy of the analysis of thin films and bulk samples is presented. The calculations are performed using experimental X-ray tube spectra taken from the literature and theoretical X-ray tube spectra evaluated by three different algorithms proposed by Pella et al. (X-Ray Spectrom. 14 (1985) 125-135), Ebel (X-Ray Spectrom. 28 (1999) 255-266), and Finkelshtein and Pavlova (X-Ray Spectrom. 28 (1999) 27-32). In this study, Fe-Cr-Ni system is selected as an example and the calculations are performed for X-ray tubes commonly applied in X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), i.e., Cr, Mo, Rh and W. The influence of X-ray tube spectra on FP analysis is evaluated when quantification is performed using various types of calibration samples. FP analysis of bulk samples is performed using pure-element bulk standards and multielement bulk standards similar to the analyzed material, whereas for FP analysis of thin films, the bulk and thin pure-element standards are used. For the evaluation of the influence of X-ray tube spectra on XRF analysis performed by theoretical influence coefficient methods, two algorithms for bulk samples are selected, i.e. Claisse-Quintin (Can. Spectrosc. 12 (1967) 129-134) and COLA algorithms (G.R. Lachance, Paper Presented at the International Conference on Industrial Inorganic Elemental Analysis, Metz, France, June 3, 1981) and two algorithms (constant and linear coefficients) for thin films recently proposed by Sitko (X-Ray Spectrom. 37 (2008) 265-272)

  20. Methodology for studying strain inhomogeneities in polycrystalline thin films during in situ thermal loading using coherent x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaxelaire, N; Labat, S; Thomas, O [Aix-Marseille University, IM2NP, FST avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, F-13397 Marseille Cedex (France); Proudhon, H; Forest, S [MINES ParisTech, Centre des materiaux, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Kirchlechner, C; Keckes, J [Erich Schmid Institute for Material Science, Austrian Academy of Science and Institute of Metal Physics, University of Leoben, Jahnstrasse 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Jacques, V; Ravy, S [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: nicolas.vaxelaire@univ-cezanne.fr

    2010-03-15

    Coherent x-ray diffraction is used to investigate the mechanical properties of a single grain within a polycrystalline thin film in situ during a thermal cycle. Both the experimental approach and finite element simulation are described. Coherent diffraction from a single grain has been monitored in situ at different temperatures. This experiment offers unique perspectives for the study of the mechanical properties of nano-objects.

  1. Methodology for studying strain inhomogeneities in polycrystalline thin films during in situ thermal loading using coherent x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaxelaire, N; Labat, S; Thomas, O; Proudhon, H; Forest, S; Kirchlechner, C; Keckes, J; Jacques, V; Ravy, S

    2010-01-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction is used to investigate the mechanical properties of a single grain within a polycrystalline thin film in situ during a thermal cycle. Both the experimental approach and finite element simulation are described. Coherent diffraction from a single grain has been monitored in situ at different temperatures. This experiment offers unique perspectives for the study of the mechanical properties of nano-objects.

  2. Determination of the Modulation Transfer Function of Screen-Film Combinations in X-ray photography by the grating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeschen, D.

    1987-01-01

    An intercomparison experiment concerning the determination of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of Screen-Film Combinations in x-ray photography by the grating method was made. Six laboratories located in four countries participated. Each laboratory has used its own, individually developed measurement procedure. The results have shown a surprisingly good agreement, the standard deviation (1 σ value) of MTF values reported by the different laboratories was about ± 0.02

  3. An imitative calculation of W/C, Mo/Si articifial multilayered films' structures and properties as X-ray monochromators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wen; Liu Wenhan; Wu Ziqin

    1989-01-01

    An imitative calculation on W/C and Mo/Si artificial multilayered films have been made. The influences of total period numbers and deviation of period thickness on X-ray diffraction peak were given. Two difference diviations, random fluctuation and system linear deviation have been imitated, their influences on X-ray energy distinguish power have been compared

  4. Analysis of image factors of x-ray films : study for the intelligent replenishment system of automatic film processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Tae; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Park, Kwang BO; Auh, Yong Ho; Lee, Hyoung Jin; In, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Keon Chung [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    We analyzed image factors to determine the characteristic factors that need for intelligent replenishment system of the auto film processor. We processed the serial 300 sheets of radiographic films of chest phantom without replenishment of developing and fixation replenisher. We took the digital data by using film digitizer which scanned the films and automatically summed up the pixel values of the films. We analyzed characteristic curves, average gradients and relative speeds of individual film using densitometer and step densitometry. We also evaluated the pH of developer, fixer, and washer fluid with digital pH meter. Fixer residual rate and washing effect were measured by densitometer using the reagent methods. There was no significant reduction of the digital density numbers of the serial films without replenishment of developer and fixer. The average gradients were gradually decreased by 0.02 and relative speeds were also gradually decreased by 6.96% relative to initial standard step-densitometric measurement. The pHs of developer and fixer were reflected the inactivation of each fluid. The fixer residual rates and washing effects after processing each 25 sheets of films were in the normal range. We suggest that the digital data are not reliable due to limitation of the hardware and software of the film digitizer. We conclude that average gradient and relative speed which mean the film's contrast and sensitivity respectively are reliable factors for determining the need for the replenishment of the auto film processor. We need more study of simpler equations and programming for more intelligent replenishment system of the auto film processor.

  5. Technique charts for EC film: direct optical measurements to account for the effects of X-ray scatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Peter; Jordan, Kevin; Lewis, Craig; Heerema, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method of measuring technique charts for enhanced contrast (EC) film, to demonstrate how X-ray scatter changes the response of EC film, and to generate technique charts for general use. Methods and Materials: We have developed a 'digital cassette' - consisting of a metal plate/phosphor screen, a light guide, a photodiode sensor, and an electrometer - that can be used to measure the light generated in the phosphor screen of the film cassette. In turn, these measurements can be used to generate technique charts for EC film. The digital cassette has been used to measure technique charts for 4-MV and 6-MV X-ray beams for a variety of different phantom thicknesses, field sizes, and phantom-to-cassette air gaps. Results and Discussion: We have observed that the signals generated in an ionization chamber located 9.4 cm behind a 30-cm-thick water-equivalent phantom increase by a factor of 1.9 when the field size is increased from 4x4 cm 2 to 40x40 cm 2 when irradiated by a 6-MV X-ray beam. However, the change in EC film response is a factor of 3.5 under the same conditions. Irradiations to optimally expose the EC film predicted by the digital cassette differ by up to 82% compared to those predicted by ion chamber measurements. Nevertheless, the technique charts measured using the digital cassette predict the response of the EC film to ±0.2 optical density. The overresponse of the EC film is most likely due to low-energy scattered photons, which interact with the high atomic number (Z=64) phosphor screen of the enhanced contrast localization cassette. Therefore, simple solutions, such as placing a high atomic number material above the enhanced contrast localization cassette, can reduce this contribution by scattered photons to the signal generated in the cassettes. Conclusions: We have developed a digital cassette that can make more accurate measurements of the technique charts for EC films. Our measurements show that under some conditions, X-ray

  6. High resolution x-ray scattering studies of strain in epitaxial thin films of yttrium silicide grown on silicon (111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marthinez-Miranda, L.J.; Santiago-Aviles, J.J.; Siegal, M.P.; Graham, W.R.; Heiney, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have used high resolution grazing incidence x-ray scattering (GIXS) to study the in- plane and out-of-plane structure of epitaxial YSi 2-x films grown on Si(111), with thicknesses ranging from 85 Angstrom to 510 Angstrom. Their results indicate that the films are strained, and that film strain increases as a function of thickness, with lattice parameters varying from a = 3.846 Angstrom/c = 4.142 Angstrom for the 85 Angstrom film to a = 3.877 Angstrom/c = 4.121 Angstrom for the 510 Angstrom film. The authors correlate these results with an increase in pinhole areal coverage as a function of thickness. In addition, the authors' measurements show no evidence for the existence of ordered silicon vacancies in the films

  7. Analysis of thin films prepared by vacuum-evaporation and dropping solution by Takeoff Angle-Dependent X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy at glancing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Hirokawa, Kichinosuke; Mitose, Kengo.

    1995-01-01

    We have introduced Takeoff Angle-Dependent X-Ray Fluorescence (TAD-XRF) method for thin film and surface analysis. In this method, the sample on the optically flat substrate is irradiated with the glancing incidence of the primary X-ray, and the fluorescent X-rays emitted from the sample are detected at the glancing takeoff angle. We had previously calculated the relationship between the fluorescent X-ray intensity and the takeoff angle at the glancing incidence. The characterization of the thin film is achieved by investigating the dependence of the fluorescent X-ray intensity on the takeoff angle with the calculated curve. Using this analytical method, we have reported the results of the TAD-XRF measured for the evaporated thin films and the dried films from dropping solution in this paper. The effect of the thickness of the thin film, the density of the substrate and the incident angle on the TAD-XRF curve has been reported. In the case of the dried film from the dropping solution, a broad peak was observed at the takeoff angle which was close to the critical angle for the total reflection of the fluorescent X-ray in the TAD-XRF curve. This broad peak was explained by the double-excitation of the incident beam and the refracted beam of the fluorescent X-ray with the assumption that the X-ray which has a same wavelength to the observed fluorescent X-ray impinges upon the sample surface, because the reciprocity theorem is expected in the X-ray region. (author)

  8. A flexible and accurate quantification algorithm for electron probe X-ray microanalysis based on thin-film element yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalm, O.; Janssens, K.

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative analysis by means of electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) of low Z materials such as silicate glasses can be hampered by the fact that ice or other contaminants build up on the Si(Li) detector beryllium window or (in the case of a windowless detector) on the Si(Li) crystal itself. These layers act as an additional absorber in front of the detector crystal, decreasing the detection efficiency at low energies (<5 keV). Since the layer thickness gradually changes with time, also the detector efficiency in the low energy region is not constant. Using the normal ZAF approach to quantification of EPXMA data is cumbersome in these conditions, because spectra from reference materials and from unknown samples must be acquired within a fairly short period of time in order to avoid the effect of the change in efficiency. To avoid this problem, an alternative approach to quantification of EPXMA data is proposed, following a philosophy often employed in quantitative analysis of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) data. This approach is based on the (experimental) determination of thin-film element yields, rather than starting from infinitely thick and single element calibration standards. These thin-film sensitivity coefficients can also be interpolated to allow quantification of elements for which no suitable standards are available. The change in detector efficiency can be monitored by collecting an X-ray spectrum of one multi-element glass standard. This information is used to adapt the previously determined thin-film sensitivity coefficients to the actual detector efficiency conditions valid on the day that the experiments were carried out. The main advantage of this method is that spectra collected from the standards and from the unknown samples should not be acquired within a short period of time. This new approach is evaluated for glass and metal matrices and is compared with a standard ZAF method

  9. A comparison of density of Insight and Ektaspeed plus dental x-ray films using automatic and manual processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Suk Ja

    2001-01-01

    To compare the film density of Insight dental X-ray film (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY, USA) with that of Ektaspeed Plus film (Eastman Kodak) under manual and automatic processing conditions. Insight and wedge on the film under the three different exposure times. The exposed films were processed by both manual and automatic ways. The Base plus fog density and the optical density and the optical density made by exposing step wedge were calculated using a digital densitometer (model 07-443, Victoreen Inc, Cleveland, Ohio, USA). The optical densities of the Insight and Ektaspeed film versus thickness of aluminum wedge at the same exposure time were plotted on the graphs. Statistical analyses were applied for comparing the optical densities of the two films. The film density of both Insight films and Ektaspeed Plus films under automatic processing condition was significantly higher over the manual processing. The film density of Insight over Ektaspeed Plus film. To take the full advantage of reducing exposure time, Insight film should be processed automatically

  10. X-ray guided biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, R.; Lezana, A.H.; Pedrosa, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is now a routine procedure in many X-ray Departments. This paper presents the authors' experience with this technique in chest, abdominal and skeletal lesions. (Auth.)

  11. [The digital reprocessing of under- and overexposed x-ray films with a personal computer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, R; Diedrich, P

    1993-02-01

    An image processing work station for digitalizing and interactively manipulating under- and overexposed X-rays was set up by adding modules to an IBM compatible personal computer. Overexposed X-rays can be qualitatively enhanced by means of controlled manipulation of contrast and brightness and by means of the use of various digital filtering techniques. With underexposed X-rays an equalized grey scale can be achieved by means of regulating contrast and brightness. Digital filtering is not required. To assure a high degree of anatomical detail (periodontal ligament) in the digitalized image a maximum pixel of 0.1 mm was defined as a qualitative norm. Since in every digitalization process resolution is diminished, it proved best to select for interactive manipulation out of the total image only the section of interest.

  12. Pair distribution functions of amorphous organic thin films from synchrotron X-ray scattering in transmission mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Shi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using high-brilliance high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation, for the first time the total scattering of a thin organic glass film deposited on a strongly scattering inorganic substrate has been measured in transmission mode. The organic thin film was composed of the weakly scattering pharmaceutical substance indomethacin in the amorphous state. The film was 130 µm thick atop a borosilicate glass substrate of equal thickness. The atomic pair distribution function derived from the thin-film measurement is in excellent agreement with that from bulk measurements. This ability to measure the total scattering of amorphous organic thin films in transmission will enable accurate in situ structural studies for a wide range of materials.

  13. Synchrotron x-ray-diffraction study of the structure and growth of Xe films adsorbed on the Ag(111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, P.; Wu, Z.; Angot, T.; Wang, S.; Taub, H.; Ehrlich, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray scattering has been used to investigate the structure and growth of perhaps the simplest of all films: xenon physisorbed on the Ag(111) surface. High-resolution x-ray scans of the in-plane structure and lower-resolution scans (specular and nonspecular) of the out-of-plane order were performed. The Xe films were prepared under both quasiequilibrium and kinetic growth conditions, and have fewer structural defects than those investigated previously by others on graphite substrates. Under quasiequilibrium conditions, the bulk Xe-Xe spacing is reached at monolayer completion, and the monolayer and bilayer lattice constants at coexistence are inferred equal to within 0.005 Angstrom, consistent with theoretical calculations. The Xe/vacuum interface profile for a complete monolayer and bilayer grown at quasiequilibrium is found to be sharper than for kinetically grown films. At coverages above two layers, diffraction scans along the Xe(01l) rod for quasiequilibrated films are consistent with the presence of two domains having predominantly an ABC stacking sequence and rotated 60 degree with respect to each other about the surface normal. Annealing of these films alters neither the population of the two domains nor the fraction of ABA stacking faults. The thickest film grown under quasiequilibrium conditions exceeds 220 Angstrom (resolution limited). Under kinetic growth conditions, x-ray intensity oscillations at the Xe anti-Bragg position of the specular rod are observed as a function of time, indicating nearly layer-by-layer growth. Up to four complete oscillations corresponding to a film of eight layers have been observed before the intensity is damped out; the number of oscillations is found to depend on the substrate temperature, the growth rate, and the quality of the Ag(111) substrate. The specular reflectivity from kinetically grown films at nominal coverages of three and four layers has been analyzed using a Gaussian model which gives a film

  14. Thin film beam splitter multiple short pulse generation for enhanced Ni-like Ag x-ray laser emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Gabriel V; Ungureanu, Razvan G; Banici, Romeo A; Ursescu, Daniel; Delmas, Olivier; Pittman, Moana; Guilbaud, Olivier; Kazamias, Sophie; Cassou, Kevin; Demailly, Julien; Neveu, Olivier; Baynard, Elsa; Ros, David

    2014-04-15

    An alternative, novel multiple pulse generation scheme was implemented directly after the optical compressor output of an x-ray pump laser. The new method uses a polarization sensitive thin film beam splitter and a half-wavelength wave plate for tuning the energy ratio in the multiple short pulses. Based on this method, an extensive study was made of the running parameters for a grazing incidence pumped silver x-ray laser (XRL) pumped with a long pulse of 145 mJ in 6 ns at 532 nm and up to 1.45 J in few picoseconds at 810 nm. Fivefold enhancement in the emission of the silver XRL was demonstrated using the new pump method.

  15. X-ray diffraction study of thermal stress relaxation in ZnO films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conchon, F. [Institut P' , Universite de Poitiers-Ensma-UPR CNRS 3346, 86962 Futuroscope (France); Renault, P.O., E-mail: pierre.olivier.renault@univ-poitiers.f [Institut P' , Universite de Poitiers-Ensma-UPR CNRS 3346, 86962 Futuroscope (France); Le Bourhis, E.; Krauss, C.; Goudeau, P. [Institut P' , Universite de Poitiers-Ensma-UPR CNRS 3346, 86962 Futuroscope (France); Barthel, E.; Grachev, S. Yu.; Sondergard, E. [Lab. Surface du Verre et Interfaces (SVI), UMR 125, 93303 Aubervilliers (France); Rondeau, V.; Gy, R. [Lab. Recherche de Saint-Gobain (SGR), 93303 Aubervilliers (France); Lazzari, R.; Jupille, J. [Institut des Nanosciences de Paris (INSP), UMR 7588, 75015 Paris (France); Brun, N. [Lab. Physique des Solides (LPS), UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2010-12-30

    X-ray diffraction stress analyses have been performed on two different thin films deposited onto silicon substrate: ZnO and ZnO encapsulated into Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layers. We showed that both as-deposited ZnO films are in a high compressive stress state. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements inside a furnace revealed a relaxation of the as-grown stresses at temperatures which vary with the atmosphere in the furnace and change with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} encapsulation. The observations show that Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} films lying on both sides of the ZnO film play an important role in the mechanisms responsible for the stress relaxation during heat treatment. The different temperatures observed for relaxation in ambient and argon atmospheres suggest that the thermally activated stress relaxation may be attributed to a variation of the stoichiometry of the ZnO films. The present observations pave the way to fine tuning of the residual stresses through thermal treatment parameters.

  16. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  17. Evaluation of the entrance skin dose due to paediatric chest X-rays examinations carried out at a great hospital in Rio de Janeiro city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamadain, K.E.M.; Azevedo, A.C.P.; Rosa, L.A.R. da; Mota, H.C.; Goncalves, O.D.; Guebel, M.R.N.

    2001-01-01

    A dosimetric survey in paediatric radiology is currently being carried out at the paediatric unit of a great hospital in Rio de Janeiro city, aiming the assessment of patient doses and image quality. The aim of this work was to estimate the entrance skin dose for frontal and lateral chest X-rays exposure to paediatric patients. Three examination techniques were investigated, namely PA, AP and lateral positions. For entrance skin dose evaluation, two different TL dosimeters were used, namely LiF:Mg,Ti and CaSO4:Dy. The age intervals considered were 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results obtained with both dosimeters are similar and the entrance skin dose values evaluated for the different age intervals considered are compared with previous values found in Brazil and also in Europe. (author)

  18. Hard x-ray contact microscopy with 250 nm spatial resolution using a LiF film detector and a tabletop microsource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaviva, S.; Bonfigli, F.; Franzini, I.; Lai, A.; Montereali, R. M.; Pelliccia, D.; Cedola, A.; Lagomarsino, S.

    2006-01-01

    An innovative route for deep-submicrometer spatial resolution hard x-ray microscopy with tabletop x-ray source is proposed. A film of lithium fluoride (LiF) was used as imaging detector in contact mode. We present here the x-ray images recorded on LiF films of a Fresnel zone plate with submicrometer gold structures and of an onion cataphyll. The images were read with an optical confocal microscope in fluorescence mode. The measured spatial resolution was about 250 nm, i.e., close to the resolution limit of the confocal microscope. The advantages and drawbacks, and the possible improvements, of this route are discussed

  19. Factors Associated with Participation in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Screening Using Chest X-Ray among Diabetes Mellitus Type II Patients in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, I Gusti Ngurah Edi; Astuti, Putu Ayu Swandewi; Suarjana, I Ketut; Mulyawan, Ketut Hari; Duana, I Made Kerta; Kurniasari, Ni Made Dian; Putra, I Wayan Gede Artawan Eka

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) disease. Therefore, pulmonary TB screening among DM patients is essential. This study aimed to identify factors associated with participation of DM type II patients in pulmonary TB screening using chest X-ray. This was a cross-sectional analytic study and was part of TB-DM screening study in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. The sample consisted of 365 DM type II patients selected by quota sampling among DM type II patients joining the screening program from January until March 2016 in 11 public health centres in Denpasar. Data were collected via structured interviews. The contributing factors were determined by modified Poisson regression test for cross-sectional data. From the findings, less than half (45.48%) of DM type II patients participated in chest X-ray examination for TB. Factors associated with participation in pulmonary TB screening were having a higher educational level [APR = 1.34, 95% CI (1.07-1.67)], having family member who developed pulmonary TB disease [APR = 1.47, 95% CI (1.12-1.93)], the travel time to referral hospital for screening being ≤ 15 minutes [APR = 1.6, 95% CI (1.26-2.03)], having health insurance [APR = 2.69, 95% CI (1.10-6.56)], and receiving good support from health provider [APR = 1.35, 95% CI (1.06-1.70)]. Therefore, training for health provider on providing counselling, involvement of family members in screening process, and improving the health insurance coverage and referral system are worth considering.

  20. Factors Associated with Participation in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Screening Using Chest X-Ray among Diabetes Mellitus Type II Patients in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Edi Putra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM increases the risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB disease. Therefore, pulmonary TB screening among DM patients is essential. This study aimed to identify factors associated with participation of DM type II patients in pulmonary TB screening using chest X-ray. This was a cross-sectional analytic study and was part of TB-DM screening study in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. The sample consisted of 365 DM type II patients selected by quota sampling among DM type II patients joining the screening program from January until March 2016 in 11 public health centres in Denpasar. Data were collected via structured interviews. The contributing factors were determined by modified Poisson regression test for cross-sectional data. From the findings, less than half (45.48% of DM type II patients participated in chest X-ray examination for TB. Factors associated with participation in pulmonary TB screening were having a higher educational level [APR = 1.34, 95% CI (1.07–1.67], having family member who developed pulmonary TB disease [APR = 1.47, 95% CI (1.12–1.93], the travel time to referral hospital for screening being ≤ 15 minutes [APR = 1.6, 95% CI (1.26–2.03], having health insurance [APR = 2.69, 95% CI (1.10–6.56], and receiving good support from health provider [APR = 1.35, 95% CI (1.06–1.70]. Therefore, training for health provider on providing counselling, involvement of family members in screening process, and improving the health insurance coverage and referral system are worth considering.

  1. Multiple scattering in grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction: impact on lattice-constant determination in thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resel, Roland, E-mail: roland.resel@tugraz.at; Bainschab, Markus; Pichler, Alexander [Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Dingemans, Theo [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Simbrunner, Clemens [Johannes Kepler University, Linz (Austria); University of Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Stangl, Julian [Johannes Kepler University, Linz (Austria); Salzmann, Ingo [Humboldt University, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-04-20

    The use of grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction to determine the crystal structure from thin films requires accurate positions of Bragg peaks. Refraction effects and multiple scattering events have to be corrected or minimized. Dynamical scattering effects are observed in grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction experiments using an organic thin film of 2,2′:6′,2′′-ternaphthalene grown on oxidized silicon as substrate. Here, a splitting of all Bragg peaks in the out-of-plane direction (z-direction) has been observed, the magnitude of which depends both on the incidence angle of the primary beam and the out-of-plane angle of the scattered beam. The incident angle was varied between 0.09° and 0.25° for synchrotron radiation of 10.5 keV. This study reveals comparable intensities of the split peaks with a maximum for incidence angles close to the critical angle of total external reflection of the substrate. This observation is rationalized by two different scattering pathways resulting in diffraction peaks at different positions at the detector. In order to minimize the splitting, the data suggest either using incident angles well below the critical angle of total reflection or angles well above, which sufficiently attenuates the contributions from the second scattering path. This study highlights that the refraction of X-rays in (organic) thin films has to be corrected accordingly to allow for the determination of peak positions with sufficient accuracy. Based thereon, a reliable determination of the lattice constants becomes feasible, which is required for crystallographic structure solutions from thin films.

  2. In situ X-ray diffraction study of crystallization process of GeSbTe thin films during heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Naohiko [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)]. E-mail: e0957@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Konomi, Ichiro [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Seno, Yoshiki [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2005-05-15

    The crystallization processes of the Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin film used for PD and DVD-RAM were studied in its realistic optical disk film configurations for the first time by X-ray diffraction using an intense X-ray beam of a synchrotron orbital radiation facility (SPring-8) and in situ quick detection with a Position-Sensitive-Proportional-Counter. The dependence of the amorphous-to-fcc phase-change temperature T{sub 1} on the rate of temperature elevation R{sub et} gave an activation energy E{sub a}: 0.93 eV much less than previously reported 2.2 eV obtained from a model sample 25-45 times thicker than in the real optical disks. The similar measurement on the Ge{sub 4}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 5} film whose large reflectance change attains the readability by CD-ROM drives gave E{sub a}: 1.13 eV with larger T{sub 1} than Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin films at any R{sub et} implying a lower sensitivity in erasing as well as a better data stability of the phase-change disk.

  3. X-ray magnetic spectroscopy of MBE-grown Mn-doped Bi2Se3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Collins-McIntyre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the growth of Mn-doped Bi2Se3 thin films by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE, investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, SQUID magnetometry and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD. Epitaxial films were deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates by co-evaporation. The films exhibit a spiral growth mechanism typical of this material class, as revealed by AFM. The XRD measurements demonstrate a good crystalline structure which is retained upon doping up to ∼7.5 atomic-% Mn, determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, and show no evidence of the formation of parasitic phases. However an increasing interstitial incorporation of Mn is observed with increasing doping concentration. A magnetic moment of 5.1 μB/Mn is obtained from bulk-sensitive SQUID measurements, and a much lower moment of 1.6 μB/Mn from surface-sensitive XMCD. At ∼2.5 K, XMCD at the Mn L2,3 edge, reveals short-range magnetic order in the films and indicates ferromagnetic order below 1.5 K.

  4. In situ X-ray diffraction study of crystallization process of GeSbTe thin films during heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Naohiko; Konomi, Ichiro; Seno, Yoshiki; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2005-01-01

    The crystallization processes of the Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 thin film used for PD and DVD-RAM were studied in its realistic optical disk film configurations for the first time by X-ray diffraction using an intense X-ray beam of a synchrotron orbital radiation facility (SPring-8) and in situ quick detection with a Position-Sensitive-Proportional-Counter. The dependence of the amorphous-to-fcc phase-change temperature T 1 on the rate of temperature elevation R et gave an activation energy E a : 0.93 eV much less than previously reported 2.2 eV obtained from a model sample 25-45 times thicker than in the real optical disks. The similar measurement on the Ge 4 Sb 1 Te 5 film whose large reflectance change attains the readability by CD-ROM drives gave E a : 1.13 eV with larger T 1 than Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 thin films at any R et implying a lower sensitivity in erasing as well as a better data stability of the phase-change disk

  5. Effect of basic fog of medical x-ray films on image quality and patient dose-method of evaluation and steps to control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohra, Reena; Nair, C.P.R.; Jayalakshmi, V.; Govindarajan, K.N.; Bhatt, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    Unacceptable basic fog of medical x-ray films has been reported recently from many hospitals. The paper presents the effect of basic fog on radiographic quality of films like sensitivity (speed), contrast and maximum density (DMax). Several batches of general- purpose medical x-ray films from five different manufacturers were studied to evaluate batch-to-batch variation in basic fog. Increase in basic fog with aging of films was also evaluated. Reasons for increased basic fog observed in the film processing facilities of a few hospitals were analysed. Factors responsible for increase in basic fog and the steps to control it have been discussed

  6. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer calibration and thin film investigations on germanium oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Deegan, Terri

    1998-01-01

    The first aim of this project was the characterisation of the VG Scientific Clam 100 based, XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). Spectrometer in the Physics department at Dublin City University Detailed energy scale and intensity scale calibrations were carried out using sputter-cleaned Au (Gold), Ag (Silver), Cu (Copper) and Pd (Palladium) foil samples. Analysis of these calibration spectra against standard reference spectra led to an accurate energy calibration and the production of indi...

  7. Evaluation of pediatrics entrance surface air kerma during chest X-ray examinations in some Khartoum hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Hassan Ishag Yahya

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the amount of entrance surface air kerma dose in air that can reflect the amount of the risk that the children, are subjected to. The parameters that are involved in this project are x-ray tube current (mA), exposure time (sec.), and focal skin distance (FSD) in cm. ESAK is calculated using the equation: ESAK=(Output (mGy/mAs) x (100/FSD) 2 X mAs) for different examination of different patients. 65 cases were involved in this study, the results show that the ESAK mean value (0.18±0.07) mGy, (0.06±0.07) mGy, (0.045±0.017) mGy and (0.049±0.013) mGy at the hospitals (IBNIOF Omdurman, police, clinic doctor) respectively. IBNIOF presented the highest ESAK (0.18±0.07) mGy, while it was lowest in police (0.045±0.017) mGy. The estimated ESAK value were within the established international reference dose values and also the values obtained in pervious studies however, variations were observed in ESAK values among hospitals under study which could be due to the differences in exposure parameters used. Also tube output has some effect on obtained ESAK. (author)

  8. Confocal Raman and PL, AFM, and X-ray diffraction studies of CdS:O thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinori, Suzuki; Kazuki, Wakita; YongGu, Shim; Nazim, Mamedov; Ayaz, Bayramov; Emil, Huseynov

    2010-01-01

    Full text : CdS has much attention as a window material of thin-film solar cells, for example a CdTe solar cell. In this case, increasing band gap of CdS films leads to rise of conversion efficiency of a solar cell. Recently, it was reported that CdS:O films deposited by rf magnetron sputtering consist of nano-crystals of CdS resulting in increasing the band gap. This work reports confocal Raman and photoluminescence (PL), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction studies of CdS:O films deposited by cathode sputtering for formation of nano-crystal of CdS. It was shown that AFM image of CdS:O films annealed at 300, 400 and 500 degrees Celsium. The height of peak and dip on the surface is in the range of 5 and 20 nm in the samples annealed at less than 400 degrees Celsium, while the clear crystalline shape appears in the sample annealed at 500 degrees Celsium. There is also shown X-ray diffraction pattern of CdS:O films. As grown film shows amorphous structure of CdS. On the other hand, the samples annealed at 400 and 500 degrees Celsium display obvious crystalline pattern. The crystal radius of the samples annealed at 300, 400, and 500 degrees Celsium were estimated to be 20, 27, and 37 nm, respectively, according to Scherrers formula. Other results related with the confocal spectroscopy will be also presented.

  9. Study of an X-ray fluorescence thin film method for the determination of uranium in low activity solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Guerra, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the X-ray fluorescence thin film technique to the uranium determination in nitric solutions for a concentration range from 1 g/l to 100 g/l and activity levels under 5 mCi/ml is studied. The most suited excitation and measurement conditions are also studied and the uranium matrix effect correction, which is performed through the double dilution, α U U interaction coefficient calculation and internal standard methods, is discussed. The specimen preparation is satisfactorily accomplished by using P.V.C. filters fixed on aluminium supports. (Author) 18 refs

  10. Thickness determination of thin solid films by angle-resolved X-ray fluorescence spectrometry using monochromatized synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, W.; Drotbohm, P.; Rothe, J.; Hormes, J.; Ottermann, C. R.; Bange, K.

    1995-05-01

    Thickness measurements by the method of angle-resolved, self-ratio X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (AR/SR/XFS) have been carried out on thin solid films using monochromatized synchrotron radiation at the Bonn storage ring ELSA. Synchrotron radiation was monochromatized by means of a double-crystal monochromator and fluorescence radiation was detected by a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The results for sample systems consisting of Au on Si, Cr on SiO2 and TiO2 on alkali-free glass are very satisfactory and agree well with results obtained by other methods.

  11. Effect of surface roughness on takeoff-angle-dependent X-ray fluorescence of ultrathin films at glancing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Hirokawa, Kichinosuke; Sasaki, Atsushi.

    1994-01-01

    We had previously shown that takeoff-angle-dependent X-ray fluorescence (TAD-XRF) at glancing incidence is a useful method for the characterization of thin films. Here we report the effect of surface roughness of the substrate on TAD-XRF of an ultrathin film at a glancing incidence. An optically flat glass, scratched glasses and plano-convex lenses were used as substrates. A large-range contour such as warp and a roughness of microscopic scale affect the TAD-XRF profile. Therefore, to characterize the ultrathin film by the TAD-XRF method, the material whose roughness is being investigated should be used as the substrate in TAD-XRF measurement. (author)

  12. Is there light at the end of the tunnel; symptoms and chest x-ray help identify patients at high risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toori, K.U.; Nomani, A.Z.; Winson, M.; Rehman, M.U.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Late recognition of lung cancer is the major factor contributing towards its unsuccessful treatment. We conducted a prospective study to define any significant relationship of presenting symptoms with the diagnosis of lung cancer with a view to develop a model to identify those at high risk. Methods: A consecutive series of 587 patients referred to our rapid access chest clinic with the suspicion of lung cancer were included. The presenting symptoms, chest x-ray findings and final diagnosis of all the patients were recorded. Chi-square and t-test were used for univariate analysis. A model was generated from logistic regression analysis and the discriminatory power of the model was assessed using area under receiver operator characteristic curve. Results: Univariate analysis demonstrated that smoking, anorexia, weight loss and voice change were significantly more common in patients with lung cancer (p<0.05). Cough, expectoration and hemoptysis were significantly less common (p<0.05). Regression analysis qualified age, weight loss and smoking as significant predictors of lung cancer. Conclusion: Only few of the historically accepted symptoms demonstrated a strong association with lung cancer and the model developed on these can form basis for a scoring tool that can perhaps help identify those at higher risk of cancer. Further refinement of the tool is required to accommodate cases presenting at primary care level. (author)

  13. Do preliminary chest X-ray findings define the optimum role of pulmonary scintigraphy in suspected pulmonary embolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, Kirsten P.N.; Reid, John H.; Murchison, John T.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if preliminary chest radiograph (CXR) findings can define the optimum role of lung scintigraphy in subjects investigated for pulmonary embolism (PE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CXR and scintigraphy findings from 613 consecutive subjects investigated for suspected PE were retrieved from a radiological database. Of 393 patients with abnormal CXRs, a subgroup of 238 was examined and individual radiographic abnormalities were characterized. CXR findings were related to the scintigraphy result. RESULTS: Scintigraphy was normal in 286 subjects (47%), non-diagnostic in 207 (34%) and high probability for PE in 120 (20%). In 393 subjects (64%) the preliminary CXR was abnormal and 188 (48%) of scintigrams in this group were non-diagnostic. Individual radiographic abnormalities were not associated with significantly different scintigraphic outcomes. If the preliminary CXR was normal (36%), the proportion of non-diagnostic scintigrams decreased to 9% (19 of 220 subjects) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In subjects investigated for PE, an abnormal CXR increases the prevalence of non-diagnostic scintigrams. A normal pre-test CXR is more often associated with a definitive (normal or high probability) scintigram result. The chest radiograph may be useful in deciding the optimum sequence of investigations. Forbes, K.P.N., Reid, J.H., Murchison, J.T. (2001)

  14. Dose and energy dependence of response of Gafchromic XR-QA film for kilovoltage x-ray beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampado, O; Garelli, E; Deagostini, S; Ropolo, R

    2006-06-07

    There is a growing interest in Gafchromic films for patient dosimetry in radiotherapy and in radiology. A new model (XR-QA) with high sensitivity to low dose was tested in this study. The response of the film to different x-ray beam energies (range 28-145 kVp with various filtrations, dose range 0-100 mGy) and to visible light was investigated, together with the after exposure darkening properties. Exposed films were digitized with a commercially available, optical flatbed scanner. A single functional form for dose versus net pixel value variation has been determined for all the obtained calibration curves, with a unique fit parameter different for each of the used x-ray beams. The film response was dependent on beam energy, with higher colour variations for the beams in the range 80-140 kVp. Different sources of uncertainties in dose measurements, governed by the digitalization process, the film response uniformity and the calibration curve fit procedure, have been considered. The overall one-sigma dose measurement uncertainty depended on the beam energy and decreased with increasing absorbed dose. For doses above 10 mGy and beam energies in the range 80-140 kVp the total uncertainty was less than 5%, whereas for the 28 kVp beam the total uncertainty at 10 mGy was about 10%. The post-exposure colour variation was not negligible in the first 24 h after the exposure, with a consequent increase in the calculated dose of about 10%. Results of the analysis of the sensitivity to visible light indicated that a short exposure of this film to ambient and scanner light during the measurements will not have a significant impact on the radiation dosimetry.

  15. Dose and energy dependence of response of Gafchromic (registered) XR-QA film for kilovoltage x-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampado, O; Garelli, E; Deagostini, S; Ropolo, R [Struttura Complessa fisica Sanitaria, Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Battista, Corso Bramante 88, 10126 Turin (Italy)

    2006-06-07

    There is a growing interest in Gafchromic (registered) films for patient dosimetry in radiotherapy and in radiology. A new model (XR-QA) with high sensitivity to low dose was tested in this study. The response of the film to different x-ray beam energies (range 28-145 kVp with various filtrations, dose range 0-100 mGy) and to visible light was investigated, together with the after exposure darkening properties. Exposed films were digitized with a commercially available, optical flatbed scanner. A single functional form for dose versus net pixel value variation has been determined for all the obtained calibration curves, with a unique fit parameter different for each of the used x-ray beams. The film response was dependent on beam energy, with higher colour variations for the beams in the range 80-140 kVp. Different sources of uncertainties in dose measurements, governed by the digitalization process, the film response uniformity and the calibration curve fit procedure, have been considered. The overall one-sigma dose measurement uncertainty depended on the beam energy and decreased with increasing absorbed dose. For doses above 10 mGy and beam energies in the range 80-140 kVp the total uncertainty was less than 5%, whereas for the 28 kVp beam the total uncertainty at 10 mGy was about 10%. The post-exposure colour variation was not negligible in the first 24 h after the exposure, with a consequent increase in the calculated dose of about 10%. Results of the analysis of the sensitivity to visible light indicated that a short exposure of this film to ambient and scanner light during the measurements will not have a significant impact on the radiation dosimetry.

  16. Induction of strand breaks in DNA films by low energy electrons and soft X-ray under nitrous oxide atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Elahe, E-mail: Elahe.Alizadeh@USherbrooke.ca [Groupe en science des radiations, Departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie, Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, J1H 5N4 (Canada); Sanche, Leon, E-mail: Leon.Sanche@USherbrooke.ca [Groupe en science des radiations, Departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie, Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, J1H 5N4 (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    Five-monolayer (5 ML) plasmid DNA films deposited on glass and tantalum substrates were exposed to Al K{sub {alpha}} X-rays of 1.5 keV under gaseous nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) at atmospheric pressure and temperature. Whereas the damage yields for DNA deposited on glass are due to soft X-rays, those arising from DNA on tantalum are due to both the interaction of low energy photoelectrons from the metal and X-rays. Then, the differences in the yields of damage on glass and tantalum substrates, essentially arises from interaction of essentially low-energy electrons (LEEs) with DNA molecules and the surrounding atmosphere. The G-values (i.e., the number of moles of product per Joule of energy absorbed) for DNA strand breaks induced by LEEs (G{sub LEE}) and the lower limit of G-values for soft X-ray photons (G{sub XL}) were calculated and the results compared to those from previous studies under atmospheric conditions and other ambient gases, such as N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. Under N{sub 2}O, the G-values for loss of supercoiled DNA are 103{+-}15 nmol/J for X-rays, and 737{+-}110 nmol/J for LEEs. Compared to corresponding values in an O{sub 2} atmosphere, the effectiveness of X-rays to damage DNA in N{sub 2}O is less, but the G value for LEEs in N{sub 2}O is more than twice the corresponding value for an oxygenated environment. This result indicates a higher effectiveness for LEEs relative to N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} environments in causing SSB and DSB in an N{sub 2}O environment. Thus, the previously observed radiosensitization of cells by N{sub 2}O may not be only due to OH{sup {center_dot}} radicals but also to the reaction of LEE with N{sub 2}O molecules near DNA. The previous experiments with N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} and the present one demonstrate the possibility to investigate damage induced by LEEs to biomolecules under various types of surrounding atmospheres. - Highlights: > A completely different and new approach is applied to investigate the radiation chemistry of N

  17. ESR and X-ray diffraction studies on thin films of poly-3-hexylthiophene: Molecular orientation and magnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Keisuke; Kojima, Takashi; Fukuda, Hisashi; Yashiro, Hisashi; Matsuura, Toshihiko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2008-01-01

    Poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron spin resonance (ESR) to reveal the film structure and molecular organization. The XRD data showed a diffraction pattern with a plane separation between the planes containing thiophene rings of 16.0 A. Comparison between the XRD patterns of powder and thin films of P3HT suggests that the main chains are folded on the substrate. Angular variation of the line position (g-value) of ESR spectra revealed that thiophene ring of P3HT orients along the substrate normal axis. The ESR linewidth varied by the angular rotation, indicating the one-dimensional spin-chain interactions in the P3HT thin films with a linear network of spin-chains. An organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) with P3HT film as a channel layer was then demonstrated. The P3HT films showed conducting characteristics with holes as carriers. The OTFTs indicated a field-effect mobility of 4.93 x 10 -3 cm 2 /Vs and an on/off ratio of 73 in the accumulation mode

  18. Examination of the X-ray piping diagnostic system using EGS4 (examination of the film and iron rust)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiwara, G.

    2000-01-01

    In the X-ray piping diagnosis system, X-ray photograph is taken of the used pipes, and from the density of the image of the pipe on the film, the thickness of the pipe wall is measured using the relationship between the density and the thickness. First, as for the relationship between the absorbed energy and the density on the film, though good agreement was obtained last year, it is improved further by making energy bin smaller in the calculation of EGS4. The reason of the agreement was researched and understood. Next, using EGS4, the calculation of the thickness of the steel was carried out which was covered with the rust, using the element analysis result of the rust sample that was collected in the old pipe. When the thickness changes, the rate of the energy absorption of the steel and the rust layer changes. This relationship between the energy absorption and the thickness of the layers is expressed approximately in a formula. It will be reflected on the diagnosis of the pipes. (author)

  19. Feasibility of X-ray analysis of multi-layer thin films at a single beam voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statham, P J

    2010-01-01

    Multi-layer analysis using electron beam excitation and X-ray spectrometry is a powerful tool for characterising layers down to 1 nm thickness and with typically 1 μm lateral resolution but does not always work. Most published applications have used WDS with many measurements at different beam voltages and considerable experience has been needed to choose lines and voltages particularly for complex multi-layer problems. A new objective mathematical approach is described which demonstrates whether X-ray analysis can obtain reliable results for an arbitrary multi-layer problem. A new algorithm embodied in 'ThinFilmID' software produces a single plot that shows feasibility of achieving results with a single EDS spectrum and suggests the optimal beam voltage. Synthesis of EDS spectra allows the precision in results to be estimated and acquisition conditions modified before wasting valuable instrument time. Thus, practicality of multi-layer thin film analysis at a single beam voltage can now be established without the extensive experimentation that was previously required by a microanalysis expert. Examples are shown where the algorithm discovers viable single-voltage conditions for applications that experts previously thought could only be addressed using measurements at more than one beam voltage.

  20. Point defects in lithium fluoride films for micro-radiography, X-ray microscopy and photonic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfigli, F.; Flora, F.; Marolo, T.; Montereali, R.M.; Baldacchini, G. [ENEA, UTS Tecnologie Fisiche Avanzate, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI Mendeleevo, Moscow region, 141570 (Russian Federation); Nichelatti, E. [ENEA, UTS Tecnologie Fisiche Avanzate, C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese, 301, 00060 Santa Maria di Galeria (Rome) (Italy); Reale, L. [Universita dell' Aquila e INFN, Dip. di Fisica, Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2005-01-01

    Point defects in lithium fluoride (LiF) have recently attracted renewed attention due the exciting results obtained in the realisation of miniaturised optical devices. Among light-emitting materials, LiF is of particular interest because it is almost not hygroscopic and can host, even at room temperature, stable color centers (CCs) that emit light in the visible and in the near infrared spectral range under optical excitation. The increasing demand for low-dimensionality photonic devices imposes the use of advanced irradiation methods for producing luminescent structures with high spatial resolution. An innovative irradiation technique to produce luminescent CCs in LiF crystals and films by using an extreme ultra-violet and soft X-ray laser-plasma source will be presented. This technique is capable to induce colored patterns with submicrometric spatial resolution on large areas in a short exposure time as compared with other irradiation methods. Luminescent regular arrays produced by this irradiation technique will be shown. Recently, the idea of using a LiF film as image detector for X-ray microscopy and micro-radiography based on optically-stimulated luminescence from CCs has been developed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Determination of wafer bonding mechanisms for plasma activated SiN films with x-ray reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, S [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Sandhu, R [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wojtowicz, M [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Sun, Y [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Hicks, R [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Goorsky, M S [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2005-05-21

    Specular and diffuse x-ray reflectivity measurements were employed for wafer bonding studies of surface and interfacial reactions in {approx}800 A thick SiN films deposited on III-V substrates. CuK{sub {alpha}}{sub 1} radiation was employed for these measurements. The as-deposited films show very low surface roughness and uniform, high density SiN. Reflectivity measurements show that an oxygen plasma treatment converts the nitride surface to a somewhat porous SiO{sub x} layer (67 A thick, at 80% of SiO{sub 2} density), with confirmation of the oxide formation from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Reactions at the bonded interface of two oxygen plasma treated SiN layers were examined using a bonded structure from which one of the III-V wafers is removed. Reflectivity measurements of bonded structures annealed at 150 deg. C and 300 deg. C show an increase in the SiO{sub x} layer density and thickness and even a density gradient across this interface. The increase in density is correlated with an increase in bond strength, where after the 300 deg. C anneal, a high interfacial bond strength, exceeding the bulk strength, was achieved.

  2. On revealing the vertical structure of nanoparticle films with elemental resolution: A total external reflection X-ray standing waves study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zargham, Ardalan, E-mail: zargham@ifp.uni-bremen.d [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Schmidt, Thomas; Flege, Jan Ingo; Sauerbrey, Marc; Hildebrand, Radowan [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Roehe, Sarah; Baeumer, Marcus [Applied and Physical Chemistry, University of Bremen, Leobener Str. 2, 28359, Bremen (Germany); Falta, Jens [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    We present a promising combination of methods to precisely determine the morphology of nanostructures, drawing on the example of monodisperse CoPt{sub 3} nanoparticle films deposited by spin coating and dip coating techniques on functionalized Au substrates. Ex-situ X-ray standing waves in total external reflection combined with X-ray reflectivity measurements were employed to determine element-specific atomic-density distributions in vertical direction.

  3. X-ray exposures given with various combinations of film and screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.; Kirsh, I.E.

    A comparison of entrance exposure doses of patients for various film and screen combinations and xeroradiographs showed that moderate speed screen and film gave exposures 4 to 7 times greater than fast film and screen and that xeroradiographs produced exposures 20 to 40 times greater than fast film and screen. Xeroradiographs produced table top incident exposures which exceeded Illinois Department of Health limits, while conventional film-screen combinations did not. (U.S.)

  4. Observation of superheavy primary cosmic ray nuclei with solid state track detectors and x-ray films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, Tadayoshi; Hayashi, Takayoshi; Ito, Kensai; Yanagimachi, Tomoki; Kobayashi, Shigeru.

    1977-01-01

    The measurements of energy spectra and the nuclear charge distribution of superheavy nuclei heavier than iron in primary cosmic ray can provide information on the origin, propagation and life time of the cosmic ray. Since incident particles are in the region of relativistic velocity (the low energy cosmic ray below the cutoff energy is forbidden from entering), the charges of cosmic ray nuclei can be determined without knowing the energy of particles. The balloon-borne solid state track detector and plastic and X-ray films were employed for the detection of superheavy cosmic ray, and the five events were detected with the cellulose nitrate film. The flux of superheavy nuclei is predicted from the present analysis. (Yoshimori, M.)

  5. X-ray spectroscopy study of electronic structure of laser-irradiated Au nanoparticles in a silica film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonnard, P.; Bercegol, H.; Lamaignere, L.; Morreeuw, J.-P.; Rullier, J.-L.; Cottancin, E.; Pellarin, M.

    2005-01-01

    The electronic structure of gold nanoparticles embedded in a silica film is studied, both before and after irradiation at 355 nm by a laser. The Au 5d occupied valence states are observed by x-ray emission spectroscopy. They show that before irradiation the gold atoms are in metallic states within the nanoparticles. After irradiation with a fluence of 0.5 J/cm 2 , it is found that gold valence states are close to those of a metal-poor gold silicide; thanks to a comparison of the experimental Au 5d states with the calculated ones for gold silicides using the density-functional theory. The formation of such a compound is driven by the diffusion of the gold atoms into the silica film upon the laser irradiation. At higher fluence, 1 J/cm 2 , we find a higher percentage of metallic gold that could be attributed to annealing in the silica matrix

  6. Heterogeneous local order in self-assembled nanoparticle films revealed by X-ray cross-correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Lehmkühler

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on the self-assembly of gold nanoparticles coated with a soft poly(ethylene glycol shell studied by X-ray cross-correlation analysis. Depending on the initial concentration of gold nanoparticles used, structurally heterogeneous films were formed. The films feature hot spots of dominating four- and sixfold local order with patch sizes of a few micrometres, containing 104–105 particles. The amplitude of the order parameters suggested that a minimum sample amount was necessary to form well ordered local structures. Furthermore, the increasing variation in order parameters with sample thickness demonstrated a high degree of structural heterogeneity. This wealth of information cannot be obtained by the conventional microscopy techniques that are commonly used to study nanocrystal superstructures, as illustrated by complementary scanning electron microscopy measurements.

  7. Laser-induced surface recrystallization of polycrystalline PbI2 thick films for X-ray detector application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Zhao, Beijun; Zhu, Xinghua; Zhu, Shifu; Yang, Dingyu; Wangyang, Peihua; Gao, Xiuyin

    2018-01-01

    In this work, laser-induced surface recrystallization process was developed to improve the surface properties and device performance of the polycrystalline PbI2 thick films prepared by using close space vapor deposition method. A continuous polycrystalline PbI2 recrystallized layer with a better mechanical strength and reflectivity improved from 2% to 4%-6% was obtained by this recrystallization process for the films with mechanical pretreatment. Other polytypes is absent in the recrystallized layer with the 2H-polytype remaining before and after treatment and obtaining improved electrical and X-ray photoelectric response performance. The pretreatment such as mechanical cutting/polishing and hydrogenation is necessary to lower the non-wetting crystallization behavior during the recrystallization process due to the rough surface state and oxygen contamination.

  8. Sulfur X-ray absorption fine structure in porous Li–S cathode films measured under argon atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Matthias; Choudhury, Soumyadip; Gruber, Katharina; Cruz, Valene B.; Fuchsbichler, Bernd; Jacob, Timo; Koller, Stefan; Stamm, Manfred; Ionov, Leonid; Beckhoff, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the first results for the characterization of highly porous cathode materials with pore sizes below 1 μm for Lithium Sulfur (Li–S) batteries by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. A novel cathode material of porous carbon films fabricated with colloidal array templates has been investigated. In addition, an electrochemical characterization has been performed aiming on an improved correlation of physical and chemical parameters with the electrochemical performance. The performed NEXAFS measurements of cathode materials allowed for a chemical speciation of the sulfur content inside the cathode material. The aim of the presented investigation was to evaluate the potential of the NEXAFS technique to characterize sulfur in novel battery material. The long term goal for the characterization of the battery materials is the sensitive identification of undesired side reactions, such as the polysulfide shuttle, which takes place during charging and discharging of the battery. The main drawback associated with the investigation of these materials is the fact that NEXAFS measurements can usually only be performed ex situ due to the limited in situ instrumentation being available. For Li–S batteries this problem is more pronounced because of the low photon energies needed to study the sulfur K absorption edge at 2472 eV. We employed 1 μm thick Si 3 N 4 windows to construct sealed argon cells for NEXAFS measurements under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions as a first step towards in situ measurements. The cells keep the sample under argon atmosphere at any time and the X-ray beam passes mainly through vacuum which enables the detection of the low energy X-ray emission of sulfur. Using these argon cells we found indications for the presence of lithium polysulfides in the cathode films whereas the correlations to the offline electrochemical results remain somewhat ambiguous. As a consequence of these findings one may

  9. Thickness measurement of SiO2 films thinner than 1 nm by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joong Kim, Kyung; Park, Ki Tae; Lee, Jong Wan

    2006-01-01

    The thickness measurement of ultra-thin SiO 2 films thinner than 1 nm was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Amorphous SiO 2 thin films were grown on amorphous Si films to avoid the thickness difference due to the crystalline structure of a substrate. SiO 2 thin films were grown by ion beam sputter deposition under oxygen gas flow and the thickness was measured by in situ XPS. The attenuation length was determined experimentally by a SiO 2 film with a known thickness. The straight line fit between the measured thickness using XPS and the nominal thickness showed a good linear relation with a gradient of 0.969 and a small offset of 0.126 nm. The gradient measured at the range of 3.4-0.28 nm was very close to that measured at sub-nanometer range of 1.13-0.28 nm. This result means that the reliable measurement of SiO 2 film thickness below 1 nm is possible by XPS

  10. Thickness measurement of a thin hetero-oxide film with an interfacial oxide layer by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Joong; Lee, Seung Mi; Jang, Jong Shik; Moret, Mona

    2012-02-01

    The general equation Tove = L cos θ ln(Rexp/R0 + 1) for the thickness measurement of thin oxide films by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was applied to a HfO2/SiO2/Si(1 0 0) as a thin hetero-oxide film system with an interfacial oxide layer. The contribution of the thick interfacial SiO2 layer to the thickness of the HfO2 overlayer was counterbalanced by multiplying the ratio between the intensity of Si4+ from a thick SiO2 film and that of Si0 from a Si(1 0 0) substrate to the intensity of Si4+ from the HfO2/SiO2/Si(1 0 0) film. With this approximation, the thickness levels of the HfO2 overlayers showed a small standard deviation of 0.03 nm in a series of HfO2 (2 nm)/SiO2 (2-6 nm)/Si(1 0 0) films. Mutual calibration with XPS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to verify the thickness of HfO2 overlayers in a series of HfO2 (1-4 nm)/SiO2 (3 nm)/Si(1 0 0) films. From the linear relation between the thickness values derived from XPS and TEM, the effective attenuation length of the photoelectrons and the thickness of the HfO2 overlayer could be determined.

  11. Structural study of thin films prepared from tungstate glass matrix by Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, Bianca; Barbosa, Anne J.; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.; Messaddeq, Younes [Departamento de Quimica Geral e Inorganica, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, CP 355, CEP 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Poirier, Gael [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, UNIFAL-MG, CEP 37130-000 Alfenas, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: gael@unifal-mg.edu.br; Li, Maximo S. [Instituto de Fisica, USP, CP 369, CEP 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2008-06-30

    Thin films were prepared using glass precursors obtained in the ternary system NaPO{sub 3}-BaF{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} and the binary system NaPO{sub 3}-WO{sub 3} with high concentrations of WO{sub 3} (above 40% molar). Vitreous samples have been used as a target to prepare thin films. Such films were deposited using the electron beam evaporation method onto soda-lime glass substrates. Several structural characterizations were performed by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) at the tungsten L{sub I} and L{sub III} absorption edges. XANES investigations showed that tungsten atoms are only sixfold coordinated (octahedral WO{sub 6}) and that these films are free of tungstate tetrahedral units (WO{sub 4}). In addition, Raman spectroscopy allowed identifying a break in the linear phosphate chains as the amount of WO{sub 3} increases and the formation of P-O-W bonds in the films network indicating the intermediary behavior of WO{sub 6} octahedra in the film network. Based on XANES data, we suggested a new attribution of several Raman absorption bands which allowed identifying the presence of W-O{sup -} and W=O terminal bonds and a progressive apparition of W-O-W bridging bonds for the most WO{sub 3} concentrated samples (above 40% molar) attributed to the formation of WO{sub 6} clusters.

  12. Use of alpha-particle excited x-rays to measure the thickness of thin films containing low-Z elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanser, F.A.; Sellers, B.; Ziegler, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    The thickness of thin surface films containing low Z elements can be determined by measuring the K X-ray yields from alpha particle excitation. The samples are irradiated in a helium atmosphere by a 5 mCi polonium-210 source, and the low energy X-rays detected by a flow counter with a thin-stretched polypropylene window. The flow counter output is pulse height sorted by a single channel analyzer (SCA) and counted to give the X-ray yield. Best results have been obtained with Z = 6 to 9 (C, N, O, and F), but usable yields are obtained even for Z = 13 or 14 (Al and Si). The low energy of the X-rays (0.28 to 1.74 keV) limits the method to films of several hundred nm thickness or less and to situations where the substrate does not produce interfering X-rays. It is possible to determine the film thickness with 50 percent accuracy by direct calculation using the measured alpha-particle spectrum and known or calculated K X-ray excitation cross sections. By calibration with known standards the accuracy can be increased substantially. The system has thus far been applied to SiO 2 on Si, Al 2 O 3 on Al, and CH 2 on Al

  13. Assessment of PCXMC for patients with different body size in chest and abdominal x ray examinations: a Monte Carlo simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, David; Lowe, Erin M.; Kitahara, Cari M.; Lee, Choonsik

    2018-03-01

    A PC Program for x ray Monte Carlo (PCXMC) has been used to calculate organ doses in patient dosimetry and for the exposure assessment in epidemiological studies of radiogenic health related risks. This study compared the dosimetry from using the built-in stylized phantoms in the PCXMC to that of a newer hybrid phantom library with improved anatomical realism. We simulated chest and abdominal x ray projections for 146 unique body size computational phantoms, 77 males and 69 females, with different combinations of height (125–180 cm) and weight (20–140 kg) using the built-in stylized phantoms in the PCXMC version 2.0.1.4 and the hybrid phantom library using the Monte Carlo N-particle eXtended transport code 2.7 (MCNPX). Unfortunately, it was not possible to incorporate the hybrid phantom library into the PCXMC. We compared 14 organ doses, including dose to the active bone marrow, to evaluate differences between the built-in stylized phantoms in the PCXMC and the hybrid phantoms (Cristy and Eckerman 1987 Technical Report ORNL/TM-8381/V1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Eckerman and Ryman 1993 Technical Report 12 Oak Ridge, TN, Geyer et al 2014 Phys. Med. Biol. 59 5225–42). On average, organ doses calculated using the built-in stylized phantoms in the PCXMC were greater when compared to the hybrid phantoms. This is most prominent in AP abdominal exams by an average factor of 2.4-, 2.8-, and 2.8-fold for the 10-year-old, 15-year-old, and adult phantoms, respectively. For chest exams, organ doses are greater by an average factor of 1.1-, 1.4-, and 1.2-fold for the 10-year-old, 15-year-old, and adult phantoms, respectively. The PCXMX, due to its ease of use, is often selected to support dosimetry in epidemiological studies; however, it uses simplified models of the human anatomy that fail to account for variations in body morphometry for increasing weight. For epidemiological studies that use PCXMC dosimetry, associations between radiation-related disease risks

  14. X-ray diffraction stress analysis of interrupted titanium nitride films: Combining the sin2ψ and crystallite group methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkovits, Theo; Zhao, Yue; O'Brien, Rebecca; Dowey, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Interruptions during film growth have been discussed by researchers to assist in understanding the evolution of stress in physical vapour deposition films. A change in intrinsic stress is directly related to microstructure, hence careful analysis of stress in films can provide valuable structure–stress correlated information. In this study we discuss the use of combining two X-ray diffraction (XRD) stress analysis methods to elucidate the effect of interruptions during growth on the residual stress of TiN films. The sin 2 ψ and crystallite group method (CGM), scanning the (220) peaks from all grains in the film and only (111) oriented crystallites respectively, were used to analyse residual stress in standard and interrupted cathodic arc TiN films 1.5, 3.5 and 6.5 μm thick, grown on high-speed steel substrates. The sin 2 ψ method does not reveal any changes in stress with interruptions, however, measurements using the CGM show increased compressive stress and increased a 0 in the resultant TiN films. A comparison of results from both XRD methods indicates that an increased compressive stress from interruptions could be due to an increased number of defects in (111) oriented grains during the interruptions which would also affect a 0 as evident. In both methods, compressive stresses are found to decrease with increased thickness of films. - Highlights: • Interrupting TiN film growth increases compressive stress in (111) grains. • Increased stress is believed to be caused by defects incorporated into or not annealed out of (111) grains. • A comparison of sin 2 ψ and CGM results reveals differences in stress. • Compressive stress decreases as TiN films increase in thickness from 1.5 μm to 6.5 μm

  15. Application of in-plane x-ray diffraction technique for residual stress measurement of TiN film/WC-Co alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takago, Shigeki; Yasui, Haruyuki; Awazu, Kaoru; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Hirose, Yukio; Sakurai, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    An in-plane X-ray diffraction technique was used to measure the residual stress of a CVD (chemical vapor deposition) TiN-coated WC-Co alloy. We could obtain the diffraction pattern from a thin film layer, eliminating that of the substrate. In the case of a conventional X-ray diffractometer, the X-ray penetration depth is about few μm. However, for a grazing incidence beam it is only 0.2μm. Depth profiles of residual stress in TiN film layer were evaluated by the present method and the conventional sin 2 ψ technique. We concluded that the in-plane diffraction technique enables us to determine the residual stress in a DVD-TiN film having an oriented texture. It was found that the residual tensile stress generated a mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the film and the substrate. (author)

  16. Application of in-plane x-ray diffraction technique for residual stress measurement of TiN film/WC-Co alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takago, Shigeki; Yasui, Haruyuki; Awazu, Kaoru [Industrial Research Inst. of Ishikawa, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Sasaki, Toshihiko; Hirose, Yukio [Kanazawa Univ., Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Sakurai, Kenji [National Inst. for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    An in-plane X-ray diffraction technique was used to measure the residual stress of a CVD (chemical vapor deposition) TiN-coated WC-Co alloy. We could obtain the diffraction pattern from a thin film layer, eliminating that of the substrate. In the case of a conventional X-ray diffractometer, the X-ray penetration depth is about few {mu}m. However, for a grazing incidence beam it is only 0.2{mu}m. Depth profiles of residual stress in TiN film layer were evaluated by the present method and the conventional sin{sup 2}{psi} technique. We concluded that the in-plane diffraction technique enables us to determine the residual stress in a DVD-TiN film having an oriented texture. It was found that the residual tensile stress generated a mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the film and the substrate. (author)

  17. An audit of rejected repeated x-ray films as a quality assurance element in a radiology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, K C; Omodia, N; Okegbunam, B; Adewonyi, T; Nzotta, C C

    2008-12-01

    To find out the causes, number, percentage and sizes of rejected radiographic films with a view of adopting measures that will reduce the rate and number of rejected films. Radiology Department of a University Teaching Hospital. Over a two-year period (1st April 2002 to 31st March 2004), the total number of x-ray films utilized for radiographic examinations, rejected films and sizes of rejected films were collected retrospectively from the medical record of radiology department. All the rejected films were viewed by a radiologist and three radiographers for the causes of the rejects which was arrived at by consensus. The data was analysed. A total of 15,095 films were used in the study period and 1,338 films (8.86%) were rejected or wasted. The rate of rejected films varied from 7.69% to 13.82% with average of 8.86%. The greatest cause of film rejects was radiographers' faults 547 (40.88%), followed by equipments faults 255 (19.06%), and patients' faults 250 (18.90%). The highest reject rate (13.82%) was for films used for examination of the spine (15 x 30) cm size. This is followed by 9.92% for skull (18 x 24) cm films and 8.83% for small sized films (24 x 30) cm used for paediatric patients. Of a total of 1,338 rejected films, 1276 (95.37%) additional exposure were done to obtain the basic desired diagnostic information involving 1151 patients; 885 (76.89%) of these patients needed at least one additional hospital visit to take the repeat exposure. Rejected films are not billable; patients receive additional radiation and may even come to hospital in another day for the repeat. Radiographer's work is increased as well as that of the support staff. The waiting room may be congested and waiting time increased. The cost of processing chemical and films are increased, thus if work is quantified in monetary terms, the cost of repeats is high. Rejected-repeated film analysis is cheap, simple, practicable, easy to interpret and an effective indictor of quality assurance

  18. Correcting and coating thin walled X-ray Optics via a combination of controlled film deposition and magnetic smart materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Melville

    The project goal is to demonstrate that thin walled (price. Since the desired surface area for the next generation X-ray telescope is >10x that of Chandra, the >10x requirement is then for >200 m^2 of surface area with a surface finish of better than 0.5 nm. Therefore, replication of some sort is called for. Because no replication technology has been shown to achieve ≤1" angular resolution, post fabrication figure corrections are likely going to be necessary. Some have proposed to do this in orbit and others prelaunch including us. Our prelaunch approach is to apply in-plane stresses to the thin walled mirror shells via a magnetic field. The field will be held in by some magnetically hard material such as NiCo. By use of a so called magnetic smart material (MSM) such as Terfenol-D, we already shown that strong enough stresses can be generated. Preliminary work has also shown that the magnetic field can be held in well enough to apply the figure correcting stresses pre-launch. What we call "set-it and forget-it." However, what is unique about our approach is that at the cost of complexity and some areal coverage, our concept will also accommodate in-orbit adjustments. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge ours is one of two known stress modification processes that are bi-axial. Our plan is first to validate set-it and forget-it first on cantilevers and then to expand this to working on 5 cm x 5 cm pieces. We will work both with NiCo and glass or Si coated with Terfenol-D. Except for the NiCo, substrates we will also coat the samples with NiCo in order to have a film that will hold in the magnetic field. As part of the coating process, we will control the stress of the film by varying the voltage bias while coating. The bias stress control can be used to apply films with minimal stress such as Terfenol-D and X-ray reflecting coatings such as Ir. Ir is a highly desirable coating for soft X-ray astronomy mirrors that can have significant built in stress unless

  19. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of bulk and thin films of Heusler compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozina, Xeniya

    2012-03-26

    X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) is one of the most universal and powerful tools for investigation of chemical states and electronic structures of materials. The application of hard X-rays increases the inelastic mean free path of the emitted electrons within the solid and thus makes hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) a bulk sensitive probe for solid state research and especially a very effective nondestructive technique to study buried layers. This thesis focuses on the investigation of multilayer structures, used in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), by a number of techniques applying HAXPES. MTJs are the most important components of novel nanoscale devices employed in spintronics. The investigation and deep understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the high performance of such devices and properties of employed magnetic materials that are, in turn, defined by their electronic structure becomes feasible applying HAXPES. Thus the process of B diffusion in CoFeB-based MTJs was investigated with respect to the annealing temperature and its influence on the changes in the electronic structure of CoFeB electrodes that clarify the behaviour and huge TMR ratio values obtained in such devices. These results are presented in chapter 6. The results of investigation of the changes in the valence states of buried off-stoichiometric Co{sub 2}MnSi electrodes were investigated with respect to the Mn content {alpha} and its influence on the observed TMR ratio are described in chapter 7. Magnetoelectronic properties such as exchange splitting in ferromagnetic materials as well as the macroscopic magnetic ordering can be studied by magnetic circular dichroism in photoemission (MCDAD). It is characterized by the appearance of an asymmetry in the photoemission spectra taken either from the magnetized sample with the reversal of the photon helicity or by reversal of magnetization direction of the sample when the photon helicity direction is fixed. Though

  20. Study of surface cleaning methods and pyrolysis temperatures on nanostructured carbon films using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerber, Pranita; Porter, Lisa M.; McCullough, Lynne A.; Kowalewski, Tomasz; Engelhard, Mark; Baer, Donald [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Chemistry Department, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Nanostructured carbon (ns-C) films fabricated by stabilization and pyrolysis of diblock copolymers are of interest for a variety of electrical/electronic applications due to their chemical inertness, high-temperature insensitivity, very high surface area, and tunable electrical resistivity over a wide range [Kulkarni et al., Synth. Met. 159, 177 (2009)]. Because of their high porosity and associated high specific surface area, controlled surface cleaning studies are important for fabricating electronic devices from these films. In this study, quantification of surface composition and surface cleaning studies on ns-C films synthesized by carbonization of diblock copolymers of polyacrylonitrile-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) at two different temperatures were carried out. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used for elemental analysis and to determine the efficacy of various surface cleaning methods for ns-C films and to examine the polymer residues in the films. The in-situ surface cleaning methods included HF vapor treatment, vacuum annealing, and exposure to UV-ozone. Quantitative analysis of high-resolution XPS scans showed 11 at. % nitrogen was present in the films pyrolyzed at 600 Degree-Sign C, suggesting incomplete denitrogenation of the copolymer films. The nitrogen atomic concentration decreased significantly for films pyrolyzed at 900 Degree-Sign C confirming extensive denitrogenation at that temperature. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nitrogen subpeaks indicated higher loss of nitrogen atoms residing at the edge of graphitic clusters relative to that of nitrogen atoms within the graphitic clusters, suggesting higher graphitization with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Of the surface cleaning methods investigated, in-situ annealing of the films at 300 Degree-Sign C for 40 min was found to be the most efficacious in removing adventitious carbon and oxygen impurities from the surface.