WorldWideScience

Sample records for cherry tomato fruits

  1. Reduction of Chilling Injury and Ultrastructural Damage in Cherry Tomato Fruits After Hot Water Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; FU Mao-run; ZHAO Yu-ying; MAO Lin-chun

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hot water treatment in alleviating chilling injury and reducing ultrastructural damage of mature-green cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicun esculentum cv. cerasiform Alef) were investigated. Mature-green cherry tomato fruits were treated in water at 40℃ or 45℃ for 5 rain or 15 rain, and then stored at 5℃ for 19 days followed by ripening at 20℃. Water treatment at 40℃ for 15 rain increased tolerance of cherry tomato fruits to chilling stress, indicating as low outbreak of skin lesion, high color a* value, and low electrolyte leakage. Treated fi'uits showed typical climacteric respiration and developed normal red color with chlorophyll degradation and lyeopene accumulation during ripening, while fruits without treatment failed to develop red color and suffered skin lesion. After 19 days of chilling, heated fruits showed the conversion of chloroplast to ehromoplast with the disappearance of thylakoids. Mitochondria and other cell organelles were not adversely affected in treated fruits. However, ultrastruetures in periearp cells in control fruits severely damaged with extensive disorganization of cytoplasm, swelled chloroplasts, distorted and unstacked thylakoids. Chloroplast was the first and most severely impacted organelle by chilling stress. Hot water treatment (40℃ for 15 min) before storage alleviated chilling injury in cherry tomato fruits. The results suggest that chilling injury is related with the damage of cell structure under chilling stress.

  2. On-Line Sorting Maturity of Cherry Tomato Bymachine Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinglong; Yin, Xiaoping; Xu, Tongyu; Zhao, Jiewen

    The cherry tomatoes online sorting according to their maturity is an important procedure after harvest. This research proposed an automated cherry tomato grading system base on machine vision. Three images of different angles are obtained from each cherry tomato, allowing the inspection of approximately 90% of the fruit surface. 9 features were extracted from the one cherry tomato images. In order to distinguish into three grades (immature, half ripe and ripe), Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discrimination analysis (LDA) were used to analyze the features. The PCA results show that ripe cherry tomatoes are distinguished from immature and half ripe ones. 414 cherry tomatoes were tested by the online sorting system. The overall accuracy was up to 94.9%. Furthermore, the grading speed of the sorting line reaches 7 cherry tomatoes per second which meet the actual demand of many farms.

  3. Coatings comprising chitosan and Mentha piperita L. or Mentha × villosa Huds essential oils to prevent common postharvest mold infections and maintain the quality of cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ingrid Conceição Dantas; de Oliveira, Priscila Dinah Lima; Pontes, Alline Lima de Souza; Lúcio, Ana Sílvia Suassuna Carneiro; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of coatings comprising shrimp chitosan (CHI) and Mentha piperita L. (MPEO) or Mentha × villosa Huds (MVEO) essential oils to control mold infections caused by Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum and Rhizopus stolonifer in cherry tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during storage at room temperature (25°C for 12 days) and low temperature (12°C for 24 days). The effects of the coatings on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of cherry tomato fruits during storage were also assessed. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CHI against all test fungi was 8 mg/mL, whereas the MIC for both MPEO and MVEO was 5 μL/mL. Combinations of CHI at 4 mg/mL and MPEO or MVEO at 2.5 or 1.25 μL/mL strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of target fungi. The coatings comprising CHI and MPEO or CHI and MVEO at the different tested concentrations delayed the growth of decay-causing fungi in artificially contaminated tomato fruit during storage at either room temperature or low temperature. The assayed coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage, in terms of physicochemical and sensory attributes. These results indicate that coatings comprising CHI and MPEO or CHI and MVEO represent promising postharvest treatments to prevent common postharvest mold infections in cherry tomato fruit during storage without affecting the quality of the fruit.

  4. Coatings comprising chitosan and Mentha piperita L. or Mentha × villosa Huds essential oils to prevent common postharvest mold infections and maintain the quality of cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ingrid Conceição Dantas; de Oliveira, Priscila Dinah Lima; Pontes, Alline Lima de Souza; Lúcio, Ana Sílvia Suassuna Carneiro; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of coatings comprising shrimp chitosan (CHI) and Mentha piperita L. (MPEO) or Mentha × villosa Huds (MVEO) essential oils to control mold infections caused by Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum and Rhizopus stolonifer in cherry tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during storage at room temperature (25°C for 12 days) and low temperature (12°C for 24 days). The effects of the coatings on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of cherry tomato fruits during storage were also assessed. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CHI against all test fungi was 8 mg/mL, whereas the MIC for both MPEO and MVEO was 5 μL/mL. Combinations of CHI at 4 mg/mL and MPEO or MVEO at 2.5 or 1.25 μL/mL strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of target fungi. The coatings comprising CHI and MPEO or CHI and MVEO at the different tested concentrations delayed the growth of decay-causing fungi in artificially contaminated tomato fruit during storage at either room temperature or low temperature. The assayed coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage, in terms of physicochemical and sensory attributes. These results indicate that coatings comprising CHI and MPEO or CHI and MVEO represent promising postharvest treatments to prevent common postharvest mold infections in cherry tomato fruit during storage without affecting the quality of the fruit. PMID:26313246

  5. Dynamic Regulation of Nitrogen and Organic Acid Metabolism of Cherry Tomato Fruit as Affected by Different Nitrogen Forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xin-Juan; LI Qing-Yu; SONG Xiao-Hui; Shen Qi-Rong; Dong Cai-Xia

    2012-01-01

    Cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.,cv.hongyangli) were hydroponically cultivated in a greenhouse to determine the effect of different nitrogen (N) forms on organic acid concentration and the activities of related enzymes involved in nitrogen and organic acid metabolism during cherry tomato fruit development.The results showed that fruit nitrate reductase (NR) activity was much higher following treatment with 100% NO-3 and 75% NO-3 +25% NH+4 than with 100% NH+4 except at maturity.Glutamine synthetaee (GS) activity trended downward during fruit development under all three treatments.Plants fed 100% NH4+ had the lowest fruit citrate and malate levels at maturity,with the highest malate concentration at an early stage.The activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) was found to be in accord with the malate concentration with every N source.Under all three N forms,the citrate synthase (CS) activity peaked one week before the citrate concentration.

  6. Economic Sustainability of Italian Greenhouse Cherry Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Testa; Anna Maria di Trapani; Filippo Sgroi; Salvatore Tudisca

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse tomato cultivation plays an important role in Sicily, being the primary production area in Italy, due to its favorable pedo-climatic conditions that permit extra-seasonal productions. In Sicily, more than half of greenhouse tomato production is derived from the Province of Ragusa on the southeastern coast, where especially cherry tomato typologies are cultivated. Over the last decade, the Ragusa Province has registered a decrease both in terms of greenhouse tomato area and harves...

  7. Control of Cherry Leaf Spot and Cherry Fruit Fly at Sour Cherry

    OpenAIRE

    Maria BOROVINOVA; Vilina PETROVA

    2015-01-01

    The investigations were made in the experimental sour cherry orchard from the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil, Bulgaria, during the period 2010-2014, in order to compare conventional and integrated sour cherry protection against cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Two variants were investigated, with two different treatment approaches for the control of cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Variant 1 – cherry leaf spot was controlled by protective treatments with dodin and tebuconazo...

  8. Economic Sustainability of Italian Greenhouse Cherry Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Testa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato cultivation plays an important role in Sicily, being the primary production area in Italy, due to its favorable pedo-climatic conditions that permit extra-seasonal productions. In Sicily, more than half of greenhouse tomato production is derived from the Province of Ragusa on the southeastern coast, where especially cherry tomato typologies are cultivated. Over the last decade, the Ragusa Province has registered a decrease both in terms of greenhouse tomato area and harvested production due to several structural problems that would require restructuring of the tomato supply chain. Thus, since recognition of real costs and profitability of tomato growing is a vital issue, both from the perspective of the farm, as well as from that of the entrepreneur, the aim of this paper was to analyze the economic sustainability of Sicilian greenhouse cherry tomato cultivated in the Ragusa Province. In particular, an economic analysis on 30 representative farms was conducted in order to estimate production costs and profits of greenhouse cherry tomato. According to our results, the lack of commercial organization, which characterizes the small farms we surveyed, determines low contractual power for farmers and, consequently, low profitability.

  9. Effect of Ascorbic Acid Treatment on Physiology and Antioxidants of Cherry Tomato Fruits during Storage%外源抗坏血酸对圣女果采后生理和抗氧化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锴栋; 敬国兴; 袁长春; 陈燕; 刘金祥; 黎海利

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of ascorbic acid with different concentration on the preservation of cherry tomato fruits and the effects of ascorbic acid on physiology and antioxidants in cherry tomato whose fruits were dipped in 50 mmol/L ascorbic acid solution for 30 min and then stored at low temperature (15 ?). The results showed that the preservation effects of cherry tomato treated with 50 mmol/L ascorbic acid solution was the best. 50 mmol/L ascorbic acid solution treatment inhibited the decline in firmness and the increase of TSS and thus delayed the fruit ripening and senescence process. Ascorbic acid treatment also could decrease the relative conductivity and increase the activities of SOD and POD in cherry tomato fruits in later storage. The loss of soluble protein content and Vc content was inhibited significantly too. In addition, ascorbic acid treatment could decrease PPO activity. Correlation analysis showed that the physiological indices of SOD activity, PPO activity and Vc content were related to the relative electric conductivity in cherry tomato fruits. The study suggested that the ripening and senescence process in cherry tomato fruits was delayed by exogenous ascorbic acid. Therefore, the ascorbic acid treatment revealed an excellent effect on fresh-keeping of cherry tomato fruits.%以圣女果为试材,研究不同抗坏血酸浓度处理对果实保鲜效果的影响,以及采用50 mmol/L的抗坏血酸溶液浸泡果实30 min并在15 ℃下贮藏,研究抗坏血酸处理对果实生理及抗氧化活性的影响.结果表明:50 mmol/L的抗坏血酸处理效果最好.50 mmol/L抗坏血酸处理有效延缓了圣女果果实硬度的下降和可溶性固形物含量的上升,推迟其成熟衰老进程;抗坏血酸处理还能抑制果实相对电导率的快速升高,提高了果实贮藏后期SOD、POD的活性,抑制果实可溶性蛋白质和维生素C含量的下降;同时,抗坏血酸处理也抑制了果实中PPO

  10. Control of Cherry Leaf Spot and Cherry Fruit Fly at Sour Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria BOROVINOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were made in the experimental sour cherry orchard from the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil, Bulgaria, during the period 2010-2014, in order to compare conventional and integrated sour cherry protection against cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Two variants were investigated, with two different treatment approaches for the control of cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Variant 1 – cherry leaf spot was controlled by protective treatments with dodin and tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin and cherry fruit fly was controlled by treatments with deltametrin and thiacloprid, independently of density. Variant 2 - cherry leaf spot was controlled by post-infection (curative treatments with tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin and cherry fruit fly was controlled by treatments based on biological threshold: 10-11 cherry fruit fly females caught in traps up to the moment for chemical treatment. It was established that Blumeriella japii can be successfully controlled by post-infection treatments and by this the number of insecticide treatments was reduced. The treatments against cherry fruit fly can be avoided or reduced when the attack control is based on the biological threshold established in the studied area.

  11. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka; Kanamori, Norihito; Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2009-07-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 °C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  12. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)], E-mail: setsuko@affrc.go.jp; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Kanamori, Norihito [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio [School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara-city, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Kawamoto, Shinichi [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a {sup 60}Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of {beta}-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  13. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  14. In-package atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment of cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Nrusimha Nath; Keener, Kevin M; Bourke, Paula; Mosnier, Jean-Paul; Cullen, Patrick J

    2014-08-01

    Cold plasma is increasingly under research for decontamination of foods, especially fresh fruits and vegetables. The effect of cold plasma on food quality, however, remains under researched. This study investigates the effects of cold plasma generated within a sealed package from a dielectric barrier discharge on the physical quality parameters and respiration rates of cherry tomatoes. Respiration rates and weight loss were monitored continuously, while other parameters are reported at the end of storage period. Differences among weight loss, pH and firmness for control and treated cherry tomatoes were insignificant towards the end of storage life. Changes in respiration rates and colour of tomatoes were recorded as a function of treatment, which were not drastic. The results implicate that cold plasma could be employed as a means for decontamination of cherry tomatoes while retaining product quality.

  15. Classificação de tomate-cereja em função do tamanho e peso dos frutos Grading of cherry tomatoes based on fruit size and weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi propor classes de tamanho e peso para frutos de tomate-cereja. O experimento foi conduzido em Jaboticabal, São Paulo. Foram utilizados frutos da cultivar Sindy, provenientes de 60 plantas cultivadas em casa-de-vegetação. Para classificação dos frutos, desenvolveu-se um método no qual foram utilizadas cinco caixas plásticas sobrepostas. Quatro caixas tiveram suas bases perfuradas, com orifícios de diâmetro igual a 20; 25; 30 e 35 mm. As quatro caixas foram sobrepostas, adicionando-se uma quinta caixa, sem orifícios, utilizada sob as demais, para coletar os frutos que passassem pelos orifícios das caixas superiores. Os frutos retidos em cada uma das caixas foram contados e pesados. Com esses dados, calculou-se o peso médio dos frutos para cada classe de tamanho. A freqüência de frutos em cada classe variou ao longo do período de colheita. A porcentagem de frutos produzidos durante o período de colheita para as diferentes classes foi de 5% para gigante, 22% para grande, 42% para médio, 20% para pequeno e 11% para descarte. Os valores de peso (P e diâmetro (D dos frutos correlacionaram-se linearmente, seguindo equação ajustada (P = 1,05 D - 14,71 com coeficiente de correlação (R** = 0,99, pThe purpose of this experiment was to propose a grading system for cherry tomatoes based on fruit size and weight. The experiment was carried out at Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. Fruits of cherry tomatoes, cultivar Sindy, harvested out of 60 plants grown in a greenhouse were evaluated. To separate fruits of different sizes, a five plastic box system developed. In this system, the bottom of four boxes drilled with holes of 20; 25; 30, and 35 mm of diameter. The fifth box had no holes and was used as a collector box. Fruits retained in each of the boxes were counted and weighed. The average weight of the fruits was calculated for each class size. Fruit frequency in each class varied during the harvest

  16. Parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorguet, B.J.M.; Heusden, van A.W.; Lindhout, P.

    2005-01-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit development is a very attractive trait for growers and consumers. In tomato, three main sources of facultative parthenocarpy, pat, pat-2, pat-3/pat-4, are known to have potential applications in agriculture. The parthenocarpic fruit development in these lines is triggered by a d

  17. Effect of oligosaccharides derived from Laminaria japonica-incorporated pullulan coatings on preservation of cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun; Lu, Mingsheng; Wang, Shujun

    2016-05-15

    Laminaria japonica-derived oligosaccharides (LJOs) exhibit antibacterial and antioxidant activities, and pullulan is a food thickener that can form impermeable films. The ability of pullulan coatings with various LJO concentrations (1% pullulan+0.1%, 0.2% or 0.3% LJOs) to preserve cherry tomatoes during storage at room temperature was investigated. The LJO-incorporated pullulan coatings were found to effectively reduce respiratory intensity, vitamin C loss, weight loss and softening, as well as to increase the amount of titratable acid and the overall likeness of fruit compared with the control. These effects were observed to be dose-dependent. Therefore, using LJO-incorporated pullulan coatings can extend the shelf life of cherry tomatoes. PMID:26775974

  18. Parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorguet, B; van Heusden, A W; Lindhout, P

    2005-03-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit development is a very attractive trait for growers and consumers. In tomato, three main sources of facultative parthenocarpy, pat, pat-2, pat-3/pat-4, are known to have potential applications in agriculture. The parthenocarpic fruit development in these lines is triggered by a deregulation of the hormonal balance in some specific tissues. Auxins and gibberellins are considered as the key elements in parthenocarpic fruit development of those lines. An increased level of these hormones in the ovary can substitute for pollination and trigger fruit development. This has opened up genetic engineering approaches for parthenocarpy that have given promising results, both in quality and quantity of seedless fruit production. PMID:15822008

  19. Procyanidins in fruit from Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) differ strongly in chainlength from those in Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus) and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus), and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) fruits are widely used in Turkey, both as food and as traditional medicines. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these three cherry types were compared. Fruit flesh was evalua

  20. Effects of Industrial Processes on Antioxidant Power and Polyphenols Profile in Cherry Tomato Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommonaro, Giuseppina; De Prisco, Rocco; Pergamo, Rita; Iodice, Carmine; Abbamondi, Gennaro Roberto; Spagnuolo, Annalisa; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    The antioxidant capacity and the polyphenolic profile of fresh and processed cherry tomatoes were analyzed with the aim of investigating the effect of industrial processes on the nutritional qualities of fruits. The results exhibited a decrease of antioxidant activity mainly in the lipophilic fraction of processed tomatoes compared with fresh products. No great difference in the antioxidant capacity was detected in the hydrophilic and methanolic extracts of fresh tomatoes and processed tomato juices. Moreover, a decrease of polyphenolic content, estimated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu method, was observed in all tomato juices. The overall polyphenolic profile of both fresh and processed tomatoes did not change significantly and, among all juices, a higher polyphenolic content was detected in juice containing peels and seeds in comparison to those without. From our data on antioxidant power and the bioactive metabolite content, tomato juice could be used as a valid and easily available source of antioxidants in everyday diet to preserve human health.

  1. EVALUATING THE FRUIT PRODUCTION AND QUALITY OF CHERRY TOMATO (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme EVALUACIÓN DE LA PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD DEL FRUTO DEL TOMATE CEREZA Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ceballos Aguirre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The greatest genetic diversity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. in terms of fruit quality characteristics such as flavor, aroma, color, and lycopene and b-carotene contents is found in wild species. This study evaluated the agronomic characteristics and fruit quality of 30 cherry tomato introductions of the germplasm bank of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Palmira in trials conducted at the Montelindo experimental farm of the Universidad de Caldas (1010 m above sea level, average temperature 22.8 °C, average annual rainfall 2200 mm, 76% relative humidity. A 5 x 6 rectangular lattice experimental design was used with 30 treatments (introductions and a commercial control (Sweet Million, 4 replicates/treatment, and 5 plants/replicate as experimental unit. The descriptors used were those suggested by the former International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, now Bioversity International. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan's means test using the SAS program. In addition, principal component and cluster dendrogram analyses using the SAS Princom and Cluster procedure (SAS Institute, Cary, NC were performed. Six principal components accounted for 80.39% of the morphological variability of the introductions evaluated. The most promising materials in terms of average fruit weight, yield per plant and per hectare, and soluble solids, vitamin C and lycopene contents were IAC1624, IAC391, IAC3652, LA2131, IAC424, IAC1621, IAC426, LA1480 and IAC1688. The broad phenotypic variability observed in the evaluated introductions favors the potential selection and breeding of tomato for traits associated with fruit production and quality.Resumen. La mayor diversidad genética del tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. en términos de características de calidad del fruto como sabor, aroma, coloración y contenidos de licopeno y b-caroteno se encuentra en especies silvestres. Este estudio evaluó las características agronómicas y

  2. Fruit bunch measurement method for cherry tomato based on visual servo%基于视觉伺服的樱桃番茄果串对靶测量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯青春; 赵春江; 王晓楠; 王秀; 贡亮; 刘成良

    2015-01-01

    针对鲜食番茄自动化采收实际需要,为了实现对樱桃番茄果串自动识别定位,基于激光测距和视觉伺服技术设计了果串自动对靶测量视觉系统。通过分析成熟番茄果串图像色彩特征,采用R-G色差模型凸显目标与背景差异,并根据色差灰度逐列统计锁定果串图像区域;基于Cognex VisionPro图像处理类库CogPMAlignTool模板匹配工具,对果串区域内果粒进行分割;根据对边缘果粒空间坐标估算,同时对采摘机械臂进行视觉伺服控制,实现对边缘果粒对靶定位测量,并根据其空间坐标测算果串长宽特征,为采摘执行部件提供作业依据。试验结果表明,视觉系统对果串内果粒的平均识别率为83.5%,对果粒视觉对靶的平均偏差为8.38像素,果串长度测量平均误差为8.25 mm,果串宽度测量平均误差为5.25 mm。该研究结果为串形果实自动采收目标识别定位提供参考。%As the fresh cherry tomato, largely produced and consumed in China, needed an increasing manual-picking cost these years, the automatic harvesting machine was expected to replace the manual labor to implement the intensive work. Accurately identifying and locating the mature fruit bunches, was a key technique of harvesting robot research. The existing research could be classified into active and passive detecting method, among which the active method was becoming more mainstream. In this paper, a new vision system for cherry tomato’s automatic harvesting was designed based on laser ranging and vision servo, and the system included a camera, a laser sensor and a manipulator as the servo unit, among which the camera was fixed coaxially ahead of the laser sensor, and could slid up and down driven by a cylinder. When the camera slid down, the laser sensor was triggered to measure the distance between fruit and camera’s view system. Through analyzing the color feature of the image acquired from the

  3. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult.

  4. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. PMID:25527581

  5. Tomato fruit continues growing while ripening, affecting cuticle properties and cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Eva; Fernández, María Dolores; Hernández, Juan Carlos López; Parra, Jerónimo Pérez; España, Laura; Heredia, Antonio; Cuartero, Jesús

    2012-12-01

    Fruit cuticle composition and their mechanical performance have a special role during ripening because internal pressure is no longer sustained by the degraded cell walls of the pericarp but is directly transmitted to epidermis and cuticle which could eventually crack. We have studied fruit growth, cuticle modifications and its biomechanics, and fruit cracking in tomato; tomato has been considered a model system for studying fleshy fruit growth and ripening. Tomato fruit cracking is a major disorder that causes severe economic losses and, in cherry tomato, crack appearance is limited to the ripening process. As environmental conditions play a crucial role in fruit growing, ripening and cracking, we grow two cherry tomato cultivars in four conditions of radiation and relative humidity (RH). High RH and low radiation decreased the amount of cuticle and cuticle components accumulated. No effect of RH in cuticle biomechanics was detected. However, cracked fruits had a significantly less deformable (lower maximum strain) cuticle than non-cracked fruits. A significant and continuous fruit growth from mature green to overripe has been detected with special displacement sensors. This growth rate varied among genotypes, with cracking-sensitive genotypes showing higher growth rates than cracking-resistant ones. Environmental conditions modified this growth rate during ripening, with higher growing rates under high RH and radiation. These conditions corresponded to those that favored fruit cracking. Fruit growth rate during ripening, probably sustained by an internal turgor pressure, is a key parameter in fruit cracking, because fruits that ripened detached from the vine did not crack.

  6. Folate biofortification of tomato fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz de la Garza, Rocío I; Gregory, Jesse F.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    Folate deficiency leads to neural tube defects and other human diseases, and is a global health problem. Because plants are major folate sources for humans, we have sought to enhance plant folate levels (biofortification). Folates are synthesized from pteridine, p-aminobenzoate (PABA), and glutamate precursors. Previously, we increased pteridine production in tomato fruit up to 140-fold by overexpressing GTP cyclohydrolase I, the first enzyme of pteridine synthesis. This strategy increased fo...

  7. CONVECTIVE DRYING OF CHERRY TOMATO: STUDY OF SKIN EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KHAMA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A whole single cherry tomato was dried in a forced convective micro-dryer. The experiments were carried out at constant air velocity and humidity and temperatures of 50, 60, 70 °C. In order to study the effect of the skin, two sets of experiments were performed using a tomato with and without skin (easily removed. Shorter drying times were obtained when increasing drying temperatures as well as when removing sample skin. X-ray microtomography, a non-destructive 3D imaging technique was used to follow shrinkage of the samples. This phenomenon was introduced in the modelling part of this study. Analytical solutions of the Fick’law were used to determine the diffusion coefficient at the three temperatures studied, and then the activation energy was obtained through fitting the Arrhenius equation. The skin effect was clearly evidenced by showing that the mass transfer parameter values of an original tomato with skin were largely smaller than the one without skin. Indeed, the moisture effective diffusivity ranged from 2.56×10-11 to 7.67×10-11 m2·s-1 with activation energy of 50430 J·mol-1 for tomato with skin an ranged from 4.59×10-10 m2·s-1 to 6.73×10-10 m2·s-1 with activation energy of 17640 J.mol-1 for tomato without skin.

  8. Comparative morphological analysis of cherry tomato fruits from three cropping systems Análise morfológica comparativa de frutos tomate cereja provenientes de três sistemas de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Cachoeira Stertz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to meet produces market demand are not always followed by research reports showing the impact of novel, intensive cropping systems on the environment, human and animal health, and eventual chemical and structural changes of plants. This work carries a comparative evaluation of the morphology and anatomy of cherry tomato fruits obtained from organic, conventional and hydroponic cropping systems. Fruits were collected at the free market in the greater Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. For each culture method, 50 fruits their weight, diameter and volume measured. For the anatomical analysis, samples of the pericarp of ten fruits were excised and embedded in glycol methacrylate; 6-mm cuts were then obtained, stained with toluidine blue, and mounted on permanent glass slides. The anatomical analysis and illustrations were performed in Olympus and Zeiss photonic microscope. Samples obtained from the organic cropping system presented the highest mass, diameter, volume and density. The pericarp of fruits, obtained from the conventional cropping system presented larger but less abundant cells in comparison to the pericarp of the hydroponic and organic-produced fruits.A ciência agrícola buscou novas formas de cultivo para atender às exigências de mercado e dividiu-se em três grandes vertentes: os sistemas de cultivo orgânico, convencional e hidropônico. Todavia, esses avanços nem sempre foram acompanhados por pesquisas que objetivassem apontar o impacto de uma nova técnica agrícola sobre o ambiente, a saúde humana e animal e aos próprios vegetais em seus aspectos químicos e estruturais. Este trabalho tem por objetivo o estudo comparativo da morfo-anatomia do fruto do Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme (Duval A. Gray, cultivado nos sistemas orgânico, convencional e hidropônico. Os frutos foram coletados no comércio varejista da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. Para cada cultivo foram analisados 50 frutos. Cada

  9. Yield of cherry tomatoes as a function of water salinity and irrigation frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre N. Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of brackish water in agriculture can cause salinization of soils and reduce plant yield. This problem can be minimized by hydroponic cultivation, which improves plant development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of cherry tomatoes grown in hydroponic system with substrate under salinity levels of the nutrient solution (NS, exposure time to salinity and irrigation frequency. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in a randomized complete block design, in a 6 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme with five replicates: six salinity levels of NS prepared with brackish water (3.01; 4.51; 5.94; 7.34; 8.71 and 10.40 dS m-1; two exposure times to NS (60 and 105 days and two irrigation frequencies (one irrigation per day and irrigation every two days. Yield and production components of cherry tomatoes cv. 'Rita' were evaluated. NS salinity affected plant yield, reducing fruit production, which was more significant when plants were subjected to a longer time of exposure to salinity. There was no difference between NS applications on fruit production, when these applications were performed once a day or once every two days.

  10. Cell number regulator genes in Prunus provide candidate genes for the control of fruit size in sweet and sour cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Franceschi, P; Stegmeir, T; Cabrera, A; van der Knaap, E; Rosyara, U R; Sebolt, A M; Dondini, L; Dirlewanger, E; Quero-Garcia, J; Campoy, J A; Iezzoni, A F

    2013-01-01

    Striking increases in fruit size distinguish cultivated descendants from small-fruited wild progenitors for fleshy fruited species such as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Prunus spp. (peach, cherry, plum, and apricot). The first fruit weight gene identified as a result of domestication and selection was the tomato FW2.2 gene. Members of the FW2.2 gene family in corn (Zea mays) have been named CNR (Cell Number Regulator) and two of them exert their effect on organ size by modulating cell number. Due to the critical roles of FW2.2/CNR genes in regulating cell number and organ size, this family provides an excellent source of candidates for fruit size genes in other domesticated species, such as those found in the Prunus genus. A total of 23 FW2.2/CNR family members were identified in the peach genome, spanning the eight Prunus chromosomes. Two of these CNRs were located within confidence intervals of major quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously discovered on linkage groups 2 and 6 in sweet cherry (Prunus avium), named PavCNR12 and PavCNR20, respectively. An analysis of haplotype, sequence, segregation and association with fruit size strongly supports a role of PavCNR12 in the sweet cherry linkage group 2 fruit size QTL, and this QTL is also likely present in sour cherry (P. cerasus). The finding that the increase in fleshy fruit size in both tomato and cherry associated with domestication may be due to changes in members of a common ancestral gene family supports the notion that similar phenotypic changes exhibited by independently domesticated taxa may have a common genetic basis. PMID:23976873

  11. Illuminating tomato fruit enhances fruit Vitamin C content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ntagkas, N.; Min, Q.; Woltering, E.J.; Labrie, C.; Nicole, C.C.S.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    L-ascorbate (AsA; Vitamin C) is an anti-and pro-oxidant phytochemical essential for the proper functioning of the human body. Field grown tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) contain substantial amounts of AsA. When grown in the greenhouse, tomato fruit typically have low levels of AsA. Light is t

  12. Influence of freezing and storing cherry fruit on its nutritional value

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Vasylyshyna

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cherries are a valuable dietary raw material and possess medicinal properties. Considering the nutritional, medical and vitamin value of cherry fruits, the purpose of this research was to produce a scientific justification for preserving the quality of cherry fruits using different freezing methods. Material and methods. To do this, cherry fruits from the Lotovka (Cerasus vulgaris) variety were frozen in various ways: packed in polyethylene bags (control); pr...

  13. 1-甲基环丙烯采后处理对樱桃番茄果实成熟过程的影响%Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene Post-harvest Treatment on Ripening Process in Cherry Tomato Fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum var.cerasiforme)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arnold M.Opiyo; 应铁进

    2005-01-01

    研究了不同浓度(0、0.035、0.07和0.11μL/L)的乙烯受体竞争性抑制剂1-甲基环丙烯(1-MCP)采后处理对绿熟期樱桃番茄的乙烯合成、果实软化、果实色素(叶绿素、茄红素、β-胡萝卜素)含量消长的影响.0.07 μL/L及其以上浓度的1-MCP降低了前期乙烯合成,同时推迟了乙烯释放高峰,但0.035 μL/L浓度的1-MCP处理并不能抑制内源乙烯合成.1-MCP显著延迟了果实软化和叶绿素降解,但并不影响这两个过程的启动.茄红素合成的启动和积累均受到了1-MCP抑制,而1-MCP并不推迟β-胡萝卜素合成的启动,只抑制其积累.这些结果提示了乙烯调节成熟生理过程的不同机制.对于绿熟期的樱桃番茄,0.07~0.11μL/L的1-MCP是实用的有效处理浓度.1-MCP有效浓度可能用于了解果实的乙烯受体水平和乙烯敏感性.%The responses of cherry tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) fruits to post-harvest treatment with 1-MCP were investigated.The maturity stage at which 1-MCP application is most effective in delaying the ripening process was determined, and then the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.035, 0.07 and 0.11 μL/L) of 1-MCP on ethylene production, fruit softening, chlorophyll, lycopene and carotenoids contents of mature green (MG)cherry tomato fruits were assessed. 1-MCP at 0.07 and 0.11 μL/L reduced fruit C2H4 production, delayed the C2H4 peak at ambient temperature. Although 1-MCP at 0.035 μL/L was effective in retarding fruit ripening,it did not suppress endogenous ethylene production.Fruit softening was suppressed by 1-MCP, but its initiation was not affected by 1-MCP. The rate of chlorophyll degradation and its pattern of change with time,and the initiation of lycopene biosynthesis as well as its accumulation were all affected by 1-MCP, but only the accumulation of carotenoids was suppressed. Accumulation of lycopene and carotenoids was almost permanently hampered by 1-MCP at 0.07 μL/L or

  14. [Biologically active substances of cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perova, I B; Zhogova, A A; Poliakova, A V; Éller, K I; Ramenskaia, G V; Samylina, I A

    2014-01-01

    10 samples of fresh-frozen cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.), collected in the Tambov and the Caucasus regions, were investigated for the total amount and composition of the main biologically active substances (BAS): anthocyanins (AC), proanthocyanidins (OPC), dihydroxycinnamic acids (DHCA), iridoids, organic acids, mono- and disaccharides and antiradical activity in the DPPH-test in vitro. Total phenolics content determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was 150-400 mg/100 g fresh fruit weight. The OPC content, estimated by Bate-Smith method, varied from 20-25 mg/100 g of unripe cornelian cherries to 80-430 mg/100 g of mature cornelian cherries. Total AC amount evaluated by pH-differential spectrophotometry was minimal in unripe fruits (11,2 mg/100 g), and maximal in mature fruits (92,2 mg/100 g). Profile of individual AC was determined by HPLC with UV/Vis and ESI-TOF-MS detections. 3-galactosides of cyanidin (19,0-80,3%) and pelargonidin (15,1-75,6%) were found as main anthocyanins. An original methodology for iridoid determination based on HPLC with UV and ESI-TOF-MS detection was developed. The main iridoids were identified as loganic acid, loganin, sweroside and cornuside. Total iridoids content was 130-400 mg/100 g, and loganic acid was predominant in all samples (87,6-94,8%). Only minor amount of the DHCA derivatives (cherries was represented by fructose (2,2-3,8%) and glucose (2,5-7,0%). 70% water-ethanol extracts of Cornus mas fruits have showed pronounced antiradical activity in DPPH-test (470,5-932,0 mg TE/100 g). The data on specific minor BAS can be used in the standardization and evaluation of potential biological activity of extracts and dietary supplements based on the cornelian cherry fruits. PMID:25816631

  15. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-04-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A)/sup +/ RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L-/sup 35/S-methionine. The /sup 35/S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues.

  16. Optimal Fluorescence Waveband Determination for Detecting Defective Cherry Tomatoes Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Suck Baek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A multi-spectral fluorescence imaging technique was used to detect defective cherry tomatoes. The fluorescence excitation and emission matrix was used to measure for defects, sound surface and stem areas to determine the optimal fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for discrimination. Two-way ANOVA revealed the optimal excitation wavelength for detecting defect areas was 410 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to the fluorescence emission spectra of all regions at 410 nm excitation to determine the emission wavelengths for defect detection. The major emission wavelengths were 688 nm and 506 nm for the detection. Fluorescence images combined with the determined emission wavebands demonstrated the feasibility of detecting defective cherry tomatoes with >98% accuracy. Multi-spectral fluorescence imaging has potential utility in non-destructive quality sorting of cherry tomatoes.

  17. Oviposition in Sweet Cherry by Reproductively Mature Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Tephritidae:Diptera) Fed Spinosad and Neonicotinoid Insecticide Baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Spinosad bait is applied weekly to kill flies before they develop eggs, but its effects on oviposition by flies that are reproductively mature are unknown. ...

  18. Comparison of the Nutritive Quality of Tomato Fruits from Organic and Conventional Production in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Hallmann, Ewelina; Rembiałkowska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    Organic horticulture is generally accepted as friendly to the environment, good for crop quality and also for the consumer’s health. Recent research data has shown that organic crops under organic farming practices contained more bioactive substances such as flavones, vitamin C, carotenoids; they also contain less pesticides residues, nitrates and nitrites. Five tomato cultivars: four large – fruit (Rumba, Juhas, Kmicic, Gigant) and one cherry cultivar (Koralik) were selected for study. The o...

  19. Determination of the optimum irradiation dose for shelf-life of peas and cherry tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green peas (Pisum Sativum), cultivar (mangetout) and yellow cherry tomatoes (lycoperscum esculantum), cultivar (cerasiforme) were irradiated for different absorbed doses, and their physical characteristics observed under cold storage conditions, in order to extend their shelf lives. Results suggest that 580 Gy is the maximum optimum dose. At this dose the shelf life of cherry tomatoes is shown to be extended. No beneficial effect was recorded on the storage life of green peas. A good correlation was found between the degradation of chlorophill and the spread of spotting disease for this product. (author)., 19 refs., 2 tab

  20. Yeast profilin complements profilin deficiency in transgenic tomato fruits and allows development of hypoallergenic tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lien Q; Mahler, Vera; Scheurer, Stephan; Foetisch, Kay; Braun, Yvonne; Weigand, Daniela; Enrique, Ernesto; Lidholm, Jonas; Paulus, Kathrin E; Sonnewald, Sophia; Vieths, Stefan; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2010-12-01

    Gene silencing of Lyc e 1 leads to reduced allergenicity of tomato fruits but impaired growth of transgenic tomato plants. The aim of the study was to restore growth of Lyc e 1-deficient tomato plants while retaining reduced allergenicity by simultaneous complementation of profilin deficiency by expression of nonallergenic yeast profilin. Transgenic plants were generated and tested by RT-PCR and immunoblotting; allergenicity of yeast profilin and transgenic fruits was investigated by IgE binding, basophil activation, and skin-prick tests. Lyc e 1 content of transgenic tomato fruits was foods with reduced allergen accumulation, can be generated even if the allergen fulfills an essential cellular function in the plant. In summary, our findings of efficiently complementing profilin-deficient tomato plants by coexpression of low allergenic yeast profilin demonstrate the feasibility of creating low-allergenic food even if the allergen fulfills essential cellular functions.

  1. Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on polyp

  2. Effect of green manure in soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomato in the no tillage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson; Rossi, Fabricio; Dias, Fabio; Trivelin, Paulo; Tavares, Silvio; Muraoka, Takashi; Ambrosano, Glaucia; Salgado, Gabriela; Otsuk, Ivani

    2016-04-01

    The use of alternative fertilizers may reduce costs and promote sustainability to the family-based agro ecological production system. The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of the green manure to the quality of the soil and the transference of the nitrogen to cherry tomatoes using the N-15 abundance method (FAPESP 11/05648-3). The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, APTA/SAA, SP, Brazil. The IAC collection accesses 21 of cherry tomatoes were used. Each Plot consisted of six plants spaced 0.5 m and 0.9 m between rows, using a randomized-blocks design with eight treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of green manure crops intercropped or not with cherry tomato, namely: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana), mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Besides two witnesses, one with and another without corn straw. Five leaves with petiole of each plant part from the first ripe fruit and a bunch of fruits per plant are harvested. Samples of leaf and fruit were weighed and dried in a forced air oven and its dry weight measured. A subsample was ground in a Wiley mill and brought to the mass spectrometer (ANCA GSL) on the Stable Isotopes Laboratory of CENA/USP for δN-15 analysis. It measured the percentage of the transference of N from the green manure to the tomato; the tomato plants grown in monocropping were considered a control. It was found that 27 % of the N present in the fruit and 23% of the N present in the leaves came from the green manure. These results show that dur¬ing the development of the fruit of the tomato there is a greater translocation and consequently, a higher use of the N from the green manure in the fruits than in the leaves. This production system can reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The presence of a green manure in non-intercropped treatments caused some soil

  3. 优质串收抗番茄黄化曲叶病毒(TYLCV)樱桃番茄新品种‘圣婴’的选育%Selective breeding of a new high-quality clustered-fruiting cherry tomato variety ‘Shengying’resistant to TYLCV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保才; 何红梅; 张秀荣; 化娟莉

    2015-01-01

    ‘Shengying’,bred by crossing the female line 22-2-3-2-4-1 with the male line M10-2,is a high-grade clustered-fruiting cherry tomato variety resistant to tomato yellow leaf curl virus(TYLCV).It is of indeter-mintate growth type and medium-early maturity and has a strong plant growth vigor.Its inflorescence produces firstly at Node 7—9 and looks nice,each is separated by 3 or 4 leaves and comprises 14—16 flowerets.Its fruit is nearly round in shape,even in size and good in hardness,weighs 20—25 g,and contains about 8.0% of soluble solids.The mature fruit is bright red,tastes good and has good marketability.‘Shengying’,yielding clustered fruits highly,is also resistant to root knot nematode and suitable for protected cultivation.%‘圣婴’是以22-2-3-2-4-1为母本,M10-2为父本杂交选育而成的抗番茄黄化曲叶病毒的高档串收樱桃番茄品种。无限生长类型,早中熟,植株长势强,第一花序着生于第7—9节,花序间隔3—4叶,花序顺直美观,每花序小花数14—16个,果实近圆形,大小均匀,果实硬度好,单果重20—25 g,可溶性固形物含量8.0%,成熟果亮红色,着色均匀,口感佳,商品性好,串收性强,抗黄化曲叶病毒病和根结线虫,适宜保护地栽培。

  4. Repellent effects of various cherry tomato accessions on the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, T; Resende, J T V; Oliveira, J R F; Scabeni, C J; Zeist, A R; Resende, N C V

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted on resistance sources to improve the genetic resistance of farm-grown tomatoes to arthropod pests, including phytophagous mites. In the present study, we evaluate the behavior of the two-spotted spider mite on different cherry tomato accessions to identify possible sources of resistance (repellent effect) to this pest. Sixty-four accessions of cherry tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (Dunal), were tested. In addition, a commercial cultivar of cherry tomato cv. Sweet Grape (susceptible pattern) and the wild tomato accession Solanum pennellii Correll LA-716 (multiple pest resistance) were evaluated as well. The distance traveled by mites on the leaflet surface over time varied largely among cherry tomato accessions. The wild genotype, S. pennellii LA-716, showed the smallest traveled distance on the leaflet surface (0.8 to 1.1 mm over time), and the variety cv. Sweet Grape was one of the genotypes with highest traveled distance (16.2 to 16.4 mm over time). The cherry tomato accessions 2298-42, RVTC-03, and 6889-53 showed a decrease in the traveled distance by mites over time, similar to that as observed in the wild tomato accession LA716. These accessions showed mite repellence levels similar to those of the wild genotype and may, therefore, be good candidates for breeding programs dealing with resistance to mites.

  5. Qualidade de sabor de tomates dos tipos salada e cereja e sua relação com caracteres morfoagronômicos dos frutos Taste quality of salad and cherry tomatoes and their relationship with the morphoagronomic characteristics of the fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Moreira Sobreira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Frutos no estádio vermelho maduro de trinta e três acessos de tomate do banco de germoplasma do CCA-UFES, sendo 15 do "tipo Cereja" e 18 do "tipo Salada", foram caracterizados com base nos seguintes descritores morfoagronômicos: peso médio do fruto; comprimento médio do fruto; diâmetro médio do fruto; diâmetro da cicatriz peduncular; espessura do mesocarpo do fruto; teor de sólidos solúveis e pH do fruto. Com base nas variáveis teor de sólidos solúveis (TSS e pH do fruto, calculou-se a variável sabor, por meio da relação TSS/pH². Foram realizadas análises de variâncias e análises de correlações simples e parciais, determinando a distribuição dos acessos quanto às classes de sabor. Com base nas distribuições de frequências, formaram-se quatro classes para essa variável, sendo que, a maior parcela (33% dos acessos "tipo Salada" alocaram-se na classe mais baixa (0,05-0,12 ºBrix.pH-2, correspondendo a frutos de sabor menos desejável, enquanto a maior parcela (30% dos acessos "tipo Cereja", alocaram-se em classe imediatamente superior (0,13-0,20 ºBrix.pH-2. Os dados demonstram a possibilidade de se obter ganhos genéticos para sabor concomitantemente ao peso, comprimento e espessura do mesocarpo dos frutos.Fruits in the ripe red stage of thirty three tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. accessions from CCA-UFES germplasm collection, being 15 "Cherry type" and 18 "Salad type", were characterized based on the following morphooagronomic descriptors: average fruit weight; average fruit length; average fruit diameter; peduncle scar diameter; fruit mesocarp thickness; soluble solids and fruit pH. Based on the data from the soluble solids and fruit pH, the flavor variable was calculated by the ratio TSS/pH². Variance analysis and simple and partial correlations were calculated, and the accessions were clustered in flavor classes. Based on the statistical model of distribution of frequencies, four classes were formed for

  6. Determination of optimal excitation and emission wavebands for detection of defect cherry tomato by using fluorescence emission and excitation matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, In-Suck; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Kim, Moon S.; Kim, Young-Sik

    2013-05-01

    Fluorescence imaging technique has been widely used for quality and safety measurements of agro-food materials. Fluorescence emission intensities of target materials are influenced by wavelengths of excitation sources. Hence, selection of a proper excitation wavelength is an important factor in differentiating target materials effectively. In this study, optimal fluorescence excitation wavelength was determined on the basis of fluorescence emission intensity of defect and sound areas of cherry tomatoes. The result showed that fluorescence responses of defect and sound surfaces of cherry tomatoes were most significantly separated with the excitation light wavelength range between 400 and 410 nm. Fluorescence images of defect cherry tomatoes were acquired with the LEDs with the central wavelength of 410 nm as the excitation source to verify the detection efficiency of cherry tomato defects. The resultant fluorescence images showed that the defects were discriminated from sound areas on cherry tomatoes with above 98% accuracy. This study shows that high power LEDs as the excitation source for fluorescence imaging are suitable for defect detection of cherry tomatoes.

  7. Effect of green manure in soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomato in the no tillage system on corn straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson; Rossi, Fabricio; Dias, Fabio; Trivelin, Paulo; Muraoka, Takashi; Tavares, Silvio; Ambrosano, Glaucia

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of green manure in on soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomatoes using the N-15 abundance method. The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, APTA/SAA, SP, Brazil. The IAC collection accesses 21 of cherry tomatoes were used. Each Plot consisted of six plants spaced 0.5 m and 0.9 m between rows, conducted in a randomized block with eight treatments and five repetitions. The treatments were as green manures intercropping or not on cherry tomato, namely: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), dwarf mucuna (Mucuna deeringiana), mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek ), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Besides two witnesses, one without corn straw and another with corn straw. Five leaves with petiole of each plant part during the first ripe fruit and a bunch of fruits per plant are harvested. Samples of leaf and fruit were weighed and dried in an oven of forced air and its dry weight measured. A subsample was ground in a knife mill type Willy and brought to the mass spectrometer (ANCA GSL) on the Stable Isotopes Laboratory of CENA/USP for the analysis of δN-15. It measured the percentage of transfer of N green manure for tomato, the tomato plants grown as monocropped were considered a control and came to the result that 27 % N found in the fruit came from the green manure and the aerial part this figure was 23%. These results show that dur¬ing the fruit set of tomato can occur greater translocation and consequent higher utilization of N from green manure than in the aerial part. This production system can reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The presence of a green manure in treatments not intercropped caused some soil alterations that could be detected in samples collected in the harvesting season. There was an increase in organic matter, Ca, Mg and Zn availability, and consequently in base saturation and pH. The presence

  8. Fruit size QTL analysis of an F1 population derived from a cross between a domesticated sweet cherry cultivar and a wild forest sweet cherry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, G.; Sebolt, A.M.; Sooriyapathirana, S.S.; Wang, D; Bink, M. C. A. M.; Olmstead, J.W.; Iezzoni, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Maximizing fruit size is critical for profitable sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) production. Yet, despite its importance, little is known about the genetic control of fruit size. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fruit size and two essential components of fruit size, mesocarp cell number and size. This study utilized a double pseudo-testcross population derived from reciprocal crosses between a sweet cherry cultivar with ~8 g fruit, ¿Emperor Francis...

  9. Optimal Fluorescence Waveband Determination for Detecting Defective Cherry Tomatoes Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    In-Suck Baek; Kim, Moon S.; Hoosoo Lee; Wang-Hee Lee; Byoung-Kwan Cho

    2014-01-01

    A multi-spectral fluorescence imaging technique was used to detect defective cherry tomatoes. The fluorescence excitation and emission matrix was used to measure for defects, sound surface and stem areas to determine the optimal fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for discrimination. Two-way ANOVA revealed the optimal excitation wavelength for detecting defect areas was 410 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the fluorescence emission spectra of all regions at 4...

  10. Nutraceutical value of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits: antioxidant and antihypertensive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Yahia, Elhadi M; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Rojas-Molina, Adriana; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24287993

  11. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Gene regulation in parthenocarpic tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L; Reagan, Russell L; Chen, Ying; Tricoli, David; Fiehn, Oliver; Rocke, David M; Gasser, Charles S; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2009-01-01

    Parthenocarpy is potentially a desirable trait for many commercially grown fruits if undesirable changes to structure, flavour, or nutrition can be avoided. Parthenocarpic transgenic tomato plants (cv MicroTom) were obtained by the regulation of genes for auxin synthesis (iaaM) or responsiveness (rolB) driven by DefH9 or the INNER NO OUTER (INO) promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana. Fruits at a breaker stage were analysed at a transcriptomic and metabolomic level using microarrays, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a Pegasus III TOF (time of flight) mass spectrometer. Although differences were observed in the shape of fully ripe fruits, no clear correlation could be made between the number of seeds, transgene, and fruit size. Expression of auxin synthesis or responsiveness genes by both of these promoters produced seedless parthenocarpic fruits. Eighty-three percent of the genes measured showed no significant differences in expression due to parthenocarpy. The remaining 17% with significant variation (P parthenocarpy with ovule-specific alteration of auxin synthesis or response driven by the INO promoter could be effectively applied where such changes are commercially desirable. PMID:19700496

  13. Clarification of Tomato Juice with Polygalacturonase Obtained from Tomato Fruits Infected by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, A A; Peter-Albert, C F; Akeredolu, M; Shokunbi, A A

    2015-02-01

    Two varieties of tomato fruits commonly available in Nigerian markets are the Roma VF and Ibadan local varieties of tomato fruits. The Roma VF fruits are oval in shape. It is a common type of cultivar in the Northern region of Nigeria and it is not susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety of tomato fruits is a local variety commonly found on farmers fields in South-western region of Nigeria. They are highly susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety was employed for this research. There are lots of benefits derived from the consumption of tomato fruits. The fruits can be made into tomato juice clarified with pectinases. Polygalacturonase is one of the pectinases used commercially in the clarification of fruit juice from different fruits. This study examined the production of polygalacturonase during the deterioration of tomato fruits by Aspergillus niger and the role of the purified polygalacturonase in the clarification of tomato juice. Tomato fruits of the Ibadan local variety were inoculated with mycelia discs containing spores of a 96-h-old culture of Aspergillus niger served as the inoculum. The organism from the stock culture was subcultured onto potato dextrose agar plates. The extraction of polygalacturonase after 10 days of incubation at 27 degrees C was carried out by homogenizing the fruits with liquid extractant using the MSE homogenizer after the deteriorated fruits had been chilled for 30 min inside a freezer. Control fruits were similarly treated except that sterile potato dextrose agar served as the inoculum. The effect of different temperature of incubation and different volume of enzyme on the tomato juice from the tomato fruits was investigated. Extracts from the inoculated fruits exhibited appreciable polygalacturonase activity. The juice with polygalacturonase was visually clearer and more voluminous than the juice treated with water for all parameters studied. The highest volume of juice was obtained after an incubation period

  14. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.: Situation in Switzerland and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Grunder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU. Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities.

  15. Reduction of MDHAR activity in cherry tomato suppresses growth and yield and MDHAR activity is correlated with sugar levels under high light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truffault, Vincent; Gest, Noé; Garchery, Cécile; Florian, Alexandra; Fernie, Alisdair R; Gautier, Hélène; Stevens, Rebecca G

    2016-06-01

    Ascorbate is oxidized into the radical monodehydroascorbate (MDHA) through ascorbate oxidase or peroxidase activity or non-enzymatically by reactive oxygen species. Regeneration of ascorbate from MDHA is ensured by the enzyme MDHA reductase (MDHAR). Previous work has shown that growth processes and yield can be altered by modifying the activity of enzymes that recycle ascorbate; therefore, we have studied similar processes in cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersium L.) under- or overexpressing MDHAR. Physiological and metabolic characterization of these lines was carried out under different light conditions or by manipulating the source-sink ratio. Independently of the light regime, slower early growth of all organs was observed in MDHAR silenced lines, decreasing final fruit yield. Photosynthesis was altered as was the accumulation of hexoses and sucrose in a light-dependent manner in plantlets. Sucrose accumulation was also repressed in young fruits and final yield of MDHAR silenced lines showed a stronger decrease under carbon limitation, and the phenotype was partially restored by reducing fruit load. Ascorbate and MDHA appear to be involved in control of growth and sugar metabolism in cherry tomato and the associated enzymes could be potential targets for yield improvement. PMID:26510400

  16. Optical and mechanical nondestructive tests for measuring tomato fruit firmness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivel-Chávez, Ricardo A.; Garnica-Romo, M. G.; Arroyo-Correa, Gabriel; Aranda-Sánchez, Jorge I.

    2011-08-01

    Ripening is one of the most important processes to occur in fruits which involve changes in color, flavor, and texture. An important goal in quality control of fruits is to substitute traditional sensory testing methods with reliable nondestructive tests (NDT). In this work we study the firmness of tomato fruits by using optical and mechanical NDT. Optical and mechanical parameters, measured along the tomato shelf life, are shown.

  17. Cultivation of Tomato Tissues Capable of Forming Flowers and Fruits in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galston, Arthur W.

    1998-01-01

    The final phase of this research project was designed to develop a practical method for producing a steady supply of fresh cherry tomato fruits over a period of several months, for possible use as a fresh vegetable supplement to a standard diet of astronauts on extended missions. This effort was successful. We were able to excise immature flowers from Pixie tomato plants grown in a controlled condition room, implant them on artificial media under aseptic conditions, and get them to develop into edible fruits in a little over a month. The medium (Murashige-Skoog) was purchased from Sigma, supplemented with sugar plus a synthetic analog of the plant hormone cytokinin, and adjusted to pH 5.8. A temperature of at least 25 C and visible light helped to produce ripe red fruits within 7 weeks. To ensure a steady supply of such tomatoes, we found it possible to store the explanted flower buds in MS medium at 5 C for at least 6 weeks without significant loss of ability to develop into fruits. This means that many containers could be prepared before launch and put into a refrigerator; a convenient number could then be removed periodically to guarantee a succession of harvests during the life of an extended mission. Details are found in the attached reprints. Subsequent applications for funds for flight or continued research were denied, and the project was terminated.

  18. Melatonin and its potential biological functions in the fruits of sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Tan, Dun-Xian; Lei, Qiong; Chen, Hao; Wang, Lin; Li, Qing-tian; Gao, Yinan; Kong, Jin

    2013-08-01

    Melatonin is a well-known molecule which possesses many beneficial effects on human health. Many agriculture products provide natural melatonin in the diet. Cherry is one such fruit as they are rich in melatonin. In order to understand the biological roles of melatonin in cherry fruit, melatonin synthesis and its changes over 24 hr period were systematically monitored both during their development and in the ripe cherries in two cultivars, 'Hongdeng' (Prunus avium L. cv. Hongdeng) and 'Rainier' (Prunus avium L. cv. Rainier). It was found that both darkness and oxidative stress induced melatonin synthesis, which led to dual melatonin synthetic peaks during a 24 hr period. The high levels of malondialdehyde induced by high temperature and high intensity light exposure were directly related to up-regulated melatonin production. A primary function of melatonin in cherry fruits is speculated to be as an antioxidant to protect the cherry from the oxidative stress. Importantly, plant tryptophan decaboxylase gene (PaTDC) was identified in cherry fruits. Our data shows that PaTDC expression is positively related to the melatonin production in the cherry. This provides additional information to suggest that tryptophan decaboxylase is a rate-limiting enzyme of melatonin synthesis in plants. PMID:23480341

  19. Influence of freezing and storing cherry fruit on its nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vasylyshyna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cherries are a valuable dietary raw material and possess medicinal properties. Considering the nutritional, medical and vitamin value of cherry fruits, the purpose of this research was to produce a scientific justification for preserving the quality of cherry fruits using different freezing methods. Material and methods. To do this, cherry fruits from the Lotovka (Cerasus vulgaris variety were frozen in various ways: packed in polyethylene bags (control; previously suspended in a 20% sugar solution and pack- ing frozen cherry in polyethylene bags; suspended in a 20% sugar solution with the addition of 4% ascorutin and frozen followed by pre-packaging in polyethylene bags; cherry fruits were frozen in a 20% sugar solution in plastic cups of 0.25 cm3; they were also frozen in a 20% sugar solution with the addition of 4% ascorutin in plastic cups. The frozen products were stored at a temperature not higher than –18°C for up to 6 months. Result. Studies have shown the appropriateness of freezing cherry fruits, particularly in a 20% sugar solution with the addition of 4% ascorutin. The advantages of these fruits are in ascorbic acid preservation in 1.5 times and reduction of tanning and coloring substances only by 27%, soluble solids to 7%, sugars – 4%, acids – 12%, in tasting evaluation of 5 points. Conclusions. Frozen cherry fruits in a 20% sugar solution with the addition of 4% ascorutin can be used in dietary nutrition for patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  20. The role of auxin and gibberellin in tomato fruit set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H

    2009-01-01

    The initiation of tomato fruit growth, fruit set, is very sensitive to environmental conditions. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms that regulate this process can facilitate the production of this agriculturally valuable fruit crop. Over the years, it has been well established that tomato fruit set depends on successful pollination and fertilization, which trigger the fruit developmental programme through the activation of the auxin and gibberellin signalling pathways. However, the exact role of each of these two hormones is still poorly understood, probably because only few of the signalling components involved have been identified so far. Recent research on fruit set induced by hormone applications has led to new insights into hormone biosynthesis and signalling. The aim of this review is to consolidate the current knowledge on the role of auxin and gibberellin in tomato fruit set. PMID:19321650

  1. Influence of fruit ripening acceleration measures on flowering and fruiting of small-sized tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobromilska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were carried out in 2001-2003 at the Horticulture Experimental Station, University of Agriculture in Szczecin. The influence of truss cutting and application of Ethrel preparation on the flowering and acceleration of ripening of small-sized tomato fruit was studied. The experiment focused on the following factors: methods of acceleration of tomato fruit ripening (truss cutting, Ethrel preparation, truss cutting + Ethrel preparation and tomato cultivars ('Cheresita F1', 'Favorita F1'. The applied methods had no influence on the number of flowers and germs of the small-sized tomato. The truss cutting increased the percentage of set fruits compared to the number of flowers. The application of Ethrel preparation along with truss cutting significantly increased the early yield of tomato fruits. The Ethrel and truss cutting accelerated the small-sized tomato harvesting by 12 days. Cv. 'Cheresita F1' produced a larger number of flowers, germs and fruits than 'Favorita F1'.

  2. Combined inhibitory effect against postharvest storage rots and their effects on postharvest quality parameters in cherry tomatoes by cassia oil and calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wu; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Jiaping

    2013-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of cassia oil alone or in combination with calcium chloride (CaCl2) against Alternaria alternata in vitro and in vivo was assessed on cherry tomatoes. The results demonstrated that concentrations of CaCl2 ranging from 0.25 to 3% enhanced the inhibitory effects of 200 μl of cassia oil per liter on the growth of A. alternata in vitro. The combination of 0.25% CaCl2 and 500 μl of cassia oil per liter showed a significant inhibition effect on decay development in both wounded artificially infected and unwounded naturally infected fruit. Importantly, these treatments did not reduce the overall quality of tomatoes. Defense-related enzyme activities were also evaluated. The results indicated that cassia oil alone or in combination with CaCl2 significantly enhanced defense-related enzyme activities, such as peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Together, these data suggest that the combination of cassia oil and CaCl2 may be an efficient method to limit cherry tomato decay caused by fungi.

  3. Mathematical modelling of the osmotic dehydration of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme)

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Moreira AZOUBEL; Murr Fernanda E. Xidieh

    2000-01-01

    Osmotic dehydration of cherry tomato as influenced by osmotic agent (sodium chloride and a mixed sodium chloride and sucrose solutions) and solution concentration (10 and 25% w/w) at room temperature (25°C) was studied. Kinetics of water loss and solids uptake were determined by a two parameter model, based on Fick's second law and applied to spherical geometry. The water apparent diffusivity coefficients obtained ranged from 2.17x10-10 to 11.69x10-10 m²/s.

  4. A multivariate statistical analysis coming from the NMR metabolic profile of cherry tomatoes (The Sicilian Pachino case)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallamace, Domenico; Corsaro, Carmelo; Salvo, Andrea; Cicero, Nicola; Macaluso, Andrea; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Dugo, Giacomo

    2014-05-01

    We have studied by means of High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance the metabolic profile of the famous Sicilian cherry tomato of Pachino. Thanks to its organoleptic and healthy properties, this particular foodstuff was the first tomato accredited by the European PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) certification of quality. Due to the relatively high price of the final product commercial frauds originated in the Italian and international markets. Hence, there is a growing interest to develop analytical techniques able to predict the origin of a tomato sample, indicating whether or not it originates from the area of Pachino, Sicily (Italy). In this paper we have determined the molar concentration of the metabolites constituent the PGI cherry tomato of Pachino. Furthermore, by means of a multivariate statistical analysis we have identified which metabolites are relevant for sample differentiation.

  5. Toward a longer shelf life of tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelf life of ripe tomato fruit is economically very important, from production to the marketing chain, since it determines the cash returns to the grower and the grocer/processor. Shelf life of horticultural edible produce, including tomato, is regulated through myriad physiological, biochemical an...

  6. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase and isocitrate lyase in both tomato fruits and leaves, and in the flesh of peach and some other fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiani, Franco; Paoletti, Andrea; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Leegood, Richard C; Walker, Robert P

    2016-09-01

    In this study the occurrence of a number of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis was investigated in both tomato fruits and leaves during their development and senescence and in some other fruits. The enzymes studied were phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) and glyoxysomal isocitrate lyase (ICL). PPDK was detected in the ripe flesh of tomato, and much smaller amounts were detected in the flesh of both peach and pepper, whereas it was not detected (not present or at very low abundance) in the other fruits which were investigated (apricot, aubergine, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, grape, plum, raspberry and red current). By contrast PEPCK was present in the flesh of all the fruits investigated. Very small amounts of ICL were detected in ripe tomato flesh. PEPCK was present in the skin, flesh, locular gel and columella of tomato fruit, and in these its abundance increased greatly during ripening. PPDK showed a similar distribution, however, its abundance did not increase during ripening. PEPCK was not detected in tomato leaves at any stage of their development or senescence. The content of PPDK g(-1) fresh weight (FW) increased in tomato leaves as they matured, however, it declined during their senescence. In tomato leaves the content of ICL g(-1) FW increased until the mid-stage of development, then decreased as the leaf matured, and then increased during the latter stages of senescence. In the flesh of tomato fruits the contents of PPDK and PEPCK g(-1) FW decreased during senescence. The results suggest that in fruits other than tomato the bulk of any gluconeogenic flux proceeds via PEPCK, whereas in tomato both PEPCK and PPDK could potentially be utilised. Further, the results indicate that the conversion of pyruvate/acetyl-CoA to malate by the glyoxylate cycle, for which ICL is necessary, is not a major pathway utilised by gluconeogenesis in fruits under normal conditions of growth. Finally, the results contribute to

  7. Quantitative trait loci pyramiding for fruit quality traits in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Sacco, Adriana; Di Matteo, Antonio; Lombardi, Nadia; Trotta, Nikita; Punzo, Biancavaleria; Mari, Angela; Barone, Amalia

    2012-01-01

    Fruit quality is a major focus for most conventional and innovative tomato breeding strategies, with particular attention being paid to fruit antioxidant compounds. Tomatoes represent a major contribution to dietary nutrition worldwide and a reservoir of diverse antioxidant molecules. In a previous study, we identified two Solanum pennellii introgression lines (IL7-3 and IL12-4) harbouring quantitative trait loci (QTL) that increase the content of ascorbic acid (AsA), phenols and soluble soli...

  8. Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

    2014-12-15

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively. PMID:25038709

  9. Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

    2014-12-15

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively.

  10. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding. PMID:27617019

  11. Expression of ipt gene driven by tomato fruit specific promoter and its effects on fruit development of tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fruit specific promoter (2A12) from Lycopersicom esculentum and cDNA of isopentenyl-transferase (ipt) from Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumerfaciens C58 were cloned by PCR procedure respectively. Two plant expression vectors with 2A12/gus or 2A12/ipt were respectively constructed. These two chimeric genes were transferred into tomato by Agrobacterium mediated procedure. The results of Southern hybridization showed that the fusion genes had been integrated into tomatoes. The result of gus histochemical staining showed that 2A12 had high fruit specific expressive capability in transgenic tomato. The ipt expression resulted in accumulation of high level of cytokinins (CTKs) in fruit lead to developmental changes in fruits and seeds. The fruit of ipt transformed tomato had the hyperplastic placenta with very few seeds or even seedless. The shelf life of transgenic fruits elongated for 1-2 weeks. The ratio of fruit set, the dry weight of fruit and the crude protein content in fruit were increased, while the soluble sugar of fruits decreased.

  12. Tomato fruit chromoplasts behave as respiratory bioenergetic organelles during ripening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert;

    2014-01-01

    During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen....... The effects of Ogal on respiration and ATP levels were also studied in tissue samples. Oxygen uptake of mature green fruit and leaf tissues was not affected by Ogal, but was inhibited increasingly in fruit pericarp throughout ripening (up to 26% in red fruit). Similarly, Ogal caused a significant decrease...... in ATP content of red fruit pericarp. The number of energized mitochondria, as determined by confocal microscopy, strongly decreased in fruit tissue during ripening. Therefore, the contribution of chromoplasts to total fruit respiration appears to increase in late ripening stages....

  13. Changes of Aroma Components in Hongdeng Sweet Cherry During Fruit Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To study the changes of aroma components in sweet cherry during fruit development, the aroma components in sweet cherry fruit from the green stage, the color stage, the commercial stage, and the ripe stage were collected using head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and were analyzed using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrophotometer (GCMS). A total of 37 compounds were identified from the sample extracts. Aldehydes, alcohols, and esters were the major constituents. The aroma components behaved differently during the fruit developmental period. C6 aldehydes and aromatic aldehydes were the main aldehydes in the sweet cherry fruit. The contents of C6 aldehydes increased quickly to 84.16% in the color stage, then decreased as ripening proceeded, and then, the contents decreased to 59.20 and 55.58% at the commercial stage and the ripe stage, respectively. The aromatic aldehydes (benzaldehyde) increased as ripening proceeded, and the maximum was found at the ripe stage. Alcohols of sweet cherry fruit included C6 alcohols and aromatic alcohols. The content of (E)-2-hexen-1-ol increased as ripening proceeded. The maximum was found at the commercial stage; alcohol was only found at the ripe stage. Ester components included ethyl acetate, butanoic acid ethyl ester,hexanoic acid ethyl ester, which increased as the fruit ripened. Hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol,ethyl acetate, and hexanoic acid ethyl ester were the characteristic aroma components of sweet cherry fruit. These aroma components started to form drastically at the color stage, and the main aroma was formed at the commercial stage, which then turned bad at the ripe stage because of the presence of alcohol. So the optimal harvest time of sweet cherry was at the commercial stage.

  14. Organic acid metabolism and related genes expression in cherry tomato fruit under different nitrogen fertilization using semi-quantitative RT-PCR%半定量RT-PCR研究氮素形态对樱桃番茄果实中有机酸代谢相关酶基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆余; 徐新娟; 朱毅勇; 董彩霞; 沈其荣

    2011-01-01

    研究了全硝(100%NO3-)、铵硝配施(75%NO3-:25%NH4+)及全铵(100%NH4+)营养对樱桃番茄果实有机酸含量的影响,测定了与有机酸合成相关的磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶(PEPC)、柠檬酸合成酶(CS)、苹果酸脱氢酶(MDH)活性变化,并利用RT-PCR检测了相应的基因在转录水平上的表达差异.结果表明,1)全硝和铵硝配施处理下果实柠檬酸含量在整个生育期均显著高于全铵处理,而铵硝配施处理下果实中柠檬酸和苹果酸含量在成熟期均显著低于全硝处理.2)不同形态氮素及配施处理下,果实中柠檬酸含量与CS活性的变化趋势均呈单峰型,但到达峰值的时间不同.全铵处理下果实苹果酸含量与PEPC活性呈显著正相关,全硝、铵硝配施处理下果实苹果酸和柠檬酸含量都与MDH活性呈显著正相关.3)在膨大期和成熟期,全硝处理和铵硝配施处理下PEPC基因(PPC1、PPC2)表达显著高于全铵处理;线粒体苹果酸脱氢酶(mMDH)的表达对果实苹果酸脱氢酶活性和苹果酸积累起主要作用,表明适当比例的铵硝配施可能通过影响果实中PEPC和MDH的活性和基因表达从而显著降低成熟果实有机酸的含量.%Cherry tomatoes were grown in a matrix-nutrient solution co-culture systems with 100% nitrate (NO3-), 100% ammonium (NH4+) and 75% NO3-:25% NH4+ as the N source. The effects of the nitrogen (N) forms on the contents of organic acids, the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC), citrate synthase (CS) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and their transcriptional expression patterns were investigated during the development of the fruit. The results are as follows: 1 ) During the development of the fruit, citrate contents under the treatments of 100% NO3-and 75% NO3-:25% NH4+ are always significantly higher than that under the treatment of 100% NH4+, while the contents of citrate and malate in mature fruits under the 75% NO3-:25% NH4

  15. 76 FR 61340 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 31577-31578, Docket No. APHIS- 2011-0039), in which we announced the availability, for... Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit From South Africa Into the Continental United States AGENCY... cherry, and plumcot fruit from South Africa. Based ] on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which...

  16. Studies on Processing Technology of Cherry-tomato Wine Fermentation Technology%樱桃番茄果酒加工工艺技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖春玲; 李桂峰; 尉丰婵; 王婷婷

    2011-01-01

    以樱桃番茄果实为原料、酿造樱桃番茄果酒为目的,对影响樱桃番茄果酒品质的关键工艺参数进行研究.结果表明:按照0.025%的比例向压榨后的果汁中添加果胶酶,并在50℃下保温1 h.取100 mL的果汁,其内加入20 g白砂糖,添加柠檬酸至pH 3.6、偏重亚硫酸钾至SO2质量浓度为110 mg/L;主发酵温度22℃,发酵7天,后发酵温度16℃,发酵10天;10℃下陈酿,最后在75℃下,杀菌15 min,得到果香浓郁、色泽金黄、澄清透明的优质樱桃番茄果酒.%The fermentation technology of cherry tomato wine with the pure cherry tomato juice and the key technology parameters which have effect on the product quality were studied. The results showed that: in accordance with the ratio of 0.025% to the press after the juice to add patinas, and 50℃ under the insulation role of 1 h, take 100 mL of fruit juice, add the sugar 20 g, add citric acid to pH 3.6, emphasis on sub-quality potassium sulfate concentration of SO2 to 110 mg/L, controlling respectively, main fermentation temperature and back fermentation temperature at 22℃ for 7 days and 16℃ for 10 days and aging for 2-3 months at 10℃,pH was adjusted with citric acid. Add the optimal quantity of K2S2O3 sulfate concentration of SO2 to 110 mg/L.The new fermentation cherry tomato wine was clarified with compound glutens-tannin clarifying agent. After sterilization at 75℃ for 15 min, the cherry tomato wine with full-bodied flavor, golden-yellow color, high quality and good clarification level was obtained.

  17. Metabolite Profiling of Italian Tomato Landraces with Different Fruit Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldina, Svetlana; Picarella, Maurizio E.; Troise, Antonio D.; Pucci, Anna; Ruggieri, Valentino; Ferracane, Rosalia; Barone, Amalia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Mazzucato, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Increased interest toward traditional tomato varieties is fueled by the need to rescue desirable organoleptic traits and to improve the quality of fresh and processed tomatoes in the market. In addition, the phenotypic and genetic variation preserved in tomato landraces represents a means to understand the genetic basis of traits related to health and organoleptic aspects and improve them in modern varieties. To establish a framework for this approach, we studied the content of several metabolites in a panel of Italian tomato landraces categorized into three broad fruit type classes (flattened/ribbed, pear/oxheart, round/elongate). Three modern hybrids, corresponding to the three fruit shape typologies, were included as reference. Red ripe fruits were morphologically characterized and biochemically analyzed for their content in glycoalkaloids, phenols, amino acids, and Amadori products. The round/elongate types showed a higher content in glycoalkaloids, whereas flattened types had higher levels of phenolic compounds. Flattened tomatoes were also rich in total amino acids and in particular in glutamic acid. Multivariate analysis of amino acid content clearly separated the three classes of fruit types. Making allowance of the very low number of genotypes, phenotype-marker relationships were analyzed after retrieving single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the landraces available in the literature. Sixty-six markers were significantly associated with the studied traits. The positions of several of these SNPs showed correspondence with already described genomic regions and QTLs supporting the reliability of the association. Overall the data indicated that significant changes in quality-related metabolites occur depending on the genetic background in traditional tomato germplasm, frequently according to specific fruit shape categories. Such a variability is suitable to harness association mapping for metabolic quality traits using this germplasm as an experimental

  18. Metabolite Profiling of Italian Tomato Landraces with Different Fruit Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana eBaldina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest towards traditional tomato varieties is fueled by the need to rescue desirable organoleptic traits and to improve the quality of fresh and processed tomatoes in the market. In addition, the phenotypic and genetic variation preserved in tomato landraces represents a means to understand the genetic basis of traits related to health and organoleptic aspects and improve them in modern varieties. To establish a framework for this approach, we studied the content of several metabolites in a panel of Italian tomato landraces categorized into three broad fruit type classes (flattened/ribbed, pear/oxheart, round/elongate. Three modern hybrids, corresponding to the three fruit shape typologies, were included as reference. Red ripe fruits were morphologically characterized and biochemically analyzed for their content in glycoalkaloids, phenols, amino acids and Amadori products. The round/elongate types showed a higher content in glycoalkaloids, whereas flattened types had higher levels of phenolic compounds. Flattened tomatoes were also rich in total amino acids and in particular in glutamic acid. Multivariate analysis of amino acid content clearly separated the three classes of fruit types. Making allowance of the very low number of genotypes, phenotype-marker relationships were analyzed after retrieving single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among the landraces available in the literature. Sixty-six markers were significantly associated with the studied traits. The positions of several of these SNPs showed correspondence with already described genomic regions and QTLs supporting the reliability of the association. Overall the data indicated that significant changes in quality-related metabolites occur depending on the genetic background in traditional tomato germplasm, frequently according to specific fruit shape categories. Such a variability is suitable to harness association mapping for metabolic quality traits using this germplasm

  19. Antioxidative and antiviral properties of flowering cherry fruits (Prunus serrulata L. var. spontanea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Jung-Eun; Shin, Hyun-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The phenolic compounds of many fruits have been known to be efficient cellular protective antioxidants. In this study, antioxidative and antiviral properties of flowering cherry cultivars (Prunus yedoensis, Prunus sargentii, Prunus lannesiana, and Prunus cerasus) in Korea were investigated. The antioxidant property was assayed for specific activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) hydroxy radical scavenging activity, reducing power capacity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) like activity. In addition, antiviral activity was determined by inhibition studies on the infection cycle of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), measured as minimum concentration of cherry extracts that inhibited 50% of cytopathic effect (CPE) on PEDV. Our results show that the four varieties of cherries contain substantially high antioxidants and antiviral activities. In particular, P. cerasus contains higher antioxidants and antiviral activities as well as polyphenolic content than other varieties. Our data indicate that Korean native cherry cultivars could be beneficial supplements of dietary antioxidants and natural antiviral agents. PMID:20821824

  20. Suicidal tomato cells : programmed cell death in suspension-cultured tomato cells and ripening fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeberichts, F.A.

    2002-01-01

     Tomato fruit ripening involves a series of highly organised biochemical, physiological and structural changes that are under strict genetic control. The plant hormone ethylene (C 2 H 4 ), in synergy with certain developmental cues, regulates fruit ripening b

  1. 圣女果分段式变温变湿热风干燥特性%Dried characteristics of cherry tomatoes using temperature and humidity by stages changed hot-air drying method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆惠; 李忠新; 杨劲松; 谢龙; 张世湘; 高振江

    2014-01-01

    Cherry tomato decays easily. Generally, it can be preserved only for 5-7days under normal pressure and temperature. The dehydration of cherry tomatoes into dried or preserved fruits can prolong their shelf life and enrich the market of the fruit. Currently, cherry tomatoes is dehydrated through natural drying. The advantage of this method is simple, and low cost. But the drying time is long and is affected by the climate and sanitary conditions. The product quality is difficult to control. In order to shorten the drying time and prevent mildew, cherry tomatoes are often soaked or sprayed with the alkaline solution. These chemicals are bad for our health. Multi-stage temperature-and-humidity drying is conducted through the material drying characteristics. This method can speed up the drying rate, improve drying quality, and reduce energy consumption. It has been successfully applied for apricot,lyceum barbarum, grapes and other materials. In this study, internal recycling hot-air drying technology was employed for the drying of cherry tomatoes. The effects of drying temperatures, humidity, drying stages and slicing forms on the drying characteristics and the appearance quality of the cherry tomatoes were investigated. Each experiment was composed of four drying stages. The drying temperatures were fixed, the humidity of the environment was changed in processⅠ,Ⅱ andⅢ. The drying temperature was low, the humidity was high at the beginning of processⅣ. Gradually, the temperature was raised, the humidity was reduced. At the end of the process, the drying temperature was higher, the humidity was lower compared with their values at the beginning. The experimental results indicated that pre-heated and falling rate periods exist during the drying of cherry tomato. Previous studies only shown falling rate period. The increase in temperature and humidity has bad effects on the nutrition, color and the appearance quality of cherry tomato. Even though cherry tomato can

  2. Roles of Flavonoid Compounds in Determining the Shelf Life of Tomato Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the role of flavonoid compounds in determining the shelf life of tomato fruit. Shelf life is one of the most important traits for tomato industry. Although there are many approaches to enhance the post-harvest performance of tomato fruit, most of them would have side effects such as reducing fruit quality. My work showed that accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato fruit by over expressing Delila and Rosea 1, two transcriptional factors from Antirrhinum maju...

  3. Relation between polyphenols content and skin colour in sour cherry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljevac Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit skin colour plays a major role in quality assessment of food, significantly determining consumer`s choice. Colour of sour cherries depends on anthocyanins which are phenolic compounds (flavonoids present in high amounts in fruits. The aim of this study was to determine a possible relation between polyphenols (total phenolics and anthocyanins and colour parameters of fruit skin of sour cherries. The plant material used in this study was twenty two sour cherry genotypes from an orchard of Agricultural Institute Osijek. Total phenolics and anthocyanins contents as well as colour parameters (L*, a*, b*, h and C of fruit skin were determined. Variability between sour cherry genotypes in total phenolics and anthocyanins as well as in colour parameters was revealed. Total polyphenols content varied from 462.7 to 1049.0 mg GAE/100 g of fresh weight, while total anthocyanins ranged from 160.1 to 495.6 mg CGE/100 g of fresh weight. A significant positive correlation was found between polyphenols and anthocyanins content. Total phenolics content had a significant negative correlation with colour parameters b* and h, while anthocyanins content negatively correlated with colour parameters L*, b* and h. According to the obtained results, genotypes Maraska, Heimanns Konservenweichsel and Rexelle are the richest genotypes in polyphenols and anthocyanins content.

  4. Effect of backcrossing on fruit quality and resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) disease in some tomato (solanum spp.) varieties and breeding lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were carried out to develop (3) three backcross breeding lines of tomato which were evaluated alongside their respective F3 hybrid lines and parental lines for fruit quality characteristics and resistance to TYLCV disease in Ghana. The backcrosses F3 hybrids and their parental lines together with the wild tomato (Solanum pimpinellifolium L), which was used as source of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) resistance genes, were evaluated on the field for fruit quality characteristics and resistance to TYLCV disease in the dry season (December, 2011 to April, 2012). Percent success for backcrossses ranged from 32.26% to 41.18% and fruit set occurred within 3 - 5 days after hand pollination in the field. The three backcross generations (Roma x RW, Woso x WW and Cherry Red x CRW) showed improved fruit characteristics as well as resistance to TYLCV in comparison to the hybrid and parental lines. The backcross lines also recorded higher physico - chemical attributes such as vitamin C content, Brix, Total Titratable acidity and Dry matter compared to the hybrid lines.The use of two established laboratory techniques, namely Tripple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detected and confirmed the virus in the symptomless Wild Tomato, the hybrid and all backcross lines. These results indicate that they are symptomless carriers of the virus. It is suggested that further improvements must be made on the backcross lines to develop new varieties which combine desirable fruit characteristics to resistance to TYLCVD for release as commercial varieties. (au)

  5. Grape Tomato Cultivar Evaluation for Northern Indiana, 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Four grape tomato varieties were evaluated in a replicated trial at the Pinney-Purdue Agricultural Center in Wanatah, Indiana. A fifth grape variety and one cherry variety were observed in unreplicated plots. Yield, plant, and fruit characteristics are reported.

  6. Native bees pollinate tomato flowers and increase fruit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Araújo Ribeiro Bergamini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The tomato plant has a specific relationship with native pollinators because the form of its flowers is adapted to buzz pollination carried out by some pollen-gatherer bees that vibrate their indirect flight muscles to obtain that floral resource. The absence and the low density of these bees in tomato fields can lead to pollination deficits for crop. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that open tomato flowers, probably visited by native pollinator, have greater pollen load on their stigma than unvisited flowers. Another objective is to show that this great pollen load increases fruit production. We selected crops of the Italian tomato cultivar in areas of the State of Goiás, Brazil. Thirty seven plants of three crops each had one inflorescence bagged in the field. Bagged and non-bagged flowers had their stigmas collected and the amount of pollen on their surfaces was quantified. For the comparison of fruit production, we monitored bagged and not-bagged inflorescences and after 40 days, their fruits were counted, weighed, measured and had their seeds counted. The amount of pollen grains on the stigma of flowers available to pollinators was higher than that on the stigma of bagged flowers. On average, fruit production was larger in not-bagged inflorescences than in bagged inflorescences. In addition, not-bagged flowers produced heavier fruits than did bagged flowers. There was a significant difference in the number of seeds between treatments, with significantly more seeds in the non-bagged fruit. Our results show that native bees buzz-pollinate tomato flowers, increasing the pollen load on their stigma and consequently fruit production and quality.

  7. Increasing tomato fruit quality by enhancing fruit chloroplast function. A double-edged sword?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaliadis, Maria Florencia; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Pons, Clara; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Fruits are generally regarded as photosynthate sinks as they rely on energy provided by sugars transported from leaves to carry out the highly demanding processes of development and ripening; eventually these imported photosynthates also contribute to the fruit organoleptic properties. Three recent reports have revealed, however, that transcriptional factors enhancing chloroplast development in fruit may result in higher contents not only of tomato fruit-specialized metabolites but also of sugars. In addition to suggesting new ways to improve fruit quality by fortifying fruit chloroplasts and plastids, these results prompted us to re-evaluate the importance of the contribution of chloroplasts/photosynthesis to fruit development and ripening.

  8. Silencing of DELLA induces facultative parthenocarpy in tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Cristina; Orzáez, Diego; Ellul, Philippe; Moreno, Vicente; Carbonell, Juan; Granell, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    DELLA proteins are plant nuclear factors that restrain growth and proliferation in response to hormonal signals. The effects of the manipulation of the DELLA pathway in the making of a berry-like fruit were investigated. The expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana gain-of-function DELLA allele Atgai (del) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) produced partially sterile dwarf plants and compacted influorescences, as expected for a constitutively activated growth repressor. In contrast, antisense silencing of the single endogenous tomato DELLA gene homologue (SlDELLA) produced slender-like plants with elongated flower trusses. Interestingly, the depletion of SlDELLA in tomato was sufficient to overcome the growth arrest normally imposed on the ovary at anthesis, resulting in parthenocarpic fruits in the absence of pollination. Antisense SlDELLA-engineered fruits were smaller in size and elongated in shape compared with wild type. Cell number estimations showed that fruit set, resulting from reduced SlDELLA expression, arose from activated cell elongation at the longitudinal and lateral axes of the fruit pericarp, bypassing phase-II (post-pollination) cell divisions. Parthenocarpy caused by SlDELLA depletion is facultative, as hand pollination restored wild-type fruit phenotype. This indicates that fertilization-associated SlDELLA-independent signals are operational in ovary-fruit transitions. SlDELLA was also found to restrain growth in other reproductive structures, affecting style elongation, stylar hair primordial growth and stigma development. PMID:17883372

  9. Interaction Between Cryptococcus laurentii, Monilinia fructicola, and Sweet Cherry Fruit at Different Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed mainly to investigate the antagonist-pathogen-host interaction in wounds of the sweet cherry fruits. The antagonistic yeast Cryptococcus laurentii could significantly reduce the brown rot of the sweet cherry fruit caused by Monilinia fructicola at 25 and 1℃. The populations of yeast increased faster in the presence of the pathogen initially, but then decreased rapidly. In the fruits inoculated with M. Fructicola alone or combined with C. Laurentii, an induction of lipid peroxidation as well as activities of the antioxidant enzymes, such as, superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD), was observed. The isoenzyme pattern of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) changed greatly after the symptoms appeared, with new PPO isoforms being induced. By contrast, the induction of lipid peroxidation and activities of SOD, CAT, and POD were low, although no significant changes were found in the PPO isoenzyms in the fruits inoculated with antagonist C. Laurentii alone. The inhibition of brown rot during the antagonist pathogen-host interaction in wounds of the sweet cherry fruits was mainly on account of the stimulated growth of C. Laurentii as well as the induction of antioxidant enzymes of the fruits by M. Fructicola.

  10. Cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of sour chgahtvy (Prunus cerasus L.) "Montmorency" and sweet cherry rootstocks "Gisela 6" and "Gisela 7" (P. cerasus × P. canescens) is described. Briefly, leaf explants from in vitro shoots are cocultivated with A. tumefaciens either directly (for "Gisela 6" and "Gisela 7") or after pretreatment (for "Montmorency") on cocultivation medium; selection and regeneration of transformed shoots are carried out on selection medium containing 50 mg/L kanamycin (Km) and 250 mg/L timentin (or cefotaxime) for 3-5 months. In this protocol, the optimal media for shoot proliferation and shoot regeneration from leaf explants are genotype dependent. PMID:25416255

  11. Chilling and host plant/site associated eclosion times of Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...

  12. Red and blue LED weak light irradiation maintaining quality of cherry tomatoes during cold storage%LED红蓝弱光照射保持樱桃番茄冷库贮藏品质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷静; 张娜; 阎瑞香; 许立兴; 李莹; 关文强

    2016-01-01

    blue light kept good sensory quality (P<0.05). LED blue light irradiation could significantly inhibit the decrease of Vc content (P<0.05) in cherry tomato during storage compared with the control treatment, while the cherry tomatoes irradiated by LED red light showed lower Vc content than the control. LED red and blue light irradiation could lead to the accumulation of reducing sugar and total soluble sugar in cherry tomato during the early stage of storage, and reducing sugar and total soluble sugar content reached the highest on the 10th day. The contents of reducing sugar and total soluble sugar in cherry tomatoes decreased gradually between the 10th and the 20th day, while it was higher in the tomatoes irradiated by LED red and blue weak light than that in the control during the whole storage (P<0.05). Compared to the control, LED red and blue light irradiation could significantly delay the decrease of total soluble solids content and titratable acid content in cherry tomato (P<0.05), and LED red light had significantly higher effect than LED blue light (P<0.05). LED red light irradiation could lead to significantly higher lycopene content on the 20th day, while there was no significant difference between LED blue light and the control during storage. In comparison with the control treatment, LED red and blue weak light irradiation was beneficial for controlling the sensory and nutritional quality of cherry tomato at 4℃, completing the ripening process, and keeping the normal postharvest physiological metabolism. LED red weak light irradiation had the best effect among the treatments. In conclusion, LED red and blue weak light irradiation, as a simple and effective postharvest method, has the potential of application in the postharvest quality control of cherry tomato. The results provide the basis for sensory and nutritional quality control of fresh fruits and vegetables during cold storage.%为了探究单色光对番茄冷藏过程中品质的影响,开发

  13. Senescence of rin, rin/rin, rin/+ and +/+ tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ripening inhibitor (rin gene is a spontaneous recessive mutant which changes fruit ripening aspects (most important synthesis of carotene, especially lycopene. It also delays fruit senescence. Tomato is a vegetable crop with specific maturing climax (pik. Tomato genotypes homozygote for rin gene does not have this maturing climax, so the ethyl-ene production and red, lycopene colour does not appear. In order to research the maturing process material from the final tomato selection cycle we used: pure line S-49 (genetic constitution u/u, with uniform ripening, line hom 4 (rin/rin, homozygote with ripening inhibitor and hybrid combination 449 Fl (u/rin, heterozygote for ripening inhibitor. Fruits with uniform ripening and hybrids ripened simultaneously, while homozygote with rin gene did not ripe at all. Ethylene stimulates the appearance of yellow colour in rin fruits and the lycopene production. After treatment with ETEPHONE (0.1% (Ethylene fruits with uniform ripening, senescence more quickly, while hybrids senescence slowly. Rin homozygotes did not change colors, but the fruits senescence more quickly comparing to control. Ethylene treatment speeded the maturing and senescence process in tomato fruits. Extended maturing process as a result influence of rin gene, makes the new created hybrids a late maturing ones. On the other hand, the firmness of fruits is improved as well as the "shelf life", which enables longer transportation and storing, coordinated maturing according to market demands. The aim was to research the maturing according to market demands. The aim was to research the maturing process of rin heteroyzgote, and the reaction of some genotypes to treatment with RT-REL (Ethzlene in order to decrease extremely late maturing.

  14. The Use of Synthetic Sweeteners in Cherry and Orange Fruit Drinks (Turkish with English Abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    in the present study aspartame, acesulfame K and aspartame + acesulfame K (1+1) are used instead of sucrose in cherry and orange beverages prepared at different brix values and the preferences of the panel at different sweetener and fruit ratio levels were investigated by using ranking test. The statistical evaluation of the results have shown that the 6 brix cherry drink and 5 brix orange drink plus 350 mg/l aspartame + acesulfame K combinations were preferred (P<0.05) by the panelist...

  15. Tomato Fruits-A Platform for Metabolic Engineering of Terpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutensohn, M; Dudareva, N

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoids are a large and diverse class of plant metabolites including mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes. They have numerous functions in basic physiological processes as well as the interaction of plants with their biotic and abiotic environment. Due to the tight regulation of biosynthetic pathways and the resulting limited natural availability of terpenes, there is a strong interest in increasing their production in plants by metabolic engineering for agricultural, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications. The tomato fruit system was developed as a platform for metabolic engineering of terpenes to overcome detrimental effects on overall plant growth and photosynthesis traits, which are affected when terpenoid engineering is performed in vegetative tissues. Here we describe how the use of fruit-specific promoters for transgene expression can avoid these unwanted effects. In addition, targeting the expression of the introduced terpene biosynthetic gene to fruit tissue can take advantage of the large precursor pool provided by the methylerythritol-phosphate (MEP) pathway, which is highly active during tomato fruit ripening to facilitate the accumulation of carotenoids. We also discuss how the production of high levels of target terpene compounds can be achieved in fruits by the expression of individual or a combination of (i) the MEP or mevalonic acid pathway enzymes, (ii) prenyltransferases, and/or (iii) terpene synthases. Finally, we provide a brief outline of how the emitted as well as internal pools of terpenes can be analyzed in transgenic tomato fruits. PMID:27480692

  16. Behavioral responses, rate of mortality, and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly exposed to Malathion, Zeta-cypermethrin, and Spinetoram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of sweet and tart cherry, Prunus avium L. (L.) and P. cerasus L., respectively, in western North America. This fly is commonly controlled with spinosad bait sprays, but these sprays are ineffective against sp...

  17. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  18. Soil moisture and relative humidity effects during post-diapause on emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in western North America that is found in relatively moist and dry habitats. In this study, fly pupae from Kennewick and Roslyn in Washington state, U.S.A., were used to test the hypotheses tha...

  19. Genetics and control of tomato fruit ripening and quality attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process coinciding with seed maturation. Regulated expression of thousands of genes controls fruit softening as well as accumulation of pigments, sugars, acids and volatile compounds that increase attraction to animals. A combination of molecular...

  20. Multiple forms of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B. Y.; Janes, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) was purified from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit to apparent homogeneity. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the enzyme migrated as two close bands with molecular weights of 50,000 and 51,000. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the purified enzyme, however, revealed at least five major protein spots that could be distinguished by their slight differences in net charge and molecular weight. Whereas all of the spots were recognized by the antiserum raised against tomato fruit AGP holoenzyme, only three of them reacted strongly with antiserum raised against the potato tuber AGP large subunit, and the other two spots (with lower molecular weights) reacted specifically with antisera raised against spinach leaf AGP holoenzyme and the potato tuber AGP small subunit. The results suggest the existence of at least three isoforms of the AGP large subunit and two isoforms of the small subunit in tomato fruit in vivo. The native molecular mass of the enzyme determined by gel filtration was 220 +/- 10 kD, indicating a tetrameric structure for AGP from tomato fruit. The purified enzyme is very sensitive to 3-phosphoglycerate/inorganic phosphate regulation.

  1. Molecular Biology of ethylene during tomato fruit development and maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phytohormone ethylene plays critical roles in many developmental events and environmental responses of plants. Climacteric fruits such as tomato, apple or pears, are characterized by a ripening-related increase in respiration and elevated ethylene synthesis to rapidly coordinate and synchronize ...

  2. Quantitative trait loci pyramiding for fruit quality traits in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Adriana; Di Matteo, Antonio; Lombardi, Nadia; Trotta, Nikita; Punzo, Biancavaleria; Mari, Angela; Barone, Amalia

    2013-01-01

    Fruit quality is a major focus for most conventional and innovative tomato breeding strategies, with particular attention being paid to fruit antioxidant compounds. Tomatoes represent a major contribution to dietary nutrition worldwide and a reservoir of diverse antioxidant molecules. In a previous study, we identified two Solanum pennellii introgression lines (IL7-3 and IL12-4) harbouring quantitative trait loci (QTL) that increase the content of ascorbic acid (AsA), phenols and soluble solids (degrees Brix; °Bx) in tomato fruit. The purpose of the present work was to pyramid into cultivated varieties the selected QTL for enhanced antioxidant and °Bx content. To better understand the genetic architecture of each QTL, the two ILs were crossed to the recurrent parent M82 (ILH7-3 and ILH12-4) and between them (ILH7-3+12-4). F1 hybrids (ILH7-3+12-4) were then selfed up to obtain F3 progenies in order to stabilize the favourable traits at the homozygous condition. Species-specific molecular markers were identified for each introgressed region and allowed us to select four F2 genotypes carrying both introgressions at the homozygous condition. The F3 double homozygous plants displayed AsA, total phenols and °Bx content significantly higher than M82. Therefore, they may represent suitable genetic material for breeding schemes aiming to increase antioxidant content in tomato fruit. PMID:23316114

  3. Characterization of cell wall polysaccharides of cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Monika; Milala, Joanna; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Markowski, Jarosław; Mieszczakowska, Monika; Ginies, Christian; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2009-12-01

    The polysaccharide composition of cell wall of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace was investigated. Furthermore, the alcohol insoluble solids composition of 'Kelleriis' and 'Dobreczyn Botermo' varieties were studied too. Yield of alcohol insoluble solids for fruits was lower than 10%, and for pomaces circa 50%. Uronic acid was the main pectin component of alcohol insoluble solids. Enzymes used as juice processing aids decreased the content of uronic acid. Araban and galactan side chains bonded tightly to cellulose presence was suggested by high content of arabinose and galactose in hemicellulose fraction. The process of drying at below 70 degrees C did not influence polysaccharide composition of sour cherry pomaces. Alcohol insoluble solids of fruits expressed higher hydration properties than of pomaces. PMID:19757068

  4. Roles and regulation of cytokinins in tomato fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Kaori; Fukuda, Machiko; Honda, Ichiro; Imanishi, Shunsuke

    2012-09-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) are thought to play important roles in fruit development, especially cell division. However, the mechanisms and regulation of CK activity have not been well investigated. This study analysed CK concentrations and expression of genes involved in CK metabolism in developing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ovaries. The concentrations of CK ribosides and isopentenyladenine and the transcript levels of the CK biosynthetic genes SlIPT3, SlIPT4, SlLOG6, and SlLOG8 were high at anthesis and decreased immediately afterward. In contrast, trans-zeatin concentration and the transcript levels of the CK biosynthetic genes SlIPT1, SlIPT2, SlCYP735A1, SlCYP735A2, and SlLOG2 increased after anthesis. The expression of type-A response regulator genes was high in tomato ovaries from pre-anthesis to early post-anthesis stages. These results suggest that the CK signal transduction pathway is active in the cell division phase of fruit development. This study also investigated the effect of CK application on fruit set and development. Application of a synthetic CK, N-(2-chloro-pyridin-4-yl)-N'-phenylurea (CPPU), to unpollinated tomato ovaries induced parthenocarpic fruit development. The CPPU-induced parthenocarpic fruits were smaller than pollinated fruits, because of reduction of pericarp cell size rather than reduced cell number. Thus, CPPU-induced parthenocarpy was attributable to the promotion of cell division, not cell expansion. Overall, the results provide evidence that CKs are involved in cell division during development of tomato fruit. PMID:22865911

  5. Tomato FRUITFULL homologs regulate fruit ripening via ethylene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Yoko; Fujisawa, Masaki; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Nakamura, Toshihide; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Certain MADS-box transcription factors play central roles in regulating fruit ripening. RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), a tomato MADS-domain protein, acts as a global regulator of ripening, affecting the climacteric rise of ethylene, pigmentation changes, and fruit softening. Previously, we showed that two MADS-domain proteins, the FRUITFULL homologs FUL1 and FUL2, form complexes with RIN. Here, we characterized the FUL1/FUL2 loss-of-function phenotype in co-suppressed plants. The transgenic plants produced ripening-defective fruits accumulating little or no lycopene. Unlike a previous study on FUL1/FUL2 suppressed tomatoes, our transgenic fruits showed very low levels of ethylene production, and this was associated with suppression of the genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene synthesis. FUL1/FUL2 suppression also caused the fruit to soften in a manner independent of ripening, possibly due to reduced cuticle thickness in the peel of the suppressed tomatoes.

  6. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding. PMID:27617019

  7. Tomato chilling injury threshold defined by the volatile profiles of pink harvested tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh tomato fruit show visible symptoms of chilling injury (CI) when stored at temperatures lower than the reported chilling threshold of 12.5°C. However, their sensitivity has been reported to decrease as they ripen. Volatile profiles change during ripening and are affected by physiological change...

  8. A reevaluation of the key factors that influence tomato fruit softening and integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Saladie, M.; Matas, A; Isaacson, T.; Jenks, M.; Goodwin, S.; Niklas, K.; Xiaolin, R.; Labavitch, J.; Shackel, K.; Fernie, A.; Lytovchenko, A.; O'Neill, M.; Watkins, C.; Rose, J.

    2007-01-01

    The softening of fleshy fruits, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), during ripening is generally reported to result principally from disassembly of the primary cell wall and middle lamella. However, unsuccessful attempts to prolong fruit firmness by suppressing the expression of a range of wall-modifying proteins in transgenic tomato fruits do not support such a simple model. 'Delayed Fruit Deterioration' (DFD) is a previously unreported tomato cultivar that provides a unique opportunity t...

  9. Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity and Color of Hydroponic Tomato Fruits at Different Stages of Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta NOUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in order to study the simultaneous effect of on-vine ripening and examined cultivars on fruit quality, color development and antioxidant content in two different types of tomatoes. ‘Admiro’ and ‘Komet’ (normal average fruit weight and ‘Cheramy’ (cherry type cultivars grown in hydroponic culture were used. Dry matter, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, lycopene, b-carotene, total phenolic, total flavonoid content and hydrophilic antioxidant activity were measured in six ripening stages. Color of fruits was determined by CIELab system. The L*, a*, b* values were used to calculate hue angle (ho, chroma (C* and a* to b* ratio. In all analysed cultivars total phenolic content increased as ripening progressed, reached the maximum at the pink stage and subsequently declined, while the trend of ascorbic acid was cultivar dependent. DPPH radical scavenging activity showed significant moderately strong positive correlations with total phenolics and ascorbic acid. The content of β-carotene increased constantly during ripening while lycopene content registered a sharp rise, especially in the last stage of ripening when 47.2% of the lycopene content was accumulated. During ripening the lightness (L* decreased because tomato fruit colour became darker while the ratio of red to green colour increased as a result of carotenoids synthesis. Among color indexes, hue angle (ho was best correlated with lycopene content (r = −0.758, followed by a* (r = 0.748, C* (r = 0.708 and a*/b* (r = 0.683. Better correlations were established between main carotenoids content (lycopene + b-carotene and each of the color indexes.

  10. Transition of phenolics and cyanogenic glycosides from apricot and cherry fruit kernels into liqueur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senica, Mateja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2016-07-15

    Popular liqueurs made from apricot/cherry pits were evaluated in terms of their phenolic composition and occurrence of cyanogenic glycosides (CGG). Analyses consisted of detailed phenolic and cyanogenic profiles of cherry and apricot seeds as well as beverages prepared from crushed kernels. Phenolic groups and cyanogenic glycosides were analyzed with the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrophotometry (MS). Lower levels of cyanogenic glycosides and phenolics have been quantified in liqueurs compared to fruit kernels. During fruit pits steeping in the alcohol, the phenolics/cyanogenic glycosides ratio increased and at the end of beverage manufacturing process higher levels of total analyzed phenolics were detected compared to cyanogenic glycosides (apricot liqueur: 38.79 μg CGG per ml and 50.57 μg phenolics per ml; cherry liqueur 16.08 μg CGG per ml and 27.73 μg phenolics per ml). Although higher levels of phenolics are characteristic for liqueurs made from apricot and cherry pits these beverages nevertheless contain considerable amounts of cyanogenic glycosides. PMID:26948641

  11. Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eKiferle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fruits with iodine. Increasing concentrations of iodine supplied as KI or KIO3 were administered to plants as root treatments and the iodine accumulation in fruits was measured. The influences of the soil organic matter content or the nitrate level in the nutritive solution were analyzed. Finally, yield and qualitative properties of the biofortified tomatoes were considered, as well as the possible influence of fruit storage and processing on the iodine content. Results showed that the use of both the iodized salts induced a significant increase in the fruit’s iodine content in doses that did not affect plant growth and development. The final levels ranged from a few mg up to 10 mg iodine kg-1 fruit fresh weight and are more than adequate for a biofortification program, since 150 µg iodine per day is the recommended dietary allowance for adults. In general, the iodine treatments scarcely affected fruit appearance and quality, even with the highest concentrations applied. In contrast, the use of KI in plants fertilized with low doses of nitrate induced moderate phytotoxicity symptoms. Organic matter-rich soils improved the plant’s health and production, with only mild reductions in iodine stored in the fruits. Finally, a short period of storage at room temperature or a 30-minute boiling treatment did not reduce the iodine content in the fruits, if the peel was maintained. All these results suggest that tomato is a particularly suitable crop for iodine

  12. Optimization on cleaning sterilization processing of cherry tomato%樱桃番茄清洗杀菌工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹义蕾; 王莉; 连青龙; 李邵; 鲁少尉; 邓勇军

    2012-01-01

    To develop the potential of food safety and commercial value focusing on better appearance and taste, longer storage time and higher good fruits rate, Ning Xia cherry tomatoes were used as materials. The multi-slot automatic-transmission vegetable washing machines and hypochlorite disinfection equipment were applied to clean cherry tomatoes, and the ideal cleaning process parameters were determined by cold preservation experiment. The results showed that the maximum capacity for the vegetable washing machine was 15 kg, the ideal cleaning time was 170 s, under these conditions, the cleaning rate was 99.3%. The sterilization with 100μg/mL hypochlorite solution for 85 s reduced 1.128 log value of bacterial volume on the surface of cherry tomatoes. With 100μg/mL hypochlorite-sterilization, the good fruits rate was 77% after stored at 10℃ for 18 days. The study provides a reference for washing sterilization process of cherry tomatoes.%清洗杀菌可提高樱桃番茄的食用安全和商业价值,使得樱桃番茄外观口味俱佳、保存期更长、好果质量分数更高,该研究以宁夏樱桃番茄为试验对象,利用多槽自动输送式蔬菜清洗机和次氯酸杀菌消毒制备设备进行清洗和杀菌,通过清洗杀菌试验的测试结果来确定合理的清洗和杀菌工艺参数.试验结果表明:清洗机清洗樱桃番茄单槽喂入量最大值为15 kg;清洗用时170 s即可达到理想的清洗效果,洗净质量分数可达99.3%;杀菌水有效氯浓度为1 00μg/mL,消毒时间为85 s,可使樱桃番茄表面菌落总数降低1.128个对数值;用有效氯质量100μg/mL次氯酸杀菌水清洗后的果实,在10℃的冷库环境保存下,18d后好果质量分数仍能达到77%.本研究结果可为工业化生产中樱桃番茄清洗杀菌工艺的提供参考.

  13. Characterization of cuticle composition after cold storage of "Celeste" and "Somerset" sweet cherry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Burcu; Llovera, Montserrat; Comabella, Eva; Gatius, Ferran; Guillén, Pere; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2014-08-27

    Cuticle composition and structure may be relevant factors affecting the storage potential of fruits, but very few studies have analyzed fruit cuticle composition from a postharvest perspective. In this work, the chemical composition of waxes and cutin (major cuticular components) was analyzed in cuticle samples isolated from "Celeste" and "Somerset" cherries (Prunus avium L.) after cold storage at 0 °C. Total cuticle amounts per surface unit (μg cm(-2)) increased along with cold storage. The triterpene ursolic acid, the alkane nonacosane, linoleic acid, and β-sitosterol were the most abundant components of cuticular waxes, whereas cutin composition was dominated by C18-type monomers. In spite of being comprised of similar chemical families, cultivar-related differences were found regarding the abundance and the evolution of some compound families during cold storage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on changes in cuticle composition of sweet cherry during postharvest storage.

  14. Characterization of cuticle composition after cold storage of "Celeste" and "Somerset" sweet cherry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Burcu; Llovera, Montserrat; Comabella, Eva; Gatius, Ferran; Guillén, Pere; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2014-08-27

    Cuticle composition and structure may be relevant factors affecting the storage potential of fruits, but very few studies have analyzed fruit cuticle composition from a postharvest perspective. In this work, the chemical composition of waxes and cutin (major cuticular components) was analyzed in cuticle samples isolated from "Celeste" and "Somerset" cherries (Prunus avium L.) after cold storage at 0 °C. Total cuticle amounts per surface unit (μg cm(-2)) increased along with cold storage. The triterpene ursolic acid, the alkane nonacosane, linoleic acid, and β-sitosterol were the most abundant components of cuticular waxes, whereas cutin composition was dominated by C18-type monomers. In spite of being comprised of similar chemical families, cultivar-related differences were found regarding the abundance and the evolution of some compound families during cold storage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on changes in cuticle composition of sweet cherry during postharvest storage. PMID:25089645

  15. 乳清蛋白可食性膜对圣女果贮藏品质的影响%Effect of Whey Protein Edible Film on Storage Quality of Cherry Tomatoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳晖; 雍凯

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究乳清蛋白可食性膜对圣女果贮藏品质的影响.[方法] 以乳清废液为主要材料制备乳清蛋白膜,并将其用于圣女果的保鲜. [结果] 制膜的最佳配方为固液比1∶8,甘油添加量0.2%,干燥温度80 ℃.经乳清蛋白涂膜处理后的圣女果,在20 ℃下的贮藏品质明显提高.[结论]乳清蛋白可食性膜在一定程度上减缓了圣女果腐烂、失重、变软,具有一定的保鲜作用;而添加了山梨酸钾的乳清蛋白膜对圣女果的保鲜效果明显优于未添加山梨酸钾的乳清蛋白膜.%[ Objective ] The research aimed to study the effect of whey protein edibal film on the storage quality of cherry tomatoes. [ Method]Whey which was wasted was used as the main material to prepare whey protein film, and used for cherry fruit preservation. [ Result] The best formula membrane was solid-to-liquid 1: 8, glycerol additive amount 0. 2%, drying temperature 80 ℃. After the cherry tomatoes were coating by whey protein,the storage quality at 20 ℃ was improved significantly. [Conclusion] Whey protein film could slow down the cherry tomatoes become decay, weight loss, soft,and it had better effect on preservation. Whey protein film which was added potassium sorbate had better fresh effect.

  16. 丁香精油对樱桃番茄保鲜作用的研究%Study on the preservation of cherry tomato with clove oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘磊庆; 朱娜; 邵兴锋; 江琳琳; 屠康

    2012-01-01

    研究了丁香精油对樱桃番茄采后主要致病菌的抑制作用及对其采后品质和生理的影响。结果表明:丁香精油可有效抑制根霉、灰霉的生长,并可诱导樱桃番茄防御性酶POD、PPO及CAT活性的升高;丁香精油处理可降低果实的腐烂指数,120μl/L丁香精油熏蒸对樱桃番茄的防腐保鲜效果最好,贮藏19d后腐烂指数比对照降低了70.6%;20℃下贮藏19d之后,丁香精油处理后樱桃番茄的果实硬度、可溶性固形物含量、颜色及可滴定酸与对照组果实相比均无显著差异。%The inhibitory efficacy of fungi and physiological effect of clove oil on postharvest cherry tomato was studied in this paper.The results showed that clove oil could effectively inhibit the growth of root mold, as well as gray mold, and it also could induce the rise of POD, PPO, and CAT activity.Clove oil treatment could reduce fruit rot index,the best treatment concentration was 120tjL/L,after ]9d storage the decay index was lower than the control by 70.6%,Compared with the control,there was no significant difference on the firmness, soluble solids content, titratable acid and colour of cherry tomatoes treated by clove oil after 19 days at 20℃

  17. INFLUENCE OF THE ROOT TYPE ON THE FRUIT QUALITY OF THREE SOUR CHERRY CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. SOTIROV

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were conducted in the period 2003-2005 at the Institute of Agriculture in Kyustendil /Bulgaria/ with three sour cherry cultivars - Heimanns rubinveichsel, M-15 and Nefris, self-rooted and grafted on IK-M9 mahaleb rootstock. The yield per tree, the fruit weight and the content of dry matter, the total sugars and total acids of the fruits were evaluated. The fruit yield of the self-rooted trees was smaller than that of the grafted ones in all experimental years, but the statistical analysis showed significant differences only for cv. Nefris. The rootstock used or its absence did not have considerable influence on the fruit weight. Significant differences in the fruit chemical composition between the grafted and self-rooted trees were not found and it depended mainly on the cultivar and to a smaller extent on the rootstock or its absence.

  18. Cloning, expression, and characterization of sorbitol transporters from developing sour cherry fruit and leaf sink tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhifang; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Remi; Yoo, Sang-Dong; van Nocker, Steven; Loescher, Wayne

    2003-04-01

    The acyclic polyol sorbitol is a primary photosynthetic product and the principal photosynthetic transport substance in many economically important members of the family Rosaceace (e.g. almond [Prunus dulcis (P. Mill.) D.A. Webber], apple [Malus pumila P. Mill.], cherry [Prunus spp.], peach [Prunus persica L. Batsch], and pear [Pyrus communis]). To understand key steps in long-distance transport and particularly partitioning and accumulation of sorbitol in sink tissues, we have cloned two sorbitol transporter genes (PcSOT1 and PcSOT2) from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) fruit tissues that accumulate large quantities of sorbitol. Sorbitol uptake activities and other characteristics were measured by heterologous expression of PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Both genes encode proton-dependent, sorbitol-specific transporters with similar affinities (K(m) sorbitol of 0.81 mM for PcSOT1 and 0.64 mM for PcSOT2). Analyses of gene expression of these transporters, however, suggest different roles during leaf and fruit development. PcSOT1 is expressed throughout fruit development, but especially when growth and sorbitol accumulation rates are highest. In leaves, PcSOT1 expression is highest in young, expanding tissues, but substantially less in mature leaves. In contrast, PcSOT2 is mainly expressed only early in fruit development and not in leaves. Compositional analyses suggest that transport mediated by PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 plays a major role in sorbitol and dry matter accumulation in sour cherry fruits. Presence of these transporters and the high fruit sorbitol concentrations suggest that there is an apoplastic step during phloem unloading and accumulation in these sink tissues. Expression of PcSOT1 in young leaves before completion of the transition from sink to source is further evidence for a role in determining sink activity. PMID:12692316

  19. A New Cherry Tomato F1 Hybrid-‘Jinmei’%樱桃番茄新品种金美的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄浅; 钱健康; 田炜; 刘杰; 李国臣

    2016-01-01

    ‘Jinmei’ is a new cherry tomato F1 hybrid developed by crossing ‘MY0216’as female parent and‘MY0310’as male parent. This variety belongs to indeterminate growth type. The fruit is of high round shape. The young fruit has no green shoulder,and the matured fruit is yellow in color. The average single fruit weight is about 17.6 g. Its fruit hardness is high. And it is tolerant to storage and transportation. The fruit tastes sweet & sour with good quality. It can yield about 45 t·hm-2. It is suitable to be planted in the greenhouse or open fields in Beijing,Liaoning,Henan,Shaanxi,Hunan,Jiangsu,Zhejiang and Hainan Provinces and etc. areas in spring.%金美是以MY0216为母本,以MY0310为父本育成的樱桃番茄一代杂种。无限生长类型,果实高圆形,幼果无绿果肩,成熟果黄色,平均单果质量17.6 g左右,果实硬度高,耐贮运,口味甜酸,品质优。每667 m2产量达3000 kg左右。可在北京、辽宁、河南、陕西、湖南、江苏、浙江和海南等适宜地区春季保护地或露地种植。

  20. 樱桃番茄新品种美奇的选育%A New Cherry Tomato F1 Hybrid-‘Meiqi’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱健康; 黄浅; 田炜; 刘杰; 李国臣

    2015-01-01

    ‘Meiqi’is a new cherry tomato hybrid developed by crossing‘MT0218’as female parent and‘MT0235-1’as male parent. This variety belongs to limited growth type. The fruit is of high oval shape. The young fruit has no green shoulder,and the matured fruit is red in color. The average single fruit weight is about 17 g. Its fruit hardness is high. It is tolerant to storage and transportation. The fruit tastes sweet&sour and its quality is good. The results of field investigation show that it is resistant to virus disease,leaf mold ,bacterial wilt,etc. Its average yield is about 45 t·hm-2. It is suitable to be planted in greenhouse or open field in Beijing,Liaoning, Henan,Shaanxi,Hunan,Jiangsu,Zhejiang and Hainan Provinces in spring.%美奇是以MT0218为母本,以MT0235-1为父本育成的樱桃番茄一代杂种。有限生长类型,果实高圆形,幼果无果肩,成熟果大红色,平均单果质量17 g左右。果实硬度高,耐贮运,口味甜酸,品质优。田间调查结果表明,美奇的病毒病、叶霉病和青枯病等多种病害发病较轻或未发生。每667 m2产量3000 kg左右。适宜在北京、辽宁、河南、陕西、湖南、江苏、浙江和海南等适宜地区春季保护地或露地种植。

  1. Proteomic Comparison of Fruit Ripening between 'Hedelfinger' Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) and Its Somaclonal Variant 'HS'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Espen, Luca; Piagnani, M Claudia

    2016-05-25

    The somaclonal variant HS, from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) 'Hedelfinger' (H), was previously selected for reduced tree vegetative vigor and lesser canopy density. In this work, we compared H and HS fruits at early unripe (green) and full ripe (dark red) stages by biochemical and proteomic approaches. The main biochemical parameters showed that fruit quality was not affected by somaclonal variation. The proteomic analysis identified 39 proteins differentially accumulated between H and HS fruits at the two ripening stages, embracing enzymes involved in several pathways, such as carbon metabolism, cell wall modification, stress response, and secondary metabolism. The evaluation of fruit phenolic composition by mass spectrometry showed that HS sweet cherries have higher levels of procyanidin, flavonol, and anthocyanin compounds. This work provides the first proteomic characterization of fruit ripening in sweet cherry, revealing new positive traits of the HS somaclonal variant. PMID:27144542

  2. The protective effect of the Cornus mas fruits (cornelian cherry) on hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis through PPARα activation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozański, T; Kucharska, A Z; Szumny, A; Magdalan, J; Bielska, K; Merwid-Ląd, A; Woźniak, A; Dzimira, S; Piórecki, N; Trocha, M

    2014-11-15

    Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits have been used in traditional cuisine and in folk medicine in various countries. This study was conducted to evaluate the constituents and impact of cornelian cherry (C. mas L.) fruits lyophilisate on lipid levels, PPARα protein expression, atheromatous changes in the aorta, oxido-redox state, and proinflammatory cytokines in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The HPLC-MS method was used for determining active constituents in cornelian cherry. In a subsequent in vivo study the protective effect of the cornelian cherry on diet-induced hyperlipidemia was studied using a rabbit model fed 1% cholesterol. Cornelian cherry (100mg/kg b.w.) or simvastatin (5mg/kg b.w.) were administered orally for 60 days. Two iridoids - loganic acid and cornuside - and five anthocyanins were identified as the main constituents of the cornelian cherry. The administering of the cornelian cherry led to a 44% significant decrease in serum triglyceride levels, as well as prevented development of atheromatous changes in the thoracic aorta. Cornelian cherry significantly increased PPARα protein expression in the liver, indicating that its hypolipidemic effect may stem from enhanced fatty acid catabolism. Simvastatin treatment did not affect PPAR-α expression. Moreover, the cornelian cherry had a significant protective effect on diet-induced oxidative stress in the liver, as well as restored upregulated proinflammatory cytokines serum levels. In conclusion, we have shown loganic acid to be the main iridoid constituent in the European cultivar of the cornelian cherry, and proven that the cornelian cherry could have protective effects on diet-induced hypertriglicerydemia and atherosclerosis through enhanced PPARα protein expression and via regulating oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:25444446

  3. The action site of carbon dioxide in relation to inhibition of ethylene production in tomato fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de H.P.J.; Balk, P.A.; Fernandes, E.C.A.; Peppelenbos, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    High CO2 can inhibit ethylene production of various fruit. A high level of CO2 (20 kPa) was applied to tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Aromata) at 18 °C for 5 days. To investigate the primary action site of CO2, we used tomato fruit at a ripening stage where feedback regulation of eth

  4. Effects of Salt and Water Stress on Plant Growth and on Accumulation of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Compounds in Cherry Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad AL HASSAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salt and water stress on growth and several stress markers were investigated in cherry tomato plants. Some growth parameters (stem length and number of leaves and chlorophyll contents were determined every third day during plant growth, and leaf material was collected after 25 and 33 days of treatment. Both stresses inhibited plant growth; chlorophyll levels, however, decreased only in response to high NaCl concentrations. Proline contents largely increased in leaves of stressed plants, reaching levels high enough to play a major role in cellular osmotic adjustment. Despite reports indicating that tomato does not synthesize glycine betaine, the stress-induced accumulation of this osmolyte was detected in cherry tomato, albeit at lower concentration than that of proline. Therefore, it appears that the plants are able to synthesise glycine betaine as a secondary osmolyte under strong stress conditions. Total sugars levels, on the contrary, decreased in stress-treated plants. Both stress treatments caused secondary oxidative stress in the plants, as indicated by a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA contents. Water stress led to an increase in total phenolics and flavonoid contents and a reduction of carotenoid levels in the leaves; flavonoids also increased under high salinity conditions.

  5. Relações genotípicas entre componentes da resistência pós-colheita em tomate Cereja e Salada Genotypic relationships between components of postharvest resistance of Cherry and Salad tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Moreira Sobreira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a necessidade de realizar análise de trilha individualizada para tomates tipo Salada (L. esculentum e Cereja (L. esculentum var. cerasiforme, visando obter informações sobre quais variáveis estão relacionadas com a resistência pós-colheita (RPC, e orientar a seleção de materiais para programas de melhoramento. Realizaram-se análises de variâncias, correlações genotípicas, diagnóstico de multicolinearidade e o desdobramento das correlações genotípicas por meio de análise de trilha. As variáveis mais explicativas da RPC em tomates tipo Salada foram o diâmetro da cicatriz do pedúnculo (DCP e o diâmetro médio do fruto (DMF; a espessura do mesocarpo (ESP e o peso médio dos frutos (PMF em tipo Cereja. Em tomates Cereja, ganhos podem ser obtidos na RPC por meio de seleção indireta via ESP. Estes serão maiores se dentre os frutos de maior ESP forem selecionados os de menor PMF. No caso de Salada, deve-se selecionar indiretamente os frutos de menor DCP e dentre estes os de maior DMF. A análise de trilha deve ser realizada considerando cada tipo de tomate, visto que as variáveis explicativas diferem entre estes.This study aimed to evaluate the need for individual path analysis to Cherry (L. esculentum var. cerasiforme and Salad (L. esculentum tomatoes type, seeking information about which variables are associated with post-harvest resistance (PHR, and guide the selection of material for breeding programs. We performed the variance analysis, genotypic correlations, multicolinearity diagnosis, and the display of genotypic correlations through path analysis. The more explicatory variables of PHR in Salad tomatoes type were the peduncle scar diameter (PSD and the fruit mean diameter (FMD; the mesocarp thickness (MST and fruit mean weight (FMW in cherry type. For Cherry tomatoes, gains can be obtained in the PHR through indirect selection by MST. This will be greatest if among the fruits with more

  6. Progress Towards the Tomato Fruit Cell Wall Proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliel eRuiz May

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The plant cell wall (CW compartment, or apoplast, is host to a highly dynamic proteome, comprising large numbers of both enzymatic and structural proteins. This reflects its importance as the interface between adjacent cells and the external environment, the presence of numerous extracellular metabolic and signaling pathways, and the complex nature of wall structural assembly and remodeling during cell growth and differentiation. Tomato fruit ontogeny, with its distinct phases of rapid growth and ripening, provides a valuable experimental model system for CW proteomic studies, in that it involves substantial wall assembly, remodeling and coordinated disassembly. Moreover, diverse populations of secreted proteins must be deployed to resist microbial infection and protect against abiotic stresses. Tomato fruits also provide substantial amounts of biological material, which is a significant advantage for many types of biochemical analyses, and facilitates the detection of lower abundance proteins. In this review we describe a variety of orthogonal techniques that have been applied to identify CW localized proteins from tomato fruit, including approaches that: target the proteome of the CW and the overlying cuticle; functional ‘secretome’ screens; lectin affinity chromatography; and computational analyses to predict proteins that enter the secretory pathway. Each has its merits and limitations, but collectively they are providing important insights into CW proteome composition and dynamics, as well as some potentially controversial issues, such as the prevalence of non-canonical protein secretion.

  7. Effects of acute ozone stress on reproductive traits of tomato, fruit yield and fruit composition

    OpenAIRE

    Vercambre, Gilles; Gautier, Helene; Gay, Frédéric; Phattaralerphong, Jessada; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2014-01-01

    Tomato is sensitive to ozone. Fruit growth and composition is altered under ozone stress by modification of reproductive development. . Fifty-one-day-old plants were exposed to three concentrations of ozone (200, 350 and 500 µg m(-3) ) for four hours. Ozone reduced well-developed fruit number and fruit size, but it did not significantly affect flowering rate and fruit setting rate. The effect of ozone depends on organ developmental stage at the time of ozone application, as flowers and you...

  8. Micropropagation of Prunus species relevant to cherry fruit production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druart, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Cherry tree micropropagation is limited to the production of healthy cultivars of Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus, and their rootstocks; mainly the dwarfing ones. By using meristem-tip (0.1 mm long) or healthy shoot tips/nodes, four successive steps are needed to obtain whole plants capable of growing in the nursery: multiplication by axillary branching, shoot elongation, rooting, and plantlet acclimation. Along this process, several parameters have to be adjusted for each phase of the culture, including media composition, environmental culture conditions and plant handling. These parameters vary depending on genotypic response and specific vulnerability to physiological disorders such as hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, unstable propagation, and rooting rates. Based on a 40 year-long experience of study and application of culture conditions to large-scale plant production, this document summarizes the main problems (variability of the propagation rate, hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, plant re-growth) and solutions encountered to solve them, with means validated on many mericlones. PMID:23179694

  9. Over-expression ofGhDWF4 gene improved tomato fruit quality and accelerated fruit ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Shu-e; LUO Ming; LI Fang; LI Xian-bi; HONG Qi-bin; ZHAI Yun-lan; HU Ming-yu; WEI Ting; DENG Sha-sha; PEI Yan

    2015-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs), a class of steroidal phytohormones are essential for many biological processes in plant. However, little is known about their roles in fruit development. Tomato is a highly valuable vegetable and has been adopted as the model species for studying fruit growth, development, and ripening. To understand the role of endogenous BRs in the de-velopment of tomato fruit, the expression patterns of three homologues ofDWF4 gene were investigated and the transgenic tomato plants were generated in which theGhDWF4 gene from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was ectopicaly expressed. The contents of main quality components were analyzed in fruits of transgenic tomato line and non-transgenic line (control plant, CP) when the fruit was mature.SlCYP90B3 that possesses high homology withGhDWF4 preferentialy expressed in mature fruit. Signiifcantly higher contents of soluble sugar, soluble proteins, and vitamin C were obtained in fruit of transgenic tomato lines compared with those in the CP. Furthermore, overexpressingGhDWF4 promoted fruit growth and ripening. The weight per fruit was increased by about 23% in transgenic lines. In addition, overexpressingGhDWF4 promoted the germination of transgenic tomato seeds and hypocotyl elongation of seedlings. These results indicated that overexpressingGhDWF4 gene in tomato could increase the contents of many nutrients in fruit and accelerate fruit ripening. It is suggested that increased endogenous BRs in fruit affect the growth and development of tomato fruit and therefore improved the nutrient quality of tomato.

  10. Growth, ripening and storage of tomato fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenvers, N.

    1976-01-01

    Publication IA non-destructive, automated, fast and portable softness measuring device is described. The non-destructivity of the meter was established.Factors that might influence the variation in softness-readings, e.g., temperature, relative humidity, the point of compression on the fruit, sampli

  11. Tomato fruit chromoplasts behave as respiratory bioenergetic organelles during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín

    2014-10-01

    During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen consumption is stimulated by the electron donors NADH and NADPH and is sensitive to octyl gallate (Ogal), a plastidial terminal oxidase inhibitor. The ATP synthesis rate of isolated chromoplasts was dependent on the supply of NAD(P)H and was fully inhibited by Ogal. It was also inhibited by the proton uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, suggesting the involvement of a chemiosmotic gradient. In addition, ATP synthesis was sensitive to 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone, a cytochrome b6f complex inhibitor. The possible participation of this complex in chromorespiration was supported by the detection of one of its components (cytochrome f) in chromoplasts using immunoblot and immunocytochemical techniques. The observed increased expression of cytochrome c6 during ripening suggests that it could act as electron acceptor of the cytochrome b6f complex in chromorespiration. The effects of Ogal on respiration and ATP levels were also studied in tissue samples. Oxygen uptake of mature green fruit and leaf tissues was not affected by Ogal, but was inhibited increasingly in fruit pericarp throughout ripening (up to 26% in red fruit). Similarly, Ogal caused a significant decrease in ATP content of red fruit pericarp. The number of energized mitochondria, as determined by confocal microscopy, strongly decreased in fruit tissue during ripening. Therefore, the contribution of chromoplasts to total fruit respiration appears to increase in late ripening stages.

  12. Fine mapping of the parthenocarpic fruit ( pat) mutation in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldi, D; Picarella, M E; Soressi, G P; Mazzucato, A

    2004-01-01

    The parthenocarpic fruit ( pat) gene of tomato is a recessive mutation conferring parthenocarpy, which is the capability of a plant to set seedless fruits in the absence of pollination and fertilization. Parthenocarpic mutants offer a useful method to regulate fruit production and a suitable experimental system to study ovary and fruit development. In order to map the Pat locus, two populations segregating from the interspecific cross Lycopersicon esculentum x Lycopersicon pennellii were grown, and progeny plants were classified as parthenocarpic or wild-type by taking into account some characteristic aberrations affecting mutant anthers and ovules. Through bulk segregant analysis, we searched for both random and mapped AFLPs linked to the target gene. In this way, the Pat locus was assigned to the long arm of chromosome 3, as also confirmed by the analysis of a set of L. pennellii substitution and introgression lines. Afterwards, the Pat position was refined by using simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and conserved ortholog set (COS) markers mapping in the target region. The tightest COSs were converted into CAPS or SCAR markers. At present, two co-dominant SCAR markers encompassing a genetic window of 1.2 cM flank the Pat locus. Considering that these markers are orthologous to Arabidopsis genes, a positional cloning exploiting the tomato- Arabidopsis microsynteny seems to be a short-term objective. PMID:14564391

  13. Developmental gene regulation during tomato fruit ripening and in-vitro sepal morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Betty K

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red ripe tomatoes are the result of numerous physiological changes controlled by hormonal and developmental signals, causing maturation or differentiation of various fruit tissues simultaneously. These physiological changes affect visual, textural, flavor, and aroma characteristics, making the fruit more appealing to potential consumers for seed dispersal. Developmental regulation of tomato fruit ripening has, until recently, been lacking in rigorous investigation. We previously indicated the presence of up-regulated transcription factors in ripening tomato fruit by data mining in TIGR Tomato Gene Index. In our in-vitro system, green tomato sepals cultured at 16 to 22°C turn red and swell like ripening tomato fruit while those at 28°C remain green. Results Here, we have further examined regulation of putative developmental genes possibly involved in tomato fruit ripening and development. Using molecular biological methods, we have determined the relative abundance of various transcripts of genes during in vitro sepal ripening and in tomato fruit pericarp at three stages of development. A number of transcripts show similar expression in fruits to RIN and PSY1, ripening-associated genes, and others show quite different expression. Conclusions Our investigation has resulted in confirmation of some of our previous database mining results and has revealed differences in gene expression that may be important for tomato cultivar variation. We present new and intriguing information on genes that should now be studied in a more focused fashion.

  14. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus can be acquired and transmitted by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) from tomato fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delatte, H.; Dalmon, A.; Rist, D.; Soustrade, I.; Wuster, G.; Lett, J.M.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peterschmitt, M.; Reynaud, B.

    2003-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is an insect pest causing worldwide economic losses, especially as a vector of geminiviruses such as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Currently, imported and exported tomato fruit are not monitored for TYLCV infection because they are not considered to represent a p

  15. In silico Transcriptional Regulatory Networks Involved in Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhondakis, Stilianos; Bita, Craita E; Perrakis, Andreas; Manioudaki, Maria E; Krokida, Afroditi; Kaloudas, Dimitrios; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is a complex developmental programme partly mediated by transcriptional regulatory networks. Several transcription factors (TFs) which are members of gene families such as MADS-box and ERF were shown to play a significant role in ripening through interconnections into an intricate network. The accumulation of large datasets of expression profiles corresponding to different stages of tomato fruit ripening and the availability of bioinformatics tools for their analysis provide an opportunity to identify TFs which might regulate gene clusters with similar co-expression patterns. We identified two TFs, a SlWRKY22-like and a SlER24 transcriptional activator which were shown to regulate modules by using the LeMoNe algorithm for the analysis of our microarray datasets representing four stages of fruit ripening, breaker, turning, pink and red ripe. The WRKY22-like module comprised a subgroup of six various calcium sensing transcripts with similar to the TF expression patterns according to real time PCR validation. A promoter motif search identified a cis acting element, the W-box, recognized by WRKY TFs that was present in the promoter region of all six calcium sensing genes. Moreover, publicly available microarray datasets of similar ripening stages were also analyzed with LeMoNe resulting in TFs such as SlERF.E1, SlERF.C1, SlERF.B2, SLERF.A2, SlWRKY24, SLWRKY37, and MADS-box/TM29 which might also play an important role in regulation of ripening. These results suggest that the SlWRKY22-like might be involved in the coordinated regulation of expression of the six calcium sensing genes. Conclusively the LeMoNe tool might lead to the identification of putative TF targets for further physiological analysis as regulators of tomato fruit ripening.

  16. In silico Transcriptional Regulatory Networks Involved in Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhondakis, Stilianos; Bita, Craita E; Perrakis, Andreas; Manioudaki, Maria E; Krokida, Afroditi; Kaloudas, Dimitrios; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is a complex developmental programme partly mediated by transcriptional regulatory networks. Several transcription factors (TFs) which are members of gene families such as MADS-box and ERF were shown to play a significant role in ripening through interconnections into an intricate network. The accumulation of large datasets of expression profiles corresponding to different stages of tomato fruit ripening and the availability of bioinformatics tools for their analysis provide an opportunity to identify TFs which might regulate gene clusters with similar co-expression patterns. We identified two TFs, a SlWRKY22-like and a SlER24 transcriptional activator which were shown to regulate modules by using the LeMoNe algorithm for the analysis of our microarray datasets representing four stages of fruit ripening, breaker, turning, pink and red ripe. The WRKY22-like module comprised a subgroup of six various calcium sensing transcripts with similar to the TF expression patterns according to real time PCR validation. A promoter motif search identified a cis acting element, the W-box, recognized by WRKY TFs that was present in the promoter region of all six calcium sensing genes. Moreover, publicly available microarray datasets of similar ripening stages were also analyzed with LeMoNe resulting in TFs such as SlERF.E1, SlERF.C1, SlERF.B2, SLERF.A2, SlWRKY24, SLWRKY37, and MADS-box/TM29 which might also play an important role in regulation of ripening. These results suggest that the SlWRKY22-like might be involved in the coordinated regulation of expression of the six calcium sensing genes. Conclusively the LeMoNe tool might lead to the identification of putative TF targets for further physiological analysis as regulators of tomato fruit ripening. PMID:27625653

  17. In silico Transcriptional Regulatory Networks Involved in Tomato Fruit Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhondakis, Stilianos; Bita, Craita E.; Perrakis, Andreas; Manioudaki, Maria E.; Krokida, Afroditi; Kaloudas, Dimitrios; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is a complex developmental programme partly mediated by transcriptional regulatory networks. Several transcription factors (TFs) which are members of gene families such as MADS-box and ERF were shown to play a significant role in ripening through interconnections into an intricate network. The accumulation of large datasets of expression profiles corresponding to different stages of tomato fruit ripening and the availability of bioinformatics tools for their analysis provide an opportunity to identify TFs which might regulate gene clusters with similar co-expression patterns. We identified two TFs, a SlWRKY22-like and a SlER24 transcriptional activator which were shown to regulate modules by using the LeMoNe algorithm for the analysis of our microarray datasets representing four stages of fruit ripening, breaker, turning, pink and red ripe. The WRKY22-like module comprised a subgroup of six various calcium sensing transcripts with similar to the TF expression patterns according to real time PCR validation. A promoter motif search identified a cis acting element, the W-box, recognized by WRKY TFs that was present in the promoter region of all six calcium sensing genes. Moreover, publicly available microarray datasets of similar ripening stages were also analyzed with LeMoNe resulting in TFs such as SlERF.E1, SlERF.C1, SlERF.B2, SLERF.A2, SlWRKY24, SLWRKY37, and MADS-box/TM29 which might also play an important role in regulation of ripening. These results suggest that the SlWRKY22-like might be involved in the coordinated regulation of expression of the six calcium sensing genes. Conclusively the LeMoNe tool might lead to the identification of putative TF targets for further physiological analysis as regulators of tomato fruit ripening.

  18. The Efficacy of Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (ReTain) For Improving Fruit Set on ‘0900 Ziraat’ Sweet Cherry

    OpenAIRE

    AĞLAR, Erdal; LONG, Lynn E.; ÖZTÜRK, Burhan; Saraçoğlu, Onur; Yildiz, Kenan; KARAKAYA, Medeni

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the effect on fruit set and fruit quality of different rates of applications [control (0 mg L-1), 250, 500 and 750 mg L-1] of AVG applied to ‘0900 Ziraat’ sweet cherry variety grafted on MaxMa 14 rootstock. Compared to the control, it was determined that fruit set on the trees applied with AVG increased from 97.5% to 130.4%. While the soluble solids content was significantly decreased, significant differences in fruit quality (fruit weight, fruit sizes, fl...

  19. A DEMETER-like DNA demethylase governs tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruie; How-Kit, Alexandre; Stammitti, Linda; Teyssier, Emeline; Rolin, Dominique; Mortain-Bertrand, Anne; Halle, Stefanie; Liu, Mingchun; Kong, Junhua; Wu, Chaoqun; Degraeve-Guibault, Charlotte; Chapman, Natalie H; Maucourt, Mickael; Hodgman, T Charlie; Tost, Jörg; Bouzayen, Mondher; Hong, Yiguo; Seymour, Graham B; Giovannoni, James J; Gallusci, Philippe

    2015-08-25

    In plants, genomic DNA methylation which contributes to development and stress responses can be actively removed by DEMETER-like DNA demethylases (DMLs). Indeed, in Arabidopsis DMLs are important for maternal imprinting and endosperm demethylation, but only a few studies demonstrate the developmental roles of active DNA demethylation conclusively in this plant. Here, we show a direct cause and effect relationship between active DNA demethylation mainly mediated by the tomato DML, SlDML2, and fruit ripening- an important developmental process unique to plants. RNAi SlDML2 knockdown results in ripening inhibition via hypermethylation and repression of the expression of genes encoding ripening transcription factors and rate-limiting enzymes of key biochemical processes such as carotenoid synthesis. Our data demonstrate that active DNA demethylation is central to the control of ripening in tomato.

  20. A DEMETER-like DNA demethylase governs tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruie; How-Kit, Alexandre; Stammitti, Linda; Teyssier, Emeline; Rolin, Dominique; Mortain-Bertrand, Anne; Halle, Stefanie; Liu, Mingchun; Kong, Junhua; Wu, Chaoqun; Degraeve-Guibault, Charlotte; Chapman, Natalie H; Maucourt, Mickael; Hodgman, T Charlie; Tost, Jörg; Bouzayen, Mondher; Hong, Yiguo; Seymour, Graham B; Giovannoni, James J; Gallusci, Philippe

    2015-08-25

    In plants, genomic DNA methylation which contributes to development and stress responses can be actively removed by DEMETER-like DNA demethylases (DMLs). Indeed, in Arabidopsis DMLs are important for maternal imprinting and endosperm demethylation, but only a few studies demonstrate the developmental roles of active DNA demethylation conclusively in this plant. Here, we show a direct cause and effect relationship between active DNA demethylation mainly mediated by the tomato DML, SlDML2, and fruit ripening- an important developmental process unique to plants. RNAi SlDML2 knockdown results in ripening inhibition via hypermethylation and repression of the expression of genes encoding ripening transcription factors and rate-limiting enzymes of key biochemical processes such as carotenoid synthesis. Our data demonstrate that active DNA demethylation is central to the control of ripening in tomato. PMID:26261318

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in the Red and Yellow Fruits of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hairong Wei; Xin Chen; Xiaojuan Zong; Huairui Shu; Dongsheng Gao; Qingzhong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background Fruit color is one of the most important economic traits of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). The red coloration of sweet cherry fruit is mainly attributed to anthocyanins. However, limited information is available regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis and its regulation in sweet cherry. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, a reference transcriptome of P. avium L. was sequenced and annotated to identify the transcriptional determinants of...

  2. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  3. Characteristics of fruit ripening in tomato mutant epi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-feng; YING Tie-jin; BAO Bi-li; HUANG Xiao-dan

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of fruit ripening and expression of ripening-related genes were investigated in epi, an ethylene overproduction mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The epi produces apparently more ethylene than its wild type VFN8 at every stage of vegetative and fruit growth and ripening; compared to VFN8, the epi fruit showed higher CO2 evolution,faster descending of chlorophyll, slightly quicker increase of carotenoid and lycopene, and faster reduction in pericarp firmness during maturation and ripening; and the mRNAs of three ripening-related genes including E8, pTOM5 andpTOM6 were at higher levels in epi. The ripening-related characteristics changing of the fruit are consistent with the increase of ethylene production and ripening-related genes expression. These results suggest that epi mutation possibly did not affect the ethylene perception and signaling during fruit ripening, and that the modified characteristics of fruit ripening possibly resulted from the ethylene overproduction and increased expression of ripening-related genes.

  4. Fate of 14C-Ethyl Profenofos in Tomato Fruits And Tomato Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C--Ethyl profenofos and some of its degradation products have been prepared for the present investigation. The fate of 14C-residues of profenofos in tomato fruits collected at different time intervals from plants treated with 14C-insecticide under conditions of local practice was determined. The results indicated that the profenofos residues in fruits increases with time during the first week, and amount of decreases rapidly during the second week. Some processing methods of tomato fruits affected a decrease in the level of 14C-profenofos residue. It was greatly reduced in juice (74.7%). Obvious reduction in the level of insecticide residues was detected in both puree and paste (78.2% and 89.9%, respectively). Analysis of radioactive extracts showed that the degradation products in juice, puree and paste were similar to those found in the fruit. The degradation compounds detected were O-(2-chlorophenyl)-S-propyl-phosphorothioate, O-ethyl-S-propyl phosphoric acid and O-ethyl phosphoric acid, in addition to one unknown. The phenolic compounds were found in free and conjugated forms

  5. Effect of Ethylene on Polygalacturonase,Lipoxygenase and Expansin in Ripening of Tomato Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zhaohui; KOU Xiaohong; LUO Yunbo; ZHU Benzhong; XU Wentao

    2009-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex process and is regulated by many factors.Ethylene and polygalacturonase (PG),lipoxygenase (LOX),expansin (EXP) are all critical regulating factors in fruit ripening and softening process.With antisense,ACS tomato,Nr mutant tomato and cultivated tomato as materials,Northern blot hybridization showed that PG,LeEXP1 and LOX expressed differently in different parts of cultivated tomato fruit during ripening,which was related to fruit ripening.The ripening process of columella and radial pericarp was faster than pericarp.In both Nr mutant and antisense ACS transgenic tomato fruit,expression levels of PG,LeEXP1 and LOX were generally lower than those in cultivated fruit but still related to fruit ripening.The expression levels of PG,LeEXP1 and LOX increased in the mature green tomato fruits after 0.5 h treatment with ethylene ( 100 μL/L).These results indicate that gene expression of PG,LeEXP1 and LOXwere positively regulated by ethylene.The time and cumulative effect of the concentration exists in the expression of PG regulated by ethylene.The regulation of LOX expression mainly depended on the fruit development after great amount of ethylene was produced.PG played a major role in ripening and softening of tomato fruit,and cooperated with the regulation of EXP and LOX.

  6. Assessing the potential for establishment of western cherry fruit fly using ecological niche modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2014-06-01

    Sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., grown in the western United States are exported to many countries around the world. Some of these countries have enforced strict quarantine rules and trade restrictions owing to concerns about the potential establishment and subsequent spread of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), a major quarantine pest of sweet cherry. We used 1) niche models (CLIMEX and MaxEnt) to map the climatic suitability, 2) North Carolina State University-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Pest Forecasting System to examine chilling requirement, and 3) host distribution and availability to assess the potential for establishment of R. indifferens in areas of western North America where it currently does not exist and eight current or potential fresh sweet cherry markets: Colombia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam. Results from niche models conformed well to the current distribution of R. indifferens in western North America. MaxEnt and CLIMEX models had high performance and predicted climatic suitability in some of the countries (e.g., Andean range in Colombia and Venezuela, northern and northeastern India, central Taiwan, and parts of Vietnam). However, our results showed no potential for establishment of R. indifferens in Colombia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam when the optimal chilling requirement to break diapause (minimum temperature < or = 3 degree C for at least 15 wk) was used as the criterion for whether establishment can occur. Furthermore, these countries have no host plant species available for R. indifferens. Our results can be used to make scientifically informed international trade decisions and negotiations by policy makers. PMID:25026662

  7. Single-base resolution methylomes of tomato fruit development reveal epigenome modifications associated with ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruits are differentiated floral tissues evolved to aid seed dispersal, and have become an important part of human diets. Ethylene triggers tomato fruit ripening, but its effect is restricted to matured fruits with viable seeds by an unknown developmental cue. We show that fruits ripen prematurely w...

  8. Tomato fruit growth : integrating cell division, cell growth and endoreduplication by experimentation and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanwoua, J.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: cell division, cell growth, cell endoreduplication, fruit growth, genotype, G×E interaction, model, tomato. Fruit size is a major component of fruit yield and quality of many crops. Variations in fruit size can be tremendous due to genotypic and environmental factors. The mechanisms

  9. Tomato Fruit Development and Ripening Are Altered by the Silencing of LeEIN2 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Liang Zhu; Ben-Zhong Zhu; Yi Shao; Xiao-Guang Wang; Xi-Jin Lin; Yuan-Hong Xie; Ying-Cong Li; Hong-Yan Gao; Yun-Bo Luo

    2006-01-01

    Loss-of-function ethylene insensitive 2 (EIN2) mutations showed ethylene insensitivity in Arabidopsis,which indicated an essential role of EIN2 in ethylene signaling. However, the function of EIN2 in fruit ripening has not been investigated. To gain a better understanding of EIN2, the temporal regulation of LeEIN2 expression during tomato fruit development was analyzed. The expression of LeEIN2 was constant at different stages of fruit development, and was not regulated by ethylene. Moreover, LeEIN2-silenced tomato fruits were developed using a virus-induced gene silencing fruit system to study the role of LeEIN2 in tomato fruit ripening. Silenced fruits had a delay in fruit development and ripening, related to greatly descended expression of ethylene-related and ripening-related genes in comparison with those of control fruits. These results suggested LeEIN2 positively mediated ethylene signals during tomato development. In addition,there were fewer seeds and Iocules in the silenced fruit than those in the control fruit, like the phenotype of parthenocarpic tomato fruit. The content of auxin and the expression of auxin-regulated gene were declined in silenced fruit, which indicated that EIN2 might be important for crosstalk between ethylene and auxin hormones.

  10. Carbohydrate production, balance and translocation in leaves, shoots and fruits of Montmorency sour cherry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappes, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Carbohydrate production, export and use were studied for different organs of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Montmorency). Gross carbohydrate (/sup 14/CO/sub 2/) export started between 27.2 and 77.6% of full leaf expansion. The 10th leaf developing started export later than the 7th leaf, suggesting that higher carbohydrate availability during leaf expansion delays export initiation. In support of this, gross export started earlier (44.4-52.4% full expansion) after source leaf removal, than in the control (77.6%). Translocation was primarily vertical (following orthostichies). Most leaves of fruiting shoots exported bidirectionally to the apex and fruits, only leaves closest to fruits exported exclusively to fruits during rapid cell division (Stage I) and rapid cell expansion (Stage III). Net export, determined from carbohydrate balance models started at 17 and 51% expansion for the 7th and terminal leaf, and at 26.5% of shoot elongation. Cumulative carbohydrate production of the 7th and terminal leaves during the first 9 and 11 days after emergence, exceeded carbohydrate accumulated at final size, 464.2 and 148.9 mg. A fruit carbohydrate balance was developed to determine contributions by fruit photosynthesis and fruit respiration, and to identify periods of greatest carbohydrate import. Fruit photosynthesis during development was characterized under different environmental conditions. Gross photosynthesis and chlorophyll content per fruit increased to a maximum during stage II and decreased thereafter. Gross photosynthesis approached a maximum at 40/sub 0/C. Since dark respiration increased exponentially over the same temperature range, net photosynthesis reached a maximum at 18/sup 0/C. Photorespiration was not detected.

  11. In silico transcriptional regulatory networks involved in tomato fruit ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Arhondakis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTTomato fruit ripening is a complex developmental programme partly mediated by transcriptional regulatory networks. Several transcription factors (TFs which are members of gene families such as MADS-box and ERF were shown to play a significant role in ripening through interconnections into an intricate network. The accumulation of large datasets of expression profiles corresponding to different stages of tomato fruit ripening and the availability of bioinformatics tools for their analysis provide an opportunity to identify TFs which might regulate gene clusters with similar co-expression patterns. We identified two TFs, a SlWRKY22-like and a SlER24 transcriptional activator which were shown to regulate modules by using the LeMoNe algorithm for the analysis of our microarray datasets representing four stages of fruit ripening, breaker, turning, pink and red ripe. The WRKY22-like module comprised a subgroup of six various calcium sensing transcripts with similar to the TF expression patterns according to real time PCR validation. A promoter motif search identified a cis acting element, the W-box, recognized by WRKY TFs that was present in the promoter region of all six calcium sensing genes. Moreover, publicly available microarray datasets of similar ripening stages were also analyzed with LeMoNe resulting in TFs such as SlERF.E1, SlERF.C1, SlERF.B2, SLERF.A2, SlWRKY24, SLWRKY37 and MADS-box/TM29 which might also play an important role in regulation of ripening. These results suggest that the SlWRKY22-like might be involved in the coordinated regulation of expression of the six calcium sensing genes. Conclusively the LeMoNe tool might lead to the identification of putative TF targets for further physiological analysis as regulators of tomato fruit ripening.

  12. A multilevel analysis of fruit growth of two tomato cultivars in response to fruit temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Robert C O; de Visser, Pieter H B; Heuvelink, Ep; Lammers, Michiel; de Maagd, Ruud A; Struik, Paul C; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2015-03-01

    Fruit phenotype is a resultant of inherent genetic potential in interaction with impact of environment experienced during crop and fruit growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic and physiological basis for the difference in fruit size between a small ('Brioso') and intermediate ('Cappricia') sized tomato cultivar exposed to different fruit temperatures. It was hypothesized that fruit heating enhances expression of cell cycle and expansion genes, rates of carbon import, cell division and expansion, and shortens growth duration, whereas increase in cell number intensifies competition for assimilates among cells. Unlike previous studies in which whole-plant and fruit responses cannot be separated, we investigated the temperature response by varying fruit temperature using climate-controlled cuvettes, while keeping plant temperature the same. Fruit phenotype was assessed at different levels of aggregation (whole fruit, cell and gene) between anthesis and breaker stage. We showed that: (1) final fruit fresh weight was larger in 'Cappricia' owing to more and larger pericarp cells, (2) heated fruits were smaller because their mesocarp cells were smaller than those of control fruits and (3) no significant differences in pericarp carbohydrate concentration were detected between heated and control fruits nor between cultivars at breaker stage. At the gene level, expression of cell division promoters (CDKB2, CycA1 and E2Fe-like) was higher while that of the inhibitory fw2.2 was lower in 'Cappricia'. Fruit heating increased expression of fw2.2 and three cell division promoters (CDKB1, CDKB2 and CycA1). Expression of cell expansion genes did not corroborate cell size observations.

  13. A multilevel analysis of fruit growth of two tomato cultivars in response to fruit temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Robert C O; de Visser, Pieter H B; Heuvelink, Ep; Lammers, Michiel; de Maagd, Ruud A; Struik, Paul C; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2015-03-01

    Fruit phenotype is a resultant of inherent genetic potential in interaction with impact of environment experienced during crop and fruit growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic and physiological basis for the difference in fruit size between a small ('Brioso') and intermediate ('Cappricia') sized tomato cultivar exposed to different fruit temperatures. It was hypothesized that fruit heating enhances expression of cell cycle and expansion genes, rates of carbon import, cell division and expansion, and shortens growth duration, whereas increase in cell number intensifies competition for assimilates among cells. Unlike previous studies in which whole-plant and fruit responses cannot be separated, we investigated the temperature response by varying fruit temperature using climate-controlled cuvettes, while keeping plant temperature the same. Fruit phenotype was assessed at different levels of aggregation (whole fruit, cell and gene) between anthesis and breaker stage. We showed that: (1) final fruit fresh weight was larger in 'Cappricia' owing to more and larger pericarp cells, (2) heated fruits were smaller because their mesocarp cells were smaller than those of control fruits and (3) no significant differences in pericarp carbohydrate concentration were detected between heated and control fruits nor between cultivars at breaker stage. At the gene level, expression of cell division promoters (CDKB2, CycA1 and E2Fe-like) was higher while that of the inhibitory fw2.2 was lower in 'Cappricia'. Fruit heating increased expression of fw2.2 and three cell division promoters (CDKB1, CDKB2 and CycA1). Expression of cell expansion genes did not corroborate cell size observations. PMID:24957883

  14. Altered cell wall disassembly during ripening of Cnr tomato fruit : implications for cell wall adhesion and fruit softening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orfila, C.; Huisman, M.M.H.; Willats, W.G.T.; Alebeek, van G.J.W.M.; Schols, H.A.; Seymour, G.B.; Knox, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The Cnr (Colourless non-ripening) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutant has an aberrant fruit-ripening phenotype in which fruit do not soften and have reduced cell adhesion between pericarp cells. Cell walls from Cnr fruit were analysed in order to assess the possible contribution of pectic

  15. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries. PMID:24684635

  16. Diverse response of tomato fruit explants to high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Starck

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tomato explants (fruit with a pedicel and a piece of peduncle, with fruit growth stimulated by treating the flowers with NOA + GA3 (NG-series were used as a model system for studying the effect of high temperature on C-sucrose uptake, its distribution and Ca retranslocation. Two cultivars with contrasting responses to high temperature were compared. In sensitive cv. Roma heat stress during 22h (40oC for 10h and 30oC for 12h, drastically depressed the uptake of 14C-sucrose coinciding with diminished fruit 14C-supply. It also decreased the specific activity of soluble acid invertase and the calcium content. All these strong negative responses to high temperature were markedly reduced in the NG-treated series involving remobilization of Ca to the fruits and a higher stability of the invertase activity. This indicates the indirect role of flower treatment with NG in addaptation to heat stress. In tolerant cv. Robin even higher temperatures (42oC for 10h and 34oC for 12h were not stressful. They did not affect the 14C-sucrose uptake and stimulated 14C-supply to the fruit. Increased specific activity of acid invertase and a higher calcium content were also recorded but only in the control explants. In contrast to cv. Roma elevated temperature was slightly stressful for cv. Robin explants of NG-series. The differences in response of both cultivar explants to elevated temperature, based on unequal fruit supply with 14C-sucrose, seem to be causaly connected with two factors: the invertase activity being more or less sensitive to the heat stress, the ability to translocate Ca to the heated fruits.

  17. Effect Of 1-MCP Treatment On Storage Potential Of Tomato Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrzodak Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato fruit cv. ’Faustine’ F1 were harvested at mature green and full-red stages and treated with 1 or 2 µl·l−1 of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP at 20 °C and 85-90% RH, for 21 hours to investigate the ability to delay ripening. Treated and control fruit were stored at 12.5 and 20 °C and 85-90% RH. Ethylene production, rate of respiration, weight loss, market value and storage life were determined after 4-week storage. Exposure of tomato fruit to 1-MCP reduced ethylene production and respiration rate of the fruit harvested at mature-green and full-red stages of maturity. Storage life and market value of tomato fruit depended on the treatment with 1-MCP, stage of maturity and storage temperature. Untreated fruits were characterized by the shortest storage life in comparison with the fruit treated with 1-MCP. The lowest market value was observed for tomato fruit harvested as a mature green, untreated with 1-MCP and stored at 20 °C. Treatment of tomato fruit with 1-MCP resulted in the reduction of natural weight loss during storage. These results suggest that 1-MCP treatment can be used in a commercial storage and trading system for tomatoes due to its ability to delay fruit ripening.

  18. Tomato terpene synthases TPS5 and TPS39 account for a monoterpene linalool production in tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Hu, Shanglian; Dai, Qilin; Liu, Yongsheng

    2014-08-01

    Recombinant tomato terpene synthases, TPS5/37/39, catalyze the formation of linalool or nerolidol in vitro. However, little is known about their actual biological activities in tomato plants, especially in their fruits. Here, when all three TPSs were induced in tomato fruits by a chemical elicitor, geraniol, a significant linalool peak was detected in fruit tissues but not in control fruits. Considering the compartments of these TPS proteins and available substrates, the linalool peak induced by geraniol might be attributed to TPS5 and TPS37, both of them putatively localized in the plastids where high levels of monoterpene substrate geranyl diphosphate exist. In addition, application of geraniol also triggered jasmonic acid (JA)-related defense genes suggesting that the inducible TPSs might be correlated with JA-signaled defense responses.

  19. Uso do algoritmo de Gower na determinação da divergência genética entre acessos de tomateiro do grupo cereja = Using Gower’s algorithm on the genetic divergence determination among cherry tomato accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Camargo Rocha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A análise conjunta de variáveis qualitativas e quantitativas tem sido apontada como ferramenta útil na estimativa da divergência genética entre os acessos de uma coleção de germoplasma. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos caracterizar uma coleção de germoplasma de tomateiro do grupo cereja, com base em descritores qualitativos e quantitativos e utilizar o algoritmo de Gower na quantificação da divergência genética. Estudaram-se 40 acessos de tomateiro cereja, cultivados em manejo orgânico nas condições de Seropédica, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram utilizados quatro descritores qualitativos relacionados aos frutos e nove descritores quantitativos. Os dados foram analisados de forma conjunta pelo algoritmo de Gower. Detectou-se variabilidade para coloração, formato e número de lóculos do fruto. A coloração vermelha foi observada em 25 acessos testados, registrando-se também a produção de frutos amarelos, laranjas e marrons. Para número de lóculos, foi registrada a ocorrência de frutosbi, tri, tetra e pluriloculares (com até sete lóculos. O método UPGMA foi o que obteve o maior coeficiente de correlação cofenética (0,80, observando-se a formação de sete grupos. Os grupos formados permitiram a distinção de frutos classificados como cereja e outros que não se adequaram a esta definição, por estarem acima do diâmetro equatorial proposto para esta classe. The joint analysis of qualitative and quantitative variables has been considered a useful tool to estimate the genetic divergence among accessions of a gene bank. The purpose of this research was: (i to characterize a collection of cherry tomatoes, using quantitative and qualitative descriptors, and (ii to use Gower’s algorithm to quantify genetic divergence among genotypes, employing a joint descriptors analysis. Forty accessions of organically grown cherry tomato were studied in Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fourqualitative fruit descriptors

  20. Sweet cherries from the end of the world: options and constraints for fruit production systems in South Patagonia, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.

    2007-01-01

    In South Patagonia, development of the fruit production sector has been almost exclusively based on the production of sweet cherry, with an area increase from 176 ha in 1997 to 578 ha at the end of 2006. These orchards are designed as intensive systems and oriented to export markets. Even though swe

  1. Spermidine affects the transcriptome responses to high temperature stress in ripening tomato fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin CHENG; Rong-rong SUN; Fei-yan WANG; Zhen PENG; Fu-ling KONG; Jian WU; Jia-shu CAO; Gang LU

    2012-01-01

    Objective:High temperature adversely affects quality and yield of tomato fruit.Polyamine can alleviate heat injury in plants.This study is aimed to investigate the effects of polyamine and high temperature on transcriptional profiles in ripening tomato fruit.Methods:An Affymetrix tomato microarray was used to evaluate changes in gene expression in response to exogenous spermidine (Spd,1 mmol/L) and high temperature (33/27 ℃) treatments in tomato fruits at mature green stage.Results:Of the 10101 tomato probe sets represented on the array,127 loci were differentially expressed in high temperature-treated fruits,compared with those under normal conditions,functionally characterized by their involvement in signal transduction,defense responses,oxidation reduction,and hormone responses.However,only 34 genes were up-regulated in Spd-treated fruits as compared with non-treated fruits,which were involved in primary metabolism,signal transduction,hormone responses,transcription factors,and stress responses.Meanwhile,55 genes involved in energy metabolism,cell wall metabolism,and photosynthesis were down-regulated in Spd-treated fruits.Conclusions:Our results demonstrated that Spd might play an important role in regulation of tomato fruit response to high temperature during ripening stage.

  2. Investigating the transport dynamics of anthocyanins from unprocessed fruit and processed fruit juice from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Tomassen, Monic M M; Hall, Robert D; Mes, Jurriaan J; Beekwilder, Jules

    2013-11-27

    Anthocyanins can contribute to human health through preventing a variety of diseases. The uptake of these compounds from food and the parameters determining uptake efficiency within the human body are still poorly understood. Here we have employed a Caco-2 cell based system to investigate the transport of key antioxidant food components from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across the intestinal epithelial barrier. Anthocyanins and (-)-epicatechin were supplied in three contrasting matrices: fruit, processed fruit cherry juice, and polyphenolic fractions obtained by solid-phase extraction. Results show that both compound types behave differently. Fruit or juice matrices display comparable transport across the epithelial cell layer. The juice supplements sucrose and citric acid, which are regularly added to processed foods, have a positive effect on stability and transport. Polyphenolic fractions display a lower transport efficiency, relative to that of the fruit or juice, indicating the importance of food matrix components for intestinal absorption of polyphenols. PMID:24191680

  3. A dynamic model of tomato fruit growth integrating cell division, cell growth and endoreduplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanwoua, J.; Visser, de P.H.B.; Heuvelink, E.; Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed a model of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit growth integrating cell division, cell growth and endoreduplication. The fruit was considered as a population of cells grouped in cell classes differing in their initial cell age and cell mass. The model describes fruit gr

  4. Pulsed Vacuum Osmotic Dehydration of Cherry Tomatoes: Impact on Physicochemical Properties and Probiotics Entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pheeraya CHOTTANOM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic dehydration (OD and pulsed vacuum osmotic dehydration (PVOD were employed to assess the various properties of partially-dehydrated tomatoes. Ascorbic acid and lycopene degradation and color and texture change were determined. The mastership incorporation of probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus TISTR 1338 into tomatoes was also investigated. OD mediums (20, 40 and 60 Brix consisted of a mixture of formulated tomato extract (FTE and probiotic cell suspension. PVOD promoting mass transfer was clearly observed in a short-time process compared with OD. The physical and chemical properties of the tomatoes changed significantly after the dehydration processes, especially those of ascorbic acid content compared with lycopene. A more than 50 % loss of ascorbic acid was noted, starting at 10 g /100 g tomatoes of water loss. The hardness values significantly increased, while chroma values decreased. The cell entrapment on the tomatoes was in the range of 8 - 9 log CFU/g tomatoes. The highest entrapment of the probiotic bacteria was found in the long-time process (12 h conducted with 20 Brix FTE for the PVOD and OD processes, while entrapment was decreased by the short-time process (6 h. Using high solution concentration resulted in lower cell entrapment. However, cell entrapment could be increased by using the vacuum process. These results will provide a platform that encourages the inclusion of probiotics in high quality fresh-cut products and semi-moist products. These products can then be considered as alternative probiotic food choice for consumers.

  5. The role of alternative oxidase in tomato fruit ripening and its regulatory interaction with ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Yuan, Shu; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lv, Xin; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2012-09-01

    Although the alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed to play a role in fruit development, the function of AOX in fruit ripening is unclear. To gain further insight into the role of AOX in tomato fruit ripening, transgenic tomato plants 35S-AOX1a and 35S-AOX-RNAi were generated. Tomato plants with reduced LeAOX levels exhibited retarded ripening; reduced carotenoids, respiration, and ethylene production; and the down-regulation of ripening-associated genes. Moreover, no apparent respiratory climacteric occurred in the AOX-reduced tomato fruit, indicating that AOX might play an important role in climacteric respiration. In contrast, the fruit that overexpressed LeAOX1a accumulated more lycopene, though they displayed a similar pattern of ripening to wild-type fruit. Ethylene application promoted fruit ripening and anticipated ethylene production and respiration, including the alternative pathway respiration. Interestingly, the transgenic plants with reduced LeAOX levels failed to ripen after 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, while such inhibition was notably less effective in 35S-AOX1a fruit. These findings indicate that AOX is involved in respiratory climacteric and ethylene-mediated fruit ripening of tomato.

  6. Alternate partial root-zone drying irrigation improves fruit quality in tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Y.; Holm, Peter Engelund; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Alternate partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation and deficit irrigation (DI) are water-saving irrigation strategies. Here, comparative effects of PRD and DI on fruit quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. The results showed that the irrigation treatments had no effect...... on tomato yield but significantly affected several organic and mineral quality attributes of the fruits. Compared to DI, PRD significantly increased the fruit concentrations of Ca and Mg, and fruit juice concentrations of total soluble solid, glucose, fructose, citric and malic acid, P, K and Mg....... It is concluded that PRD is better than DI in terms of improving fruit quality, and could be a promising management strategy for simultaneous increase of water use efficiency and fruit quality in tomatoes....

  7. Enhancing the Health-Promoting Effects of Tomato Fruit for Biofortified Food

    OpenAIRE

    Assunta Raiola; Maria Manuela Rigano; Roberta Calafiore; Luigi Frusciante; Amalia Barone

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of tomato fruits, like those of many other plant species that are part of the human diet, is considered to be associated with several positive effects on health. Indeed, tomato fruits are an important source of bioactive compounds with known beneficial effects including vitamins, antioxidants, and anticancer substances. In particular, antioxidant metabolites are a group of vitamins, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and phenolic acid that can provide effective protection by neutral...

  8. Effect of endogenously synthesized and exogenously applied ethanol on tomato fruit ripening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, M.O.; Saltveit, M.E. Jr.

    1988-09-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var Castlemart) fruit ripening was inhibited by tissue concentrations of ethanol that were produced by either exposure to exogenous ethanol vapors or synthesis under anaerobic atmospheres. Ethanol was not detected in aerobically ripened tomato fruit. Ripening was not inhibited by exposure to methanol at an equivalent molar concentration to inhibitory concentrations of ethanol, while ripening was slightly more inhibited by n-propanol than by equivalent molar concentrations of ethanol. The mottled appearance of a few ripened ethanol-treated fruit was not observed in n-propanol-treated fruit.

  9. Functional characterization of a tomato COBRA-like gene functioning in fruit development and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies have demonstrated that the COBRA gene is critical for biosynthesis of cell wall constituents comprising structural tissues of roots, stalks, leaves and other vegetative organs, however, its role in fruit development and ripening remains largely unknown. Results We identified a tomato gene (SlCOBRA-like homologous to Arabidopsis COBRA, and determined its role in fleshy fruit biology. The SlCOBRA-like gene is highly expressed in vegetative organs and in early fruit development, but its expression in fruit declines dramatically during ripening stages, implying a primary role in early fruit development. Fruit-specific suppression of SlCOBRA-like resulted in impaired cell wall integrity and up-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in cell wall degradation during early fruit development. In contrast, fruit-specific overexpression of SlCOBRA-like resulted in increased wall thickness of fruit epidermal cells, more collenchymatous cells beneath the epidermis, elevated levels of cellulose and reduced pectin solubilization in the pericarp cells of red ripe fruits. Moreover, transgenic tomato fruits overexpressing SlCOBRA-like exhibited desirable early development phenotypes including enhanced firmness and a prolonged shelf life. Conclusions Our results suggest that SlCOBRA-like plays an important role in fruit cell wall architecture and provides a potential genetic tool for extending the shelf life of tomato and potentially additional fruits.

  10. Changes in oxidative stress in transgenic RNAi ACO1 tomato fruit during ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglous, Najat Mohamed; Ali, Zainon Mohd; Hassan, Maizom; Zainal, Zamri

    2013-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) is the second most cultivated vegetable in the world and widely used as a system for studying the role of ethylene during fruit ripening. Our objective was to study the oxidative stress and antioxidative metabolism during ripening of non transgenic tomato and transgenic line-21 tomato which reduced ethylene. The line-21 of transgenic tomato plants (RNAi ACO1) had lower ethylene production and longer shelf-life more than 32 days as compared to the wild-type fruits which have very short shelf-life. In this study, tomato fruit were divided into five different stages (MG: mature green 5%, B: breaker 25%, T: turning 50%, O: orange75%, RR: red ripe100%). The activity of lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were measured to assess changes in oxidative stress. The LOX activity and MDA content decreased significantly obtaining 2.6-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively, as compared to the wild type fruit. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were increased to 1.9 and 1.2 folds from the mature green to the fully ripe stage in transgenic tomatoes. Furthermore, the wild type tomato increases 1.3 in SOD and 1.6 in CAT activities. The overall results indicate that the wild type tomato fruit showed a faster rate of ripening, parallel to decline in the rate of enzymatic antioxidative systems as compared to the transgenic line-21 tomato fruit. In addition, the results show that the antioxidant capacity is improved during the ripening process and is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress.

  11. 1H NMR metabolic fingerprinting to probe temporal postharvest changes on qualitative attributes and phytochemical profile of sweet cherry fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasios eGoulas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry fruits (Prunus avium cvs. ‘Canada Giant’, ‘Ferrovia’ were harvested at commercial maturity stage and analyzed at harvest and after maintenance at room temperature (storage at ~ 20°C, shelf life for 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, respectively. Fruit were initially analyzed for respiration rate, qualitative attributes and textural properties: ‘Canada Giant’ fruit were characterized by higher weight losses and stem browning index, being more intense over the late stages of shelf life period; meanwhile ‘Ferrovia’ possessed appreciably better performance even after extended shelf life period. A gradual decrease of respiration rate was monitored in both cultivars, culminated after 8 days at 20°C. The sweet cherry fruit nutraceutical profile was monitored using an array of instrumental techniques (spectrophotometric assays, HPLC, 1H-NMR. Fruit antioxidant capacity was enhanced with the progress of shelf life period, concomitant with the increased levels of total anthocyanin and of phenolic compounds. ‘Ferrovia’ fruit presented higher contents of neochlorogenic acid and p-coumarolquinic acid throughout the shelf life period. We further developed an 1H-NMR method that allows the study of primary and secondary metabolites in a single running, without previous separation and isolation procedures. Diagnostic peaks were located in the aliphatic region for sugars and organic acids, in the aromatic region for phenolic compounds and at 8.2 to 8.6 ppm for anthocyanins. This NMR-based methodology provides a unifying tool for quantitative and qualitative characterization of metabolite changes of sweet cherry fruits; it is also expected to be further exploited for monitoring temporal changes in other fleshy fruits.

  12. (1)H NMR Metabolic Fingerprinting to Probe Temporal Postharvest Changes on Qualitative Attributes and Phytochemical Profile of Sweet Cherry Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Vlasios; Minas, Ioannis S; Kourdoulas, Panayiotis M; Lazaridou, Athina; Molassiotis, Athanassios N; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Manganaris, George A

    2015-01-01

    Sweet cherry fruits (Prunus avium cvs. 'Canada Giant', 'Ferrovia') were harvested at commercial maturity stage and analyzed at harvest and after maintenance at room temperature (storage at ∼20°C, shelf life) for 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days, respectively. Fruit were initially analyzed for respiration rate, qualitative attributes and textural properties: 'Canada Giant' fruit were characterized by higher weight losses and stem browning index, being more intense over the late stages of shelf life period; meanwhile 'Ferrovia' possessed appreciably better performance even after extended shelf life period. A gradual decrease of respiration rate was monitored in both cultivars, culminated after 8 days at 20°C. The sweet cherry fruit nutraceutical profile was monitored using an array of instrumental techniques (spectrophotometric assays, HPLC, (1)H-NMR). Fruit antioxidant capacity was enhanced with the progress of shelf life period, concomitant with the increased levels of total anthocyanin and of phenolic compounds. 'Ferrovia' fruit presented higher contents of neochlorogenic acid and p-coumaroylquinic acid throughout the shelf life period. We further developed an (1)H-NMR method that allows the study of primary and secondary metabolites in a single running, without previous separation and isolation procedures. Diagnostic peaks were located in the aliphatic region for sugars and organic acids, in the aromatic region for phenolic compounds and at 8.2-8.6 ppm for anthocyanins. This NMR-based methodology provides a unifying tool for quantitative and qualitative characterization of metabolite changes of sweet cherry fruits; it is also expected to be further exploited for monitoring temporal changes in other fleshy fruits. PMID:26617616

  13. 1H NMR Metabolic Fingerprinting to Probe Temporal Postharvest Changes on Qualitative Attributes and Phytochemical Profile of Sweet Cherry Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Vlasios; Minas, Ioannis S.; Kourdoulas, Panayiotis M.; Lazaridou, Athina; Molassiotis, Athanassios N.; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P.; Manganaris, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet cherry fruits (Prunus avium cvs. ‘Canada Giant’, ‘Ferrovia’) were harvested at commercial maturity stage and analyzed at harvest and after maintenance at room temperature (storage at ∼20°C, shelf life) for 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days, respectively. Fruit were initially analyzed for respiration rate, qualitative attributes and textural properties: ‘Canada Giant’ fruit were characterized by higher weight losses and stem browning index, being more intense over the late stages of shelf life period; meanwhile ‘Ferrovia’ possessed appreciably better performance even after extended shelf life period. A gradual decrease of respiration rate was monitored in both cultivars, culminated after 8 days at 20°C. The sweet cherry fruit nutraceutical profile was monitored using an array of instrumental techniques (spectrophotometric assays, HPLC, 1H-NMR). Fruit antioxidant capacity was enhanced with the progress of shelf life period, concomitant with the increased levels of total anthocyanin and of phenolic compounds. ‘Ferrovia’ fruit presented higher contents of neochlorogenic acid and p-coumaroylquinic acid throughout the shelf life period. We further developed an 1H-NMR method that allows the study of primary and secondary metabolites in a single running, without previous separation and isolation procedures. Diagnostic peaks were located in the aliphatic region for sugars and organic acids, in the aromatic region for phenolic compounds and at 8.2–8.6 ppm for anthocyanins. This NMR-based methodology provides a unifying tool for quantitative and qualitative characterization of metabolite changes of sweet cherry fruits; it is also expected to be further exploited for monitoring temporal changes in other fleshy fruits. PMID:26617616

  14. Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-(U-{sup 14}C)malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification.

  15. Down-regulation of photosynthesis following girdling, but contrasting effects on fruit set and retention, in two sweet cherry cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, A G; Close, D C; Hennen, L M H P; Pinkard, E A

    2013-12-01

    Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees were manipulated to analyse the contribution of soluble sugars to sink feedback down-regulation of leaf net CO2 assimilation rate (Anet) and fruit set and quality attributes. Total soluble sugar concentration and Anet were measured in the morning on fully expanded leaves of girdled branches in two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Kordia' and 'Sylvia' characterised typically by low and high crop load, respectively. Leaves on girdled trees had higher soluble sugar concentrations and reduced Anet than leaves on non-girdled trees. Moreover, RuBP carboxylation capacity of Rubisco (Vcmax) and triose-phosphate utilisation (TPU) were repressed in the girdled treatments, despite Jmax remaining unchanged; suggesting an impairment of photosynthetic capacity in response to the girdling treatment. Leaf Anet was negatively correlated to soluble sugars, suggesting a sink feedback regulatory control of photosynthesis. Although there were significantly less fruit set and retained in 'Kordia' than 'Sylvia'; girdling had contrasting effects in each cultivar. Girdling significantly increased fruit set and fruitlet retention in 'Sylvia' cultivar, but had no effect in 'Kordia' cultivar. We propose that low inherent sink demand for photoassimilates of 'Kordia' fruit could have contributed to the low fruit retention rate, since both non-girdled and girdled trees exhibited similar retention rate and that increases in foliar carbohydrates was observed above the girdle. In 'Sylvia' cultivar, the carbohydrate status may be a limiting factor for 'Sylvia' fruit, since girdling improved both fruit set and retention, and leaf soluble solids accumulation. PMID:24189522

  16. Melatonin content of pepper and tomato fruits: effects of cultivar and solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Patrick; Medina, Sonia; García-Flores, Libia Alejandra; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of cultivar and solar radiation on the melatonin content of Capsicum annuum (pepper) and Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruits. The melatonin content of red pepper fruits ranged from 31 to 93ngg(-1) (dry weight). The melatonin content of tomato ranged from 7.5 to 250ngg(-1) (dry weight). We also studied the effect of ripeness on melatonin content and identified one group of pepper cultivars in which the melatonin content increased as the fruit ripened and another in which it decreased as the fruit ripened. Under shade conditions, the melatonin content in most of tomato cultivars tended to increase (up to 135%), whereas that of most pepper cultivars decreased (to 64%). Overall, the results also demonstrated that the melatonin content of the fruits was not related to carbon fluxes from leaves.

  17. Chilling and Host Plant/Site-Associated Eclosion Times of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a Host-Specific Parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Hood, Glen R; Forbes, Andrew A; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an endemic herbivore of bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ∼100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of adult R. indifferens from sweet and bitter cherry differ according to the phenology of their respective host plants and if eclosion times of the host-specific parasitoid Diachasma muliebre (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking bitter and sweet cherry flies differ according to the eclosion phenology of their fly hosts. Fly pupae from sweet and bitter cherry fruit were collected from sympatric and allopatric sites in Washington state, and chilled at 5°C. Because timing of eclosion in R. indifferens depends on chill duration, eclosion time in wasps could also vary with chill duration. To account for this, fly pupae were chilled for 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, or 8 mo. Both flies and wasps eclosed earlier with longer chill durations. Eclosion times of sweet and bitter cherry flies from a sympatric site in central Washington did not differ. However, at allopatric sites in northwestern and central Washington, bitter cherry flies eclosed later than sweet and bitter cherry flies at the sympatric site. Correspondingly, D. muliebre parasitizing a more isolated bitter cherry fly population eclosed later than D. muliebre parasitizing earlier-emerging sweet and bitter cherry fly populations. These results provide evidence for D. muliebre rapidly responding to changes in host plant shifts by R. indifferens. PMID:26314048

  18. Transcriptional dynamics of the developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit: sequencing, annotation and expression profiling of exocarp-associated genes

    OpenAIRE

    Merianne Alkio; Uwe Jonas; Myriam Declercq; Steven Van Nocker; Moritz Knoche

    2014-01-01

    The exocarp, or skin, of fleshy fruit is a specialized tissue that protects the fruit, attracts seed dispersing fruit eaters, and has large economical relevance for fruit quality. Development of the exocarp involves regulated activities of many genes. This research analyzed global gene expression in the exocarp of developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘Regina’), a fruit crop species with little public genomic resources. A catalog of transcript models (contigs) representing expressed genes...

  19. Enhancing the Health-Promoting Effects of Tomato Fruit for Biofortified Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Raiola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of tomato fruits, like those of many other plant species that are part of the human diet, is considered to be associated with several positive effects on health. Indeed, tomato fruits are an important source of bioactive compounds with known beneficial effects including vitamins, antioxidants, and anticancer substances. In particular, antioxidant metabolites are a group of vitamins, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and phenolic acid that can provide effective protection by neutralizing free radicals, which are unstable molecules linked to the development of a number of degenerative diseases and conditions. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on tomatoes nutritional importance and mechanisms of action of different phytochemicals against inflammation processes and prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension. In addition, we will summarize the significant progress recently made to improve the nutritional quality of tomato fruits through metabolic engineering and/or breeding.

  20. Pathway engineering for healthy phytochemicals leading to the production of novel flavonoids in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijlen, Elio; Ric de Vos, C H; Jonker, Harry; van den Broeck, Hetty; Molthoff, Jos; van Tunen, Arjen; Martens, Stefan; Bovy, Arnaud

    2006-07-01

    Flavonoids are a large family of plant polyphenolic secondary metabolites. Although they are widespread throughout the plant kingdom, some flavonoid classes are specific for only a few plant species. Due to their presumed health benefits there is growing interest in the development of food crops with tailor-made levels and composition of flavonoids, designed to exert an optimal biological effect. In order to explore the possibilities of flavonoid engineering in tomato fruits, we have targeted this pathway towards classes of potentially healthy flavonoids which are novel for tomato. Using structural flavonoid genes (encoding stilbene synthase, chalcone synthase, chalcone reductase, chalcone isomerase and flavone synthase) from different plant sources, we were able to produce transgenic tomatoes accumulating new phytochemicals. Biochemical analysis showed that the fruit peel contained high levels of stilbenes (resveratrol and piceid), deoxychalcones (butein and isoliquiritigenin), flavones (luteolin-7-glucoside and luteolin aglycon) and flavonols (quercetin glycosides and kaempferol glycosides). Using an online high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) antioxidant detection system, we demonstrated that, due to the presence of the novel flavonoids, the transgenic tomato fruits displayed altered antioxidant profiles. In addition, total antioxidant capacity of tomato fruit peel with high levels of flavones and flavonols increased more than threefold. These results on genetic engineering of flavonoids in tomato fruit demonstrate the possibilities to change the levels and composition of health-related polyphenols in a crop plant and provide more insight in the genetic and biochemical regulation of the flavonoid pathway within this worldwide important vegetable. PMID:17177808

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF BIRD CHERRY FRUIT FOR INCLUSION IN THE MONOGRAPH OF STATE PHARMACOPOEIA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bird cherry Padus avium Mill, Rosaceae, is widespread in Ukraine, especially in forests and forest-steppe areas. Bird cherry fruits have long been used in medicine and is a valuable medicinal raw materials. They stated to posess astringent, anti-inflammatory, phytoncidal properties. Bird cherry fruits are included in the USSR Pharmacopoeia IX ed., The State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation, The State Pharmacopoeia of Republic of Belarus. In Ukraine there are no contemporary normative documents for this medicinal plant material, therefore it is the actual to develop projects in the national monographs "dry bird cherry fruit" and "fresh bird cherry fruit" to be included in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. According to European Pharmacopoeia recommendation method of thin-layer chromatography (TLC is prescribed only for the identification of the herbal drug. The principles of thin-layer chromatography and application of the technique in pharmaceutical analysis are described in State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. As it is effective and easy to perform, and the equipment required is inexpensive, the technique is frequently used for evaluating medicinal plant materials and their preparations. The TLC is aimed at elucidating the chromatogram of the drug with respect to selected reference compounds that are described for inclusion as reagents. Aim of this study was to develop methods of qualitative analysis of bird cherry fruits for a monograph in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine (SPU. Materials and Methods. The object of our study was dried bird cherry fruits (7 samples and fresh bird cherry fruits (7 samples harvested in 2013-2015 in Kharkiv, Poltava, Luhansk, Sumy, Lviv, Mykolaiv regions and the city Mariupol. Samples were registered in the department of SPU State Enterprise "Pharmacopeia center". In accordance with the Ph. Eur. and SPU requirements in "identification C" determination was performed by TLC. TLC was performed on

  2. An immunomarking method to determine the foraging patterns of Osmia cornifrons and resulting fruit set in a cherry orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Biddinger, David; Joshi, Neelendra; Rajotte, Edwin; Halbrendt, Noemi; Pulig, Cassandra; Naithani, Kusum; Vaughan, Mace

    2013-01-01

    The foraging patterns of Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Megachilidae, Hymenoptera) were determined with an immunomarking method and correlated with fruit set in a commercial tart cherry orchard in Pennsylvania. Adults of O. cornifrons were self-marked with chicken egg-white protein powder from a dispenser nest box placed at the center of the study orchard at early bloom. Flower samples were collected from randomly selected trees (n = 30) located at different distances from the nest box. Flo...

  3. Characterization of volatile compounds of “Drenja”, an alcoholic beverage obtained from the fruits of cornelian cherry

    OpenAIRE

    VELE TEŠEVIĆ; NINOSLAV NIKIĆEVIĆ; SLOBODAN MILOSAVLJEVIĆ; DANICA BAJIĆ; VLATKA VAJS; IVAN VUČKOVIĆ; LJUBODRAG VUJISIĆ; IRIS ĐORĐEVIĆ; MIROSLAVA STANKOVIĆ; MILOVAN VELIČKOVIĆ

    2009-01-01

    In this study, volatile compounds were analyzed in five samples of home-made spirit beverage made by the distillation of fermented fruits of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.). The major volatile compounds, besides ethanol, identified and quantified were: methanol, acetaldehyde, 1-propanol, ethyl acetate, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 1-butanol, amyl alcohols, 1-hexanol and 2-phenylethanol. The minor volatiles were submitted to liquid–liquid extraction with dichloromethane and analyzed by gas chromatogr...

  4. Induced mutations in tomato SlExp1 alter cell wall metabolism and delay fruit softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoia, Silvia; Boualem, Adnane; Marcel, Fabien; Troadec, Christelle; Quemener, Bernard; Cellini, Francesco; Petrozza, Angelo; Vigouroux, Jacqueline; Lahaye, Marc; Carriero, Filomena; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening and softening are key traits for many fleshy fruit. Since cell walls play a key role in the softening process, expansins have been investigated to control fruit over ripening and deterioration. In tomato, expression of Expansin 1 gene, SlExp1, during fruit ripening was associated with fruit softening. To engineer tomato plants with long shelf life, we screened for mutant plants impaired in SlExp1 function. Characterization of two induced mutations, Slexp1-6_W211S, and Slexp1-7_Q213Stop, showed that SlExp1 loss of function leads to enhanced fruit firmness and delayed fruit ripening. Analysis of cell wall polysaccharide composition of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant pointed out significant differences for uronic acid, neutral sugar and total sugar contents. Hemicelluloses chemistry analysis by endo-β-1,4-d-glucanase hydrolysis and MALDI-TOF spectrometry revealed that xyloglucan structures were affected in the fruit pericarp of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant. Altogether, these results demonstrated that SlExp1 loss of function mutants yield firmer and late ripening fruits through modification of hemicellulose structure. These SlExp1 mutants represent good tools for breeding long shelf life tomato lines with contrasted fruit texture as well as for the understanding of the cell wall polysaccharide assembly dynamics in fleshy fruits.

  5. Effect of tomato post-harvest fungicide treatment and storage conditions on the quality of fruits, and biological value of tomato pulp and concentrated pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parynow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of storage conditions on the quality of tomato fruits was tested. The rate of ripening was established in normal air, where tomatoes ripen quickly, under controlled atmosphere where they ripen more slowly and under low pressure, where they ripen slowest. The influence of post-harvest benomyl or methylthiophanate treatment on tomato rot, ripening, and biological value were examined. Post-harvest tomato treatment did not reduce fruit rot. The color of fruits and the processed products depended on the fungicide treatment. Concentrated tomato pulp made of fruits treated with methylthiophanate was redder than the others. The fungicide treatment increased or decreased the level of some chemical substances in the fruits in dependence on the applied fungicide, storage conditions and the length of storage, e.g. tomatoes treated with benomyl and stored for 14 days contained the highest level of vitamin C under 0% CO2:3%O2 and tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the highest level of vitamin C under 38 mm Hg. Degradation of vitamin C in pulp was faster than in the concentrated pulp. Tomato pulp made of tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the lowest level of vitamin C.

  6. Members of the tomato FRUITFULL MADS-box family regulate style abscission and fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shufen; Lu, Gang; Hou, Zheng; Luo, Zhidan; Wang, Taotao; Li, Hanxia; Zhang, Junhong; Ye, Zhibiao

    2014-07-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) protein MADS-RIN plays important roles in fruit ripening. In this study, the functions of two homologous tomato proteins, FUL1 and FUL2, which contain conserved MIKC domains that typify plant MADS-box proteins, and which interact with MADS-RIN, were analysed. Transgenic functional analysis showed that FUL1 and FUL2 function redundantly in fruit ripening regulation, but exhibit distinct roles in the regulation of cellular differentiation and expansion. Over-expression of FUL2 in tomato resulted in a pointed tip at the blossom end of the fruit, together with a thinner pericarp, reduced stem diameter, and smaller leaves, but no obvious phenotypes resulted from FUL1 over-expression. Dual suppression of FUL1 and FUL2 substantially inhibited fruit ripening by blocking ethylene biosynthesis and decreasing carotenoid accumulation. In addition, the levels of transcript corresponding to ACC SYNTHASE2 (ACS2), which plays a key role in ethylene biosynthesis, were significantly decreased in the FUL1/FUL2 knock-down tomato fruits. Overall, our results suggest that FUL proteins can regulate tomato fruit ripening through fine-tuning ethylene biosynthesis and the expression of ripening-related genes.

  7. How and why does tomato accumulate a large amount of GABA in the fruit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko eTakayama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA has received much attention as a health-promoting functional compound, and several GABA-enriched foods have been commercialized. In higher plants, GABA is primarily metabolized via a short pathway called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt bypasses two steps (the oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to succinate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle via reactions catalysed by three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, GABA transaminase (GABA-T and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH. The GABA shunt plays a major role in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism and is an integral part of the TCA cycle under stress and non-stress conditions. Tomato is one of the major crops that accumulate a relatively high level of GABA in its fruits. The GABA levels in tomato fruits dramatically change during fruit development; the GABA levels increase from flowering to the mature green stage and then rapidly decrease during the ripening stage. Although GABA constitutes up to 50% of the free amino acids at the mature green stage, the molecular mechanism of GABA accumulation and the physiological function of GABA during tomato fruit development remain unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies of GABA accumulation in tomato fruits and discuss the potential biological roles of GABA in tomato fruit development.

  8. Bacterial community diversity and variation in spray water sources and the tomato fruit surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottesen Andrea R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum consumption has been one of the most common causes of produce-associated salmonellosis in the United States. Contamination may originate from animal waste, insects, soil or water. Current guidelines for fresh tomato production recommend the use of potable water for applications coming in direct contact with the fruit, but due to high demand, water from other sources is frequently used. We sought to describe the overall bacterial diversity on the surface of tomato fruit and the effect of two different water sources (ground and surface water when used for direct crop applications by generating a 454-pyrosequencing 16S rRNA dataset of these different environments. This study represents the first in depth characterization of bacterial communities in the tomato fruit surface and the water sources commonly used in commercial vegetable production. Results The two water sources tested had a significantly different bacterial composition. Proteobacteria was predominant in groundwater samples, whereas in the significantly more diverse surface water, abundant phyla also included Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. The fruit surface bacterial communities on tomatoes sprayed with both water sources could not be differentiated using various statistical methods. Both fruit surface environments had a high representation of Gammaproteobacteria, and within this class the genera Pantoea and Enterobacter were the most abundant. Conclusions Despite the major differences observed in the bacterial composition of ground and surface water, the season long use of these very different water sources did not have a significant impact on the bacterial composition of the tomato fruit surface. This study has provided the first next-generation sequencing database describing the bacterial communities living in the fruit surface of a tomato crop under two different spray water regimes, and therefore represents an

  9. Suppression of tomato SlNAC1 transcription factor delays fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chen; Yang, Dongyue; Ma, Xiaocui; Zhao, Weiyang; Liang, Xiaoqing; Ma, Nana; Meng, Qingwei

    2016-04-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex process involving many physiological and biochemical changes, including those for ethylene, carotenoid, and cell wall metabolism. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) serves as a research model for fruit development and ripening because it possesses numerous favorable genetic features. In this study, SlNAC1 was cloned. An antisense (AS) vector was constructed and transferred to tomato to further explore the function of SlNAC1. The results showed that AS fruits exhibited delayed ripening and a deeper red appearance when these fruits were fully ripened. Fully ripened AS fruits also produced higher total carotenoid and lycopene contents than those of the wild-type (WT) line. Ethylene production of AS fruits was delayed but occurred to a higher extent than that of WT fruits. The softening of AS fruits was slower than that of WT fruits. Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) level in AS-4 fruits was lower than that in WT fruits. Exogenous ABA accelerated the softening of AS fruits. Furthermore, AS fruits demonstrated up-regulated expression of genes related to lycopene and ethylene biosynthesis but down-regulated expression of genes related to cell wall metabolism and ABA synthesis. Therefore, SlNAC1 is likely implicated in fruit ripening.

  10. Altered Levels of Aroma and Volatiles by Metabolic Engineering of Shikimate Pathway Genes in Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered Tzin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fruit is an excellent source of antioxidants, dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins and therefore has been referred to as a “functional food”. Ripe tomato fruits produce a large number of specialized metabolites including volatile organic compounds. These volatiles serve as key components of the tomato fruit flavor, participate in plant pathogen and herbivore defense, and are used to attract seed dispersers. A major class of specialized metabolites is derived from the shikimate pathway followed by aromatic amino acid biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. We attempted to modify tomato fruit flavor by overexpressing key regulatory genes in the shikimate pathway. Bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive variants of 3-Deoxy-D-Arabino-Heptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase (DAHPS; AroG209-9 and bi-functional Chorismate Mutase/Prephenate Dehydratase (CM/PDT; PheA12 were expressed under the control of a fruit-specific promoter. We crossed these transgenes to generate tomato plants expressing both the AroG209 and PheA12 genes. Overexpression of the AroG209-9 gene had a dramatic effect on the overall metabolic profile of the fruit, including enhanced levels of multiple volatile and non-volatile metabolites. In contrast, the PheA12 overexpression line exhibited minor metabolic effects compared to the wild type fruit. Co-expression of both the AroG209-9 and PheA12 genes in tomato resulted overall in a similar metabolic effect to that of expressing only the AroG209-9 gene. However, the aroma ranking attributes of the tomato fruits from PheA12//AroG209-9 were unique and different from those of the lines expressing a single gene, suggesting a contribution of the PheA12 gene to the overall metabolic profile. We suggest that expression of bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive enzymes of the shikimate pathway in tomato fruits provides a useful metabolic engineering tool for the modification of

  11. Transient expression of organophosphorus hydrolase to enhance the degrading activity of tomato fruit on coumaphos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-hong ZHAO; De-gang ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    We constructed an expression cassette of the organophosphorus pesticide degrading (opd)gene under the control of the E8 promoter.Then opd was transformed into tomato fruit using an agroinfiltration transient expression system.β-Glueuronidase (GUS) staining,reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR),wavelength scanning,and fluorescent reaction were performed to examine the expression of the opd gene and the hydrolysis activity on eoumaphos of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) in tomato fruit.The results show that the agroinfiltrated tomato fruit-expressed OPH had the maximum hydrolysis activity of about 11.59 U/mg total soluble protein.These results will allow us to focus on breeding transgenie plants that could not only enhance the degrading capability of fruit and but also hold no negative effects on pest control when spraying organophosphorus pesticides onto the seedlings in fields.

  12. Tomato GOLDEN2-LIKE transcription factors reveal molecular gradients that function during fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong V; Vrebalov, Julia T; Gapper, Nigel E; Zheng, Yi; Zhong, Silin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James J

    2014-02-01

    Fruit ripening is the summation of changes rendering fleshy fruit tissues attractive and palatable to seed dispersing organisms. For example, sugar content is influenced by plastid numbers and photosynthetic activity in unripe fruit and later by starch and sugar catabolism during ripening. Tomato fruit are sinks of photosynthate, yet unripe green fruit contribute significantly to the sugars that ultimately accumulate in the ripe fruit. Plastid numbers and chlorophyll content are influenced by numerous environmental and genetic factors and are positively correlated with photosynthesis and photosynthate accumulation. GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors regulate plastid and chlorophyll levels. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), like most plants, contains two GLKs (i.e., GLK1 and GLK2/UNIFORM). Mutant and transgene analysis demonstrated that these genes encode functionally similar peptides, though differential expression renders GLK1 more important in leaves, while GLK2 is predominant in fruit. A latitudinal gradient of GLK2 expression influences the typical uneven coloration of green and ripe wild-type fruit. Transcriptome profiling revealed a broader fruit gene expression gradient throughout development. The gradient influenced general ripening activities beyond plastid development and was consistent with the easily observed yet poorly studied ripening gradient present in tomato and many fleshy fruits.

  13. Study on the preservation of cherry tomatoes and cucumber by edible film of bovine serum albumin%牛血清蛋白涂膜保鲜圣女果和小黄瓜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章银良; 周文权; 张陆燕

    2013-01-01

    以牛血清蛋白为主要原料对圣女果和小黄瓜进行涂膜保鲜实验,在20~25℃下测定果蔬的失重率,烂果率,维生素C、总叶绿素、总类胡萝卜素含量以及可溶性固形物含量.结果表明:涂膜处理对圣女果和小黄瓜具有良好的保鲜效果,能够明显抑制果蔬营养物质的消耗,降低失水、烂果率,抑制其呼吸强度,货架期分别达到15d和10d.%The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preservation of cherry tomatoes and cucumber by edible film of bovine serum albumin.The weight-loss rate,rotten fruit rate,and the contents of soluble solids,vitamin C,chlorophyll and carotenoid were detected during storage at 20~25 ℃.The results showed that coating with the edible films was significantly effective on decreasing the loss of fruit nutrition,waterloss rate,rotten fruit rate,inhibiting respiration.The shelf life was 15d and 10d respectively.

  14. Expression profile analysis of early fruit development in iaaM-parthenocarpic tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spena Angelo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruit normally develops from the ovary after pollination and fertilization. However, the ovary can also generate seedless fruit without fertilization by parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic fruit development has been obtained in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum by genetic modification using auxin-synthesising gene(s (DefH9-iaaM; DefH9-RI-iaaM expressed specifically in the placenta and ovules. Findings We have performed a cDNA Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP analysis on pre-anthesis tomato flower buds (0.5 cm long collected from DefH9-iaaM and DefH9-RI-iaaM parthenocarpic and wild-type plants, with the aim to identify genes involved in very early phases of tomato fruit development. We detected 212 transcripts differentially expressed in auxin-ipersynthesising pre-anthesis flower buds, 65 of them (31% have unknown function. Several differentially expressed genes show homology to genes involved in protein trafficking and protein degradation via proteasome. These processes are crucial for auxin cellular transport and signaling, respectively. Conclusion The data presented might contribute to elucidate the molecular basis of the fruiting process and to develop new methods to confer parthenocarpy to species of agronomic interest. In a recently published work, we have demonstrated that one of the genes identified in this screening, corresponding to #109 cDNA clone, regulates auxin-dependent fruit initiation and its suppression causes parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.

  15. Metabolic characterization of loci affecting sensory attributes in tomato allows an assessment of the influence of the levels of primary metabolites and volatile organic contents

    OpenAIRE

    Zanor, Maria Inés; Rambla, José-Luis; Chaib, Jamila; Steppa, Agnes; Medina, Aurore; Grannell, Antonio; Fernie, Alisdair; Causse, Mathilde

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have revealed the extent of genetic and phenotypic variation between both species and cultivars of tomato. Using a series of tomato lines resulting from crosses between a cherry tomato and three independent large fruit cultivar (Levovil, VilB, and VilD), extensive profiling of both central primary metabolism and volatile organic components of the fruit was performed. In this study, it was possible to define a number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) which determined the level...

  16. Native bees pollinate tomato flowers and increase fruit production

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Araújo Ribeiro Bergamini; Marcos Antônio Elias; Flaviana Gomes Lima; Bruno Bastos Gonçalves; Leonardo Lima Bergamini; Carlos Melo Silva Neto; Edivani Villaron Franceschinelli

    2013-01-01

    The tomato plant has a specific relationship with native pollinators because the form of its flowers is adapted to buzz pollination carried out by some pollen-gatherer bees that vibrate their indirect flight muscles to obtain that floral resource. The absence and the low density of these bees in tomato fields can lead to pollination deficits for crop. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that open tomato flowers, probably visited by native pollinator, have greater pollen load on their stig...

  17. Effects on Sucrose Metabolism,Dry Matter Distribution and Fruit Quality of Tomato Under Water Deficit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Hong-yan; LI Tian-lai; ZHANG Jie; WANG Lei; CHEN Yuan-hong

    2003-01-01

    Four irrigation treatments were designed with 2, 4, 6 and 8 d intervals to irrigate, respectively. Watering was stopped when the reading of the moisture tension sensor reached zero. The results indicated that glucose and fructose content of tomato's fruit were increased but sucrose content was decreased with fruit growth and development. In different stages, carbohydrate content of tomato fruit in the treatment 3 was the highest, in the treatment 2 was higher, and in the other treatments was the lowest. SS(sucrose synthase) activity was decreased but SPS(sucrose phosphate synthase) activity was increased with development of tomato. SS and SPS activity were increased but acid invertase and neutral invertase activity of ripe stage were decreased under deficit irrigation. Glucose and fructose content were increased in leaves of tomato under water deficit.Soluble sugars, organic acid and the ratio of sugar/acid in tomato fruits were increased and dry matter accumulation of plant was enhanced under water deficit. But the growth of fruits upside the plant and its dry matter accumulation were badly affected under water stress.

  18. Promising sour cherry hybrids (Prunus cerasus L. developed at Fruit Research Institute Čačak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At Fruit Research Institute in Čačak, major objectives of the work on breeding new sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cultivars are high cropping, large, high-quality fruits and resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests. As a result of the planned hybridization, more than 10,000 hybrid seedlings have been developed from about 40 cultivars within more than 110 parental combinations, among which are 'Čačanski rubin' ('Shasse Morello' x 'Köröser Weichsel' and 'Šumadinka' ('Köröser Weichsel' x 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel' which have been named and released. Ten-year study of 11 hybrids, selected from the population of about 3,000 hybrid seedlings, gave four hybrids which have been singled out as elite (III/23, III/31, II/40 i XII/57. These hybrids are currently under procedure of being released as new cultivars. The paper presents two-year results of the study of ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits, and field resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests attacking the above named genotypes which were compared to standard cultivar 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel'. In the studied hybrids, fruit weight, soluble solids content and sugars content were higher than in standard cultivar. In addition, they exhibit substantial field resistance to causal agents of brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz., cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi L. attack.

  19. Tomato fruit carotenoid biosynthesis is adjusted to actual ripening progression by a light-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Briardo; D'Andrea, Lucio; Ruiz-Sola, M Aguila; Botterweg, Esther; Pulido, Pablo; Andilla, Jordi; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid compounds that are essential for plants to protect the photosynthetic apparatus against excess light. They also function as health-promoting natural pigments that provide colors to ripe fruit, promoting seed dispersal by animals. Work in Arabidopsis thaliana unveiled that transcription factors of the phytochrome-interacting factor (PIF) family regulate carotenoid gene expression in response to environmental signals (i.e. light and temperature), including those created when sunlight reflects from or passes though nearby vegetation or canopy (referred to as shade). Here we show that PIFs use a virtually identical mechanism to modulate carotenoid biosynthesis during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, instead of integrating environmental information, PIF-mediated signaling pathways appear to fulfill a completely new function in the fruit. As tomatoes ripen, they turn from green to red due to chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation. When sunlight passes through the flesh of green fruit, a self-shading effect within the tissue maintains high levels of PIFs that directly repress the master gene of the fruit carotenoid pathway, preventing undue production of carotenoids. This effect is attenuated as chlorophyll degrades, causing degradation of PIF proteins and boosting carotenoid biosynthesis as ripening progresses. Thus, shade signaling components may have been co-opted in tomato fruit to provide information on the actual stage of ripening (based on the pigment profile of the fruit at each moment) and thus finely coordinate fruit color change. We show how this mechanism may be manipulated to obtain carotenoid-enriched fruits.

  20. The transcription factor AREB1 regulates primary metabolic pathways in tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Adriana; Yañez, Mónica; Osorio, Sonia; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Fernie, Alisdair R; Casaretto, José A

    2014-06-01

    Tomato fruit development is regulated both by the action of plant hormones and by tight genetic control. Recent studies suggest that abscisic acid (ABA) signalling may affect different aspects of fruit maturation. Previously, it was shown that SlAREB1, an ABA-regulated transcription factor involved in stress-induced responses, is expressed in seeds and in fruit tissues in tomato. Here, the role of SlAREB1 in regulating the expression of genes relevant for primary metabolic pathways and affecting the metabolic profile of the fruit was investigated using transgenic tomato lines. Metabolite profiling using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed on pericarp tissue from fruits harvested at three stages of fruit development. Principal component analysis of the data could distinguish the metabolite profiles of non-transgenic fruits from those that overexpress and down-regulate SlAREB1. Overexpression of SlAREB1 resulted in increased content of organic acids, hexoses, hexose-phosphates, and amino acids in immature green, mature green, and red ripe fruits, and these modifications correlated with the up-regulation of enzyme-encoding genes involved in primary carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. A non-targeted LC-MS analysis indicated that the composition of secondary metabolites is also affected in transgenic lines. In addition, gene expression data revealed that some genes associated with fruit ripening are also up-regulated in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with wild-type and antisense lines. Taken together, the results suggest that SlAREB1 participates in the regulation of the metabolic programming that takes place during fruit ripening and that may explain part of the role of ABA in fruit development in tomato.

  1. Produtividade de tomate tipo cereja cultivado em ambiente protegido e em diferentes substratos Productivity of cherry tomato cultivated in a protected environment and in different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica T A de Gusmão

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em Jaboticabal-SP, sob ambiente protegido, objetivando avaliar quatro substratos (Rendimax-Estufa®, areia, solo coberto com filme de polietileno preto e solo descoberto e quatro híbridos de tomateiro tipo cereja ('Mascot', 'Gisela', 'Cheri' e 'Sweet Million', sendo os substratos comercial e areia acondicionados em sacos plásticos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com quatro repetições. Utilizou-se irrigação por gotejamento, sendo a dotação hídrica realizada em função dos dados obtidos em um tanque Classe A. A solução nutritiva utilizada foi a recomendada por Castellane & Araújo (1995 para a cultura do tomateiro. Os frutos foram colhidos semanalmente, durante o período de 24/11/2000 a 24/01/2001, sendo avaliados o número e produtividade diária de frutos. Os cultivos em solo proporcionaram maior produção diária que no substrato comercial e em areia, para os híbridos Gisele e 'Mascot'. O híbrido 'Gisela' mostrou-se mais produtivo nos cultivos em solo, enquanto o híbrido 'Cheri', embora tenha proporcionado menores produções em peso, produziu maior número de frutos por planta. A produtividade dos tratamentos mais produtivos foi satisfatória, estando de acordo com os padrões de produção para a cultura no Brasil.The experiment was carry out in Jaboticabal-SP, under a protected environment, aiming to evaluate four substrates of root development (substrates Rendimax®, sand, soil with mulch of black polyethylene film and soil without mulch and four hybrids of cherry tomato ('Mascot', 'Gisela', 'Cheri' and 'Sweet Million'. The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks, in a factorial array (4 x 4, with four replications. The irrigation/fertigation was done with a trickle system, being the hydric dotation established based upon the measurements of the class A pan. The nutritious solution was recommended by Castellane & Araújo (1995 for

  2. The tomato genome sequence provides insight into fleshy fruit evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome of the inbred tomato cultivar ‘Heinz 1706’ was sequenced and assembled using a combination of Sanger and “next generation” technologies. The predicted genome size is ~900 Mb, consistent with prior estimates, of which 760 Mb were assembled in 91 scaffolds aligned to the 12 tomato chromosom...

  3. Complex and shifting interactions of phytochromes regulate fruit development in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Sharma, Sulabha; Santisree, Parankusam; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Appenroth, Klaus; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2014-07-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is a complex metabolic process regulated by a genetical hierarchy. A subset of this process is also modulated by light signalling, as mutants encoding negative regulators of phytochrome signal transduction show higher accumulation of carotenoids. In tomato, phytochromes are encoded by a multi-gene family, namely PHYA, PHYB1, PHYB2, PHYE and PHYF; however, their contribution to fruit development and ripening has not been examined. Using single phytochrome mutants phyA, phyB1 and phyB2 and multiple mutants phyAB1, phyB1B2 and phyAB1B2, we compared the on-vine transitory phases of ripening until fruit abscission. The phyAB1B2 mutant showed accelerated transitions during ripening, with shortest time to fruit abscission. Comparison of transition intervals in mutants indicated a phase-specific influence of different phytochrome species either singly or in combination on the ripening process. Examination of off-vine ripened fruits indicated that ripening-specific carotenoid accumulation was not obligatorily dependent upon light and even dark-incubated fruits accumulated carotenoids. The accumulation of transcripts and carotenoids in off-vine and on-vine ripened mutant fruits indicated a complex and shifting phase-dependent modulation by phytochromes. Our results indicate that, in addition to regulating carotenoid levels in tomato fruits, phytochromes also regulate the time required for phase transitions during ripening.

  4. Air impingement drying kinetics of cherry tomato%圣女果的气体射流冲击干燥动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽红; 高振江; 肖红伟; 林海; 姚雪东

    2011-01-01

    为缩短圣女果的干制时间、提高于制品质,将气体射流冲击干燥技术运用于圣女果的干燥.研究了在不同干燥温度(50,60,70和80℃)和风速(10,12,14和16 m·s-1)条件下圣女果的干燥速率、水分有效扩散系数、干燥活化能以及最佳干燥工艺.试验结果表明:提高干燥温度和风速均可缩短干燥时间,其中干燥温度的影响比风速更为明显;干燥过程中圣女果的水分有效扩散系数为(0.549 ~2.754)×10~9 m2·S-1;圣女果干燥活化能为51.09 kJ·mol-1;圣女果的最佳干燥工艺条件是:风温为70℃、风速为14 m·s-1.%To improve the quality of dried cherry tomato and to shorten drying time, air impingement drying technology was used to dry cherry tomato. The drying rate, the moisture effective diffusivity and the activation energy of cherry tomato drying were investigated under different drying temperatures of 50, 60, 70 and 80 ℃ , and different air velocities of 10, 12, 14 and 16 m · s-1. The results show that the drying time can be shortened by increasing drying temperature and air velocity, and the effect of drying temperature is more effective than that of air velocity. The moisture effective diffusivity ranges from 0. 549 X 10 " to 2. 754 × 10 -9 m2 · s-1 with activation energy of 51. 09 kJ · mol-1. The optimal drying conditions of cherry tomato are at air temperature of 70 ℃ with air velocity at jet nozzle of 14 m · s-1.

  5. High yield cultivation techniques of cherry tomato in greenhouse%樱桃西红柿大棚高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道锋

    2015-01-01

    总结大棚樱桃西红柿高产栽培技术,主要包括品种选择、育苗、田块整理、大棚规格设置、定植、田间管理、病虫害防治、采收等方面内容。%This paper summarized high yield cultivation techniques of cherry tomato in greenhouse,including variety selec-tion,raising seedlings,field preparation,design of greenhouse size,field planting,field management,diseases and pests control,as well as harvest.

  6. Characterization and content of flavonoid glycosides in genetically modified tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; DuPont, M Susan; Mellon, Fred A; Davis, Adrienne L; Collins, Geoff J; Verhoeyen, Martine E; Colquhoun, Ian J

    2003-04-23

    There is a growing interest in producing food plants with increased amounts of flavonoids because of their potential health benefits. Tomatoes contain small amounts of flavonoids, most of which are located in the peel of the fruit. It has been shown that flavonoid accumulation in tomato flesh, and hence an overall increase in flavonoid levels in tomato fruit, can be achieved by means of simultaneous overexpression of the maize transcription factors LC and C1. Fruit from progeny of two modified lines (2027 and 2059) was selected for a detailed analysis and individual identification of flavonoids, at different stages of maturity. Nine major flavonoids were detected in the flesh of transgenic ripe tomatoes. LC/NMR, LC/MS, and LC/MS/MS enabled us to identify these as kaempferol-3,7-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside (2), two dihydrokaempferol-O-hexosides (3 and 4), rutin (5), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (6), kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (7), naringenin-7-O-glucoside (8) and naringenin chalcone (9), which were quantified by HPLC/DAD. All but 5, 6, and 9 were detected in tomato for the first time. The total flavonoid glycoside content of ripe transgenic tomatoes of line 2059 was about 10-fold higher than that of the controls, and kaempferol glycosides accounted for 60% of this. Kaempferol glycosides comprised around 5% of the flavonoid glycoside content of ripe control tomatoes (the rest was rutin and naringenin chalcone). The rutin concentration in both transgenic and control fruits was similar.

  7. Effect of Edible Coatings, Storage Time and Maturity Stage on Overall Quality of Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E.J, Davila-Avina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world; however, its highly perishable nature limits its postharvest life. Major losses in tomato quality and quantity occur between harvest and consumption. Therefore, the application of new technologies to extend the postharvest life of this commodity is needed. The use of edible coatings appears to be a good alternative. Approach: We evaluated the effect of carnauba and mineral oil coatings on the postharvest quality of tomato fruits (cv. Grandela. Stafresh 2505 (carnauba and Stafresh 151 (mineral oil coatings were applied on fresh tomatoes at two maturity stages (breaker and pink. The quality of tomatoes was evaluated periodically at 0, 5, 10, 15, 21 and 28 days of storage at 10°C, plus 2 days at 20°C. For respiration rate analysis, tomatoes were kept at 20°C for 16 days. Results: At the beginning of the study, CO2 production was reduced by 38 and 46% when applying the mineral oil coating on breaker and pink tomatoes, respectively. In addition, early during the study, the mineral oil coating showed suppression of ethylene biosynthesis at both maturity stages. Both coatings reduced 30% PG activity of tomato tissue. At the end of storage, mineral oil coatings delayed color changes and reduced weight losses for up 70 and 46% at the breaker and pink stages, respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: Respiration rate, color, weight loss and enzyme activity were positively affected by mineral oil coating at both maturity stages. No effects on firmness, titratable acidity and pH were found by the coating application. We concluded that mineral oil coating could be a good alternative to preserve the quality and extend the postharvest life of tomato fruit.

  8. Ethylene suppresses tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit set through modification of gibberellin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Yoshihito; Hao, Shuhei; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Ozeki-Iida, Yuko; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Zhong, Silin; Giovannoni, James J; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Heta, Yumi; Ezura, Hiroshi; Ariizumi, Tohru

    2015-07-01

    Fruit set in angiosperms marks the transition from flowering to fruit production and a commitment to seed dispersal. Studies with Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit have shown that pollination and subsequent fertilization induce the biosynthesis of several hormones, including auxin and gibberellins (GAs), which stimulate fruit set. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the gaseous hormone ethylene may also influence fruit set, but this has yet to be substantiated with molecular or mechanistic data. Here, we examined fruit set at the biochemical and genetic levels, using hormone and inhibitor treatments, and mutants that affect auxin or ethylene signaling. The expression of system-1 ethylene biosynthetic genes and the production of ethylene decreased during pollination-dependent fruit set in wild-type tomato and during pollination-independent fruit set in the auxin hypersensitive mutant iaa9-3. Blocking ethylene perception in emasculated flowers, using either the ethylene-insensitive Sletr1-1 mutation or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), resulted in elongated parthenocarpic fruit and increased cell expansion, whereas simultaneous treatment with the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) inhibited parthenocarpy. Additionally, the application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to pollinated ovaries reduced fruit set. Furthermore, Sletr1-1 parthenocarpic fruits did not exhibit increased auxin accumulation, but rather had elevated levels of bioactive GAs, most likely reflecting an increase in transcripts encoding the GA-biosynthetic enzyme SlGA20ox3, as well as a reduction in the levels of transcripts encoding the GA-inactivating enzymes SlGA2ox4 and SlGA2ox5. Taken together, our results suggest that ethylene plays a role in tomato fruit set by suppressing GA metabolism. PMID:25996898

  9. Tomato fruit and seed colonization by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis through external and internal routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancos, Matthew A; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Smart, Christine D

    2013-11-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, causal agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato, is an economically devastating pathogen that inflicts considerable damage throughout all major tomato-producing regions. Annual outbreaks continue to occur in New York, where C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis spreads via infected transplants, trellising stakes, tools, and/or soil. Globally, new outbreaks can be accompanied by the introduction of contaminated seed stock; however, the route of seed infection, especially the role of fruit lesions, remains undefined. In order to investigate the modes of seed infection, New York C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis field strains were stably transformed with a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). A constitutively eGFP-expressing virulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolate, GCMM-22, was used to demonstrate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis could not only access seeds systemically through the xylem but also externally through tomato fruit lesions, which harbored high intra- and intercellular populations. Active movement and expansion of bacteria into the fruit mesocarp and nearby xylem vessels followed, once the fruits began to ripen. These results highlight the ability of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to invade tomato fruits and seeds through multiple entry routes. PMID:24014525

  10. Polyamine metabolism in ripening tomato fruit. II. Polyamine metabolism and synthesis in relation to enhanced putrescine content and storage life of alc tomato fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, R.; Davies, P.J. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The fruit of the Alcobaca landrace of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) have prolonged keeping qualities (determined by the allele alc) and contain three times as much putrescine as the standard Rutgers variety (Alc) at the ripe stage. Polyamine metabolism and biosynthesis were compared in fruit from Rutgers and Rutgers-alc-a near isogenic line possessing the allele alc, at four different stages of ripening. The levels of soluble polyamine conjugates as well as wall bound polyamines in the pericarp tissue and jelly were very low or nondetectable in both genotypes. The increase in putrescine content in alc pericarp is not related to normal ripening as it occurred with time and whether or not the fruit ripened. Pericarp discs of both normal and alc fruit showed a decrease in the metabolism of (1,4-{sup 14}C)putrescine and (terminal labeled-{sup 3}H)spermidine with ripening, but there were no significant differences between the two genotypes. The activity of ornithine decarboxylase was similar in the fruit pericarp of the two lines. Arginine decarboxylase activity decreased during ripening in Rutgers but decreased and rose again in Rutgers-alc fruit, and as a result it was significantly higher in alc fruit than in the normal fruit at the ripe stage. The elevated putrescine levels in alc fruit appear, therefore, to be due to an increase in the activity of arginine decarboxylase.

  11. Polyamine metabolism in ripening tomato fruit. II. Polyamine metabolism and synthesis in relation to enhanced putrescine content and storage life of alc tomato fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fruit of the Alcobaca landrace of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) have prolonged keeping qualities (determined by the allele alc) and contain three times as much putrescine as the standard Rutgers variety (Alc) at the ripe stage. Polyamine metabolism and biosynthesis were compared in fruit from Rutgers and Rutgers-alc-a near isogenic line possessing the allele alc, at four different stages of ripening. The levels of soluble polyamine conjugates as well as wall bound polyamines in the pericarp tissue and jelly were very low or nondetectable in both genotypes. The increase in putrescine content in alc pericarp is not related to normal ripening as it occurred with time and whether or not the fruit ripened. Pericarp discs of both normal and alc fruit showed a decrease in the metabolism of [1,4-14C]putrescine and [terminal labeled-3H]spermidine with ripening, but there were no significant differences between the two genotypes. The activity of ornithine decarboxylase was similar in the fruit pericarp of the two lines. Arginine decarboxylase activity decreased during ripening in Rutgers but decreased and rose again in Rutgers-alc fruit, and as a result it was significantly higher in alc fruit than in the normal fruit at the ripe stage. The elevated putrescine levels in alc fruit appear, therefore, to be due to an increase in the activity of arginine decarboxylase

  12. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening

    KAUST Repository

    Uluisik, Selman

    2016-07-25

    Controlling the rate of softening to extend shelf life was a key target for researchers engineering genetically modified (GM) tomatoes in the 1990s, but only modest improvements were achieved. Hybrids grown nowadays contain \\'non-ripening mutations\\' that slow ripening and improve shelf life, but adversely affect flavor and color. We report substantial, targeted control of tomato softening, without affecting other aspects of ripening, by silencing a gene encoding a pectate lyase. © 2016 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fruit quality and bioactive compounds relevant to human health of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballistreri, Gabriele; Continella, Alberto; Gentile, Alessandra; Amenta, Margherita; Fabroni, Simona; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2013-10-15

    The fruit quality characteristics, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown on the mountainsides of the Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy) were evaluated. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify sugars, organic acids and phenolics. A total of seven phenolic compounds were characterised as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (neochlorogenic acid, p-coumaroylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid) and anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside and peonidin 3-rutinoside). The total anthocyanin content ranged from 6.21 to 94.20mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenol content ranged from 84.96 to 162.21mg gallic acid equivalents/100g FW. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay indicated that fruit of all genotypes possessed considerable antioxidant activity. The high level of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of some sweet cherry fruits implied that they might be sources of bioactive compounds that are relevant to human health. PMID:23692746

  14. Influence of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Storability and Postharvest Quality of Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida MOHEBBI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cornelian cherries were stored in two types of polymeric films (low density polyethylene and polypropylene and three gas combinations 5%O2 + 20%CO2 + 75%N2, 60%O2 + 20%CO2 + 20%N2 and Air at 1 °C and 90-95% relative humidity for 35 days. Unpackaged cornelian cherries were used as a control. Samples were taken initially and at intervals of 7-days during storage, when quality parameters were measured. Results showed that modified atmosphere packaging (MAP allowed the stored fruits to retain their weight and visual quality throughout the experiment, regardless of the gas combinations used, while by the end of the storage period the unpackaged fruit lost over 30% of their weight and consequently visual quality. Overall, packaging in 60%O2 + 20%CO2 polypropylene (PP and air low density polyethylene (LDPE could retard soluble solid contents, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin index decrease and pH increase during the storage time. Additionally, such packaging could lead to better surface color preservation than that of fruits kept in open containers. Furthermore, packaging in air low density polyethylene and 60%O2 + 20%CO2 low density polyethylene could delay total phenolics accumulation and increase peroxidase activity to levels higher than those in the control. During the maintenance period, no symptoms of decay were observed.

  15. Regulatory specialization of xyloglucan (XG) and glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) in pericarp cell walls during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Ayami; Hyodo, Hiromi; Wada, Kanako; Ishii, Tadashi; Satoh, Shinobu; Iwai, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Disassembly of cell wall polysaccharides by various cell wall hydrolases during fruit softening causes structural changes in hemicellulose and pectin that affect the physical properties and softening of tomato fruit. In a previous study, we showed that the changes in pectin during tomato fruit ripening were unique in each fruit tissue. In this study, to clarify the changes in hemicellulose in tissues during tomato fruit ripening, we focused on glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) and xyloglucan (XG). GAX was detected only in the skin and inner epidermis of the pericarp using LM11 antibodies, whereas a large increase in XG was detected in all fruit tissues using LM15 antibodies. The activity of hemicellulose degradation enzymes, such as β-xylosidase and α-arabinofuranosidase, decreased gradually during fruit ripening, although the tomato fruits continued to soften. In contrast, GAX and XG biosynthesis-related genes were expressed in all tomato fruit tissues even during ripening, indicating that XG was synthesized throughout the fruit and that GAX may be synthesized only in the vascular bundles and the inner epidermis. Our results suggest that changes in the cell wall architecture and tissue-specific distribution of XG and GAX might be required for the regulation of fruit softening and the maintenance of fruit shape.

  16. Regulatory specialization of xyloglucan (XG and glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX in pericarp cell walls during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayami Takizawa

    Full Text Available Disassembly of cell wall polysaccharides by various cell wall hydrolases during fruit softening causes structural changes in hemicellulose and pectin that affect the physical properties and softening of tomato fruit. In a previous study, we showed that the changes in pectin during tomato fruit ripening were unique in each fruit tissue. In this study, to clarify the changes in hemicellulose in tissues during tomato fruit ripening, we focused on glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX and xyloglucan (XG. GAX was detected only in the skin and inner epidermis of the pericarp using LM11 antibodies, whereas a large increase in XG was detected in all fruit tissues using LM15 antibodies. The activity of hemicellulose degradation enzymes, such as β-xylosidase and α-arabinofuranosidase, decreased gradually during fruit ripening, although the tomato fruits continued to soften. In contrast, GAX and XG biosynthesis-related genes were expressed in all tomato fruit tissues even during ripening, indicating that XG was synthesized throughout the fruit and that GAX may be synthesized only in the vascular bundles and the inner epidermis. Our results suggest that changes in the cell wall architecture and tissue-specific distribution of XG and GAX might be required for the regulation of fruit softening and the maintenance of fruit shape.

  17. Open field trial of genetically modified parthenocarpic tomato: seedlessness and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfini Tiziana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpic tomato lines transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene have been cultivated under open field conditions to address some aspects of the equivalence of genetically modified (GM fruit in comparison to controls (non-GM. Results Under open field cultivation conditions, two tomato lines (UC 82 transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene produced parthenocarpic fruits. DefH9-RI-iaaM fruits were either seedless or contained very few seeds. GM fruit quality, with the exception of a higher β-carotene level, did not show any difference, neither technological (colour, firmness, dry matter, °Brix, pH nor chemical (titratable acidity, organic acids, lycopene, tomatine, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity – TEAC, when compared to that of fruits from control line. Highly significant differences in quality traits exist between the tomato F1 commercial hybrid Allflesh and the three UC 82 genotypes tested, regardless of whether or not they are GM. Total yield per plant did not differ between GM and parental line UC 82. Fruit number was increased in GM lines, and GM fruit weight was decreased. Conclusion The use in the diet of fruits from a new line or variety introduces much greater changes than the consumption of GM fruits in comparison to its genetic background. Parthenocarpic fruits, produced under open field conditions, contained 10-fold less seeds than control fruits. Thus parthenocarpy caused by DefH9-RI-iaaM gene represents also a tool for mitigating GM seeds dispersal in the environment.

  18. Chemical Characterization of Fruit Wine Made from Oblačinska Sour Cherry

    OpenAIRE

    Milica Pantelić; Dragana Dabić; Saša Matijašević; Sonja Davidović; Biljana Dojčinović; Dušanka Milojković-Opsenica; Živoslav Tešić; Maja Natić

    2014-01-01

    This paper was aimed at characterizing the wine obtained from Oblačinska, a native sour cherry cultivar. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper with the most comprehensive information on chemical characterization of Oblačinska sour cherry wine. The chemical composition was characterized by hyphenated chromatographic methods and traditional analytical techniques. A total of 24 compounds were quantified using the available standards and another 22 phenolic compounds were identifi...

  19. Evaluation of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruits for their polyphenol content, antioxidant properties, and nutritional components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Nowicka, Paulina; Laskowski, Piotr; Oszmiański, Jan

    2014-12-24

    Nutritional compounds (phenolic compounds, L-ascorbic acid), antioxidant activities, and physicochemical characteristics (fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids, pH, acidity, total and reducing sugars) of 33 different sour cherry cultivars were studied. Polyphenols were identified by LC-PDA-QTOF/MS and quantified by UPLC-PDA-FL. A total of 41 polyphenolic compounds found were identified and presented as 14 flavan-3-ols, 11 anthocyanins, 5 hydroxycinnamic acids, 10 flavonols, and 1 flavon. The content of total polyphenols (TPs) ranged from 2982.51 ('Wisok' cultivar) to 1539.43 mg/100 g dry weight ('Erdi Nagygyϋmϋscu'cultivar). Flavan-3-ols, the major class of sour cherry polyphenols, represented ∼ 40% of the TP compounds, whereas anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids amounted for about 25% each. The content of l-ascorbic acid did not exceed 22.18 mg/100 g fresh matter. Some polish sour cherry cultivars (especially 'Agat', 'Ametyst', 'Wider', 'Winer', and 'Wisok') may be selected to promote the growth of cultivars with strong nutritional and phytochemical beneficial effects on human health. PMID:25495123

  20. Cultivo hidropônico de tomate cereja utilizando-se efluente tratado de uma indústria de sorvete Hydroponic production of cherry tomatoes using treated effluent of ice cream industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M. M. Malheiros

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de doses de efluente oriundo de indústria de sorvete, na cultura do tomate cereja em relação ao consumo hídrico e no desenvolvimento vegetativo em sistema hidropônico. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos pelo uso de doses de efluente (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% com complementação de nutrientes e com o uso de 100% de efluente sem complementação nutriente. O aumento das doses de efluente na solução nutritiva proporcionou redução linear no consumo hídrico. O efluente com 25% proporcionou a melhor produtividade. A adição de até 50% de efluente de sorvete à solução nutritiva permitiu o cultivo de tomate cereja sem redução na produtividade, com melhor eficiência do uso da água na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea, produção de frutos e máxima substituição de minerais solúveis na solução nutritiva.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ice cream raw effluent doses on consumption and vegetative development of cherry tomato under hydroponic system. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of 5 different levels of effluent (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% complemented with the amount of nutrient recommended for growing tomatoes and 100% of effluent without nutrient complementation. Increasing doses of effluent provided linear reduction in water consumption.Addition of effluent in proportion of 25% provided best production results. Addition up to 50% ice cream effluent to nutrient solution allowed growth of cherry tomato without yield reduction providing better efficiency of water use in terms of dry weight of shoots and fruit production as well as maximum substitution of soluble mineral fertilizers in nutrient solution.

  1. Chemical characterization of fruit wine made from Oblačinska sour cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelić, Milica; Dabić, Dragana; Matijašević, Saša; Davidović, Sonja; Dojčinović, Biljana; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Tešić, Zivoslav; Natić, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This paper was aimed at characterizing the wine obtained from Oblačinska, a native sour cherry cultivar. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper with the most comprehensive information on chemical characterization of Oblačinska sour cherry wine. The chemical composition was characterized by hyphenated chromatographic methods and traditional analytical techniques. A total of 24 compounds were quantified using the available standards and another 22 phenolic compounds were identified based on the accurate mass spectrographic search. Values of total phenolics content, total anthocyanin content, and radical scavenging activity for cherry wine sample were 1.938 mg gallic acid eqv L(-1), 0.113 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside L(-1), and 34.56%, respectively. In general, cherry wine polyphenolics in terms of nonanthocyanins and anthocyanins were shown to be distinctive when compared to grape wines. Naringenin and apigenin were characteristic only for cherry wine, and seven anthocyanins were distinctive for cherry wine. PMID:25101316

  2. Chemical Characterization of Fruit Wine Made from Oblačinska Sour Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Pantelić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed at characterizing the wine obtained from Oblačinska, a native sour cherry cultivar. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper with the most comprehensive information on chemical characterization of Oblačinska sour cherry wine. The chemical composition was characterized by hyphenated chromatographic methods and traditional analytical techniques. A total of 24 compounds were quantified using the available standards and another 22 phenolic compounds were identified based on the accurate mass spectrographic search. Values of total phenolics content, total anthocyanin content, and radical scavenging activity for cherry wine sample were 1.938 mg gallic acid eqv L−1, 0.113 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside L−1, and 34.56%, respectively. In general, cherry wine polyphenolics in terms of nonanthocyanins and anthocyanins were shown to be distinctive when compared to grape wines. Naringenin and apigenin were characteristic only for cherry wine, and seven anthocyanins were distinctive for cherry wine.

  3. Melatonin promotes ripening and improves quality of tomato fruit during postharvest life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Na; Wang, Jinfang; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Dianbo; Shi, Jin; Li, Ren; Weeda, Sarah; Zhao, Bing; Ren, Shuxin; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effect of melatonin on the postharvest ripening and quality improvement of tomato fruit was carried out. The tomatoes were immersed in exogenous melatonin for 2h, and then the related physiological indicators and the expression of genes during post-harvest life were evaluated. Compared with control check (CK), the 50 µM melatonin treatment significantly increased lycopene levels by 5.8-fold. Meanwhile, the key genes involved in fruit colour development, including phytoene synthase1 (PSY1) and carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO), showed a 2-fold increase in expression levels. The rate of water loss from tomato fruit also increased 8.3%, and the expression of aquaporin genes, such as SlPIP12Q, SlPIPQ, SlPIP21Q, and SlPIP22, was up-regulated 2- to 3-fold under 50 µM melatonin treatment. In addition, 50 µM melatonin treatment enhanced fruit softening, increased water-soluble pectin by 22.5%, and decreased protopectin by 19.5%. The expression of the cell wall modifying proteins polygalacturonase (PG), pectin esterase1 (PE1), β-galactosidase (TBG4), and expansin1 (Exp1) was up-regulated under 50 µM melatonin treatment. Melatonin increased ethylene production by 27.1%, accelerated the climacteric phase, and influenced the ethylene signalling pathway. Alteration of ethylene production correlated with altered 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS4) expression. The expression of ethylene signal transduction-related genes such as NR, SlETR4, SlEIL1, SlEIL3, and SlERF2, was enhanced by 50 µM melatonin. The effect of melatonin on ethylene biosynthesis, ethylene perception, and ethylene signalling may contribute to fruit ripening and quality improvement in tomato. This research may promote the application of melatonin on postharvest ripening and quality improvement of tomato fruit as well as other horticultural productions in the future.

  4. Deciphering genetic diversity and inheritance of tomato fruit weight and composition through a systems biology approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, Laura; Xu, Jiaxin; Biais, Benoit; Maucourt, Mickael; Ballias, Patricia; Bernillon, Stéphane; Deborde, Catherine; Jacob, Daniel; Desgroux, Aurore; Faurobert, Mireille; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Gibon, Yves; Moing, Annick

    2013-01-01

    Integrative systems biology proposes new approaches to decipher the variation of phenotypic traits. In an effort to link the genetic variation and the physiological and molecular bases of fruit composition, the proteome (424 protein spots), metabolome (26 compounds), enzymatic profile (26 enzymes), and phenotypes of eight tomato accessions, covering the genetic diversity of the species, and four of their F1 hybrids, were characterized at two fruit developmental stages (cell expansion and oran...

  5. Enzyme activity profiles during fruit development in tomato cultivars and Solanum pennellii

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhauser, Marie-Caroline; Steinhauser, Dirk; Koehl, Karin; Carrari, Fernando; Gibon, Yves; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Stitt, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes interact to generate metabolic networks. The activities of more than 22 enzymes from central metabolism were profiled during the development of fruit of the modern tomato cultivar Solanum lycopersicum 'M82' and its wild relative Solanum pennellii (LA0716). In S. pennellii, the mature fruit remains green and contains lower sugar and higher organic acid levels. These genotypes are the parents of a widely used near introgression line population. Enzymes were also profiled in a second cul...

  6. Functional characterization of an invertase inhibitor gene involved in sucrose metabolism in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Jiang, Jing; Yang, Yan-li; Wang, Zhi-he

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we produced tomato plants overexpressing an invertase inhibitor gene (Sly-INH) from tomato, using a simple and efficient transient transformation system. Compared with control plants, the expression of Sly-INH was highly upregulated in Sly-INH overexpressing plants, as indicated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Physiological analysis revealed that Sly-INH inhibited the activity of cell wall invertase (CWIN), which increased sugar accumulation in tomato fruit. Furthermore, Sly-INH mediated sucrose metabolism by regulating CWIN activity. Our results suggest that invertase activity is potentially regulated by the Sly-INH inhibitor at the post-translational level, and they demonstrate that the transient transformation system is an effective method for determining the functions of genes in tomato. PMID:26465132

  7. Off-the-Vine Ripening of Tomato Fruit Causes Alteration in the Primary Metabolite Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana B. Boggio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of postharvest fruit ripening in the composition of metabolites, transcripts and enzymes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is poorly understood. The goal of this work was to study the changes in the metabolite composition of the tomato fruit ripened off-the-vine using the cultivar Micro-Tom as model system. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR was used for analysis of the metabolic profile of tomato fruits ripened on- and off-the-vine. Significant differences under both ripening conditions were observed principally in the contents of fructose, glucose, aspartate and glutamate. Transcript levels and enzyme activities of -amino butyrate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.19 and glutamate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15 showed differences in fruits ripened under these two conditions. These data indicate that the contents of metabolites involved in primary metabolism, and conferring the palatable properties of fruits, are altered when fruits are ripened off-the-vine.

  8. Effect of silencing the two major tomato fruit pectin methylesterase isoforms on cell wall pectin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, B; Ström, A; Tasker, A; West, G; Tucker, G A

    2013-11-01

    Post-harvest storage is largely limited by fruit softening, a result of cell wall degradation. Pectin methylesterase (PE) (EC 3.1.1.11) is a major hydrolase responsible for pectin de-esterification in the cell wall, a response to fruit ripening. Two major PE isoforms, PE1 and PE2, have been isolated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) pericarp tissue and both have previously been down-regulated using antisense suppression. In this paper, PE1 and PE2 double antisense tomato plants were successfully generated through crossing the two single antisense lines. In the double antisense fruit, approximately 10% of normal PE activity remained and ripening associated pectin de-esterification was almost completely blocked. However, double antisense fruit softened normally during ripening. In tomato fruit, the PE1 isoform was found to contribute little to total PE activity and have little effect on the degree of esterification of pectin. In contrast, the other dominant fruit isoform, PE2, has a major impact on de-esterification of total pectin. PE2 appears to act on non-CDTA-soluble pectin during ripening and on CDTA-soluble pectin before the start of ripening in a potentially block-wise fashion.

  9. Impact of Wild Loci on the Allergenic Potential of Cultivated Tomato Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, Alessandra; D'Agostino, Nunzio; Citterio, Sandra; Raiola, Assunta; Asero, Riccardo; Barone, Amalia; Rigano, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most extensively consumed vegetables but, unfortunately, it is also able to induce allergic reactions. In the past, it has been shown that the choice of tomato cultivar significantly influenced the allergic reaction of tomato allergic subjects. In this study we investigated the allergenic potential of the cultivated tomato line M82 and of two selected lines carrying small chromosome regions from the wild species Solanum pennellii (i.e. IL7-3 and IL12-4). We evaluated the positive interactions of IgEs of allergic subjects in order to investigate the different allergenic potential of the lines under investigation. We used proteomic analyses in order to identify putative tomato allergens. In addition, bioinformatic and transcriptomic approaches were applied in order to analyse the structure and the expression profiles of the identified allergen-encoding genes. These analyses demonstrated that fruits harvested from the two selected introgression lines harbour a different allergenic potential as those from the cultivated genotype M82. The different allergenicity found within the three lines was mostly due to differences in the IgE recognition of a polygalacturonase enzyme (46 kDa), one of the major tomato allergens, and of a pectin methylesterase (34 kDa); both the proteins were more immunoreactive in IL7-3 compared to IL12-4 and M82. The observed differences in the allergenic potential were mostly due to line-dependent translational control or post-translational modifications of the allergens. We demonstrated, for the first time, that the introgression from a wild species (S. pennellii) in the genomic background of a cultivated tomato line influences the allergenic properties of the fruits. Our findings could support the isolation of favorable wild loci promoting low allergenic potential in tomato. PMID:27182705

  10. Impact of Wild Loci on the Allergenic Potential of Cultivated Tomato Fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ghiani

    Full Text Available Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is one of the most extensively consumed vegetables but, unfortunately, it is also able to induce allergic reactions. In the past, it has been shown that the choice of tomato cultivar significantly influenced the allergic reaction of tomato allergic subjects. In this study we investigated the allergenic potential of the cultivated tomato line M82 and of two selected lines carrying small chromosome regions from the wild species Solanum pennellii (i.e. IL7-3 and IL12-4. We evaluated the positive interactions of IgEs of allergic subjects in order to investigate the different allergenic potential of the lines under investigation. We used proteomic analyses in order to identify putative tomato allergens. In addition, bioinformatic and transcriptomic approaches were applied in order to analyse the structure and the expression profiles of the identified allergen-encoding genes. These analyses demonstrated that fruits harvested from the two selected introgression lines harbour a different allergenic potential as those from the cultivated genotype M82. The different allergenicity found within the three lines was mostly due to differences in the IgE recognition of a polygalacturonase enzyme (46 kDa, one of the major tomato allergens, and of a pectin methylesterase (34 kDa; both the proteins were more immunoreactive in IL7-3 compared to IL12-4 and M82. The observed differences in the allergenic potential were mostly due to line-dependent translational control or post-translational modifications of the allergens. We demonstrated, for the first time, that the introgression from a wild species (S. pennellii in the genomic background of a cultivated tomato line influences the allergenic properties of the fruits. Our findings could support the isolation of favorable wild loci promoting low allergenic potential in tomato.

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF KEY MOLECULAR COMPONENTS OF THE RESISTANCE OF CHERRY TOMATO AGAINSTPhytophthora infestans Identificación de los principales componentes moleculares de la resistencia de tomate cherry contra Phytophthora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA LÓPEZ KLEINE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato Solanum lycopersicum var cerasiforme cv Matt's wild cherry is a very resistant cultivar to most Phytophthora infestans isolates. Two isolates were identified, US940480 and US970001 that cause an incompatible and a compatible interaction respectively. US970001 is one of the few isolates producing a compatible interaction with this cultivar. To identify genes with a differential gene expression between compatible and incompatible interactions, gene expression patterns were analyzed with tomato cDNA microarrays including 12,899 independent tomato cDNA clones at different time points after inoculation. A diverse set of statistical tools were used to identify key components of the plant response to the pathogen. Forty-three genes were up-regulated during the incompatible reaction at time point 36 hours, 15 globally at all time points and twelve were found both in globally and at 36 hours. Northern blots analysis was performed to confirm differential expression showed by microarray analysis and to study the differential expression of more plant resistance genes (PR genes between compatible and incompatible interactions for this interaction.El tomate cherry Solanum lycopersicum var cerasiforme cv Matt's es bastante resistente a la gran parte de aislamientos de Phytophthora infestans. Se han identificado dos aislamientos, US940480 y US970001 que causan interacción incompatible y compatible respectivamente. US970001 es uno de los pocos aislamientos causantes de interacción compatible con este cultivo. Con el fin de identificar genes con expresión diferencial en interacciones compatible e incompatible, analizamos DNA copia de 12899 clones independientes en tres tiempos posteriores a la inoculación del patógeno. Se aplicaron diversas herramientas estadísticas para identificar componentes moleculares claves de la respuesta de la planta al patógeno. Cuarenta y tres genes fueron detectados como activados durante la interacci

  12. Isolation, Characterization, and Surfactant Properties of the Major Triterpenoid Glycosides from Unripe Tomato Fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamanaka, T.; Vincken, J.P.; Waard, de P.; Sanders, M.G.; Takada, N.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Various triterpenoid glycosides were extracted from whole unripe tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Cedrico), using aqueous 70% (v/v) ethanol to study their surfactant properties. Cation-exchange chromatography using a Source 15S column and subsequent semipreparative HPLC using an XTerra RP1

  13. The Processing Technology of Vacuum Dipping Sugar on Cherry Tomato%真空浸糖樱桃番茄果脯加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁芳斌; 黄国成; 陈发兴

    2011-01-01

    采用正交试验方法优化了樱桃番茄低糖果脯的真空浸糖加工工艺,结果表明:采用1%柠檬酸溶液护色,2%δ-葡萄糖酸内酯浸泡硬化,6g/kg海藻酸钠作保形处理,在真空为0.08 MPa、糖液温度为55℃,浸糖时间80 min后,温度65C下干制12h,可获得品质、外观和口感均较好的低糖樱桃番茄果脯.%The processes of hardening with color protection, vacuum dipping sugar by the orthogonal experiment were used to preserve the quality of cherry tomato. Results showed that the best quality of products with look and taste better cherry tomato preserves were abstained through 1% citric acid solution with color protection, 2% δ-gluconic acid lactone immersion hardening, 6 g/kg alginate syrup shaped handle secured, in a vacuum to 0.08 Mpa, sugar solution temperature was 55℃, sugar soaking time of 80 min, dried under 65℃ 12 h.

  14. Evaluation of the glycoside hydrolase activity of a Brettanomyces strain on glycosides from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) used in the production of special fruit beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenen, Luk; Sterckx, Femke; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2008-11-01

    The glycoside hydrolase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Brettanomyces custersii was examined on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) glycosides with bound volatile compounds. Refermentations by the beta-glucosidase-negative S. cerevisiae strains LD25 and LD40 of sour cherry juice-supplemented beer demonstrated only a moderate increase of volatiles. In contrast, the beta-glucosidase-positive B. custersii strain LD72 showed a more pronounced activity towards glycosides with aliphatic alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenoid alcohols. Important contributors to sour cherry aroma such as benzaldehyde, linalool and eugenol were released during refermentation as shown by analytical tools. A gradually increasing release was observed during refermentations by B. custersii when whole sour cherries, sour cherry pulp or juice were supplemented in the beer. Refermentations with whole sour cherries and with sour cherry stones demonstrated an increased formation of benzyl compounds. Thus, amygdalin was partially hydrolysed, and a large part of the benzaldehyde formed was mainly reduced to benzyl alcohol and some further esterified to benzyl acetate. These findings demonstrate the importance and interesting role of certain Brettanomyces species in the production of fruit lambic beers such as 'Kriek'. PMID:18673394

  15. Size and Weight of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’) Fruit Treated with 3,5,6-TPA and GA3

    OpenAIRE

    Silvija Zeman; Zlatko Čmelik; Tomislav Jemrić

    2014-01-01

    The effect of 10 ppm 3,5,6-TPA (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyloxyocetic acid), 20 ppm GA 3 and their combination on size and weight of cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’) were studied. 3,5,6-TPA was applied 25 days after full bloom and GA 3 during stage of fruit color change from green to straw-yellow. Fruit height, width, thickness and weight were measured. Width, thickness and weight of control fruit were the smallest. Fruit from 3,5,6-TPA - treated trees did not show significant differe...

  16. 超高压处理对圣女果质构及色泽的影响%Ultra-high Pressure Treatment on Texture and Color of Cherry Tomatoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田莹; 侯建设; 薛风照; 李丹; 费斐

    2009-01-01

    利用超高压处理圣女果,探讨了处理压力对圣女果质构及色泽的影响,并对储藏期间色泽的变化进行记录.结果表明:处理压力上升到300 MPa时,圣女果硬度、脆度、黏着性等与对照相比变化不大.施加超过400MPa的压力,圣女果的质构变化明显.加压对圣女果色泽影响不大,圣女果经400 MPa以上压力处理后室温下储存,色泽稳定,可接受性好,这对于圣女果的加工保藏具有参考意义.%Cherry tomatoes were treated by ultra-high pressure. The effects on texture and color of cherry tomatoes were observed. The results showed that with pressure up to 300 MPa,the hardness,brittleness and adhesiveness of cherry tomatoes changed little compared to controls, apparent changes on texture can be detected when pressure went up to 400 MPa,500 MPa,600 MPa. The colors of cherry tomatoes could be kept quite well during 3 months with pressure above 400 MPa.

  17. Maturity and ripening-stage specific modulation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Alka; Gupta, Aditya K; Datsenka, Tatsiana; Mattoo, Autar K; Handa, Avtar K

    2010-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit is a model to study molecular basis of fleshy fruit development and ripening. We profiled gene expression during fruit development (immature green and mature green fruit) and ripening (breaker stage onwards) program to obtain a global perspective of genes whose expression is modulated at each stage of fruit development and ripening. A custom made cDNA macroarray containing cDNAs representing various metabolic pathways, defense, signaling, transcription, transport, cell structure and cell wall related functions was developed and used to quantify changes in the abundance of different transcripts. About 34 % of 1066 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) printed on the macroarray were differentially expressed during tomato fruit ripening. Out of these, 25 % genes classify under metabolism and protein biosynthesis/degradation related processes, while a significant proportion represented stress-responsive genes and about 44 % represented genes with unknown functions. RNA gel blot analysis validated changes in a few representative genes. Although the mature green fruit was found transcriptionally quiescent, the K-means cluster analysis highlighted coordinated up or down regulation of genes during progressive ripening; emphasizing that ripening is a transcriptionally active process. Many stress-related genes were found up-regulated, suggesting their role in the fruit ripening program.

  18. Effect of carbon dioxide enrichment on health-promoting compounds and organoleptic properties of tomato fruits grown in greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Liu, Lihong; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yongsong; Wang, Qiaomei

    2014-06-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment on the main health-promoting compounds and organoleptic characteristics of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits grown in greenhouse. The contents of health-promoting compounds, including lycopene, β-carotene, and ascorbic acid, as well as the flavour, indicated by sugars, titrable acidity, and sugar/acid ratio, were markedly increased in CO2 enrichment fruits. Furthermore, CO2 enrichment significantly enhanced other organoleptic characteristics, including colour, firmness, aroma, and sensory attributes in tomato fruits. The results indicated that CO2 enrichment has potential in promoting the nutritional value and organoleptic characteristics of tomatoes.

  19. The genetic basis of fruit morphology in horticultural crops: lessons from tomato and melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, Antonio J; Diaz, Aurora; Caño-Delgado, Ana; van der Knaap, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Fruits represent an important part of the human diet and show extensive variation in size and shape between and within cultivated species. The genetic basis of such variation has been studied most extensively in tomato, where currently six quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involving these traits have been fine-mapped and the genes underlying the QTLs identified. The genes responsible for the cloned QTLs belong to families with a few to many members. FASCIATED is encoded by a member of the YABBY family, CNR/FW2.2 by a member of the Cell Number Regulator family, SlKLUH/FW3.2 by a cytochrome P450 of the 78A class (CYP78A), LOCULE NUMBER by a member of the WOX family including WUSCHEL, OVATE by a member of the Ovate Family Proteins (OFP), and SUN by a member of the IQ domain family. A high portion of the history and current diversity in fruit morphology among tomato cultivars can be explained by modifications at four of these cloned QTLs. In melon, a number of QTLs involved in fruit morphology have been mapped, but the molecular basis for these QTLs is unknown. In the present review, we examine the current knowledge on the molecular basis of fruit morphology in tomato and transfer that information in order to define candidate genes of melon fruit shape and size QTLs. We hypothesize that different members of the gene families identified in tomato may have a role in the regulation of fruit morphology in other species. We anchored the published melon QTL map on the genome sequence and identified the melon family members of the six cloned tomato QTLs in the genome. We investigated the co-localization of melon fruit morphology QTLs and the candidate genes. We found that QTLs for fruit weight co-localized frequently with members of the CNR/FW2.2 and KLUH/FW3.2 families, as well as co-localizations between OFP family members and fruit-shape QTLs, making this family the most suitable to explain fruit shape variation among melon accessions.

  20. Biochemical and molecular analysis of pink tomatoes: deregulated expression of the gene encoding transcription factor SlMYB12 leads to pink tomato fruit colour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballester, A.R.; Molthoff, J.W.; Vos, de C.H.; Lintel Hekkert, B.; Orzaez, D.; Fernandez-Moreno, J.P.; Tripodi, S.; Grandillo, S.; Martin, C.; Heldens, J.; Ykema, M.; Granell, A.; Bovy, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The color of tomato fruit is mainly determined by carotenoids and flavonoids. Phenotypic analysis of an introgression line (IL) population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneyberg' and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii revealed three ILs with a pink fruit color. These lines h

  1. The expression of tin gene in prolongated tomato fruit ripening - Lycopersicom esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato selection programme, aiming to create a tomato hybrid with better fruit firmness, has been based on adding rin gene in perspective selection material. The fruit firmness has been based on decelerated ripening which prolongs the shelf life. Heterozygote genotypes (rin/+ have considerably longer shelf life that genotypes with uniform ripening (+/+. The effects of rin gene on shelf life have been examined on four experimental hybrids (K 56S K - 18, K - 64 and K -15 - rin/+ genetic configuration compared with Atina Fl genotype (uniform ripening +/+ K - 91 selected, line (rin/rin and Fino F1 (DRS unknown genetic construction and very good fruit firmness. The parameter for shelf life has been the fruit weight loss during the preservation - from harvest till the fading. The weight loss has been recorded every 7th day during two months. The experimental hybrids showed good agro technical characteristics of mid early tomato intended for production in the open field. During the shelf life, the genotype K - 15 faded the most slowly, both in the group of green and mature fruits.

  2. Tuning LeSPL-CNR expression by SlymiR157 affects tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Kong, Junhua; Lai, Tongfei; Manning, Kenneth; Wu, Chaoqun; Wang, Ying; Qin, Cheng; Li, Bin; Yu, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; He, Meiling; Zhang, Pengcheng; Gu, Mei; Yang, Xin; Mahammed, Atef; Li, Chunyang; Osman, Toba; Shi, Nongnong; Wang, Huizhong; Jackson, Stephen; Liu, Yule; Gallusci, Philippe; Hong, Yiguo

    2015-01-19

    In plants, microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in growth, development, yield, stress response and interactions with pathogens. However no miRNA has been experimentally documented to be functionally involved in fruit ripening although many miRNAs have been profiled in fruits. Here we show that SlymiR157 and SlymiR156 differentially modulate ripening and softening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). SlymiR157 is expressed and developmentally regulated in normal tomato fruits and in those of the Colourless non-ripening (Cnr) epimutant. It regulates expression of the key ripening gene LeSPL-CNR in a likely dose-dependent manner through miRNA-induced mRNA degradation and translation repression. Viral delivery of either pre-SlymiR157 or mature SlymiR157 results in delayed ripening. Furthermore, qRT-PCR profiling of key ripening regulatory genes indicates that the SlymiR157-target LeSPL-CNR may affect expression of LeMADS-RIN, LeHB1, SlAP2a and SlTAGL1. However SlymiR156 does not affect the onset of ripening, but it impacts fruit softening after the red ripe stage. Our findings reveal that working together with a ripening network of transcription factors, SlymiR157 and SlymiR156 form a critical additional layer of regulatory control over the fruit ripening process in tomato.

  3. Characterization of polyphenolic constituents and radical scavenging ability of ripe tomato and red pepper fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seun F. Akomolafe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Characterization of polyphenolic contents and the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of ripe tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum and red pepper (Capsicum annuum fruits on the sodium nitroprusside (SNP and iron(II (Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver were examined in this study. Methods: Various experimental models such as the ABTS and #8226; (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid scavenging ability and ferric reducing power were used to characterize the antioxidant activity of the extracts. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the phenolic content of the extracts. Malondialdehyde (MDA was used as a measure of oxidative stress in the rat and #8217;s liver tissue. Results: The ABTS and #8226; scavenging ability and ferric reducing power of the aqueous extract of ripe red pepper were significantly higher than that of ripe tomato. Ripe red pepper and tomato fruits extracts inhibited NO and #8226; in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, the introduction of extracts of ripe red pepper and tomato caused a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the MDA content of the SNP and Fe2+-stressed liver homogenates. In addition, HPLC analyses of the extracts revealed the presence of different phenolic compounds. Conclusion: With respect to the results of the current study, ripe tomato and red pepper could be considered to be potential sources of natural antioxidants. [J Exp Integr Med 2015; 5(1.000: 61-67

  4. Alleviation of chilling injury in tomato fruit by exogenous application of oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyan; Yin, Fei; Song, Lijun; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The effects of oxalic acid on the development of chilling injury (CI), energy metabolism and lycopene metabolism in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. Mature green tomatoes were dipped in 10mmoll(-1) oxalic acid (OA) solution for 10min at 25°C. Tomatoes were subsequently stored at 4±0.5°C for 20days before being transferred to 25°C for 12days. Oxalic acid treatment apparently alleviated CI development and membrane damage; maintained higher levels of ATP and ADP; increased activities of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) and H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)-ATPase); and elevated lycopene accumulation associated with the upregulation of PSY1 and ZDS expression in tomatoes during a period at room temperature following exposure to chilling stress. Thus, oxalic acid treatment benefited the control of CI and the maintenance of fruit quality in tomatoes stored for long periods (approximately 32days). PMID:26920276

  5. Purification and characterization of recombinant supersweet protein thaumatin II from tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsov, Aleksey; Shaloiko, Lyubov; Kozlov, Oleg; Vinokurov, Leonid; Vainstein, Alexander; Dolgov, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    Thaumatin, a supersweet protein from the African plant katemfe (Thaumatococcus daniellii Benth.), is a promising zero-calorie sweetener for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Due to limited natural sources of thaumatin, its production using transgenic plants is an advantageous alternative. We report a simple protocol for purification of recombinant thaumatin II from transgenic tomato. Thaumatin was extracted from ripe tomato fruit in a low-salt buffer and purified on an SP-Sephacryl column. Recombinant thaumatin yield averaged 50 mg/kg fresh fruit. MALDI-MS analysis showed correct processing of thaumatin in tomato plants. The recombinant thaumatin was indistinguishable from the native protein in a taste test. The purified tomato-derived thaumatin had an intrinsic sweetness with a threshold value in taste tests of around 50 nM. These results demonstrate the potential of an expression system based on transgenic tomato plants for production of recombinant thaumatin for the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26965414

  6. PacCYP707A2 negatively regulates cherry fruit ripening while PacCYP707A1 mediates drought tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Sun, Yufei; Yuan, Bing; Kai, Wenbin; Pei, Yuelin; He, Suihuan; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Yushu; Leng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Sweet cherry is a non-climacteric fruit and its ripening is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) during fruit development. In this study, four cDNAs (PacCYP707A1–4) encoding 8′-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA, were identified in sweet cherry fruits using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and particle bombardment approaches. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of target gene transcripts in VIGS-treated cherry fruits. In PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening and fruit colouring were promoted relative to control fruits, and both ABA accumulation and PacNCED1 transcript levels were up-regulated by 140%. Silencing of PacCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including the ABA metabolism-associated genes NCED and CYP707A, the anthocyanin synthesis genes PacCHS, PacCHI, PacF3H, PacDFR, PacANS, and PacUFGT, the ethylene biosynthesis gene PacACO1, and the transcription factor PacMYBA. The promoter of PacMYBA responded more strongly to PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits than to PacCYP707A1-RNAi-treated fruits. By contrast, silencing of PacCYP707A1 stimulated a slight increase in fruit colouring and enhanced resistance to dehydration stress compared with control fruits. These results suggest that PacCYP707A2 is a key regulator of ABA catabolism that functions as a negative regulator of fruit ripening, while PacCYP707A1 regulates ABA content in response to dehydration during fruit development. PMID:25956880

  7. PacCYP707A2 negatively regulates cherry fruit ripening while PacCYP707A1 mediates drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Sun, Yufei; Yuan, Bing; Kai, Wenbin; Pei, Yuelin; He, Suihuan; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Yushu; Leng, Ping

    2015-07-01

    Sweet cherry is a non-climacteric fruit and its ripening is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) during fruit development. In this study, four cDNAs (PacCYP707A1-4) encoding 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA, were identified in sweet cherry fruits using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and particle bombardment approaches. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of target gene transcripts in VIGS-treated cherry fruits. In PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening and fruit colouring were promoted relative to control fruits, and both ABA accumulation and PacNCED1 transcript levels were up-regulated by 140%. Silencing of PacCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including the ABA metabolism-associated genes NCED and CYP707A, the anthocyanin synthesis genes PacCHS, PacCHI, PacF3H, PacDFR, PacANS, and PacUFGT, the ethylene biosynthesis gene PacACO1, and the transcription factor PacMYBA. The promoter of PacMYBA responded more strongly to PacCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruits than to PacCYP707A1-RNAi-treated fruits. By contrast, silencing of PacCYP707A1 stimulated a slight increase in fruit colouring and enhanced resistance to dehydration stress compared with control fruits. These results suggest that PacCYP707A2 is a key regulator of ABA catabolism that functions as a negative regulator of fruit ripening, while PacCYP707A1 regulates ABA content in response to dehydration during fruit development. PMID:25956880

  8. Antioxidant and Antiplatelet Activities in Extracts from Green and Fully Ripe Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum and Pomace from Industrial Tomato Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fruits and vegetables is accepted to be one of the strategies to reduce risk factors for these diseases. The aim of this study was to examine potential relationships between the antioxidant and the antiplatelet activities in green mature and fully ripe (red tomatoes and of lycopene-rich byproducts of tomato paste processing such as pomace. The total phenol content of tomato components was the highest in peels, pulp, and in the mucilaginous myxotesta covering the tomato seeds with values 36.9±0.8, 33.3±00.5, and 17.6±0.9 mg GAE/100 g, respectively (P<0.05. Tomato peels had the highest antioxidant activity, both, as measured by the FRAP (46.9±0.9 μmol Fe+2/g, P<0.05 and the DPPH assays (97.4±0.2%, 1000 μg/mL, P<0.05. Pomace extracts showed the highest antiplatelet activity induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6, and arachidonic acid. While the maturation stage of the tomato fruit affected the antioxidant effect, antiplatelet activity was independent of fruit ripeness. Finally, based on the present results, tomato and its byproducts may be considered as a valuable source of antioxidant and antiplatelet activities.

  9. Altered cell wall disassembly during ripening of Cnr tomato fruit: implications for cell adhesion and fruit softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orfila, C.; Huisman, M.M.H.; Willats, William George Tycho;

    2002-01-01

    The Cnr (Colourless non-ripening) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutant has an aberrant fruit-ripening phenotype in which fruit do not soften and have reduced cell adhesion between pericarp cells. Cell walls from Cnr fruit were analysed in order to assess the possible contribution of pectic...... polysaccharides to the non-softening and altered cell adhesion phenotype. Cell wall material (CWM) and solubilised fractions of mature green and red ripe fruit were analysed by chemical, enzymatic and immunochemical techniques. No major differences in CWM sugar composition were detected although differences were...... found in the solubility and composition of the pectic polysaccharides extracted from the CWM at both stages of development. In comparison with the wild type, the ripening-associated solubilisation of homogalacturonan-rich pectic polysaccharides was reduced in Cnr. The proportion of carbohydrate...

  10. RNA sequencing and functional analysis implicate the regulatory role of long non-coding RNAs in tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Benzhong; Yang, Yongfang; Li, Ran; Fu, Daqi; Wen, Liwei; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Hongliang

    2015-08-01

    Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play critical regulatory roles in model plants, such as Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. However, the presence of lncRNAs and how they function in fleshy fruit ripening are still largely unknown because fleshy fruit ripening is not present in the above model plants. Tomato is the model system for fruit ripening studies due to its dramatic ripening process. To investigate further the role of lncRNAs in fruit ripening, it is necessary and urgent to discover and identify novel lncRNAs and understand the function of lncRNAs in tomato fruit ripening. Here it is reported that 3679 lncRNAs were discovered from wild-type tomato and ripening mutant fruit. The lncRNAs are transcribed from all tomato chromosomes, 85.1% of which came from intergenic regions. Tomato lncRNAs are shorter and have fewer exons than protein-coding genes, a situation reminiscent of lncRNAs from other model plants. It was also observed that 490 lncRNAs were significantly up-regulated in ripening mutant fruits, and 187 lncRNAs were down-regulated, indicating that lncRNAs could be involved in the regulation of fruit ripening. In line with this, silencing of two novel tomato intergenic lncRNAs, lncRNA1459 and lncRNA1840, resulted in an obvious delay of ripening of wild-type fruit. Overall, the results indicated that lncRNAs might be essential regulators of tomato fruit ripening, which sheds new light on the regulation of fruit ripening.

  11. Elastic stresses and plastic deformations in 'Santa Clara' tomato fruits caused by package dependent compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA ADRIANA VARGAS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the fruit compression behavior aiming to develop new tomato packages. Deformations caused by compression forces were observed inside packages and in individual 'Santa Clara' tomato fruit. The forces applied by a transparent acrylic lever to the fruit surface caused pericarp deformation and the flattened area was proportional to the force magnitude. The deformation was associated to the reduction in the gas volume (Vg, caused by expulsion of the air from the loculus cavity and reduction in the intercellular air volume of the pericarp. As ripening advanced, smaller fractions of the Vg reduced by the compressive force were restored after the stress was relieved. The lack of complete Vg restoration was an indication of permanent plastic deformations of the stressed cells. Vg regeneration (elastic recovery was larger in green fruits than in the red ones. The ratio between the applied force and the flattened area (flattening pressure, which depends on cell turgidity, decreased during ripening. Fruit movements associated with its depth in the container were observed during storage in a transparent glass container (495 x 355 x 220 mm. The downward movement of the fruits was larger in the top layers because these movements seem to be driven by a summation of the deformation of many fruits in all layers.

  12. Cell Wall Microstructure Analysis Implicates Hemicellulose Polysaccharides in Cell Adhesion in Tomato Fruit Pericarp Parenchyma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose J. Ordaz-Ortiz; Susan E. Marcus; J. Paul Knox

    2009-01-01

    Methods developed to isolate intact cells from both unripe and ripe tomato fruit pericarp parenchyma have allowed the cell biological analysis of polysaccharide epitopes at the surface of separated cells. The LM7 pectic homoga-lacturonan epitope is a marker of the junctions of adhesion planes and intercellular spaces in parenchyma systems. The LM7 epitope persistently marked the former edge of adhesion planes at the surface of cells separated from unripe and ripened tomato fruit and also from fruits with the Cnr mutation. The LM 11 xylan epitope was associated, in sections, with cell walls lining intercellular space but the epitope was not detected at the surface of isolated cells, being lost during cell isolation. The LM15 xyloglucan epitope was present at the surface of cells isolated from unripe fruit in a pattern reflecting the former edge of cell adhesion planes/intercellular space but with gaps and apparent breaks, An equivalent pattern ofLM15 epitope occurrence was revealed at the surface of cells isolated by pectate lyase action but was not present in cells isolated from ripe fruit or from Cnr fruit. In contrast to wild-type cells, the LM5 galactan and LM21 mannan epitopes oc-curred predominantly in positions reflecting intercellular space in Cnr, suggesting a concerted alteration in cell wall mi-crostructure in response to this mutation. Galactanase and mannanase, along with pectic homogalacturonan-degrading enzymes, were capable of releasing cells from unripe fruit parenchyma. These observations indicate that hemicellulose polymers are present in architectural contexts reflecting cell adhesion and that several cell wall polysaccharide classes are likely to contribute to cell adhesion/cell separation in tomato fruit pericarp parenchyma.

  13. Different mechanisms are responsible for chlorophyll dephytylation during fruit ripening and leaf senescence in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Luzia; Hofstetter, Silvia Schelbert; Christ, Bastien; Lira, Bruno Silvestre; Rossi, Magdalena; Hörtensteiner, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    Chlorophyll breakdown occurs in different green plant tissues (e.g. during leaf senescence and in ripening fruits). For different plant species, the PHEOPHORBIDE A OXYGENASE (PAO)/phyllobilin pathway has been described to be the major chlorophyll catabolic pathway. In this pathway, pheophorbide (i.e. magnesium- and phytol-free chlorophyll) occurs as a core intermediate. Most of the enzymes involved in the PAO/phyllobilin pathway are known; however, the mechanism of dephytylation remains uncertain. During Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf senescence, phytol hydrolysis is catalyzed by PHEOPHYTINASE (PPH), which is specific for pheophytin (i.e. magnesium-free chlorophyll). By contrast, in fruits of different Citrus spp., chlorophyllase, hydrolyzing phytol from chlorophyll, was shown to be active. Here, we enlighten the process of chlorophyll breakdown in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), both in leaves and fruits. We demonstrate the activity of the PAO/phyllobilin pathway and identify tomato PPH (SlPPH), which, like its Arabidopsis ortholog, was specifically active on pheophytin. SlPPH localized to chloroplasts and was transcriptionally up-regulated during leaf senescence and fruit ripening. SlPPH-silencing tomato lines were impaired in chlorophyll breakdown and accumulated pheophytin during leaf senescence. However, although pheophytin transiently accumulated in ripening fruits of SlPPH-silencing lines, ultimately these fruits were able to degrade chlorophyll like the wild type. We conclude that PPH is the core phytol-hydrolytic enzyme during leaf senescence in different plant species; however, fruit ripening involves other hydrolases, which are active in parallel to PPH or are the core hydrolases in fruits. These hydrolases remain unidentified, and we discuss the question of whether chlorophyllases might be involved.

  14. Molecular characterization of fruit-specific class III peroxidase genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chii-Jeng; Chan, Yuan-Li; Shien, Chin Hui; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2015-04-01

    In this study, expression of four peroxidase genes, LePrx09, LePrx17, LePrx35 and LePrxA, was identified in immature tomato fruits, and the function in the regulation of fruit growth was characterized. Analysis of amino acid sequences revealed that these genes code for class III peroxidases, containing B, D and F conserved domains, which bind heme groups, and a buried salt bridge motif. LePrx35 and LePrxA were identified as novel peroxidase genes in Solanum lycopersicum (L.). The temporal expression patterns at various fruit growth stages revealed that LePrx35 and LePrxA were expressed only in immature green (IMG) fruits, whereas LePrx17 and LePrx09 were expressed in both immature and mature green fruits. Tissue-specific expression profiles indicated that only LePrx09 was expressed in the mesocarp but not the inner tissue of immature fruits. The effects of hormone treatments and stresses on the four genes were examined; only the expression levels of LePrx17 and LePrx09 were altered. Transcription of LePrx17 was up-regulated by jasmonic acid (JA) and pathogen infection and expression of LePrx09 was induced by ethephon, salicylic acid (SA) and JA, in particular, as well as wounding, pathogen infection and H2O2 stress. Tomato plants over-expressing LePrx09 displayed enhanced resistance to H2O2 stress, suggesting that LePrx09 may participate in the H2O2 signaling pathway to regulate fruit growth and disease resistance in tomato fruits. PMID:25703772

  15. 樱桃酒中总酚含量及抗氧化性研究%Study on Total Phenol Content and the Antioxidation of Cherry Fruit Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方玲玲; 肖作兵; 牛云蔚; 于海燕; 朱建才

    2011-01-01

    对4种樱桃酒的抗氧化能力进行初步测定分析,使用的抗氧化指标为清除DPPH自由基能力及清除羟基自由基能力;使用福林酚法测定樱桃酒的总酚含量。结果表明,樱桃酒具有较强的抗氧化性,樱桃酒清除自由基能力与总酚的含量呈正比。%The antioxidation of four kinds of cherry fruit wine was measured. The measured antioxidation indexes included flee DPPH and OH radical scavenging capability. The total phenol content in cherry fruit wine was measured by Folin-Ciocaltcu method. The results indicated that cherry fruit wine had a strong antioxidation activity and total phenol content was positively related to free radicals scavenging effects of cherry fruit wine.

  16. A DEMETER-like DNA demethylase governs tomato fruit ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, RuiE; How-Kit, Alexandre; Stammitti, Linda; Teyssier, Emeline; Rolin, Dominique; Mortain-Bertrand, Anne; Halle, Stefanie; Liu, Mingchun; Kong, Junhua; Wu, Chaoqun; Degraeve-Guibault, Charlotte; Chapman, Natalie H; Maucourt, Mickael; Hodgman, T Charlie; Tost, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In plants, genomic DNA methylation which contributes to development and stress responses can be actively removed by DEMETER-like DNA demethylases (DMLs). Indeed, in Arabidopsis DMLs are important for maternal imprinting and endosperm demethylation, but only a few studies demonstrate the developmental roles of active DNA demethylation conclusively in this plant. Here, we show a direct cause and effect relationship between active DNA demethylation mainly mediated by the tomato DML, SlDML2, and ...

  17. Hormonal and metabolic regulation of tomato fruit sink activity and yield under salinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albacete, Alfonso; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Balibrea, María E.;

    2014-01-01

    structures, thus contributing to the transport of assimilates from the source leaves through changes in sucrolytic enzymes and their regulation by phytohormones. In this study, classical and functional physiological approaches have been integrated to study the influence of metabolic and hormonal factors...... sucrolytic activities (mainly cwInv and sucrose synthase), sink strength, and fruit weight, whereas the ethylene-releasing compound ethephon had a negative effect in equivalent non-stressed fruits. Fruit yield was increased by both the constitutive expression of CIN1 in the fruits (up to 4-fold) or IPT......) and tZ concentration, and (ii) a decrease in the ACC levels and the activity of the invertase inhibitor. This study provides new functional evidences about the role of metabolic and hormonal inter-regulation of local sink processes in controlling tomato fruit sink activity, growth, and yield under...

  18. Comparative transcriptome analysis of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the red and yellow fruits of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Wei

    Full Text Available Fruit color is one of the most important economic traits of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.. The red coloration of sweet cherry fruit is mainly attributed to anthocyanins. However, limited information is available regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis and its regulation in sweet cherry.In this study, a reference transcriptome of P. avium L. was sequenced and annotated to identify the transcriptional determinants of fruit color. Normalized cDNA libraries from red and yellow fruits were sequenced using the next-generation Illumina/Solexa sequencing platform and de novo assembly. Over 66 million high-quality reads were assembled into 43,128 unigenes using a combined assembly strategy. Then a total of 22,452 unigenes were compared to public databases using homology searches, and 20,095 of these unigenes were annotated in the Nr protein database. Furthermore, transcriptome differences between the four stages of fruit ripening were analyzed using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE profiling. Biological pathway analysis revealed that 72 unigenes were involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. The expression patterns of unigenes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL, chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, flavanone 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS and UDP glucose: flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT during fruit ripening differed between red and yellow fruit. In addition, we identified some transcription factor families (such as MYB, bHLH and WD40 that may control anthocyanin biosynthesis. We confirmed the altered expression levels of eighteen unigenes that encode anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes and transcription factors using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR.The obtained sweet cherry transcriptome and DGE profiling data provide comprehensive gene expression information that lends insights

  19. A tonoplast Glu/Asp/GABA exchanger that affects tomato fruit amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Christopher J; Thomas, Benjamin; Baxter, Charles J; Smith, J Andrew C; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2015-03-01

    Vacuolar accumulation of acidic metabolites is an important aspect of tomato fruit flavour and nutritional quality. The amino acids Asp and Glu accumulate to high concentrations during ripening, while γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) shows an approximately stoichiometric decline. Given that GABA can be catabolised to form Glu and subsequently Asp, and the requirement for the fruit to maintain osmotic homeostasis during ripening, we hypothesised the existence of a tonoplast transporter that exports GABA from the vacuole in exchange for import of either Asp or Glu. We show here that the tomato vacuolar membrane possesses such a transport property: transport of Glu across isolated tonoplast vesicle membranes was trans-stimulated in counterexchange mode by GABA, Glu and Asp. We identified SlCAT9 as a candidate protein for this exchanger using quantitative proteomics of a tonoplast-enriched membrane fraction. Transient expression of a SlCAT9-YFP fusion in tobacco confirmed a tonoplast localisation. The function of the protein was examined by overexpression of SlCAT9 in transgenic tomato plants. Tonoplast vesicles isolated from transgenic plants showed higher rates of Glu and GABA transport than wild-type (WT) only when assayed in counterexchange mode with Glu, Asp, or GABA. Moreover, there were substantial increases in the content of all three cognate amino acids in ripe fruit from the transgenic plants. We conclude that SlCAT9 is a tonoplast Glu/Asp/GABA exchanger that strongly influences the accumulation of these amino acids during fruit development.

  20. Western flower thrips can transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus from infected tomato fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has long been known to spread via plant propagation materials including transplants. Global dissemination of TSWV has also been linked to transport of thrips-infested and virus-infected horticultural and floricultural products through trade and commerce. However, th...

  1. 圣女果番茄红素提取工艺优化%Optimization of Extraction Process for Lycopene from Cherry Tomatoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽杰; 武瑞赟

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to optimize the extraction of lycopene from cherry tomatoes.Cherry tomatoes were pretreated before extraction.Soaking in the same volume of absolute ethanol for 2 h and centrifugation for water removal was found optimum for the pretreatment of cherry tomatoes.A mixture of acetone and n-hexane was found to be the solvent for lycopene extraction.The optimal conditions for lycopene extraction using the mixture were determined using an orthogonal array design to be extraction at 40 ℃ for 2.5 h with a solvent-to-solid ratio of 3:1(mL/g).Under these conditions,the extraction yield of lycopene was 4.08 mg/ 100 g.%从预处理方法、浸提溶剂、料液比、浸提温度、浸提时间等方面对圣女果中番茄红素的提取工艺进行研究。经单因素试验对预处理方法及浸提溶剂进行选择,结果表明加入等体积无水乙醇、浸泡2h、离心脱水是提取番茄红素的最佳预处理方法,丙酮-正己烷(2:1)混合液是理想的提取溶剂。采用正交试验方法对液料比、提取温度和提取时间进行优化,得到适宜的提取条件为丙酮-正己烷(2:1)溶剂液料比为3:1、提取温度40℃、提取时间2.5h。在此提取工艺下,圣女果中的番茄红素提取量为4.08mg/100g。

  2. Cartography of cell morphology in tomato pericarp at the fruit scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legland, D; Devaux, M-F; Bouchet, B; Guillon, F; Lahaye, M

    2012-07-01

    In fleshy fruits, the variability of cell morphology at the fruit scale is largely unknown. It presents both a huge variability and a high level of organization. Better knowledge of cell morphology heterogeneity within the fruit is necessary to understand fruit development, to model fruit mechanical behaviour, or to investigate variations of physico-chemical measurements. A generic approach is proposed to build cartographies of cell morphology at the fruit scale, which depict regions corresponding to different cell morphologies. The approach is based on: (1) sampling the whole fruit at known positions; (2) imaging and quantifying local cell morphology; (3) pooling measurements to take biological variability into account and (4) projecting results in a morphology model of the whole fruit. The result is a synthetic representation of cell morphology variations within the whole fruit. The method was applied to the characterization of cell morphology in tomato pericarp. Two different imaging scales that provided complementary descriptions were used: 3D confocal microscopy and macroscopy. The approach is generic and can be adapted to other fruits or other products.

  3. Temperature-Mediated Kill and Oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Presence of Spinosad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2016-02-01

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the efficacy of spinosad can be useful for improving fly control. Here, the major objective was to determine if temperature mediates kill and oviposition of R. indifferens in the presence of low spinosad coverage in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted by placing flies in cages with cherries and with a Petri dish containing 3-12 small spots of dry spinosad at 18.3, 23.9, and 29.4°C. Effects of spinosad rates were also determined. More flies were killed at 23.9 and 29.4°C than at 18.3°C by 1-7 d post exposure. More flies were killed at 29.4 than 23.9°C by 1 d post exposure. However, flies laid more eggs at these temperatures than at 18.3°C. Higher spinosad rates increased kill and decreased oviposition, but even within the highest rate, oviposition was greater at 29.4 than 18.3°C. More flies walked over 5-min observation periods at 29.4 and 23.9°C than 18.3°C, suggesting higher temperatures up to 29.4°C increase kill by increasing fly contact with spinosad as well as increase oviposition rate. Results suggest that spinosad rates in sprays used against R. indifferens should be greater at higher than lower ambient temperatures. PMID:26352751

  4. Row spacing and pruning regimes on organically grown cherry tomato Espaçamento e sistema de condução de tomate cereja em cultivo orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlamir F de Azevedo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of branch number and plant densities on organically grown cherry tomato yield and fruit quality were studied. Labor costs for pruning were also assessed. The essay was conducted at the experimental fields of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from September 2004 to January 2005. A factorial design was used combining three row spacings (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 m, two cherry tomato cultivars (hybrid 'Super-Sweet' and a local self pollinated 'Perinha' and three pruning regimes (free growth, one branch per plant and two branches per plant. The row spacing treatment of 0.6 x 1.5 m resulted in lower number of fruits when compared to the 0.4 x 1.5 m treatment, however, producing fruits with higher individual average mass, which resulted in similar final yield. These yields were higher than the 0.8 m treatment. Yield increases due to the higher number of plants per area were mostly due to the increase of fruit number, which compensated for the decrease of fruit size and mass. The 'free growth' treatment yielded similarly to the two branches per plant treatment. The labor costs were lower under 'free growth' due to the absence of pruning. Both cultivars responded similarly to plant population and pruning regimes.Com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito do manejo e da densidade de plantio na produtividade de frutos e no custo com mão de obra em sistema orgânico de produção de tomate cereja, foi realizado um experimento no Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFRRJ, Seropédica-RJ, de setembro de 2004 a janeiro de 2005. Foram avaliados os efeitos da combinação de três sistemas de condução (sem tutoramento e sem limitação do número de hastes por planta; tutoramento com condução de uma haste por planta e, tutoramento com condução de duas hastes por planta, três espaçamentos entre plantas (0,4; 0,6 e 0,8 m e duas cultivares de tomate cereja (Perinha Água Branca e Super Sweet. O tratamento com espaçamento de 0,6 x 1,5 m

  5. Integration of tomato reproductive developmental landmarks and expression profiles, and the effect of SUN on fruit shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dongmei

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universally accepted landmark stages are necessary to highlight key events in plant reproductive development and to facilitate comparisons among species. Domestication and selection of tomato resulted in many varieties that differ in fruit shape and size. This diversity is useful to unravel underlying molecular and developmental mechanisms that control organ morphology and patterning. The tomato fruit shape gene SUN controls fruit elongation. The most dramatic effect of SUN on fruit shape occurs after pollination and fertilization although a detailed investigation into the timing of the fruit shape change as well as gene expression profiles during critical developmental stages has not been conducted. Results We provide a description of floral and fruit development in a red-fruited closely related wild relative of tomato, Solanum pimpinellifolium accession LA1589. We use established and propose new floral and fruit landmarks to present a framework for tomato developmental studies. In addition, gene expression profiles of three key stages in floral and fruit development are presented, namely floral buds 10 days before anthesis (floral landmark 7, anthesis-stage flowers (floral landmark 10 and fruit landmark 1, and 5 days post anthesis fruit (fruit landmark 3. To demonstrate the utility of the landmarks, we characterize the tomato shape gene SUN in fruit development. SUN controls fruit shape predominantly after fertilization and its effect reaches a maximum at 8 days post-anthesis coinciding with fruit landmark 4 representing the globular embryo stage of seed development. The expression profiles of the NILs that differ at sun show that only 34 genes were differentially expressed and most of them at a less than 2-fold difference. Conclusion The landmarks for flower and fruit development in tomato were outlined and integrated with the effect of SUN on fruit shape. Although we did not identify many genes differentially expressed in

  6. Specific responses of Salmonella enterica to tomato varieties and fruit ripeness identified by in vivo expression technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T Noel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent outbreaks of vegetable-associated gastroenteritis suggest that enteric pathogens colonize, multiply and persist in plants for extended periods of time, eventually infecting people. Genetic and physiological pathways, by which enterics colonize plants, are still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand interactions between Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and tomatoes, a gfp-tagged Salmonella promoter library was screened inside red ripe fruits. Fifty-one unique constructs that were potentially differentially regulated in tomato relative to in vitro growth were identified. The expression of a subset of these promoters was tested in planta using recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET and fitness of the corresponding mutants was tested. Gene expression in Salmonella was affected by fruit maturity and tomato cultivar. A putative fadH promoter was upregulated most strongly in immature tomatoes. Expression of the fadH construct depended on the presence of linoleic acid, which is consistent with the reduced accumulation of this compound in mature tomato fruits. The cysB construct was activated in the fruit of cv. Hawaii 7997 (resistant to a race of Ralstonia solanacearum more strongly than in the universally susceptible tomato cv. Bonny Best. Known Salmonella motility and animal virulence genes (hilA, flhDC, fliF and those encoded on the pSLT virulence plasmid did not contribute significantly to fitness of the bacteria inside tomatoes, even though deletions of sirA and motA modestly increased fitness of Salmonella inside tomatoes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reveals the genetic basis of the interactions of Salmonella with plant hosts. Salmonella relies on a distinct set of metabolic and regulatory genes, which are differentially regulated in planta in response to host genotype and fruit maturity. This enteric pathogen colonizes tissues of tomatoes differently than plant

  7. Genetically engineered flavonol enriched tomato fruit modulates chondrogenesis to increase bone length in growing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Dharmendra; Pandey, Ashutosh; Adhikary, Sulekha; Ahmad, Naseer; Bhatia, Chitra; Bhambhani, Sweta; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Trivedi, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Externally visible body and longitudinal bone growth is a result of proliferation of chondrocytes. In growth disorder, there is delay in the age associated increase in height. The present study evaluates the effect of extract from transgenic tomato fruit expressing AtMYB12 transcription factor on bone health including longitudinal growth. Constitutive expression of AtMYB12 in tomato led to a significantly enhanced biosynthesis of flavonoids in general and the flavonol biosynthesis in particular. Pre-pubertal ovary intact BALB/c mice received daily oral administration of vehicle and ethanolic extract of wild type (WT-TOM) and transgenic AtMYB12-tomato (MYB12-TOM) fruits for six weeks. Animal fed with MYB12-TOM showed no inflammation in hepatic tissues and normal sinusoidal Kupffer cell morphology. MYB12-TOM extract significantly increased tibial and femoral growth and subsequently improved the bone length as compared to vehicle and WT-TOM. Histomorphometry exhibited significantly wider distal femoral and proximal tibial growth plate, increased number and size of hypertrophic chondrocytes in MYB12-TOM which corroborated with micro-CT and expression of BMP-2 and COL-10, marker genes for hypertrophic cells. We conclude that metabolic reprogramming of tomato by AtMYB12 has the potential to improve longitudinal bone growth thus helping in achievement of greater peak bone mass during adolescence. PMID:26917158

  8. Peptides interfering with protein-protein interactions in the ethylene signaling pathway delay tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Melanie M A; Kessenbrock, Mareike; Müller, Lena; Hofmann, Alexander; Schmitz, Florian; Cristescu, Simona M; Groth, Georg

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is involved in the regulation of several processes with high importance for agricultural applications, e.g. ripening, aging and senescence. Previous work in our group has identified a small peptide (NOP-1) derived from the nuclear localization signal of the Arabidopsis ethylene regulator ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE-2 (EIN2) C-terminal part as efficient inhibitor of ethylene responses. Here, we show that NOP-1 is also able to efficiently disrupt EIN2-ETR1 complex formation in tomato, indicating that the NOP-1 inhibition mode is conserved across plant species. Surface application of NOP-1 on green tomato fruits delays ripening similar to known inhibitors of ethylene perception (MCP) and ethylene biosynthesis (AVG). Fruits treated with NOP-1 showed similar ethylene production as untreated controls underlining that NOP-1 blocks ethylene signaling by targeting an essential interaction in this pathway, while having no effect on ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:27477591

  9. Influence of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Storability and Postharvest Quality of Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L.) Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Sheida MOHEBBI; Younes MOSTOFI; Zabihallah ZAMANI; Najafi, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Cornelian cherries were stored in two types of polymeric films (low density polyethylene and polypropylene) and three gas combinations 5%O2 + 20%CO2 + 75%N2, 60%O2 + 20%CO2 + 20%N2 and Air) at 1 °C and 90-95% relative humidity for 35 days. Unpackaged cornelian cherries were used as a control. Samples were taken initially and at intervals of 7-days during storage, when quality parameters were measured. Results showed that modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) allowed the stored fruits to retain ...

  10. THE EFFECTS OF FOLIAR NUTRITION WITH InCa FERTILIZER ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LEAVES AND FRUITS OF SWEET CHERRY

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Mikiciuk; Małgorzata Mikiciuk; Ewa Możdżer; Małgorzata Statkiewicz; Urszula Chylewska

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the foliar fertilizer InCa on the chemical composition of fruits and leaves of sweet cherry cultivar ‘Burlat’. The study involved 14-year old sweet cherry trees of ‘Burlat’ cultivar, grafted onto ‘PHL-A’ rootstock and growing at 4×3 m spacing. The trees were sprayed with InCa calcium fertilizer based on CaT technology (manufacturer: Plant Impact). The fertilizer was applied three times, at a dose of 1.5 dm3∙ha. The first foliar fertilization...

  11. What lies beyond the eye: the molecular mechanisms regulating tomato fruit weight and shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther evan der Knaap

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Domestication of fruit and vegetables resulted in a huge diversity of shapes and sizes of the produce. Selections that took place over thousands of years for alleles that increased fruit weight and altered shape for specific culinary uses provide a wealth of resources to study the molecular bases of this diversity. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum evolved from a wild ancestor (S. pimpinellifolium bearing small and round edible fruit. Molecular genetic studies led to the identification of two genes selected for fruit weight: FW2.2 encoding a member of the Cell Number Regulator family; and FW3.2 encoding a P450 enzyme and the ortholog of KLUH. Four genes were identified that were selected for fruit shape: SUN encoding a member of the IQD family of calmodulin-binding proteins leading to fruit elongation; OVATE encoding a member of the OVATE family proteins involved in transcriptional repression leading to fruit elongation; LC encoding most likely the ortholog of WUSCHEL controlling meristem size and locule number; FAS encoding a member in the YABBY family controlling locule number leading to flat or oxheart shape. For this article, we will provide an overview of the putative function of the known genes, when during floral and fruit development they are hypothesized to act and their potential importance in regulating morphological diversity in other fruit and vegetable crops.

  12. Investigation of cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of Malpighia glabra L. (barbados cherry fruit pulp and vitamin C on plant and animal test systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Düsman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are important sources of nutrients in human diet, and Barbados Cherry (Malpighia glabra L. is of particular interest due to its high content of antioxidants. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables protect individuals against diseases and cancer, but excessive intake of vitamins may act as pro-oxidant and generate changes in DNA. To evaluate the effect of different in natura (BAN and frozen (BAF Barbados Cherry pulp concentrations and synthetic vitamin C in liquid form (VC on the chromosome level and the cell cycle division, root meristeme cells of Allium cepa L. and bone marrow cells of Wistar rats Rattus norvegicus, were used as test system. In Allium cepa L., BAN, at the highest concentration (0.4 mg.mL-1 and BAF, at the lowest concentration (0.2 mg.mL-1, inhibited cell division, and there was recovery of cell division after the recovery period in water only for BAN. In the Wistar rats, all treatments with Barbados Cherry, either acute or subchronic, were not cytotoxic or mutagenic; only the highest concentration of VC increased significantly the rate of chromosomal abnormalities. The data obtained are important to reinforce the use of Barbados Cherry fruit in the diet.

  13. Vitamin E Content and Composition in Tomato Fruits: Beneficial Roles and Bio-Fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiola, Assunta; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Barone, Amalia; Frusciante, Luigi; Rigano, Maria Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that high vitamin E intakes are related to a reduced risk of non-communicable diseases, while other dietary antioxidants are not, suggesting that vitamin E exerts specific healthy functions in addition to its antioxidant role. In this regard, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), one of the most consumed vegetables of the whole world population, is an important source of both tocopherols and tocotrienols. However, vitamin E content may strongly depend on several biotic and abiotic factors. In this review we will debate the elements affecting the synthesis of tocopherols and tocotrienols in tomato fruit, such as environmental conditions, genotype, fruit maturity level, and the impact of classical processing methods, such as pasteurization and lyophilization on the amount of these compounds. In addition we will analyze the specific vitamin E mechanisms of action in humans and the consequent functional effects derived from its dietary intake. Finally, we will examine the currently available molecular techniques used to increase the content of vitamin E in tomato fruit, starting from the identification of genetic determinants and quantitative trait loci that control the accumulation of these metabolites.

  14. Vitamin E Content and Composition in Tomato Fruits: Beneficial Roles and Bio-Fortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Raiola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that high vitamin E intakes are related to a reduced risk of non-communicable diseases, while other dietary antioxidants are not, suggesting that vitamin E exerts specific healthy functions in addition to its antioxidant role. In this regard, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, one of the most consumed vegetables of the whole world population, is an important source of both tocopherols and tocotrienols. However, vitamin E content may strongly depend on several biotic and abiotic factors. In this review we will debate the elements affecting the synthesis of tocopherols and tocotrienols in tomato fruit, such as environmental conditions, genotype, fruit maturity level, and the impact of classical processing methods, such as pasteurization and lyophilization on the amount of these compounds. In addition we will analyze the specific vitamin E mechanisms of action in humans and the consequent functional effects derived from its dietary intake. Finally, we will examine the currently available molecular techniques used to increase the content of vitamin E in tomato fruit, starting from the identification of genetic determinants and quantitative trait loci that control the accumulation of these metabolites.

  15. Vitamin E Content and Composition in Tomato Fruits: Beneficial Roles and Bio-Fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiola, Assunta; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Barone, Amalia; Frusciante, Luigi; Rigano, Maria Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that high vitamin E intakes are related to a reduced risk of non-communicable diseases, while other dietary antioxidants are not, suggesting that vitamin E exerts specific healthy functions in addition to its antioxidant role. In this regard, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), one of the most consumed vegetables of the whole world population, is an important source of both tocopherols and tocotrienols. However, vitamin E content may strongly depend on several biotic and abiotic factors. In this review we will debate the elements affecting the synthesis of tocopherols and tocotrienols in tomato fruit, such as environmental conditions, genotype, fruit maturity level, and the impact of classical processing methods, such as pasteurization and lyophilization on the amount of these compounds. In addition we will analyze the specific vitamin E mechanisms of action in humans and the consequent functional effects derived from its dietary intake. Finally, we will examine the currently available molecular techniques used to increase the content of vitamin E in tomato fruit, starting from the identification of genetic determinants and quantitative trait loci that control the accumulation of these metabolites. PMID:26670232

  16. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for Neoleucinodes elegantalis in tomato fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Helbert S.F.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Araujo, Michel M.; Santillo, Amanda G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Faria, Jose Tadeu de [Ministerio da Agricultura Pecuaria e Abastecimento (MAPA), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: dt-sp@agricultura.gov.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radibiologia e Ambiente], e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil the tomato-fruit-borer is responsible up to 45% for the loss of the production. The objective of the present report is evaluate the effects of gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) on life cycle (eggs and larvae) of Neoleucinodes elegantalis in tomato fruits. The insects were irradiated at doses of 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 400 Gy, in a Gammacell 220 source at dose rate of 1.4 kGy/h. Each treatment consists of four repetitions containing 10 insects, totaling 50 insects. After irradiation, the insects were maintained under controlled conditions of 25{+-}3 deg C and relative humidity from 65 to 75%. The evaluations were done daily, counted the number of died insects, eggs and emerged larvae. With the obtained results, we could determine the lethal and sterilizing doses for all phases of cycle life in N. elegantalis for a possible quarantine treatment to export tomato fruits. These results permit conclude that the dose capable to avoid further development of stage of eggs and larvae were doses of 100 and 200 Gy. (author)

  17. Deciphering genetic diversity and inheritance of tomato fruit weight and composition through a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Laura; Xu, Jiaxin; Biais, Benoît; Maucourt, Mickaël; Ballias, Patricia; Bernillon, Stéphane; Deborde, Catherine; Jacob, Daniel; Desgroux, Aurore; Faurobert, Mireille; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Gibon, Yves; Moing, Annick; Causse, Mathilde

    2013-12-01

    Integrative systems biology proposes new approaches to decipher the variation of phenotypic traits. In an effort to link the genetic variation and the physiological and molecular bases of fruit composition, the proteome (424 protein spots), metabolome (26 compounds), enzymatic profile (26 enzymes), and phenotypes of eight tomato accessions, covering the genetic diversity of the species, and four of their F1 hybrids, were characterized at two fruit developmental stages (cell expansion and orange-red). The contents of metabolites varied among the genetic backgrounds, while enzyme profiles were less variable, particularly at the cell expansion stage. Frequent genotype by stage interactions suggested that the trends observed for one accession at a physiological level may change in another accession. In agreement with this, the inheritance modes varied between crosses and stages. Although additivity was predominant, 40% of the traits were non-additively inherited. Relationships among traits revealed associations between different levels of expression and provided information on several key proteins. Notably, the role of frucktokinase, invertase, and cysteine synthase in the variation of metabolites was highlighted. Several stress-related proteins also appeared related to fruit weight differences. These key proteins might be targets for improving metabolite contents of the fruit. This systems biology approach provides better understanding of networks controlling the genetic variation of tomato fruit composition. In addition, the wide data sets generated provide an ideal framework to develop innovative integrated hypothesis and will be highly valuable for the research community.

  18. Over-expression of mouse ornithine decarboxylase gene under the control of fruit-specific promoter enhances fruit quality in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Roopali; Gupta, Aarti; Chowdhary, Anuj; Pal, Ram Krishna; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

    2015-02-01

    Diamine putrescine (Put) and polyamines; spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) are essential component of every cell because of their involvement in the regulation of cell division, growth and development. The aim of this study is to enhance the levels of Put during fruit development and see its implications in ripening and quality of tomato fruits. Transgenic tomato plants over-expressing mouse ornithine decarboxylase gene under the control of fruit-specific promoter (2A11) were developed. Transgenic fruits exhibited enhanced levels of Put, Spd and Spm, with a concomitant reduction in ethylene levels, rate of respiration and physiological loss of water. Consequently such fruits displayed significant delay of on-vine ripening and prolonged shelf life over untransformed fruits. The activation of Put biosynthetic pathway at the onset of ripening in transgenic fruits is also consistent with the improvement of qualitative traits such as total soluble solids, titratable acids and total sugars. Such changes were associated with alteration in expression pattern of ripening specific genes. Transgenic fruits were also fortified with important nutraceuticals like lycopene, ascorbate and antioxidants. Therefore, these transgenic tomatoes would be useful for the improvement of tomato cultivars through breeding approaches.

  19. Transcriptional dynamics of the developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit: sequencing, annotation and expression profiling of exocarp-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkio, Merianne; Jonas, Uwe; Declercq, Myriam; Van Nocker, Steven; Knoche, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    The exocarp, or skin, of fleshy fruit is a specialized tissue that protects the fruit, attracts seed dispersing fruit eaters, and has large economical relevance for fruit quality. Development of the exocarp involves regulated activities of many genes. This research analyzed global gene expression in the exocarp of developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., 'Regina'), a fruit crop species with little public genomic resources. A catalog of transcript models (contigs) representing expressed genes was constructed from de novo assembled short complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences generated from developing fruit between flowering and maturity at 14 time points. Expression levels in each sample were estimated for 34 695 contigs from numbers of reads mapping to each contig. Contigs were annotated functionally based on BLAST, gene ontology and InterProScan analyses. Coregulated genes were detected using partitional clustering of expression patterns. The results are discussed with emphasis on genes putatively involved in cuticle deposition, cell wall metabolism and sugar transport. The high temporal resolution of the expression patterns presented here reveals finely tuned developmental specialization of individual members of gene families. Moreover, the de novo assembled sweet cherry fruit transcriptome with 7760 full-length protein coding sequences and over 20 000 other, annotated cDNA sequences together with their developmental expression patterns is expected to accelerate molecular research on this important tree fruit crop. PMID:26504533

  20. Tomato fruit set driven by pollination or by the parthenocarpic fruit allele are mediated by transcriptionally regulated gibberellin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olimpieri, Irene; Siligato, Francesca; Caccia, Riccardo; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Ceccarelli, Nello; Soressi, Gian Piero; Mazzucato, Andrea

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the role of gibberellins (GAs) in the phenotype of parthenocarpic fruit (pat), a recessive mutation conferring parthenocarpy in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Novel phenotypes that parallel those reported in plants repeatedly treated with gibberellic acid or having a GA-constitutive response indicate that the pat mutant probably expresses high levels of GA. The retained sensitivity to the GA-biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol reveals that this condition is dependent on GA biosynthesis. Expression analysis of genes encoding key enzymes involved in GA biosynthesis shows that in normal tomato ovaries, the GA20ox1 transcript is in low copy number before anthesis and only pollination and fertilization increase its transcription levels and, thus, GA biosynthesis. In the unpollinated ovaries of the pat mutant, this mechanism is de-regulated and GA20ox1 is constitutively expressed, indicating that a high GA concentration could play a part in the parthenocarpic phenotype. The levels of endogenous GAs measured in the floral organs of the pat mutant support such a hypothesis. Collectively, the data indicate that transcriptional regulation of GA20ox1 mediates pollination-induced fruit set in tomato and that parthenocarpy in pat results from the mis-regulation of this mechanism. As genes involved in the control of GA synthesis (LeT6, LeT12 and LeCUC2) and response (SPY) are also altered in the pat ovary, it is suggested that the pat mutation affects a regulatory gene located upstream of the control of fruit set exerted by GAs. PMID:17503074

  1. The Quality of Fresh Tomato Fruit Produced by Hydroponic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadica Dobričević

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of fresh tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. planted in rockwool in hydroponic system is defined by their internal parameters: contents of dry matter and soluble dry matter (°Bx, total acidity (% citric acid, pH, % NaCl and L-ascorbic acid. Research was carried out during 2003 and included 21 cultivars. Tomato plants were planted into rockwool slabs 100 cm x 15 cm x 7.5 cm. Three plants were planted 33 cm apart in 11.25 L of substrate. The trial was laid out according to the randomized complete block design with four replications, and sampling was carried out during three harvests in: June, July and August. The dry matter content was 4.29% (cultivar ΄Syta΄ to 6.21% (cultivar ΄Delfine΄, and content of soluble dry matter was 3.0% (cultivar ΄Brooklyn΄ to 4.5% (΄Lustro΄ and ΄72-503΄. Total acidity amounted from 0.19% (cultivar ΄Syta΄ to 0.45% (cultivar ΄Lustro΄, and pH values ranged from 4.20 (cultivar ΄20377΄ to 4.68 (cultivar ΄Syta΄. Salt content ranged from 0.08% (΄Campeon΄ and ΄F 18402΄ to 0.13% (΄Brooklyn΄ and ΄E 27.31299΄, and L-ascorbic acid content ranged from 260.40 (cultivar ΄Antinea΄ to 458.30 mg/dry matter (cultivar ΄F 18402΄. By studying the basic chemical composition of selected cultivars, significant differences in their soluble dry matter and pH were revealed but only at the first sampling.

  2. Analysis of softening in air- and ethylene-treated rin, nor and wild-type tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rin; ripening-inhibitor and nor; non-ripening are previously identified spontaneous mutations that affect the primary regulation of tomato fruit ripening. Mutations at these loci result in fruit that are either partially or completely inhibited in their ability to ripen. Both internal and whole frui...

  3. Explaining tomato fruit growth by a multi-scale model on regulation of cell division, cell growth and carbohydrate dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de P.H.B.; Kromdijk, W.; Okello, R.C.; Fanwoua, J.; Struik, P.C.; Yin, X.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    A multi-scale approach to model tomato fruit growth is proposed, in order to account for the interaction between gene functioning and growth conditions, and, ultimately, to explain the fruit phenotype of various genotypes in diverse growth environments. There is particular focus on: (I) cell divisio

  4. A tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) APETALA2/ERF gene, SlAP2a, is a negative regulator of fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transition of fleshy fruit maturation to ripening is regulated by exogenous and endogenous signals which coordinate the transition of the fruit to a final state of attractiveness to seed dispersing organisms. Tomato is a model for biology and genetics regulating specific ripening pathways includ...

  5. Differences in regulation of carbohydrate metabolism during early fruit development between domesticated tomato and two wild relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortstee, A.J.; Appeldoorn, N.J.G.; Oortwijn, M.E.P.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2007-01-01

    Early development and growth of fruit in the domesticated tomato Solanum lycopersicum cultivar Money Maker and two of its wild relatives, S. peruvianum LA0385 and S. habrochaites LA1777, were studied. Although small differences exist, the processes involved and the sequence of events in fruit develo

  6. Traps and trap placement may affect location of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and increase injury to tomato fruits in home gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Chris; Martinson, Holly M; Raupp, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an important pest of field crops, fruit orchards, commercial vegetables, ornamental plants, and home vegetable gardens. Pheromone-baited traps designed to attract, trap, and kill H. halys are marketed for use in home gardens to reduce damage to plants. To test this assertion, we conducted the following experiment: One group of 15 gardeners placed stink bug traps at the end of a row of tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum (L.), in their vegetable garden and another group of 14 placed no traps in their garden and served as controls. Gardeners with traps were no more or less likely to have H. halys on tomato plants than those without traps, but the abundance of H. halys on tomato fruits was marginally greater in gardens with traps. However, tomato fruits grown in gardens with traps sustained significantly more injury than tomato fruits grown in gardens without traps. Furthermore, tomato fruits on plants near the trap housed more H. halys than tomato fruits on plants at the end of a row away from the trap. Traps may be useful in identifying gardens where H. halys is likely to be found and ones in which stink bug injury to tomatoes is likely. We found no evidence that stink bug traps protected tomatoes from H. halys, and it appears that the addition of traps to gardens may increase injury to tomato fruits. PMID:24517877

  7. Regulation of fruit ascorbic acid concentrations during ripening in high and low vitamin C tomato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellidou Ifigeneia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To gain insight into the regulation of fruit ascorbic acid (AsA pool in tomatoes, a combination of metabolite analyses, non-labelled and radiolabelled substrate feeding experiments, enzyme activity measurements and gene expression studies were carried out in fruits of the ‘low-’ and ‘high-AsA’ tomato cultivars ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Santorini’ respectively. Results The two cultivars exhibited different profiles of total AsA (totAsA, AsA + dehydroascorbate and AsA accumulation during ripening, but both displayed a characteristic peak in concentrations at the breaker stage. Substrate feeding experiments demonstrated that the L-galactose pathway is the main AsA biosynthetic route in tomato fruits, but that substrates from alternative pathways can increase the AsA pool at specific developmental stages. In addition, we show that young fruits display a higher AsA biosynthetic capacity than mature ones, but this does not lead to higher AsA concentrations due to either enhanced rates of AsA breakdown (‘Ailsa Craig’ or decreased rates of AsA recycling (‘Santorini’, depending on the cultivar. In the later stages of ripening, differences in fruit totAsA-AsA concentrations of the two cultivars can be explained by differences in the rate of AsA recycling activities. Analysis of the expression of AsA metabolic genes showed that only the expression of one orthologue of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (SlGGP1, and of two monodehydroascorbate reductases (SlMDHAR1 and SlMDHAR3 correlated with the changes in fruit totAsA-AsA concentrations during fruit ripening in ‘Ailsa Craig’, and that only the expression of SlGGP1 was linked to the high AsA concentrations found in red ripe ‘Santorini’ fruits. Conclusions Results indicate that ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Santorini’ use complementary mechanisms to maintain the fruit AsA pool. In the low-AsA cultivar (‘Ailsa Craig’, alternative routes of AsA biosynthesis may

  8. Spatial and temporal distribution of genes involved in polyamine metabolism during tomato fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaniklidis, Georgios; Kotsiras, Anastasios; Tsafouros, Athanasios; Roussos, Peter A; Aivalakis, Georgios; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Delis, Costas

    2016-03-01

    Polyamines are organic compounds involved in various biological roles in plants, including cell growth and organ development. In the present study, the expression profile, the accumulation of free polyamines and the transcript localisation of the genes involved in Put metabolism, such as Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and copper containing Amine oxidase (CuAO), were examined during Solanum lycopersicum cv. Chiou fruit development and maturation. Moreover, the expression of genes coding for enzymes involved in higher polyamine metabolism, including Spermidine synthase (SPDS), Spermine synthase (SPMS), S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) and Polyamine oxidase (PAO), were studied. Most genes participating in PAs biosynthesis and metabolism exhibited an increased accumulation of transcripts at the early stages of fruit development. In contrast, CuAO and SPMS were mostly expressed later, during the development stages of the fruits where a massive increase in fruit volume occurs, while the SPDS1 gene exhibited a rather constant expression with a peak at the red ripe stage. Although Put, Spd and Spm were all exhibited decreasing levels in developing immature fruits, Put levels maxed late during fruit ripening. In contrast to Put both Spd and Spm levels continue to decrease gradually until full ripening. It is worth noticing that in situ RNA-RNA hybridisation is reported for the first time in tomato fruits. The localisation of ADC2, ODC1 and CuAO gene transcripts at tissues such as the locular parenchyma and the vascular bundles fruits, supports the theory that all genes involved in Put biosynthesis and catabolism are mostly expressed in fast growing tissues. The relatively high expression levels of CuAO at the ImG4 stage of fruit development (fruits with a diameter of 3 cm), mature green and breaker stages could possibly be attributed to the implication of polyamines in physiological processes taking place during fruit ripening. PMID

  9. Fruit-specific RNAi-mediated suppression of DET1 enhances carotenoid and flavonoid content in tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davuluri, Ganga Rao; van Tuinen, Ageeth; Fraser, Paul D; Manfredonia, Alessandro; Newman, Robert; Burgess, Diane; Brummell, David A; King, Stephen R; Palys, Joe; Uhlig, John; Bramley, Peter M; Pennings, Henk M J; Bowler, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes are a principal dietary source of carotenoids and flavonoids, both of which are highly beneficial for human health1,2. Overexpression of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes or transcription factors have resulted in tomatoes with improved carotenoid or flavonoid content, but never with both3–7. We attempted to increase tomato fruit nutritional value by suppressing an endogenous photomorphogenesis regulatory gene, DET1, using fruit-specific promoters combined with RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Molecular analysis indicated that DET1 transcripts were indeed specifically degraded in transgenic fruits. Both carotenoid and flavonoid contents were increased significantly, whereas other parameters of fruit quality were largely unchanged. These results demonstrate that manipulation of a plant regulatory gene can simultaneously influence the production of several phytonutrients generated from independent biosynthetic pathways, and provide a novel example of the use of organ-specific gene silencing to improve the nutritional value of plant-derived products. PMID:15951803

  10. Calmodulin Gene Expression in Response to Mechanical Wounding and Botrytis cinerea Infection in Tomato Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Peng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Calmodulin, a ubiquitous calcium sensor, plays an important role in decoding stress-triggered intracellular calcium changes and regulates the functions of numerous target proteins involved in various plant physiological responses. To determine the functions of calmodulin in fleshy fruit, expression studies were performed on a family of six calmodulin genes (SlCaMs in mature-green stage tomato fruit in response to mechanical injury and Botrytis cinerea infection. Both wounding and pathogen inoculation triggered expression of all those genes, with SlCaM2 being the most responsive one to both treatments. Furthermore, all calmodulin genes were upregulated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, two signaling molecules involved in plant immunity. In addition to SlCaM2, SlCaM1 was highly responsive to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate. However, SlCaM2 exhibited a more rapid and stronger response than SlCaM1. Overexpression of SlCaM2 in tomato fruit enhanced resistance to Botrytis-induced decay, whereas reducing its expression resulted in increased lesion development. These results indicate that calmodulin is a positive regulator of plant defense in fruit by activating defense pathways including salicylate- and jasmonate-signaling pathways, and SlCaM2 is the major calmodulin gene responsible for this event.

  11. Metabolomics-Inspired Insight into Developmental, Environmental and Genetic Aspects of Tomato Fruit Chemical Composition and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2015-09-01

    Tomato was one of the first plant species to be evaluated using metabolomics and remains one of the best characterized, with tomato fruit being both an important source of nutrition in the human diet and a valuable model system for the development of fleshy fruits. Additionally, given the broad habitat range of members of the tomato clade and the extensive use of exotic germplasm in tomato genetic research, it represents an excellent genetic model system for understanding both metabolism per se and the importance of various metabolites in conferring stress tolerance. This review summarizes technical approaches used to characterize the tomato metabolome to date and details insights into metabolic pathway structure and regulation that have been obtained via analysis of tissue samples taken under different developmental or environmental circumstance as well as following genetic perturbation. Particular attention is paid to compounds of importance for nutrition or the shelf-life of tomatoes. We propose furthermore how metabolomics information can be coupled to the burgeoning wealth of genome sequence data from the tomato clade to enhance further our understanding of (i) the shifts in metabolic regulation occurring during development and (ii) specialization of metabolism within the tomato clade as a consequence of either adaptive evolution or domestication.

  12. Studies on Scaled Production Technology of Cherry Fruit Wine%樱桃果酒规模化生产工艺技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭意如; 刘明; 张世杰

    2015-01-01

    以鲜食樱桃果实为原料,采用全汁发酵法酿制樱桃果酒,优化樱桃果酒规模化生产工艺,通过不同发酵工艺的对比试验表明,樱桃去核、带皮酶解后清汁发酵原酒更能保留樱桃浓郁果香和应有色泽,并且口感丰满醇厚;同时确定了规模化生产樱桃发酵酒的技术参数。%Fresh cherry was used as main material to produce wine in fermented way.Optimizing Scaled production process of cherry wine, By comparing different fermentation process, got out, clear juice of cherry fermentation after enzymolysis base on going nuclear, with skin can retain rich fruit Aroma and it's colour and lustre, and palatedfullness.Got the technical parameters of cherry fruit wine when scaledly produced.

  13. Influence of variety, storage, and simulated gastrointestinal digestion on chemical composition and bioactivity of polysaccharides from sweet cherry and apple tree fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Ross

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work examined the effect of extraction regime (hot water vs. simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and postharvest storage on the chemical composition, molecular weight, and bioactive properties of polysaccharides obtained from sweet cherries (Lapins and Staccato varieties and apples (Gala and Fuji varieties. The yields of the polysaccharides isolated from cherries and apples ranged from 0.2 to 2.4% on a dry weight fruit basis. All of the isolated polysaccharides contained protein, phenolic compounds, and uronic acid. All polysaccharides contained the sugar monomers: rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose. Also, all of the polysaccharides obtained using the different extraction regimes were shown to possess antioxidant activity as determined with the ferric reducing antioxidant power and the 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging assays. Only the polysaccharides isolated from the cherry and apples after simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion showed appreciable α-glucosidase inhibition activity, with polysaccharides obtained from Staccato cherries showing nearly 90% of the inhibition of α-glucosidase as achieved with the positive control acarbose. This work shows that bioactive polysaccharides are available and/or can be isolated during digestion which supports the concept that fruit polysaccharides play a role in enhancing human health.

  14. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Sagit; Panizel, Irina; Puig, Clara Pons; Hao, Yanwei; Yifhar, Tamar; Yasuor, Hagai; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher; Granell Richart, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A), a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1) protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process. PMID:26959229

  15. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitel, Dario A; Chappell-Maor, Louise; Meir, Sagit; Panizel, Irina; Puig, Clara Pons; Hao, Yanwei; Yifhar, Tamar; Yasuor, Hagai; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher; Granell Richart, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-03-01

    The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A), a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1) protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process.

  16. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitel, Dario A; Chappell-Maor, Louise; Meir, Sagit; Panizel, Irina; Puig, Clara Pons; Hao, Yanwei; Yifhar, Tamar; Yasuor, Hagai; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher; Granell Richart, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-03-01

    The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A), a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1) protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process. PMID:26959229

  17. Weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA applied to the tomato fruit metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew V DiLeo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advances in "omics" technologies have revolutionized the collection of biological data. A matching revolution in our understanding of biological systems, however, will only be realized when similar advances are made in informatic analysis of the resulting "big data." Here, we compare the capabilities of three conventional and novel statistical approaches to summarize and decipher the tomato metabolome. METHODOLOGY: Principal component analysis (PCA, batch learning self-organizing maps (BL-SOM and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA were applied to a multivariate NMR dataset collected from developmentally staged tomato fruits belonging to several genotypes. While PCA and BL-SOM are appropriate and commonly used methods, WGCNA holds several advantages in the analysis of highly multivariate, complex data. CONCLUSIONS: PCA separated the two major genetic backgrounds (AC and NC, but provided little further information. Both BL-SOM and WGCNA clustered metabolites by expression, but WGCNA additionally defined "modules" of co-expressed metabolites explicitly and provided additional network statistics that described the systems properties of the tomato metabolic network. Our first application of WGCNA to tomato metabolomics data identified three major modules of metabolites that were associated with ripening-related traits and genetic background.

  18. Sculpting the maturation, softening and ethylene pathway: The influences of microRNAs on tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Jinhua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a ubiquitous class of short RNAs, play vital roles in physiological and biochemical processes in plants by mediating gene silencing at post-transcriptional (PTGS level. Tomato is a model system to study molecular basis of fleshy fruit ripening and senescence, ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction owing to its genetic and molecular tractability. To study the functions of miRNAs in tomato fruit ripening and senescence, and their possible roles in ethylene response, the next generation sequencing method was employed to identify miRNAs in tomato fruit. Bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches were combined to profile the miRNAs expression patterns at three different fruit ripening stages and by exogenous ethylene treatment. Results In addition to 7 novel miRNA families, 103 conserved miRNAs belonging to 24 families and 10 non-conserved miRNAs matching 9 families were identified in our libraries. The targets of many these miRNAs were predicted to be transcriptional factors. Other targets are known to play roles in the regulation of metabolic processes. Interestingly, some targets were predicted to be involved in fruit ripening and softening, such as Pectate Lyase, beta-galactosidase, while a few others were predicted to be involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway, such as ACS, EIN2 and CTR1. The expression patterns of a number of such miRNAs at three ripening stages were confirmed by stem-loop RT-PCR, which showed a strong negative correlation with that of their targets. The regulation of exogenous ethylene on miRNAs expression profiles were analyzed simultaneously, and 3 down-regulated, 5 up-regulated miRNAs were found in this study. Conclusions A combination of high throughput sequencing and molecular biology approaches was used to explore the involvement of miRNAs during fruit ripening. Several miRNAs showed differential expression profiles during fruit ripening, and a number of

  19. Application Research of Marigold Extract in Fresh-keeping of Cherry Tomato%万寿菊花提取液在圣女果保鲜中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宪青; 刘妍妍; 岳如冰

    2012-01-01

    Marigold was taken as material and photoactivated pesticide α-terthienyl was extracted with chloroform to study the fresh-keeping effect of marigold extract to cherry tomato. Index change of cherry tomato in storage with marigold extract was studied. The experiment result showed that the α-terthienyl containing extract can reduce the water loss rate and rot rate of cherry tomato in storage, which can also delay the decreasing of Vc in cherry tomato; the fresh-keeping effect of a-terthienyl extract is better than classical single chitsan composition preservative.%为研究万寿菊花提取液对圣女果的保鲜包装效果,以万寿菊花为原料,用氯仿提取其中光活化杀虫物质α-三连噻吩,研究了万寿菊提取液对圣女果的保鲜实验中各项指标的变化。实验表明:含有α-三连噻吩的保鲜剂可明显降低圣女果贮藏期间的失水率和腐烂率,并且可延缓圣女果中VC含量的下降:含有口三连噻吩的保鲜剂的保鲜效果好于传统的单一壳聚糖成分的保鲜剂。

  20. 不同减压处理对圣女果贮藏品质的影响%Effects of Different Hypobaric Treatment on Storage Quality of Cherry Tomatoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞凌云; 詹丽娟; 李瑜; 祝美云; 陈耀华

    2012-01-01

    将圣女果分别放在101.3 kPa(常压)、80、50、20 kPa下,每4 d测定相关指标,研究减压处理对圣女果贮藏品质的影响。结果表明:减压处理可降低采后圣女果的失重率、呼吸强度,抑制Vc含量、可滴定酸含量、可溶性固形物含量、原果胶含量的降低,减缓细胞质膜透性、花青苷含量的上升,从而保持了其贮藏期的品质,延缓其衰老速率,其中以50 kPa处理效果佳。%Cherry tomatoes were stored under different levels of pressure (101.3 kPa, 80 kPa, 50 kPa, 20 kPa). A series of parameters of cherry tomatoes were measured at intervals of4d to evaluate the preservation effect by hypobaric treatment. Results showed that hypobaric treatment could reduce the weight loss rate, respiratory intensity of cherry tomatoes, maintain Vc content, titration acidity, soluble solid content and protopectin content, restrain the rising of cytoplasm membrane permeability and anthocyanin content in some extent, and hold the better storage quali- ty. Cherry tomatoes treated with 50 kPa preserved the best quality during storage.

  1. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of the RIN locus that regulates tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Endo, Masaki; Mikami, Masafumi; Toki, Seiichi

    2015-11-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis using genetic approaches can provide a wealth of resources for crop breeding as well as for biological research. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 endonuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) system is a novel strategy used to induce mutations in a specific genome region; the system functions in a variety of organisms, including plants. Here, we report application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to efficient mutagenesis of the tomato genome. In this study, we targeted the tomato RIN gene, which encodes a MADS-box transcription factor regulating fruit ripening. Three regions within the gene were targeted and mutations consisting either of a single base insertion or deletion of more than three bases were found at the Cas9 cleavage sites in T0 regenerated plants. The RIN-protein-defective mutants produced incomplete-ripening fruits in which red color pigmentation was significantly lower than that of wild type, while heterologous mutants expressing the remaining wild-type gene reached full-ripening red color, confirming the important role of RIN in ripening. Several mutations that were generated at three independent target sites were inherited in the T1 progeny, confirming the applicability of this mutagenesis system in tomato.

  2. Correlation of Rutin Accumulation with 3-O-Glucosyl Transferase and Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase Activities During the Ripening of Tomato Fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Beekwilder, J.; Matros, A.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Mock, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    In tomato, the predominant flavonoid is quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin). In this study, we aim to investigate the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the quercetin-3-O-glucosyl transferase (3-GT) reactions in the formation of rutin during tomato fruit ripening. Tomatoes of the Moneymaker variety at

  3. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yanwei; Hu, Guojian; Breitel, Dario; Liu, Mingchun; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Fu, Yongyao; Aharoni, Asaph; Bouzayen, Mondher; Zouine, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2) which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato.

  4. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Hao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2 which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato.

  5. Production and quality of tomato fruits under organic management Produção e qualidade dos frutos de cultivares de tomateiro, sob manejo orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora S Toledo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Information about the production and quality of tomato cultivars under organic management and the conditions of climate and soil from the north region of Minas Gerais State, Brasil, are scarce. Thus, this research was carried out to evaluate the production and quality of tomato cultivars under organic management, in this region. The treatments consisted of four open pollination tomato cultivars (Chadwick Cherry, Pitanga vermelha, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Kada and five hybrid cultivars (Marguerita, Nicolas, Ellen, Magestade and Dominador. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replications. The experiment was carried out using organic fertilization in the initial preparation of the area, compost and rock phosphate and sprays with Bordeaux mixture, neem oil and fertilizer. The marketable yield varied from 12.3 t ha-1 to 23.9 t ha-1. The hybrid Marguerita presented higher marketable production (23.9 t ha-1. The cultivars Chadwick Cherry and Pitanga Vermelha reached similar production as most cultivars and larger proportions of marketable and giant fruits, and therefore, better market quality. All the cultivars presented low potassium and manganese levels in foliar tissue suggesting an evaluation after various organic manuring cycles and better nutrition conditions are necessary to permit the comparison of the performance of cultivars in this system.Informações sobre a produção e qualidade de frutos de cultivares de tomateiro, sob manejo orgânico, nas condições de clima e solo do Norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil, são escassas. Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção e qualidade de frutos de cultivares de tomateiro, sob manejo orgânico, em Montes Claros-MG. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro cultivares de tomate de polinização livre (Chadwick Cherry, Pitanga Vermelha, Santa Clara e Santa Cruz Kada e cinco cultivares híbridos (Marguerita, Nícolas, Ellen, Majestade e Dominador. Foi utilizado o

  6. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is localized to both the cytoplasm and plastids in developing pericarp of tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B. Y.; Wang, Y.; Janes, H. W.

    1998-01-01

    The intracellular location of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) in developing pericarp of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) has been investigated by immunolocalization. With the use of a highly specific anti-tomato fruit AGP antibody, the enzyme was localized in cytoplasm as well as plastids at both the light and electron microscope levels. The immunogold particles in plastids were localized in the stroma and at the surface of the starch granule, whereas those in the cytoplasm occurred in cluster-like patterns. Contrary to the fruit, the labeling in tomato leaf cells occurred exclusively in the chloroplasts. These data demonstrate that AGP is localized to both the cytoplasm and plastids in developing pericarp cells of tomato.

  7. Transcriptional analysis of cell wall and cuticle related genes during fruit development of two sweet cherry cultivars with contrasting levels of cracking tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Balbontín

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rain-induced cracking before harvest is the major cause of crop loss in sweet cherry (Prunus avium [L.] L. In order to better understand the relationship between cherry fruit cracking and gene expression, the transcriptional patterns of six genes related to cell wall modification and cuticular wax biosynthesis were analyzed during fruit setting (FS, fruit color change (FC and fruit ripening (FR, employing two contrasting cultivars: the cracking resistant 'Kordia' and the cracking susceptible 'Bing'. The transcription levels of AP2/EREBP-type transcription factor (PaWINB, wax synthase (WS, ß-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (PaKCS6, and ß-galactosidase (ß-Gal showed higher levels in 'Kordia' than in 'Bing' during the FS stage, while similar values were observed in both cultivars at FR stage. In contrast to that pattern, transcription levels of expansin (PaEXPl were higher at FR stage in 'Kordia' than in 'Bing'. Transcript profile of lipid transport protein gene (PaLTPGl decreased during fruit development, with higher levels in 'Bing' than in 'Kordia' at FC and FR stages suggesting no relation with cracking tolerance. The expression profiles of PaWINB, WS, PaKCS6, and ß-Gal suggest that they are genes involved in conferring cracking tolerance, likely due to their function in cuticle deposition during early stages of fruit development. In addition, a greater expression level of expansin gene would allow for a faster growth rate in 'Kordia' at FR stage.

  8. Size and Weight of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’ Fruit Treated with 3,5,6-TPA and GA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Zeman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 10 ppm 3,5,6-TPA (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyloxyocetic acid, 20 ppm GA3 and their combination on size and weight of cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’ were studied. 3,5,6-TPA was applied 25 days after full bloom and GA 3 during stage of fruit color change from green to straw-yellow. Fruit height, width, thickness and weight were measured. Width, thickness and weight of control fruit were the smallest.Fruit from 3,5,6-TPA - treated trees did not show significant difference in comparison to control. However, fruit from GA 3 – treated trees had significantly improved all characteristics in comparison to control fruits. Weight of fruit from trees treated with combination of 3,5,6-TPA and GA 3 was 14% higher than control fruit and 2.8% higher than fruit from GA 3 - treated trees, but there was no significant difference comparing to fruit from trees treated with GA 3 alone. These results are preliminary results after a one-year study and more research should be done to examine the possible influence of other factors, such as ecological factors, before final management recommendations could be made.

  9. Size and Weight of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’ Fruit Treated with 3,5,6-TPA and GA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Zeman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 10 ppm 3,5,6-TPA (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyloxyocetic acid, 20 ppm GA 3 and their combination on size and weight of cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’ were studied. 3,5,6-TPA was applied 25 days after full bloom and GA 3 during stage of fruit color change from green to straw-yellow. Fruit height, width, thickness and weight were measured. Width, thickness and weight of control fruit were the smallest. Fruit from 3,5,6-TPA - treated trees did not show significant difference in comparison to control. However, fruit from GA 3 – treated trees had significantly improved all characteristics in comparison to control fruits. Weight of fruit from trees treated with combination of 3,5,6-TPA and GA 3 was 14% higher than control fruit and 2.8% higher than fruit from GA 3 - treated trees, but there was no significant difference comparing to fruit from trees treated with GA 3 alone. These results are preliminary results after a one-year study and more research should be done to examine the possible influence of other factors, such as ecological factors, before final management recommendations could be made.

  10. Color and state of maturity of fruit of the husk tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Benito-Bautista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics that determine the state of maturity of the fruit of four varieties of husk tomato. One hundred fruits of the varieties: San Martin, Tecozautla 04, Rendidora, and Diamante, were collected. They were cultivated at a density of 40,000 plants/ha under experimental greenhouse conditions at the Interdisciplinary Research Center for Integrated Regional Development (CIIDIR, National Polytechnic Institute (IPN, in Oaxaca, Mexico. The plants were grown during the summer-autumn 2013 and spring-summer 2014 growing cycles. The husk filling and elapsed time since the fruit set were considered as indicators of harvest. Fruits were stored at room temperature (25 ± 3 °C, and each week 10 fruits of each variety were selected and analyzed for weight loss, penetration resistance, soluble solids, color, pH and titratable acidity. The statistic results indicate that color parameters a*, h * and color index (IC, were significantly high, and showed a high correlation with the physical and chemical properties for the state of maturation. The a* color coordinate presented the highest coefficient of correlation with fruit texture, followed by IC and h*. At the same time, a * and CI showed strong correlation with variables weight loss, titratable acidity, pH, and soluble solids. According to these results, the a* color parameter showed the greatest correlation with quality features, and varieties Tecozautla 04 and San Martin had the best quality characteristics.

  11. Antioxidant properties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L.): role of colorless phytochemicals from the methanolic extract of ripe fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolella, Simona; Fiorentino, Antonio; Pacifico, Severina; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Uzzo, Piera; Monaco, Pietro

    2008-03-26

    Many edible plant metabolites are known to be useful as cellular antioxidants. In the search for antioxidative chemicals from native fruits of the Campania region of Italy, Prunus cerasus L., an acidic cherry widely used for culinary purposes, has been studied. Fruit crude extracts (MeOH, EtOAc, and hexane) were submitted to an antioxidative screening using specific assay media characterized from the presence of highly reactive radical species (DPPH*, ABTS*+, O2*-, NO) or lipoperoxidation markers. The reducing power of the samples was also determined. It was observed that the most polar extracts in MeOH and EtOAc were able to exercise a massive and dose-increasing antioxidative capacity. The peculiar efficacy of the same extracts was revealed by investigating their protein and deoxyribose oxidation capacity. A preliminary analysis of total phenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents together with biological screening data put the basis on P. cerasus fruit phytochemical investigation of methanolic extract. Twenty secondary metabolites were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic (especially 1D and 2D NMR) and spectrometric techniques. 1-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-ethanediol-1,2-bis-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methanol-1-O-beta-D-gentiobioside (4), epicatechin-3-malate (14), and epicatechin-3-(1''-methyl)malate (15) were isolated for the first time. All of the compounds were evaluated for their radical scavenging activity on DPPH*, O2*-, and NO. Flavonoids and quinic acid derivatives were found to be the more antioxidative substances. PMID:18303821

  12. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta; Picanço Marcelo Coutinho; Zanuncio José Cola; Bacci Leandro; Silva Ézio Marques da

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM) in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides), IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved), and control (no pesticide was applied). IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less ...

  13. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling.

  14. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling. PMID:25916229

  15. Transcriptional Activity of the MADS Box ARLEQUIN/TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 Gene Is Required for Cuticle Development of Tomato Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Estela; Dominguez, Eva; Pineda, Benito; Heredia, Antonio; Moreno, Vicente; Lozano, Rafael; Angosto, Trinidad

    2015-07-01

    Fruit development and ripening entail key biological and agronomic events, which ensure the appropriate formation and dispersal of seeds and determine productivity and yield quality traits. The MADS box gene Arlequin/tomato Agamous-like1 (hereafter referred to as TAGL1) was reported as a key regulator of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) reproductive development, mainly involved in flower development, early fruit development, and ripening. It is shown here that silencing of the TAGL1 gene (RNA interference lines) promotes significant changes affecting cuticle development, mainly a reduction of thickness and stiffness, as well as a significant decrease in the content of cuticle components (cutin, waxes, polysaccharides, and phenolic compounds). Accordingly, overexpression of TAGL1 significantly increased the amount of cuticle and most of its components while rendering a mechanically weak cuticle. Expression of the genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis agreed with the biochemical and biomechanical features of cuticles isolated from transgenic fruits; it also indicated that TAGL1 participates in the transcriptional control of cuticle development mediating the biosynthesis of cuticle components. Furthermore, cell morphology and the arrangement of epidermal cell layers, on whose activity cuticle formation depends, were altered when TAGL1 was either silenced or constitutively expressed, indicating that this transcription factor regulates cuticle development, probably through the biosynthetic activity of epidermal cells. Our results also support cuticle development as an integrated event in the fruit expansion and ripening processes that characterize fleshy-fruited species such as tomato.

  16. Differential expression of two genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase in tomato fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, D.C.; White, J.A.; Edelman, L.; Kende, H. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States)); Harkins, R.N. (Berlex Biosciences, Alameda, CA (United States))

    1991-06-15

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase is the regulated enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of the plant hormone ethylene. A full-length cDNA encoding this enzyme has been cloned from tomato fruits. The authors report here the complete nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences of a cDNA encoding a second isoform of ACC synthase from tomato fruits. The cDNAs coding for both isoforms contain highly conserved regions that are surrounded by regions of low homology, especially at the 5{prime} and 3{prime} ends. Gene-specific probes were constructed to examine the expression of transcripts encoding the two ACC synthase isoforms under two conditions of enhanced ethylene formation--namely, during fruit ripening and in response to mechanical stress (wounding). The level of mRNA encoding both isoforms, ACC synthase 1 and 2, increased during ripening. In contrast, wounding caused an increase in only the level of mRNA coding for ACC synthase 1. Blot analysis of genomic DNA digested with restriction enzymes confirmed that ACC synthase 1 and 2 are encoded by different genes.

  17. Enzyme activity and effect of heat treatment on some fungal diseases of postharvest tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, M A; El-Abd, S M; Mansour, F G F

    2013-01-01

    The activity of heat treatments for controlling tomato black mould caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler and grey mould caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Pers. wWas tested. Spore suspension of the grey mold pathogen which was exposed to hot water treatment at 58 degrees C for 6 min., failed to germinate, whereas A. alternata failed to germinate when exposed to hot water at 58 degrees C, for 8 min. Exposing discs bearing growth of any both tested fungi to hot air at 48 degrees C for 72 h caused growth suppression for the both tested pathogens. Dipping tomato fruits in hot water at 58 degrees C for 8 min or keeping in hot air for 72 h at 40 degrees C prevented decay development in non inoculated or artificially inoculated fruits with A. alternata and B. cinerea up to 12 days when stored at 24 degrees C. The high amount of polygalacturonase (PG) and pectinmethylestrase (BME) enzymes were investigated in infected fruits by the two tested pathogens as compared by healthy ones. The culture filtrate of A. alternata had the highest protease activity, white B. cinerea was the lowest. Protease activity was higher when CD liquid medium contain casein was used. PMID:25151835

  18. Gamma radiation protects fruit quality in tomato by inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted to examine the individual and combined effect of two different electromagnetic energies, i.e., gamma ray viz 0.1, 0.5 and 1 kGy and static magnetic field (50 mT for 1 h) and their combination (0.5 kGy + 50 mT) on the shelf life of tomato and evaluates the biochemical attributes that influence the fruit ripening and fruit quality. Magnetic field application either alone or in combination with gamma irradiation was not effective in delaying the ripening process. Gamma ray exposed fruits at 0.5 and 1 kGy showed an extended shelf life due to delayed fruit ripening and reduced lycopene synthesis and ethylene production. Efficient ROS scavenging ability and consequent reduction in oxidative damage in the irradiated treatment may cause favorable biochemical changes to facilitate delayed ripening of the tomato fruits. (author)

  19. Role of the Tomato Non-Ripening Mutation in Regulating Fruit Quality Elucidated Using iTRAQ Protein Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin-Yu; Wang, Rui-Heng; Zhao, Xiao-Dan; Luo, Yun-Bo; Fu, Da-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Natural mutants of the Non-ripening (Nor) gene repress the normal ripening of tomato fruit. The molecular mechanism of fruit ripening regulation by the Nor gene is unclear. To elucidate how the Nor gene can affect ripening and fruit quality at the protein level, we used the fruits of Nor mutants and wild-type Ailsa Craig (AC) to perform iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) analysis. The Nor mutation altered tomato fruit ripening and affected quality in various respects, including ethylene biosynthesis by down-regulating the abundance of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO), pigment biosynthesis by repressing phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1), ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO), chalcone synthase 1 (CHS1) and other proteins, enhancing fruit firmness by increasing the abundance of cellulose synthase protein, while reducing those of polygalacturonase 2 (PG2) and pectate lyase (PL), altering biosynthesis of nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and anthocyanins. Conversely, Nor mutation also enhanced the fruit’s resistance to some pathogens by up-regulating the expression of several genes associated with stress and defense. Therefore, the Nor gene is involved in the regulation of fruit ripening and quality. It is useful in the future as a means to improve fruit quality in tomato. PMID:27732677

  20. Exploiting genomics resources to identify candidate genes underlying antioxidants content in tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eCalafiore

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The tomato is a model species for fleshy fruit development and ripening, as well as for genomics studies of others Solanaceae. Many genetic and genomics resources, including databases for sequencing, transcriptomics and metabolomics data, have been developed and are today available. The purpose of the present work was to uncover new genes and/or alleles that determine ascorbic acid and carotenoids accumulation, by exploiting one Solanum pennellii introgression lines (IL7-3 harboring quantitative trait loci (QTL that increase the content of these metabolite in the fruit. The higher ascorbic acid and carotenoids content in IL7-3 was confirmed at three fruit developmental stages. The tomato genome reference sequence and the recently released S. pennellii genome sequence were investigated to identify candidate genes that might control ascorbic acid and carotenoids accumulation. First of all, a refinement of the wild region borders in the IL7-3 was achieved by analyzing CAPS markers designed in our laboratory. Afterwards, six candidate genes associated to ascorbic acid and one with carotenoids metabolism were identified exploring the annotation and the Gene Ontology terms of genes included in the region. Variants between the sequence of the wild and the cultivated alleles of these genes were investigated for their functional relevance and their potential effects on the protein sequences were predicted. Transcriptional levels of candidate genes in the introgression region were extracted from RNA-Seq data available for the entire S. pennellii introgression lines collection and verified by Real-Time qPCR. Finally, seven IL7-3 sub-lines were genotyped using 28 species-specific markers and then were evaluated for metabolites content. These analyses evidenced a significant decrease in transcript abundance for one 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and one L-ascorbate oxidase homolog, whose role in the accumulation of carotenoids and ascorbic acid is

  1. Shotgun Proteomics of Tomato Fruits: Evaluation, Optimization and Validation of Sample Preparation Methods and Mass Spectrometric Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilambi, Himabindu V; Manda, Kalyani; Sanivarapu, Hemalatha; Maurya, Vineet K; Sharma, Rameshwar; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

    2016-01-01

    An optimized protocol was developed for shotgun proteomics of tomato fruit, which is a recalcitrant tissue due to a high percentage of sugars and secondary metabolites. A number of protein extraction and fractionation techniques were examined for optimal protein extraction from tomato fruits followed by peptide separation on nanoLCMS. Of all evaluated extraction agents, buffer saturated phenol was the most efficient. In-gel digestion [SDS-PAGE followed by separation on LCMS (GeLCMS)] of phenol-extracted sample yielded a maximal number of proteins. For in-solution digested samples, fractionation by strong anion exchange chromatography (SAX) also gave similar high proteome coverage. For shotgun proteomic profiling, optimization of mass spectrometry parameters such as automatic gain control targets (5E+05 for MS, 1E+04 for MS/MS); ion injection times (500 ms for MS, 100 ms for MS/MS); resolution of 30,000; signal threshold of 500; top N-value of 20 and fragmentation by collision-induced dissociation yielded the highest number of proteins. Validation of the above protocol in two tomato cultivars demonstrated its reproducibility, consistency, and robustness with a CV of < 10%. The protocol facilitated the detection of five-fold higher number of proteins compared to published reports in tomato fruits. The protocol outlined would be useful for high-throughput proteome analysis from tomato fruits and can be applied to other recalcitrant tissues. PMID:27446192

  2. PREDICTION OF DAYS AFTER ANTHESIS OF DEVELOPING TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM FRUIT FROM BLOSSOM-END CHANGES IN COLOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiznado-Hernández Martín Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of mathematical models to predict the physiological status of a developing fruit can be a useful tool to reduce the variation in fruit response to postharvest treatments. The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to predict Days After Anthesis (DAA in tomato fruit from changes in the blossom end color. Around 160 tomato flowers from 40 plants of a tomato cultivar ‘Rutgers’ and the nearly isogenic line tomato ripening mutant rin were tagged after artificial pollination and allowed to fruit set. The quantification of color was done from 5 to 85 DAA every 5 days in the tomato fruit blossom-end of both ‘Rutgers’ and mutant rin using a a Minolta chroma meter CR-300 set in the L*, a* and b* color space. The predictive model was developed using the stepwise procedure in forward selection with DAA as the response variable and all the possible combinations between the next group of regressor: L*, a* and b*, square L*, a* and b*, chroma and Hue angle calculated from measured a* and b* values. It was used the F statistic, mean square error, coefficient of determination, Mallows coefficient and distribution of residuals around zero as indicators of model prediction’s efficiency. Correlation coefficients between the different variables measured and the DAA were calculated. The reliability of the statistical analysis was tested by using the nearly isogenic line of ‘Rutgers’: The non-ripening mutant rin as a comparative control. It was concluded that the statistical procedure used is robust and sensitive enough to identify data not suitable for developing a good predictive model. Also, it is possible to predict the days after anthesis of a developing tomato fruit from changes in the blossom-end color with almost 80% of accuracy.

  3. Reduced levels of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase decrease the glutamate content of ripe tomato fruit but have no effect on green fruit or leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Gisela; D'Angelo, Matilde; Sulpice, Ronan; Stitt, Mark; Valle, Estela M

    2015-06-01

    Glutamate (Glu) is a taste enhancer that contributes to the characteristic flavour of foods. In fruit of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), the Glu content increases dramatically during the ripening process, becoming the most abundant free amino acid when the fruit become red. There is also a concomitant increase in NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity during the ripening transition. This enzyme is located in the mitochondria and catalyses the reversible amination of 2-oxoglutarate to Glu. To investigate the potential effect of GDH on Glu metabolism, the abundance of GDH was altered by artificial microRNA technology. Efficient silencing of all the endogenous SlGDH genes was achieved, leading to a dramatic decrease in total GDH activity. This decrease in GDH activity did not lead to any clear morphological or metabolic phenotype in leaves or green fruit. However, red fruit on the transgenic plants showed markedly reduced levels of Glu and a large increase in aspartate, glucose and fructose content in comparison to wild-type fruit. These results suggest that GDH is involved in the synthesis of Glu in tomato fruit during the ripening processes. This contrasts with the biological role ascribed to GDH in many other tissues and species. Overall, these findings suggest that GDH has a major effect on the control of metabolic composition during tomato fruit ripening, but not at other stages of development.

  4. Absolute quantification of Pru av 2 in sweet cherry fruit by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with the use of a stable isotope-labelled peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Sasanuma, Motoe; Oike, Hideaki; Kobori, Masuko; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari

    2016-08-01

    Pru av 2, a pathogenesis-related (PR) protein present in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit, is the principal allergen of cherry and one of the chief causes of pollen food syndrome (oral allergy syndrome). In this study, a quantitative assay for this protein was developed with the use of the protein absolute quantification (AQUA) method, which consists of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) employing TGC[CAM]STDASGK[(13)C6,(15)N2], a stable isotope-labelled internal standard (SIIS) peptide. This assay gave a linear relationship (r(2)>0.99) in a concentration range (2.3-600fmol/μL), and the overall coefficient of variation (CV) for multiple tests was 14.6%. Thus, the contents of this allergenic protein in sweet cherry products could be determined using this assay. This assay should be valuable for allergological investigations of Pru av 2 in sweet cherry and detection of protein contamination in foods. PMID:26988485

  5. Comprehensive Analysis of ABA Effects on Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signaling during Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Wangshu; Li, Dongdong; Bu, Jianwen; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Khan, Zia Ullah; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2016-01-01

    ABA has been widely acknowledged to regulate ethylene biosynthesis and signaling during fruit ripening, but the molecular mechanism underlying the interaction between these two hormones are largely unexplored. In the present study, exogenous ABA treatment obviously promoted fruit ripening as well as ethylene emission, whereas NDGA (Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) application showed the opposite biological effects. Combined RNA-seq with time-course RT-PCR analysis, our study not only helped to illustrate how ABA regulated itself at the transcription level, but also revealed that ABA can facilitate ethylene production and response probably by regulating some crucial genes such as LeACS4, LeACO1, GR and LeETR6. In addition, investigation on the fruits treated with 1-MCP immediately after ABA exposure revealed that ethylene might be essential for the induction of ABA biosynthesis and signaling at the onset of fruit ripening. Furthermore, some specific transcription factors (TFs) known as regulators of ethylene synthesis and sensibility (e.g. MADS-RIN, TAGL1, CNR and NOR) were also observed to be ABA responsive, which implied that ABA influenced ethylene action possibly through the regulation of these TFs expression. Our comprehensive physiological and molecular-level analysis shed light on the mechanism of cross-talk between ABA and ethylene during the process of tomato fruit ripening. PMID:27100326

  6. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and quality maintenance of cherry tomatoes treated with gaseous essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils (EOs) from cinnamon bark, oregano, mustard and of their major components cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, and allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) were evaluated as a gaseous treatment to reduce Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in vitro and on tomatoes. In dif...

  7. Transcriptional regulation of fruit ripening by tomato FRUITFULL homologs and associated MADS box proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Shima, Yoko; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Kimbara, Junji; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS box FRUITFULL homologs FUL1 and FUL2 act as key ripening regulators and interact with the master regulator MADS box protein RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN). Here, we report the large-scale identification of direct targets of FUL1 and FUL2 by transcriptome analysis of FUL1/FUL2 suppressed fruits and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with microarray analysis (ChIP-chip) targeting tomato gene promoters. The ChIP-chip and transcriptome analysis identified FUL1/FUL2 target genes that contain at least one genomic region bound by FUL1 or FUL2 (regions that occur mainly in their promoters) and exhibit FUL1/FUL2-dependent expression during ripening. These analyses identified 860 direct FUL1 targets and 878 direct FUL2 targets; this set of genes includes both direct targets of RIN and nontargets of RIN. Functional classification of the FUL1/FUL2 targets revealed that these FUL homologs function in many biological processes via the regulation of ripening-related gene expression, both in cooperation with and independent of RIN. Our in vitro assay showed that the FUL homologs, RIN, and tomato AGAMOUS-LIKE1 form DNA binding complexes, suggesting that tetramer complexes of these MADS box proteins are mainly responsible for the regulation of ripening.

  8. The parthenocarpic fruit (pat) mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) sets seedless fruits and has aberrant anther and ovule development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucato, A; Taddei, A R; Soressi, G P

    1998-01-01

    Among the different sources of genetic parthenocarpy described in tomato, the mutation referred to as parthenocarpic fruit (pat) is of particular interest because of its strong expressivity and because it confers earlier ripening, higher fruit set and enhanced fruit quality. As a pleiotropic effect, pat flowers have aberrantly developing androecia and reduced male and female fertility. In this work we extend the early description of the pat phenotype by investigating the expression of parthenocarpy in three different environments and by using light and scanning electron microscopy to analyse the development of male and female floral organs. The degree of parthenocarpy was high in the three experimental environments and was characterised by a precocious initiation of ovary growth to pre-anthesis floral stages. Aberrations in anther development were evident at flower bud stages and resulted in shorter, irregular and teratoid organs. Ectopic production of carpel-like structures bearing external ovules was evident in the most severely altered androecia. Analysis of ovule development revealed that a fraction of pat ovules becomes aberrant from very early stages, having defective integument growth. Meiosis was irregular in aberrant ovules and megaspore or gamete production was severely hampered. The described pat syndrome suggests that parthenocarpy in this mutant could be a secondary effect of a gene controlling, at early stages, organ identity and development. PMID:9389668

  9. Rheological Behavior of Tomato Fruits Affected By Various Loads Under Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil S. Albaloush

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of fruits and vegetables are of interest to plant physiologists, horticulturalists, agricultural engineers and food engineers, due to different causes. the rheological properties are relevant to several aspects of the study of these materials, including the causes and extent of damage during harvesting, transport and storage; the human perception of product quality. The rheological constants of the four element Burgers model when tomatoes were subjected to various fixed loads (stresses on the main dimensions of the fruits were investigated .The rheological constants, K1(instantaneous elasticity, N/mm, K2 (retarded elasticity, N/mm, C1 (free viscous element,N.min/mm and C2 (retarded viscous element, N.min/mm were decreased significantly with storage time.

  10. Precursor uptake assays and metabolic analyses in isolated tomato fruit chromoplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angaman Djédoux

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are the most widespread group of pigments found in nature. In addition to their role in the physiology of the plant, carotenoids also have nutritional relevance as their incorporation in the human diet provides health benefits. In non-photosynthetic tissues, carotenoids are synthesized and stored in specialized plastids called chromoplasts. At present very little is known about the origin of the metabolic precursors and cofactors required to sustain the high rate of carotenoid biosynthesis in these plastids. Recent proteomic data have revealed a number of biochemical and metabolic processes potentially operating in fruit chromoplasts. However, considering that chloroplast to chromoplast differentiation is a very rapid process during fruit ripening, there is the possibility that some of the proteins identified in the proteomic analysis could represent remnants no longer having a functional role in chromoplasts. Therefore, experimental validation is necessary to prove whether these predicted processes are actually operative in chromoplasts. Results A method has been established for high-yield purification of tomato fruit chromoplasts suitable for metabolic studies. Radiolabeled precursors were efficiently incorporated and further metabolized in isolated chromoplast. Analysis of labeled lipophilic compounds has revealed that lipid biosynthesis is a very efficient process in chromoplasts, while the relatively low incorporation levels found in carotenoids suggest that lipid production may represent a competing pathway for carotenoid biosynthesis. Malate and pyruvate are efficiently converted into acetyl-CoA, in agreement with the active operation of the malic enzyme and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the chromoplast. Our results have also shown that isolated chromoplasts can actively sustain anabolic processes without the exogenous supply of ATP, thus suggesting that these organelles may generate this energetic

  11. Effect of selenium on control of postharvest gray mould of tomato fruit and the possible mechanisms involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin eWu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has important benefits for crop growth and stress tolerance at low concentrations. However, there is very little information on antimicrobial effect of selenium against the economically important fungus Botrytis cinerea. In the present study, using sodium selenite as Se source, we investigated the effect of Se salts on spore germination and mycelial growth of the fungal pathogen in vitro and gray mould control in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L significantly inhibited spore germination of the fungal pathogen and effectively controlled gray mould in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L seems to induce the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in the fungal spores. The membrane integrity damage was observed with fluorescence microscopy following staining with propidium iodide after treatment of the spores with Se. These results suggest that Se has the potential for controlling gray mould rot of tomato fruits and might be useful in integrated control against gray mould disease of postharvest fruits and vegetables caused by B. cinerea. The mechanisms by which Se decreased gray mould decay of tomato fruit may be directly related to the severe damage to the conidia plasma membrane and loss of cytoplasmic materials from the hyphae.

  12. Effect of Selenium on Control of Postharvest Gray Mold of Tomato Fruit and the Possible Mechanisms Involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhilin; Yin, Xuebin; Bañuelos, Gary S; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Zhu, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Yuan, Linxi; Li, Miao

    2015-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has important benefits for crop growth and stress tolerance at low concentrations. However, there is very little information on antimicrobial effect of Se against the economically important fungus Botrytis cinerea. In the present study, using sodium selenite as Se source, we investigated the effect of Se salts on spore germination and mycelial growth of the fungal pathogen in vitro and gray mold control in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L significantly inhibited spore germination of the fungal pathogen and effectively controlled gray mold in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L seems to induce the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in the fungal spores. The membrane integrity damage was observed with fluorescence microscopy following staining with propidium iodide after treatment of the spores with Se. These results suggest that Se has the potential for controlling gray mold rot of tomato fruits and might be useful in integrated control against gray mold disease of postharvest fruits and vegetables caused by B. cinerea. The mechanisms by which Se decreased gray mold decay of tomato fruit may be directly related to the severe damage to the conidia plasma membrane and loss of cytoplasmic materials from the hyphae. PMID:26779128

  13. RNA interference silencing of chalcone synthase, the first step in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, leads to parthenocarpic tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijlen, Elio G W M; de Vos, C H Ric; Martens, Stefan; Jonker, Harry H; Rosin, Faye M; Molthoff, Jos W; Tikunov, Yury M; Angenent, Gerco C; van Tunen, Arjen J; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2007-07-01

    Parthenocarpy, the formation of seedless fruits in the absence of functional fertilization, is a desirable trait for several important crop plants, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Seedless fruits can be of great value for consumers, the processing industry, and breeding companies. In this article, we propose a novel strategy to obtain parthenocarpic tomatoes by down-regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway using RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated suppression of chalcone synthase (CHS), the first gene in the flavonoid pathway. In CHS RNAi plants, total flavonoid levels, transcript levels of both Chs1 and Chs2, as well as CHS enzyme activity were reduced by up to a few percent of the corresponding wild-type values. Surprisingly, all strong Chs-silenced tomato lines developed parthenocarpic fruits. Although a relation between flavonoids and parthenocarpic fruit development has never been described, it is well known that flavonoids are essential for pollen development and pollen tube growth and, hence, play an essential role in plant reproduction. The observed parthenocarpic fruit development appeared to be pollination dependent, and Chs RNAi fruits displayed impaired pollen tube growth. Our results lead to novel insight in the mechanisms underlying parthenocarpic fruit development. The potential of this technology for applications in plant breeding and biotechnology will be discussed. PMID:17478633

  14. EFFECTS OF GLEAN, A SULFONYLUREA HERBICIDE, ON THE REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY AND FRUIT SET IN CHERRY TREES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research described in this report is part of a three-year project. he final data will be collected on the fruit harvested in the spring of 1993. y the conclusion of the project, all treatments will have been examined twice. lthough we believe that it is worthwhile to make ten...

  15. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A Breitel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A, a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA. Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1 protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process.

  16. Quantitative Evaluation of Surface Color of Tomato Fruits Cultivated in Remote Farm Using Digital Camera Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Atsushi; Suehara, Ken-Ichiro; Kameoka, Takaharu

    To measure the quantitative surface color information of agricultural products with the ambient information during cultivation, a color calibration method for digital camera images and a remote monitoring system of color imaging using the Web were developed. Single-lens reflex and web digital cameras were used for the image acquisitions. The tomato images through the post-ripening process were taken by the digital camera in both the standard image acquisition system and in the field conditions from the morning to evening. Several kinds of images were acquired with the standard RGB color chart set up just behind the tomato fruit on a black matte, and a color calibration was carried out. The influence of the sunlight could be experimentally eliminated, and the calibrated color information consistently agreed with the standard ones acquired in the system through the post-ripening process. Furthermore, the surface color change of the tomato on the tree in a greenhouse was remotely monitored during maturation using the digital cameras equipped with the Field Server. The acquired digital color images were sent from the Farm Station to the BIFE Laboratory of Mie University via VPN. The time behavior of the tomato surface color change during the maturing process could be measured using the color parameter calculated based on the obtained and calibrated color images along with the ambient atmospheric record. This study is a very important step in developing the surface color analysis for both the simple and rapid evaluation of the crop vigor in the field and to construct an ambient and networked remote monitoring system for food security, precision agriculture, and agricultural research.

  17. Activity and functional interaction of alternative oxidase and uncoupling protein in mitochondria from tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Sluse

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase (AOX is not limited to plant mitochondria and is widespread among several types of protists. The uncoupling protein (UCP is much more widespread than previously believed, not only in tissues of higher animals but also in plants and in an amoeboid protozoan. The redox energy-dissipating pathway (AOX and the proton electrochemical gradient energy-dissipating pathway (UCP lead to the same final effect, i.e., a decrease in ATP synthesis and an increase in heat production. Studies with green tomato fruit mitochondria show that both proteins are present simultaneously in the membrane. This raises the question of a specific physiological role for each energy-dissipating system and of a possible functional connection between them (shared regulation. Linoleic acid, an abundant free fatty acid in plants which activates UCP, strongly inhibits cyanide-resistant respiration mediated by AOX. Moreover, studies of the evolution of AOX and UCP protein expression and of their activities during post-harvest ripening of tomato fruit show that AOX and plant UCP work sequentially: AOX activity decreases in early post-growing stages and UCP activity is decreased in late ripening stages. Electron partitioning between the alternative oxidase and the cytochrome pathway as well as H+ gradient partitioning between ATP synthase and UCP can be evaluated by the ADP/O method. This method facilitates description of the kinetics of energy-dissipating pathways and of ATP synthase when state 3 respiration is decreased by limitation of oxidizable substrate.

  18. Effect of mixture of Trichoderma isolates on biochemical parameter in tomato fruits against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum rot of tomato plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S P; Singh, H B

    2015-01-01

    Experiments revealed that a mixture of Trichoderma harzianum isolates, BHU51 and BHU105 showed lowest mean disease rating (MDR) of 1.70 and 1.62% and per cent disease reduction (PDR) by 41.00 and 44.84% during the year 2008-09 and 2009-10, respectively. Shoot length, chlorophyll content and yield was also recorded highest in the mixture of BHU51+ BHU105 treatment followed by single Tichoderma treatments while lowest was found in pathogen inoculated control. The nutritional quality such as lycopene content, protein and carbohydrate was recorded highest in BHU51+ BHU105 treatment. The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging ability of tomato fruit extract was also recorded. The results indicated that maximum 1,1-diphenyl -2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (47.86%), ferrous ion chelation capacity (50.81%), hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (49.18%) and reducing power 0.203 O.D. at wavelength 700 nm was maximum for BHU51+ BHU105 treatment, followed by single Trichoderma treated treatments while these were recorded lowest in pathogen inoculated control. PMID:26536803

  19. Polycomb-group protein SlMSI1 represses the expression of fruit-ripening genes to prolong shelf life in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Li-Jie; Fang, Mou-Jing; Dong, Qing-Long; An, Xiu-Hong; You, Chun-Xiang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb-group (PcG) protein MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA1 (MSI1) protein is an evolutionarily conserved developmental suppressor and plays a crucial role in regulating epigenetic modulations. However, the potential role and function of MSI1 in fleshy fruits remain unknown. In this study, SlMSI1 was cloned and transformed into tomato to explore its function. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that SlMSI1 was highly expressed in flowers and fruits and that its transcript and protein levels were significantly decreased in fruits after the breaker stage. Additionally, SlMSI1-overexpressing transgenic tomatoes displayed abnormal non-ripening fruit formation, whereas its suppression promoted fruit ripening in transgenic tomatoes. Quantitative real-time PCR assays also showed that RIN and its regulons were decreased in SlMSI1 overexpression transgenic tomato fruits. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that SlMSI1 inhibits fruit ripening by negatively regulating a large set of fruit-ripening genes in addition to RIN and its regulons. Finally, genetic manipulation of SlMSI1 and RIN successfully prolonged the fruit shelf life by regulating the fruit-ripening genes in tomato. Our findings reveal a novel regulatory function of SlMSI1 in fruit ripening and provide a new regulator that may be useful for genetic engineering and modification of fruit shelf life. PMID:27558543

  20. Polycomb-group protein SlMSI1 represses the expression of fruit-ripening genes to prolong shelf life in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Li-Jie; Fang, Mou-Jing; Dong, Qing-Long; An, Xiu-Hong; You, Chun-Xiang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2016-08-25

    Polycomb-group (PcG) protein MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA1 (MSI1) protein is an evolutionarily conserved developmental suppressor and plays a crucial role in regulating epigenetic modulations. However, the potential role and function of MSI1 in fleshy fruits remain unknown. In this study, SlMSI1 was cloned and transformed into tomato to explore its function. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that SlMSI1 was highly expressed in flowers and fruits and that its transcript and protein levels were significantly decreased in fruits after the breaker stage. Additionally, SlMSI1-overexpressing transgenic tomatoes displayed abnormal non-ripening fruit formation, whereas its suppression promoted fruit ripening in transgenic tomatoes. Quantitative real-time PCR assays also showed that RIN and its regulons were decreased in SlMSI1 overexpression transgenic tomato fruits. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that SlMSI1 inhibits fruit ripening by negatively regulating a large set of fruit-ripening genes in addition to RIN and its regulons. Finally, genetic manipulation of SlMSI1 and RIN successfully prolonged the fruit shelf life by regulating the fruit-ripening genes in tomato. Our findings reveal a novel regulatory function of SlMSI1 in fruit ripening and provide a new regulator that may be useful for genetic engineering and modification of fruit shelf life.

  1. Inhibition of chloroplastic fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase in tomato fruits leads to decreased fruit size, but only small changes in carbohydrate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obiadalla-Ali, H.; Fernie, A.R.; Lytovchenko, A.;

    2004-01-01

    A potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ) cDNA coding for the chloroplastic isoform of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (cp-FBPase) was utilized to repress its activity in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using antisense techniques. The patatin B33 promoter was used to ensure fruit specificity of the a...

  2. A novel tomato mutant, Solanum lycopersicum elongated fruit1 (Slelf1), exhibits an elongated fruit shape caused by increased cell layers in the proximal region of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusreeaeom, Katarut; Ariizumi, Tohru; Asamizu, Erika; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Shirasawa, Kenta; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Genes controlling fruit morphology offer important insights into patterns and mechanisms determining organ shape and size. In cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), a variety of fruit shapes are displayed, including round-, bell pepper-, pear-, and elongate-shaped forms. In this study, we characterized a tomato mutant possessing elongated fruit morphology by histologically analyzing its fruit structure and genetically analyzing and mapping the genetic locus. The mutant line, Solanum lycopersicum elongated fruit 1 (Slelf1), was selected in a previous study from an ethylmethane sulfonate-mutagenized population generated in the background of Micro-Tom, a dwarf and rapid-growth variety. Histological analysis of the Slelf1 mutant revealed dramatically increased elongation of ovary and fruit. Until 6 days before flowering, ovaries were round and they began to elongate afterward. We also determined pericarp thickness and the number of cell layers in three designated fruit regions. We found that mesocarp thickness, as well as the number of cell layers, was increased in the proximal region of immature green fruits, making this the key sector of fruit elongation. Using 262 F2 individuals derived from a cross between Slelf1 and the cultivar Ailsa Craig, we constructed a genetic map, simple sequence repeat (SSR), cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS), and derived CAPS (dCAPS) markers and mapped to the 12 tomato chromosomes. Genetic mapping placed the candidate gene locus within a 0.2 Mbp interval on the long arm of chromosome 8 and was likely different from previously known loci affecting fruit shape. PMID:24519535

  3. Postharvest Analysis of Lowland Transgenic Tomato Fruits Harboring hpRNAi-ACO1 Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Behboodian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant hormone, ethylene, is an important regulator which involved in regulating fruit ripening and flower senescence. In this study, RNA interference (RNAi technology was employed to silence the genes involved in ethylene biosynthetic pathway. This was achieved by blocking the expression of specific gene encoding the ACC oxidase. Initially, cDNA corresponding to ACO1 of lowland tomato cultivar (MT1, which has high identity with ACO1 of Solanum lycopersicum in GenBank, was cloned through RT-PCR. Using a partial coding region of ACO1, one hpRNAi transformation vector was constructed and expressed ectopically under the 35S promoter. Results showed that transgenic lines harboring the hpRNA-ACO1 construct had lower ethylene production and a longer shelf life of 32 days as compared to 10 days for wild-type fruits. Changes in cell wall degrading enzyme activities were also investigated in cases where the transgenic fruits exhibited reduced rates of firmness loss, which can be associated with a decrease in pectin methylesterase (PME and polygalacturonase (PG activities. However, no significant change was detected in both transgenic and wild-type fruits in terms of β-galactosidase (β-Gal activity and levels of total soluble solid, titratable acid and ascorbic acid.

  4. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Supports Respiration but Not Volatile Synthesis in Tomato Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrej Kochevenko; Wagner L.Araújo; Gregory S.Maloney; Denise M.Tieman; Phuc Thi Do; Mark G.Taylor; Harry J.Klee; Alisdair R.Fernie

    2012-01-01

    The branched-chain amino acid transaminases (BCATs) have a crucial role in metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids leucine,isoleucine,and valine.These enzymes catalyze the last step of synthesis and the initial step of degradation of these amino acids.Although the biosynthetic pathways of branched chain amino acids in plants have been extensively investigated and a number of genes have been characterized,their catabolism in plants is not yet completely understood.We previously characterized the branched chain amino acid transaminase gene family in tomato,revealing both the subcellular localization and kinetic properties of the enzymes encoded by six genes.Here,we examined possible functions of the enzymes during fruit development.We further characterized transgenic plants differing in the expression of branched chain amino acid transaminases 1 and 3,evaluating the rates of respiration in fruits deficient in BCAT1 and the levels of volatiles in lines overexpressing either BCAT1 or BCAT3.We quantitatively tested,via precursor and isotope feeding experiments,the importance of the branched chain amino acids and their corresponding keto acids in the formation of fruit volatiles.Our results not only demonstrate for the first time the importance of branched chain amino acids in fruit respiration,but also reveal that keto acids,rather than amino acids,are the likely precursors for the branched chain flavor volatiles.

  5. BIO-EFFICACY OF INSECTICIDES AGAINST FRUIT BORER (HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Katroju,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment carried out during kharif, 2012 at Student’s Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides viz., emamectin benzoate 5 SG @11 g a.i. ha-1, emamectin benzoate 5 SG @ 22 g a.i. ha-1, profenophos 50 EC @ 500 g a.i. ha-1, profenophos 50 EC @1000 g a.i. ha-1, spinosad 45 SC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1, bifenthrin 10 EC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1 and Bacillus thuringiensis @ 25 g a.i. ha-1against tomato fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera. Among all the insecticides, profenophos (1000 g a.i. ha-1 was found to be the most effective one with a maximum reduction in fruit borer population (65.20%, minimum per cent of fruit damage (28.80% and maximum yield (26.43 kg/20 m2 followed by bifenthrin @ 100 g a.i.ha-1 with reduced larval population of 64.51% and damaged fruits 32.60%.

  6. The Impact of Organic Farming on Quality of Tomatoes Is Associated to Increased Oxidative Stress during Fruit Development

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Aurelice B.; Carlos F H Moura; Enéas Gomes-Filho; Claudia A Marco; Laurent Urban; Maria Raquel A Miranda

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted with the objective of testing the hypothesis that tomato fruits from organic farming accumulate more nutritional compounds, such as phenolics and vitamin C as a consequence of the stressing conditions associated with farming system. Growth was reduced in fruits from organic farming while titratable acidity, the soluble solids content and the concentrations in vitamin C were respectively +29%, +57% and +55% higher at the stage of commercial maturity. At that time, the ...

  7. Effect of nano-composite and Thyme oil (Tymus Vulgaris L) coating on fruit quality of sweet cherry (Takdaneh Cv) during storage period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabifarkhani, Naser; Sharifani, Mehdi; Daraei Garmakhany, Amir; Ganji Moghadam, Ebrahim; Shakeri, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Sweet cherry is one of the most appreciated fruit by consumers since it is an early season fruit and has an excellent quality. In this study effect of active nano composite formed from chitosan (as a matrix material), nano cellulose fiber (1% concentration) and Thyme oils (Tymus Vulgaris L) at 1% concentration on fruits quality was investigated. Treated fruits were stored at 1°C for 5 weeks and changes of different qualities attributes including weight loss, total acidity, TSS, anthocyanin, total sugar and malic acid content (by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method) were measured each week. Results showed that nano composite and Thyme oil significantly affect fruit's water retention and so decrease fruit weight loss and preserve anthocyanin (P < 0.05). None of applied treatments had any significant effects in comparison with control in regard to acidity while total sugar content and TSS significantly affected by treatment compared to control samples. Result of HPLC analysis showed that there was no significant difference between different treatment and control sample in term of malic acid concentrations during storage period but increase storage time lead to increase malic acid concentration in all treatments. For conclusion it can be Saied that fruits coating with nano-composite, lead to increase fruit shelf life, better appearance and prevents fungal growth that may be due to creation of an active packaging by these compounds. PMID:26288725

  8. Effect of nano-composite and Thyme oil (Tymus Vulgaris L) coating on fruit quality of sweet cherry (Takdaneh Cv) during storage period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabifarkhani, Naser; Sharifani, Mehdi; Daraei Garmakhany, Amir; Ganji Moghadam, Ebrahim; Shakeri, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Sweet cherry is one of the most appreciated fruit by consumers since it is an early season fruit and has an excellent quality. In this study effect of active nano composite formed from chitosan (as a matrix material), nano cellulose fiber (1% concentration) and Thyme oils (Tymus Vulgaris L) at 1% concentration on fruits quality was investigated. Treated fruits were stored at 1°C for 5 weeks and changes of different qualities attributes including weight loss, total acidity, TSS, anthocyanin, total sugar and malic acid content (by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method) were measured each week. Results showed that nano composite and Thyme oil significantly affect fruit's water retention and so decrease fruit weight loss and preserve anthocyanin (P < 0.05). None of applied treatments had any significant effects in comparison with control in regard to acidity while total sugar content and TSS significantly affected by treatment compared to control samples. Result of HPLC analysis showed that there was no significant difference between different treatment and control sample in term of malic acid concentrations during storage period but increase storage time lead to increase malic acid concentration in all treatments. For conclusion it can be Saied that fruits coating with nano-composite, lead to increase fruit shelf life, better appearance and prevents fungal growth that may be due to creation of an active packaging by these compounds. PMID:26288725

  9. Purification and chemical characterisation of a cell wall-associated β-galactosidase from mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Carmela; Blando, Federica; Santino, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    Using four different chromatographic steps, β-galactosidase was purified from the ripe fruit of sweet cherry to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with approximately 131-fold purification. The Prunus avium β-galactosidase showed an apparent molecular mass of about 100 kDa and consisted of four different active polypeptides with pIs of about 7.9, 7.4, 6.9 and 6.4 as estimated by native IEF and β-galactosidase-activity staining. The active polypeptides were individually excised from the gel and subjected to SDS-PAGE. Each of the four native enzymes showing β-galactosidase activity was composed of two polypeptides with an estimated mass of 54 and 33 kDa. Both of these polypeptides were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The 54 kDa polypeptide of sweet cherry β-galactosidase showed a 43% identity with the 44 kDa subunit of persimmon and apple β-galactosidases and the 48 kDa subunit of carambola galactosidase I. The sweet cherry β-galactosidase exhibited a strict specificity towards p-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside, a pH optimum of 4.0 and K(m) and V(max) values of 0.42 mM and 4.12 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein respectively with this substrate. The enzyme was also active towards complex glycans. Taken together the results of this study prompted a role for this class of enzymes on sweet cherry fruit ripening and softening. PMID:23121861

  10. Fruit quality of tomato ‘giuliana’ treated with products with physiological effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Ribeiro Pereira Ramos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the effect of strobilurins, boscalid, plant growth regulators and vegetal extracts on the physico-chemical quality of tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L., hybrid Giuliana. The fruits from each treatment were selected and separated in 4 repetitions: control, pyraclostrobin, boscalid, pyraclostrobin + boscalid, IBA + GA3 + kinetin, GA4+7 + benzylaminopurine and vegetal extract. The first application was carried out at 30 days after transplant and the following at every 15 days. The evaluations were: weight loss, titratable acidity (TA, soluble solids (SS, SS/TA relation, pH, ascorbic acid content, texture, total soluble sugars (TSS, activity of pectin methyl esterase (PME and polygalacturonase (PG. The SS content, responsible for fruit flavor, varied accordingly to the treatment, being highest for GA4+7 + benzylaminopurine and lowest for the control. The same occurred regarding the SS/AT relation. The fruits were kept on the shelf for 9 days, at room temperature, being that at the end of this period several treatments still presented fruit in optimal consumption conditions, notably the boscalid treatment, which presented lowest weight loss, followed by pyraclostrobin. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of the treatments did not modify the values for pH, AT and AST of the fruits. The highest PME activity was observed for the treatments with boscalid and the mixture of boscalid and pyraclostrobin, while the lowest PG activity occurred in the control and the pyraclostrobin treatment, indicating that some products accelerated the process of demethylation of pectins by PME, facilitating the action of PG.

  11. Induced point mutations in the phytoene synthase 1 gene cause differences in carotenoid content during tomato fruit ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gady, A.L.F.; Vriezen, W.; Wal, van de M.H.B.J.; Huang, P.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.; Bachem, C.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    In tomato, carotenoids are important with regard to major breeding traits such as fruit colour and human health. The enzyme phytoene synthase (PSY1) directs metabolic flux towards carotenoid synthesis. Through TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes), we have identified two point mutatio

  12. Transcriptome and Metabolite Profiling Show That APETALA2a Is a Major Regulator of Tomato Fruit Ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlova, R.B.; Rosin, F.M.A.; Busscher-Lange, J.; Parapunova, V.A.; Do, P.T.; Fernie, A.R.; Fraser, P.D.; Baxter, C.; Angenent, G.C.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) requires the coordination of both developmental cues as well as the plant hormone ethylene. Although the role of ethylene in mediating climacteric ripening has been established, knowledge regarding the developmental regulators that modulate the involve

  13. Cell-wall-associated endo-B-mannanase increases in the skin and outer pericarp of tomato fruits during ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewley, J.D.; Banik, M.; Bourgault, R.; Fuertado, A.; Toorop, P.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2000-01-01

    Activity of endo-ß-mannanase increases during ripening of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit of the cultivar Trust. ß-Mannoside mannohydrolase is also present during ripening, but its pattern of activity is different from that of endo-ß-mannanase. The increase in endo-ß-mannanase activity

  14. Abscisic acid and sucrose regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening through the abscisic acid-stress-ripening transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haifeng; Jiu, Songtao; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Chen; Tariq, Pervaiz; Liu, Zhongjie; Wang, Baoju; Cui, Liwen; Fang, Jinggui

    2016-10-01

    Although great progress has been made towards understanding the role of abscisic acid (ABA) and sucrose in fruit ripening, the mechanisms underlying the ABA and sucrose signalling pathways remain elusive. In this study, transcription factor ABA-stress-ripening (ASR), which is involved in the transduction of ABA and sucrose signalling pathways, was isolated and analysed in the nonclimacteric fruit, strawberry and the climacteric fruit, tomato. We have identified four ASR isoforms in tomato and one in strawberry. All ASR sequences contained the ABA stress- and ripening-induced proteins and water-deficit stress-induced proteins (ABA/WDS) domain and all ASR transcripts showed increased expression during fruit development. The expression of the ASR gene was influenced not only by sucrose and ABA, but also by jasmonic acid (JA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and these four factors were correlated with each other during fruit development. ASR bound the hexose transporter (HT) promoter, which contained a sugar box that activated downstream gene expression. Overexpression of the ASR gene promoted fruit softening and ripening, whereas RNA interference delayed fruit ripening, as well as affected fruit physiological changes. Change in ASR gene expression influenced the expression of several ripening-related genes such as CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS, UFGT, PG, PL, EXP1/2, XET16, Cel1/2 and PME. Taken together, this study may provide new evidence on the important role of ASR in cross-signalling between ABA and sucrose to regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening. The findings of this study also provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism underlying fruit development.

  15. Abscisic acid and sucrose regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening through the abscisic acid-stress-ripening transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haifeng; Jiu, Songtao; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Chen; Tariq, Pervaiz; Liu, Zhongjie; Wang, Baoju; Cui, Liwen; Fang, Jinggui

    2016-10-01

    Although great progress has been made towards understanding the role of abscisic acid (ABA) and sucrose in fruit ripening, the mechanisms underlying the ABA and sucrose signalling pathways remain elusive. In this study, transcription factor ABA-stress-ripening (ASR), which is involved in the transduction of ABA and sucrose signalling pathways, was isolated and analysed in the nonclimacteric fruit, strawberry and the climacteric fruit, tomato. We have identified four ASR isoforms in tomato and one in strawberry. All ASR sequences contained the ABA stress- and ripening-induced proteins and water-deficit stress-induced proteins (ABA/WDS) domain and all ASR transcripts showed increased expression during fruit development. The expression of the ASR gene was influenced not only by sucrose and ABA, but also by jasmonic acid (JA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and these four factors were correlated with each other during fruit development. ASR bound the hexose transporter (HT) promoter, which contained a sugar box that activated downstream gene expression. Overexpression of the ASR gene promoted fruit softening and ripening, whereas RNA interference delayed fruit ripening, as well as affected fruit physiological changes. Change in ASR gene expression influenced the expression of several ripening-related genes such as CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS, UFGT, PG, PL, EXP1/2, XET16, Cel1/2 and PME. Taken together, this study may provide new evidence on the important role of ASR in cross-signalling between ABA and sucrose to regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening. The findings of this study also provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism underlying fruit development. PMID:27005823

  16. Descritores quantitativos na determinação da divergência genética entre acessos de tomateiro do grupo cereja Quantitative descriptors on determining genetic divergence among cherry tomatoes accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Camargo Rocha

    2009-06-01

    ônicas explicaram 78,58% da variação observada, com a formação de sete grupos. A variável mais importante foi a produção de frutos não-comerciais, que explicou 22,71% da variação total. A cultivar 'Perinha Água Branca' foi a que produziu menor porcentagem de frutos não-comerciais (2,0%, enquanto o híbrido Super Sweet produziu 8% de frutos não-comerciais.Cherry tomato is becoming an important crop alternative mainly for small farmers that use family hand labor and use organic management to differentiate their product. The introduction of new genotypes in this market should be supported by germplasm characterization and evaluation. This germplasm could be recommended for farmers or introduced in breeding programs. The aim of this research was to test 40 cherry tomatoes accessions from different sources, being 36 accessions from germplasm collection of Department de Fitotecnia of UFRRJ and four cultivars, namely 'Joanna', 'Perinha Água Branca', 'Samambaia' and Super Sweet. The plants were grown in field conditions, under organic management, in a randomized block design with four replications and five plants per plot, from June to December 2004. The following variables were studied: fruit total yield; commercial and non-commercial fruit yield; longitudinal and equatorial fruit diameter; pulp thickness; minimum, medium and maximum fruit mass variation per plant. The data were analyzed considering Mahalanobis distance and the cluster analysis was performed using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using an Arithmetic Average and canonic variables. The adjustment between the similarity matrix and dendrograma was performed using the cophenetic correlation. The characters relative importance was determined by Singh´s method. The accessions were clustered in two groups, one of them with only one accession (ENAS 1021 and the second group, with 39 accessions, was subdivided generating seven subgroups. The cophenetic correlation was 0.9 meaning a very good adjustment between the

  17. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL(s) for bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, The Netherlands received an application from Chemtura to modify the existing MRL(s) for the active substance bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bifenazate, the evaluating Member State (EMS) proposed to raise the existing MRLs for all of the crops except for pepper where a lower...

  18. Investigations into the shelf life and nutritional quality of fresh tomato fruit (solanum Lycopersicon) following two post-harvest treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomato production in Ghana is characterized by a glut and high post - harvest losses during the major season followed by scarcity and high prices during the off season. This is the result of the absence of a standard method for preservation of fresh fruits. This research was conducted to determine an effective method for the post - harvest treatment of fresh tomato fruits to enhance shelf life while preserving its physiochemical and nutritional properties. Two experiments were conducted, each with a factorial design of 5x2. In experiment one, the fruits were subjected to 0,1,2,3,and 4 kGy gamma radiation and stored at 10±1°C and 28±1°C. In experiment two, CaCl2 dissolved in distilled water at 0, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00 and 2.50% concerntrations were used to coat tomato fruits and stored at 10±1°C and 28±1°C. Gamma radiation at 4kGy extended the shelf life of tomato by 5 and 9 days above control when stored at 28±1°C and 10±1°C respectively. The use of CaCl2 at 2.5% greatly extended the shelf life of tomato by 11days and 18 days above control when stored at 28±1°C and 10±1°C respectively. For both treatments, shelf life increased with increasing dose of radiation/ concentraionn of CaCl2. Weight loss was higher in control fruits as well as fruits treated with gamma radiation or CaCl2 coating stored at 28±1°C temperature than treated fruits stored at 10±1°C. Tomato fruits treated with gamma radiation at 1 and 2 kGy and untreated fruits showed an increased in pH and Total Soluble Solids (TSS) which was paralleled by a decrease in Total Titratable Acidity (TTA) as storage period advance at both storage temperatures. However, fruits treated with CaCl2 at 1.00% had little effect on pH and TTA of tomato during the storage period. Nutritionally, CaCl2 coating significantly maintained the vitamin C and Iycopene concentrations in tomato fruit more than control and gamma irradiation which reduced vitamin C and Iycopene contents in the fruits significantly with

  19. Tomato transcriptome and mutant analyses suggest a role for plant stress hormones in the interaction between fruit and Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eBlanco-Ulate

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit-pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interaction between plant vegetative tissues and microbial pathogens has been documented extensively, but the relevance of these hormones during infections of fruit is unclear. In this work, we analyzed a transcriptome study of tomato fruit infected with Botrytis cinerea in order to profile the expression of genes for the biosynthesis, modification and signal transduction of ethylene (ET, salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA, and abscisic acid (ABA, hormones that may be not only involved in ripening, but also in fruit interactions with pathogens. The changes in relative expression of key genes during infection and assays of susceptibility of fruit with impaired synthesis or perception of these hormones were used to formulate hypotheses regarding the involvement of these regulators in the outcome of the tomato fruit-B. cinerea interaction.

  20. Transient silencing of CHALCONE SYNTHASE during fruit ripening modifies tomato epidermal cells and cuticle properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, Laura; Heredia-Guerrero, José A; Reina-Pinto, José J; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Heredia, Antonio; Domínguez, Eva

    2014-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening is accompanied by an increase in CHALCONE SYNTHASE (CHS) activity and flavonoid biosynthesis. Flavonoids accumulate in the cuticle, giving its characteristic orange color that contributes to the eventual red color of the ripe fruit. Using virus-induced gene silencing in fruits, we have down-regulated the expression of SlCHS during ripening and compared the cuticles derived from silenced and nonsilenced regions. Silenced regions showed a pink color due to the lack of flavonoids incorporated to the cuticle. This change in color was accompanied by several other changes in the cuticle and epidermis. The epidermal cells displayed a decreased tangential cell width; a decrease in the amount of cuticle and its main components, cutin and polysaccharides, was also observed. Flavonoids dramatically altered the cuticle biomechanical properties by stiffening the elastic and viscoelastic phase and by reducing the ability of the cuticle to deform. There seemed to be a negative relation between SlCHS expression and wax accumulation during ripening that could be related to the decreased cuticle permeability to water observed in the regions silencing SlCHS. A reduction in the overall number of ester linkages present in the cutin matrix was also dependent on the presence of flavonoids.

  1. 1-Methylcyclopropene delays tomato fruit ripening Retardamento do amadurecimento de tomates com 1-metilciclopropeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Moretti

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. fruits, cv. Santa Clara, were harvested at the breaker stage from commercial fields in Brazlândia, Brazil, to investigate the ability of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP to retard tomato fruit ripening. Fruit without external blemishes were graded for size (diameter = 80±5 mm and mass (m = 130±10 g, placed inside hermetically sealed boxes, and 1-MCP was applied for 12 hours (T = 22±1°C; RH = 80-85% at four different concentrations: 0 (control, 250, 500 and 1000 mL.L-1. Fruits were held at ambient conditions (T = 23±2°C; RH 80-85% for 2 days and then stored inside a cold room (T = 20±1°C; RH = 85-95%. Every 3 days, during a 15-day period, fruits were analyzed for firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, external color, and total carotenoids. Firmness of fruit treated with 1000 mL.L-1 was about 88% higher than control fruits after 17 days. The a*/b* ratio, an indicator of skin color, for fruit treated with 1000 mL.L-1 of 1-MCP was 38% lower than control fruits at the end of the storage period. Treatments with higher concentrations of 1-MCP delayed total carotenoids synthesis and color development. Control fruits stored for 17 days had about 190% more total carotenoids than fruits treated with 1000 mL.L-1 of 1-MCP. Postharvest application of 1-MCP was an efficient method to delay tomato fruit ripening. As 1-MCP concentration increased, ripening was further delayed. Tomatoes treated with 250, 500, and 1000 mL.L-1 of 1-MCP were delayed by 8 to 11, 11 to 13 and 15 to 17 days, respectively.Tomates (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., 'Santa Clara', foram colhidos no estádio verde-rosado em campos de produção comercial em Brazlândia (DF com o objetivo de investigar a capacidade do 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP em retardar o amadurecimento de tomates. Frutos sem danos mecânicos externos aparentes foram selecionados para tamanho (diâmetro = 80±5 mm e massa (m = 130±10 g, foram colocados em câmaras herm

  2. Pyrophosphate levels strongly influence ascorbate and starch content in tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eOsorio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbate (vitamin C deficiency leads to low immunity, scurvy, and other human diseases and is therefore a global health problem. Given that plants are major ascorbate sources for humans, biofortification of this vitamin in our foodstuffs is of considerable importance. Ascorbate is synthetized by a number of alternative pathways: (i from the glycolytic intermediates D-glucose-6P (the key intermediates are GDP-D-mannose and L-galactose, (ii from the breakdown of the cell wall polymer pectin which uses the methyl ester of D-galacturonic acid as precursor and (iii from myo-inositol as precursor via myo-inositol oxygenase. We report here the engineering of fruit-specific overexpression of a bacterial pyrophosphatase, which hydrolyzes the inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi to orthophosphate (Pi. This strategy resulted in increased vitamin C levels up to 2.5 fold in ripe fruit as well as increasing in the major sugars, sucrose and glucose, yet decreasing the level of starch. When considered together, these finding indicate an intimate linkage between ascorbate and sugar biosynthesis in plants. Moreover, the combined data reveal the importance of PPi metabolism in tomato fruit metabolism and development.

  3. Determination of the Elastic Properties of Tomato Fruit Cells with an Atomic Force Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kurenda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the mechanical properties of single cells together with the intercellular adhesive properties determine the macro-mechanical properties of plants, a method for evaluation of the cell elastic properties is needed to help explanation of the behavior of fruits and vegetables in handling and food processing. For this purpose, indentation of tomato mesocarp cells with an atomic force microscope was used. The Young’s modulus of a cell using the Hertz and Sneddon models, and stiffness were calculated from force-indentation curves. Use of two probes of distinct radius of curvature (20 nm and 10,000 nm showed that the measured elastic properties were significantly affected by tip geometry. The Young’s modulus was about 100 kPa ± 35 kPa and 20 kPa ± 14 kPa for the sharper tip and a bead tip, respectively. Moreover, large variability regarding elastic properties (>100% among cells sampled from the same region in the fruit was observed. We showed that AFM provides the possibility of combining nano-mechanical properties with topography imaging, which could be very useful for the study of structure-related properties of fruits and vegetables at the cellular and sub-cellular scale.

  4. Determination of the elastic properties of tomato fruit cells with an atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdunek, Artur; Kurenda, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Since the mechanical properties of single cells together with the intercellular adhesive properties determine the macro-mechanical properties of plants, a method for evaluation of the cell elastic properties is needed to help explanation of the behavior of fruits and vegetables in handling and food processing. For this purpose, indentation of tomato mesocarp cells with an atomic force microscope was used. The Young's modulus of a cell using the Hertz and Sneddon models, and stiffness were calculated from force-indentation curves. Use of two probes of distinct radius of curvature (20 nm and 10,000 nm) showed that the measured elastic properties were significantly affected by tip geometry. The Young's modulus was about 100 kPa ± 35 kPa and 20 kPa ± 14 kPa for the sharper tip and a bead tip, respectively. Moreover, large variability regarding elastic properties (>100%) among cells sampled from the same region in the fruit was observed. We showed that AFM provides the possibility of combining nano-mechanical properties with topography imaging, which could be very useful for the study of structure-related properties of fruits and vegetables at the cellular and sub-cellular scale. PMID:24030683

  5. 高密度CO_2预处理对樱桃番茄干燥的影响%Effect of dense phase carbon dioxide pretreatment on drying cherry tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙婉蓉; 郭蕴涵; 赵翠萍; 汪政富; 胡小松

    2012-01-01

    将樱桃番茄经过和未经过高密度CO2(DPCD)预处理,然后进行热风干燥,以比较干燥速率和干燥后产品品质的变化,探索新型干燥工艺。结果发现,经过1、2和3MPaDPCD处理组与对照组相比,干燥速率提高,干燥时间缩短,产品收缩率降低,复水率提高,褐变度没有显著变化;但经高压处理的干燥产品VC和颜色比对照组差。综合各指标分析,除了VC和颜色,DPCD预处理后的干燥指标优于对照组。%In order to explore a new drying technique,cherry tomatoes treated with and without dense phase carbon dioxide(DPCD) were dried with hot air,and their drying rates and physicochemical quality were compared.The results indicated that,as compared to the control group without pretreatment of DPCD,the cherry tomatoes after DPCD treatment at 1,2,and 3MPa reduced in drying time and shrinkage,and increased in drying rate and rehydration rate,while their browning degrees had no significant change.The VC content and color of the dried products after higher DPCD pretreatment were significantly worse than that of the control group,In a word,excepted color and VC,the drying effect of cherry tomatoes after DPCD pretreatment was better than that of the control group.

  6. Changes of Activities in NAD Kinase and NADP Phosphatase During Ripening and Senescence of Tomato and Strawberry Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Cai-qin; GUAN Jun-feng; XI Yu-fang; LI Guang-min

    2002-01-01

    Activities of NAD kinase(NADK)and NADP phosphatase and relationship between the two enzymes and temperature, respiration, ethylene production and trifluoperazine(TFP) were studied during ripening and senescence of strawberry and tomato frnits after harvest at 4℃and 20℃. The activity of NAD kinase in strawberry decreased slowly during first four days, then increased gradually. The NADP phosphatase activity increased at the second day, decreased the next day,then increased again. In tomato fruit, the activities of NAD kinase and NADP phosphatase increased at the second day, decreased with the ripening and senescence of the fruit. The change trend of NAD kinase and respiration in the two fruits were similar, the same were NADP phosphatase and ethylene production. TFP enhanced the activity of NAD kinase and had little effect on NADP phosphatase. Low temperature(4℃ ) activated the NAD kinase and reduced the activity of NADP phosphatase. These results indicated that the NAD kinase and NADP phosphatase were related to the ripening and senescence of strawberry and tomato fruits. The activation of NAD kinase probably postponed the ripening and senescence of the fruits.

  7. Structural characterization of the N-linked oligosaccharides from tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleny, R; Altmann, F; Praznik, W

    1999-05-01

    The primary structures of the N-linked oligosaccharides from tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum) have been elucidated. For the isolation of the protein fraction, two procedures were employed alternatively: a low temperature acetone powder method and ammonium sulfate precipitation of the tomato extract. After peptic digestion, the glycopeptides were purified by cation-exchange chromatography; the oligosaccharides were released by N-glycosidase A and fluorescently labelled with 2-aminopyridine. Structural characterization was accomplished by means of two-dimensional HPLC in combination with exoglycosidase digestions and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Two varieties as well as two stages of ripening were investigated. In all the samples, the same sixteen N-glycosidic structures were detected; the two most abundant glycans showed identical properties to those of the major N-linked oligosaccharides of horseradish peroxidase and pineapple stem bromelain, respectively and accounted for about 65-78% of the total glycan amount; oligomannosidic glycans occurred only in small quantities (3-9%). The majority of the N-glycans were beta 1,2-xylosylated and carried an alpha 1,3-fucose residue linked to the terminal N-acetylglucosamine. This structural element contributes to cross-reactions among non-related glycoproteins and has been shown to be an IgE-reactive determinant (Tretter, Altmann, Kubelka, März, & Becker, 1993). The presented study gives a possible structural explanation for reported immunological cross-reactivities between tomato and grass pollen extracts due to carbohydrate IgE epitopes (Petersen, Vieths, Aulepp, Schlaak, & Becker, 1996), thereby demonstrating the importance of the structural characterization of plant N-glycans for a more reliable interpretation of immunological data. PMID:10365448

  8. CHS silencing suggests a negative cross-talk between wax and flavonoid pathways in tomato fruit cuticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Antonio; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro; Domínguez, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L.) accumulate flavonoids in their cuticle and epidermal cells during ripening. These flavonoids come from de novo biosynthesis due to a significant increase in chalcone synthase (CHS) activity during ripening. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of tomato fruits have been used to down-regulate SlCHS expression during ripening and analyze the effects at the epidermal and cuticle level. Besides the expected change in fruit color due to a lack of flavonoids incorporated to the cuticle, several other modifications such as a decrease in the amount of cutin and polysaccharides were observed. These indicate a role for either flavonoids or CHS in the alteration of the expression levels of some genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis. Moreover, a negative interaction between the 2 cuticle components, flavonoids and waxes, suggests a relationship between these 2 metabolic pathways.

  9. Mitochondrial ascorbate-glutathione cycle and proteomic analysis of carbonylated proteins during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vidal, O; Camejo, D; Rivera-Cabrera, F; Konigsberg, M; Villa-Hernández, J M; Mendoza-Espinoza, J A; Pérez-Flores, L J; Sevilla, F; Jiménez, A; Díaz de León-Sánchez, F

    2016-03-01

    In non-photosynthetic tissues, mitochondria are the main source of energy and of reactive oxygen species. Accumulation of high levels of these species in the cell causes damage to macromolecules including several proteins and induces changes in different metabolic processes. Fruit ripening has been characterized as an oxidative phenomenon; therefore, control of reactive oxygen species levels by mitochondrial antioxidants plays a crucial role on this process. In this work, ascorbate-glutathione cycle components, hydrogen peroxide levels and the proteomic profile of carbonylated proteins were analyzed in mitochondria isolated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit at two ripening stages. A significant increase on most ascorbate-glutathione cycle components and on carbonylated proteins was observed in mitochondria from breaker to light red stage. Enzymes and proteins involved in diverse cellular and mitochondrial metabolic pathways were identified among the carbonylated proteins. These results suggest that protein carbonylation is a post-translational modification involved in tomato fruit ripening regulation.

  10. Mitochondrial ascorbate-glutathione cycle and proteomic analysis of carbonylated proteins during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vidal, O; Camejo, D; Rivera-Cabrera, F; Konigsberg, M; Villa-Hernández, J M; Mendoza-Espinoza, J A; Pérez-Flores, L J; Sevilla, F; Jiménez, A; Díaz de León-Sánchez, F

    2016-03-01

    In non-photosynthetic tissues, mitochondria are the main source of energy and of reactive oxygen species. Accumulation of high levels of these species in the cell causes damage to macromolecules including several proteins and induces changes in different metabolic processes. Fruit ripening has been characterized as an oxidative phenomenon; therefore, control of reactive oxygen species levels by mitochondrial antioxidants plays a crucial role on this process. In this work, ascorbate-glutathione cycle components, hydrogen peroxide levels and the proteomic profile of carbonylated proteins were analyzed in mitochondria isolated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit at two ripening stages. A significant increase on most ascorbate-glutathione cycle components and on carbonylated proteins was observed in mitochondria from breaker to light red stage. Enzymes and proteins involved in diverse cellular and mitochondrial metabolic pathways were identified among the carbonylated proteins. These results suggest that protein carbonylation is a post-translational modification involved in tomato fruit ripening regulation. PMID:26471654

  11. A role for differential glycoconjugation in the emission of phenylpropanoid volatiles from tomato fruit discovered using a metabolic data fusion approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tikunov, Y.M.; Vos, de C.H.; Gonzalez Paramas, A.M.; Hall, R.D.; Bovy, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    A role for differential glycoconjugation in the emission of phenylpropanoid volatiles from ripening tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) upon fruit tissue disruption has been discovered in this study. Application of a multiinstrumental analytical platform for metabolic profiling of fruits from a dive

  12. Relationship Between Ca2+-CaM and Ethylene-Induced PG Activity in Tomato Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Cai-qin; XI Yu-fang; GUAN Jun-feng; LI Guang-min

    2003-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) was studied during ripening and senescence of postharvest tomatofruit at pink stage at low and normal temperature. The results showed that the PG activity increased, thendecreased during ripening and senescence of tomato. Low temperature inhibited but ethylene enhanced PGactivity. Ethylene also enhanced caimodulin content, which was dependent on Ca2+ concentration in cell.When EGTA(Ca2+ chelator), verapamil (Vp) and LaCl3 (Ca2+ channel blockers), trifluoperazine and chloro-promaize (two CaM antagonisms) were used to treat tomato fruit at green mature stage with ethylene, theycould reverse ethylene-induced increase in PG activity, but Vp, chloropromaize (CPZ), trifluoperazine(TFP) could not directly influence PG activity, which indirectly indicated that influx of Ca2+ from the ex-tracellular space including the cell wall via the Ca2+ channel localized in plasma membrane and CaM were re-quired for ethylene-induced PG activity increase and that ethylene signal transduction may be related to Ca2+- CaM messenger system.

  13. Growth Stimulation, Metabolic Activities and Fruit Yield of Tomato as Influenced by Fulvic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1M. Z. Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted at Land Resources Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC, Islamabad during spring 2012 to study the effect of foliar applied fulvic acid (FA on tomato grown under greenhouse conditions. Six kg sandy loam soil (Nabipur series mixed hyperthermic Udic Ustochrept filled in plastic pot and grown with tomato plants (Riogrande. Basal dose of N, P, K, along with Zn, Fe, and B were applied @ 200, 150, 200, 10, 2 and 1 mg/kg soil FA was applied as foliar @ 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 mg/l respectively. Results showed a significant increase in fruit yield, harvest index and other agronomic parameters with FA application. Besides macronutrients plant micronutrient concentration also increased with FA application which could be ascribed to stimulating effect of FA on enhanced biomass. Protein and chlorophyll contents of leaves also significantly changed with applied FA. Based on the results of the study it could be concluded that FA spray at 150 and 300 mg/ l were appropriate dose for maximum nutrient uptake by plant for optimum growth and maximize yield.

  14. Mathematical modelling of the osmotic dehydration of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) Modelagem matemática da desidratação osmótica de tomate cereja (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme)

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Moreira AZOUBEL; Fernanda E. Xidieh MURR

    2000-01-01

    Osmotic dehydration of cherry tomato as influenced by osmotic agent (sodium chloride and a mixed sodium chloride and sucrose solutions) and solution concentration (10 and 25% w/w) at room temperature (25°C) was studied. Kinetics of water loss and solids uptake were determined by a two parameter model, based on Fick's second law and applied to spherical geometry. The water apparent diffusivity coefficients obtained ranged from 2.17x10-10 to 11.69x10-10 m²/s.O presente trabalho teve como objeti...

  15. microRNA156-targeted SPL/SBP box transcription factors regulate tomato ovary and fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira e Silva, Geraldo Felipe; Silva, Eder Marques; Azevedo, Mariana da Silva; Guivin, Mike Anderson Corazon; Ramiro, Daniel Alves; Figueiredo, Cassia Regina; Carrer, Helaine; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Nogueira, Fabio Tebaldi Silveira

    2014-05-01

    Fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is well understood at the molecular level. However, information regarding genetic pathways associated with tomato ovary and early fruit development is still lacking. Here, we investigate the possible role(s) of the microRNA156/SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like (SPL or SBP box) module (miR156 node) in tomato ovary development. miR156-targeted S. lycopersicum SBP genes were dynamically expressed in developing flowers and ovaries, and miR156 was mainly expressed in meristematic tissues of the ovary, including placenta and ovules. Transgenic tomato cv. Micro-Tom plants over-expressing the AtMIR156b precursor exhibited abnormal flower and fruit morphology, with fruits characterized by growth of extra carpels and ectopic structures. Scanning electron microscopy and histological analyses showed the presence of meristem-like structures inside the ovaries, which are probably responsible for the ectopic organs. Interestingly, expression of genes associated with meristem maintenance and formation of new organs, such as LeT6/TKN2 (a KNOX-like class I gene) and GOBLET (a NAM/CUC-like gene), was induced in developing ovaries of transgenic plants as well as in the ovaries of the natural mutant Mouse ear (Me), which also displays fruits with extra carpels. Conversely, expression of the MADS box genes MACROCALYX (MC) and FUL1/TDR4, and the LEAFY ortholog FALSIFLORA, was repressed in the developing ovaries of miR156 over-expressors, suggesting similarities with Arabidopsis at this point of the miR156/SPL pathway but with distinct functional consequences in reproductive development. Altogether, these observations suggest that the miR156 node is involved in maintenance of the meristematic state of ovary tissues, thereby controlling initial steps of fleshy fruit development and determinacy.

  16. Agronomic performance and transcriptional analysis of carotenoid biosynthesis in fruits of transgenic HighCaro and control tomato lines under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Giorio, Giovanni; Stigliani, Adriana Lucia; D’Ambrosio, Caterina

    2006-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in higher plants has been the objective of a number of biotechnology programs, e.g. the Golden Rice Program. However, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), which naturally accumulates lycopene in fruits, has attracted the attention of many groups who have manipulated it to increase or diversify carotenoid accumulation. One of the most significant achievements was “HighCaro (HC),” a transgenic tomato plant constitutively expressing the tomato lycopen...

  17. The Influence of Co-Suppressing Tomato 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase Ⅰ on the Expression of Fruit Ripening-Related and Pathogenesis-Related Protein Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zong-li; CHEN Xu-qing; CHEN Guo-ping; L(U) Li-juan; Grierson Donald

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of co-suppressing tomato ACC oxidase I on the expression of fruit ripening-related and pathogenesis-related protein genes, and on the biosynthesis of endogenous ethylene and storage ability of fruits. Specific fragments of several fruit ripening-related and pathogenesis-related protein genes from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were cloned, such as the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase 1 gene (LeACO1), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase 3 gene (LeAC03), EIN3-binding F-box 1 gene (LeEBF1), pathogenesisrelated protein 1 gene (LePR1), pathogenesis-related protein 5 gene (LePR5), and pathogenesis-related protein osmotin precursor gene (LeNP24) by PCR or RT-PCR. Then these specific DNA fragments were used as probes to hybridize with the total RNAs extracted from the wild type tomato Ailsa Craig (AC++) and the LeACO1 co-suppression tomatoes (V1187 and T4B), respectively. At the same time, ethylene production measurement and storage experiment of tomato fruits were carried out. The hybridization results indicated that the expression of fruit ripening-related genes such as LeACO3 and LeEBF1, and pathogenesis-related protein genes such as LePR1, LePR5, and LeNP24, were reduced sharply, and the ethylene production in the fruits, wounded leaves decreased and the storage time of ripening fruits was prolonged, when the expression of LeACO1 gene in the transgenic tomato was suppressed. In the co-suppression tomatoes, the expression of fruit ripening-related and pathogenesis-related protein genes were restrained at different degrees, the biosynthesis of endogenous ethylene decreased and the storage ability of tomato fruits increased.

  18. Identification of potential target genes for the tomato fruit-ripening regulator RIN by chromatin immunoprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakano Toshitsugu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During ripening, climacteric fruits increase their ethylene level and subsequently undergo various physiological changes, such as softening, pigmentation and development of aroma and flavor. These changes occur simultaneously and are caused by the highly synchronized expression of numerous genes at the onset of ripening. In tomatoes, the MADS-box transcription factor RIN has been regarded as a key regulator responsible for the onset of ripening by acting upstream of both ethylene- and non-ethylene-mediated controls. However, except for LeACS2, direct targets of RIN have not been clarified, and little is known about the transcriptional cascade for ripening. Results Using immunoprecipitated (IPed DNA fragments recovered by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP with anti-RIN antibody from ripening tomato fruit, we analyzed potential binding sites for RIN (CArG-box sites in the promoters of representative ripening-induced genes by quantitative PCR. Results revealed nearly a 5- to 20-fold enrichment of CArG boxes in the promoters of LeACS2, LeACS4, PG, TBG4, LeEXP1, and LeMAN4 and of RIN itself, indicating direct interaction of RIN with their promoters in vivo. Moreover, sequence analysis and genome mapping of 51 cloned IPed DNAs revealed potential RIN binding sites. Quantitative PCR revealed that four of the potential binding sites were enriched 4- to 17-fold in the IPed DNA pools compared with the controls, indicating direct interaction of RIN with these sites in vivo. Near one of the four CArG boxes we found a gene encoding a protein similar to thioredoxin y1. An increase in the transcript level of this gene was observed with ripening in normal fruit but not in the rin mutant, suggesting that RIN possibly induces its expression. Conclusions The presented results suggest that RIN controls fruit softening and ethylene production by the direct transcriptional regulation of cell-wall-modifying genes and ethylene biosynthesis genes

  19. The sweet branch of metabolic engineering: cherry-picking the low-hanging sugary fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rachel

    2015-12-09

    In the first science review on the then nascent Metabolic Engineering field in 1991, Dr. James E. Bailey described how improving erythropoietin (EPO) glycosylation can be achieved via metabolic engineering of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In the intervening decades, metabolic engineering has brought sweet successes in glycoprotein engineering, including antibodies, vaccines, and other human therapeutics. Today, not only eukaryotes (CHO, plant, insect, yeast) are being used for manufacturing protein therapeutics with human-like glycosylation, newly elucidated bacterial glycosylation systems are enthusiastically embraced as potential breakthrough to revolutionize the biopharmaceutical industry. Notwithstanding these excitement in glycoprotein, the sweet metabolic engineering reaches far beyond glycoproteins. Many different types of oligo- and poly-saccharides are synthesized with metabolically engineered cells. For example, several recombinant hyaluronan bioprocesses are now in commercial production, and the titer of 2'-fucosyllactose, the most abundant fucosylated trisaccharide in human milk, reaches over 20 g/L with engineered E. coli cells. These successes represent only the first low hanging fruits, which have been appreciated scientifically, medically and fortunately, commercially as well. As one of the four building blocks of life, sugar molecules permeate almost all aspects of life. They are also unique in being intimately associated with all major types of biopolymers (including DNA/RNA, proteins, lipids) meanwhile they stand alone as bioactive polysaccharides, or free soluble oligosaccharides. As such, all sugar moieties in biological components, small or big and free or bound, are important targets for metabolic engineering. Opportunities abound at the interface of glycosciences and metabolic engineering. Continued investment and successes in this branch of metabolic engineering will make vastly diverse sugar-containing molecules (a

  20. Overexpression of a novel MADS-box gene SlFYFL delays senescence, fruit ripening and abscission in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiaoli; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Zhiguo; Dong, Tingting; Zhao, Zhiping; Cui, Baolu; Chen, Guoping

    2014-03-01

    MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors involved in many biological processes of plants. In our study, a tomato MADS-box gene, SlFYFL, was isolated. SlFYFL is expressed in all tissues of tomato and significantly higher in mature leave, fruit of different stages, AZ (abscission zone) and sepal. Delayed leaf senescence and fruit ripening, increased storability and longer sepals were observed in 35S:FYFL tomato. The accumulation of carotenoid was reduced, and ethylene content, ethylene biosynthetic and responsive genes were down-regulated in 35S:FYFL fruits. Abscission zone (AZ) did not form normally and abscission zone development related genes were declined in AZs of 35S:FYFL plants. Yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that SlFYFL protein could interact with SlMADS-RIN, SlMADS1 and SlJOINTLESS, respectively. These results suggest that overexpression of SlFYFL regulate fruit ripening and development of AZ via interactions with the ripening and abscission zone-related MADS box proteins.

  1. Divergence in the enzymatic activities of a tomato and Solanum pennellii alcohol acyltransferase impacts fruit volatile ester composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Charles; Kamiyoshihara, Yusuke; Lam, Nghi B; Richard, Théo; Taylor, Mark G; Tieman, Denise M; Klee, Harry J

    2015-01-01

    Tomato fruits accumulate a diverse set of volatiles including multiple esters. The content of ester volatiles is relatively low in tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and far more abundant in the closely related species Solanum pennellii. There are also qualitative variations in ester content between the two species. We have previously shown that high expression of a non-specific esterase is critical for the low overall ester content of S. lycopersicum fruit relative to S. pennellii fruit. Here, we show that qualitative differences in ester composition are the consequence of divergence in enzymatic activity of a ripening-related alcohol acyltransferase (AAT1). The S. pennellii AAT1 is more efficient than the tomato AAT1 for all the alcohols tested. The two enzymes have differences in their substrate preferences that explain the variations observed in the volatiles. The results illustrate how two related species have evolved to precisely adjust their volatile content by modulating the balance of the synthesis and degradation of esters.

  2. The Tomato MIXTA-Like Transcription Factor Coordinates Fruit Epidermis Conical Cell Development and Cuticular Lipid Biosynthesis and Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashbrooke, Justin; Adato, Avital; Lotan, Orfa; Alkan, Noam; Tsimbalist, Tatiana; Rechav, Katya; Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Widemann, Emilie; Grausem, Bernard; Pinot, Franck; Granell, Antonio; Costa, Fabrizio; Aharoni, Asaph

    2015-12-01

    The epidermis of aerial plant organs is the primary source of building blocks forming the outer surface cuticular layer. To examine the relationship between epidermal cell development and cuticle assembly in the context of fruit surface, we investigated the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MIXTA-like gene. MIXTA/MIXTA-like proteins, initially described in snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) petals, are known regulators of epidermal cell differentiation. Fruit of transgenically silenced SlMIXTA-like tomato plants displayed defects in patterning of conical epidermal cells. They also showed altered postharvest water loss and resistance to pathogens. Transcriptome and cuticular lipids profiling coupled with comprehensive microscopy revealed significant modifications to cuticle assembly and suggested SlMIXTA-like to regulate cutin biosynthesis. Candidate genes likely acting downstream of SlMIXTA-like included cytochrome P450s (CYPs) of the CYP77A and CYP86A subfamilies, LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE2, GLYCEROL-3-PHOSPHATE SN-2-ACYLTRANSFERASE4, and the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE11 cuticular lipids transporter. As part of a larger regulatory network of epidermal cell patterning and L1-layer identity, we found that SlMIXTA-like acts downstream of SlSHINE3 and possibly cooperates with homeodomain Leu zipper IV transcription factors. Hence, SlMIXTA-like is a positive regulator of both cuticle and conical epidermal cell formation in tomato fruit, acting as a mediator of the tight association between fruit cutin polymer formation, cuticle assembly, and epidermal cell patterning.

  3. A tomato MADS-box transcription factor, SlMADS1, acts as a negative regulator of fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tingting; Hu, Zongli; Deng, Lei; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Mingku; Zhang, Jianling; Chen, Guoping

    2013-10-01

    MADS-box genes encode a highly conserved gene family of transcriptional factors that regulate numerous developmental processes in plants. In this study, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS-box gene, SlMADS1, was cloned and its tissue-specific expression profile was analyzed. The real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that SlMADS1 was highly expressed in sepals and fruits; its expression level was increased with the development of sepals, while the transcript of SlMADS1 decreased significantly in accordance with fruit ripening. To further explore the function of SlMADS1, an RNA interference (RNAi) expression vector targeting SlMADS1 was constructed and transformed into tomato plants. Shorter ripening time of fruit was observed in SlMADS1-silenced tomatoes. The accumulation of carotenoid and the expression of PHYTOENE SYNTHETASE1 were enhanced in RNAi fruits. Besides, ethylene biosynthetic genes, including 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE1A, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE6, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE OXIDASE1, and 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE OXIDASE3, and the ethylene-responsive genes E4 and E8, which were involved in fruit ripening, were also up-regulated in silenced plants. SlMADS1 RNAi fruits showed approximately 2- to 4-fold increases in ethylene production compared with the wild type. Furthermore, SlMADS1-silenced seedlings displayed shorter hypocotyls and were more sensitive to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate than the wild type. Additionally, a yeast two-hybrid assay revealed a clear interaction between SlMADS1 and SlMADS-RIN. These results suggest that SlMADS1 plays an important role in fruit ripening as a repressive modulator.

  4. Modelling central metabolic fluxes by constraint-based optimization reveals metabolic reprogramming of developing Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombié, Sophie; Nazaret, Christine; Bénard, Camille; Biais, Benoît; Mengin, Virginie; Solé, Marion; Fouillen, Laëtitia; Dieuaide-Noubhani, Martine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Gibon, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of metabolic networks is a powerful tool to analyse the behaviour of developing plant organs, including fruits. Guided by our current understanding of heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells, a medium-scale stoichiometric model, including the balance of co-factors and energy, was constructed in order to describe metabolic shifts that occur through the nine sequential stages of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit development. The measured concentrations of the main biomass components and the accumulated metabolites in the pericarp, determined at each stage, were fitted in order to calculate, by derivation, the corresponding external fluxes. They were used as constraints to solve the model by minimizing the internal fluxes. The distribution of the calculated fluxes of central metabolism were then analysed and compared with known metabolic behaviours. For instance, the partition of the main metabolic pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, etc.) was relevant throughout fruit development. We also predicted a valid import of carbon and nitrogen by the fruit, as well as a consistent CO2 release. Interestingly, the energetic balance indicates that excess ATP is dissipated just before the onset of ripening, supporting the concept of the climacteric crisis. Finally, the apparent contradiction between calculated fluxes with low values compared with measured enzyme capacities suggest a complex reprogramming of the metabolic machinery during fruit development. With a powerful set of experimental data and an accurate definition of the metabolic system, this work provides important insight into the metabolic and physiological requirements of the developing tomato fruits.

  5. Cytokinin-induced parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato is partly dependent on enhanced gibberellin and auxin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiangang; Chen, Biwei; Xia, Xiaojian; Mao, Weihua; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    Fruit set of plants largely depends on the biosynthesis and crosstalk of phytohormones. To date the role of cytokinins (CKs) in the fruit development is less understood. Here, we showed that parthenocarpic fruit could be induced by 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU, an active CK) in tomato (Solanumlycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom). The fresh weight of CPPU-induced parthenocarpic fruits was comparable with that induced by GA3. Importantly, CPPU-induced parthenocarpy was found to be compromised by simultaneous application of paclobutrazol (a GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this effect could be restored by exogenous GA3. Like pollination, CPPU-induced fruit showed enhanced accumulation of GA1+3 and indole-3-acetic (IAA), which were accompanied by elevated expression of GA biosynthesis genes like SlGPS, SlGA20ox1, SlGA20ox2 and SlGA3ox1, and IAA biosynthesis gene ToFZY. Elevated GAs level in CPPU-induced fruits was also associated with down-regulation of GA inactivation genes, namely SlGA2ox1,2,3,4,5 in comparison with untreated control. These results suggested that CKs may induce parthenocarpy in tomato partially through modulation of GA and IAA metabolisms. PMID:23922914

  6. Cytokinin-induced parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato is partly dependent on enhanced gibberellin and auxin biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Ding

    Full Text Available Fruit set of plants largely depends on the biosynthesis and crosstalk of phytohormones. To date the role of cytokinins (CKs in the fruit development is less understood. Here, we showed that parthenocarpic fruit could be induced by 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl-3-phenylurea (CPPU, an active CK in tomato (Solanumlycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom. The fresh weight of CPPU-induced parthenocarpic fruits was comparable with that induced by GA3. Importantly, CPPU-induced parthenocarpy was found to be compromised by simultaneous application of paclobutrazol (a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, and this effect could be restored by exogenous GA3. Like pollination, CPPU-induced fruit showed enhanced accumulation of GA1+3 and indole-3-acetic (IAA, which were accompanied by elevated expression of GA biosynthesis genes like SlGPS, SlGA20ox1, SlGA20ox2 and SlGA3ox1, and IAA biosynthesis gene ToFZY. Elevated GAs level in CPPU-induced fruits was also associated with down-regulation of GA inactivation genes, namely SlGA2ox1,2,3,4,5 in comparison with untreated control. These results suggested that CKs may induce parthenocarpy in tomato partially through modulation of GA and IAA metabolisms.

  7. Rapid ester biosynthesis screening reveals a high activity alcohol-O-acyltransferase (AATase) from tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jyun-Liang; Zhu, Jie; Wheeldon, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Ethyl and acetate esters are naturally produced in various yeasts, plants, and bacteria. The biosynthetic pathways that produce these esters share a common reaction step, the condensation of acetyl/acyl-CoA with an alcohol by alcohol-O-acetyl/acyltransferase (AATase). Recent metabolic engineering efforts exploit AATase activity to produce fatty acid ethyl esters as potential diesel fuel replacements as well as short- and medium-chain volatile esters as fragrance and flavor compounds. These efforts have been limited by the lack of a rapid screen to quantify ester biosynthesis. Enzyme engineering efforts have also been limited by the lack of a high throughput screen for AATase activity. Here, we developed a high throughput assay for AATase activity and used this assay to discover a high activity AATase from tomato fruit, Solanum lycopersicum (Atf-S.l). Atf1-S.l exhibited broad specificity towards acyl-CoAs with chain length from C4 to C10 and was specific towards 1-pentanol. The AATase screen also revealed new acyl-CoA substrate specificities for Atf1, Atf2, Eht1, and Eeb1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Atf-C.m from melon fruit, Cucumis melo, thus increasing the pool of characterized AATases that can be used in ester biosynthesis of ester-based fragrance and flavor compounds as well as fatty acid ethyl ester biofuels. PMID:26814045

  8. Inheritance of fruit color and pigment changes in a yellow tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. mutant

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    Elizanilda R. do Rêgo

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A naturally occurring yellow tomato fruit mutant cv. Santa Clara was reciprocally crossed with the red wild type, after which F1 plants were self pollinated or backcrossed with both parents. Plants from F1 generations produced all fruits with a homogeneous deep red color when ripe. F2 plants showed a 3:1 red:yellow segregation of fruit color, and 100% red when backcrossed with red wild type or 1:1 red:yellow segregation in backcrosses with the yellow mutant; hence, yellow fruit color was determined by a recessive allele. Based on reciprocal crosses, fruit color is unlikely to be determined by maternal genes. Accumulation of lycopene dropped by 99.3% and b-carotene by 77% in ripe yellow fruits, compared to the red wild type. Leaf and flower chlorophyll and total carotenoid concentrations were not affected by the yellow mutation. However, the mutant fruit had a higher rate of chlorophyll degradation during fruit ripening, whilst fruit from the F1 generation showed lower rates of degradation, similar to that observed in red wild type fruits.Neste trabalho avaliou-se a herança da cor do fruto de um mutante natural da cv. Santa Clara, por meio da análise das gerações F1 e segregantes, obtidas mediante cruzamento entre plantas da cv. Santa Clara normal e o mutante amarelo. A caracterização das plantas normais, mutantes e F1 foi feita com base na análise quantitativa dos pigmentos carotenóides e clorofila em flores, folhas e frutos verdes e maduros. Plantas F1 e provenientes do retrocruzamento com o progenitor normal apresentaram 100% de frutos vermelhos. A semelhança entre os F1 recíprocos mostra que há ausência de herança materna para as características avaliadas. Em gerações segregantes, as freqüências observadas foram compatíveis com herança monogênica pelo teste qui-quadrado, com dominância completa para o gene que confere cor vermelha. Os frutos amarelos apresentaram teores reduzidos de b-caroteno e licopeno, enquanto o h

  9. Effects of Clove and Chitosan Compound on Physiology of Cherry Tomato at Seedling Stage%丁香壳聚糖复合剂对樱桃番茄苗期生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长彬; 沈天娇

    2013-01-01

    考察了壳聚糖叶面喷施、丁香提取液叶面喷施以及不同复配浓度的丁香壳聚糖复合剂叶面喷施方式对樱桃番茄苗期生理的影响。结果表明,丁香与壳聚糖复合剂处理可显著提高樱桃番茄苗期叶片的叶绿素、可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白、过氧化氢酶活性,过氧化物酶活性以及脯氨酸含量。确定了壳聚糖、丁香叶面喷施处理的最佳浓度配比。%Cherry tomato leaves were sprayinged at seedling stage by chitosan, clove and the compound of clove and chitosan, respectively. The results showed that several physiological and biochemical characteristics of cherry tomato including the content of chlorophyll soluble sugar, soluble protein and proline and the activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were significantly increased. The optimum concentration proportioning of chitosan and clove extract was determined.

  10. KNOX genes influence a gradient of fruit chloroplast development through regulation of GOLDEN2-LIKE expression in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadakuduti, Satya Swathi; Holdsworth, William L; Klein, Chelsey L; Barry, Cornelius S

    2014-06-01

    The chlorophyll content of unripe fleshy fruits is positively correlated with the nutrient content and flavor of ripe fruit. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit, the uniform ripening (u) locus, which encodes a GOLDEN 2-LIKE transcription factor (SlGLK2), influences a gradient of chloroplast development that extends from the stem end of the fruit surrounding the calyx to the base of the fruit. With the exception of the u locus, the factors that influence the formation of this developmental gradient are unknown. In this study, characterization and positional cloning of the uniform gray-green (ug) locus of tomato reveals a thus far unknown role for the Class I KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX (KNOX) gene, TKN4, in specifying the formation of this chloroplast gradient. The involvement of KNOX in fruit chloroplast development was confirmed through characterization of the Curl (Cu) mutant, a dominant gain-of-function mutation of TKN2, which displays ectopic fruit chloroplast development that resembles SlGLK2 over-expression. TKN2 and TKN4 act upstream of SlGLK2 and the related gene ARABIDOPSIS PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR 2-LIKE (SlAPRR2-LIKE) to establish their latitudinal gradient of expression across developing fruit that leads to a gradient of chloroplast development. Class I KNOX genes typically influence plant morphology through maintenance of meristem activity, but this study identifies a role for TKN2 and TKN4 in specifically influencing chloroplast development in fruit but not leaves, suggesting that this fundamental process is differentially regulated in these two organs.

  11. Tomato ACS4 is necessary for timely start of and progression through the climacteric phase of fruit ripening

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    Suzanne eHoogstrate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climacteric fruit ripening, as it occurs in many fruit crops, depends on a rapid, autocatalytic increase in ethylene production. This agriculturally important process has been studied extensively, with tomato simultaneously acting both as a model species and target crop for modification. In tomato, the ethylene biosynthetic genes ACC SYNTHASE2 (ACS2 and ACS4 are highly expressed during fruit ripening, with a combined loss of both ACS2 and ACS4 activity preventing generation of the ethylene burst necessary for fruit ripening. However, the individual roles and importance of ACS2 and ACS4 have not been determined. In this study, we examined specifically the role of ACS4 by comparing the phenotype of an acs4 mutant firstly with that of the wild-type, and secondly with two novel ripening-inhibitor (rin mutants. Ethylene production during ripening was significantly reduced in both acs4-1, and rin lines, with rin genotypes showing the weaker ethylene burst. Also i the time between anthesis and the start of fruit ripening and ii the time required to progress through ripening were significantly longer in acs4-1 than in the wild type, but shorter than in the strongest rin mutant. The delay in ripening was reflected in the lower expression of ripening-related transcripts during the mature green and light red ripening stages. Furthermore, expression of ACS2 and ACS4 was strongly dependent on a functional RIN gene, while ACS2 expression was largely independent of ACS4. Altogether, we show that ACS4 is necessary for normal progression of tomato fruit ripening and that mutation of this gene may provide a useful means for altering ripening traits.

  12. Combined effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation and doubled CO2 concentration on growth,fruit quality and yield of tomato in winter plastic greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fangmin; WANG Jun; CHEN Yuping; ZOU Zhirong; WANG Xunling; YUE Ming

    2007-01-01

    Five different doses of ultraviolet-B (UV-B)radiation were supplied to tomato (Lycopersicon esculeutum.in the winter plastic greenhouse.The influences on the seedling growth,fruit quality and yield of tomato were investigated.Results showed that the seedling growth,and the contents of UV absorbing compounds,soluble sugar,organic acid,vitamin C and lycopene of tomato fruits,and yield of tomato increased under doubled CO2 concentration.Under the doubled CO2 concentration the effects of lost doses of UV-B radiation could further promote the effects of doubled CO:concentration.However,there is no significant increase in yield of tomato.The best dose of UV-B radiation is about 1.163 kJ.m-2.When the dose of UV-B radiation is more than it,the effects of UV-B will be reduced.

  13. Gamma irradiation as a commodity treatment against the Queensland fruit fly in fresh fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third instars of the Queensland fruit fly, Batrocera tryoni (Froggatt), were more tolerant to gamma irradiation than other stages that infest fresh fruit from Australia. A dose of 75 Gy prevented the development of adults when the eggs or larvae were irradiated in apples (Malus domestica L.), oranges (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) avocados (Persea americana Mill.), mangoes (Mangifera indica L.), tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and cherries (Prunus avium L.). The proventriculus of the treated larvae developed normally, while development of the supraoesophageal ganglion was retarded. All the fruits, with the exception of avocados, tolerated 100 Gy without developing injury symptoms. 54 refs, 4 figs, 14 tabs

  14. Fruits from ripening impaired, chlorophyll degraded and jasmonate insensitive tomato mutants have altered tocopherol content and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Juliana; Asís, Ramón; Molineri, Virginia Noel; Sestari, Ivan; Lira, Bruno Silvestre; Carrari, Fernando; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Rossi, Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    Since isoprenoids are precursors in chlorophyll, carotenoid and tocopherol pathways, the study of their metabolism is of fundamental importance in understanding the regulatory cross-talk that contributes to the nutritional quality of tomato fruits. By means of an integrated analysis of metabolite and gene expression profiles, isoprenoid metabolism was dissected in ripening-impaired (ripening inhibitor and non-ripening), senescence-related (lutescent1 and green flesh) and jasmonate insensitive (jasmonic acid insensitive 1-1) tomato mutants, all in the Micro-Tom genetic background. It was found that the more upstream the location of the mutated gene, the more extensive the effect on the transcriptional profiles of the isoprenoid-related genes. Although there was a distinct effect in the analyzed mutations on chlorophyll, carotenoid and tocopherol metabolism, a metabolic adjustment was apparent such the antioxidant capacity mostly remained constant. Transcriptional profiles from fruits of ripening and senescence-related tomato mutants suggested that maintenance of the de novo phytyl diphosphate synthesis might, in later ripening stages, compensate for the lack of chlorophyll-derived phytol used in tocopherol production. Interestingly, an impairment in jasmonate perception led to higher total tocopherol levels in ripe fruits, accompanied by an increase in antioxidant capacity, highlighting the contribution of tocopherols to this nutritionally important trait.

  15. Control of Black Rot Disease in Tomato Fruits by Using Formulated Ginger Essential oil Treated by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginger essential oil (Zingiber officinale) treated by gamma radiation at dose of 10 kGy was selected as an active ingredient for formulation of the biocide. Liquid formulations (emulsifiable concentrates) were prepared using different emulsifiers (Emulgator B.L.M. and tween 80 or tween 20) and additive oil (soybean oil). Physicochemical properties of the formulated oil (spontaneous emulsification, emulsion stability; cold stability and heat stability, viscosity, surface tension and ph) were measured. The formulated oil was tested in vivo to investigate its efficiency for controlling the growth of Alternaria alternata inoculated into tomato fruits. The results indicated that soaking inoculated tomato fruits in the formulated oil (ginger essential oil + soybean oil + emulgator B.L.M. + tween 80) treatment at concentration of 300 ppm for a period of 12 minute was the most effective for controlling the growth of the tested fungus. In addition, the formulated oil had efficiency for controlling the rot development on tomato fruits when applied as therapeutic and protective agents

  16. Study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school based fruit and vegetable intervention – Project Tomato

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    Conner Mark T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme (SFVS is an important public health intervention. The aim of this scheme is to provide a free piece of fruit and/or vegetable every day for children in Reception to Year 2. When children are no longer eligible for the scheme (from Year 3 their overall fruit and vegetable consumption decreases back to baseline levels. This proposed study aims to design a flexible multi-component intervention for schools to support the maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption for Year 3 children who are no longer eligible for the scheme. Method This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial of Year 2 classes from 54 primary schools across England. The schools will be randomly allocated into two groups to receive either an active intervention called Project Tomato, to support maintenance of fruit intake in Year 3 children, or a less active intervention (control group, consisting of a 5 A DAY booklet. Children's diets will be analysed using the Child And Diet Evaluation Tool (CADET, and height and weight measurements collected, at baseline (Year 2 and 18 month follow-up (Year 4. The primary outcome will be the ability of the intervention (Project Tomato to maintain consumption of fruit and vegetable portions compared to the control group. Discussion A positive result will identify how fruit and vegetable consumption can be maintained in young children, and will be useful for policies supporting the SFVS. A negative result would be used to inform the research agenda and contribute to redefining future strategies for increasing children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Trial registration Medical Research Council Registry code G0501297

  17. The Effect of Methyl Jasmonate Vapour on Some Characteristics of Fruit Ripening, Carotenoids and Tomatine Changes in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

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    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato ripening in normal red-fruited cultivar (Fiorin was delayed by treatment with methyl jasmonate (JA-Me vapour. A visual scoring system for describing tomato ripening was used. Surface of fruits exposed to JA-Me vapour, increased in yellow and decreased in red as determined by HunterLab colour meter. JA-Me significantly altered the firmness of fruits after 21 days storage. Vapour of JA-Me enhanced the level of β-carotene in outer part (peel with 3 mm pericarp tissue of fruit, while it had no effect in peeled fruit pericarp. JA-Me treatment decreased the level of lycopene in outer part and pericarp tissue, however, in outer part lycopene content decreased at a higher rate than in pericarp. Amount of tomatine in fruits treated with JA-Me had enhanced four-fold in outer part and by 62% in peeled fruit pericarp as compared with the control.

  18. Plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adult mortality and associated fruit injury after exposure to field-aged insecticides on tart cherry branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Eric J; Vandervoort, Christine; Wise, John C

    2010-08-01

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were exposed to field-aged residues of thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, indoxacarb, or azinphos-methyl on tart cherry, Prunus cerasus L. variety Montmorency. At 1, 3, 7, and 14 d postapplication, fruit were sampled for chemical residues, and bioassays were used to assess beetle mortality and plant tissue injury. Azinphos-methyl had lethal activity within 1 d of exposure at all postapplication intervals and significant fruit protection extended to 14 d postapplication. All of the neonicotinoids had lethal activity at 3 d posttreatment, with acetamiprid activity extending to 7 d. Antifeedant and oviposition deterrent effects were seen with thiamethoxam and thiacloprid; damage incidence was significantly reduced in the absence of significant beetle mortality or intoxication. Thiamethoxam and acetamiprid penetrated into leaf and fruit tissue and were detected in the interior tissues at 14 d postapplication, but interior thiacloprid residues were not detected after day 1. Indoxacarb provided some fruit protection out to 7 d postapplication, and 14-d-old residues intoxicated beetles, but the slow action of this compound allowed significant damage to occur before beetles were incapacitated. Indoxacarb was only detected as a surface residue after the first day postapplication. These data on the plant-insect-chemistry interactions will support use and management decisions as compounds with acute contact activity are phased out. PMID:20857728

  19. The effect of postharvest calcium application in hydro-cooling water on tissue calcium content, biochemical changes, and quality attributes of sweet cherry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xie, Xingbin; Long, Lynn E

    2014-10-01

    To improve storage/shipping quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) added to hydro-cooling water on physiological and biochemical processes related to fruit and pedicel quality was investigated on two major cultivars. The fruit tissue Ca content increased up to 29-85% logarithmically for 'Sweetheart' and 39-188% linearly for 'Lapins' as CaCl2 rate increased from 0.2% to 2.0% at 0 °C for 5 min. The increase of fruit tissue Ca content was accompanied by reductions in respiration rate, ascorbic acid degradation, and membrane lipid peroxidation, which enhanced total phenolics content and total antioxidant capacity, and resulted in increases in fruit firmness and pitting resistance and decreases in titratable acidity loss and decay of both cultivars. Pedicel browning was inhibited by CaCl2 at 0.2% and 0.5%, but increased by higher rates at 1.0% and 2.0%, possibly via modifying membrane lipid peroxidation. PMID:24799204

  20. CONTROL OF POSTHARVEST TOMATO ROT BY SPORE SUSPENSION AND ANTIFUNGAL METABOLITES OF TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM

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    Momein H. El-Katatny

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rot of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum fruits caused by several fungal pathogens is a detrimental disease leading to substantial yield loses worldwide. Alternaria isolates were the most common fungal species isolated from healthy or rotten fruits. Trichoderma harzianum spore suspension and culture filtrate were tested for their antagonistic activity on controlling tomato fruit rot. T. harzianum isolates suppressed or interfered with the growth of different postharvest tomato fungal pathogens albeit at different degrees. Their culture filtrate inhibited pathogen spore germination possibly due to the released extracellular diffusible metabolite(s. Besides, aberrant morphology of conidia was observed with deformation of hyphal tips. Furthermore, the resulting mycelia appeared desiccated with coagulated protoplasm leading to complete collapse of protoplasm in presence of T. harzianum culture filtrate. Application of T. harzianum spores to tomato fruits decreased disease severity significantly with the most profound effect at higher spore concentrations (108 cells per ml. Similarly, culture filtrate of T. harzianum prevented pathogen spore germination on the surface of tomato fruits leading to decreased incidence of rot symptoms at high culture filtrate concentrations. This work provides strong evidence that T. harzianum is a competent antagonist and its spore suspension and culture filtrate can be used efficiently to control postharvest tomato rot.

  1. MicroRNA profiling analysis throughout tomato fruit development and ripening reveals potential regulatory role of RIN on microRNAs accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Ju, Zheng; Cao, Dongyan; Zhai, Baiqiang; Qin, Guozheng; Zhu, Hongliang; Fu, Daqi; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Benzhong

    2015-04-01

    The development and ripening of tomato fruit are complex processes involving many gene regulatory pathways at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Ripening inhibitor (RIN) is a vital transcription factor, which targets numerous ripening-related genes at the transcriptional level during tomato fruit ripening. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short noncoding RNAs that play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. To elucidate the potential regulatory relationship between rin and miRNAs during fruit development and ripening, we identified known miRNAs and profiled their expression in wild-type tomato and rin mutant using a deep sequencing approach combined with quantitative RT-PCR. A total of 33 known miRNA families were identified, of which 14 miRNA families were differently accumulated. Subsequent promoter analysis showed that possible RIN-binding motifs (CArG-box) tended to occur frequently in the promoter regions of partial differently expressed miRNAs. In addition, ethylene may participate in the regulation of miRNAs accumulation during tomato fruit ripening. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed the direct binding of RIN to the promoter of MIR172a. Collectively, these results showed a close correlation between miRNA expression and RIN as well as ethylene, which further elucidated the regulatory roles of miRNAs during fruit development and ripening and enriched the regulatory network of RIN in tomato fruit.

  2. Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene on fruit browning of sweet cherry%1-甲基环丙烯对甜樱桃果实褐变的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尊英; 曾名勇; 董士远; 宋艳; 张玉玉

    2005-01-01

    在预实验基础上,(24±1)℃,RH 80%-90%条件下,采用1μL/L甲基环丙烯(1-MCP)对甜樱桃处理24 h,后置于(0±0.5)℃条件下冷藏18 d,对果实的褐变参数及相关酶活性进行检测.结果表明,1μL/L 1-MCP明显抑制甜樱桃果实L*和H°值的下降及苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)、多酚氧化酶(PPO)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性的上升.(0±0.5)℃贮藏18 d后,1-MCP处理的果实风味和口感无明显变化,色泽和综合评分明显优于对照(P<0.05).%Experiment was conducted with just harvested sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit which were treated with 1μL/L 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) for 24 h at (24±1)℃ and 80%-90% RH, then the fruit were stored at (0±0.5)℃ for 18 days.Fruit browning parameters and related enzyme activities were examined. The results showed that application of 1-MCP retarded the decrease in L * and H° values and suppressed the increase in PAL, PPO and POD activities. 1-MCP treatment delayed the changes of fruit coloration and no effects on the fruit eating quality were noted. Comparing with the control the treated fruit quality was obviously better after 18 days stored at (0±0.5)℃.

  3. Characterization of a calcium/calmodulin-regulated SR/CAMTA gene family during tomato fruit development and ripening

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    Yang Tianbao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruit ripening is a complicated development process affected by a variety of external and internal cues. It is well established that calcium treatment delays fruit ripening and senescence. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Results Previous studies have shown that calcium/calmodulin-regulated SR/CAMTAs are important for modulation of disease resistance, cold sensitivity and wounding response in vegetative tissues. To study the possible roles of this gene family in fruit development and ripening, we cloned seven SR/CAMTAs, designated as SlSRs, from tomato, a model fruit-bearing crop. All seven genes encode polypeptides with a conserved DNA-binding domain and a calmodulin-binding site. Calmodulin specifically binds to the putative targeting site in a calcium-dependent manner. All SlSRs were highly yet differentially expressed during fruit development and ripening. Most notably, the expression of SlSR2 was scarcely detected at the mature green and breaker stages, two critical stages of fruit development and ripening; and SlSR3L and SlSR4 were expressed exclusively in fruit tissues. During the developmental span from 10 to 50 days post anthesis, the expression profiles of all seven SlSRs were dramatically altered in ripening mutant rin compared with wildtype fruit. By contrast, only minor alterations were noted for ripening mutant nor and Nr fruit. In addition, ethylene treatment of mature green wildtype fruit transiently stimulated expression of all SlSRs within one to two hours. Conclusions This study indicates that SlSR expression is influenced by both the Rin-mediated developmental network and ethylene signaling. The results suggest that calcium signaling is involved in the regulation of fruit development and ripening through calcium/calmodulin/SlSR interactions.

  4. A transcriptomic approach to identify regulatory genes involved in fruit set of wild-type and parthenocarpic tomato genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiu, Fabrizio; Picarella, Maurizio Enea; Imanishi, Shunsuke; Mazzucato, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The tomato parthenocarpic fruit (pat) mutation associates a strong competence for parthenocarpy with homeotic transformation of anthers and aberrancy of ovules. To dissect this complex floral phenotype, genes involved in the pollination-independent fruit set of the pat mutant were investigated by microarray analysis using wild-type and mutant ovaries. Normalized expression data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and 2499 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) displaying a >1.5 log-fold change in at least one of the pairwise comparisons analyzed were detected. DEGs were categorized into 20 clusters and clusters classified into five groups representing transcripts with similar expression dynamics. The "regulatory function" group (685 DEGs) contained putative negative or positive fruit set regulators, "pollination-dependent" (411 DEGs) included genes activated by pollination, "fruit growth-related" (815 DEGs) genes activated at early fruit growth. The last groups listed genes with different or similar expression pattern at all stages in the two genotypes. qRT-PCR validation of 20 DEGs plus other four selected genes assessed the high reliability of microarray expression data; the average correlation coefficient for the 20 DEGs was 0.90. In all the groups were evidenced relevant transcription factors encoding proteins regulating meristem differentiation and floral organ development, genes involved in metabolism, transport and response of hormones, genes involved in cell division and in primary and secondary metabolism. Among pathways related to secondary metabolites emerged genes related to the synthesis of flavonoids, supporting the recent evidence that these compounds are important at the fruit set phase. Selected genes showing a de-regulated expression pattern in pat were studied in other four parthenocarpic genotypes either genetically anonymous or carrying lesions in known gene sequences. This comparative approach offered novel insights for improving the present

  5. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato with rolB gene results in enhancement of fruit quality and foliar resistance against fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Waheed; Haq, Ihsan-ul-; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Mirza, Bushra

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the second most important cultivated crop next to potato, worldwide. Tomato serves as an important source of antioxidants in human diet. Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum cause early blight and vascular wilt of tomato, respectively, resulting in severe crop losses. The foremost objective of the present study was to generate transgenic tomato plants with rolB gene and evaluate its effect on plant morphology, nutritional contents, yield and resistance against fungal infection. Tomato cv. Rio Grande was transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring rolB gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. rolB. Biochemical analyses showed considerable improvement in nutritional quality of transgenic tomato fruits as indicated by 62% increase in lycopene content, 225% in ascorbic acid content, 58% in total phenolics and 26% in free radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, rolB gene significantly improved the defence response of leaves of transgenic plants against two pathogenic fungal strains A. solani and F. oxysporum. Contrarily, transformed plants exhibited altered morphology and reduced fruit yield. In conclusion, rolB gene from A. rhizogenes can be used to generate transgenic tomato with increased nutritional contents of fruits as well as improved foliar tolerance against fungal pathogens. PMID:24817272

  6. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato with rolB gene results in enhancement of fruit quality and foliar resistance against fungal pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed Arshad

    Full Text Available Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is the second most important cultivated crop next to potato, worldwide. Tomato serves as an important source of antioxidants in human diet. Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum cause early blight and vascular wilt of tomato, respectively, resulting in severe crop losses. The foremost objective of the present study was to generate transgenic tomato plants with rolB gene and evaluate its effect on plant morphology, nutritional contents, yield and resistance against fungal infection. Tomato cv. Rio Grande was transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring rolB gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. rolB. Biochemical analyses showed considerable improvement in nutritional quality of transgenic tomato fruits as indicated by 62% increase in lycopene content, 225% in ascorbic acid content, 58% in total phenolics and 26% in free radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, rolB gene significantly improved the defence response of leaves of transgenic plants against two pathogenic fungal strains A. solani and F. oxysporum. Contrarily, transformed plants exhibited altered morphology and reduced fruit yield. In conclusion, rolB gene from A. rhizogenes can be used to generate transgenic tomato with increased nutritional contents of fruits as well as improved foliar tolerance against fungal pathogens.

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato with rolB gene results in enhancement of fruit quality and foliar resistance against fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Waheed; Haq, Ihsan-ul-; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Mirza, Bushra

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the second most important cultivated crop next to potato, worldwide. Tomato serves as an important source of antioxidants in human diet. Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum cause early blight and vascular wilt of tomato, respectively, resulting in severe crop losses. The foremost objective of the present study was to generate transgenic tomato plants with rolB gene and evaluate its effect on plant morphology, nutritional contents, yield and resistance against fungal infection. Tomato cv. Rio Grande was transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring rolB gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. rolB. Biochemical analyses showed considerable improvement in nutritional quality of transgenic tomato fruits as indicated by 62% increase in lycopene content, 225% in ascorbic acid content, 58% in total phenolics and 26% in free radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, rolB gene significantly improved the defence response of leaves of transgenic plants against two pathogenic fungal strains A. solani and F. oxysporum. Contrarily, transformed plants exhibited altered morphology and reduced fruit yield. In conclusion, rolB gene from A. rhizogenes can be used to generate transgenic tomato with increased nutritional contents of fruits as well as improved foliar tolerance against fungal pathogens.

  8. Movement of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 to Ripe Tomato Fruit Following Various Routes of Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Amanda J; Jack, Dan R; Pruitt, Robert E; Mauer, Lisa J

    2015-11-05

    Salmonella serovars have been associated with the majority of foodborne illness outbreaks involving tomatoes, and E. coli O157:H7 has caused outbreaks involving other fresh produce. Contamination by both pathogens has been thought to originate from all points of the growing and distribution process. To determine if Salmonella serovar Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 could move to the mature tomato fruit of different tomato cultivars following contamination, three different contamination scenarios (seed, leaf, and soil) were examined. Following contamination, each cultivar appeared to respond differently to the presence of the pathogens, with most producing few fruit and having overall poor health. The Micro-Tom cultivar, however, produced relatively more fruit and E. coli O157:H7 was detected in the ripe tomatoes for both the seed- and leaf- contaminated plants, but not following soil contamination. The Roma cultivar produced fewer fruit, but was the only cultivar in which E. coli O157:H7 was detected via all three routes of contamination. Only two of the five cultivars produced tomatoes following seed-, leaf-, and soil- contamination with Salmonella Typhimurium, and no Salmonella was found in any of the tomatoes. Together these results show that different tomato cultivars respond differently to the presence of a human pathogen, and for E. coli O157:H7, in particular, tomato plants that are either contaminated as seeds or have a natural opening or a wound, that allows bacteria to enter the leaves can result in plants that have the potential to produce tomatoes that harbor internalized pathogenic bacteria.

  9. Solid-State (13)C NMR Delineates the Architectural Design of Biopolymers in Native and Genetically Altered Tomato Fruit Cuticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Matas, Antonio J; Isaacson, Tal; Kehlet, Cindie; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Stark, Ruth E

    2016-01-11

    Plant cuticles on outer fruit and leaf surfaces are natural macromolecular composites of waxes and polyesters that ensure mechanical integrity and mitigate environmental challenges. They also provide renewable raw materials for cosmetics, packaging, and coatings. To delineate the structural framework and flexibility underlying the versatile functions of cutin biopolymers associated with polysaccharide-rich cell-wall matrices, solid-state NMR spectra and spin relaxation times were measured in a tomato fruit model system, including different developmental stages and surface phenotypes. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of the cutin ensures compatibility with the underlying polysaccharide cell walls; the hydroxy fatty acid structures of outer epidermal cutin also support deposition of hydrophobic waxes and aromatic moieties while promoting the formation of cell-wall cross-links that rigidify and strengthen the cuticle composite during fruit development. Fruit cutin-deficient tomato mutants with compromised microbial resistance exhibit less efficient local and collective biopolymer motions, stiffening their cuticular surfaces and increasing their susceptibility to fracture. PMID:26652188

  10. Solid-State (13)C NMR Delineates the Architectural Design of Biopolymers in Native and Genetically Altered Tomato Fruit Cuticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Matas, Antonio J; Isaacson, Tal; Kehlet, Cindie; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Stark, Ruth E

    2016-01-11

    Plant cuticles on outer fruit and leaf surfaces are natural macromolecular composites of waxes and polyesters that ensure mechanical integrity and mitigate environmental challenges. They also provide renewable raw materials for cosmetics, packaging, and coatings. To delineate the structural framework and flexibility underlying the versatile functions of cutin biopolymers associated with polysaccharide-rich cell-wall matrices, solid-state NMR spectra and spin relaxation times were measured in a tomato fruit model system, including different developmental stages and surface phenotypes. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of the cutin ensures compatibility with the underlying polysaccharide cell walls; the hydroxy fatty acid structures of outer epidermal cutin also support deposition of hydrophobic waxes and aromatic moieties while promoting the formation of cell-wall cross-links that rigidify and strengthen the cuticle composite during fruit development. Fruit cutin-deficient tomato mutants with compromised microbial resistance exhibit less efficient local and collective biopolymer motions, stiffening their cuticular surfaces and increasing their susceptibility to fracture.

  11. iTRAQ protein profile analysis of tomato green-ripe mutant reveals new aspects critical for fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoqi; Zhu, Benzhong; Zhu, Hongliang; Chen, Yuexi; Tian, Huiqin; Luo, Yunbo; Fu, Daqi

    2014-04-01

    Green-ripe (Gr) tomato carries a dominant mutation and yields a nonripening fruit phenotype. The mutation results from a 334 bp deletion in a gene of unknown function at the Gr locus. The putative influence of Gr gene-deletion mutation on biochemical changes underlying the nonripening phenotype remains largely unknown. Respiration of Gr fruit was found to be reduced at mature green and breaker stage of ripening, while the fruit softening was dramatically prolonged. We studied the proteome of Gr mutant fruit using high-throughput iTRAQ and high-resolution mass spectrometry and identified 43 proteins representing 43 individual genes as potential influence-targets of Gr mutated fruit. The identified proteins are involved in several ripening-related pathways including cell-wall metabolism, photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism, protein synthesis, and processing. Affected protein levels are correlated with the corresponding gene transcript levels. The modulation in the accumulation levels of PI(U1)P, PGIP, and PG2 supported the delayed softening phenotype of the Gr fruit. Further investigation in GR gene-silencing fruit ascertained the doubtless modulation of these targets by the deletion mutation of GR gene.

  12. Improved yielding and reduced puffiness under extreme temperatures induced by fruit-specific expression of rolB in processing tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtai, Sara; Salts, Yehiam; Kaluzky, Galina; Barg, Rivka

    2007-05-01

    Tomato fruit production is severely hampered by both extremely high and low temperatures, mainly due to impaired microsporogenesis and pollination under these conditions. Even mild temperature stress, leading to partial damage to pollen viability can result in the production of under-fertilized puffy fruits of poor quality, while severe stress can abolish fruit set completely. Genetic or transgenic parthenocarpy that enables fertilization-independent fruit development offers a solution for tomato yielding under conditions unfavorable for pollen production and/or fertilization. A transgenic processing tomato UC82 line, expressing rolB specifically during early stages of fruit development was compared to the parental line with respect to yield and fruit quality under extreme temperatures. Under both high and low temperatures the transgenic line performed significantly better than the parental line. Its yield was significantly higher mainly due to a higher number of fruits that did develop, and also because of increased fruit weight. While the UC82 fruits developed under high temperatures were very puffy and severely malformed, the transgenic fruits maintained improved jelly fill and were of smooth and regular shape. Interestingly, under high temperatures the improved jelly fill in the transgenic line was accompanied by a higher number of seeds, suggesting that not only the developing seeds promote development of the placental tissue but also that proliferation of this tissue supports better seed development. PMID:17279365

  13. Effect of different growing substrates on the plant water relations and marketable fruit yield greenhouse-grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2009-2011, a study was conducted in a greenhouse, using fertigation, to determine water relations and fruit yield of tomato grown in different substrates. Tomato plants were grown on rockwool slabs, 15 dm3  in volume, and on slabs of the same volume made of the following straw chaff: rape straw; rape straw + peat (3:1; rape straw + pine bark (3:1; triticale straw; triticale straw + peat (3:1; triticale straw + pine bark (3:1. 2 tomato plants were grown on each slab, leaving 22 fruit clusters on each plant during the period from February to October. The obtained results showed that water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration, water saturation deficit, and leaf free proline content in tomato grown on rockwool and on rape or triticale straw chaff substrates did not differ statistically significantly. Also, no significant differences were found in marketable tomato fruit yield and dry matter content in tomato fruits. Peat or pine bark addition to rape or triticale straw substrates had no significant effect on the change in their commercially useful traits. In the opinion of the present authors, substrates made of rape or triticale straw alone, and even more so with the addition of peat or bark, are not inferior in any way to commonly used rockwool.

  14. 丁香黄芪提取液对圣女果保鲜效果的影响%Effect of Clove Extract on Preservation of Fresh Cherry Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭艳峰

    2015-01-01

    探讨丁香黄芪提取液不同配比对圣女果的保鲜效果,将采后的圣女果分别放入1∶1、1∶2、1:3、2∶3、2∶1、3∶1、3∶2配比的丁香黄芪保鲜液中,浸泡处理1 min,以蒸馏水浸泡圣女果1 min为对照试验,室温贮存,研究不同配比的保鲜剂处理对圣女果生理生化变化的影响。结果表明,不同配比的保鲜剂对圣女果的感官品质、失重率和腐烂率的影响差异显著。丁香黄芪配比3∶2的保鲜效果最好,该处理的圣女果较空白对照推迟6 d腐烂,且失重率显著低于空白对照(P<0.05), Vc含量显著高于空白对照(P<0.05),感官品质保持最佳。%Clove and Astragalus membranaceus were taken as material. Fresh Cherry tomato were dipped in E. caryophllata and Clove 1∶1, 1∶2, 1∶3, 2∶3, 2∶1, 3∶1, 3∶2 respectively for 15 min, dried in air, cut and packaged with LDPE film. The Cherry tomato was dipped in distilled water for 15 min as control. Then these samples were stored at room temperature. The effects of different treatments on the physiological changes of fresh Cherry tomato were investigated. The results showed that Clove and A . Membranaceus extract 3∶2 could significantly (P<0.05) inhibit weight loss and delay decay and the decline on Vc compared with the control group. At the meantime, the sensory quality were improved.

  15. Repetibilidade de caracteres de fruto em araçazeiro e pitangueira Repeatability traits of strawberry guava and surinam cherry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a repetibilidade de carateres de fruto em araçazeiro e pitangueira. Foram avaliados, em quatro ciclos produtivos, os caracteres peso, diâmetro, sólidos solúveis totais e produção de frutos em 10 seleções de araçazeiro e peso, diâmetro e sólidos solúveis totais em nove seleções de pitangueira, do Banco de Germoplasma da Embrapa Clima Temperado, em Pelotas-RS. O coeficiente de repetibilidade, o número de medições necessárias e o coeficiente de determinação foram estimados pelos métodos de análise de variância, componentes principais e análise estrutural. O coeficiente de repetibilidade foi mais eficientemente estimado pelo método dos componentes principais, com base na matriz de covariâncias. O caractere peso de fruto é mais adequado para ser utilizado na seleção fenotípica em araçazeiro e pitangueira. É necessária apenas uma medição para predizer o valor de peso de fruto de genótipos de araçazeiro, com 90% de acurácia. Com quatro anos de avaliação, é possível inferir o valor real com confiabilidade acima de 80% para todos os caracteres. Isso facilita a seleção fenotípica para esses caracteres em programas de melhoramento de araçazeiro e pitangueira.The aim of this research was to estimate the repeatability traits of strawberry guava and surinam cherry fruits. It was evaluated in four productive cycles, the traits weight, diameter, total soluble solids and fruit production in ten selection of strawberry guava and weight, diameter and total soluble solids in nine selection of surinam cherry from the Germplasm Bank of the Embrapa Clima Temperado, in Pelotas-RS, Brazil. The repeatability coefficient, minimum observations number and determination coefficient were estimated by analysis of variance, principal components analysis and structural analysis. The repeatability coefficient was better estimated by the method of principal components analysis, based on covariance

  16. Fast determination of prominent carotenoids in tomato fruits by CEC using methacrylate ester-based monolithic columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalid, Ana Maria; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Roselló, Salvador; Maquieira, Angel; Nuez, Fernando

    2007-11-01

    In this study, the major carotenoids (beta-carotene and lycopene) present in tomato fruits were analyzed by CEC with a methacrylate ester-based monolithic column. The effects of the porogenic solvent ratio, and the hydrophobicity of bulk monomer employed were examined on carotenoids separations. A fast separation of these analytes was achieved in less than 5.0 min in a mobile phase containing 35% THF, 30% ACN, 30% methanol, and 5% of a 5 mM Tris aqueous buffer, pH 8, with lauryl methacrylate-based monoliths. The CEC method was evaluated in terms of detection limit and reproducibility (retention time, area, and column preparation) with values below 1.6 microg/mL and 7.2%, respectively. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of both carotenoids in fruits of several tomato-related species and its usefulness to analyze large series of samples for nutritional quality screening trials in tomato breeding programs is demonstrated. To our knowledge, this is the first work that exploits the powerful and user-friendly monolithic technology for quality breeding and germplasm evaluation program purposes. PMID:17960534

  17. Ozone Effects on Fruit Productivity and Photosynthetic Response of Two Tomato Cultivars in Relation to Stomatal Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Gerosa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An Open-Top Chamber experiment on two tomato cultivars (cv. Oxheart and cv. San Marzano was carried out in Curno (Northern Italy between June and September 2007. Two ozone treatments were applied for a 3.5 months period: Non-Filtered OTC (NF-OTC, 95% of ambient ozone and Charcoal-Filtered OTC (CF-OTC, 50% of ambient ozone. Diurnal cycles of porometry measurements were performed during the season and allowed to draw a stomatal conductance model for each cultivar in order to calculate the ozone stomatal fluxes taken up by plants. Assessments on fruits yield were performed during the season, taking into account the number of fruits, their fresh weight and their marketability. In addition, measurements on the chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystems were carried out to assess possible negative effects on photosynthetic efficiency. Despite the two cultivars absorbed a similar ozone stomatal dose during the season (with an 8% difference, their responses to ozone treatments were totally divergent in relation to both fruits yield and photosynthetic efficiency. Plants of cv. Oxheart grown in NF-OTCs showed significant yield loss in the total weight of fruits (-35.9% which is exclusively related to a decrease in the number of fruits produced (-35.7% of total fruits; -30.6% of marketable fruits, since mean fresh weight of fruits remained unaffected. Moreover the same plants displayed low values (in comparison to CF-OTCs plants of the photosynthetic efficiency index (PIabs during the most intense period of ozone stress (July occurred in the flowering stage of plants and at the beginning of fructification. Plants of the cv. San Marzano had an opposite response behaviour with an increase of the mean fresh weight of fruits in plants grown in NF-OTC (even if not statistically significant and no difference in the number of fruits produced and in the values of photosynthetic efficiency.

  18. Ozone Effects on Fruit Productivity and Photosynthetic Response of Two Tomato Cultivars in Relation to Stomatal Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tagliaferro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An Open-Top Chamber experiment on two tomato cultivars (cv. Oxheart and cv. San Marzano was carried out in Curno (Northern Italy between June and September 2007. Two ozone treatments were applied for a 3.5 months period: Non-Filtered OTC (NF-OTC, 95% of ambient ozone and Charcoal-Filtered OTC (CF-OTC, 50% of ambient ozone. Diurnal cycles of porometry measurements were performed during the season and allowed to draw a stomatal conductance model for each cultivar in order to calculate the ozone stomatal fluxes taken up by plants. Assessments on fruits yield were performed during the season, taking into account the number of fruits, their fresh weight and their marketability. In addition, measurements on the chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystems were carried out to assess possible negative effects on photosynthetic efficiency. Despite the two cultivars absorbed a similar ozone stomatal dose during the season (with an 8% difference, their responses to ozone treatments were totally divergent in relation to both fruits yield and photosynthetic efficiency. Plants of cv. Oxheart grown in NF-OTCs showed significant yield loss in the total weight of fruits (-35.9% which is exclusively related to a decrease in the number of fruits produced (-35.7% of total fruits; -30.6% of marketable fruits, since mean fresh weight of fruits remained unaffected. Moreover the same plants displayed low values (in comparison to CF-OTCs plants of the photosynthetic efficiency index (PIabs during the most intense period of ozone stress (July occurred in the flowering stage of plants and at the beginning of fructification. Plants of the cv. San Marzano had an opposite response behaviour with an increase of the mean fresh weight of fruits in plants grown in NF-OTC (even if not statistically significant and no difference in the number of fruits produced and in the values of photosynthetic efficiency.

  19. A VIN1 GUS::GFP fusion reveals activated sucrose metabolism programming occurring in interspersed cells during tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estornell, Leandro Hueso; Pons, Clara; Martínez, Alicia; O'Connor, José Enrique; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio

    2013-08-15

    The tomato is a model for fleshy fruit development and ripening. Here we report on the identification of a novel unique cell autonomous/cellular pattern of expression that was detected in fruits of transgenic tomato lines carrying a GFP GUS driven by the fruit specific vacuolar invertase promoter VIN1. The VIN1 promoter sequence faithfully reproduced the global endogenous VIN expression by conferring a biphasic pattern of expression with a second phase clearly associated to fruit ripening. A closer view revealed a salt and pepper pattern of expression characterized by individual cells exhibiting a range of expression levels (from high to low) surrounded by cells with no expression. This type of pattern was detected across different fruit tissues and cell types with some preferences for vascular, sub-epidermal layer and the inner part of the fruit. Cell ability to show promoter activity was neither directly associated with overall ripening - as we find VIN+ and - VIN- cells at all stages of ripening, nor with cell size. Nevertheless the number of cells with active VIN-driven expression increased with ripening and the activity of the VIN promoter seems to be inversely correlated with cell size in VIN+ cells. Gene expression analysis of FACS-sorted VIN+ cells revealed a transcriptionally distinct subpopulation of cells defined by increased expression of genes related to sucrose metabolism, and decreased activity in protein synthesis and chromatin remodeling. This finding suggests that local micro heterogeneity may underlie some aspects (i.e. the futile cycles involving sucrose metabolism) of an otherwise more uniform looking ripening program.

  20. Optimization of EC Values of Nutrient Solution for Tomato Fruits Quality in Hydroponics System Using Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Suhardiyanto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Total soluble solids (TSS and fruit fresh weight are two indicators to show the quality of tomato fruits. To gain high values of TSS and fruit fresh weight, it is important to consider the concentration of nutrient solution, which is commonly represented by Electrical Conductivity (EC value. Generally, the increasing of EC value not only increases the number of TSS, but also decreases fruit fresh weight. Therefore, it is important to optimize the EC value for both indicators of quality of tomato fruits. The objective of this research is to optimize the EC value of nutrient solution on each generative stage using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Genetic Algorithms (GA. ANN was used to identify the relationship between different EC value treatments with TSS value and fruit fresh weight. GA was applied to determine the optimal EC value in generative growth, which is divided into three stages. Results showed that the optimal EC values in the flowering stage, the fruiting stage and the harvesting stage were 1.4 mS/cm, 10.2 mS/cm and 9.7 mS/cm, respectively. Using these values, a tomato fruit could be estimated with TSS value of 7.9% and fruit fresh weight of 51.34 g.

  1. Differences in body size and egg loads of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from introduced and native cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, infests introduced, domesticated sweet [Prunus avium (L.) L.] and tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) as well as native bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas) Eaton. Bitter cherries are smaller than sweet and tart cherries and this coul...

  2. Diversity for chemical composition in a collection of different varietal types of tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.), an Andean exotic fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Quezada, Pablo G; Raigón, María D; Riofrío-Cuenca, Tania; García-Martínez, María D; Plazas, Mariola; Burneo, Juan I; Figueroa, Jorge G; Vilanova, Santiago; Prohens, Jaime

    2015-02-15

    We evaluated 23 tree tomato (Solanum betaceum) accessions from five cultivar groups and one wild relative (Solanum cajanumense) for 26 composition traits. For all traits we found highly significant differences (Pcomposition traits was matched by a high diversity within each of the cultivar groups. We found that sucrose and citric acid were the most important soluble sugar and organic acid, respectively, in tree tomato. Fruit in the anthocyanin pigmented (purple) group had a carotenoid content similar to that in the yellow-orange cultivar groups. Total phenolic content was significantly correlated (r=0.8607) with antioxidant activity. Analyses of mineral content showed that tree tomato is a good source of K, Mg, and Cu. Multivariate principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed that an important diversity exists within each cultivar group. The results we have obtained indicate that the high diversity found within the tree tomato could be exploited for selection and breeding for developing the tree tomato as a commercial crop.

  3. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) deficiency affects the germination, growth and fruit sugar content in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Xing; Yin, Yong-Gen; Sanuki, Atsuko; Fukuda, Naoya; Ezura, Hiroshi; Matsukura, Chiaki

    2015-11-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is a key regulatory enzyme and is utilized in the gluconeogenesis pathway in plants. Although, its catalytic and regulatory properties are quite well understood, there are uncertainties regarding its physiological role in many plants tissues such as the flesh of developing fruits. To further understand the function of PEPCK in fruits and other tissues, RNAi transgenic tomato plants in which SlPEPCK transcription was down-regulated by either CaMV 35S constitutive promoter or the fruit-specific E8 promoter were generated and characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and metabolic aspects. In the PEPCK-deficient lines, prominent growth suppression of germinated seedlings was observed and other vegetative suppression appeared during the early stage of plant growth in the 35S promoter-driven lines. In particular, root elongation was most obviously suppressed in the germinated seedlings, indicating that the gluconeogenesis pathway is involved in the root growth of seedlings. Regarding the primary metabolism in fruit, the soluble sugar content tended to decrease, whereas the malate content tended to increase in ripening fruits of the RNAi lines compared with the wild type. These results indicate that activation of the gluconeogenesis pathway from organic acids to sugars occurs during ripening but is suppressed by the knocking down of the PEPCK gene, suggesting that PEPCK participates in determining the sugar/acid ratio in ripening fruit.

  4. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) deficiency affects the germination, growth and fruit sugar content in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Xing; Yin, Yong-Gen; Sanuki, Atsuko; Fukuda, Naoya; Ezura, Hiroshi; Matsukura, Chiaki

    2015-11-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is a key regulatory enzyme and is utilized in the gluconeogenesis pathway in plants. Although, its catalytic and regulatory properties are quite well understood, there are uncertainties regarding its physiological role in many plants tissues such as the flesh of developing fruits. To further understand the function of PEPCK in fruits and other tissues, RNAi transgenic tomato plants in which SlPEPCK transcription was down-regulated by either CaMV 35S constitutive promoter or the fruit-specific E8 promoter were generated and characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and metabolic aspects. In the PEPCK-deficient lines, prominent growth suppression of germinated seedlings was observed and other vegetative suppression appeared during the early stage of plant growth in the 35S promoter-driven lines. In particular, root elongation was most obviously suppressed in the germinated seedlings, indicating that the gluconeogenesis pathway is involved in the root growth of seedlings. Regarding the primary metabolism in fruit, the soluble sugar content tended to decrease, whereas the malate content tended to increase in ripening fruits of the RNAi lines compared with the wild type. These results indicate that activation of the gluconeogenesis pathway from organic acids to sugars occurs during ripening but is suppressed by the knocking down of the PEPCK gene, suggesting that PEPCK participates in determining the sugar/acid ratio in ripening fruit. PMID:26381194

  5. Study on Methods of Lycopene Extraction and its Anti-oxidative Effect in Cherry-tomatoes%圣女果中番茄红素的提取方法及其抗氧化效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋力; 翟秋阁; 付裕; 张克立

    2012-01-01

    以香油为溶剂,从圣女果中提取番茄红素.通过测定吸光度表征提取物对羟自由基的清除率,并对其抗氧化效果进行研究.实验结果表明,用香油作溶剂,料液比为1∶1,萃取4h,所得提取液具有较好的抗氧化效果.%The method of lycopene extraction with sesame oil from cherry-tomatoes was studied. The scavenging activity of lycopene on hydroxyl free radical was characterized by measuring absorbance, and its antioxidantive effect was explored. Experimental results showed that using sesame oil as solvent,the ratio of solid to liquid 1: 1 (g/mL) .extraction 4 h,the lycopene has better antioxidant effect.

  6. Patterns of natural degradation of cypermethrin in tomato fruits, water and soil under the desert environment of Ogla Oasis Cyrenaica – Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelkrim Amer; Ifdial Omer EL-Awami; Fathelrahman I Elsiddig; Mahmud Aessa; Salah A Albanqeeyah

    2015-01-01

    Degradation line of cypermethrin were studied in different samples of tomato fruits, water, and soil from ogla oasis in the desert environment of Cyrenaica, -Libya. The targeted insecticide was applied to the tomato crop, water, and soil of the studied area with the recommended dose. Representative samples from all three subjects were taken daily which started from the first day of treatment to the 20th days of experimentation. Extraction and cleanup were conducted on the 20th day...

  7. Changes in color-related compounds in tomato fruit exocarp and mesocarp during ripening using HPLC-APcI+-mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo-López, A.; Yahia, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato is an important agricultural crop world-wide. Their pigments are very important in many ways. They have been associated with health benefits such as lowering the risk of some chronic diseases. Quantification of chlorophylls by spectrophotometry and Identification of carotenoids using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and quantification by HPLC-DAD was carried out in the exocarp and mesocarp of tomato fruit during 6 different ripeness stages (mature-green, breakers, tu...

  8. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry... of quality for frozen cherry pie is as follows: (i) The fruit content of the pie is such that...

  9. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Possible Influences of ABA on Secondary Metabolism of Pigments, Flavonoids and Antioxidants in Tomato Fruit during Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Wangshu; Li, Dongdong; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has been proven to be involved in the regulation of climacteric fruit ripening, but a comprehensive investigation of its influence on ripening related processes is still lacking. By applying the next generation sequencing technology, we conducted a comparative analysis of the effects of exogenous ABA and NDGA (Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) on tomato fruit ripening. The high throughput sequencing results showed that out of the 25728 genes expressed across all three samples, 10388 were identified as significantly differently expressed genes. Exogenous ABA was found to enhance the transcription of genes involved in pigments metabolism, including carotenoids biosynthesis and chlorophyll degradation, whereas NDGA treatment inhibited these processes. The results also revealed the crucial role of ABA in flavonoids synthesis and regulation of antioxidant system. Intriguingly, we also found that an inhibition of endogenous ABA significantly enhanced the transcriptional abundance of genes involved in photosynthesis. Our results highlighted the significance of ABA in regulating tomato ripening, which provided insight into the regulatory mechanism of fruit maturation and senescence process.

  10. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Possible Influences of ABA on Secondary Metabolism of Pigments, Flavonoids and Antioxidants in Tomato Fruit during Ripening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangshu Mou

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA has been proven to be involved in the regulation of climacteric fruit ripening, but a comprehensive investigation of its influence on ripening related processes is still lacking. By applying the next generation sequencing technology, we conducted a comparative analysis of the effects of exogenous ABA and NDGA (Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis on tomato fruit ripening. The high throughput sequencing results showed that out of the 25728 genes expressed across all three samples, 10388 were identified as significantly differently expressed genes. Exogenous ABA was found to enhance the transcription of genes involved in pigments metabolism, including carotenoids biosynthesis and chlorophyll degradation, whereas NDGA treatment inhibited these processes. The results also revealed the crucial role of ABA in flavonoids synthesis and regulation of antioxidant system. Intriguingly, we also found that an inhibition of endogenous ABA significantly enhanced the transcriptional abundance of genes involved in photosynthesis. Our results highlighted the significance of ABA in regulating tomato ripening, which provided insight into the regulatory mechanism of fruit maturation and senescence process.

  11. The use of tomato aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 for the detection of aldehydes in fruit distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömmel, Jan; Tarkowski, Petr; Kopečný, David; Šebela, Marek

    2016-09-25

    Plant NAD(+)-dependent aminoaldehyde dehydrogenases (AMADHs, EC 1.2.1.19) belong to the family 10 of aldehyde dehydrogenases. They participate in the metabolism of polyamines or osmoprotectants. The enzymes are characterized by their broad substrate specificity covering ω-aminoaldehydes, aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes as well as nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aldehydes. The isoenzyme 1 from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; SlAMADH1) oxidizes aliphatic aldehydes very efficiently and converts also furfural, its derivatives or benzaldehyde, which are present at low concentrations in alcoholic distillates such as fruit brandy. In this work, SlAMADH1 was examined as a bioanalytical tool for their detection. These aldehydes arise from fermentation processes or thermal degradation of sugars and their presence is related to health complications after consumption including nausea, emesis, sweating, decrease in blood pressure, hangover headache, among others. Sixteen samples of slivovitz (plum brandy) from local producers in Moravia, Czech Republic, were analyzed for their aldehyde content using a spectrophotometric activity assay with SlAMADH1. In all cases, there were oxidative responses observed when monitoring NADH production in the enzymatic reaction. Aldehydes in the distillate samples were also subjected to a standard determination using reversed-phase HPLC with spectrophotometric and tandem mass spectrometric detection after a derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Results obtained by both methods were found to correlate well for a majority of the analyzed samples. The possible applicability of SlAMADH1 for the evaluation of aldehyde content in food and beverages has now been demonstrated. PMID:26703808

  12. Genotype and environmental interaction for fruit quality traits in vintage tomato varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the second most commonly consumed vegetable after in the world, after potato. There is a growing demand for quality tomato in the market place. Traits such as lycopene, total soluble solids (TSS), vitamin C and titratable acid (TA) content contribute to the overal...

  13. The tomato FRUITFULL homologs TDR4/FUL1 and MBP7/FUL2 regulate ethylene-independent aspects of fruit ripening.

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    Bemer, Marian; Karlova, Rumyana; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Tikunov, Yury M; Bovy, Arnaud G; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Rossetto, Priscilla de Barros; Angenent, Gerco C; de Maagd, Ruud A

    2012-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains two close homologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana MADS domain transcription factor FRUITFULL (FUL), FUL1 (previously called TDR4) and FUL2 (previously MBP7). Both proteins interact with the ripening regulator RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN) and are expressed during fruit ripening. To elucidate their function in tomato, we characterized single and double FUL1 and FUL2 knockdown lines. Whereas the single lines only showed very mild alterations in fruit pigmentation, the double silenced lines exhibited an orange-ripe fruit phenotype due to highly reduced lycopene levels, suggesting that FUL1 and FUL2 have a redundant function in fruit ripening. More detailed analyses of the phenotype, transcriptome, and metabolome of the fruits silenced for both FUL1 and FUL2 suggest that the genes are involved in cell wall modification, the production of cuticle components and volatiles, and glutamic acid (Glu) accumulation. Glu is responsible for the characteristic umami taste of the present-day cultivated tomato fruit. In contrast with previously identified ripening regulators, FUL1 and FUL2 do not regulate ethylene biosynthesis but influence ripening in an ethylene-independent manner. Our data combined with those of others suggest that FUL1/2 and TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 regulate different subsets of the known RIN targets, probably in a protein complex with the latter.

  14. The Tomato FRUITFULL Homologs TDR4/FUL1 and MBP7/FUL2 Regulate Ethylene-Independent Aspects of Fruit Ripening[W

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    Bemer, Marian; Karlova, Rumyana; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Tikunov, Yury M.; Bovy, Arnaud G.; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Rossetto, Priscilla de Barros; Angenent, Gerco C.; de Maagd, Ruud A.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains two close homologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana MADS domain transcription factor FRUITFULL (FUL), FUL1 (previously called TDR4) and FUL2 (previously MBP7). Both proteins interact with the ripening regulator RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN) and are expressed during fruit ripening. To elucidate their function in tomato, we characterized single and double FUL1 and FUL2 knockdown lines. Whereas the single lines only showed very mild alterations in fruit pigmentation, the double silenced lines exhibited an orange-ripe fruit phenotype due to highly reduced lycopene levels, suggesting that FUL1 and FUL2 have a redundant function in fruit ripening. More detailed analyses of the phenotype, transcriptome, and metabolome of the fruits silenced for both FUL1 and FUL2 suggest that the genes are involved in cell wall modification, the production of cuticle components and volatiles, and glutamic acid (Glu) accumulation. Glu is responsible for the characteristic umami taste of the present-day cultivated tomato fruit. In contrast with previously identified ripening regulators, FUL1 and FUL2 do not regulate ethylene biosynthesis but influence ripening in an ethylene-independent manner. Our data combined with those of others suggest that FUL1/2 and TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 regulate different subsets of the known RIN targets, probably in a protein complex with the latter. PMID:23136376

  15. Transcriptome Profiling of Tomato Fruit Development Reveals Transcription Factors Associated with Ascorbic Acid, Carotenoid and Flavonoid Biosynthesis.

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    Ye, Jie; Hu, Tixu; Yang, Congmei; Li, Hanxia; Yang, Mingze; Ijaz, Raina; Ye, Zhibiao; Zhang, Yuyang

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) serves as a research model for fruit development; however, while it is an important dietary source of antioxidant nutrients, the transcriptional regulation of genes that determine nutrient levels remains poorly understood. Here, the transcriptomes of fruit at seven developmental stages (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 days after flowering) from two tomato cultivars (Ailsa Craig and HG6-61) were evaluated using the Illumina sequencing platform. A total of 26,397 genes, which were expressed in at least one developmental stage, were detected in the two cultivars, and the expression patterns of those genes could be divided into 20 groups using a K-mean cluster analysis. Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis indicated that genes involved in RNA regulation, secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism and cell wall metabolism were the most highly differentially expressed genes during fruit development and ripening. A co-expression analysis revealed several transcription factors whose expression patterns correlated with those of genes associated with ascorbic acid, carotenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. This transcriptional correlation was confirmed by agroinfiltration mediated transient expression, which showed that most of the enzymatic genes in the ascorbic acid biosynthesis were regulated by the overexpression of each of the three transcription factors that were tested. The metabolic dynamics of ascorbic acid, carotenoid and flavonoid were investigated during fruit development and ripening, and some selected transcription factors showed transcriptional correlation with the accumulation of ascorbic acid, carotenoid and flavonoid. This transcriptome study provides insight into the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and presents candidate transcription factors involved in secondary metabolism.

  16. Transcriptome Profiling of Tomato Fruit Development Reveals Transcription Factors Associated with Ascorbic Acid, Carotenoid and Flavonoid Biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ye

    Full Text Available Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum serves as a research model for fruit development; however, while it is an important dietary source of antioxidant nutrients, the transcriptional regulation of genes that determine nutrient levels remains poorly understood. Here, the transcriptomes of fruit at seven developmental stages (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 days after flowering from two tomato cultivars (Ailsa Craig and HG6-61 were evaluated using the Illumina sequencing platform. A total of 26,397 genes, which were expressed in at least one developmental stage, were detected in the two cultivars, and the expression patterns of those genes could be divided into 20 groups using a K-mean cluster analysis. Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis indicated that genes involved in RNA regulation, secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism and cell wall metabolism were the most highly differentially expressed genes during fruit development and ripening. A co-expression analysis revealed several transcription factors whose expression patterns correlated with those of genes associated with ascorbic acid, carotenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. This transcriptional correlation was confirmed by agroinfiltration mediated transient expression, which showed that most of the enzymatic genes in the ascorbic acid biosynthesis were regulated by the overexpression of each of the three transcription factors that were tested. The metabolic dynamics of ascorbic acid, carotenoid and flavonoid were investigated during fruit development and ripening, and some selected transcription factors showed transcriptional correlation with the accumulation of ascorbic acid, carotenoid and flavonoid. This transcriptome study provides insight into the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and presents candidate transcription factors involved in secondary metabolism.

  17. Tomato fruit development in the auxin-resistant dgt mutant is induced by pollination but not by auxin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignolli, Francesco; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Lombardi, Lara; Vidoz, María Laura; Ceccarelli, Nello; Picciarelli, Piero

    2012-08-15

    In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.), auxin is believed to play a pivotal role in controlling fruit-set and early ovary growth. In this paper we investigated the effect of the reduced auxin sensitivity exhibited by the diageotropica (dgt) tomato mutant on ovary growth during early stage of fruit development. Here we show that in hand-pollinated ovaries fruit-set was not affected by the dgt lesion while fruit growth was reduced. This reduction was associated with a smaller cell size of mesocarp cells, with a lower mean C values and with a lower gene expression of the expansin gene LeExp2. When a synthetic auxin (4-CPA, chlorophenoxyacetic acid) was applied to the flowers of wild type plants, parthenocarpic ovary growth was induced. On the contrary, auxin application to the flowers of dgt plants failed to induce parthenocarpy. Hand-pollinated ovaries of dgt contained higher levels of IAA compared to wild type and this was not associated with high transcript levels of genes encoding a key regulatory enzyme of IAA biosynthesis (ToFZYs) but with lower expression levels of GH3, a gene involved in the conjugation of IAA to amino acids. The expression of diverse Aux/IAA genes and SAUR (small auxin up-regulated RNA) was also altered in the dgt ovaries. The dgt lesion does not seem to affect specific Aux/IAA genes in terms of transcript occurrence but rather in terms of relative levels of expression. Transcript levels of Aux/IAA genes were up regulated in auxin-treated ovaries of wild-type but not in dgt. Together, our results suggest that dgt ovary cells are not able to sense and/or transduce the external auxin signal, whereas pollinated dgt ovary cells are able to detect the IAA present in fertilized ovules promoting fruit development. PMID:22608080

  18. Simultaneous transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and tomato fruit pathosystem reveals novel fungal pathogenicity and fruit defense strategies.

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    Alkan, Noam; Friedlander, Gilgi; Ment, Dana; Prusky, Dov; Fluhr, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides breaches the fruit cuticle but remains quiescent until fruit ripening signals a switch to necrotrophy, culminating in devastating anthracnose disease. There is a need to understand the distinct fungal arms strategy and the simultaneous fruit response. Transcriptome analysis of fungal-fruit interactions was carried out concurrently in the appressoria, quiescent and necrotrophic stages. Conidia germinating on unripe fruit cuticle showed stage-specific transcription that was accompanied by massive fruit defense responses. The subsequent quiescent stage showed the development of dendritic-like structures and swollen hyphae within the fruit epidermis. The quiescent fungal transcriptome was characterized by activation of chromatin remodeling genes and unsuspected environmental alkalization. Fruit response was portrayed by continued highly integrated massive up-regulation of defense genes. During cuticle infection of green or ripe fruit, fungi recapitulate the same developmental stages but with differing quiescent time spans. The necrotrophic stage showed a dramatic shift in fungal metabolism and up-regulation of pathogenicity factors. Fruit response to necrotrophy showed activation of the salicylic acid pathway, climaxing in cell death. Transcriptome analysis of C. gloeosporioides infection of fruit reveals its distinct stage-specific lifestyle and the concurrent changing fruit response, deepening our perception of the unfolding fungal-fruit arms and defenses race.

  19. Comprehensive Profiling of Ethylene Response Factor Expression Identifies Ripening-Associated ERF Genes and Their Link to Key Regulators of Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingchun; Gomes, Bruna Lima; Mila, Isabelle; Purgatto, Eduardo; Peres, Lázaro E P; Frasse, Pierre; Maza, Elie; Zouine, Mohamed; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Bouzayen, Mondher; Pirrello, Julien

    2016-03-01

    Our knowledge of the factors mediating ethylene-dependent ripening of climacteric fruit remains limited. The transcription of ethylene-regulated genes is mediated by ethylene response factors (ERFs), but mutants providing information on the specific role of the ERFs in fruit ripening are still lacking, likely due to functional redundancy among this large multigene family of transcription factors. We present here a comprehensive expression profiling of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ERFs in wild-type and tomato ripening-impaired tomato mutants (Never-ripe [Nr], ripening-inhibitor [rin], and non-ripening [nor]), indicating that out of the 77 ERFs present in the tomato genome, 27 show enhanced expression at the onset of ripening while 28 display a ripening-associated decrease in expression, suggesting that different ERFs may have contrasting roles in fruit ripening. Among the 19 ERFs exhibiting the most consistent up-regulation during ripening, the expression of 11 ERFs is strongly down-regulated in rin, nor, and Nr tomato ripening mutants, while only three are consistently up-regulated. Members of subclass E, SlERF.E1, SlERF.E2, and SlERF.E4, show dramatic down-regulation in the ripening mutants, suggesting that their expression might be instrumental in fruit ripening. This study illustrates the high complexity of the regulatory network connecting RIN and ERFs and identifies subclass E members as the most active ERFs in ethylene- and RIN/NOR-dependent ripening.

  20. Patterns of natural degradation of cypermethrin in tomato fruits, water and soil under the desert environment of Ogla Oasis Cyrenaica – Libya

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    Abdelkrim Amer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Degradation line of cypermethrin were studied in different samples of tomato fruits, water, and soil from ogla oasis in the desert environment of Cyrenaica, -Libya. The targeted insecticide was applied to the tomato crop, water, and soil of the studied area with the recommended dose. Representative samples from all three subjects were taken daily which started from the first day of treatment to the 20th days of experimentation. Extraction and cleanup were conducted on the 20th days and finely detection of the residues was measured by using Gas chromatography (GC-ECD instrument. Results of the study revealed 0.06, 1.06, and 2.44 ppm insecticide concentration on the first sampling date from tomato fruits, water, and soil respectively. However after one week 33, 56 and 65% reduction in insecticide concentration was reported in tomato fruits, water and soil respectively. After 2 weeks the reduction percentage was reported 66%, 88%, and 93% chronologically, and the degradation exert 91%, 97%, and 99.1% in the same order at the last sampling date. Results concluded that the trends of cypermethrin degradation were fluctuating and slow in tomato fruits while in water and soil it appears regular. However the degradation in soil was the fastest.

  1. The zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 negatively regulates abscisic acid biosynthesis and fruit ripening in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong; Xiao, Han

    2015-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Although the ABA biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly elucidated, how ABA biosynthetic genes are regulated at the molecular level during plant development is less well understood. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 is involved in the regulation of ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. Overexpression of SlZFP2 resulted in multiple phenotypic changes, including more branches, early flowering, delayed fruit ripening, lighter seeds, and faster seed germination, whereas down-regulation of its expression caused problematic fruit set, accelerated ripening, and inhibited seed germination. SlZFP2 represses ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of the ABA biosynthetic genes NOTABILIS, SITIENS, and FLACCA and the aldehyde oxidase SlAO1. We also show that SlZFP2 regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator COLORLESS NON-RIPENING. Using bacterial one-hybrid screening and a selected amplification and binding assay, we identified the (A/T)(G/C)TT motif as the core binding sequence of SlZFP2. Furthermore, by RNA sequencing profiling, we found that 193 genes containing the SlZFP2-binding motifs in their promoters were differentially expressed in 2 d post anthesis fruits between the SlZFP2 RNA interference line and its nontransgenic sibling. We propose that SlZFP2 functions as a repressor to fine-tune ABA biosynthesis during fruit development and provides a potentially valuable tool for dissecting the role of ABA in fruit ripening.

  2. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL(s for bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons

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    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, The Netherlands received an application from Chemtura to modify the existing MRL(s for the active substance bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bifenazate, the evaluating Member State (EMS proposed to raise the existing MRLs for all of the crops except for pepper where a lowering of the MRL was proposed, and for tomatoes and aubergines, where it was concluded that no modification of the MRL would be required. The EMS drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA on 6 January 2012. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.9 mg/kg for citrus fruit, 0.5 mg/kg for pome fruit, 0.5 mg/kg peaches/nectarines and plums, 0.7 mg/kg for grapes, 3 mg/kg for strawberries, 0.5 mg/kg for tomatoes and aubergines, 0.4 mg/kg for sweet pepper, 3 mg/kg for chilli pepper, 0.6 mg/kg for cucurbits with inedible peel and 20 mg/kg for hops. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of bifenazate on the commodities under consideration at the validated LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg. Since for some of these crops higher MRLs were proposed in a previously issued reasoned opinion of EFSA, they need to be considered to avoid trade disruption. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of bifenazate on citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, table- and wine grapes, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons, watermelons and hops will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  3. Immobilization of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pectinmethylesterase in calcium alginate beads and its application in fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogra, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashwani; Kuhar, Kalika; Panwar, Surbhi; Singh, Randhir

    2013-11-01

    Clarity of fruit juices is desirable to maintain an aesthetically pleasing quality and international standards. The most commonly used enzymes in juice industries are pectinases. A partially-purified pectinmethylesterase from tomato was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and used for juice clarification. The activity yield was maximum at 1 % (w/v) CaCl2 and 2.5 % (w/v) alginate. The immobilized enzyme retained ~55 % of its initial activity (5.7 × 10(-2) units) after more than ten successive batch reactions. The Km, pH and temperature optima were increased after immobilization. The most effective clarification of fruit juice (%T620 ~60 %) by the immobilized enzyme was at 4 °C with a holding time of 20 min. The viscosity dropped by 56 % and the filterability increased by 260 %. The juice remains clear after 2 months of storage at 4 °C.

  4. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis of phenolic compounds during ripening in exocarp and mesocarp of tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-López, Armando; Yahia, Elhadi

    2013-12-01

    Identification of phenolic compounds was done by means of liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) using the electrospray ionization interface (ESI). Quantification of phenolic compounds was carried out by using HPLC with diode array detector (DAD) in exocarp and mesocarp of tomato fruit at 6 different ripeness stages (mature-green, breakers, turning, pink, light-red, and red). Several phenolic compounds were identified including chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and rutin and some combined phenolic acids were tentatively identified, mainly glycosides, such as caffeoyl hexose I, caffeoyl hexose II, caffeoylquinic acid isomer, dicaffeoylquinic acid, p-coumaroyl hexose I, p-coumaroyl hexose II, feruloyl hexose I, feruloyl hexose II, siringyl hexose, and caffeoyl deoxyhexose hexose. Fruit exocarp had higher quantities of total soluble phenolics (TSP) compared to mesocarp. During ripening, TSP increased in both exocarp and mesocarp, mainly in exocarp. While rutin increased, chlorogenic acid decreased in both tissues: exocarp and mesocarp. PMID:24171765

  5. NAC transcription factors play an important role in ethylene biosynthesis, reception and signaling of tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiaohong; Liu, Chen; Han, Lihua; Wang, Shuang; Xue, Zhaohui

    2016-06-01

    NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in diverse physiological processes during development. To explore the role of NAC transcription factors in the ripening of fruits, we predicted the secondary and tertiary structure as well as regulative function of the SNAC4 (SlNAC48, Accession number: NM 001279348.2) and SNAC9 (SlNAC19, Accession number: XM 004236996.2) transcription factors in tomato. We found that the tertiary structure of SNAC9 was similar to that of ATNAP, which played an important role in the fruit senescence and was required for ethylene stimulation. Likewise, the bio-function prediction results indicated that SNAC4 and SNAC9 participated in various plant hormone signaling and senescence processes. More information about SNACs was obtained by the application of VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing). The silencing of SNAC4 and SNAC9 dramatically repressed the LeACS2, LeACS4 and LeACO1 expression, which consequently led to the inhibition of the ripening process. The silencing of SNACs down-regulated the mRNA levels of the ethylene perception genes and, at the same time, suppressed the expression of ethylene signaling-related genes except for LeERF2 which was induced by the silencing of SNAC4. The expressions of LeRIN were different in two silenced fruits. In addition, the silencing of SNAC4 reduced its mRNA level, while the silencing of SNAC9 induced its expression. Furthermore, the silencing of LeACS4, LeACO1 and LeERF2 reduced the expression of SNAC4 and SNAC9, while the silencing of NR induced the expression of all of them. In particular, these results indicate that SNAC transcription factors bind to the promoter of the ethylene synthesis genes in vitro. This experimental evidence demonstrates that SNAC4 and SNAC9 could positively regulate the tomato fruit ripening process by functioning upstream of ethylene synthesis genes. These outcomes will be helpful to provide a theoretical foundation for further

  6. Delayed ripening and improved fruit processing quality in tomato by RNAi-mediated silencing of three homologs of 1-aminopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aarti; Pal, Ram Krishna; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

    2013-07-15

    The ripening hormone, ethylene is known to initiate, modulate and co-ordinate the expression of various genes involved in the ripening process. The burst in ethylene production is the key event for the onset of ripening in climacteric fruits, including tomatoes. Therefore ethylene is held accountable for the tons of post-harvest losses due to over-ripening and subsequently resulting in fruit rotting. In the present investigation, delayed ripening tomatoes were generated by silencing three homologs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS) gene during the course of ripening using RNAi technology. The chimeric RNAi-ACS construct designed to target ACS homologs, effectively repressed the ethylene production in tomato fruits. Fruits from such lines exhibited delayed ripening and extended shelf life for ∼45 days, with improved juice quality. The ethylene suppression brought about compositional changes in these fruits by enhancing polyamine (PA) levels. Further, decreased levels of ethylene in RNAi-ACS fruits has led to the altered levels of various ripening-specific transcripts, especially the up-regulation of PA biosynthesis and ascorbic acid (AsA) metabolism genes and down-regulation of cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme genes. These results suggest that the down-regulation of ACS homologs using RNAi can be an effective approach for obtaining delayed ripening with longer shelf life and an enhanced processing quality of tomato fruits. Also, the chimeric gene fusion can be used as an effective design for simultaneous silencing of more than one gene. These observations would be useful in better understanding of the ethylene and PA signaling during fruit ripening and molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction of these two molecules in affecting fruit quality traits.

  7. Tomato FRUITFULL homologues act in fruit ripening via forming MADS-box transcription factor complexes with RIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Yoko; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Fujisawa, Masaki; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Kato, Hiroki; Kimbara, Junji; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2013-07-01

    The tomato MADS-box transcription factor RIN acts as a master regulator of fruit ripening. Here, we identified MADS-box proteins that interact with RIN; we also provide evidence that these proteins act in the regulation of fruit ripening. We conducted a yeast two-hybrid screen of a cDNA library from ripening fruit, for genes encoding proteins that bind to RIN. The screen identified two MADS-box genes, FUL1 and FUL2 (previously called TDR4 and SlMBP7), both of which have high sequence similarity to Arabidopsis FRUITFULL. Expression analyses revealed that the FUL1 mRNA and FUL1 protein accumulate in a ripening-specific manner in tomato fruits and FUL2 mRNA and protein accumulate at the pre-ripening stage and throughout ripening. Biochemical analyses confirmed that FUL1 and FUL2 form heterodimers with RIN; this interaction required the FUL1 and FUL2 C-terminal domains. Also, the heterodimers bind to a typical target DNA motif for MADS-box proteins. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that FUL1 and FUL2 bind to genomic sites that were previously identified as RIN-target sites, such as the promoter regions of ACS2, ACS4 and RIN. These findings suggest that RIN forms complexes with FUL1 and FUL2 and these complexes regulate expression of ripening-related genes. In addition to the functional redundancy between FUL1 and FUL2, we also found they have potentially divergent roles in transcriptional regulation, including a difference in genomic target sites.

  8. The Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase GPAT6 from Tomato Plays a Central Role in Fruit Cutin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Johann; Bres, Cécile; Mauxion, Jean-Philippe; Tai, Fabienne Wong Jun; Martin, Laetitia B B; Fich, Eric A; Joubès, Jérôme; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Domergue, Frédéric; Rothan, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The thick cuticle covering and embedding the epidermal cells of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit acts not only as a protective barrier against pathogens and water loss but also influences quality traits such as brightness and postharvest shelf-life. In a recent study, we screened a mutant collection of the miniature tomato cultivar Micro-Tom and isolated several glossy fruit mutants in which the abundance of cutin, the polyester component of the cuticle, was strongly reduced. We employed a newly developed mapping-by-sequencing strategy to identify the causal mutation underlying the cutin deficiency in a mutant thereafter named gpat6-a (for glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase6). To this end, a backcross population (BC1F2) segregating for the glossy trait was phenotyped. Individuals displaying either a wild-type or a glossy fruit trait were then pooled into bulked populations and submitted to whole-genome sequencing prior to mutation frequency analysis. This revealed that the causal point mutation in the gpat6-a mutant introduces a charged amino acid adjacent to the active site of a GPAT6 enzyme. We further showed that this mutation completely abolished the GPAT activity of the recombinant protein. The gpat6-a mutant showed perturbed pollen formation but, unlike a gpat6 mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), was not male sterile. The most striking phenotype was observed in the mutant fruit, where cuticle thickness, composition, and properties were altered. RNA sequencing analysis highlighted the main processes and pathways that were affected by the mutation at the transcriptional level, which included those associated with lipid, secondary metabolite, and cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:27208295

  9. Optimisation of transgene action at the post-transcriptional level: high quality parthenocarpic fruits in industrial tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defez Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic engineering of parthenocarpy confers to horticultural plants the ability to produce fruits under environmental conditions that curtail fruit productivity and quality. The DefH9-iaaM transgene, whose predicted action is to confer auxin synthesis specifically in the placenta, ovules and derived tissues, has been shown to confer parthenocarpy to several plant species (tobacco, eggplant, tomato and varieties. Results UC82 tomato plants, a typical cultivar used by the processing industry, transgenic for the DefH9-iaaM gene produce parthenocarpic fruits that are malformed. UC82 plants transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM, a DefH9-iaaM derivative gene modified in its 5'ULR by replacing 53 nucleotides immediately upstream of the AUG initiation codon with an 87 nucleotides-long sequence derived from the rolA intron sequence, produce parthenocarpic fruits of high quality. In an in vitro translation system, the iaaM mRNA, modified in its 5'ULR is translated 3–4 times less efficiently than the original transcript. An optimal expressivity of parthenocarpy correlates with a reduced transgene mRNA steady state level in DefH9-RI-iaaM flower buds in comparison to DefH9-iaaM flower buds. Consistent with the known function of the iaaM gene, flower buds transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene contain ten times more IAA than control untransformed flower buds, but five times less than DefH9-iaaM flower buds. Conclusions By using an auxin biosynthesis transgene downregulated at the post-transcriptional level, an optimal expressivity of parthenocarpy has been achieved in a genetic background not suitable for the original transgene. Thus, the method allows the generation of a wider range of expressivity of the desired trait in transgenic plants.

  10. Role of gibberellins in parthenocarpic fruit development induced by the genetic system pat-3/pat-4 in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Nuez, Fernando; García-Martínez, José L.

    2001-04-01

    The role of gibberellins (GAs) in the induction of parthenocarpic fruit-set and growth by the pat-3/pat-4 genetic system in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was investigated using wild type (WT; Cuarenteno) and a near-isogenic line derived from the German line RP75/59 (the source of pat-3/pat-4 parthenocarpy). Unpollinated WT ovaries degenerated but GA3 application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of pat-3/pat-4 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone treatment, was not affected by applied GA3. Unpollinated pat-3/pat-4 fruit growth was negated by paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of ent-kaurene oxidase, and this inhibitory effect was negated by GA3. The quantification of the main GAs of the early 13-hydroxylation pathway (GA1, GA8, GA19, GA20, GA29 and GA44) in unpollinated ovaries at 3 developmental stages (flower bud, FB; pre-anthesis, PR; and anthesis, AN), by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring, showed that the concentration of most of them was higher in pat-3/pat-4 than in WT ovaries at PR and AN stages. The concentration of GA1, suggested previously to be the active GA in tomate, was 2-4 times higher. Unpollinated pat-3/pat-4 ovaries at FB, PR and AN stages also contained relatively high amounts (5-12 ng g-1) of GA3, a GA found at less than 0.5 ng g-1 in WT ovaries. It is concluded that the mutations pat-3/pat-4 may induce natural facultative parthenocarpy capacity in tomato by increasing the concentration of GA1 and GA3 in the ovaries before pollination. PMID:11299021

  11. Cherry Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    When I am homesick, the cherry trees dotting here and there in my hometown always visit me in my dreams. The cherry tree is a common and special plant. Full of vigor, it grows by itself and needs little care. In early spring, people use simple tools to cut seedlings from the mother root and plant them in soil, then the seedlings start to grow. Three years later, the young plant becomes a big tree and it

  12. Effect of Edible Coatings, Storage Time and Maturity Stage on Overall Quality of Tomato Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge E.J, Davila-Avina; Jose Villa-Rodriguez; Reynaldo Cruz-Valenzuela; Mariana Rodriguez-Armenta; Miguel Espino-Diaz; Jesus F. Ayala-Zavala; Guadalupe I. Olivas-Orozco; Basilio Heredia; Gustavo Gonzalez-Aguilar

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world; however, its highly perishable nature limits its postharvest life. Major losses in tomato quality and quantity occur between harvest and consumption. Therefore, the application of new technologies to extend the postharvest life of this commodity is needed. The use of edible coatings appears to be a good alternative. Approach: We evaluated the effect o...

  13. Deciphering ascorbic acid regulatory pathways in ripening tomato fruit using a weighted gene correlation network analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Ju, Zheng; Li, Shan; Zuo, Jinhua; Fu, Daqi; Tian, Huiqin; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Benzhong

    2013-11-01

    Genotype is generally determined by the co-expression of diverse genes and multiple regulatory pathways in plants. Gene co-expression analysis combining with physiological trait data provides very important information about the gene function and regulatory mechanism. L-Ascorbic acid (AsA), which is an essential nutrient component for human health and plant metabolism, plays key roles in diverse biological processes such as cell cycle, cell expansion, stress resistance, hormone synthesis, and signaling. Here, we applied a weighted gene correlation network analysis approach based on gene expression values and AsA content data in ripening tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit with different AsA content levels, which leads to identification of AsA relevant modules and vital genes in AsA regulatory pathways. Twenty-four modules were compartmentalized according to gene expression profiling. Among these modules, one negatively related module containing genes involved in redox processes and one positively related module enriched with genes involved in AsA biosynthetic and recycling pathways were further analyzed. The present work herein indicates that redox pathways as well as hormone-signal pathways are closely correlated with AsA accumulation in ripening tomato fruit, and allowed us to prioritize candidate genes for follow-up studies to dissect this interplay at the biochemical and molecular level.

  14. Deciphering Ascorbic Acid Regulatory Pathways in Ripening Tomato Fruit Using a Weighted Gene Correlation Network Analysis Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Gao; Zheng Ju; Shan Li; Jinhua Zuo; Daqi Fu; Huiqin Tian; Yunbo Luo; Benzhong Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Genotype is generally determined by the co-expression of diverse genes and multiple regulatory pathways in plants. Gene co-expression analysis combining with physiological trait data provides very important information about the gene function and regulatory mechanism. L-Ascorbic acid (AsA), which is an essential nutrient component for human health and plant metabolism, plays key roles in diverse biological processes such as cell cycle, cell expansion, stress resistance, hormone synthesis, and signaling. Here, we applied a weighted gene correlation network analysis approach based on gene expression values and AsA content data in ripening tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit with different AsA content levels, which leads to identification of AsA relevant modules and vital genes in AsA regulatory pathways. Twenty-four modules were compartmentalized according to gene expression profiling. Among these modules, one negatively related module containing genes involved in redox processes and one positively related module enriched with genes involved in AsA biosynthetic and recycling pathways were further analyzed. The present work herein indicates that redox pathways as well as hormone-signal pathways are closely correlated with AsA accumulation in ripening tomato fruit, and allowed us to prioritize candidate genes for follow-up studies to dissect this interplay at the biochemical and molecular level.

  15. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides, IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved, and control (no pesticide was applied. IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less pesticide applications than in the calendar. The attack of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae to the leaves only achieved the action threshold in the final phase of the cultivation. The main fruit borer was Neoleucinoides elegantalis (Guen. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, followed by T. absoluta and Spodoptera eridania (Cr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The natural enemy populations were severely reduced by excessive pesticide applications. Predators were more abundant than parasitoids. The most abundant predators were Araneidae, Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Cycloneda sanguinea larva (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae adults (Coleoptera, Orius sp. and Xylocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Formicidae (Hymenoptera, and Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera. The most abundant parasitoids were Hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae (Bracon sp. and Chelonus sp., Trichogrammatidae [Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley] and Bethylidae (Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead, besides Tachinidae (Diptera.

  16. The market chain of fruit production in Serbia: A case study of raspberry and sour cherry cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Katica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The trade in fresh and frozen fruit is complex and fragmentary. Currently producers are forced to use a variety of marketing channels - farmers' markets, processing industries, trade companies and brokers. To increase quality, production, profitability and exports, it is essential to maximize cooperation between producers, processors, wholesalers and retailers. Vertically and laterally integrated fruit marketing channels demand the smallest number of intermediaries and direct relations with consumers. In past decades, fruit production in Serbia was characterized by irrational resource allocation. Neglect of the agribusiness marketing concept led to supply shortages. As a result, prices increased while quality decreased. Only integrated marketing concepts can boost quality, yields, profitability and competitiveness.

  17. Application of protein-phenolic based coating on tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pereira Cipolatti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the use of protein-phenolic based coating made from fermented rice bran on cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum. Tests were performed with glycerol 3% (v/v, glycerol with protein-phenolic rice bran extract (5%, glycerol with protein-phenolic extract after 96 hours of fermentation (5%, and a control (without coating. The coated cherry tomatoes were kept at room temperature for 28 days. Mass loss, pH and acidity, total soluble solids, and carotenoids were determined every 96 hours. The coating made from the biomass extract reduced the carotenoid and acidity levels in the fruits studied by 17 and 21.1%, respectively, compared to the control. The coating proved an efficient barrier to water vapor with mass loss of 57% less than the control suggesting that it can be used as an alternative for vegetable tissue conservation.

  18. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  19. The influence of different electrical conductivity values in a simplified recirculating soilless system on inner and outer fruit quality characteristics of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Sandra; Schnitzler, Wilfried H; Grassmann, Johanna; Woitke, Markus

    2006-01-25

    Irrigation with saline water affects tomato fruit quality. While total fruit yield decreases with salinity, inner quality characterized by taste and health-promoting compounds can be improved. For a detailed description of this relationship, the influence of three different salt levels [electrical conductivity (EC) 3, 6.5, and 10] in hydroponically grown tomatoes was investigated. Rising salinity levels in the nutrient solution significantly increased vitamin C, lycopene, and beta-carotene in fresh fruits up to 35%. The phenol concentration was tendentiously enhanced, and the antioxidative capacity of phenols and carotenoids increased on a fresh weight basis. Additionally, the higher EC values caused an increase of total soluble solids and organic acids, parameters determining the taste of tomatoes. Total fruit yield, single fruit weight, and firmness significantly decreased with rising EC levels. Regression analyses revealed significant correlations between the EC level and the dependent variables single fruit weight, total soluble solids, titrable acids, lycopene, and antioxidative capacities of carotenoids and phenols, whereas vitamin C and phenols correlated best with truss number, and beta-carotene correlated best with temperature. Only pressure firmness showed no correlation with any of the measured parameters. As all desirable characteristics in the freshly produced tomato increased when exposed to salinity, salinity itself constitutes an alternative method of quality improvement. Moreover, it can compensate for the loss of yield by the higher inner quality due to changing demands by the market and the consumer. This investigation is to our knowledge the first comprehensive overview regarding parameters of outer quality (yield and firmness), taste (total soluble solids and acids), nutritional value (vitamin C, carotenoids, and phenolics), as well as antioxidative capacity in tomatoes grown under saline conditions. PMID:16417302

  20. Tissue specific localization of pectin-Ca²⁺ cross-linkages and pectin methyl-esterification during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Hyodo

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening is one of the developmental processes accompanying seed development. The tomato is a well-known model for studying fruit ripening and development, and the disassembly of primary cell walls and the middle lamella, such as through pectin de-methylesterified by pectin methylesterase (PE and depolymerization by polygalacturonase (PG, is generally accepted to be one of the major changes that occur during ripening. Although many reports of the changes in pectin during tomato fruit ripening are focused on the relation to softening of the pericarp or the Blossom-end rot by calcium (Ca²⁺ deficiency disorder, the changes in pectin structure and localization in each tissues during tomato fruit ripening is not well known. In this study, to elucidate the tissue-specific role of pectin during fruit development and ripening, we examined gene expression, the enzymatic activities involved in pectin synthesis and depolymerisation in fruit using biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses, and uronic acids and calcium (Ca-bound pectin were determined by secondary ion-microprobe mass spectrometry. These results show that changes in pectin properties during fruit development and ripening have tissue-specific patterns. In particular, differential control of pectin methyl-esterification occurs in each tissue. Variations in the cell walls of the pericarp are quite different from that of locular tissues. The Ca-binding pectin and hairy pectin in skin cell layers are important for intercellular and tissue-tissue adhesion. Maintenance of the globular form and softening of tomato fruit may be regulated by the arrangement of pectin structures in each tissue.

  1. Tissue specific localization of pectin-Ca²⁺ cross-linkages and pectin methyl-esterification during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Hiromi; Terao, Azusa; Furukawa, Jun; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Satoh, Shinobu; Iwai, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Fruit ripening is one of the developmental processes accompanying seed development. The tomato is a well-known model for studying fruit ripening and development, and the disassembly of primary cell walls and the middle lamella, such as through pectin de-methylesterified by pectin methylesterase (PE) and depolymerization by polygalacturonase (PG), is generally accepted to be one of the major changes that occur during ripening. Although many reports of the changes in pectin during tomato fruit ripening are focused on the relation to softening of the pericarp or the Blossom-end rot by calcium (Ca²⁺) deficiency disorder, the changes in pectin structure and localization in each tissues during tomato fruit ripening is not well known. In this study, to elucidate the tissue-specific role of pectin during fruit development and ripening, we examined gene expression, the enzymatic activities involved in pectin synthesis and depolymerisation in fruit using biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses, and uronic acids and calcium (Ca)-bound pectin were determined by secondary ion-microprobe mass spectrometry. These results show that changes in pectin properties during fruit development and ripening have tissue-specific patterns. In particular, differential control of pectin methyl-esterification occurs in each tissue. Variations in the cell walls of the pericarp are quite different from that of locular tissues. The Ca-binding pectin and hairy pectin in skin cell layers are important for intercellular and tissue-tissue adhesion. Maintenance of the globular form and softening of tomato fruit may be regulated by the arrangement of pectin structures in each tissue.

  2. The relationship between anatomical and morphological characteristics of green tomato fruit and their susceptibility to late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Horodecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the studies carried out in 1983-1985 was to determine the relationships between the degree of susceptibility of green tomato fruit to late blight and several of the anatomical and morphological features of these fruits. It was found that in the studied material representing a wide range of susceptibility (from various degrees of resistance to susceptible the extent of infection was dependent on the covering layer thickness (with cuticle and number of hairs on the skin.

  3. Effects of shoot pruning and inflorescence thinning on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of greenhouse tomatoes in a tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes F. J. Max

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of shoot pruning (one or two stems and inflorescence thinning (five or ten flowers per inflorescence on greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality were studied during the dry season (DS and rainy season (RS in Central Thailand. Poor fruit set, development of undersized (mostly parthenocarpic fruits, as well as the physiological disorders blossom-end rot (BER and fruit cracking (FC turned out to be the prevailing causes deteriorating fruit yield and quality. The proportion of marketable fruits was less than 10% in the RS and around 65% in the DS. In both seasons, total yield was significantly increased when plants were cultivated with two stems, resulting in higher marketable yields only in the DS. While the fraction of undersized fruits was increased in both seasons when plants were grown with a secondary stem, the proportions of BER and FC were significantly reduced. Restricting the number of flowers per inflorescence invariably resulted in reduced total yield. However, in neither season did fruit load considerably affect quantity or proportion of the marketable yield fraction. Inflorescence thinning tended to promote BER and FC, an effect which was only significant for BER in the RS. In conclusion, for greenhouse tomato production under climate conditions as they are prevalent in Central Thailand, the cultivation with two stems appears to be highly recommendable whereas the measures to control fruit load tested in this study did not proof to be advisable.

  4. 21 CFR 145.125 - Canned cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.125 Canned cherries. (a... paragraph (a)(1) of this section, as defined in § 145.3 are: (a) Water. (b) Fruit juice(s) and water....

  5. Antioxidant compounds and their bioaccessibility in tomato fruit and puree obtained from a DETIOLATED-1 (DET-1) down-regulated genetically modified genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talens, P; Mora, L; Bramley, Peter M; Fraser, Paul D

    2016-12-15

    The economic value, the ease of cultivation and processing, and the well-known health-promoting properties of tomato fruit, make the tomato an important target for genetic manipulation to increase its nutritional content. A transgenic variety, down-regulated in the DETIOLATED-1 (DET-1) gene, has been studied in comparison with the parental line, for antioxidant levels in fresh and hot break fruit, as well as the bioaccessibility of antioxidants from puree. Differences in the concentrations of antioxidants between the wild-type and the genetically modified raw tomatoes were confirmed, but antioxidant levels were maintained to a greater extent in the GM puree than in the parent. The bioaccessibility of the compounds, tested using an in vitro digestion model, showed an increase in the genetically modified samples.

  6. Antioxidant compounds and their bioaccessibility in tomato fruit and puree obtained from a DETIOLATED-1 (DET-1) down-regulated genetically modified genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talens, P; Mora, L; Bramley, Peter M; Fraser, Paul D

    2016-12-15

    The economic value, the ease of cultivation and processing, and the well-known health-promoting properties of tomato fruit, make the tomato an important target for genetic manipulation to increase its nutritional content. A transgenic variety, down-regulated in the DETIOLATED-1 (DET-1) gene, has been studied in comparison with the parental line, for antioxidant levels in fresh and hot break fruit, as well as the bioaccessibility of antioxidants from puree. Differences in the concentrations of antioxidants between the wild-type and the genetically modified raw tomatoes were confirmed, but antioxidant levels were maintained to a greater extent in the GM puree than in the parent. The bioaccessibility of the compounds, tested using an in vitro digestion model, showed an increase in the genetically modified samples. PMID:27451242

  7. A quick, efficient, and cost-effective method for isolating high-quality total RNA from tomato fruits, suitable for molecular biology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzevari, Alireza Ghannad; Hosseini, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the primary model for the study of fleshy fruits, and research on this species has elucidated many aspects of fruit physiology, development, and metabolism. However, for advancing such studies at molecular biology levels, the RNA isolation from fruit tissues is often essential. The RNA isolation from tomato fruits is complicated because of the presence of high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenolics, pigments, and secondary metabolites and also the varying water content during development. Here, we present an optimized protocol for the isolation of total RNA from the fruit tissues at different developmental stages. In comparison to the previous methods described for the RNA isolation from tomato fruit, this method has the advantages that it does not involve the use of guanidine salts, lyophilizers, and commercial reagents, reduces the time and cost of extraction, overcomes the high water content problem, and promotes RNA quality by inhibiting RNA degradation and minimizing the gDNA, polyphenolic and polysaccharide contaminations. Using this method, high yields of high-purity and intact RNA samples were obtained as confirmed by the spectrophotometric readings and the electrophoresis on denaturing agarose gels. The isolated RNA was employed as a robust template for cDNA synthesis, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and temporal gene expression analysis. The functionality of the isolated RNA was further demonstrated through cloning full-length cDNAs encoding β-galactosidase proteins by RT-PCR and sequencing.

  8. The Tomato FRUITFULL Homologs TDR4/FUL1 and MBP7/FUL2 Regulate Ethylene-Independent Aspects of Fruit Ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemer, M.; Karlova, R.B.; Ballester, A.R.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Bovy, A.G.; Wolters-Arts, M.; Barros Rossetto, de P.; Angenent, G.C.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains two close homologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana MADS domain transcription factor FRUITFULL (FUL), FUL1 (previously called TDR4) and FUL2 (previously MBP7). Both proteins interact with the ripening regulator RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN) and are expressed during fruit

  9. Effect of the colorless non-ripening mutation on cell wall biochemistry and gene expression during tomato fruit development and ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, E.M.; Bovy, A.G.; Manning, K.; Harrison, L.; Andrews, J.; Silva, De J.; Tucker, A.; Seymour, G.B.

    2004-01-01

    The Colorless non-ripening (Cnr) mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) results in mature fruits with colorless pericarp tissue showing an excessive loss of cell adhesion (A.J. Thompson, M. Tor, C.S. Barry, J. Vrebalov, C. Orfila, M.C. Jarvis, J.J. Giovannoni, D. Grierson, G.B. Seymour [1999] Pla

  10. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zongxia; Niu, Wenquan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2015-01-01

    Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing), on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS) and enlargement (58-85 DAS) growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content), taste (titratable acidity), and market quality (shape and firmness) of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  11. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    Full Text Available Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing, on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS and enlargement (58-85 DAS growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content, taste (titratable acidity, and market quality (shape and firmness of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  12. Application of wide selected-ion monitoring data-independent acquisition to identify tomato fruit proteins regulated by the CUTIN DEFICIENT2 transcription factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe here the use of label-free wide selected-ion monitoring data-independent acquisition (WiSIM-DIA) to identify proteins that are involved in the formation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit cuticles and that are regulated by the transcription factor CUTIN DEFICIENT2 (CD2). A spectral l...

  13. Cell wall composition of tomato fruit changes during development and inhibition of vesicle trafficking is associated with reduced pectin levels and reduced softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Daniel; Phan, Thanh D; Tucker, Gregory A; Lycett, Grantley W

    2013-05-01

    Fruit development entails a multitude of biochemical changes leading up to the mature green stage. During this period the cell wall will undergo complex compositional and structural changes. Inhibition of genes encoding elements of the machinery involved in trafficking to the cell wall presents us with a useful tool to study these changes and their associated phenotypes. An antisense SlRab11a transgene has previously been shown to reduce ripening-associated fruit softening. SlRab11a is highly expressed during fruit development which is associated with a period of pectin influx into the wall. We have analysed the cell wall polysaccharides at different stages of growth and ripening of wild type and antisense SlRab11a transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv, Ailsa Craig) fruit. Our results demonstrated intriguing changes in cell wall composition during the development and ripening of wild type Alisa Craig tomato fruit. Analysis of SlRab11a expression by TaqMan PCR showed it to be expressed most strongly during growth of the fruit, suggesting a possible role in cell wall deposition. The SlRab11a antisense fruit had a decreased proportion of pectin in the cell wall compared with the wild type. We suggest a new approach for modification of fruit shelf-life by changing cell wall deposition rather than cell wall hydrolytic enzymes.

  14. Yeast Extract: Sucrose Ratio Effects on Egg Load, Survival, and Mortality Caused by GF-120 in Western Cherry Fruit Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrinsic sources of nitrogen are needed by tephritid fruit flies for optimal nutrition. In this study, relationships between yeast extract diets containing 0, 0.109, 0.545, 1.09, 2.18, 3.27, and 5.45% nitrogen (N) and diet intake, survival, egg production, and responses to spinosad bait in western...

  15. Preliminary evaluation of pollen quality, fertility relations and fruit set of selected sour cherry cultivars in polish conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szpadzik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary experiments were carried out in spring 2006. The percentage of fruit set of 'Schattenmorelle IR-2', 'Koral', 'Debreceni Bötermö', 'újfefértói Fürtos' and 'Karneol' was higher after open pollination compared with self-pollination. The cultivar Vowi had an incon