WorldWideScience

Sample records for cherry tomato fruits

  1. Reduction of Chilling Injury and Ultrastructural Damage in Cherry Tomato Fruits After Hot Water Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; FU Mao-run; ZHAO Yu-ying; MAO Lin-chun

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hot water treatment in alleviating chilling injury and reducing ultrastructural damage of mature-green cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicun esculentum cv. cerasiform Alef) were investigated. Mature-green cherry tomato fruits were treated in water at 40℃ or 45℃ for 5 rain or 15 rain, and then stored at 5℃ for 19 days followed by ripening at 20℃. Water treatment at 40℃ for 15 rain increased tolerance of cherry tomato fruits to chilling stress, indicating as low outbreak of skin lesion, high color a* value, and low electrolyte leakage. Treated fi'uits showed typical climacteric respiration and developed normal red color with chlorophyll degradation and lyeopene accumulation during ripening, while fruits without treatment failed to develop red color and suffered skin lesion. After 19 days of chilling, heated fruits showed the conversion of chloroplast to ehromoplast with the disappearance of thylakoids. Mitochondria and other cell organelles were not adversely affected in treated fruits. However, ultrastruetures in periearp cells in control fruits severely damaged with extensive disorganization of cytoplasm, swelled chloroplasts, distorted and unstacked thylakoids. Chloroplast was the first and most severely impacted organelle by chilling stress. Hot water treatment (40℃ for 15 min) before storage alleviated chilling injury in cherry tomato fruits. The results suggest that chilling injury is related with the damage of cell structure under chilling stress.

  2. A Chitosan Coating Containing Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare L. to Control Postharvest Mold Infections and Keep the Quality of Cherry Tomato Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Tainá A; Andrade, Sonalle C A; Maciel, Janeeyre F; Arcanjo, Narciza M O; Madruga, Marta S; Meireles, Bruno; Cordeiro, Ângela M T; Souza, Evandro L; Magnani, Marciane

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL) and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 μL/mL) for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25°C; 12 days) and cold (12°C; 24 days) temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the appearance of the first visible signs of black mold and soft rot in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit stored at room temperature by 6 days and by more than 9 days in those stored at cold temperature. At the end of storage at room and cold temperature fruit coated with CHI-OVEO showed higher firmness (>2 N/mm) and lower weight loss (>2%) compared to uncoated tomato fruit. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the decrease of lycopene, ascorbic citric acid, glucose and fructose during the storage time assessed at room or cold temperatures. The increase of catechin, myricetin, caffeic and syringic acids was higher (1-9 mg/g) in cherry tomato fruit coated with CHI-OVEO compared to uncoated fruit during the storage at both temperatures studied. CHI-OVEO coating is a feasible treatment for maintaining the storage quality of cherry tomato fruit.

  3. Phytochemical and nutrient/antinutrient interactions in cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetayo, Folake Lucy; Ibitoye, Muyiwa Femi

    2012-07-01

    The fruit of the cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae)) was analysed for mineral and antinutrient composition. Phosphorus (33.04 ± 0.21 mg/100g) was the most abundant mineral in the fruit, followed by calcium (32.04 ± 0.06 mg/100 g), and potassium (11.9 ± 0.1 mg/100 g) and manganese (9.55 ± 0.28 mg/100 g) were also present in appreciable quantities. Antinutrients, including phytate, glycoside, saponin and tannin, were screened and quantified. Phytate (112.82 ± 0.1 mg/100 g), glycoside (2.33 ± 0.00 mg/100 g), saponin (1.31 ± 0.00 mg/100g) and tannin (0.21 ± 0.00 mg/100 g) were present in the fruit but phlobatanin and glycosides with steroidal rings were not found. The calculated calcium:phytate ratio of the fruits was below the critical value and the calculated [calcium] [phytate]:[zinc] molar ratio was less than the critical value. The calcium:phosphorus ratio (0.97 mg/100 g) shows the fruit to be a good source of food nutrients, while the sodium:potassium value was less than 1. Ca/P ratio below 0.5 indicates deficiency of these minerals while Na/K ratio above 1 is detrimental because of excessive sodium levels. The results of the study generally revealed the fruit to be rich in minerals but containing insufficient quantities of antinutrients to result in poor mineral bioavailability.

  4. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene post-harvest treatment on ripening process in cherry tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opiyo, Arnold M; Ying, Tie-Jin

    2005-02-01

    The responses of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) fruits to post-harvest treatment with 1-MCP were investigated. The maturity stage at which 1-MCP application is most effective in delaying the ripening process was determined, and then the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.035, 0.07 and 0.11 microL/L) of 1-MCP on ethylene production, fruit softening, chlorophyll, lycopene and carotenoids contents of mature green (MG) cherry tomato fruits were assessed. 1-MCP at 0.07 and 0.11 microL/L reduced fruit C(2)H(4) production, delayed the C(2)H(4) peak at ambient temperature. Although 1-MCP at 0.035 microL/L was effective in retarding fruit ripening, it did not suppress endogenous ethylene production. Fruit softening was suppressed by 1-MCP, but its initiation was not affected by 1-MCP. The rate of chlorophyll degradation and its pattern of change with time, and the initiation of lycopene biosynthesis as well as its accumulation were all affected by 1-MCP, but only the accumulation of carotenoids was suppressed. Accumulation of lycopene and carotenoids was almost permanently hampered by 1-MCP at 0.07 microL/L or higher concentrations, and fruit color could not reach the control level even 2 weeks after 1-MCP treatment, indicating the close association of the metabolism of these pigments with ethylene perception. Since the concentration of 0.11 microL/L of 1-MCP was so high that it did not elicit additional response very much than 0.07 microL/L, these concentrations were considered to be practically effective concentrations for cherry tomato at MG stage. The effective 1-MCP concentrations might provide a useful reference to the levels of ethylene receptors as well as ethylene sensitivity in a specific fruit at given development stage.

  5. Coatings comprising chitosan and Mentha piperita L. or Mentha × villosa Huds essential oils to prevent common postharvest mold infections and maintain the quality of cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ingrid Conceição Dantas; de Oliveira, Priscila Dinah Lima; Pontes, Alline Lima de Souza; Lúcio, Ana Sílvia Suassuna Carneiro; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-02

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of coatings comprising shrimp chitosan (CHI) and Mentha piperita L. (MPEO) or Mentha × villosa Huds (MVEO) essential oils to control mold infections caused by Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum and Rhizopus stolonifer in cherry tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during storage at room temperature (25°C for 12 days) and low temperature (12°C for 24 days). The effects of the coatings on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of cherry tomato fruits during storage were also assessed. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CHI against all test fungi was 8 mg/mL, whereas the MIC for both MPEO and MVEO was 5 μL/mL. Combinations of CHI at 4 mg/mL and MPEO or MVEO at 2.5 or 1.25 μL/mL strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of target fungi. The coatings comprising CHI and MPEO or CHI and MVEO at the different tested concentrations delayed the growth of decay-causing fungi in artificially contaminated tomato fruit during storage at either room temperature or low temperature. The assayed coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage, in terms of physicochemical and sensory attributes. These results indicate that coatings comprising CHI and MPEO or CHI and MVEO represent promising postharvest treatments to prevent common postharvest mold infections in cherry tomato fruit during storage without affecting the quality of the fruit.

  6. Dynamic Regulation of Nitrogen and Organic Acid Metabolism of Cherry Tomato Fruit as Affected by Different Nitrogen Forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xin-Juan; LI Qing-Yu; SONG Xiao-Hui; Shen Qi-Rong; Dong Cai-Xia

    2012-01-01

    Cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.,cv.hongyangli) were hydroponically cultivated in a greenhouse to determine the effect of different nitrogen (N) forms on organic acid concentration and the activities of related enzymes involved in nitrogen and organic acid metabolism during cherry tomato fruit development.The results showed that fruit nitrate reductase (NR) activity was much higher following treatment with 100% NO-3 and 75% NO-3 +25% NH+4 than with 100% NH+4 except at maturity.Glutamine synthetaee (GS) activity trended downward during fruit development under all three treatments.Plants fed 100% NH4+ had the lowest fruit citrate and malate levels at maturity,with the highest malate concentration at an early stage.The activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) was found to be in accord with the malate concentration with every N source.Under all three N forms,the citrate synthase (CS) activity peaked one week before the citrate concentration.

  7. A chitosan coating containing essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. to control postharvest mold infections and keep the quality of cherry tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Barreto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 µL/mL for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25 °C; 12 days and cold (12 °C; 24 days temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures by more than. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the appearance of the first visible signs of black mold and soft rot in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit stored at room temperature by six days and by more than nine days in those stored at cold temperature. At the end of storage at room and cold temperature fruit coated with CHI-OVEO showed higher firmness ( > 2 N/mm and lower weight loss ( > 2 % compared to uncoated tomato fruit. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the decrease of lycopene, ascorbic citric acid, glucose and fructose during the storage time assessed at room or cold temperatures. The increase of catechin, myricetin, caffeic and syringic acids was higher (1 - 9 mg/g in cherry tomato fruit coated with CHI-OVEO compared to uncoated fruit during the storage at both temperatures studied. CHI-OVEO coating is a feasible treatment for maintaining the storage quality of cherry tomato fruit.

  8. A Chitosan Coating Containing Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare L. to Control Postharvest Mold Infections and Keep the Quality of Cherry Tomato Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Tainá A.; Andrade, Sonalle C. A.; Maciel, Janeeyre F.; Arcanjo, Narciza M. O.; Madruga, Marta S.; Meireles, Bruno; Cordeiro, Ângela M. T.; Souza, Evandro L.; Magnani, Marciane

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL) and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 μL/mL) for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25°C; 12 days) and cold (12°C; 24 days) temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the appearance of the first visible signs of black mold and soft rot in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit stored at room temperature by 6 days and by more than 9 days in those stored at cold temperature. At the end of storage at room and cold temperature fruit coated with CHI-OVEO showed higher firmness (>2 N/mm) and lower weight loss (>2%) compared to uncoated tomato fruit. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the decrease of lycopene, ascorbic citric acid, glucose and fructose during the storage time assessed at room or cold temperatures. The increase of catechin, myricetin, caffeic and syringic acids was higher (1–9 mg/g) in cherry tomato fruit coated with CHI-OVEO compared to uncoated fruit during the storage at both temperatures studied. CHI-OVEO coating is a feasible treatment for maintaining the storage quality of cherry tomato fruit. PMID:27877156

  9. Efficacy of a coating composed of chitosan from Mucor circinelloides and carvacrol to control Aspergillus flavus and the quality of cherry tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Evandro L; Sales, Camila V; de Oliveira, Carlos E V; Lopes, Laênia A A; da Conceição, Maria L; Berger, Lúcia R R; Stamford, Thayza C M

    2015-01-01

    Cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) fruits are susceptible to contamination by Aspergillus flavus, which may cause the development of fruit rot and significant postharvest losses. Currently there are significant drawbacks for the use of synthetic fungicides to control pathogenic fungi in tomato fruits, and it has increased the interest in exploring new alternatives to control the occurrence of fungal infections in these fruits. This study evaluated the efficacy of chitosan (CHI) from Mucor circinelloides in combination with carvacrol (CAR) in inhibiting A. flavus in laboratory media and as a coating on cherry tomato fruits (25°C, 12 days and 12°C, 24 days). During a period of storage, the effect of coatings composed of CHI and CAR on autochthonous microflora, as well as on some quality characteristics of the fruits such as weight loss, color, firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity was evaluated. CHI and CAR displayed MIC valuesof 7.5 mg/mL and 10 μL/mL, respectively, against A. flavus. The combined application of CHI (7.5 or 3.75 mg/mL) and CAR (5 or 2.5 μL/mL) strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of A. flavus. The coating composed of CHI (3.75 mg/mL) and CAR (2.5 or 1.25 μL/mL) inhibited the growth of A. flavus in artificially contaminated fruits, as well as the native fungal microflora of the fruits stored at room or low temperature. The application of the tested coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruits as measured by some physicochemical attributes. From this, composite coatings containing CHI and CAR offer a promising alternative to control postharvest infection caused by A. flavus or native fungal microflora in fresh cherry tomato fruits without negatively affecting their quality over storage.

  10. Efficacy of a coating composed of chitosan from Mucor circinelloides and carvacrol to control Aspergillus flavus and the quality of cherry tomato fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Evandro L.; Sales, Camila V.; de Oliveira, Carlos E. V.; Lopes, Laênia A. A.; da Conceição, Maria L.; Berger, Lúcia R. R.; Stamford, Thayza C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) fruits are susceptible to contamination by Aspergillus flavus, which may cause the development of fruit rot and significant postharvest losses. Currently there are significant drawbacks for the use of synthetic fungicides to control pathogenic fungi in tomato fruits, and it has increased the interest in exploring new alternatives to control the occurrence of fungal infections in these fruits. This study evaluated the efficacy of chitosan (CHI) from Mucor circinelloides in combination with carvacrol (CAR) in inhibiting A. flavus in laboratory media and as a coating on cherry tomato fruits (25°C, 12 days and 12°C, 24 days). During a period of storage, the effect of coatings composed of CHI and CAR on autochthonous microflora, as well as on some quality characteristics of the fruits such as weight loss, color, firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity was evaluated. CHI and CAR displayed MIC valuesof 7.5 mg/mL and 10 μL/mL, respectively, against A. flavus. The combined application of CHI (7.5 or 3.75 mg/mL) and CAR (5 or 2.5 μL/mL) strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of A. flavus. The coating composed of CHI (3.75 mg/mL) and CAR (2.5 or 1.25 μL/mL) inhibited the growth of A. flavus in artificially contaminated fruits, as well as the native fungal microflora of the fruits stored at room or low temperature. The application of the tested coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruits as measured by some physicochemical attributes. From this, composite coatings containing CHI and CAR offer a promising alternative to control postharvest infection caused by A. flavus or native fungal microflora in fresh cherry tomato fruits without negatively affecting their quality over storage. PMID:26257717

  11. Low temperature storage affects the ascorbic acid metabolism of cherry tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaniklidis, Georgios; Delis, Costas; Nikoloudakis, Nikolaos; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Aivalakis, Georgios

    2014-11-01

    Tomato fruits are an important source of l-Ascorbic acid, which is an essential compound of human diet. The effect of the widespread practice of cold storing (5-10 °C) tomato fruits was monitored to determine its impact on the concentration and redox status of l-Ascorbic acid. Total l-Ascorbic acid levels were well maintained in both attached fruits and cold treated fruits, while in other treatments its levels were considerably reduced. However, low temperature storage conditions enhanced the expression of most genes coding for enzymes involved in l-Ascorbic acid biosynthesis and redox reactions. The findings suggest that the transcriptional up-regulation under chilling stress conditions of most genes coding for l-Ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase, GDP-d-mannose 3,5-epimerase but also for the isoenzymes of ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase enzyme, glutathione reductase that are strongly correlated to the l-Ascorbic redox status. Moreover, fruits stored at 10 °C exhibited higher levels of transcript accumulation of MDHAR2, DHAR1, DHAR2, GR1 and GR2 genes, pointing to a better ability to manage chilling stress in comparison to fruits stored at 5 °C.

  12. Inheritance of Cherry Tomato Fruit Color%樱桃番茄果色的遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涛; 李锦泉; 黄青峰; 陈朝文; 林金秀

    2013-01-01

    Various hybrids were generated by crossing among two black ,6 red ,4 pink ,2 orange ,and 2 yellow cherry tomato inbred lines . The visual fruit color classification for the tomatoes was obtained using a Royal Horticultural Society plant color chart .The phenotypic observation of 6 samples was performed on a color difference meter .And ,the major plus multi-gene analysis of quantitative traits in plant was used to study the genetic law of the fruit color in black cherry tomato .The results showed that the black fruit color was a recessive trait .The parents must be of black type in order to achieve the same fruit color in hybrid F1 .The genetic fruit color trait of the combination ,PINK × Z2 ,was determined by additive-dominant-epistemic model of two major genes ,and there was an epistemic effect between the two major genes .%以2个黑色樱桃番茄的自交系Z1、Z2,与红色、粉红色、橙色和黄色樱桃番茄自交系(分别以R、P、O和Y代表各类型)为试材,进行杂交。采取RHS植物色卡比对结合目测进行分类、色彩色差仪测定果色;并利用植物数量性状主基因+多基因的遗传分析方法,对黑色樱桃番茄果色的遗传规律进行研究。结果表明:樱桃番茄果色黑色性状为隐性性状遗传,双亲果色必须都是黑色类型,才能获得同类型果色的杂种一代;组合PINK × Z2果色性状遗传符合2对加性-显性-上位性主基因模型,主基因的遗传力非常高,早期世代就要注意果色性状的选择;果色黑色性状是由基因 R和gf 这2对主基因控制,且它们之间存在着互作效应。

  13. In vivo measurement of phytochrome in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, J J

    1977-04-01

    Presence of phytochrome in two kinds of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), the yellow lutescent strain and cherry tomatoes (L. esculentum Mill. var. cerasiformecv. Red Cherry), was established by measuring the absorption difference spectra of the whole fruit after irradiation with red and with far red light. Phytochrome content was determined in yellow lutescent tomatoes and decreased gradually during the ripening period.

  14. Antifungal activity of food additives in vitro and as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Cristiane; Pérez-Gago, María B; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Palou, Lluís

    2013-09-16

    The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food preservatives at 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0% (v/v) after 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Selected additives and concentrations were tested as antifungal ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings. The curative activity of stable coatings was tested in in vivo experiments. Cherry tomatoes were artificially inoculated with the pathogens, coated by immersion about 24 h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 6, 10, and 15 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. In general, HPMC-lipid antifungal coatings controlled black spot caused by A. alternata more effectively than gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, the best results for reduction of gray mold on cherry tomato fruit were obtained with coatings containing 2.0% of potassium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium carbonate, while 2.0% sodium methylparaben, sodium ethylparaben, and sodium propylparaben were the best ingredients for coatings against black rot.

  15. Herança do formato do fruto em tomateiro do grupo cereja Inheritance of fruit shape in cherry tomato group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mascarenhas Maciel

    2008-12-01

    period of July 2003 through March, 2005 with the objective to determine the fruit shape of the cherry tomato plant. Two wild genotype contrasting tomato plants were utilised with the fruit shape: long fruit shape (LF and round fruit shape (RF. Reciprocal crosses and backcross were realised and the fruit shape was evaluated in the generations origininated from these crosses. All plants of the F1 generation produced round shape fruit. In the F2 generation, 111 plants produced round fruit shape and 47 plants produced long fruit shape. On the backcross generation (F1 x LF 47 plants produced round fruit shape and 42 plants produced long fruit shape. These results when analysed by chi square, confirmed Mendelian segregation 3:1 and 1:1 respectively. It was concluded that the studied fruit shape has monogenic inheritance. The allele that determines fruit round shape has complete dominance over the allele that determines elongated shape fruit with possible action of the sun locus.

  16. Economic Sustainability of Italian Greenhouse Cherry Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Testa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato cultivation plays an important role in Sicily, being the primary production area in Italy, due to its favorable pedo-climatic conditions that permit extra-seasonal productions. In Sicily, more than half of greenhouse tomato production is derived from the Province of Ragusa on the southeastern coast, where especially cherry tomato typologies are cultivated. Over the last decade, the Ragusa Province has registered a decrease both in terms of greenhouse tomato area and harvested production due to several structural problems that would require restructuring of the tomato supply chain. Thus, since recognition of real costs and profitability of tomato growing is a vital issue, both from the perspective of the farm, as well as from that of the entrepreneur, the aim of this paper was to analyze the economic sustainability of Sicilian greenhouse cherry tomato cultivated in the Ragusa Province. In particular, an economic analysis on 30 representative farms was conducted in order to estimate production costs and profits of greenhouse cherry tomato. According to our results, the lack of commercial organization, which characterizes the small farms we surveyed, determines low contractual power for farmers and, consequently, low profitability.

  17. Effect of Ascorbic Acid Treatment on Physiology and Antioxidants of Cherry Tomato Fruits during Storage%外源抗坏血酸对圣女果采后生理和抗氧化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锴栋; 敬国兴; 袁长春; 陈燕; 刘金祥; 黎海利

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of ascorbic acid with different concentration on the preservation of cherry tomato fruits and the effects of ascorbic acid on physiology and antioxidants in cherry tomato whose fruits were dipped in 50 mmol/L ascorbic acid solution for 30 min and then stored at low temperature (15 ?). The results showed that the preservation effects of cherry tomato treated with 50 mmol/L ascorbic acid solution was the best. 50 mmol/L ascorbic acid solution treatment inhibited the decline in firmness and the increase of TSS and thus delayed the fruit ripening and senescence process. Ascorbic acid treatment also could decrease the relative conductivity and increase the activities of SOD and POD in cherry tomato fruits in later storage. The loss of soluble protein content and Vc content was inhibited significantly too. In addition, ascorbic acid treatment could decrease PPO activity. Correlation analysis showed that the physiological indices of SOD activity, PPO activity and Vc content were related to the relative electric conductivity in cherry tomato fruits. The study suggested that the ripening and senescence process in cherry tomato fruits was delayed by exogenous ascorbic acid. Therefore, the ascorbic acid treatment revealed an excellent effect on fresh-keeping of cherry tomato fruits.%以圣女果为试材,研究不同抗坏血酸浓度处理对果实保鲜效果的影响,以及采用50 mmol/L的抗坏血酸溶液浸泡果实30 min并在15 ℃下贮藏,研究抗坏血酸处理对果实生理及抗氧化活性的影响.结果表明:50 mmol/L的抗坏血酸处理效果最好.50 mmol/L抗坏血酸处理有效延缓了圣女果果实硬度的下降和可溶性固形物含量的上升,推迟其成熟衰老进程;抗坏血酸处理还能抑制果实相对电导率的快速升高,提高了果实贮藏后期SOD、POD的活性,抑制果实可溶性蛋白质和维生素C含量的下降;同时,抗坏血酸处理也抑制了果实中PPO

  18. Control of Cherry Leaf Spot and Cherry Fruit Fly at Sour Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria BOROVINOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were made in the experimental sour cherry orchard from the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil, Bulgaria, during the period 2010-2014, in order to compare conventional and integrated sour cherry protection against cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Two variants were investigated, with two different treatment approaches for the control of cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Variant 1 – cherry leaf spot was controlled by protective treatments with dodin and tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin and cherry fruit fly was controlled by treatments with deltametrin and thiacloprid, independently of density. Variant 2 - cherry leaf spot was controlled by post-infection (curative treatments with tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin and cherry fruit fly was controlled by treatments based on biological threshold: 10-11 cherry fruit fly females caught in traps up to the moment for chemical treatment. It was established that Blumeriella japii can be successfully controlled by post-infection treatments and by this the number of insecticide treatments was reduced. The treatments against cherry fruit fly can be avoided or reduced when the attack control is based on the biological threshold established in the studied area.

  19. Inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium and quality preservation of cherry tomatoes by in-package aerosolization of antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of in-package aerosolized aqueous sanitizers in reducing populations of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium inoculated on tomato fruit and in maintaining fruit quality. Cherry tomatoes were inoculated with a cocktail of ...

  20. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)], E-mail: setsuko@affrc.go.jp; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Kanamori, Norihito [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio [School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara-city, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Kawamoto, Shinichi [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a {sup 60}Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of {beta}-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  1. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka; Kanamori, Norihito; Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2009-07-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 °C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  2. In-package atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment of cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Nrusimha Nath; Keener, Kevin M; Bourke, Paula; Mosnier, Jean-Paul; Cullen, Patrick J

    2014-08-01

    Cold plasma is increasingly under research for decontamination of foods, especially fresh fruits and vegetables. The effect of cold plasma on food quality, however, remains under researched. This study investigates the effects of cold plasma generated within a sealed package from a dielectric barrier discharge on the physical quality parameters and respiration rates of cherry tomatoes. Respiration rates and weight loss were monitored continuously, while other parameters are reported at the end of storage period. Differences among weight loss, pH and firmness for control and treated cherry tomatoes were insignificant towards the end of storage life. Changes in respiration rates and colour of tomatoes were recorded as a function of treatment, which were not drastic. The results implicate that cold plasma could be employed as a means for decontamination of cherry tomatoes while retaining product quality.

  3. 水杨酸甲酯对樱桃番茄采后生理的影响%Effect of Methyl Salicylate on Chilling Injury and Endogenous Polyamine in Postharvest Cherry Tomato Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新华; 申琳; 李富军; 生吉萍

    2011-01-01

    Cherry tomatoes(Solanum lycopersicum cv.Messina) were used to study the effects of exogenous methyl salicylate(MeSA) on chilling injury and endogenous polyamine level.The results indicated that compared with the control,MeSA treatment inhibited the occurrence of chilling injury in cherry tomato,decreased chilling injury index,decay incidence and electrolyte leakage.The accumulation of endogenous spermidine and spermine levels was significantly promoted in MeSA-treated fruits before cold storage and the levels of putrescine and spermine were increased during storage.These results indicate that the reduced chilling injury in cherry tomatoes after MeSA treatment may be due to an increase in polyamine level.%以樱桃番茄(Solanum lycopersicum cv.Messina)果实为材料,研究外源水杨酸甲酯(methyl salicylate,MeSA)处理对果实冷害发生及多胺积累的影响。结果表明:该处理减缓了樱桃番茄果实冷害症状的发展,降低了冷藏过程中果实的冷害指数、腐烂率和细胞膜的透性,显著促进了冷藏之前果实内源亚精胺(spermidine,Spd)和精胺(spermine,Spm)的积累,并提高了冷藏过程中腐胺(putrescine,Put)和Spm的含量。MeSA处理减轻樱桃番茄果实的冷害与果实内源多胺的积累有关。

  4. Construction of Cherry Tomato Fruit SpecificLYC-B Interference Vector and Validation of Its Specific Expression in Fruits of Discrepant Colors%番茄果实特异性LYC-B干扰载体的构建及在不同颜色果实中的表达特异性验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巧丽; 梁燕; 张振才; 李翠; 李云洲; 王玲慧

    2014-01-01

    为了研究番茄LYC-B干扰对类胡萝卜素合成主要酶和主要代谢产物的影响,构建了果实特异性的番茄红素β-环化酶LYC-B干扰载体,并验证了其在不同颜色番茄果实中的有效性。依据X13437.1扩增番茄果实特异启动子E8,构建了果实特异性载体E8-pBI121,其在粉色、红色、绿色和紫色的番茄果实中均能表达。依据X86452.1扩增番茄LYC-B从61~861 bp 间长度为801 bp的片段LYC-B1和从480~781 bp 间长度为302 bp的片段 LYC-B2,构建了以CaMV 35S为启动子的LYC-B干扰表达载体pBI121-B1B2,以E8替换CaMV 35S,构建了果实特异性干扰载体E8-pBI121-B1B2。采用农杆菌注射法分别侵染番茄叶片和果实,GUS染色显示,pBI121-B1B2在叶片、果实和种子中均表达,E8-pBI121-B1B2只在果实和种子中表达。%The experiment will be conducted to research the specific impacts of lycopene β-cyclase interference on carotenoid metabolism,cherry tomato(Solanum lycopersicum L. var. cerasiforme Alef.) fruit-specific lycopene β-cyclase interference vector was constructed,and the validity in different color fruits were verified. Cherry tomato fruit-specific promoter E8 was amplified according to X13437.1 and fruit-specific vector of E8-pBI121 was constructed,which could be expressed in cherry tomato fruits of pink,red,green and purple colors. According to X86452.1,two different lycopene β-cyclase sequences B1 and B2 were amplified,LYC-B1 with 801 bp from 61 bp to 861 bp and LYC-B2 with 302 bp from 480 bp to 781 bp of LYC-B. The interference vector of pBI121-B1B2 with CaMV 35S promotor and the fruit-specific expression interference vectors of E8- pBI121-B1B2 with E8 promotor were constructed. E8-pBI121,pBI121-B1B2 and E8-pBI121-B1B2 were transferred into Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 with the freeze-thaw method,then transformed into living cherry tomato fruits and leaves by injection. The results of GUS staining 7 days after injection

  5. Effects of Iodine on Fruit Quality of Cherry Tomato in Nutrient Solution Culture%营养液栽培中添加碘对樱桃番茄果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文进; 姚艳; 李正为; 龙明华; 唐小付

    2011-01-01

    在深液流水培的营养液中添加1.0~6.0 mg·L-1碘离子作为处理,研究碘对樱桃番茄果实品质的影响.结果表明碘对樱桃番茄果实的碘含量、VC含量、总酸含量、可溶性糖含量以及含水量都有一定的影响.各处理的果实碘含量均显著高于CK,并表现出随着营养液中碘浓度的提高而增加的趋势,两者的相关性达极显著水平,相关系数为0.947.3.0 mg·L-1碘浓度处理的果实VC含量最高,达201.7 mg·kg-1(FW),比CK高9.7%,差异显著.低碘浓度处理(1.0~3.0 mg·L-1)对果实的总酸含量无显著影响,最低总酸含量是3.0 mg·L-1碘浓度处理,为0.64%,高碘浓度处理(4.0~6.0 mg·L-1)果实的总酸含量则显著高于CK.碘处理使樱桃番茄果实可溶性糖含量显著降低,1.0~5.0 mg·L-1碘浓度处理之间的可溶性糖含量差异不显著.3.0mg·L-1碘浓度处理的果实糖酸比与CK无显著差异.低碘浓度处理(1.0~3.0mg·L-1)的果实含水量与CK无显著差异,而高碘浓度处理(4.0~6.0 mg·L-1)的果实含水量则显著低于CK和低碘浓度处理.综合以上结果,在樱桃番茄栽培上,以3.0 mg·L-1作为碘离子供给浓度对果实的糖酸比和含水量无显著影响,同时可以获得VC含量高、总酸含量较低、含碘量适中的果实.%In controlled condition of deep flow hydroponics, the experiment studied the effect of iodine on fruit quality of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme ) treated in solutions with iodide ( I- ) concentrations of 1.0-6.0 mg · L-1. The results showed that there were some influences on the iodine, VC, total acid, soluble sugar and moisture contents of cherry tomato fruit.The iodine content in fruit increased with the increasing of I- concentration, and each treatment was significantly higher than that of the CK. The correlation between iodine in fruits and I- concentration in solutions reached extremely significant level, with the correlation coefficient

  6. Coherences of instrumental and sensory characteristics: case study on cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csambalik, László; Divéky-Ertsey, Anna; Pap, Zoltán; Orbán, Csaba; Stégerné Máté, Mónika; Gere, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva; Sipos, László

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 6 cherry tomato varieties in terms of morphological, instrumental, and sensory attributes. Hungarian cherry tomato landraces have not been investigated in comparison with new commercial varieties for these traits. Parameters investigated were water-soluble antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH, and TEAC), and total polyphenol, vitamin C, β-carotene, lycopene, total soluble solids, and acid contents. Colorimetric measurements as well as sensory analyses were conducted. It was concluded that varied antioxidant assays should be used in parallel to overcome the selectivity of any 1 method. Total phenolic content significantly contributed to results of antioxidant assays for the investigated varieties. The sensory profiles of the 6 cherry tomato varieties have been created. The differences between the products based on the 18 attributes were analyzed by Tukey post hoc test. The biplot of the principal component analysis showed that the sensory panel could discriminate the samples along the principal components. No correlation was found between colorimetric data a* and b* measured from pulp and lycopene, but a negative connection of β-carotene and hue was noted. Total polyphenol content showed correlations with colorimetric results, except for b*. The influence of tomato skin color on color perception is significant as in the present study instrumental data measured from pulp did not match that of the panelists evaluating intact fruit. Instrumental results of sugar content were supported by the ratings of the sensory panel.

  7. Procyanidins in fruit from Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) differ strongly in chainlength from those in Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus) and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus), and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) fruits are widely used in Turkey, both as food and as traditional medicines. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these three cherry types were compared. Fruit flesh was evalua

  8. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult.

  9. Effects of Industrial Processes on Antioxidant Power and Polyphenols Profile in Cherry Tomato Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommonaro, Giuseppina; De Prisco, Rocco; Pergamo, Rita; Iodice, Carmine; Abbamondi, Gennaro Roberto; Spagnuolo, Annalisa; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    The antioxidant capacity and the polyphenolic profile of fresh and processed cherry tomatoes were analyzed with the aim of investigating the effect of industrial processes on the nutritional qualities of fruits. The results exhibited a decrease of antioxidant activity mainly in the lipophilic fraction of processed tomatoes compared with fresh products. No great difference in the antioxidant capacity was detected in the hydrophilic and methanolic extracts of fresh tomatoes and processed tomato juices. Moreover, a decrease of polyphenolic content, estimated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu method, was observed in all tomato juices. The overall polyphenolic profile of both fresh and processed tomatoes did not change significantly and, among all juices, a higher polyphenolic content was detected in juice containing peels and seeds in comparison to those without. From our data on antioxidant power and the bioactive metabolite content, tomato juice could be used as a valid and easily available source of antioxidants in everyday diet to preserve human health.

  10. EVALUATING THE FRUIT PRODUCTION AND QUALITY OF CHERRY TOMATO (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme EVALUACIÓN DE LA PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD DEL FRUTO DEL TOMATE CEREZA Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ceballos Aguirre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The greatest genetic diversity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. in terms of fruit quality characteristics such as flavor, aroma, color, and lycopene and b-carotene contents is found in wild species. This study evaluated the agronomic characteristics and fruit quality of 30 cherry tomato introductions of the germplasm bank of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Palmira in trials conducted at the Montelindo experimental farm of the Universidad de Caldas (1010 m above sea level, average temperature 22.8 °C, average annual rainfall 2200 mm, 76% relative humidity. A 5 x 6 rectangular lattice experimental design was used with 30 treatments (introductions and a commercial control (Sweet Million, 4 replicates/treatment, and 5 plants/replicate as experimental unit. The descriptors used were those suggested by the former International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, now Bioversity International. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan's means test using the SAS program. In addition, principal component and cluster dendrogram analyses using the SAS Princom and Cluster procedure (SAS Institute, Cary, NC were performed. Six principal components accounted for 80.39% of the morphological variability of the introductions evaluated. The most promising materials in terms of average fruit weight, yield per plant and per hectare, and soluble solids, vitamin C and lycopene contents were IAC1624, IAC391, IAC3652, LA2131, IAC424, IAC1621, IAC426, LA1480 and IAC1688. The broad phenotypic variability observed in the evaluated introductions favors the potential selection and breeding of tomato for traits associated with fruit production and quality.Resumen. La mayor diversidad genética del tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. en términos de características de calidad del fruto como sabor, aroma, coloración y contenidos de licopeno y b-caroteno se encuentra en especies silvestres. Este estudio evaluó las características agronómicas y

  11. Fruit bunch measurement method for cherry tomato based on visual servo%基于视觉伺服的樱桃番茄果串对靶测量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯青春; 赵春江; 王晓楠; 王秀; 贡亮; 刘成良

    2015-01-01

    针对鲜食番茄自动化采收实际需要,为了实现对樱桃番茄果串自动识别定位,基于激光测距和视觉伺服技术设计了果串自动对靶测量视觉系统。通过分析成熟番茄果串图像色彩特征,采用R-G色差模型凸显目标与背景差异,并根据色差灰度逐列统计锁定果串图像区域;基于Cognex VisionPro图像处理类库CogPMAlignTool模板匹配工具,对果串区域内果粒进行分割;根据对边缘果粒空间坐标估算,同时对采摘机械臂进行视觉伺服控制,实现对边缘果粒对靶定位测量,并根据其空间坐标测算果串长宽特征,为采摘执行部件提供作业依据。试验结果表明,视觉系统对果串内果粒的平均识别率为83.5%,对果粒视觉对靶的平均偏差为8.38像素,果串长度测量平均误差为8.25 mm,果串宽度测量平均误差为5.25 mm。该研究结果为串形果实自动采收目标识别定位提供参考。%As the fresh cherry tomato, largely produced and consumed in China, needed an increasing manual-picking cost these years, the automatic harvesting machine was expected to replace the manual labor to implement the intensive work. Accurately identifying and locating the mature fruit bunches, was a key technique of harvesting robot research. The existing research could be classified into active and passive detecting method, among which the active method was becoming more mainstream. In this paper, a new vision system for cherry tomato’s automatic harvesting was designed based on laser ranging and vision servo, and the system included a camera, a laser sensor and a manipulator as the servo unit, among which the camera was fixed coaxially ahead of the laser sensor, and could slid up and down driven by a cylinder. When the camera slid down, the laser sensor was triggered to measure the distance between fruit and camera’s view system. Through analyzing the color feature of the image acquired from the

  12. Tomato fruit continues growing while ripening, affecting cuticle properties and cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Eva; Fernández, María Dolores; Hernández, Juan Carlos López; Parra, Jerónimo Pérez; España, Laura; Heredia, Antonio; Cuartero, Jesús

    2012-12-01

    Fruit cuticle composition and their mechanical performance have a special role during ripening because internal pressure is no longer sustained by the degraded cell walls of the pericarp but is directly transmitted to epidermis and cuticle which could eventually crack. We have studied fruit growth, cuticle modifications and its biomechanics, and fruit cracking in tomato; tomato has been considered a model system for studying fleshy fruit growth and ripening. Tomato fruit cracking is a major disorder that causes severe economic losses and, in cherry tomato, crack appearance is limited to the ripening process. As environmental conditions play a crucial role in fruit growing, ripening and cracking, we grow two cherry tomato cultivars in four conditions of radiation and relative humidity (RH). High RH and low radiation decreased the amount of cuticle and cuticle components accumulated. No effect of RH in cuticle biomechanics was detected. However, cracked fruits had a significantly less deformable (lower maximum strain) cuticle than non-cracked fruits. A significant and continuous fruit growth from mature green to overripe has been detected with special displacement sensors. This growth rate varied among genotypes, with cracking-sensitive genotypes showing higher growth rates than cracking-resistant ones. Environmental conditions modified this growth rate during ripening, with higher growing rates under high RH and radiation. These conditions corresponded to those that favored fruit cracking. Fruit growth rate during ripening, probably sustained by an internal turgor pressure, is a key parameter in fruit cracking, because fruits that ripened detached from the vine did not crack.

  13. Comparative morphological analysis of cherry tomato fruits from three cropping systems Análise morfológica comparativa de frutos tomate cereja provenientes de três sistemas de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Cachoeira Stertz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to meet produces market demand are not always followed by research reports showing the impact of novel, intensive cropping systems on the environment, human and animal health, and eventual chemical and structural changes of plants. This work carries a comparative evaluation of the morphology and anatomy of cherry tomato fruits obtained from organic, conventional and hydroponic cropping systems. Fruits were collected at the free market in the greater Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. For each culture method, 50 fruits their weight, diameter and volume measured. For the anatomical analysis, samples of the pericarp of ten fruits were excised and embedded in glycol methacrylate; 6-mm cuts were then obtained, stained with toluidine blue, and mounted on permanent glass slides. The anatomical analysis and illustrations were performed in Olympus and Zeiss photonic microscope. Samples obtained from the organic cropping system presented the highest mass, diameter, volume and density. The pericarp of fruits, obtained from the conventional cropping system presented larger but less abundant cells in comparison to the pericarp of the hydroponic and organic-produced fruits.A ciência agrícola buscou novas formas de cultivo para atender às exigências de mercado e dividiu-se em três grandes vertentes: os sistemas de cultivo orgânico, convencional e hidropônico. Todavia, esses avanços nem sempre foram acompanhados por pesquisas que objetivassem apontar o impacto de uma nova técnica agrícola sobre o ambiente, a saúde humana e animal e aos próprios vegetais em seus aspectos químicos e estruturais. Este trabalho tem por objetivo o estudo comparativo da morfo-anatomia do fruto do Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme (Duval A. Gray, cultivado nos sistemas orgânico, convencional e hidropônico. Os frutos foram coletados no comércio varejista da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. Para cada cultivo foram analisados 50 frutos. Cada

  14. CONVECTIVE DRYING OF CHERRY TOMATO: STUDY OF SKIN EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KHAMA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A whole single cherry tomato was dried in a forced convective micro-dryer. The experiments were carried out at constant air velocity and humidity and temperatures of 50, 60, 70 °C. In order to study the effect of the skin, two sets of experiments were performed using a tomato with and without skin (easily removed. Shorter drying times were obtained when increasing drying temperatures as well as when removing sample skin. X-ray microtomography, a non-destructive 3D imaging technique was used to follow shrinkage of the samples. This phenomenon was introduced in the modelling part of this study. Analytical solutions of the Fick’law were used to determine the diffusion coefficient at the three temperatures studied, and then the activation energy was obtained through fitting the Arrhenius equation. The skin effect was clearly evidenced by showing that the mass transfer parameter values of an original tomato with skin were largely smaller than the one without skin. Indeed, the moisture effective diffusivity ranged from 2.56×10-11 to 7.67×10-11 m2·s-1 with activation energy of 50430 J·mol-1 for tomato with skin an ranged from 4.59×10-10 m2·s-1 to 6.73×10-10 m2·s-1 with activation energy of 17640 J.mol-1 for tomato without skin.

  15. Deterioration of sweet cherry fruit during storage period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry fruit cv. 'Emperor Francis' and 'Grosse Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' could be stored in cold storage conditions with normal air without big loss. Fruits stored under CA conditions were less affected by fungi during storage period, but later when were kept for 3 days at 20°C were more deteriorated than those stored at the same temperature in normal air. Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia spp. were the main fungi causing rot of sweet cherry fruit. Low temperature decreased the development of Monilinia spp. The most important factor for good fruit storage was the size of baskets. Sweet cherries stored in small baskets containing 0.5 kg of fruits were of good quality after one month of storage; in 2-kg boxes they were more damaged.

  16. Cell number regulator genes in Prunus provide candidate genes for the control of fruit size in sweet and sour cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Franceschi, P; Stegmeir, T; Cabrera, A; van der Knaap, E; Rosyara, U R; Sebolt, A M; Dondini, L; Dirlewanger, E; Quero-Garcia, J; Campoy, J A; Iezzoni, A F

    2013-01-01

    Striking increases in fruit size distinguish cultivated descendants from small-fruited wild progenitors for fleshy fruited species such as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Prunus spp. (peach, cherry, plum, and apricot). The first fruit weight gene identified as a result of domestication and selection was the tomato FW2.2 gene. Members of the FW2.2 gene family in corn (Zea mays) have been named CNR (Cell Number Regulator) and two of them exert their effect on organ size by modulating cell number. Due to the critical roles of FW2.2/CNR genes in regulating cell number and organ size, this family provides an excellent source of candidates for fruit size genes in other domesticated species, such as those found in the Prunus genus. A total of 23 FW2.2/CNR family members were identified in the peach genome, spanning the eight Prunus chromosomes. Two of these CNRs were located within confidence intervals of major quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously discovered on linkage groups 2 and 6 in sweet cherry (Prunus avium), named PavCNR12 and PavCNR20, respectively. An analysis of haplotype, sequence, segregation and association with fruit size strongly supports a role of PavCNR12 in the sweet cherry linkage group 2 fruit size QTL, and this QTL is also likely present in sour cherry (P. cerasus). The finding that the increase in fleshy fruit size in both tomato and cherry associated with domestication may be due to changes in members of a common ancestral gene family supports the notion that similar phenotypic changes exhibited by independently domesticated taxa may have a common genetic basis.

  17. Yield of cherry tomatoes as a function of water salinity and irrigation frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre N. Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of brackish water in agriculture can cause salinization of soils and reduce plant yield. This problem can be minimized by hydroponic cultivation, which improves plant development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of cherry tomatoes grown in hydroponic system with substrate under salinity levels of the nutrient solution (NS, exposure time to salinity and irrigation frequency. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in a randomized complete block design, in a 6 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme with five replicates: six salinity levels of NS prepared with brackish water (3.01; 4.51; 5.94; 7.34; 8.71 and 10.40 dS m-1; two exposure times to NS (60 and 105 days and two irrigation frequencies (one irrigation per day and irrigation every two days. Yield and production components of cherry tomatoes cv. 'Rita' were evaluated. NS salinity affected plant yield, reducing fruit production, which was more significant when plants were subjected to a longer time of exposure to salinity. There was no difference between NS applications on fruit production, when these applications were performed once a day or once every two days.

  18. Natural surface coating to inactivate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and maintain quality of cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juan; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Xihong; Jin, Tony Z; Jia, Xiaoyu; Mattheis, James P

    2015-01-16

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of zein-based coatings in reducing populations of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and preserving quality of cherry tomatoes. Tomatoes were inoculated with a cocktail of S. Typhimurium LT2 plus three attenuated strains on the smooth skin surface and stem scar area. The zein-based coatings with and without cinnamon (up to 20%) and mustard essential oil or a commercial wax formulation were applied onto tomatoes and the treated fruits were stored at 10 °C for up to 3 weeks. Populations of S. Typhimurium decreased with increased essential oil concentration and storage duration. S. Typhimurium populations on the smooth skin surface were reduced by 4.6 and 2.8 log colony forming units(CFU)/g by the zein coatings with 20% cinnamon and 20% mustard oil, respectively, 5h after coating. The same coating reduced populations of S. Typhimurium to levels below detection limit (1.0 log CFU/g) on the stem scar area of tomato during 7 days of storage at 10 °C. Salmonella populations were not reduced on fruit coated with the commercial wax. All of the coatings resulted in reduced weight loss compared with uncoated control. Compared with the control, loss of firmness and ascorbic acid during storage was prevented by all of the coatings except the zein coating with 20% mustard oil which enhanced softening. Color was not consistently affected by any of the coating treatments during 21 days of storage at 10°C. The results suggest that the zein-based coating containing cinnamon oil might be used to enhance microbial safety and quality of tomato.

  19. Phenolic profiles of cherry tomatoes as influenced by hydric stress and rootstock technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Eva; Ruiz, Juan M; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A

    2012-09-15

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of genetic and technological factors (cultivar and grafting) combined with the abiotic stress (water stress) on the content of phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids classes and total phenolics) in cherry tomato. The identification and contents of phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined by HPLC-MS in fruits on reciprocal grafting between a drought-tolerant cultivar (Zarina) and drought-sensible cultivar (Josefina), compared with both self-grafted and non-grafted plants. The results show how pre-harvest factors, such as grafting and water stress, can influence the phenolic content of tomato fruits. Phenolic compounds, including rutin that belongs to the group of flavonoids, display a remarkable array of biological and pharmacological activities. So, the richness of ZarxJos under water stress conditions with these compounds confirms its nutritional value and it can be used as a potential source of phenols. The results suggest that grafting on specific rootstocks more adapted to water stress conditions may be a tool to improve crop quality under artificially imposed mild water stress.

  20. 1-甲基环丙烯采后处理对樱桃番茄果实成熟过程的影响%Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene Post-harvest Treatment on Ripening Process in Cherry Tomato Fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum var.cerasiforme)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arnold M.Opiyo; 应铁进

    2005-01-01

    研究了不同浓度(0、0.035、0.07和0.11μL/L)的乙烯受体竞争性抑制剂1-甲基环丙烯(1-MCP)采后处理对绿熟期樱桃番茄的乙烯合成、果实软化、果实色素(叶绿素、茄红素、β-胡萝卜素)含量消长的影响.0.07 μL/L及其以上浓度的1-MCP降低了前期乙烯合成,同时推迟了乙烯释放高峰,但0.035 μL/L浓度的1-MCP处理并不能抑制内源乙烯合成.1-MCP显著延迟了果实软化和叶绿素降解,但并不影响这两个过程的启动.茄红素合成的启动和积累均受到了1-MCP抑制,而1-MCP并不推迟β-胡萝卜素合成的启动,只抑制其积累.这些结果提示了乙烯调节成熟生理过程的不同机制.对于绿熟期的樱桃番茄,0.07~0.11μL/L的1-MCP是实用的有效处理浓度.1-MCP有效浓度可能用于了解果实的乙烯受体水平和乙烯敏感性.%The responses of cherry tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) fruits to post-harvest treatment with 1-MCP were investigated.The maturity stage at which 1-MCP application is most effective in delaying the ripening process was determined, and then the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.035, 0.07 and 0.11 μL/L) of 1-MCP on ethylene production, fruit softening, chlorophyll, lycopene and carotenoids contents of mature green (MG)cherry tomato fruits were assessed. 1-MCP at 0.07 and 0.11 μL/L reduced fruit C2H4 production, delayed the C2H4 peak at ambient temperature. Although 1-MCP at 0.035 μL/L was effective in retarding fruit ripening,it did not suppress endogenous ethylene production.Fruit softening was suppressed by 1-MCP, but its initiation was not affected by 1-MCP. The rate of chlorophyll degradation and its pattern of change with time,and the initiation of lycopene biosynthesis as well as its accumulation were all affected by 1-MCP, but only the accumulation of carotenoids was suppressed. Accumulation of lycopene and carotenoids was almost permanently hampered by 1-MCP at 0.07 μL/L or

  1. Oviposition in Sweet Cherry by Reproductively Mature Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Tephritidae:Diptera) Fed Spinosad and Neonicotinoid Insecticide Baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Spinosad bait is applied weekly to kill flies before they develop eggs, but its effects on oviposition by flies that are reproductively mature are unknown. ...

  2. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-04-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A)/sup +/ RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L-/sup 35/S-methionine. The /sup 35/S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues.

  3. Reproductive maturity of cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in managed and natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Gut, Larry J; Isaacs, Rufus; Alston, Diane G

    2009-08-01

    We studied the timing of reproductive maturity of cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew), a key pest of sweet and tart cherries in the eastern United States. To determine when cherry fruit fly females become reproductively mature in managed and natural habitats, we deployed traps in sweet and tart cherry orchards and nearby stands of the ancestral host tree, black cherry. Flies were removed from the traps and females were dissected to determine the presence of fully developed eggs. We found that capture of reproductively mature female flies occurred earlier in orchards that are not sprayed with insecticides than in sprayed orchards or in black cherry tree sites. In addition, the gap between the flights of immature and mature females in unmanaged sweet or tart cherry orchards was shorter than in managed orchards or black cherry tree sites. We also determined fruit color, size, and skin hardness to characterize the progression of fruit maturity. We found that fruit became mature earlier in sweet and tart cherry orchards than in black cherry tree sites. This study indicates that the timing of female reproductive maturity is plastic and varies among cherry fruit fly populations present in distinct habitats. Variation in the timing of reproductive maturity is related to the fruit maturity period of distinct host plant species and to orchard management.

  4. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2011-11-01

    In this study the abundance and location of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was determined in the flesh and skin of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivar Durone Nero II during development. PEPCK was not present in young fruit but appeared in both tissues as the fruit increased in size. In these there was no net dissimilation of malic acid, which accounts for the bulk of their organic acid contents when PEPCK was present. To assist in understanding the function of PEPCK, the abundance of a number of other enzymes was determined. These enzymes were aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco). A potential role for PEPCK in the regulation of pH and the utilization of malate in gluconeogenesis in the flesh and skin of cherries is presented.

  5. Optimal Fluorescence Waveband Determination for Detecting Defective Cherry Tomatoes Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Suck Baek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A multi-spectral fluorescence imaging technique was used to detect defective cherry tomatoes. The fluorescence excitation and emission matrix was used to measure for defects, sound surface and stem areas to determine the optimal fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for discrimination. Two-way ANOVA revealed the optimal excitation wavelength for detecting defect areas was 410 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to the fluorescence emission spectra of all regions at 410 nm excitation to determine the emission wavelengths for defect detection. The major emission wavelengths were 688 nm and 506 nm for the detection. Fluorescence images combined with the determined emission wavebands demonstrated the feasibility of detecting defective cherry tomatoes with >98% accuracy. Multi-spectral fluorescence imaging has potential utility in non-destructive quality sorting of cherry tomatoes.

  6. Ascorbic acid metabolism during sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Zhu, Tingting; Ni, Zhiyou; Lin, Lijin; Tang, Yi; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Xun; Wang, Jin; Lv, Xiulan; Xia, Hui

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate metabolism of ascorbic acid (AsA) in sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium 'Hongdeng'), we quantified AsA concentration, cloned sequences involved in AsA metabolism and investigated their mRNA expression levels, and determined the activity levels of selected enzymes during fruit development and maturation. We found that AsA concentration was highest at the petal-fall period (0 days after anthesis) and decreased progressively during ripening, but with a slight increase at maturity. AsA did nevertheless continue to accumulate over time because of the increase in fruit fresh weight. Full-length cDNAs of 10 genes involved in the L-galactose pathway of AsA biosynthesis and 10 involved in recycling were obtained. Gene expression patterns of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP2), L-galactono-1, 4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH), ascorbate peroxidase (APX3), ascorbate oxidase (AO2), glutathione reductase (GR1), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1) were in accordance with the AsA concentration pattern during fruit development, indicating that genes involved in ascorbic acid biosynthesis, degradation, and recycling worked in concert to regulate ascorbic acid accumulation in sweet cherry fruit.

  7. Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on polyp

  8. Nutritional properties of cherry tomatoes harvested at different times and grown in an organic cropping.

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, L.; Almeida, A. C.; Costa, C.A.; PAES, M. C. D.; M.B.A. Glória; Souza, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of the cherry tomato cultivated in organic and conventional production systems and harvested at either 30 or 45 days of cropping were evaluated using a randomized, 2x2 factorial design (2 cropping systems x 2 harvesting times) with five repetitions. The parameters analyzed were color, centesimal composition, total energetic value, carotenoids and bioactive amine content. Tomatoes harvested at 30 days had higher total soluble solid (TSS) content when grown c...

  9. Do Organic Cherry Vine Tomatoes Taste Better Than Conventional Cherry Vine Tomatoes? A Sensory and Instrumental Comparative Study from Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Gilsenan, Clare; Burke, Roisin; Barry-Ryan, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    A consumer panel was able to distinguish a perceptible difference between organically farmed and conventionally produced tomatoes, and preferred the taste of the conventional tomatoes. The sensory evaluation results of the trained panel revealed that the conventional tomatoes were sweeter and less sour than the organic tomatoes. In addition to this, the conventional tomatoes showed significant differences for oBrix, reducing sugars and electrical conductivity. No significant differences were ...

  10. Effect of green manure in soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomato in the no tillage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson; Rossi, Fabricio; Dias, Fabio; Trivelin, Paulo; Tavares, Silvio; Muraoka, Takashi; Ambrosano, Glaucia; Salgado, Gabriela; Otsuk, Ivani

    2016-04-01

    The use of alternative fertilizers may reduce costs and promote sustainability to the family-based agro ecological production system. The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of the green manure to the quality of the soil and the transference of the nitrogen to cherry tomatoes using the N-15 abundance method (FAPESP 11/05648-3). The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, APTA/SAA, SP, Brazil. The IAC collection accesses 21 of cherry tomatoes were used. Each Plot consisted of six plants spaced 0.5 m and 0.9 m between rows, using a randomized-blocks design with eight treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of green manure crops intercropped or not with cherry tomato, namely: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana), mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Besides two witnesses, one with and another without corn straw. Five leaves with petiole of each plant part from the first ripe fruit and a bunch of fruits per plant are harvested. Samples of leaf and fruit were weighed and dried in a forced air oven and its dry weight measured. A subsample was ground in a Wiley mill and brought to the mass spectrometer (ANCA GSL) on the Stable Isotopes Laboratory of CENA/USP for δN-15 analysis. It measured the percentage of the transference of N from the green manure to the tomato; the tomato plants grown in monocropping were considered a control. It was found that 27 % of the N present in the fruit and 23% of the N present in the leaves came from the green manure. These results show that dur¬ing the development of the fruit of the tomato there is a greater translocation and consequently, a higher use of the N from the green manure in the fruits than in the leaves. This production system can reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The presence of a green manure in non-intercropped treatments caused some soil

  11. Repellent effects of various cherry tomato accessions on the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, T; Resende, J T V; Oliveira, J R F; Scabeni, C J; Zeist, A R; Resende, N C V

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted on resistance sources to improve the genetic resistance of farm-grown tomatoes to arthropod pests, including phytophagous mites. In the present study, we evaluate the behavior of the two-spotted spider mite on different cherry tomato accessions to identify possible sources of resistance (repellent effect) to this pest. Sixty-four accessions of cherry tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (Dunal), were tested. In addition, a commercial cultivar of cherry tomato cv. Sweet Grape (susceptible pattern) and the wild tomato accession Solanum pennellii Correll LA-716 (multiple pest resistance) were evaluated as well. The distance traveled by mites on the leaflet surface over time varied largely among cherry tomato accessions. The wild genotype, S. pennellii LA-716, showed the smallest traveled distance on the leaflet surface (0.8 to 1.1 mm over time), and the variety cv. Sweet Grape was one of the genotypes with highest traveled distance (16.2 to 16.4 mm over time). The cherry tomato accessions 2298-42, RVTC-03, and 6889-53 showed a decrease in the traveled distance by mites over time, similar to that as observed in the wild tomato accession LA716. These accessions showed mite repellence levels similar to those of the wild genotype and may, therefore, be good candidates for breeding programs dealing with resistance to mites.

  12. Tomato fruit chromoplasts behave as respiratory bioenergetic organelles during ripening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert

    2014-01-01

    During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen...

  13. Qualidade de sabor de tomates dos tipos salada e cereja e sua relação com caracteres morfoagronômicos dos frutos Taste quality of salad and cherry tomatoes and their relationship with the morphoagronomic characteristics of the fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Moreira Sobreira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Frutos no estádio vermelho maduro de trinta e três acessos de tomate do banco de germoplasma do CCA-UFES, sendo 15 do "tipo Cereja" e 18 do "tipo Salada", foram caracterizados com base nos seguintes descritores morfoagronômicos: peso médio do fruto; comprimento médio do fruto; diâmetro médio do fruto; diâmetro da cicatriz peduncular; espessura do mesocarpo do fruto; teor de sólidos solúveis e pH do fruto. Com base nas variáveis teor de sólidos solúveis (TSS e pH do fruto, calculou-se a variável sabor, por meio da relação TSS/pH². Foram realizadas análises de variâncias e análises de correlações simples e parciais, determinando a distribuição dos acessos quanto às classes de sabor. Com base nas distribuições de frequências, formaram-se quatro classes para essa variável, sendo que, a maior parcela (33% dos acessos "tipo Salada" alocaram-se na classe mais baixa (0,05-0,12 ºBrix.pH-2, correspondendo a frutos de sabor menos desejável, enquanto a maior parcela (30% dos acessos "tipo Cereja", alocaram-se em classe imediatamente superior (0,13-0,20 ºBrix.pH-2. Os dados demonstram a possibilidade de se obter ganhos genéticos para sabor concomitantemente ao peso, comprimento e espessura do mesocarpo dos frutos.Fruits in the ripe red stage of thirty three tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. accessions from CCA-UFES germplasm collection, being 15 "Cherry type" and 18 "Salad type", were characterized based on the following morphooagronomic descriptors: average fruit weight; average fruit length; average fruit diameter; peduncle scar diameter; fruit mesocarp thickness; soluble solids and fruit pH. Based on the data from the soluble solids and fruit pH, the flavor variable was calculated by the ratio TSS/pH². Variance analysis and simple and partial correlations were calculated, and the accessions were clustered in flavor classes. Based on the statistical model of distribution of frequencies, four classes were formed for

  14. Yeast profilin complements profilin deficiency in transgenic tomato fruits and allows development of hypoallergenic tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lien Q; Mahler, Vera; Scheurer, Stephan; Foetisch, Kay; Braun, Yvonne; Weigand, Daniela; Enrique, Ernesto; Lidholm, Jonas; Paulus, Kathrin E; Sonnewald, Sophia; Vieths, Stefan; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2010-12-01

    Gene silencing of Lyc e 1 leads to reduced allergenicity of tomato fruits but impaired growth of transgenic tomato plants. The aim of the study was to restore growth of Lyc e 1-deficient tomato plants while retaining reduced allergenicity by simultaneous complementation of profilin deficiency by expression of nonallergenic yeast profilin. Transgenic plants were generated and tested by RT-PCR and immunoblotting; allergenicity of yeast profilin and transgenic fruits was investigated by IgE binding, basophil activation, and skin-prick tests. Lyc e 1 content of transgenic tomato fruits was wild-type plants, causing significantly reduced IgE antibody binding. Simultaneous coexpression of yeast profilin restored growth and biomass production almost to wild-type levels. Yeast profilin, sharing 32.6% amino acid sequence identity with Lyc e 1, displayed low IgE-binding capacity and allergenic potency. Among 16 tomato-allergic patients preselected for sensitization to Lyc e 1, none showed significant reactivity to yeast profilin. Yeast profilin did not induce mediator release, and coexpression of yeast profilin did not enhance the allergenicity of Lyc e 1-reduced fruits. Simultanous coexpression of yeast profilin allows silencing of tomato profilin and generation of viable plants with Lyc e 1-deficient tomato fruits. Therefore, a novel approach to allergen avoidance, genetically modified foods with reduced allergen accumulation, can be generated even if the allergen fulfills an essential cellular function in the plant. In summary, our findings of efficiently complementing profilin-deficient tomato plants by coexpression of low allergenic yeast profilin demonstrate the feasibility of creating low-allergenic food even if the allergen fulfills essential cellular functions.

  15. Determination of optimal excitation and emission wavebands for detection of defect cherry tomato by using fluorescence emission and excitation matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, In-Suck; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Kim, Moon S.; Kim, Young-Sik

    2013-05-01

    Fluorescence imaging technique has been widely used for quality and safety measurements of agro-food materials. Fluorescence emission intensities of target materials are influenced by wavelengths of excitation sources. Hence, selection of a proper excitation wavelength is an important factor in differentiating target materials effectively. In this study, optimal fluorescence excitation wavelength was determined on the basis of fluorescence emission intensity of defect and sound areas of cherry tomatoes. The result showed that fluorescence responses of defect and sound surfaces of cherry tomatoes were most significantly separated with the excitation light wavelength range between 400 and 410 nm. Fluorescence images of defect cherry tomatoes were acquired with the LEDs with the central wavelength of 410 nm as the excitation source to verify the detection efficiency of cherry tomato defects. The resultant fluorescence images showed that the defects were discriminated from sound areas on cherry tomatoes with above 98% accuracy. This study shows that high power LEDs as the excitation source for fluorescence imaging are suitable for defect detection of cherry tomatoes.

  16. Metabolic Fingerprinting to Assess the Impact of Salinity on Carotenoid Content in Developing Tomato Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meulebroek, Lieven; Hanssens, Jochen; Steppe, Kathy; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2016-05-26

    As the presence of health-promoting substances has become a significant aspect of tomato fruit appreciation, this study investigated nutrient solution salinity as a tool to enhance carotenoid accumulation in cherry tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Juanita). Hereby, a key objective was to uncover the underlying mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism, moving away from typical black box research strategies. To this end, a greenhouse experiment with five salinity treatments (ranging from 2.0 to 5.0 decisiemens (dS) m(-1)) was carried out and a metabolomic fingerprinting approach was applied to obtain valuable insights on the complicated interactions between salinity treatments, environmental conditions, and the plant's genetic background. Hereby, several hundreds of metabolites were attributed a role in the plant's salinity response (at the fruit level), whereby the overall impact turned out to be highly depending on the developmental stage. In addition, 46 of these metabolites embraced a dual significance as they were ascribed a prominent role in carotenoid metabolism as well. Based on the specific mediating actions of the retained metabolites, it could be determined that altered salinity had only marginal potential to enhance carotenoid accumulation in the concerned tomato fruit cultivar. This study invigorates the usefulness of metabolomics in modern agriculture, for instance in modeling tomato fruit quality. Moreover, the metabolome changes that were caused by the different salinity levels may enclose valuable information towards other salinity-related plant processes as well.

  17. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  18. DNA polymerase activity of tomato fruit chromoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, E C; Carrillo, N

    1990-11-26

    DNA polymerase activity was measured in chromoplasts of ripening tomato fruits. Plastids isolated from young leaves or mature red fruits showed similar DNA polymerase activities. The same enzyme species was present in either chloroplasts or chromoplasts as judged by pH and temperature profiles, sensitivities towards different inhibitors and relative molecular mass (Mr 88 kDa). The activities analyzed showed the typical behaviour of plastid-type polymerases. The results presented here suggest that chromoplast maintain their DNA synthesis potential in fruit tissue at chloroplast levels. Consequently, the sharp decrease of the plastid chromosome transcription observed at the onset of fruit ripening could not be due to limitations in the availability of template molecules. Other mechanisms must be involved in the inhibition of chromoplast RNA synthesis.

  19. Effect of green manure in soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomato in the no tillage system on corn straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson; Rossi, Fabricio; Dias, Fabio; Trivelin, Paulo; Muraoka, Takashi; Tavares, Silvio; Ambrosano, Glaucia

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of green manure in on soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomatoes using the N-15 abundance method. The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, APTA/SAA, SP, Brazil. The IAC collection accesses 21 of cherry tomatoes were used. Each Plot consisted of six plants spaced 0.5 m and 0.9 m between rows, conducted in a randomized block with eight treatments and five repetitions. The treatments were as green manures intercropping or not on cherry tomato, namely: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), dwarf mucuna (Mucuna deeringiana), mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek ), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Besides two witnesses, one without corn straw and another with corn straw. Five leaves with petiole of each plant part during the first ripe fruit and a bunch of fruits per plant are harvested. Samples of leaf and fruit were weighed and dried in an oven of forced air and its dry weight measured. A subsample was ground in a knife mill type Willy and brought to the mass spectrometer (ANCA GSL) on the Stable Isotopes Laboratory of CENA/USP for the analysis of δN-15. It measured the percentage of transfer of N green manure for tomato, the tomato plants grown as monocropped were considered a control and came to the result that 27 % N found in the fruit came from the green manure and the aerial part this figure was 23%. These results show that dur¬ing the fruit set of tomato can occur greater translocation and consequent higher utilization of N from green manure than in the aerial part. This production system can reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The presence of a green manure in treatments not intercropped caused some soil alterations that could be detected in samples collected in the harvesting season. There was an increase in organic matter, Ca, Mg and Zn availability, and consequently in base saturation and pH. The presence

  20. Cultivation of cherry tomato under irrigation with saline water and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ianne G. S. Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study was carried out from August 2013 to January 2014 to evaluate growth and production of cherry tomato cultivated under irrigation with water of different salinity levels and fertilized with different nitrogen (N doses, in experiment conducted in drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions, at the Center for Agrifood Science and Technology of the Federal University of Campina Grande. The statistical design was randomized blocks in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with three replicates, and the treatments consisted of five levels of electrical conductivity of water (0.3, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 dS m-1 and four N doses (60, 100, 140 and 180 mg kg-1. Growth and production variables of cherry tomato decrease linearly from the irrigation water salinity of 0.3 dS m-1 on. The longer exposure of plants to salt stress caused the highest reductions, and the root dry matter, leaf area and the number of clusters are the most sensitive variables. The highest value of plant height at 125 days after transplantation was obtained with the N dose of 139 mg kg-1 of soil. Increasing N doses reduced the effect of salinity on cherry tomato growth at 125 days after transplantation.

  1. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.: Situation in Switzerland and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Grunder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU. Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities.

  2. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.): Situation in Switzerland and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Claudia; Grunder, Jürg

    2012-10-16

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU). Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities.

  3. Active paraffin-based paper packaging for extending the shelf life of cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Lafuente, Angel; Nerin, Cristina; Batlle, Ramon

    2010-06-09

    A new active paraffin coating for paper and board was evaluated for antimicrobial protection and decay retardation for cherry tomatoes. Different active agents were evaluated against Alternaria alternata fungus both in vitro and in vivo using artificially inoculated cherry tomatoes. Bark cinnamon and oregano essential oil showed the best performance (versus clove and leaf cinnamon essential oils) when incorporated to active paper or board used for packaging at nominal concentrations of 3 and 6% (w/w), respectively. Almost total inhibition of the fungus was obtained when 6% of bark cinnamon essential oil was applied to the packaging material. A number of physicochemical parameters such as pH, weight loss, water activity, and color were monitored, and no significant differences between active, blank, and control samples were found for weight loss and color difference. The maximum transfer of trans-cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol to the food was detected after 1 or 2 days of storage. Sensorial analysis was performed, and panelists were not able to detect changes in cinnamon-based packaged tomatoes but they could in the oregano-based tomatoes.

  4. Influence of freezing and storing cherry fruit on its nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vasylyshyna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cherries are a valuable dietary raw material and possess medicinal properties. Considering the nutritional, medical and vitamin value of cherry fruits, the purpose of this research was to produce a scientific justification for preserving the quality of cherry fruits using different freezing methods. Material and methods. To do this, cherry fruits from the Lotovka (Cerasus vulgaris variety were frozen in various ways: packed in polyethylene bags (control; previously suspended in a 20% sugar solution and pack- ing frozen cherry in polyethylene bags; suspended in a 20% sugar solution with the addition of 4% ascorutin and frozen followed by pre-packaging in polyethylene bags; cherry fruits were frozen in a 20% sugar solution in plastic cups of 0.25 cm3; they were also frozen in a 20% sugar solution with the addition of 4% ascorutin in plastic cups. The frozen products were stored at a temperature not higher than –18°C for up to 6 months. Result. Studies have shown the appropriateness of freezing cherry fruits, particularly in a 20% sugar solution with the addition of 4% ascorutin. The advantages of these fruits are in ascorbic acid preservation in 1.5 times and reduction of tanning and coloring substances only by 27%, soluble solids to 7%, sugars – 4%, acids – 12%, in tasting evaluation of 5 points. Conclusions. Frozen cherry fruits in a 20% sugar solution with the addition of 4% ascorutin can be used in dietary nutrition for patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Clarification of Tomato Juice with Polygalacturonase Obtained from Tomato Fruits Infected by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, A A; Peter-Albert, C F; Akeredolu, M; Shokunbi, A A

    2015-02-01

    Two varieties of tomato fruits commonly available in Nigerian markets are the Roma VF and Ibadan local varieties of tomato fruits. The Roma VF fruits are oval in shape. It is a common type of cultivar in the Northern region of Nigeria and it is not susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety of tomato fruits is a local variety commonly found on farmers fields in South-western region of Nigeria. They are highly susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety was employed for this research. There are lots of benefits derived from the consumption of tomato fruits. The fruits can be made into tomato juice clarified with pectinases. Polygalacturonase is one of the pectinases used commercially in the clarification of fruit juice from different fruits. This study examined the production of polygalacturonase during the deterioration of tomato fruits by Aspergillus niger and the role of the purified polygalacturonase in the clarification of tomato juice. Tomato fruits of the Ibadan local variety were inoculated with mycelia discs containing spores of a 96-h-old culture of Aspergillus niger served as the inoculum. The organism from the stock culture was subcultured onto potato dextrose agar plates. The extraction of polygalacturonase after 10 days of incubation at 27 degrees C was carried out by homogenizing the fruits with liquid extractant using the MSE homogenizer after the deteriorated fruits had been chilled for 30 min inside a freezer. Control fruits were similarly treated except that sterile potato dextrose agar served as the inoculum. The effect of different temperature of incubation and different volume of enzyme on the tomato juice from the tomato fruits was investigated. Extracts from the inoculated fruits exhibited appreciable polygalacturonase activity. The juice with polygalacturonase was visually clearer and more voluminous than the juice treated with water for all parameters studied. The highest volume of juice was obtained after an incubation period

  6. Optical and mechanical nondestructive tests for measuring tomato fruit firmness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivel-Chávez, Ricardo A.; Garnica-Romo, M. G.; Arroyo-Correa, Gabriel; Aranda-Sánchez, Jorge I.

    2011-08-01

    Ripening is one of the most important processes to occur in fruits which involve changes in color, flavor, and texture. An important goal in quality control of fruits is to substitute traditional sensory testing methods with reliable nondestructive tests (NDT). In this work we study the firmness of tomato fruits by using optical and mechanical NDT. Optical and mechanical parameters, measured along the tomato shelf life, are shown.

  7. Impact of prolonged absence of low temperature on adult eclosion patterns of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in ...

  8. Combined inhibitory effect against postharvest storage rots and their effects on postharvest quality parameters in cherry tomatoes by cassia oil and calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wu; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Jiaping

    2013-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of cassia oil alone or in combination with calcium chloride (CaCl2) against Alternaria alternata in vitro and in vivo was assessed on cherry tomatoes. The results demonstrated that concentrations of CaCl2 ranging from 0.25 to 3% enhanced the inhibitory effects of 200 μl of cassia oil per liter on the growth of A. alternata in vitro. The combination of 0.25% CaCl2 and 500 μl of cassia oil per liter showed a significant inhibition effect on decay development in both wounded artificially infected and unwounded naturally infected fruit. Importantly, these treatments did not reduce the overall quality of tomatoes. Defense-related enzyme activities were also evaluated. The results indicated that cassia oil alone or in combination with CaCl2 significantly enhanced defense-related enzyme activities, such as peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Together, these data suggest that the combination of cassia oil and CaCl2 may be an efficient method to limit cherry tomato decay caused by fungi.

  9. Influence of fruit ripening acceleration measures on flowering and fruiting of small-sized tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobromilska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were carried out in 2001-2003 at the Horticulture Experimental Station, University of Agriculture in Szczecin. The influence of truss cutting and application of Ethrel preparation on the flowering and acceleration of ripening of small-sized tomato fruit was studied. The experiment focused on the following factors: methods of acceleration of tomato fruit ripening (truss cutting, Ethrel preparation, truss cutting + Ethrel preparation and tomato cultivars ('Cheresita F1', 'Favorita F1'. The applied methods had no influence on the number of flowers and germs of the small-sized tomato. The truss cutting increased the percentage of set fruits compared to the number of flowers. The application of Ethrel preparation along with truss cutting significantly increased the early yield of tomato fruits. The Ethrel and truss cutting accelerated the small-sized tomato harvesting by 12 days. Cv. 'Cheresita F1' produced a larger number of flowers, germs and fruits than 'Favorita F1'.

  10. The effect of different soilless media on macro- and micronutrients uptake by cherry tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Saeri; A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh; Kalbasi,M.; M. Mobli; Haghighi, M.

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of some substrates on uptake and concentration of nutrients in cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Cerasiforne), this non-recycling soilless culture experiment was carried out as a completely randomized blocks design with 9 treatments and four replicates, with two plants in each pot. Treatments included perlite-vermiculite 50:50 %v, perlit-zeolite 50:50 %, perlite 100%, rice husk 100%, rice husk-vermiculite 50:50 %, rice husk-zeolite 50:50 %, pe...

  11. Proteomic analysis of ripening tomato fruit infected by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Punit; Powell, Ann L T; Orlando, Ron; Bergmann, Carl; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo

    2012-04-06

    Botrytis cinerea, a model necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes gray mold as it infects different organs on more than 200 plant species, is a significant contributor to postharvest rot in fresh fruit and vegetables, including tomatoes. By describing host and pathogen proteomes simultaneously in infected tissues, the plant proteins that provide resistance and allow susceptibility and the pathogen proteins that promote colonization and facilitate quiescence can be identified. This study characterizes fruit and fungal proteins solubilized in the B. cinerea-tomato interaction using shotgun proteomics. Mature green, red ripe wild type and ripening inhibited (rin) mutant tomato fruit were infected with B. cinerea B05.10, and the fruit and fungal proteomes were identified concurrently 3 days postinfection. One hundred eighty-six tomato proteins were identified in common among red ripe and red ripe-equivalent ripening inhibited (rin) mutant tomato fruit infected by B. cinerea. However, the limited infections by B. cinerea of mature green wild type fruit resulted in 25 and 33% fewer defense-related tomato proteins than in red and rin fruit, respectively. In contrast, the ripening stage of genotype of the fruit infected did not affect the secreted proteomes of B. cinerea. The composition of the collected proteins populations and the putative functions of the identified proteins argue for their role in plant-pathogen interactions.

  12. A multivariate statistical analysis coming from the NMR metabolic profile of cherry tomatoes (The Sicilian Pachino case)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallamace, Domenico; Corsaro, Carmelo; Salvo, Andrea; Cicero, Nicola; Macaluso, Andrea; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Dugo, Giacomo

    2014-05-01

    We have studied by means of High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance the metabolic profile of the famous Sicilian cherry tomato of Pachino. Thanks to its organoleptic and healthy properties, this particular foodstuff was the first tomato accredited by the European PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) certification of quality. Due to the relatively high price of the final product commercial frauds originated in the Italian and international markets. Hence, there is a growing interest to develop analytical techniques able to predict the origin of a tomato sample, indicating whether or not it originates from the area of Pachino, Sicily (Italy). In this paper we have determined the molar concentration of the metabolites constituent the PGI cherry tomato of Pachino. Furthermore, by means of a multivariate statistical analysis we have identified which metabolites are relevant for sample differentiation.

  13. Staining tomato fruit cuticle and exocarp tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, E T

    1997-05-01

    Immature fruit of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Celebrity), was examined to observe the cuticle, its interface with the epidermis, and the general histology of the outer exocarp. Paraffin sections were stained first with Bismarck brown Y. Structures already stained in various hues of brown were stained again with either azure B, aluminum hematoxylin and alcian blue SGX, or the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction. Bismarck brown-azure B displayed the cuticle in strong contrast with subjacent tissue; however, nuclei were not easily identified at low magnification. Bismarck brown-hematoxylin-alcian blue produced a sharply contrasted combination of yellow cuticle, bright blue cell walls and purple nuclei. Nuclei stained purple with hematoxylin were easily identified at x100. Bismarck brown-PAS stained the cuticle golden brown and subjacent tissues mageta red. Surprisingly, epidermal cells stained specifically and intensely with PAS while pretreatment with an aldehyde blockade and omission of periodic acid prevented staining of all other tissues.

  14. Changes of Aroma Components in Hongdeng Sweet Cherry During Fruit Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To study the changes of aroma components in sweet cherry during fruit development, the aroma components in sweet cherry fruit from the green stage, the color stage, the commercial stage, and the ripe stage were collected using head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and were analyzed using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrophotometer (GCMS). A total of 37 compounds were identified from the sample extracts. Aldehydes, alcohols, and esters were the major constituents. The aroma components behaved differently during the fruit developmental period. C6 aldehydes and aromatic aldehydes were the main aldehydes in the sweet cherry fruit. The contents of C6 aldehydes increased quickly to 84.16% in the color stage, then decreased as ripening proceeded, and then, the contents decreased to 59.20 and 55.58% at the commercial stage and the ripe stage, respectively. The aromatic aldehydes (benzaldehyde) increased as ripening proceeded, and the maximum was found at the ripe stage. Alcohols of sweet cherry fruit included C6 alcohols and aromatic alcohols. The content of (E)-2-hexen-1-ol increased as ripening proceeded. The maximum was found at the commercial stage; alcohol was only found at the ripe stage. Ester components included ethyl acetate, butanoic acid ethyl ester,hexanoic acid ethyl ester, which increased as the fruit ripened. Hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol,ethyl acetate, and hexanoic acid ethyl ester were the characteristic aroma components of sweet cherry fruit. These aroma components started to form drastically at the color stage, and the main aroma was formed at the commercial stage, which then turned bad at the ripe stage because of the presence of alcohol. So the optimal harvest time of sweet cherry was at the commercial stage.

  15. Toward a longer shelf life of tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelf life of ripe tomato fruit is economically very important, from production to the marketing chain, since it determines the cash returns to the grower and the grocer/processor. Shelf life of horticultural edible produce, including tomato, is regulated through myriad physiological, biochemical an...

  16. Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

    2014-12-15

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively.

  17. 76 FR 61340 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit From South Africa Into the Continental United States AGENCY... cherry, and plumcot fruit from South Africa. Based ] on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we... introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh apricot, sweet...

  18. Habitat-specific flight period in the cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Isaacs, Rufus; Gut, Larry J

    2007-12-01

    Flight periods of the cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew), were compared in the major sweet and tart cherry-growing regions of Michigan, among neglected orchards, managed orchards, and natural areas containing the ancestral host, black cherry. Traps were deployed from early June to late September 2005 and 2006. Captures indicated that cherry fruit fly has an early flight (June-July) in neglected orchards, a mid-season flight peaking immediately after harvest (June-August) in managed orchards, and an extended flight covering most of the season (June-September) in natural areas. We found that the period of fruit infestation mirrored the flight period in neglected and managed orchards. In natural areas, we found infestation late in the season only. The relative emergence periods for adults reared from pupae collected from the three habitats and maintained under the same conditions coincided with adult flight periods for each habitat. We also studied factors related to fruit availability that may have a role in shaping the flight periods. Fruit abundance decreased rapidly early in the season in neglected orchards, whereas in managed orchards, fruit left after harvest remained on the trees until late August. Measurements of fruit size and skin firmness revealed that fly activity in neglected and managed orchards began immediately after fruit increased in size and skin firmness decreased, whereas in natural areas, the flight began before fruit matured. In managed orchards, fruit harvest and insecticide sprays likely maintain the late flight period of resident fly populations by preventing the use of fruit earlier in the season. However, a significant proportion of these resident flies may still emerge before harvest and increase the risk of costly fruit infestation.

  19. FUNGICIDE APPLICATION FOR MAINTAINING POSTHARVEST QUALITY IN TOMATO FRUITS

    OpenAIRE

    D. M. Vani; S. M. Bonaldo

    2014-01-01

    Tomato fruits are usually consumed soon after harvest, however, as they are mainly comprised of water, and its walls are fragile, facilitates the emergence of diseases, making necessary the use of preventive measures in the field in order to reduce incidence of disease. The objective is then to evaluate the effect of foliar application of fungicides on the final quality of tomato fruits in postharvest. There were 13 applications of foliar fungicides Azoxystrobin+Cyproconazol and Boscalida, 7 ...

  20. Organic acid metabolism and related genes expression in cherry tomato fruit under different nitrogen fertilization using semi-quantitative RT-PCR%半定量RT-PCR研究氮素形态对樱桃番茄果实中有机酸代谢相关酶基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆余; 徐新娟; 朱毅勇; 董彩霞; 沈其荣

    2011-01-01

    研究了全硝(100%NO3-)、铵硝配施(75%NO3-:25%NH4+)及全铵(100%NH4+)营养对樱桃番茄果实有机酸含量的影响,测定了与有机酸合成相关的磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶(PEPC)、柠檬酸合成酶(CS)、苹果酸脱氢酶(MDH)活性变化,并利用RT-PCR检测了相应的基因在转录水平上的表达差异.结果表明,1)全硝和铵硝配施处理下果实柠檬酸含量在整个生育期均显著高于全铵处理,而铵硝配施处理下果实中柠檬酸和苹果酸含量在成熟期均显著低于全硝处理.2)不同形态氮素及配施处理下,果实中柠檬酸含量与CS活性的变化趋势均呈单峰型,但到达峰值的时间不同.全铵处理下果实苹果酸含量与PEPC活性呈显著正相关,全硝、铵硝配施处理下果实苹果酸和柠檬酸含量都与MDH活性呈显著正相关.3)在膨大期和成熟期,全硝处理和铵硝配施处理下PEPC基因(PPC1、PPC2)表达显著高于全铵处理;线粒体苹果酸脱氢酶(mMDH)的表达对果实苹果酸脱氢酶活性和苹果酸积累起主要作用,表明适当比例的铵硝配施可能通过影响果实中PEPC和MDH的活性和基因表达从而显著降低成熟果实有机酸的含量.%Cherry tomatoes were grown in a matrix-nutrient solution co-culture systems with 100% nitrate (NO3-), 100% ammonium (NH4+) and 75% NO3-:25% NH4+ as the N source. The effects of the nitrogen (N) forms on the contents of organic acids, the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ( PEPC), citrate synthase (CS) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and their transcriptional expression patterns were investigated during the development of the fruit. The results are as follows: 1 ) During the development of the fruit, citrate contents under the treatments of 100% NO3-and 75% NO3-:25% NH4+ are always significantly higher than that under the treatment of 100% NH4+, while the contents of citrate and malate in mature fruits under the 75% NO3-:25% NH4

  1. Reduction of polygalacturonase activity in tomato fruit by antisense RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehy, Raymond E.; Kramer, Matthew; Hiatt, William R

    1988-01-01

    Polygalacturonase [PG; poly(1,4-α-D-galacturonide) glycanhydrolase; EC 3.2.1.15] is expressed in tomato only during the ripening stage of fruit development. PG becomes abundant during ripening and has a major role in cell wall degradation and fruit softening. Tomato plants were transformed to produce antisense RNA from a gene construct containing the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and a full-length PG cDNA in reverse orientation. The construct was integrated into the tomato genome by A...

  2. Seasonal amounts of nutrients in Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their relation to nutrient availability on cherry plant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Chapman, Peter S

    2008-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis. In this study, nutrient amounts in male and female western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and availability of nitrogen and sugar on surfaces of leaves, fruit, and extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of sweet cherry trees, were determined from late May to late June 2005 and of sugar from EFNs from mid-May to late June 2007 in Washington state. Protein amounts in male and female flies did not differ over the season. Nitrogen was present on leaves, fruit, and EFNs during the sampling period, but amounts on leaves and fruit were lower in late May than the rest of the season. Sugar amounts in flies did not differ over the season. Sugar was present on leaf, fruit, and EFN surfaces all season, but amounts on all three were lower in late May than later in the season. Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars on all plant surfaces, but sucrose was also present in nectar from EFNs. In outdoor and field cage experiments in 2004 and 2006, more flies survived when cherry branches with leaves and fruit were present than absent. Results suggest that R. indifferens maintains stable protein and sugar levels throughout the season because sufficient amounts of nutrients are found in cherry trees during this time and that increases in nutrient availability caused by ripening and damaged cherries later in the season do not result in increased amounts of nutrients in flies.

  3. The effect of different soilless media on macro- and micronutrients uptake by cherry tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Saeri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of some substrates on uptake and concentration of nutrients in cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Cerasiforne, this non-recycling soilless culture experiment was carried out as a completely randomized blocks design with 9 treatments and four replicates, with two plants in each pot. Treatments included perlite-vermiculite 50:50 %v, perlit-zeolite 50:50 %, perlite 100%, rice husk 100%, rice husk-vermiculite 50:50 %, rice husk-zeolite 50:50 %, perlite-rice husk-vermiculite 37.5: 37.5: 25 %, perlite-rice husk-zeolite 37.5: 37.5: 25 %, and cocopeat 100%. Results of the analysis of nutrients in the substrates showed that cocopeat and zeolite had the greatest concentration of potassium (K. The highest concentration of calcium (Ca was found in zeolite medium, magnesium (Mg in cocopeat, manganese (Mn in rice husk, copper (Cu in vermiculite, zinc (Zn in cocopeat and iron (Fe in vermiculite. The highest concentration of K and Mg in shoots of tomato plants was found in cocopeat, while plants in the vermiculite medium had the highest Ca concentration in their shoots. No significant relationship was found between concentrations of measured nutrients, except for K, in the substrates and their uptake by plants. In general, the highest nutrients uptake by cherry tomato plants was found in the medium containing a mixture of perlite and vermiculite, which is probably due to optimum root growth conditions, particularly high porosity and high ability for retention of water and nutrients.

  4. Expression of ipt gene driven by tomato fruit specific promoter and its effects on fruit development of tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fruit specific promoter (2A12) from Lycopersicom esculentum and cDNA of isopentenyl-transferase (ipt) from Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumerfaciens C58 were cloned by PCR procedure respectively. Two plant expression vectors with 2A12/gus or 2A12/ipt were respectively constructed. These two chimeric genes were transferred into tomato by Agrobacterium mediated procedure. The results of Southern hybridization showed that the fusion genes had been integrated into tomatoes. The result of gus histochemical staining showed that 2A12 had high fruit specific expressive capability in transgenic tomato. The ipt expression resulted in accumulation of high level of cytokinins (CTKs) in fruit lead to developmental changes in fruits and seeds. The fruit of ipt transformed tomato had the hyperplastic placenta with very few seeds or even seedless. The shelf life of transgenic fruits elongated for 1-2 weeks. The ratio of fruit set, the dry weight of fruit and the crude protein content in fruit were increased, while the soluble sugar of fruits decreased.

  5. Dispersal of Rhagoletis cerasi in Commercial Cherry Orchards: Efficacy of Soil Covering Nets for Cherry Fruit Fly Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Claudia; Baker, Brian

    2013-03-12

    Demand for organic cherries offers producers a premium price to improve their commercial viability. Organic standards require that producers find alternatives to pesticides. Soil treatments to control the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephrididae) appear to be an attractive option. However, soil treatments can only be effective if the migration of flies is low, because mature flies may migrate from near-by trees for oviposition. To examine the general potential of soil treatments and to understand the dispersal and flight behaviour of R. cerasi within orchards, experiments using netting to cover the soil were conducted in two orchards with different pest pressure during two years. The netting reduced flight activity by 77% and fruit infestation by 91%. The data showed that the flies have a dispersal of less than 5 m within orchards, which is very low. The low thresholds for tolerance for infested fruit in the fresh market creates a strong economic incentive for control, therefore, soil covering is a promising strategy for controlling R. cerasi in commercial orchards.

  6. Studies on Processing Technology of Cherry-tomato Wine Fermentation Technology%樱桃番茄果酒加工工艺技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖春玲; 李桂峰; 尉丰婵; 王婷婷

    2011-01-01

    以樱桃番茄果实为原料、酿造樱桃番茄果酒为目的,对影响樱桃番茄果酒品质的关键工艺参数进行研究.结果表明:按照0.025%的比例向压榨后的果汁中添加果胶酶,并在50℃下保温1 h.取100 mL的果汁,其内加入20 g白砂糖,添加柠檬酸至pH 3.6、偏重亚硫酸钾至SO2质量浓度为110 mg/L;主发酵温度22℃,发酵7天,后发酵温度16℃,发酵10天;10℃下陈酿,最后在75℃下,杀菌15 min,得到果香浓郁、色泽金黄、澄清透明的优质樱桃番茄果酒.%The fermentation technology of cherry tomato wine with the pure cherry tomato juice and the key technology parameters which have effect on the product quality were studied. The results showed that: in accordance with the ratio of 0.025% to the press after the juice to add patinas, and 50℃ under the insulation role of 1 h, take 100 mL of fruit juice, add the sugar 20 g, add citric acid to pH 3.6, emphasis on sub-quality potassium sulfate concentration of SO2 to 110 mg/L, controlling respectively, main fermentation temperature and back fermentation temperature at 22℃ for 7 days and 16℃ for 10 days and aging for 2-3 months at 10℃,pH was adjusted with citric acid. Add the optimal quantity of K2S2O3 sulfate concentration of SO2 to 110 mg/L.The new fermentation cherry tomato wine was clarified with compound glutens-tannin clarifying agent. After sterilization at 75℃ for 15 min, the cherry tomato wine with full-bodied flavor, golden-yellow color, high quality and good clarification level was obtained.

  7. Relation between polyphenols content and skin colour in sour cherry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljevac Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit skin colour plays a major role in quality assessment of food, significantly determining consumer`s choice. Colour of sour cherries depends on anthocyanins which are phenolic compounds (flavonoids present in high amounts in fruits. The aim of this study was to determine a possible relation between polyphenols (total phenolics and anthocyanins and colour parameters of fruit skin of sour cherries. The plant material used in this study was twenty two sour cherry genotypes from an orchard of Agricultural Institute Osijek. Total phenolics and anthocyanins contents as well as colour parameters (L*, a*, b*, h and C of fruit skin were determined. Variability between sour cherry genotypes in total phenolics and anthocyanins as well as in colour parameters was revealed. Total polyphenols content varied from 462.7 to 1049.0 mg GAE/100 g of fresh weight, while total anthocyanins ranged from 160.1 to 495.6 mg CGE/100 g of fresh weight. A significant positive correlation was found between polyphenols and anthocyanins content. Total phenolics content had a significant negative correlation with colour parameters b* and h, while anthocyanins content negatively correlated with colour parameters L*, b* and h. According to the obtained results, genotypes Maraska, Heimanns Konservenweichsel and Rexelle are the richest genotypes in polyphenols and anthocyanins content.

  8. 圣女果分段式变温变湿热风干燥特性%Dried characteristics of cherry tomatoes using temperature and humidity by stages changed hot-air drying method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆惠; 李忠新; 杨劲松; 谢龙; 张世湘; 高振江

    2014-01-01

    Cherry tomato decays easily. Generally, it can be preserved only for 5-7days under normal pressure and temperature. The dehydration of cherry tomatoes into dried or preserved fruits can prolong their shelf life and enrich the market of the fruit. Currently, cherry tomatoes is dehydrated through natural drying. The advantage of this method is simple, and low cost. But the drying time is long and is affected by the climate and sanitary conditions. The product quality is difficult to control. In order to shorten the drying time and prevent mildew, cherry tomatoes are often soaked or sprayed with the alkaline solution. These chemicals are bad for our health. Multi-stage temperature-and-humidity drying is conducted through the material drying characteristics. This method can speed up the drying rate, improve drying quality, and reduce energy consumption. It has been successfully applied for apricot,lyceum barbarum, grapes and other materials. In this study, internal recycling hot-air drying technology was employed for the drying of cherry tomatoes. The effects of drying temperatures, humidity, drying stages and slicing forms on the drying characteristics and the appearance quality of the cherry tomatoes were investigated. Each experiment was composed of four drying stages. The drying temperatures were fixed, the humidity of the environment was changed in processⅠ,Ⅱ andⅢ. The drying temperature was low, the humidity was high at the beginning of processⅣ. Gradually, the temperature was raised, the humidity was reduced. At the end of the process, the drying temperature was higher, the humidity was lower compared with their values at the beginning. The experimental results indicated that pre-heated and falling rate periods exist during the drying of cherry tomato. Previous studies only shown falling rate period. The increase in temperature and humidity has bad effects on the nutrition, color and the appearance quality of cherry tomato. Even though cherry tomato can

  9. Changes in esculeoside A content in different regions of the tomato fruit during maturation and heat processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Akiko; Kimura, Mizuki; Saigo, Hiromi; Aburaya, Kei; Nakano, Masako; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Fujiwara, Yukio; Nagai, Ryoji

    2011-04-27

    We previously demonstrated that esculeogenin A, a new aglycone of the tomato sapogenol esculeoside A, inhibits both acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyl-transferase (ACAT)-1 and -2 and ameliorates the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in apoE deficient mice. Although we believe that daily intake of esculeoside A from tomato products can play a beneficial role in preventing the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the compound is not being used for preventive medicine due to the lack of information on methods for quantitative analysis and the content and stability of the compound in tomato products. In the present study, we report the development of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using an instrument equipped with a refractive index (RI) detector for esculeoside A quantification. We used this method to measure the changes in esculeoside A content during maturation, its distribution in the fruit body, and its stability during the heating process. The contents of esculeoside A in cherry tomatoes and Momotaro tomatoes were 21- and 9-fold, respectively, higher than that of lycopene, which is the most well-known compound in tomatoes. Furthermore, the esculeoside A content in pericarp wall was higher than in the whole tomato fruit and increased in a time-dependent manner during maturation. Although the melting point of purified esculeoside A was 225 °C, the esculeoside A in crude tomato extract decreased in a temperature-dependent manner. Degradation due to the heating process was inhibited under a pH of 9. These results demonstrated that the esculeoside A content differs in the various types of tomatoes, during maturation, and during the heating process used for preservation.

  10. Metabolite Profiling of Italian Tomato Landraces with Different Fruit Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana eBaldina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest towards traditional tomato varieties is fueled by the need to rescue desirable organoleptic traits and to improve the quality of fresh and processed tomatoes in the market. In addition, the phenotypic and genetic variation preserved in tomato landraces represents a means to understand the genetic basis of traits related to health and organoleptic aspects and improve them in modern varieties. To establish a framework for this approach, we studied the content of several metabolites in a panel of Italian tomato landraces categorized into three broad fruit type classes (flattened/ribbed, pear/oxheart, round/elongate. Three modern hybrids, corresponding to the three fruit shape typologies, were included as reference. Red ripe fruits were morphologically characterized and biochemically analyzed for their content in glycoalkaloids, phenols, amino acids and Amadori products. The round/elongate types showed a higher content in glycoalkaloids, whereas flattened types had higher levels of phenolic compounds. Flattened tomatoes were also rich in total amino acids and in particular in glutamic acid. Multivariate analysis of amino acid content clearly separated the three classes of fruit types. Making allowance of the very low number of genotypes, phenotype-marker relationships were analyzed after retrieving single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among the landraces available in the literature. Sixty-six markers were significantly associated with the studied traits. The positions of several of these SNPs showed correspondence with already described genomic regions and QTLs supporting the reliability of the association. Overall the data indicated that significant changes in quality-related metabolites occur depending on the genetic background in traditional tomato germplasm, frequently according to specific fruit shape categories. Such a variability is suitable to harness association mapping for metabolic quality traits using this germplasm

  11. Effect of salinity and calcium on tomato fruit proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaa, Arafet; Faurobert, Mireille; Valot, Benoît; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Grasselly, Dominique; Causse, Mathilde; Ahmed, Hela Ben

    2013-06-01

    Salinity is a major abiotic stress that adversely affects plant growth and productivity. The physiology of the tomato in salty and nonsalty conditions has been extensively studied, providing an invaluable base to understand the responses of the plants to cultural practices. However few data are yet available at the proteomic level looking for the physiological basis of fruit development, under salt stress. Here, we report the effects of salinity and calcium on fruit proteome variations of two tomato genotypes (Cervil and Levovil). Tomato plants were irrigated with a control solution (3 dSm(-1)) or with saline solutions (Na or Ca+Na at 7.6 dSm(-1)). Tomato fruits were harvested at two ripening stages: green (14 days post-anthesis) and red ripe. Total proteins were extracted from pericarp tissue and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Among the 600 protein spots reproducibly detected, 53 spots exhibited significant abundance variations between samples and were submitted to mass spectrometry for identification. Most of the identified proteins were involved in carbon and energy metabolism, salt stress, oxidative stress, and proteins associated with ripening process. Overall, there was a large variation on proteins abundance between the two genotypes that can be correlated to salt treatment or/and fruit ripening stage. The results showed a protective effect of calcium that limited the impact of salinization on metabolism, ripening process, and induced plant salt tolerance. Collectively, this work has improved our knowledge about salt and calcium effect on tomato fruit proteome.

  12. Effect of electrical conductivity, fruit pruning, and truss position on quality in greenhouse tomato fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanasca, S.; Martino, A.; Heuvelink, E.; Stanghellini, C.

    2007-01-01

    The combined effects of electrical conductivity (an EC of 2.5 dS m-1 or 8 dS m-1 in the root zone) and fruit pruning (three or six fruit per truss) on tomato fruit quality were studied in a greenhouse experiment, planted in January 2005. Taste-related attributes [dry matter content (DM), total solub

  13. FUNGICIDE APPLICATION FOR MAINTAINING POSTHARVEST QUALITY IN TOMATO FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Vani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomato fruits are usually consumed soon after harvest, however, as they are mainly comprised of water, and its walls are fragile, facilitates the emergence of diseases, making necessary the use of preventive measures in the field in order to reduce incidence of disease. The objective is then to evaluate the effect of foliar application of fungicides on the final quality of tomato fruits in postharvest. There were 13 applications of foliar fungicides Azoxystrobin+Cyproconazol and Boscalida, 7 applications Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin and 17 applications of Propamocarb+Fluopicolide (Control. We analyzed the incidence of Fusarium sp. in fruits, decay percentage of fruit weight (g and Brix. For incidence of Fusarium sp. in fruits, treatments Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin and Azoxistrobin+Ciproconazol reduced by 14.3%, the pathogen in fruits. There was a decrease of 82% in the deterioration of fruits treated with Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin and 91% in those treated with Azoxistrobin+Ciproconazol. As for the weight gain, treatments Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin, Boscalida and Azoxistrobin+Ciproconazol reduced the weight gain in 8.12%, 20.8% and 38.8%, respectively, compared to the control. ° Brix values of fruits treated with Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin and Boscalida were higher than those treated with Azoxistrobin+Ciproconazol and Control (Propamocarb+Fluopicolide. It is concluded that the treatment carried out with Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin afforded the greatest benefits in maintaining the tomato fruits in harvest.

  14. Suicidal tomato cells : programmed cell death in suspension-cultured tomato cells and ripening fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeberichts, F.A.

    2002-01-01

     Tomato fruit ripening involves a series of highly organised biochemical, physiological and structural changes that are under strict genetic control. The plant hormone ethylene (C 2 H 4 ), in synergy with certain developmental cues, regulates fruit ripening b

  15. Chilling and host plant/site associated eclosion times of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...

  16. Fruit preferential activity of the tomato RIP1 gene promoter in transgenic tomato and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Priyanka; Kumar, Rahul; Pareek, Amit; Sharma, Arun K

    2017-02-01

    Isolation and functional characterization of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is beneficial for genetic improvement of economically important crops. Here, we have characterized a putative promoter of a ripening-induced gene RIP1 (Ripening induced protein 1) in tomato. Quantification of the transcript level of RIP1 showed that its expression is fruit preferential, with maximum accumulation in red ripe fruits. To test the promoter activity, we made a reporter construct by cloning 1450 bp putative RIP1 promoter driving the GUS (ß-glucuronidase) gene expression and generated stable transgenic lines in tomato and Arabidopsis. Histochemical and fluorometric assays validated the fruit-specific expression of RIP1 as the highest GUS activity was found in red ripe tomatoes. Similarly, we detected high levels of GUS activity in the siliques of Arabidopsis. On the contrary, weak GUS activity was found in the flower buds in both tomato and Arabidopsis. To characterize the specific regions of the RIP1 promoter that might be essential for its maximum activity and specificity in fruits, we made stable transgenic lines of tomato and Arabidopsis with 5'-deletion constructs. Characterization of these transgenic plants showed that the full length promoter is essential for its function. Overall, we report the identification and characterization of a ripening-induced promoter of tomato, which would be useful for the controlled manipulation of the ripening-related agronomic traits in genetic manipulation studies in future.

  17. Temperature-mediated kill and oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the presence of Spinosad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...

  18. Soil moisture and relative humidity effects during post-diapause on emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in western North America that is found in relatively moist and dry habitats. In this study, fly pupae from Kennewick and Roslyn in Washington state, U.S.A., were used to test the hypotheses tha...

  19. Behavioral responses, rate of mortality, and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly exposed to Malathion, Zeta-cypermethrin, and Spinetoram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of sweet and tart cherry, Prunus avium L. (L.) and P. cerasus L., respectively, in western North America. This fly is commonly controlled with spinosad bait sprays, but these sprays are ineffective against sp...

  20. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  1. An extensive proteome map of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaxin; Pascual, Laura; Aurand, Rémy; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Valot, Benoît; Zivy, Michel; Causse, Mathilde; Faurobert, Mireille

    2013-10-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the model species for studying fleshy fruit development. An extensive proteome map of the fruit pericarp is described in light of the high-quality genome sequence. The proteomes of fruit pericarp from 12 tomato genotypes at two developmental stages (cell expansion and orange-red) were analyzed. The 2DE reference map included 506 spots identified by nano-LC/MS and the International Tomato Annotation Group Database searching. A total of 425 spots corresponded to unique proteins. Thirty-four spots resulted from the transcription of genes belonging to multigene families involving two to six genes. A total of 47 spots corresponded to a mixture of different proteins. The whole protein set was classified according to Gene Ontology annotation. The quantitative protein variation was analyzed in relation to genotype and developmental stage. This tomato fruit proteome dataset is currently the largest available and constitutes a valuable tool for comparative genetic studies of tomato genome expression at the protein level. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000105.

  2. Preliminary Screening and Evaluation of Bacterial Wilt-resistance Cherry Tomato Cultivars%抗青枯病樱桃番茄品种的初步筛选及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾莉莎; 刘建平; 胡规媛; 莫秀文; 杜彩娴; 王红; 梁少丽; 吕顺; 李洪波; 郑汉文

    2016-01-01

    对28个樱桃番茄品种的田间抗病性、植株类型、单果质量、果色、可溶性固形物含量等主要经济性状进行调查。试验结果表明,感病品种红艳发病最重,发病率为73.67%,其次是红箭、红日和金艳,发病率分别为23.33%、21.67%和20.33%,其他品种发病率都在20%以下;28个品种的果实颜色、大小、口感等差异明显,除黑宝石映泰及黄金蛋可溶性固形物含量在4.10%以下外,其他品种可溶性固形物含量都达5.20%以上。综合分析,筛选出绿天使、粉仙、红娘9号、绿圆、格丽贝、红椭圆等11个抗青枯病且经济性状优良的樱桃番茄品种,为优质抗青枯病樱桃番茄的选育和推广提供了参考。%This experiment investigated the main economic characteristics of 28 cherry tomato cultivars including disease resistance, plant type, single fruit weight, fruit color, soluble solid content, etc. The results showed that the sensitive cultivar Hongyan had the highest disease incidence, and its disease incidence was 73.67%, followed by Hongjian, Hongri, and Jinyan with the disease incidence of 23.33%, 21.67% and 20.33% respectively, while disease incidence of other tomatoes cultivars were below 20%. 28 cherry tomato cultivars were obvious differences in fruit color, size, taste, etc. Soluble solid content of most tomato cultivars were more than 5.20% besides Heibaoshiyingtai and Huangjingdan, which soluble solid content were blow 4.10%. Other 11 bacterial wilt-resistance cherry tomato cultivars including Lvtianshi, Fenxian, Hongniang No.9, Lvyuan, Gelibei, Hongtuoyuan and so on with excellent economic characteristics were selected out. This study would provide references for cultivar breeding and promotion of cherry tomato.

  3. Research and Utilization of Black/Prolate Pear-shaped Cherry Tomato Germplasm Resources%黑色/长梨形樱桃番茄种质的研究利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涛; 李锦泉; 黄青峰; 陈朝文; 林金秀

    2013-01-01

    以樱桃番茄黑褐色圆形自交系Z1、红黑色长梨形自交系Z2、红色圆形、浅粉红色扁圆形、橙黄色长椭圆形和黄色圆形等自交系为试材,进行不完全双列杂交配制组合。通过对杂交组合后代的农艺性状、品质特性和抗病性等的调查研究,探究黑色樱桃番茄种质品质改良和长梨形果形的利用,为今后特殊果形果色番茄种质的创新利用提供参考。结果表明:樱桃番茄果色黑色性状为隐性性状;亲本为圆形果或扁圆形果×长梨形果、长椭圆形果×长梨形果时,F1果形分别是椭圆形与长指形。%Hybrid combinations of cherry tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var.cerasiforme Alef.)were made by round black brown inbred line Z1,prolate pear-shaped reddish black inbred line Z2,the round red,oblate pale pinkish red,oval orange yellow and round yellow inbred lines. These inbred lines were taken as experimental material and formed incomplete diallel cross formulated combinations.Through studying the agronomic characters of F1,the quality characteristics and disease resistance,we explored the quality improvement of black cherry tomato germplasm,and the utilization of prolate pear-shaped fruit,in order to provide references for the innovative usage of special fruit color or shape of tomato germplasm in the future.The results showed that the black color of cherry tomato fruit is recessive trait.Parental relative traits (round fruit or oblate fruit×prolate pear-shaped fruit,long oval fruit×prolate pear-shaped fruit),their F1 fruit shape are elliptic and long finger shape,respectively.

  4. Increasing tomato fruit quality by enhancing fruit chloroplast function. A double-edged sword?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaliadis, Maria Florencia; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Pons, Clara; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Fruits are generally regarded as photosynthate sinks as they rely on energy provided by sugars transported from leaves to carry out the highly demanding processes of development and ripening; eventually these imported photosynthates also contribute to the fruit organoleptic properties. Three recent reports have revealed, however, that transcriptional factors enhancing chloroplast development in fruit may result in higher contents not only of tomato fruit-specialized metabolites but also of sugars. In addition to suggesting new ways to improve fruit quality by fortifying fruit chloroplasts and plastids, these results prompted us to re-evaluate the importance of the contribution of chloroplasts/photosynthesis to fruit development and ripening.

  5. Reduction of polygalacturonase activity in tomato fruit by antisense RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, R E; Kramer, M; Hiatt, W R

    1988-12-01

    Polygalacturonase [PG; poly(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide) glycanhydrolase; EC 3.2.1.15] is expressed in tomato only during the ripening stage of fruit development. PG becomes abundant during ripening and has a major role in cell wall degradation and fruit softening. Tomato plants were transformed to produce antisense RNA from a gene construct containing the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and a full-length PG cDNA in reverse orientation. The construct was integrated into the tomato genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The constitutive synthesis of PG antisense RNA in transgenic plants resulted in a substantial reduction in the levels of PG mRNA and enzymatic activity in ripening fruit. The steady-state levels of PG antisense RNA in green fruit of transgenic plants were lower than the levels of PG mRNA normally attained during ripening. However, analysis of transcription in isolated nuclei demonstrated that the antisense RNA construct was transcribed at a higher rate than the tomato PG gene(s). Analysis of fruit from transgenic plants demonstrated a reduction in PG mRNA and enzymatic activity of 70-90%. The reduction in PG activity did not prevent the accumulation of the red pigment lycopene.

  6. Interspecific xenia and metaxenia in seeds and fruits of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Angelo Piotto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Xenia, the transmission of traits from the pollinizer to the female's tissues, is a phenomenon hitherto unknown in tomatoes. Here, we describe xenia effects on the seeds and fruits of Solanum lycopersicum, the tomato, elicited by S. galapagense. The wild tomatoes, such as S. galapagense, have highly pilose fruit surface and minute seeds, unlike the domesticated species. Crossings between S. galapagense (pollinizer and two large-seeded, glabrous cultivars of S. lycopersicum (females tested the former's ability to raise the trichome density and trichome-to-1000-cell ratio and to reduce the seed weight in the latter's fruits. Selfed fruits of the two cultivars, Micro-Tom and Pusa Ruby, were compared to the crossed fruits. The pollen of S. galapagense was able to raise pilosity and to reduce seed weight in the crossed fruits of both cultivars, but with different magnitudes: seed reduction was more intense in Pusa Ruby, while pilosity increase was greater in Micro-Tom, both of which characterize xenia. Pilosity increase is not completely dependent on variation in epidermal cell density, which displayed no xenia effect. The difference between the maternal cultivars in the magnitude of pilosity increase may be due to the higher dilution of a putative male chemical signal (either hormone or RNA in the larger fruits of Pusa Ruby. However, one cannot use the signal diffusion hypothesis to explain the xenia effects on seed weight.

  7. Ethylene independent induction of lycopene biosynthesis in tomato fruits by jasmonates

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lihong; Wei, Jia; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Liping; Li, Chuanyou; Wang, Qiaomei

    2012-01-01

    One of the main characteristics of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening is a massive accumulation of carotenoids (mainly lycopene), which may contribute to the nutrient quality of tomato fruit and its role in chemoprevention. Previous studies have shown that ethylene (ET) plays a central role in promoting fruit ripening. In this study, the role of jasmonic acid (JA) in controlling lycopene accumulation in tomato fruits was analysed by measuring fruit lycopene content and the expressio...

  8. Major Proteome Variations Associated with Cherry Tomato Pericarp Development and Ripening[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurobert, Mireille; Mihr, Christina; Bertin, Nadia; Pawlowski, Tomasz; Negroni, Luc; Sommerer, Nicolas; Causse, Mathilde

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a model plant for studying fleshy fruit development. Several genetic and molecular approaches have been developed to increase our knowledge about the physiological basis of fruit growth, but very few data are yet available at the proteomic level. The main stages of fruit development were first determined through the dynamics of fruit diameter and pericarp cell number. Then, total proteins were extracted from pericarp tissue at six relevant developmental stages and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein patterns were markedly different between stages. Proteins showing major variations were monitored. We identified 90 of 1,791 well-resolved spots either by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight peptide mass fingerprinting or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry sequencing and expressed sequence tag database searching. Clustered correlation analysis results pointed out groups of proteins with similar expression profiles during fruit development. In young fruit, spots linked to amino acid metabolism or protein synthesis were mainly expressed during the cell division stage and down-regulated later. Some spots linked to cell division processes could be identified. During the cell expansion phase, spots linked to photosynthesis and proteins linked to cell wall formation transiently increased. In contrast, the major part of the spots related to C compounds and carbohydrate metabolism or oxidative processes were up-regulated during fruit development, showing an increase in spot intensity during development and maximal abundance in mature fruit. This was also the case for spots linked to stress responses and fruit senescence. We discuss protein variations, taking into account their potential role during fruit growth and comparing our results with already known variations at mRNA and metabolite-profiling levels. PMID:17208958

  9. Agronomic properties of wastewater sludge biochar and bioavailability of metals in production of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mustafa K; Strezov, Vladimir; Chan, K Yin; Nelson, Peter F

    2010-02-01

    This work presents agronomic values of a biochar produced from wastewater sludge through pyrolysis at a temperature of 550 degrees C. In order to investigate and quantify effects of wastewater sludge biochar on soil quality, growth, yield and bioavailability of metals in cherry tomatoes, pot experiments were carried out in a temperature controlled environment and under four different treatments consisting of control soil, soil with biochar; soil with biochar and fertiliser, and soil with fertiliser only. The soil used was chromosol and the applied wastewater sludge biochar was 10tha(-1). The results showed that the application of biochar improves the production of cherry tomatoes by 64% above the control soil conditions. The ability of biochar to increase the yield was attributed to the combined effect of increased nutrient availability (P and N) and improved soil chemical conditions upon amendment. The yield of cherry tomato production was found to be at its maximum when biochar was applied in combination with the fertiliser. Application of biochar was also found to significantly increase the soil electrical conductivity as well as phosphorus and nitrogen contents. Bioavailability of metals present in the biochar was found to be below the Australian maximum permitted concentrations for food.

  10. Optimization and development of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of vitamin E and carotenoids in tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irakli, Maria; Chatzopoulou, Paschalina; Kadoglidou, Kalliopi; Tsivelika, Nektaria

    2016-09-01

    A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of lipophilic antioxidants in tomato fruits using C30 column operated at 15°C and a gradient mobile phase based on acetonitrile/methanol/dichloromethane in a total run time of 30 min. Diode array and fluorescence detectors were used respectively for the detection of carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and β-carotene) and vitamin E analogs (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols, and tocotrienols). The best extraction yield of analytes in tomato fruits was achieved by employing ethyl acetate/hexane (1:1, v/v) after several treatments with various solvents. In addition, low extraction yields were obtained for carotenoids compared to tocopherols by adopting solid-phase extraction as a second clean-up step. The method was validated on the basis of recovery, precision, linearity, and limit of detection and quantification using spiked tomato samples. The method was applied to cherry and medium-sized tomato fruits. Lycopene was found to be present in largest amount in tomato pulp, followed by β-carotene and lutein. Due to its simplicity, rapidity, and efficiency, the method is suitable for routine analysis of lipophilic antioxidants in tomato fruits, and may also be applied to other vegetables of similar phytochemical profiles.

  11. Application Study of Oscillation Pollination Device on Cherry Tomato in Protected Fields%振荡授粉器在保护地樱桃番茄生产中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑梅; 王施慧; 王登良; 侯丽霞; 马德源

    2013-01-01

    在樱桃番茄花期设计植物生长调节剂点花、番茄振荡授粉器授粉、自然授粉(CK)3种处理,比较不同授粉方式对樱桃番茄坐果率、产量、品质、商品性等综合性状的影响.结果表明:振荡授粉器处理植株坐果率、单株产量、可溶性固形物含量分别比自然授粉高7.7%、29.1%、4.1%,与植物生长调节剂处理差异不显著;落果率最低;商品果率较自然授粉高5.6%;两种处理方法的单果重均比自然授粉低,其中振荡授粉器处理仅低3.1%;振荡授粉器处理果实果色亮、熟性早,较植物生长调节剂点花节省一半左右的用工时间.%The application effects of plant growth regulator and oscillation-pollination device in cherry tomato florescence were studied and compared to the natural pollination.The comprehensive characters including fruit setting rate,yield,quality and marketability were investigated.The results showed that the application of oscillation-pollination device increased the fruit setting rate,yield per plant and soluble solid content of cherry tomato by 7.7%,29.1% and 4.0% respectively compared to those of natural pollination,but they were not significantly different from those of the treatment with growth regulator;its drop rate was the lowest and commodity fruit rate increased by 5.6% compared to natural pollination.Artificial pollination decreased the single fruit weight of cherry tomato,and the treatment with oscillation-pollination device decreased by 3.1%.The cherry tomato fruits had light color and early maturation,and half of work time for artificial pollination could be saved by using oscillation-pollination device.

  12. Senescence of rin, rin/rin, rin/+ and +/+ tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ripening inhibitor (rin gene is a spontaneous recessive mutant which changes fruit ripening aspects (most important synthesis of carotene, especially lycopene. It also delays fruit senescence. Tomato is a vegetable crop with specific maturing climax (pik. Tomato genotypes homozygote for rin gene does not have this maturing climax, so the ethyl-ene production and red, lycopene colour does not appear. In order to research the maturing process material from the final tomato selection cycle we used: pure line S-49 (genetic constitution u/u, with uniform ripening, line hom 4 (rin/rin, homozygote with ripening inhibitor and hybrid combination 449 Fl (u/rin, heterozygote for ripening inhibitor. Fruits with uniform ripening and hybrids ripened simultaneously, while homozygote with rin gene did not ripe at all. Ethylene stimulates the appearance of yellow colour in rin fruits and the lycopene production. After treatment with ETEPHONE (0.1% (Ethylene fruits with uniform ripening, senescence more quickly, while hybrids senescence slowly. Rin homozygotes did not change colors, but the fruits senescence more quickly comparing to control. Ethylene treatment speeded the maturing and senescence process in tomato fruits. Extended maturing process as a result influence of rin gene, makes the new created hybrids a late maturing ones. On the other hand, the firmness of fruits is improved as well as the "shelf life", which enables longer transportation and storing, coordinated maturing according to market demands. The aim was to research the maturing according to market demands. The aim was to research the maturing process of rin heteroyzgote, and the reaction of some genotypes to treatment with RT-REL (Ethzlene in order to decrease extremely late maturing.

  13. Effect of salinity and calcium on tomato fruit proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Faurobert, Mireille; Valot, Benoit; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Grasselly, Dominique; Causse, Mathilde,; Ben Ahmed, Hela

    2013-01-01

    Salinity is a major abiotic stress that adversely affects plant growth and productivity. The physiology of the tomato in salty and nonsalty conditions has been extensively studied, providing an invaluable base to understand the responses of the plants to cultural practices. However few data are yet available at the proteomic level looking for the physiological basis of fruit development, under salt stress. Here, we report the effects of salinity and calcium on fruit proteome variations of two...

  14. Genes from Lycopersicon chmielewskii affecting tomato quality during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, F; Kim, D; Tanksley, S D; Juvik, J A

    1995-08-01

    Three chromosomal segments from the wild tomato, L. chmielewskii, introgressed into the L. esculentum genome have been previously mapped to the middle and terminal regions of chromosome 7 (7M, 7T respectively), and to the terminal region of chromosome 10 (10T). The present study was designed to investigate the physiological mechanisms controlled by the 7M and 7T segments on tomato soluble solids (SS) and pH, and their genetic regulation during fruit development. The effects of 7M and 7T were studied in 64 BC2F5 backcross inbred lines (BILs) developed from a cross between LA 1501 (an L. esculentum line containing the 7M and 7T fragments from L. chmielewskii), and VF145B-7879 (a processing cultivar). BILs were classified into four homozygous genotypes with respect to the introgressed segments based on RFLP analysis, and evaluated for fruit chemical characteristics at different harvest stages. Gene(s) in the 7M fragment reduce fruit water uptake during ripening increasing pH, sugars, and SS concentration. Gene(s) in the 7T fragment were found to be associated with higher mature green fruit starch concentration and red ripe fruit weight. Comparisons between tomatoes ripened on or off the vine suggest that the physiological mechanisms influenced by the L. chmielewskii alleles are dependent on the translocation of photosynthates and water during fruit ripening.

  15. Characterization of cuticle composition after cold storage of "Celeste" and "Somerset" sweet cherry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Burcu; Llovera, Montserrat; Comabella, Eva; Gatius, Ferran; Guillén, Pere; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2014-08-27

    Cuticle composition and structure may be relevant factors affecting the storage potential of fruits, but very few studies have analyzed fruit cuticle composition from a postharvest perspective. In this work, the chemical composition of waxes and cutin (major cuticular components) was analyzed in cuticle samples isolated from "Celeste" and "Somerset" cherries (Prunus avium L.) after cold storage at 0 °C. Total cuticle amounts per surface unit (μg cm(-2)) increased along with cold storage. The triterpene ursolic acid, the alkane nonacosane, linoleic acid, and β-sitosterol were the most abundant components of cuticular waxes, whereas cutin composition was dominated by C18-type monomers. In spite of being comprised of similar chemical families, cultivar-related differences were found regarding the abundance and the evolution of some compound families during cold storage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on changes in cuticle composition of sweet cherry during postharvest storage.

  16. Genetics and control of tomato fruit ripening and quality attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process coinciding with seed maturation. Regulated expression of thousands of genes controls fruit softening as well as accumulation of pigments, sugars, acids and volatile compounds that increase attraction to animals. A combination of molecular...

  17. Screening of Cherry Tomato Varieties for Protected Cultivation in Yantai Area%烟台地区保护地栽培樱桃番茄品种的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅; 姜玉香; 柳佳

    2012-01-01

    The indicators of different cherry tomato varieties, such as plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, content of soluble sugar and Vc in fruits, single fruit weight, total fruit yield and the shape, color and taste of fruits, were compared for protected cultivation in Yantai area. The results showed that the variety ' Need for Joan' had the best comprehensive properties and was followed by Jibei 216 and ' Millennium Jubi-lee'.%比较不同樱桃番茄品种在烟台地区栽培的株高、茎粗、叶片数、果实可溶性糖含量、果实VC含量、单果重、总产量、果实形状、颜色、果实口感等指标,结果表明:极品圣女综合性状最好,其次是冀北216和千年禧.

  18. INFLUENCE OF THE ROOT TYPE ON THE FRUIT QUALITY OF THREE SOUR CHERRY CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. SOTIROV

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were conducted in the period 2003-2005 at the Institute of Agriculture in Kyustendil /Bulgaria/ with three sour cherry cultivars - Heimanns rubinveichsel, M-15 and Nefris, self-rooted and grafted on IK-M9 mahaleb rootstock. The yield per tree, the fruit weight and the content of dry matter, the total sugars and total acids of the fruits were evaluated. The fruit yield of the self-rooted trees was smaller than that of the grafted ones in all experimental years, but the statistical analysis showed significant differences only for cv. Nefris. The rootstock used or its absence did not have considerable influence on the fruit weight. Significant differences in the fruit chemical composition between the grafted and self-rooted trees were not found and it depended mainly on the cultivar and to a smaller extent on the rootstock or its absence.

  19. Micropropagation of Prunus species relevant to cherry fruit production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druart, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Cherry tree micropropagation is limited to the production of healthy cultivars of Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus, and their rootstocks; mainly the dwarfing ones. By using meristem-tip (0.1 mm long) or healthy shoot tips/nodes, four successive steps are needed to obtain whole plants capable of growing in the nursery: multiplication by axillary branching, shoot elongation, rooting, and plantlet acclimation. Along this process, several parameters have to be adjusted for each phase of the culture, including media composition, environmental culture conditions and plant handling. These parameters vary depending on genotypic response and specific vulnerability to physiological disorders such as hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, unstable propagation, and rooting rates. Based on a 40 year-long experience of study and application of culture conditions to large-scale plant production, this document summarizes the main problems (variability of the propagation rate, hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, plant re-growth) and solutions encountered to solve them, with means validated on many mericlones.

  20. [Effects of fruit bag color on the microenvironment, yield and quality of tomato fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Fang-sheng; Xu, Kun; Xu, Ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to clarify the ecological and biological effects of fruit bagging, tomato variety JYK was taken as the test material to study the changes of the microenvironment in different color fruit bags and the effects of these changes on the fruit development, yield and quality, with the treatment without fruit bagging as the control (CK). The results showed that bagging with different color fruit bags had positive effects in decreasing the light intensity of the microenvironment and increasing its temperature and humidity, and thus, increased the single fruit mass and promoted the harvest stage advanced. Black bag had the best effects in increasing microenvironment temperature and fruit mass, with the single fruit mass increased by 27.2% and the harvest period shortened by 10 days, compared with CK. The fruit maturation period in colorless bag, blue bag and red bag was shortened by 8, 3 and 2 days, and the single mass was increased by 11.8%, 6.4% and 4.8%, respectively. Moreover, the coloring and lycopene content of the fruits with different color bags bagging were improved, but the fruit rigidity and fruit soluble solid, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents were decreased. Therefore, bagging with different color bags could improve the yield of tomato fruits, but decrease the fruit nutritional quality.

  1. Research on cherry tomato lily yoghurt products and its stability%圣女果百合酸乳制品及其稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕玉珍; 韦林洪; 王静; 郑新

    2012-01-01

    With cherry tomato, lily and fresh milk (or powdered milk) as main raw materials, adding sugar, stabilizer and other accessories, Lactobacil-lus bulgaricus and thermophilic chain bacteria for fermenting agents, through the L3(33) orthogonal experiments and sensory evaluation, the research focused on the processing technology of production cherry tomato lily yoghurt, discussed the conditions of the lily slurry liquefied, debittering process, and the cherry tomato color protection. The results showed that the best product condictions of yoghurt were the fruit pulp:lily juice=5:5, 80% fresh milk, 7% sugar, 0.3% pectin or composite stabilizer (0.15% CMC, 0.15% pectin acid), fermentation temperature as 41℃, the fermentation time about 4h, 2% inoculation quantity.%以圣女果、百合和鲜牛奶(或奶粉)为主要原料,添加白砂糖、稳定剂等辅料,保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链菌为混合发酵剂,通过L3(33)正交试验和感官评定,研究生产圣女果百合酸奶的加工工艺及其影响稳定性的因素,并对百合浆料液化和脱苦工艺及圣女果的护色条件进行了探讨.试验结果表明:圣女果浆∶百合汁=5∶5,80%的鲜牛奶,7%的白砂糖,0.3%的果胶或复合稳定剂(0.15%的耐酸CMC、0.15%的果胶),发酵温度为41℃,发酵时间约4h,接种量2%时,酸奶质量最佳.

  2. Proteomic Comparison of Fruit Ripening between 'Hedelfinger' Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) and Its Somaclonal Variant 'HS'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Espen, Luca; Piagnani, M Claudia

    2016-05-25

    The somaclonal variant HS, from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) 'Hedelfinger' (H), was previously selected for reduced tree vegetative vigor and lesser canopy density. In this work, we compared H and HS fruits at early unripe (green) and full ripe (dark red) stages by biochemical and proteomic approaches. The main biochemical parameters showed that fruit quality was not affected by somaclonal variation. The proteomic analysis identified 39 proteins differentially accumulated between H and HS fruits at the two ripening stages, embracing enzymes involved in several pathways, such as carbon metabolism, cell wall modification, stress response, and secondary metabolism. The evaluation of fruit phenolic composition by mass spectrometry showed that HS sweet cherries have higher levels of procyanidin, flavonol, and anthocyanin compounds. This work provides the first proteomic characterization of fruit ripening in sweet cherry, revealing new positive traits of the HS somaclonal variant.

  3. Tomato FRUITFULL homologs regulate fruit ripening via ethylene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Yoko; Fujisawa, Masaki; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Nakamura, Toshihide; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Certain MADS-box transcription factors play central roles in regulating fruit ripening. RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), a tomato MADS-domain protein, acts as a global regulator of ripening, affecting the climacteric rise of ethylene, pigmentation changes, and fruit softening. Previously, we showed that two MADS-domain proteins, the FRUITFULL homologs FUL1 and FUL2, form complexes with RIN. Here, we characterized the FUL1/FUL2 loss-of-function phenotype in co-suppressed plants. The transgenic plants produced ripening-defective fruits accumulating little or no lycopene. Unlike a previous study on FUL1/FUL2 suppressed tomatoes, our transgenic fruits showed very low levels of ethylene production, and this was associated with suppression of the genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene synthesis. FUL1/FUL2 suppression also caused the fruit to soften in a manner independent of ripening, possibly due to reduced cuticle thickness in the peel of the suppressed tomatoes.

  4. Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity and Color of Hydroponic Tomato Fruits at Different Stages of Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta NOUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in order to study the simultaneous effect of on-vine ripening and examined cultivars on fruit quality, color development and antioxidant content in two different types of tomatoes. ‘Admiro’ and ‘Komet’ (normal average fruit weight and ‘Cheramy’ (cherry type cultivars grown in hydroponic culture were used. Dry matter, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, lycopene, b-carotene, total phenolic, total flavonoid content and hydrophilic antioxidant activity were measured in six ripening stages. Color of fruits was determined by CIELab system. The L*, a*, b* values were used to calculate hue angle (ho, chroma (C* and a* to b* ratio. In all analysed cultivars total phenolic content increased as ripening progressed, reached the maximum at the pink stage and subsequently declined, while the trend of ascorbic acid was cultivar dependent. DPPH radical scavenging activity showed significant moderately strong positive correlations with total phenolics and ascorbic acid. The content of β-carotene increased constantly during ripening while lycopene content registered a sharp rise, especially in the last stage of ripening when 47.2% of the lycopene content was accumulated. During ripening the lightness (L* decreased because tomato fruit colour became darker while the ratio of red to green colour increased as a result of carotenoids synthesis. Among color indexes, hue angle (ho was best correlated with lycopene content (r = −0.758, followed by a* (r = 0.748, C* (r = 0.708 and a*/b* (r = 0.683. Better correlations were established between main carotenoids content (lycopene + b-carotene and each of the color indexes.

  5. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding. PMID:27617019

  6. Optimization on cleaning sterilization processing of cherry tomato%樱桃番茄清洗杀菌工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹义蕾; 王莉; 连青龙; 李邵; 鲁少尉; 邓勇军

    2012-01-01

    To develop the potential of food safety and commercial value focusing on better appearance and taste, longer storage time and higher good fruits rate, Ning Xia cherry tomatoes were used as materials. The multi-slot automatic-transmission vegetable washing machines and hypochlorite disinfection equipment were applied to clean cherry tomatoes, and the ideal cleaning process parameters were determined by cold preservation experiment. The results showed that the maximum capacity for the vegetable washing machine was 15 kg, the ideal cleaning time was 170 s, under these conditions, the cleaning rate was 99.3%. The sterilization with 100μg/mL hypochlorite solution for 85 s reduced 1.128 log value of bacterial volume on the surface of cherry tomatoes. With 100μg/mL hypochlorite-sterilization, the good fruits rate was 77% after stored at 10℃ for 18 days. The study provides a reference for washing sterilization process of cherry tomatoes.%清洗杀菌可提高樱桃番茄的食用安全和商业价值,使得樱桃番茄外观口味俱佳、保存期更长、好果质量分数更高,该研究以宁夏樱桃番茄为试验对象,利用多槽自动输送式蔬菜清洗机和次氯酸杀菌消毒制备设备进行清洗和杀菌,通过清洗杀菌试验的测试结果来确定合理的清洗和杀菌工艺参数.试验结果表明:清洗机清洗樱桃番茄单槽喂入量最大值为15 kg;清洗用时170 s即可达到理想的清洗效果,洗净质量分数可达99.3%;杀菌水有效氯浓度为1 00μg/mL,消毒时间为85 s,可使樱桃番茄表面菌落总数降低1.128个对数值;用有效氯质量100μg/mL次氯酸杀菌水清洗后的果实,在10℃的冷库环境保存下,18d后好果质量分数仍能达到77%.本研究结果可为工业化生产中樱桃番茄清洗杀菌工艺的提供参考.

  7. 乳清蛋白可食性膜对圣女果贮藏品质的影响%Effect of Whey Protein Edible Film on Storage Quality of Cherry Tomatoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳晖; 雍凯

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究乳清蛋白可食性膜对圣女果贮藏品质的影响.[方法] 以乳清废液为主要材料制备乳清蛋白膜,并将其用于圣女果的保鲜. [结果] 制膜的最佳配方为固液比1∶8,甘油添加量0.2%,干燥温度80 ℃.经乳清蛋白涂膜处理后的圣女果,在20 ℃下的贮藏品质明显提高.[结论]乳清蛋白可食性膜在一定程度上减缓了圣女果腐烂、失重、变软,具有一定的保鲜作用;而添加了山梨酸钾的乳清蛋白膜对圣女果的保鲜效果明显优于未添加山梨酸钾的乳清蛋白膜.%[ Objective ] The research aimed to study the effect of whey protein edibal film on the storage quality of cherry tomatoes. [ Method]Whey which was wasted was used as the main material to prepare whey protein film, and used for cherry fruit preservation. [ Result] The best formula membrane was solid-to-liquid 1: 8, glycerol additive amount 0. 2%, drying temperature 80 ℃. After the cherry tomatoes were coating by whey protein,the storage quality at 20 ℃ was improved significantly. [Conclusion] Whey protein film could slow down the cherry tomatoes become decay, weight loss, soft,and it had better effect on preservation. Whey protein film which was added potassium sorbate had better fresh effect.

  8. Tomato chilling injury threshold defined by the volatile profiles of pink harvested tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh tomato fruit show visible symptoms of chilling injury (CI) when stored at temperatures lower than the reported chilling threshold of 12.5°C. However, their sensitivity has been reported to decrease as they ripen. Volatile profiles change during ripening and are affected by physiological change...

  9. Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eKiferle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fruits with iodine. Increasing concentrations of iodine supplied as KI or KIO3 were administered to plants as root treatments and the iodine accumulation in fruits was measured. The influences of the soil organic matter content or the nitrate level in the nutritive solution were analyzed. Finally, yield and qualitative properties of the biofortified tomatoes were considered, as well as the possible influence of fruit storage and processing on the iodine content. Results showed that the use of both the iodized salts induced a significant increase in the fruit’s iodine content in doses that did not affect plant growth and development. The final levels ranged from a few mg up to 10 mg iodine kg-1 fruit fresh weight and are more than adequate for a biofortification program, since 150 µg iodine per day is the recommended dietary allowance for adults. In general, the iodine treatments scarcely affected fruit appearance and quality, even with the highest concentrations applied. In contrast, the use of KI in plants fertilized with low doses of nitrate induced moderate phytotoxicity symptoms. Organic matter-rich soils improved the plant’s health and production, with only mild reductions in iodine stored in the fruits. Finally, a short period of storage at room temperature or a 30-minute boiling treatment did not reduce the iodine content in the fruits, if the peel was maintained. All these results suggest that tomato is a particularly suitable crop for iodine

  10. Phenolic metabolism in grafted versus nongrafted cherry tomatoes under the influence of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Eva; Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A

    2011-08-24

    Use of grafts using rootstocks capable of palliating the effects of water stress can be a possible solution to reduce yield losses. For response to stress, plants can induce the metabolism of phenylpropanoids. The aim of the present work is to determine the response of reciprocal grafts made between one tolerant cherry tomato cultivar, Zarina, and a more sensitive cultivar, Josefina. The analysis of the phenylpropanoids pathway was carried out both enzymatically and metabolically. DAHP synthase, shikimate dehydrogenase, phenylalanine ammonium-lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, and 4-coumarate CoA ligase activities were determined, and characteristic metabolites from the pathway were measured by means of HPLC-MS. Growth in the grafts JosxZar and ZarxJos was not appreciably affected by stress. JosxZar had increased concentrations of phenolic compounds after water stress. This could be correlated with the greater activity of synthesis enzymes as well as a decrease in phenol-degrading enzymes. Phenolic metabolism is more influenced by the aerial part, and therefore it is concluded that the capacity of inducing tolerance in rootstocks depends on the genotype of the shoot.

  11. Polyamine content of long-keeping alcobaca tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, A R; Davies, P J; Mutschler, M A

    1988-02-01

    Fruit of tomato landrace Alcobaca, containing the recessive allele alc, ripen more slowly, with a reduced level of ethylene production, and have prolonged keeping qualities. The levels of polyamines in pericarp tissues of alc and ;wild type' Alc (cv Rutgers and Alcobaca-red) fruit were measured by HPLC in relation to ripening. Putrescine was the predominant polyamine with a lower content of spermidine, while spermine was just detectable. The level of putrescine was high at the immature green stage and declined in the mature green stage. In Alc fruit the decline persisted but in alc fruit the putrescine level increased during ripening to a level similar to that present at the immature green stage. There was no pronounced change or difference in spermidine levels. The enhanced polyamine level in alc fruit may account for their ripening and storage characteristics.

  12. A New Cherry Tomato F1 Hybrid-‘Jinmei’%樱桃番茄新品种金美的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄浅; 钱健康; 田炜; 刘杰; 李国臣

    2016-01-01

    ‘Jinmei’ is a new cherry tomato F1 hybrid developed by crossing ‘MY0216’as female parent and‘MY0310’as male parent. This variety belongs to indeterminate growth type. The fruit is of high round shape. The young fruit has no green shoulder,and the matured fruit is yellow in color. The average single fruit weight is about 17.6 g. Its fruit hardness is high. And it is tolerant to storage and transportation. The fruit tastes sweet & sour with good quality. It can yield about 45 t·hm-2. It is suitable to be planted in the greenhouse or open fields in Beijing,Liaoning,Henan,Shaanxi,Hunan,Jiangsu,Zhejiang and Hainan Provinces and etc. areas in spring.%金美是以MY0216为母本,以MY0310为父本育成的樱桃番茄一代杂种。无限生长类型,果实高圆形,幼果无绿果肩,成熟果黄色,平均单果质量17.6 g左右,果实硬度高,耐贮运,口味甜酸,品质优。每667 m2产量达3000 kg左右。可在北京、辽宁、河南、陕西、湖南、江苏、浙江和海南等适宜地区春季保护地或露地种植。

  13. 樱桃番茄新品种美奇的选育%A New Cherry Tomato F1 Hybrid-‘Meiqi’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱健康; 黄浅; 田炜; 刘杰; 李国臣

    2015-01-01

    ‘Meiqi’is a new cherry tomato hybrid developed by crossing‘MT0218’as female parent and‘MT0235-1’as male parent. This variety belongs to limited growth type. The fruit is of high oval shape. The young fruit has no green shoulder,and the matured fruit is red in color. The average single fruit weight is about 17 g. Its fruit hardness is high. It is tolerant to storage and transportation. The fruit tastes sweet&sour and its quality is good. The results of field investigation show that it is resistant to virus disease,leaf mold ,bacterial wilt,etc. Its average yield is about 45 t·hm-2. It is suitable to be planted in greenhouse or open field in Beijing,Liaoning, Henan,Shaanxi,Hunan,Jiangsu,Zhejiang and Hainan Provinces in spring.%美奇是以MT0218为母本,以MT0235-1为父本育成的樱桃番茄一代杂种。有限生长类型,果实高圆形,幼果无果肩,成熟果大红色,平均单果质量17 g左右。果实硬度高,耐贮运,口味甜酸,品质优。田间调查结果表明,美奇的病毒病、叶霉病和青枯病等多种病害发病较轻或未发生。每667 m2产量3000 kg左右。适宜在北京、辽宁、河南、陕西、湖南、江苏、浙江和海南等适宜地区春季保护地或露地种植。

  14. Effects of Salt and Water Stress on Plant Growth and on Accumulation of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Compounds in Cherry Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad AL HASSAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salt and water stress on growth and several stress markers were investigated in cherry tomato plants. Some growth parameters (stem length and number of leaves and chlorophyll contents were determined every third day during plant growth, and leaf material was collected after 25 and 33 days of treatment. Both stresses inhibited plant growth; chlorophyll levels, however, decreased only in response to high NaCl concentrations. Proline contents largely increased in leaves of stressed plants, reaching levels high enough to play a major role in cellular osmotic adjustment. Despite reports indicating that tomato does not synthesize glycine betaine, the stress-induced accumulation of this osmolyte was detected in cherry tomato, albeit at lower concentration than that of proline. Therefore, it appears that the plants are able to synthesise glycine betaine as a secondary osmolyte under strong stress conditions. Total sugars levels, on the contrary, decreased in stress-treated plants. Both stress treatments caused secondary oxidative stress in the plants, as indicated by a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA contents. Water stress led to an increase in total phenolics and flavonoid contents and a reduction of carotenoid levels in the leaves; flavonoids also increased under high salinity conditions.

  15. Relações genotípicas entre componentes da resistência pós-colheita em tomate Cereja e Salada Genotypic relationships between components of postharvest resistance of Cherry and Salad tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Moreira Sobreira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a necessidade de realizar análise de trilha individualizada para tomates tipo Salada (L. esculentum e Cereja (L. esculentum var. cerasiforme, visando obter informações sobre quais variáveis estão relacionadas com a resistência pós-colheita (RPC, e orientar a seleção de materiais para programas de melhoramento. Realizaram-se análises de variâncias, correlações genotípicas, diagnóstico de multicolinearidade e o desdobramento das correlações genotípicas por meio de análise de trilha. As variáveis mais explicativas da RPC em tomates tipo Salada foram o diâmetro da cicatriz do pedúnculo (DCP e o diâmetro médio do fruto (DMF; a espessura do mesocarpo (ESP e o peso médio dos frutos (PMF em tipo Cereja. Em tomates Cereja, ganhos podem ser obtidos na RPC por meio de seleção indireta via ESP. Estes serão maiores se dentre os frutos de maior ESP forem selecionados os de menor PMF. No caso de Salada, deve-se selecionar indiretamente os frutos de menor DCP e dentre estes os de maior DMF. A análise de trilha deve ser realizada considerando cada tipo de tomate, visto que as variáveis explicativas diferem entre estes.This study aimed to evaluate the need for individual path analysis to Cherry (L. esculentum var. cerasiforme and Salad (L. esculentum tomatoes type, seeking information about which variables are associated with post-harvest resistance (PHR, and guide the selection of material for breeding programs. We performed the variance analysis, genotypic correlations, multicolinearity diagnosis, and the display of genotypic correlations through path analysis. The more explicatory variables of PHR in Salad tomatoes type were the peduncle scar diameter (PSD and the fruit mean diameter (FMD; the mesocarp thickness (MST and fruit mean weight (FMW in cherry type. For Cherry tomatoes, gains can be obtained in the PHR through indirect selection by MST. This will be greatest if among the fruits with more

  16. Developmental gene regulation during tomato fruit ripening and in-vitro sepal morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida Betty K; Bartley Glenn E

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Red ripe tomatoes are the result of numerous physiological changes controlled by hormonal and developmental signals, causing maturation or differentiation of various fruit tissues simultaneously. These physiological changes affect visual, textural, flavor, and aroma characteristics, making the fruit more appealing to potential consumers for seed dispersal. Developmental regulation of tomato fruit ripening has, until recently, been lacking in rigorous investigation. We prev...

  17. Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia eKiferle; Silvia eGonzali; Harmen Tjalling Holwerda; Rodrigo eReal Ibaceta; Pierdomenico ePerata

    2013-01-01

    Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fru...

  18. Effects of acute ozone stress on reproductive traits of tomato, fruit yield and fruit composition

    OpenAIRE

    Vercambre, Gilles; Gautier, Helene; Gay, Frédéric; Phattaralerphong, Jessada; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2014-01-01

    Tomato is sensitive to ozone. Fruit growth and composition is altered under ozone stress by modification of reproductive development. . Fifty-one-day-old plants were exposed to three concentrations of ozone (200, 350 and 500 µg m(-3) ) for four hours. Ozone reduced well-developed fruit number and fruit size, but it did not significantly affect flowering rate and fruit setting rate. The effect of ozone depends on organ developmental stage at the time of ozone application, as flowers and you...

  19. Enzyme activities in mitochondria isolated from ripening tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, D; Goodenough, P W; Weitzman, P D

    1986-09-01

    Mitochondria were isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit at the mature green, orange-green and red stages and from fruit artificially suspended in their ripening stage. The specific activities of citrate synthase (EC 4.1.3.7), malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37), NAD-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.41) and NAD-linked malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.38) were determined. The specific activities of all these enzymes fell during ipening, although the mitochondria were fully functional as demonstrated by the uptake of oxygen. The fall in activity of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase was accompanied by a similar fall in the activity of the cytosolic isoenzyme. Percoll-purified mitochondria isolated from mature green fruit remained intact for more than one week and at least one enzyme, citrate synthase, did not exhibit the fall in specific activity found in normal ripening fruit.

  20. Progress Towards the Tomato Fruit Cell Wall Proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliel eRuiz May

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The plant cell wall (CW compartment, or apoplast, is host to a highly dynamic proteome, comprising large numbers of both enzymatic and structural proteins. This reflects its importance as the interface between adjacent cells and the external environment, the presence of numerous extracellular metabolic and signaling pathways, and the complex nature of wall structural assembly and remodeling during cell growth and differentiation. Tomato fruit ontogeny, with its distinct phases of rapid growth and ripening, provides a valuable experimental model system for CW proteomic studies, in that it involves substantial wall assembly, remodeling and coordinated disassembly. Moreover, diverse populations of secreted proteins must be deployed to resist microbial infection and protect against abiotic stresses. Tomato fruits also provide substantial amounts of biological material, which is a significant advantage for many types of biochemical analyses, and facilitates the detection of lower abundance proteins. In this review we describe a variety of orthogonal techniques that have been applied to identify CW localized proteins from tomato fruit, including approaches that: target the proteome of the CW and the overlying cuticle; functional ‘secretome’ screens; lectin affinity chromatography; and computational analyses to predict proteins that enter the secretory pathway. Each has its merits and limitations, but collectively they are providing important insights into CW proteome composition and dynamics, as well as some potentially controversial issues, such as the prevalence of non-canonical protein secretion.

  1. Structural investigations and morphology of tomato fruit starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengwilai, Kietsuda; Beckles, Diane M

    2009-01-14

    The physicochemical properties of starch from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) pericarp and columella of cv. Moneymaker fruit at 28 days post anthesis (DPA) were investigated, providing the first description of the composition and structure of tomato fruit starch. Starch granules from pericarp were mainly polygonal, 13.5-14.3 microm, and increased in size through development, being largest in ripening fruit. Amylopectin content was 81-83% and was of molecular weight 1.01 x 10(8) g/mol; the phosphorus content was 139 ppm, and starch showed a C-type pattern with crystallinity of 30%. Starch characteristics were similar in columella except granule size (16.8-17.8 microm) and crystallinity (40%), although 6-fold more starch accumulated in the pericarp. Solara, a high-sugar tomato cultivar, was also studied to determine if this affects starch granule architecture. There were few differences from Moneymaker, except that Solara columella starch crystallinity was lower (26%), and more starch granule-intrinsic proteins could be extracted by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  2. Over-expression ofGhDWF4 gene improved tomato fruit quality and accelerated fruit ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Shu-e; LUO Ming; LI Fang; LI Xian-bi; HONG Qi-bin; ZHAI Yun-lan; HU Ming-yu; WEI Ting; DENG Sha-sha; PEI Yan

    2015-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs), a class of steroidal phytohormones are essential for many biological processes in plant. However, little is known about their roles in fruit development. Tomato is a highly valuable vegetable and has been adopted as the model species for studying fruit growth, development, and ripening. To understand the role of endogenous BRs in the de-velopment of tomato fruit, the expression patterns of three homologues ofDWF4 gene were investigated and the transgenic tomato plants were generated in which theGhDWF4 gene from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was ectopicaly expressed. The contents of main quality components were analyzed in fruits of transgenic tomato line and non-transgenic line (control plant, CP) when the fruit was mature.SlCYP90B3 that possesses high homology withGhDWF4 preferentialy expressed in mature fruit. Signiifcantly higher contents of soluble sugar, soluble proteins, and vitamin C were obtained in fruit of transgenic tomato lines compared with those in the CP. Furthermore, overexpressingGhDWF4 promoted fruit growth and ripening. The weight per fruit was increased by about 23% in transgenic lines. In addition, overexpressingGhDWF4 promoted the germination of transgenic tomato seeds and hypocotyl elongation of seedlings. These results indicated that overexpressingGhDWF4 gene in tomato could increase the contents of many nutrients in fruit and accelerate fruit ripening. It is suggested that increased endogenous BRs in fruit affect the growth and development of tomato fruit and therefore improved the nutrient quality of tomato.

  3. Tomato fruit chromoplasts behave as respiratory bioenergetic organelles during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín

    2014-10-01

    During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen consumption is stimulated by the electron donors NADH and NADPH and is sensitive to octyl gallate (Ogal), a plastidial terminal oxidase inhibitor. The ATP synthesis rate of isolated chromoplasts was dependent on the supply of NAD(P)H and was fully inhibited by Ogal. It was also inhibited by the proton uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, suggesting the involvement of a chemiosmotic gradient. In addition, ATP synthesis was sensitive to 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone, a cytochrome b6f complex inhibitor. The possible participation of this complex in chromorespiration was supported by the detection of one of its components (cytochrome f) in chromoplasts using immunoblot and immunocytochemical techniques. The observed increased expression of cytochrome c6 during ripening suggests that it could act as electron acceptor of the cytochrome b6f complex in chromorespiration. The effects of Ogal on respiration and ATP levels were also studied in tissue samples. Oxygen uptake of mature green fruit and leaf tissues was not affected by Ogal, but was inhibited increasingly in fruit pericarp throughout ripening (up to 26% in red fruit). Similarly, Ogal caused a significant decrease in ATP content of red fruit pericarp. The number of energized mitochondria, as determined by confocal microscopy, strongly decreased in fruit tissue during ripening. Therefore, the contribution of chromoplasts to total fruit respiration appears to increase in late ripening stages.

  4. Assessing the potential for establishment of western cherry fruit fly using ecological niche modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2014-06-01

    Sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., grown in the western United States are exported to many countries around the world. Some of these countries have enforced strict quarantine rules and trade restrictions owing to concerns about the potential establishment and subsequent spread of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), a major quarantine pest of sweet cherry. We used 1) niche models (CLIMEX and MaxEnt) to map the climatic suitability, 2) North Carolina State University-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Pest Forecasting System to examine chilling requirement, and 3) host distribution and availability to assess the potential for establishment of R. indifferens in areas of western North America where it currently does not exist and eight current or potential fresh sweet cherry markets: Colombia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam. Results from niche models conformed well to the current distribution of R. indifferens in western North America. MaxEnt and CLIMEX models had high performance and predicted climatic suitability in some of the countries (e.g., Andean range in Colombia and Venezuela, northern and northeastern India, central Taiwan, and parts of Vietnam). However, our results showed no potential for establishment of R. indifferens in Colombia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam when the optimal chilling requirement to break diapause (minimum temperature < or = 3 degree C for at least 15 wk) was used as the criterion for whether establishment can occur. Furthermore, these countries have no host plant species available for R. indifferens. Our results can be used to make scientifically informed international trade decisions and negotiations by policy makers.

  5. Developmental gene regulation during tomato fruit ripening and in-vitro sepal morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Betty K

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red ripe tomatoes are the result of numerous physiological changes controlled by hormonal and developmental signals, causing maturation or differentiation of various fruit tissues simultaneously. These physiological changes affect visual, textural, flavor, and aroma characteristics, making the fruit more appealing to potential consumers for seed dispersal. Developmental regulation of tomato fruit ripening has, until recently, been lacking in rigorous investigation. We previously indicated the presence of up-regulated transcription factors in ripening tomato fruit by data mining in TIGR Tomato Gene Index. In our in-vitro system, green tomato sepals cultured at 16 to 22°C turn red and swell like ripening tomato fruit while those at 28°C remain green. Results Here, we have further examined regulation of putative developmental genes possibly involved in tomato fruit ripening and development. Using molecular biological methods, we have determined the relative abundance of various transcripts of genes during in vitro sepal ripening and in tomato fruit pericarp at three stages of development. A number of transcripts show similar expression in fruits to RIN and PSY1, ripening-associated genes, and others show quite different expression. Conclusions Our investigation has resulted in confirmation of some of our previous database mining results and has revealed differences in gene expression that may be important for tomato cultivar variation. We present new and intriguing information on genes that should now be studied in a more focused fashion.

  6. The inhibition of tomato fruit ripening by silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, G E; Nichols, R; Davies, J N; Atkey, P T

    1984-08-01

    Mature green tomato fruit, infiltrated with STS (up to 10 μmol) while still attached to the plant, ripened unevenly to give extensive green areas on an otherwise red background. Pericarp wall tissue from the two contrasting areas was analysed for various organic constituents. Both the green and, to a certain extent, the red tissue from treated fruit showed differences from normal in AIS, acidity, and PE activity. PG activity, which usually increases rapidly as tomatoes ripen, was low in the green but not significantly different from normal in the red tissue from STS-treated fruit. TEM examination revealed that electron-dense particles were present in the cell walls of phloem elements in vascular bundles of the green tissue, but these deposits were not found in the red tissue from the same fruit. X-ray microanalysis of the particles suggested that they contained concentrations of silver and sulphur. The results are interpreted as suggesting that silver is affecting those sites in the cell that would subsequently be involved in promoting the synthesis of PG.

  7. SRNAome parsing yields insights into tomato fruit ripening control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jinhua; Fu, Daqi; Zhu, Yi; Qu, Guiqin; Tian, Huiqin; Zhai, Baiqiang; Ju, Zheng; Gao, Chao; Wang, Yunxiang; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Benzhong

    2013-12-01

    Small RNAs have emerged as critical regulators in the expression and function of eukaryotic genomes at the post-transcriptional level. To elucidate the functions of microRNA (miRNAs) and endogenous small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in tomato fruit ripening process, the deep sequencing and bioinformatics methods were combined to parse the small RNAs landscape in three fruit-ripening stages (mature green, breaker and red-ripe) on a whole genome. Two species-specific miRNAs and two members of TAS3 family were identified, 590 putative phased small RNAs and 125 cis-natural antisense (nat-siRNAs) were also found in our results which enriched the tomato small RNAs repository and all of them showed differential expression patterns during fruit ripening. A large amount of the targets of the small RNAs were predicted to be involved in fruit ripening and ethylene pathway. Furthermore, the promoters of the conserved and novel miRNAs were found to contain the conserved motifs of TATA-box and CT microsatellites which were also found in Arabidopsis and rice, and several species-specific motifs were found in parallel.

  8. Plastid Proteomic Analysis in Tomato Fruit Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Suzuki

    Full Text Available To better understand the mechanism of plastid differentiation from chloroplast to chromoplast, we examined proteome and plastid changes over four distinct developmental stages of 'Micro-Tom' fruit. Additionally, to discover more about the relationship between fruit color and plastid differentiation, we also analyzed and compared 'Micro-Tom' results with those from two other varieties, 'Black' and 'White Beauty'. We confirmed that proteins related to photosynthesis remain through the orange maturity stage of 'Micro-Tom', and also learned that thylakoids no longer exist at this stage. These results suggest that at a minimum there are changes in plastid morphology occurring before all related proteins change. We also compared 'Micro-Tom' fruits with 'Black' and 'White Beauty' using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We found a decrease of CHRC (plastid-lipid-associated protein and HrBP1 (harpin binding protein-1 in the 'Black' and 'White Beauty' varieties. CHRC is involved in carotenoid accumulation and stabilization. HrBP1 in Arabidopsis has a sequence similar to proteins in the PAP/fibrillin family. These proteins have characteristics and functions similar to lipocalin, an example of which is the transport of hydrophobic molecules. We detected spots of TIL (temperature-induced lipocalin in 2D-PAGE results, however the number of spots and their isoelectric points differed between 'Micro-Tom' and 'Black'/'White Beauty'. Lipocalin has various functions including those related to environmental stress response, apoptosis induction, membrane formation and fixation, regulation of immune response, cell growth, and metabolism adjustment. Lipocalin related proteins such as TIL and HrBP1 could be related to the accumulation of carotenoids, fruit color and the differentiation of chromoplast.

  9. Plastid gene expression during fruit ripening in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechulla, B; Imlay, K R; Gruissem, W

    1985-11-01

    A tomato chloroplast genome map has been constructed with the restriction enzymes Hpa I, Pvu II, and Sal I. Twelve plastid genes have been located on the tomato plastid genome (159 kb).The expression of plastid genes during tomato fruit ripening has been studied. The levels of transcripts of various genes coding for proteins of the photosystem I (psaA), photosystem II (psbA, psbB, psbC, psbD) and the stroma (rbcL) decrease when plastids differentiate from chloroplasts to chromoplasts. The amount of plastid ribosomal RNA also decreases. Transcripts of the genes for the P700 reaction center protein (psaA), for the photosystem II-associated proteins (psbC, psbD) and for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) cannot be detected in chromoplasts. In contrast, a relatively high level of mRNA is present for the 32 kD protein ('herbicide-binding protein', psbA) in red fruit.

  10. In silico Transcriptional Regulatory Networks Involved in Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhondakis, Stilianos; Bita, Craita E; Perrakis, Andreas; Manioudaki, Maria E; Krokida, Afroditi; Kaloudas, Dimitrios; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is a complex developmental programme partly mediated by transcriptional regulatory networks. Several transcription factors (TFs) which are members of gene families such as MADS-box and ERF were shown to play a significant role in ripening through interconnections into an intricate network. The accumulation of large datasets of expression profiles corresponding to different stages of tomato fruit ripening and the availability of bioinformatics tools for their analysis provide an opportunity to identify TFs which might regulate gene clusters with similar co-expression patterns. We identified two TFs, a SlWRKY22-like and a SlER24 transcriptional activator which were shown to regulate modules by using the LeMoNe algorithm for the analysis of our microarray datasets representing four stages of fruit ripening, breaker, turning, pink and red ripe. The WRKY22-like module comprised a subgroup of six various calcium sensing transcripts with similar to the TF expression patterns according to real time PCR validation. A promoter motif search identified a cis acting element, the W-box, recognized by WRKY TFs that was present in the promoter region of all six calcium sensing genes. Moreover, publicly available microarray datasets of similar ripening stages were also analyzed with LeMoNe resulting in TFs such as SlERF.E1, SlERF.C1, SlERF.B2, SLERF.A2, SlWRKY24, SLWRKY37, and MADS-box/TM29 which might also play an important role in regulation of ripening. These results suggest that the SlWRKY22-like might be involved in the coordinated regulation of expression of the six calcium sensing genes. Conclusively the LeMoNe tool might lead to the identification of putative TF targets for further physiological analysis as regulators of tomato fruit ripening.

  11. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  12. Non-Destructive Sensor-Based Prediction of Maturity and Optimum Harvest Date of Sweet Cherry Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, Verena; Schmitz, Michaela; Blanke, Michael

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: The aim of the study was to use innovative sensor technology for non-destructive determination and prediction of optimum harvest date (OHD), using sweet cherry as a model fruit, based on different ripening parameters. (2) Methods: Two cherry varieties in two growing systems viz. field and polytunnel in two years were employed. The fruit quality parameters such as fruit weight and size proved unsuitable to detect OHD alone due to their dependence on crop load, climatic conditions, cultural practices, and season. Coloration during cherry ripening was characterized by a complete decline of green chlorophyll and saturation of the red anthocyanins, and was measured with a portable sensor viz. spectrometer 3–4 weeks before expected harvest until 2 weeks after harvest. (3) Results: Expressed as green NDVI (normalized differential vegetation index) and red NAI (normalized anthocyanin index) values, NAI increased from −0.5 (unripe) to +0.7 to +0.8 in mature fruit and remained at this saturation level with overripe fruits, irrespective of variety, treatment, and year. A model was developed to predict the OHD, which coincided with when NDVI reached and exceeded zero and the first derivative of NAI asymptotically approached zero. (4) Conclusion: The use of this sensor technology appears suitable for several cherry varieties and growing systems to predict the optimum harvest date. PMID:28146114

  13. Non-Destructive Sensor-Based Prediction of Maturity and Optimum Harvest Date of Sweet Cherry Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Overbeck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The aim of the study was to use innovative sensor technology for non-destructive determination and prediction of optimum harvest date (OHD, using sweet cherry as a model fruit, based on different ripening parameters. (2 Methods: Two cherry varieties in two growing systems viz. field and polytunnel in two years were employed. The fruit quality parameters such as fruit weight and size proved unsuitable to detect OHD alone due to their dependence on crop load, climatic conditions, cultural practices, and season. Coloration during cherry ripening was characterized by a complete decline of green chlorophyll and saturation of the red anthocyanins, and was measured with a portable sensor viz. spectrometer 3–4 weeks before expected harvest until 2 weeks after harvest. (3 Results: Expressed as green NDVI (normalized differential vegetation index and red NAI (normalized anthocyanin index values, NAI increased from −0.5 (unripe to +0.7 to +0.8 in mature fruit and remained at this saturation level with overripe fruits, irrespective of variety, treatment, and year. A model was developed to predict the OHD, which coincided with when NDVI reached and exceeded zero and the first derivative of NAI asymptotically approached zero. (4 Conclusion: The use of this sensor technology appears suitable for several cherry varieties and growing systems to predict the optimum harvest date.

  14. Neuro-fuzzy modeling to predict physicochemical and microbiological parameters of partially dried cherry tomato during storage: effects on water activity, temperature and storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; Li, Yong; Zhou, Ruiyun; Chu, Dinh-Toi; Su, Lijuan; Han, Yongbin; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2016-10-01

    In the study, osmotically dehydrated cherry tomatoes were partially dried to water activity between 0.746 and 0.868, vacuum-packed and stored at 4-30 °C for 60 days. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was utilized to predict the physicochemical and microbiological parameters of these partially dried cherry tomatoes during storage. Satisfactory accuracies were obtained when ANFIS was used to predict the lycopene and total phenolic contents, color and microbial contamination. The coefficients of determination for all the ANFIS models were higher than 0.86 and showed better performance for prediction compared with models developed by response surface methodology. Through ANFIS modeling, the effects of storage conditions on the properties of partially dried cherry tomatoes were visualized. Generally, contents of lycopene and total phenolics decreased with the increase in water activity, temperature and storage time, while aerobic plate count and number of yeasts and molds increased at high water activities and temperatures. Overall, ANFIS approach can be used as an effective tool to study the quality decrease and microbial pollution of partially dried cherry tomatoes during storage, as well as identify the suitable preservation conditions.

  15. Protein, free amino acid, phenloic, ß-carotene, and lycopene content, and antioxidative and cancer cell inhibitory effects of 12 greenhouse-grown commercial cherry tomato varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The content of water, free amino acids, amino acid metabolites, crude protein, the carotene pigments ß-carotene and lycopene, and 9 characterized and 2 incompletely characterized individual phenolic (flavonoid) compounds of 12 greenhouse-grown cherry tomato varieties of various colors (green, yellow...

  16. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries.

  17. Red and blue LED weak light irradiation maintaining quality of cherry tomatoes during cold storage%LED红蓝弱光照射保持樱桃番茄冷库贮藏品质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷静; 张娜; 阎瑞香; 许立兴; 李莹; 关文强

    2016-01-01

    blue light kept good sensory quality (P<0.05). LED blue light irradiation could significantly inhibit the decrease of Vc content (P<0.05) in cherry tomato during storage compared with the control treatment, while the cherry tomatoes irradiated by LED red light showed lower Vc content than the control. LED red and blue light irradiation could lead to the accumulation of reducing sugar and total soluble sugar in cherry tomato during the early stage of storage, and reducing sugar and total soluble sugar content reached the highest on the 10th day. The contents of reducing sugar and total soluble sugar in cherry tomatoes decreased gradually between the 10th and the 20th day, while it was higher in the tomatoes irradiated by LED red and blue weak light than that in the control during the whole storage (P<0.05). Compared to the control, LED red and blue light irradiation could significantly delay the decrease of total soluble solids content and titratable acid content in cherry tomato (P<0.05), and LED red light had significantly higher effect than LED blue light (P<0.05). LED red light irradiation could lead to significantly higher lycopene content on the 20th day, while there was no significant difference between LED blue light and the control during storage. In comparison with the control treatment, LED red and blue weak light irradiation was beneficial for controlling the sensory and nutritional quality of cherry tomato at 4℃, completing the ripening process, and keeping the normal postharvest physiological metabolism. LED red weak light irradiation had the best effect among the treatments. In conclusion, LED red and blue weak light irradiation, as a simple and effective postharvest method, has the potential of application in the postharvest quality control of cherry tomato. The results provide the basis for sensory and nutritional quality control of fresh fruits and vegetables during cold storage.%为了探究单色光对番茄冷藏过程中品质的影响,开发

  18. The Influence of salinity and nitrogen on tomato fruit quality and micronutrients concentration in hydroponic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Safarzadeh Shirazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinity plays an important role in the reduction of tomato growth, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Nitrogen (N may increase tomato tolerance to salt stress by increasing plant growth. In order to investigate the interaction effect of salinity and nitrogen on tomato growth, fruit quality, and micronutrient concentration in tomato plants, a hydroponic experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments included 3 salinity levels (0, 30 and 60 mM, and 3 nitrogen rates (0, 1.5, and 3 mM. Results indicated that salinity decreased tomato height, shoot and fruit fresh weight, and increased citric acid in tomato fruit and consequently caused blossom-end rot in tomato fruit. However, salinity improved fruit quality (flavor. The use of N increased plant height, shoot, and fruit fresh weight compared to control. By application of N to saline nutrient solution, plant height increased. Salinity increased concentration of iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, and copper (Cu in roots, as`well as Fe and Cu in fruit. Increasing N rates in nutrient solution increased micronutrients concentration in tomato roots. Interaction of 60 mM salinity and N decreased micronutrients concentration in root, compared to control. Our tentative conclusion shows that the addition of N to the nutrient solution may decrease detrimental effect of salinity on the growth of tomato plants.

  19. A DEMETER-like DNA demethylase governs tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruie; How-Kit, Alexandre; Stammitti, Linda; Teyssier, Emeline; Rolin, Dominique; Mortain-Bertrand, Anne; Halle, Stefanie; Liu, Mingchun; Kong, Junhua; Wu, Chaoqun; Degraeve-Guibault, Charlotte; Chapman, Natalie H; Maucourt, Mickael; Hodgman, T Charlie; Tost, Jörg; Bouzayen, Mondher; Hong, Yiguo; Seymour, Graham B; Giovannoni, James J; Gallusci, Philippe

    2015-08-25

    In plants, genomic DNA methylation which contributes to development and stress responses can be actively removed by DEMETER-like DNA demethylases (DMLs). Indeed, in Arabidopsis DMLs are important for maternal imprinting and endosperm demethylation, but only a few studies demonstrate the developmental roles of active DNA demethylation conclusively in this plant. Here, we show a direct cause and effect relationship between active DNA demethylation mainly mediated by the tomato DML, SlDML2, and fruit ripening- an important developmental process unique to plants. RNAi SlDML2 knockdown results in ripening inhibition via hypermethylation and repression of the expression of genes encoding ripening transcription factors and rate-limiting enzymes of key biochemical processes such as carotenoid synthesis. Our data demonstrate that active DNA demethylation is central to the control of ripening in tomato.

  20. Investigation on the cause of tomato fruit discoloration and damage under chilling condition using external antioxidants and hot water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nardos Tadesse, T.; Farneti, B.; Woltering, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The color of tomato fruit turns to red from green during ripening. The accumulated lycopene content of red tomato fruits is reduced when the fruits stored in the refrigerator. Therefore, this study was conducted in order to investigate the reason why red color tomato turns to light red when the fruit is stored at chilling temperature. A tomato variety (cv Rotarno) grown under greenhouse condition and harvested at red stage was used to assess color and firmness. Before storage at these tempera...

  1. Characteristics of fruit ripening in tomato mutant epi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-feng; YING Tie-jin; BAO Bi-li; HUANG Xiao-dan

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of fruit ripening and expression of ripening-related genes were investigated in epi, an ethylene overproduction mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The epi produces apparently more ethylene than its wild type VFN8 at every stage of vegetative and fruit growth and ripening; compared to VFN8, the epi fruit showed higher CO2 evolution,faster descending of chlorophyll, slightly quicker increase of carotenoid and lycopene, and faster reduction in pericarp firmness during maturation and ripening; and the mRNAs of three ripening-related genes including E8, pTOM5 andpTOM6 were at higher levels in epi. The ripening-related characteristics changing of the fruit are consistent with the increase of ethylene production and ripening-related genes expression. These results suggest that epi mutation possibly did not affect the ethylene perception and signaling during fruit ripening, and that the modified characteristics of fruit ripening possibly resulted from the ethylene overproduction and increased expression of ripening-related genes.

  2. Effect of Ethylene on Polygalacturonase,Lipoxygenase and Expansin in Ripening of Tomato Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zhaohui; KOU Xiaohong; LUO Yunbo; ZHU Benzhong; XU Wentao

    2009-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex process and is regulated by many factors.Ethylene and polygalacturonase (PG),lipoxygenase (LOX),expansin (EXP) are all critical regulating factors in fruit ripening and softening process.With antisense,ACS tomato,Nr mutant tomato and cultivated tomato as materials,Northern blot hybridization showed that PG,LeEXP1 and LOX expressed differently in different parts of cultivated tomato fruit during ripening,which was related to fruit ripening.The ripening process of columella and radial pericarp was faster than pericarp.In both Nr mutant and antisense ACS transgenic tomato fruit,expression levels of PG,LeEXP1 and LOX were generally lower than those in cultivated fruit but still related to fruit ripening.The expression levels of PG,LeEXP1 and LOX increased in the mature green tomato fruits after 0.5 h treatment with ethylene ( 100 μL/L).These results indicate that gene expression of PG,LeEXP1 and LOXwere positively regulated by ethylene.The time and cumulative effect of the concentration exists in the expression of PG regulated by ethylene.The regulation of LOX expression mainly depended on the fruit development after great amount of ethylene was produced.PG played a major role in ripening and softening of tomato fruit,and cooperated with the regulation of EXP and LOX.

  3. The Tomato Fruit Cell Wall : II. Polyuronide Metabolism in a Nonsoftening Tomato Mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J L; Nevins, D J

    1990-03-01

    A nonsoftening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) variety, dg, was examined to assess the physiological basis for its inability to soften during ripening. Total uronic acid levels, 18 milligrams uronic acid/100 milligrams wall, and the extent of pectin esterification, 60 mole%, remained constant throughout fruit development in this mutant. The proportion of uronic acid susceptible to polygalacturonase in vitro also remained constant. Pretreatment of heat-inactivated dg fruit cell walls with tomato pectinmethylesterase enhances polygalacturonase susceptibility at all ripening stages. Pectinesterase activity of cell wall protein extracts from red ripe dg fruit was half that in extracts from analogous tissue of VF145B. Polygalacturonase activities of cell wall extracts, however, were similar in both varieties. Diffusion of uronic acid from tissue discs of both varieties increased beginning at the turning stage to a maximum of 2.0 milligrams uronic acid released/gram fresh weight at the ripe stage. The increased quantity of hydrolytic products released during ripening suggests the presence of in situ polygalacturonase activity. Low speed centrifugation was employed to induce efflux of uronide components from the cell wall tree space. In normal fruit, at the turning stage, 2.1 micrograms uronic acid/gram fresh weight was present in the eluant after 1 hour, and this value increased to a maximum of 8.2 micrograms uronic acid/gram fresh weight at the red ripe stage. However, centrifuge-aided extraction of hydrolytic products failed to provide evidence for in situ polygalacturonase activity in dg fruit. We conclude that pectinesterase and polygalacturonase enzymes are not active in situ during the ripening of dg fruit. This could account for the maintenance of firmness in ripe fruit tissue.

  4. Investigation on the cause of tomato fruit discoloration and damage under chilling condition using external antioxidants and hot water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nardos Tadesse, T.; Farneti, B.; Woltering, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The color of tomato fruit turns to red from green during ripening. The accumulated lycopene content of red tomato fruits is reduced when the fruits stored in the refrigerator. Therefore, this study was conducted in order to investigate the reason why red color tomato turns to light red when the frui

  5. Study on texture characteristic changes of cherry tomato during the shelf phase%模拟超市销售期间圣女果质构特性变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亚云; 傅虹飞; 寇莉萍

    2012-01-01

    Cherry tomato is one of the principal fruits in supermarket,with bright color,delicious taste,pleasant flavor and rich nutrients.The quality profiles of cherry tomato during the simulation of supermarket sales were investigated by TPA(texture profile analysis) and sensory evaluation methods.The results indicated that the quality of cherry tomato was stable after 4d during the storage,however,it decreased rapidly after 6d,and the changes of texture parameters by TPA were in coincidence with the tendency of sensory values.In addition,the correlation analysis of texture parameters by TPA and sensory values showed that hardness parameter and sensory values were extremely significantly different(P0.01),and chewiness parameter and sensory values were significantly different(P0.05),which implied TPA was potential for the predication of quality of cherry tomato under this condition.%采用TPA(texture profile analysis)测试法和感官评价相结合的方法,测定模拟超市销售期间圣女果货架期质构特性和品质变化指标,并对其相关性进行分析。结果表明,TPA测试圣女果的各项质构参数能够在不同方面反映圣女果在货架期间的品质变化特性,货架期4d是圣女果质构特性及其它品质变化的拐点,货架期6d时所有质构特性及品质会急剧下降。质构参数硬度与感官评分呈极显著正相关(P〈0.01),咀嚼性与感官评分呈显著正相关(P〈0.05),表明主要质构参数测定可用于预测圣女果在此条件下的品质变化。

  6. Rheological Properties of Enzymatically Isolated Tomato Fruit Cuticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracek, P. D.; Bukovac, M. J.

    1995-10-01

    Rheological properties were determined for cuticular membranes (CMs) enzymatically isolated from mature tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Pik Red) fruit. The cuticle responded as a viscoelastic polymer in stress-strain studies. Both CM and dewaxed CM expanded and became more elastic and susceptible to fracture when hydrated, suggesting that water plasticized the cuticle. Dewaxing of the CM caused similar changes in elasticity and fracturing, indicating that wax may serve as a supporting filler in the cutin matrix. Exposure of the cuticle to the surfactant Triton X-100 did not significantly affect its rheological properties.

  7. Sweet cherries from the end of the world: options and constraints for fruit production systems in South Patagonia, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.

    2007-01-01

    In South Patagonia, development of the fruit production sector has been almost exclusively based on the production of sweet cherry, with an area increase from 176 ha in 1997 to 578 ha at the end of 2006. These orchards are designed as intensive systems and oriented to export markets. Even though swe

  8. Tomato fruit growth : integrating cell division, cell growth and endoreduplication by experimentation and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanwoua, J.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: cell division, cell growth, cell endoreduplication, fruit growth, genotype, G×E interaction, model, tomato. Fruit size is a major component of fruit yield and quality of many crops. Variations in fruit size can be tremendous due to genotypic and environmental factors. The mechanisms

  9. Single-base resolution methylomes of tomato fruit development reveal epigenome modifications associated with ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruits are differentiated floral tissues evolved to aid seed dispersal, and have become an important part of human diets. Ethylene triggers tomato fruit ripening, but its effect is restricted to matured fruits with viable seeds by an unknown developmental cue. We show that fruits ripen prematurely w...

  10. Macromolecular components of tomato fruit pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, M L; Gross, K C; Gillespie, D T; Sondey, S M

    1989-10-01

    Chelate and alkaline-soluble pectin extracted from cell walls of pericarp tissue from mature green, turning, and red ripe (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit (cv. Rutgers), were studied by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography. Computer-aided curve fitting of the chromatograms to a series of Gaussian-shaped components revealed that pectin from all fractions was composed of a linear combination of five macromolecular-sized species. The relative sizes of these macromolecules as obtained from their radii of gyration were 1:2:4:8:16. Dialysis against 0.05 M NaCl induced partial dissociation of the biopolymers. Apparently, the weight fraction of smaller sized species increased at the expense of larger ones. Also, the dissociation produced low-molecular-weight fragments. Behavior in the presence of 0.05 M NaCl led to the conclusion that cell wall pectin acted as if it were an aggregated mosaic, held together at least partially through noncovalent interactions.

  11. A New Cherry Tomato F1 Hybrid ─‘Xiaokeai’%樱桃番茄新品种小可爱的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张战泓; 白占兵

    2013-01-01

    ‘Xiaokeai’ is a new cherry tomato F1hybrid developed by crossing inbred lines A58-5-12-3 as female parent and B49-5-3-1 as male parent.This variety belongs to unlimited growth type. The plant has dark green leaf and red fruit.The fruit is of round shape.The single fruit weight is 18-20 g with good taste.Its resistances to bacterial wilt,late blight and leaf mold are higher than that of the contrast‘Xiaolongnyu’.The average yield is about 45 t·hm-2in open field,and about 90 t·hm-2 in protected field. It is suitable for cultivation in southern China,where bacterial wilt occurred frequently.%小可爱是以A58-5-12-3为母本、B49-5-3-1为父本配制而成的樱桃番茄一代杂种。该品种属无限生长类型,叶色深绿,红果,果实圆形,单果质量18~20 g,酸甜适中,口感好。对番茄青枯病、晚疫病和叶霉病的抗性强于对照小龙女。早春露地栽培每667 m2平均产量3000 kg 左右,保护地栽培每667 m2平均产量6000 kg左右。高抗青枯病,适合南方青枯病高发地区栽培。

  12. Tomato Fruit Development and Ripening Are Altered by the Silencing of LeEIN2 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Liang Zhu; Ben-Zhong Zhu; Yi Shao; Xiao-Guang Wang; Xi-Jin Lin; Yuan-Hong Xie; Ying-Cong Li; Hong-Yan Gao; Yun-Bo Luo

    2006-01-01

    Loss-of-function ethylene insensitive 2 (EIN2) mutations showed ethylene insensitivity in Arabidopsis,which indicated an essential role of EIN2 in ethylene signaling. However, the function of EIN2 in fruit ripening has not been investigated. To gain a better understanding of EIN2, the temporal regulation of LeEIN2 expression during tomato fruit development was analyzed. The expression of LeEIN2 was constant at different stages of fruit development, and was not regulated by ethylene. Moreover, LeEIN2-silenced tomato fruits were developed using a virus-induced gene silencing fruit system to study the role of LeEIN2 in tomato fruit ripening. Silenced fruits had a delay in fruit development and ripening, related to greatly descended expression of ethylene-related and ripening-related genes in comparison with those of control fruits. These results suggested LeEIN2 positively mediated ethylene signals during tomato development. In addition,there were fewer seeds and Iocules in the silenced fruit than those in the control fruit, like the phenotype of parthenocarpic tomato fruit. The content of auxin and the expression of auxin-regulated gene were declined in silenced fruit, which indicated that EIN2 might be important for crosstalk between ethylene and auxin hormones.

  13. Molecular cloning of tomato fruit polygalacturonase: Analysis of polygalacturonase mRNA levels during ripening

    OpenAIRE

    DellaPenna, Dean; Alexander, Danny C.; Bennett, Alan B

    1986-01-01

    The expression of a gene encoding the cell wall-degrading enzyme polygalacturonase [poly(1,4-α-D-galacturonide) glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.15] was characterized during tomato fruit ripening. Polygalacturonase was purified from ripe tomato fruit and used to produce highly specific antiserum. Immunoblot analyses detected a 45- and a 46-kDa protein in ripe fruit but immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation products of mRNA from ripe tomato fruit yielded a single 54-kDa polypeptide, suggesting...

  14. Altered cell wall disassembly during ripening of Cnr tomato fruit : implications for cell wall adhesion and fruit softening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orfila, C.; Huisman, M.M.H.; Willats, W.G.T.; Alebeek, van G.J.W.M.; Schols, H.A.; Seymour, G.B.; Knox, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The Cnr (Colourless non-ripening) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutant has an aberrant fruit-ripening phenotype in which fruit do not soften and have reduced cell adhesion between pericarp cells. Cell walls from Cnr fruit were analysed in order to assess the possible contribution of pectic

  15. A multilevel analysis of fruit growth of two tomato cultivars in response to fruit temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Robert C O; de Visser, Pieter H B; Heuvelink, Ep; Lammers, Michiel; de Maagd, Ruud A; Struik, Paul C; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2015-03-01

    Fruit phenotype is a resultant of inherent genetic potential in interaction with impact of environment experienced during crop and fruit growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic and physiological basis for the difference in fruit size between a small ('Brioso') and intermediate ('Cappricia') sized tomato cultivar exposed to different fruit temperatures. It was hypothesized that fruit heating enhances expression of cell cycle and expansion genes, rates of carbon import, cell division and expansion, and shortens growth duration, whereas increase in cell number intensifies competition for assimilates among cells. Unlike previous studies in which whole-plant and fruit responses cannot be separated, we investigated the temperature response by varying fruit temperature using climate-controlled cuvettes, while keeping plant temperature the same. Fruit phenotype was assessed at different levels of aggregation (whole fruit, cell and gene) between anthesis and breaker stage. We showed that: (1) final fruit fresh weight was larger in 'Cappricia' owing to more and larger pericarp cells, (2) heated fruits were smaller because their mesocarp cells were smaller than those of control fruits and (3) no significant differences in pericarp carbohydrate concentration were detected between heated and control fruits nor between cultivars at breaker stage. At the gene level, expression of cell division promoters (CDKB2, CycA1 and E2Fe-like) was higher while that of the inhibitory fw2.2 was lower in 'Cappricia'. Fruit heating increased expression of fw2.2 and three cell division promoters (CDKB1, CDKB2 and CycA1). Expression of cell expansion genes did not corroborate cell size observations.

  16. Effect Of 1-MCP Treatment On Storage Potential Of Tomato Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrzodak Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato fruit cv. ’Faustine’ F1 were harvested at mature green and full-red stages and treated with 1 or 2 µl·l−1 of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP at 20 °C and 85-90% RH, for 21 hours to investigate the ability to delay ripening. Treated and control fruit were stored at 12.5 and 20 °C and 85-90% RH. Ethylene production, rate of respiration, weight loss, market value and storage life were determined after 4-week storage. Exposure of tomato fruit to 1-MCP reduced ethylene production and respiration rate of the fruit harvested at mature-green and full-red stages of maturity. Storage life and market value of tomato fruit depended on the treatment with 1-MCP, stage of maturity and storage temperature. Untreated fruits were characterized by the shortest storage life in comparison with the fruit treated with 1-MCP. The lowest market value was observed for tomato fruit harvested as a mature green, untreated with 1-MCP and stored at 20 °C. Treatment of tomato fruit with 1-MCP resulted in the reduction of natural weight loss during storage. These results suggest that 1-MCP treatment can be used in a commercial storage and trading system for tomatoes due to its ability to delay fruit ripening.

  17. In silico transcriptional regulatory networks involved in tomato fruit ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Arhondakis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTTomato fruit ripening is a complex developmental programme partly mediated by transcriptional regulatory networks. Several transcription factors (TFs which are members of gene families such as MADS-box and ERF were shown to play a significant role in ripening through interconnections into an intricate network. The accumulation of large datasets of expression profiles corresponding to different stages of tomato fruit ripening and the availability of bioinformatics tools for their analysis provide an opportunity to identify TFs which might regulate gene clusters with similar co-expression patterns. We identified two TFs, a SlWRKY22-like and a SlER24 transcriptional activator which were shown to regulate modules by using the LeMoNe algorithm for the analysis of our microarray datasets representing four stages of fruit ripening, breaker, turning, pink and red ripe. The WRKY22-like module comprised a subgroup of six various calcium sensing transcripts with similar to the TF expression patterns according to real time PCR validation. A promoter motif search identified a cis acting element, the W-box, recognized by WRKY TFs that was present in the promoter region of all six calcium sensing genes. Moreover, publicly available microarray datasets of similar ripening stages were also analyzed with LeMoNe resulting in TFs such as SlERF.E1, SlERF.C1, SlERF.B2, SLERF.A2, SlWRKY24, SLWRKY37 and MADS-box/TM29 which might also play an important role in regulation of ripening. These results suggest that the SlWRKY22-like might be involved in the coordinated regulation of expression of the six calcium sensing genes. Conclusively the LeMoNe tool might lead to the identification of putative TF targets for further physiological analysis as regulators of tomato fruit ripening.

  18. Assessment of chemical composition of tomato fruits depending on the cultivar and 1-MCP treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wrzodak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiments on influence of 1-MCP treatment on the content of some chemical compounds in tomato fruits were performed. For the experiments two greenhouse cultivars of tomato were selected: ‘Faustine F1’ and ‘Habana F1’ (LSL type – long shelf life. Both tomato cultivars were grown on stakes in the field. Tomato fruits were harvested in mature green and full-red stages of maturity. Tomato fruit were treated with 1-MCP at the concentrations of 1.0 or 2.0 μl·l-1 and then stored at the temperature of 12.5°C or 20°C, and 85–90% of relative humidity in ambient atmosphere. Immediately after harvest and after 4 weeks of storage chemical analyses were carried out. The results showed some significant differences in the content of determined compounds depending on 1-MCP treatment, stage of maturity and storage temperature. Fruits of both cultivars showed a higher content of phenolics and dry matter in the case of fruits treated with 1-MCP. The highest content of lycopene was found in tomato fruits of both cultivars harvested in full-red stage, after storage at 20°C. Tomato fruits treated with 1-MCP were characterized by a lower content of lycopene and vitamin C compared to the untreated fruits.

  19. Investigating the transport dynamics of anthocyanins from unprocessed fruit and processed fruit juice from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Tomassen, Monic M M; Hall, Robert D; Mes, Jurriaan J; Beekwilder, Jules

    2013-11-27

    Anthocyanins can contribute to human health through preventing a variety of diseases. The uptake of these compounds from food and the parameters determining uptake efficiency within the human body are still poorly understood. Here we have employed a Caco-2 cell based system to investigate the transport of key antioxidant food components from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across the intestinal epithelial barrier. Anthocyanins and (-)-epicatechin were supplied in three contrasting matrices: fruit, processed fruit cherry juice, and polyphenolic fractions obtained by solid-phase extraction. Results show that both compound types behave differently. Fruit or juice matrices display comparable transport across the epithelial cell layer. The juice supplements sucrose and citric acid, which are regularly added to processed foods, have a positive effect on stability and transport. Polyphenolic fractions display a lower transport efficiency, relative to that of the fruit or juice, indicating the importance of food matrix components for intestinal absorption of polyphenols.

  20. Uso do algoritmo de Gower na determinação da divergência genética entre acessos de tomateiro do grupo cereja = Using Gower’s algorithm on the genetic divergence determination among cherry tomato accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Camargo Rocha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A análise conjunta de variáveis qualitativas e quantitativas tem sido apontada como ferramenta útil na estimativa da divergência genética entre os acessos de uma coleção de germoplasma. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos caracterizar uma coleção de germoplasma de tomateiro do grupo cereja, com base em descritores qualitativos e quantitativos e utilizar o algoritmo de Gower na quantificação da divergência genética. Estudaram-se 40 acessos de tomateiro cereja, cultivados em manejo orgânico nas condições de Seropédica, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram utilizados quatro descritores qualitativos relacionados aos frutos e nove descritores quantitativos. Os dados foram analisados de forma conjunta pelo algoritmo de Gower. Detectou-se variabilidade para coloração, formato e número de lóculos do fruto. A coloração vermelha foi observada em 25 acessos testados, registrando-se também a produção de frutos amarelos, laranjas e marrons. Para número de lóculos, foi registrada a ocorrência de frutosbi, tri, tetra e pluriloculares (com até sete lóculos. O método UPGMA foi o que obteve o maior coeficiente de correlação cofenética (0,80, observando-se a formação de sete grupos. Os grupos formados permitiram a distinção de frutos classificados como cereja e outros que não se adequaram a esta definição, por estarem acima do diâmetro equatorial proposto para esta classe. The joint analysis of qualitative and quantitative variables has been considered a useful tool to estimate the genetic divergence among accessions of a gene bank. The purpose of this research was: (i to characterize a collection of cherry tomatoes, using quantitative and qualitative descriptors, and (ii to use Gower’s algorithm to quantify genetic divergence among genotypes, employing a joint descriptors analysis. Forty accessions of organically grown cherry tomato were studied in Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fourqualitative fruit descriptors

  1. Tomato terpene synthases TPS5 and TPS39 account for a monoterpene linalool production in tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Hu, Shanglian; Dai, Qilin; Liu, Yongsheng

    2014-08-01

    Recombinant tomato terpene synthases, TPS5/37/39, catalyze the formation of linalool or nerolidol in vitro. However, little is known about their actual biological activities in tomato plants, especially in their fruits. Here, when all three TPSs were induced in tomato fruits by a chemical elicitor, geraniol, a significant linalool peak was detected in fruit tissues but not in control fruits. Considering the compartments of these TPS proteins and available substrates, the linalool peak induced by geraniol might be attributed to TPS5 and TPS37, both of them putatively localized in the plastids where high levels of monoterpene substrate geranyl diphosphate exist. In addition, application of geraniol also triggered jasmonic acid (JA)-related defense genes suggesting that the inducible TPSs might be correlated with JA-signaled defense responses.

  2. Comparison on Adaptability of New Cherry Tomato Cultivars in Greenhouse of Haiyan County of Zhejiang%浙江海盐设施樱桃番茄新品种适应性比较试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜伟锋; 敖成光; 俞刚翔

    2013-01-01

    The adaptability comparison of eight cherry tomato cultivars, Yafei No.1, Yafei No.2, Yafei No.15, Heifei 20, Fenhongjiali, T1319, PT100501 and Jinzhu, was carried out in Haiyan county, to study their phenological period, plant characters, fruit characters and yield characters. The results showed that the eight cultivars had few differences in phenological period, but their fruit color and yield were quite different. On considering various indexes, Yafei No.1 was suitable to be used as the main planting cultivar of cherry tomato in Haiyan county, and Heifei 20 could be planted appropriately to meet different market demands, while Jinzhu was susceptible to gray mold, and its fruits were easy to crack and tasted generally, so it was unsuitable for further promotion.%  在海盐县引进亚非1号、亚非2号、亚非15号、黑妃20、粉红嘉丽、T1319、PT100501、金珠8个樱桃番茄品种进行适应性比较试验,并对其物候期、植株性状、果实性状、产量性状等进行研究对比。试验结果表明,8个参试品种物候期差异不大,果实颜色各异,产量差异较大。综合各项指标来看,亚非1号可作为海盐县樱桃番茄主栽品种;黑妃20可适量种植,以满足不同市场的需求;金珠易裂果,易感灰霉病,口感一般,建议逐步淘汰。

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF BIRD CHERRY FRUIT FOR INCLUSION IN THE MONOGRAPH OF STATE PHARMACOPOEIA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bird cherry Padus avium Mill, Rosaceae, is widespread in Ukraine, especially in forests and forest-steppe areas. Bird cherry fruits have long been used in medicine and is a valuable medicinal raw materials. They stated to posess astringent, anti-inflammatory, phytoncidal properties. Bird cherry fruits are included in the USSR Pharmacopoeia IX ed., The State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation, The State Pharmacopoeia of Republic of Belarus. In Ukraine there are no contemporary normative documents for this medicinal plant material, therefore it is the actual to develop projects in the national monographs "dry bird cherry fruit" and "fresh bird cherry fruit" to be included in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. According to European Pharmacopoeia recommendation method of thin-layer chromatography (TLC is prescribed only for the identification of the herbal drug. The principles of thin-layer chromatography and application of the technique in pharmaceutical analysis are described in State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. As it is effective and easy to perform, and the equipment required is inexpensive, the technique is frequently used for evaluating medicinal plant materials and their preparations. The TLC is aimed at elucidating the chromatogram of the drug with respect to selected reference compounds that are described for inclusion as reagents. Aim of this study was to develop methods of qualitative analysis of bird cherry fruits for a monograph in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine (SPU. Materials and Methods. The object of our study was dried bird cherry fruits (7 samples and fresh bird cherry fruits (7 samples harvested in 2013-2015 in Kharkiv, Poltava, Luhansk, Sumy, Lviv, Mykolaiv regions and the city Mariupol. Samples were registered in the department of SPU State Enterprise "Pharmacopeia center". In accordance with the Ph. Eur. and SPU requirements in "identification C" determination was performed by TLC. TLC was performed on

  4. Tomato fruit antioxidants in relation to salinity and greenhouse climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, David L; Usher, Kevin; Helmer, Tom; Block, Glenn; Steinke, Dan; Frey, Brenda; Kuang, Tallie; Diarra, Moussa

    2013-02-06

    A two-year study of antioxidants in greenhouse tomato was conducted. Plants were treated continuously with nutrient solution electrical conductivities (EC) of 2, 4, or 6 dS m⁻¹. Increasing EC reduced yield per plant and fruit size. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), lutein, β-carotene, lycopene, and vitamin C concentrations were evaluated in harvested fruit. ORAC and all antioxidants with the exception of lutein increased with EC. None of the 10 genes involved in antioxidant metabolism were affected by salinity in ripe fruit, but the expression of three of them (ZDS, CrtR-b1, and NCED1) varied with the stage of fruit development. Antioxidant concentrations were related to greenhouse climatic conditions. β-Carotene, lycopene, lutein, and vitamin C responded negatively to light and positively to temperature, whereas ORAC was unresponsive. Multiple regressions of antioxidants in relation to EC and climatic factors showed that antioxidants responded more strongly to light and temperature than to EC.

  5. Molecular cloning of tomato fruit polygalacturonase: Analysis of polygalacturonase mRNA levels during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellapenna, D; Alexander, D C; Bennett, A B

    1986-09-01

    The expression of a gene encoding the cell wall-degrading enzyme polygalacturonase [poly(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide) glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.15] was characterized during tomato fruit ripening. Polygalacturonase was purified from ripe tomato fruit and used to produce highly specific antiserum. Immunoblot analyses detected a 45- and a 46-kDa protein in ripe fruit but immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation products of mRNA from ripe tomato fruit yielded a single 54-kDa polypeptide, suggesting post-translational processing. A plasmid cDNA library was prepared from poly(A)(+) RNA isolated from ripe tomato fruit. The cDNA library was inserted into a lambda-based expression vector, and polygalacturonase cDNA clones were identified by immunological screening. Hybrid-select translation experiments indicated that the cDNAs encode a 54-kDa in vitro translation product that is specifically immunoprecipitated with polygalacturonase antiserum. RNA-blot analysis indicated that the 1.9-kilobase polygalacturonase mRNA was virtually absent from immature-green fruit, accumulated steadily during the ripening process, and was at its highest level in red-ripe fruit. There was at least a 2000-fold increase in the level of polygalacturonase mRNA between immature-green and red-ripe tomato fruit. These studies show that the levels of polygalacturonase mRNA are developmentally regulated during tomato fruit ripening.

  6. Do nymphs and adults of three Neotropical zoophytophagous mirids damage leaves and fruits of tomato?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D B; Bueno, V H P; Calvo, F J; van Lenteren, J C

    2016-08-30

    The predators Macrolophus basicornis (Stal), Engytatus varians (Distant) and Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho) consume large numbers of tomato pests such as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). However, they are zoophytophagous and feed on plant parts as well. We evaluated the type and effect of injury caused by nymphs and adults of these mirids on tomato seedlings and fruit in the absence of prey. For each mirid species, seedlings were exposed to groups of 20 nymphs or adults for 72 h, and fruits were exposed for 48 h to groups of four nymphs or adults. Type and the number of injury on stems, petioles and leaflets of tomato seedlings and fruits were recorded after removal of insects. Nymphs and adults of these mirids caused necrotic rings on the leaflets, but no injury was observed on stem and petioles. The necrotic rings on leaflets consisted of blemishes, characterized by feeding punctures surrounded by a yellowish, bleached area. The number of necrotic rings did not exceed one per individual mirid and seedlings developed normally. Nymphs also caused feeding punctures on tomato fruit, but in even lower numbers than on leaflets. Two weeks after the start of the experiment the tomato fruit still looked fresh and feeding punctures had disappeared. Adults did not cause any injury to tomato fruit. The results indicate that nymphs and adults of these zoophytophagous mirids cause little injury to tomato seedlings and fruit, even when present in high densities and in the absence of prey, making them interesting candidates for biological control.

  7. 樱桃番茄新品种红艳艳1号的选育%A New Cherry Tomato F1 Hybrid, Bright Red 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涛; 李锦泉; 黄青峰; 陈朝文; 林金秀

    2011-01-01

    Bright Red 1 (CHT07×CHT81) is a new, early maturing cherry tomato F1 hybrid. Its parents were the offspring selected from Japanese and Taiwan commercial varieties. In the spring of 2004, 6 combinations were obtained by crossing 3 cherry tomatoes of the indeterminate growth habit type, CHT01, CHT02 and CHT07, as female, and two of the determinate growth habit type, CHT56 and CHT81, as male parent. Their heterosis and comprehensive characteristics were studied in the autumn and winter of 2004. Three cultivation seasons in the two-year (2005 - 2006) followed by a multi-year (2006 - 2008) comparison tests and a production demonstration were conducted. As a result, a new indeterminate growth habit type tomato variety with strong growth potential and high resistances to ToMV and leaf mould was selected. The plant produced mature fruits red in color, oblong in shape, crisp in texture, sweet in taste and weighed 16 -18 grams per fruit. It had desirable commodity characteristics for storage and transportation. It's the average yield of the plant was 52 500 - 60 000 kg · Hm-2. The variety was certified as a new cultivars by the Provincial Crop Variety Approval Committee in 2011.%红艳艳1号(CHT07×CHT81)的亲本分别从日本和台湾的商业F1品种后代分离选出;2004年春季选用3个无限生长型的樱桃番茄自交系CHT01、CHT02和CHT07作母本,2个有限生长型的自交系CHT56和CHT81作父本,配制组合6个,秋冬季进行组合比较试验,调查了解各组合的杂种优势和综合性状;红艳艳1号是经过2005~2006年2年3季的品种比较试验,2006~2008年的多年多点试验和生产试验示范,选育出的早熟樱桃番茄杂种一代.该品种属无限生长型,生长势强,高抗ToMV和叶霉病;果实长椭圆形,成熟果红色,单果重16~18 g,口感风味脆甜,耐贮运,一般产量为52 500~60000 kg· hm-2;2011年通过福建省农作物品种审定委员会认定.

  8. Spermidine affects the transcriptome responses to high temperature stress in ripening tomato fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin CHENG; Rong-rong SUN; Fei-yan WANG; Zhen PENG; Fu-ling KONG; Jian WU; Jia-shu CAO; Gang LU

    2012-01-01

    Objective:High temperature adversely affects quality and yield of tomato fruit.Polyamine can alleviate heat injury in plants.This study is aimed to investigate the effects of polyamine and high temperature on transcriptional profiles in ripening tomato fruit.Methods:An Affymetrix tomato microarray was used to evaluate changes in gene expression in response to exogenous spermidine (Spd,1 mmol/L) and high temperature (33/27 ℃) treatments in tomato fruits at mature green stage.Results:Of the 10101 tomato probe sets represented on the array,127 loci were differentially expressed in high temperature-treated fruits,compared with those under normal conditions,functionally characterized by their involvement in signal transduction,defense responses,oxidation reduction,and hormone responses.However,only 34 genes were up-regulated in Spd-treated fruits as compared with non-treated fruits,which were involved in primary metabolism,signal transduction,hormone responses,transcription factors,and stress responses.Meanwhile,55 genes involved in energy metabolism,cell wall metabolism,and photosynthesis were down-regulated in Spd-treated fruits.Conclusions:Our results demonstrated that Spd might play an important role in regulation of tomato fruit response to high temperature during ripening stage.

  9. Polyamine levels and tomato fruit development: possible interaction with ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saftner, R A; Baldi, B G

    1990-02-01

    Fruits of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Liberty, ripen slowly and have a prolonged keeping quality. Ethylene production and the levels of polyamines in pericarp of cv Liberty, Pik Red, and Rutgers were measured in relation to fruit development. Depending on the stage of fruit development, Liberty produced between 16 and 38% of the ethylene produced by Pik Red and Rutgers. The polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were present in all cultivars. Cadaverine was detected only in Rutgers. Levels of putrescine and spermidine declined between the immature and mature green stages of development and prior to the onset of climacteric ethylene production. In Pik Red and Rutgers, the decline persisted, whereas in Liberty, the putrescine level increased during ripening. Ripe pericarp of Liberty contained about three and six times more free (unconjugated) polyamines than Pik Red and Rutgers, respectively. No pronounced changes in spermidine or cadaverine occurred during ripening. The increase in the free polyamine level in ripe pericarp of Liberty may account for the reduction of climacteric ethylene production, and prolonged storage life.

  10. 1H NMR metabolic fingerprinting to probe temporal postharvest changes on qualitative attributes and phytochemical profile of sweet cherry fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasios eGoulas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry fruits (Prunus avium cvs. ‘Canada Giant’, ‘Ferrovia’ were harvested at commercial maturity stage and analyzed at harvest and after maintenance at room temperature (storage at ~ 20°C, shelf life for 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, respectively. Fruit were initially analyzed for respiration rate, qualitative attributes and textural properties: ‘Canada Giant’ fruit were characterized by higher weight losses and stem browning index, being more intense over the late stages of shelf life period; meanwhile ‘Ferrovia’ possessed appreciably better performance even after extended shelf life period. A gradual decrease of respiration rate was monitored in both cultivars, culminated after 8 days at 20°C. The sweet cherry fruit nutraceutical profile was monitored using an array of instrumental techniques (spectrophotometric assays, HPLC, 1H-NMR. Fruit antioxidant capacity was enhanced with the progress of shelf life period, concomitant with the increased levels of total anthocyanin and of phenolic compounds. ‘Ferrovia’ fruit presented higher contents of neochlorogenic acid and p-coumarolquinic acid throughout the shelf life period. We further developed an 1H-NMR method that allows the study of primary and secondary metabolites in a single running, without previous separation and isolation procedures. Diagnostic peaks were located in the aliphatic region for sugars and organic acids, in the aromatic region for phenolic compounds and at 8.2 to 8.6 ppm for anthocyanins. This NMR-based methodology provides a unifying tool for quantitative and qualitative characterization of metabolite changes of sweet cherry fruits; it is also expected to be further exploited for monitoring temporal changes in other fleshy fruits.

  11. Occurrence of Candida orthopsilosis in Brazilian tomato fruits (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Robl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to isolate and identify yeasts found in the tomato fruit in order to obtain isolates with biotechnological potential, such as in control of fungal diseases that damage postharvest fruits. We identified Candida orthopsilosis strains LT18 and LT24. This is the first report of this yeast on Lycopersicum esculentum fruits in Brazil.

  12. Occurrence of Candida orthopsilosis in Brazilian tomato fruits (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Robl, D.; Thimoteo, S.S.; de Souza, G.C.C.F.; M.R. Beux; Dalzoto,P.R.; Pinheiro, R L; PIMENTEL, I. C.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to isolate and identify yeasts found in the tomato fruit in order to obtain isolates with biotechnological potential, such as in control of fungal diseases that damage postharvest fruits. We identified Candida orthopsilosis strains LT18 and LT24. This is the first report of this yeast on Lycopersicum esculentum fruits in Brazil.

  13. Occurrence of Candida orthopsilosis in Brazilian tomato fruits (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, D; Thimoteo, S S; de Souza, G C C F; Beux, M R; Dalzoto, P R; Pinheiro, R L; Pimentel, I C

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to isolate and identify yeasts found in the tomato fruit in order to obtain isolates with biotechnological potential, such as in control of fungal diseases that damage postharvest fruits. We identified Candida orthopsilosis strains LT18 and LT24. This is the first report of this yeast on Lycopersicum esculentum fruits in Brazil.

  14. A dynamic model of tomato fruit growth integrating cell division, cell growth and endoreduplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanwoua, J.; Visser, de P.H.B.; Heuvelink, E.; Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed a model of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit growth integrating cell division, cell growth and endoreduplication. The fruit was considered as a population of cells grouped in cell classes differing in their initial cell age and cell mass. The model describes fruit gr

  15. Pulsed Vacuum Osmotic Dehydration of Cherry Tomatoes: Impact on Physicochemical Properties and Probiotics Entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pheeraya CHOTTANOM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic dehydration (OD and pulsed vacuum osmotic dehydration (PVOD were employed to assess the various properties of partially-dehydrated tomatoes. Ascorbic acid and lycopene degradation and color and texture change were determined. The mastership incorporation of probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus TISTR 1338 into tomatoes was also investigated. OD mediums (20, 40 and 60 Brix consisted of a mixture of formulated tomato extract (FTE and probiotic cell suspension. PVOD promoting mass transfer was clearly observed in a short-time process compared with OD. The physical and chemical properties of the tomatoes changed significantly after the dehydration processes, especially those of ascorbic acid content compared with lycopene. A more than 50 % loss of ascorbic acid was noted, starting at 10 g /100 g tomatoes of water loss. The hardness values significantly increased, while chroma values decreased. The cell entrapment on the tomatoes was in the range of 8 - 9 log CFU/g tomatoes. The highest entrapment of the probiotic bacteria was found in the long-time process (12 h conducted with 20 Brix FTE for the PVOD and OD processes, while entrapment was decreased by the short-time process (6 h. Using high solution concentration resulted in lower cell entrapment. However, cell entrapment could be increased by using the vacuum process. These results will provide a platform that encourages the inclusion of probiotics in high quality fresh-cut products and semi-moist products. These products can then be considered as alternative probiotic food choice for consumers.

  16. High Yield Cultivation Techniques of Cherry Tomato in Guangxi%广西樱桃番茄高产栽培技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Cherry tomatoes were the leading industry in Tianyang of Guangxi. The high yield cultivation techniques were summarized from the following aspects , including varieties selection, breeding strong seedlings, intensive cultivation and strengthening base fertilizers, timely planting, scientific field management, making frames for the climbing, pollination, control of diseases and pests, and so on. The results provided technical information for production of cherry tomatoes.%樱桃番茄是广西田阳的主导产业。从品种选择、培育壮苗、精耕细作、重施基肥、定植、田间水肥管理、及时插杆整枝、点花授粉及病虫害防治等几个方面总结了樱桃番茄超高产栽培技术,为生产提供了技术参考。

  17. The role of alternative oxidase in tomato fruit ripening and its regulatory interaction with ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Yuan, Shu; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lv, Xin; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2012-09-01

    Although the alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed to play a role in fruit development, the function of AOX in fruit ripening is unclear. To gain further insight into the role of AOX in tomato fruit ripening, transgenic tomato plants 35S-AOX1a and 35S-AOX-RNAi were generated. Tomato plants with reduced LeAOX levels exhibited retarded ripening; reduced carotenoids, respiration, and ethylene production; and the down-regulation of ripening-associated genes. Moreover, no apparent respiratory climacteric occurred in the AOX-reduced tomato fruit, indicating that AOX might play an important role in climacteric respiration. In contrast, the fruit that overexpressed LeAOX1a accumulated more lycopene, though they displayed a similar pattern of ripening to wild-type fruit. Ethylene application promoted fruit ripening and anticipated ethylene production and respiration, including the alternative pathway respiration. Interestingly, the transgenic plants with reduced LeAOX levels failed to ripen after 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, while such inhibition was notably less effective in 35S-AOX1a fruit. These findings indicate that AOX is involved in respiratory climacteric and ethylene-mediated fruit ripening of tomato.

  18. Chilling and Host Plant/Site-Associated Eclosion Times of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a Host-Specific Parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Hood, Glen R; Forbes, Andrew A; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an endemic herbivore of bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ∼100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of adult R. indifferens from sweet and bitter cherry differ according to the phenology of their respective host plants and if eclosion times of the host-specific parasitoid Diachasma muliebre (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking bitter and sweet cherry flies differ according to the eclosion phenology of their fly hosts. Fly pupae from sweet and bitter cherry fruit were collected from sympatric and allopatric sites in Washington state, and chilled at 5°C. Because timing of eclosion in R. indifferens depends on chill duration, eclosion time in wasps could also vary with chill duration. To account for this, fly pupae were chilled for 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, or 8 mo. Both flies and wasps eclosed earlier with longer chill durations. Eclosion times of sweet and bitter cherry flies from a sympatric site in central Washington did not differ. However, at allopatric sites in northwestern and central Washington, bitter cherry flies eclosed later than sweet and bitter cherry flies at the sympatric site. Correspondingly, D. muliebre parasitizing a more isolated bitter cherry fly population eclosed later than D. muliebre parasitizing earlier-emerging sweet and bitter cherry fly populations. These results provide evidence for D. muliebre rapidly responding to changes in host plant shifts by R. indifferens.

  19. 樱桃番茄嫁接砧木筛选研究%Selection of Grafted Rootstocks of Cherry Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝坤; 康月惠; 张连水

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different rootstocks on the scion, Gege cherry tomato, was studied, such as Nongyou wild tomato, Tuolubamu, Jinzuan rootstock, Zhanmu No.1. The results showed that among the 4 rootstocks, the affinity was remarkably different, the first was Zhanmu No.1, then was Jinzuan rootstock, Tuolubamu was the last one. In terms of bacterial wilt, P. solanaeerum, the difference between grafted seedlings and no-grafted seedlings was extremely remarkable; and the yield of grafted seedling increased by 15.9%-48.7%, specially for those using Nongyou wild tomato and Zhanmu No.1 as root-stock.%以格格樱桃番茄作接穗,农优野茄、托鲁巴姆、金钻砧木和砧木1号作砧木,进行嫁接和嫁接苗栽培试验.试验结果表明.4种砧木与樱桃番茄嫁接亲和性由强到弱依次为:砧木1号、金钻砧木、农优野茄和托鲁巴姆;嫁接苗青枯病发病率与自根苗差异均达到极显著水平,嫁接苗产量比自根苗增产15.9%~48.7%,在抗青枯病和产量方面表现都比较好的砧木为农优野茄和砧木1号.

  20. Transcriptional dynamics of the developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit: sequencing, annotation and expression profiling of exocarp-associated genes

    OpenAIRE

    Merianne Alkio; Uwe Jonas; Myriam Declercq; Steven van Nocker; Moritz Knoche

    2014-01-01

    The exocarp, or skin, of fleshy fruit is a specialized tissue that protects the fruit, attracts seed dispersing fruit eaters, and has large economical relevance for fruit quality. Development of the exocarp involves regulated activities of many genes. This research analyzed global gene expression in the exocarp of developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘Regina’), a fruit crop species with little public genomic resources. A catalog of transcript models (contigs) representing expressed genes...

  1. Alternate partial root-zone drying irrigation improves fruit quality in tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Y.; Holm, Peter Engelund; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    on tomato yield but significantly affected several organic and mineral quality attributes of the fruits. Compared to DI, PRD significantly increased the fruit concentrations of Ca and Mg, and fruit juice concentrations of total soluble solid, glucose, fructose, citric and malic acid, P, K and Mg......Alternate partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation and deficit irrigation (DI) are water-saving irrigation strategies. Here, comparative effects of PRD and DI on fruit quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. The results showed that the irrigation treatments had no effect....... It is concluded that PRD is better than DI in terms of improving fruit quality, and could be a promising management strategy for simultaneous increase of water use efficiency and fruit quality in tomatoes....

  2. Difference in volatile profile between pericarp tissue and locular gel in tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroma, a complex mixture of volatile compounds, plays an important role in the perception and acceptability of tomato products by consumers. Numerous studies have reported volatile profiles in tomatoes based on measurement of the whole fruit or pericarp tissue, however, little is understood regardin...

  3. Tomato fruit quality as affected by ripening on- and off-vine

    OpenAIRE

    Koukounaras, A.; Makridou, C.; Siomos, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference “Environmentally friendly and safe technologies for quality of fruit and vegetables”, held in Universidade do Algarve, Faro, Portugal, on January 14-16, 2009. This Conference was a join activity with COST Action 924. In order to extend postharvest life and marketable period, tomato fruits are mainly harvested at the mature green stage and they ripen off vine. However, most of the consumers are convinced that on vine ripened tomatoes a...

  4. Experimental investigation of drying characteristics of cornelian cherry fruits ( Cornus mas L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgen, Filiz

    2015-03-01

    Major target of present paper is to investigate the drying kinetics of cornelian cherry fruits ( Cornus mas L.) in a convective dryer, by varying the temperature and the velocity of drying air. Freshly harvested fruits are dried at drying air temperature of 35, 45 and 55 °C. The considered drying air velocities are V air = 1 and 1.5 m/s for each temperature. The required drying time is determined by taking into consideration the moisture ratio measurements. When the moisture ratio reaches up to 10 % at the selected drying air temperature, then the time is determined ( t = 40-67 h). The moisture ratio, fruit temperature and energy requirement are presented as the functions of drying time. The lowest drying time (40 h) is obtained when the air temperature is 55 °C and air velocity is 1.5 m/s. The highest drying time (67 h) is found under the conditions of 35 °C temperature and 1 m/s velocity. Both the drying air temperature and the air velocity significantly affect the required energy for drying system. The minimum amount of required energy is found as 51.12 kWh, at 55 °C and 1 m/s, whilst the maximum energy requirement is 106.7 kWh, at 35 °C and 1.5 m/s. It is also found that, air temperature significantly influences the total drying time. Moreover, the energy consumption is decreasing with increasing air temperature. The effects of three parameters (air temperature, air velocity and drying time) on drying characteristics have also been analysed by means of analysis of variance method to show the effecting levels. The experimental results have a good agreement with the predicted ones.

  5. Effect of endogenously synthesized and exogenously applied ethanol on tomato fruit ripening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, M.O.; Saltveit, M.E. Jr.

    1988-09-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var Castlemart) fruit ripening was inhibited by tissue concentrations of ethanol that were produced by either exposure to exogenous ethanol vapors or synthesis under anaerobic atmospheres. Ethanol was not detected in aerobically ripened tomato fruit. Ripening was not inhibited by exposure to methanol at an equivalent molar concentration to inhibitory concentrations of ethanol, while ripening was slightly more inhibited by n-propanol than by equivalent molar concentrations of ethanol. The mottled appearance of a few ripened ethanol-treated fruit was not observed in n-propanol-treated fruit.

  6. Functional characterization of a tomato COBRA-like gene functioning in fruit development and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies have demonstrated that the COBRA gene is critical for biosynthesis of cell wall constituents comprising structural tissues of roots, stalks, leaves and other vegetative organs, however, its role in fruit development and ripening remains largely unknown. Results We identified a tomato gene (SlCOBRA-like homologous to Arabidopsis COBRA, and determined its role in fleshy fruit biology. The SlCOBRA-like gene is highly expressed in vegetative organs and in early fruit development, but its expression in fruit declines dramatically during ripening stages, implying a primary role in early fruit development. Fruit-specific suppression of SlCOBRA-like resulted in impaired cell wall integrity and up-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in cell wall degradation during early fruit development. In contrast, fruit-specific overexpression of SlCOBRA-like resulted in increased wall thickness of fruit epidermal cells, more collenchymatous cells beneath the epidermis, elevated levels of cellulose and reduced pectin solubilization in the pericarp cells of red ripe fruits. Moreover, transgenic tomato fruits overexpressing SlCOBRA-like exhibited desirable early development phenotypes including enhanced firmness and a prolonged shelf life. Conclusions Our results suggest that SlCOBRA-like plays an important role in fruit cell wall architecture and provides a potential genetic tool for extending the shelf life of tomato and potentially additional fruits.

  7. Changes in oxidative stress in transgenic RNAi ACO1 tomato fruit during ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglous, Najat Mohamed; Ali, Zainon Mohd; Hassan, Maizom; Zainal, Zamri

    2013-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) is the second most cultivated vegetable in the world and widely used as a system for studying the role of ethylene during fruit ripening. Our objective was to study the oxidative stress and antioxidative metabolism during ripening of non transgenic tomato and transgenic line-21 tomato which reduced ethylene. The line-21 of transgenic tomato plants (RNAi ACO1) had lower ethylene production and longer shelf-life more than 32 days as compared to the wild-type fruits which have very short shelf-life. In this study, tomato fruit were divided into five different stages (MG: mature green 5%, B: breaker 25%, T: turning 50%, O: orange75%, RR: red ripe100%). The activity of lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were measured to assess changes in oxidative stress. The LOX activity and MDA content decreased significantly obtaining 2.6-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively, as compared to the wild type fruit. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were increased to 1.9 and 1.2 folds from the mature green to the fully ripe stage in transgenic tomatoes. Furthermore, the wild type tomato increases 1.3 in SOD and 1.6 in CAT activities. The overall results indicate that the wild type tomato fruit showed a faster rate of ripening, parallel to decline in the rate of enzymatic antioxidative systems as compared to the transgenic line-21 tomato fruit. In addition, the results show that the antioxidant capacity is improved during the ripening process and is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress.

  8. Antioxidant and Antiplatelet Activities in Extracts from Green and Fully Ripe Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and Pomace from Industrial Tomato Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Fuentes; Reinhold Carle; Luis Astudillo; Luis Guzmán; Margarita Gutiérrez; Gilda Carrasco; Iván Palomo

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables is accepted to be one of the strategies to reduce risk factors for these diseases. The aim of this study was to examine potential relationships between the antioxidant and the antiplatelet activities in green mature and fully ripe (red) tomatoes and of lycopene-rich byproducts of tomato paste processing such as pomace. The total phenol content of tomato components was the highest in peels, pulp, and in the mucilaginous myxotesta covering the tomato see...

  9. Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-(U-{sup 14}C)malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification.

  10. Melatonin content of pepper and tomato fruits: effects of cultivar and solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Patrick; Medina, Sonia; García-Flores, Libia Alejandra; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of cultivar and solar radiation on the melatonin content of Capsicum annuum (pepper) and Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruits. The melatonin content of red pepper fruits ranged from 31 to 93ngg(-1) (dry weight). The melatonin content of tomato ranged from 7.5 to 250ngg(-1) (dry weight). We also studied the effect of ripeness on melatonin content and identified one group of pepper cultivars in which the melatonin content increased as the fruit ripened and another in which it decreased as the fruit ripened. Under shade conditions, the melatonin content in most of tomato cultivars tended to increase (up to 135%), whereas that of most pepper cultivars decreased (to 64%). Overall, the results also demonstrated that the melatonin content of the fruits was not related to carbon fluxes from leaves.

  11. Yield and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. fruit harvested from plants grown in mulched soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Majkowska-Gadomska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A study investigating the yield of field-grown tomatoes was conducted in 2007–2009 in the Garden of the Research and Experimental Station of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The experimental materials comprised two tomato cultivars, 'Bawole Serce' and 'Złoty Ożarowski'. Tomato plants were grown in bare soil and in soil mulched with black non-woven PP 50 fabric. Cultivar selection had a significant effect only on average early yield of 'Bawole Serce'. The highest average early yield for three years of the study was recorded for 'Bawole Serce' grown in mulched soil, while the lowest one for 'Złoty Ożarowski' grown in mulched plots. Tomato marketable yield was significantly higher in both treatments where 'Bawole Serce' plants were grown. Fruits harvested from tomato plants 'Złoty Ożarowski' had a higher dry matter content. Soil mulching significantly increased the dry matter content of 'Złoty Ożarowski' tomato fruit. The experimental factors had no influence on the concentrations of L-ascorbic acid, total sugars, and organic acids. Nitrate levels in tomato fruit were within permissible limits, and they were significantly affected by the cultivation method and the method x cultivar interaction. Nitrate accumulation was reduced in tomato plants 'Złoty Ożarowski' grown in mulched soil.

  12. Alleviation of chilling injury in tomato fruit by exogenous application of oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyan; Yin, Fei; Song, Lijun; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The effects of oxalic acid on the development of chilling injury (CI), energy metabolism and lycopene metabolism in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. Mature green tomatoes were dipped in 10mmoll(-1) oxalic acid (OA) solution for 10min at 25°C. Tomatoes were subsequently stored at 4±0.5°C for 20days before being transferred to 25°C for 12days. Oxalic acid treatment apparently alleviated CI development and membrane damage; maintained higher levels of ATP and ADP; increased activities of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) and H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)-ATPase); and elevated lycopene accumulation associated with the upregulation of PSY1 and ZDS expression in tomatoes during a period at room temperature following exposure to chilling stress. Thus, oxalic acid treatment benefited the control of CI and the maintenance of fruit quality in tomatoes stored for long periods (approximately 32days).

  13. Promising sour cherry hybrids (Prunus cerasus L. developed at Fruit Research Institute Čačak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At Fruit Research Institute in Čačak, major objectives of the work on breeding new sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cultivars are high cropping, large, high-quality fruits and resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests. As a result of the planned hybridization, more than 10,000 hybrid seedlings have been developed from about 40 cultivars within more than 110 parental combinations, among which are 'Čačanski rubin' ('Shasse Morello' x 'Köröser Weichsel' and 'Šumadinka' ('Köröser Weichsel' x 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel' which have been named and released. Ten-year study of 11 hybrids, selected from the population of about 3,000 hybrid seedlings, gave four hybrids which have been singled out as elite (III/23, III/31, II/40 i XII/57. These hybrids are currently under procedure of being released as new cultivars. The paper presents two-year results of the study of ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits, and field resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests attacking the above named genotypes which were compared to standard cultivar 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel'. In the studied hybrids, fruit weight, soluble solids content and sugars content were higher than in standard cultivar. In addition, they exhibit substantial field resistance to causal agents of brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz., cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi L. attack.

  14. Enhancing the Health-Promoting Effects of Tomato Fruit for Biofortified Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Raiola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of tomato fruits, like those of many other plant species that are part of the human diet, is considered to be associated with several positive effects on health. Indeed, tomato fruits are an important source of bioactive compounds with known beneficial effects including vitamins, antioxidants, and anticancer substances. In particular, antioxidant metabolites are a group of vitamins, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and phenolic acid that can provide effective protection by neutralizing free radicals, which are unstable molecules linked to the development of a number of degenerative diseases and conditions. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on tomatoes nutritional importance and mechanisms of action of different phytochemicals against inflammation processes and prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension. In addition, we will summarize the significant progress recently made to improve the nutritional quality of tomato fruits through metabolic engineering and/or breeding.

  15. Simultaneous ozone fumigation and fluoranthene sprayed as mists negatively affected cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Ozone (O(3)) fumigated at 120 microg L(-1) for 12 hd(-1) was combined with 10 microM fluoranthene, and other treatments, including Mannitol solution to investigate the interaction of the two pollutants on tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). Using ten treatments including Mannitol solution and a control, exposure experiment was conducted for 34 d inside six growth chambers used for monitoring the resulted ecophysiological changes. Visible foliar injury, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, CO(2) uptake and water vapor exchange were monitored in tomato. Ozone or fluoranthene independently affected some ecophysiological traits of the tomato. In addition, simultaneous treatments with the duo had increased (additive) negative effects on the photosynthesis rate (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), chlorophyll pigment contents (Chl a, Chl b and Chl((a+b))) and visible foliar symptoms. Contrarily, alleviation of the negative effects of O(3) on the leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence variables by fluoranthene occurred. Mannitol solution, which functioned as a reactive oxygen species scavenger was able to mitigate some negative effects of the two pollutants on the tomato plants.

  16. Metabolite profiling of Italian tomato landraces with different fruit types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldina, Svetlana; Picarella, Maurizio E.; Troise, Antonio D.; Pucci, Anna; Ruggieri, Valentino; Ferracane, Rosalia; Barone, Amalia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Mazzucato, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Increased interest toward traditional tomato varieties is fueled by the need to rescue desirable organoleptic traits and to improve the quality of fresh and processed tomatoes in the market. In addition, the phenotypic and genetic variation preserved in tomato landraces represents a means to unde

  17. Induced mutations in tomato SlExp1 alter cell wall metabolism and delay fruit softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoia, Silvia; Boualem, Adnane; Marcel, Fabien; Troadec, Christelle; Quemener, Bernard; Cellini, Francesco; Petrozza, Angelo; Vigouroux, Jacqueline; Lahaye, Marc; Carriero, Filomena; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening and softening are key traits for many fleshy fruit. Since cell walls play a key role in the softening process, expansins have been investigated to control fruit over ripening and deterioration. In tomato, expression of Expansin 1 gene, SlExp1, during fruit ripening was associated with fruit softening. To engineer tomato plants with long shelf life, we screened for mutant plants impaired in SlExp1 function. Characterization of two induced mutations, Slexp1-6_W211S, and Slexp1-7_Q213Stop, showed that SlExp1 loss of function leads to enhanced fruit firmness and delayed fruit ripening. Analysis of cell wall polysaccharide composition of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant pointed out significant differences for uronic acid, neutral sugar and total sugar contents. Hemicelluloses chemistry analysis by endo-β-1,4-d-glucanase hydrolysis and MALDI-TOF spectrometry revealed that xyloglucan structures were affected in the fruit pericarp of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant. Altogether, these results demonstrated that SlExp1 loss of function mutants yield firmer and late ripening fruits through modification of hemicellulose structure. These SlExp1 mutants represent good tools for breeding long shelf life tomato lines with contrasted fruit texture as well as for the understanding of the cell wall polysaccharide assembly dynamics in fleshy fruits.

  18. Assessing the potential for establishment of western cherry fruit fly using ecological niche modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., grown in the western United States are exported to many countries around the world. Some of these countries have enforced strict quarantine rules and trade restrictions due to concerns about the potential establishment and subsequent spread of western cherry fru...

  19. Distribution of xylem hydraulic resistance in fruiting truss of tomato influenced by water stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ieperen, van W.; Volkov, V.S.; Meeteren, van U.

    2003-01-01

    In this study xylem hydraulic resistances of peduncles (truss stalk), pedicels (fruit stalk) and the future abscission zone (AZ) halfway along the pedicel of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants were directly measured at different stages of fruit development, in plants grown under two levels o

  20. Members of the tomato FRUITFULL MADS-box family regulate style abscission and fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shufen; Lu, Gang; Hou, Zheng; Luo, Zhidan; Wang, Taotao; Li, Hanxia; Zhang, Junhong; Ye, Zhibiao

    2014-07-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) protein MADS-RIN plays important roles in fruit ripening. In this study, the functions of two homologous tomato proteins, FUL1 and FUL2, which contain conserved MIKC domains that typify plant MADS-box proteins, and which interact with MADS-RIN, were analysed. Transgenic functional analysis showed that FUL1 and FUL2 function redundantly in fruit ripening regulation, but exhibit distinct roles in the regulation of cellular differentiation and expansion. Over-expression of FUL2 in tomato resulted in a pointed tip at the blossom end of the fruit, together with a thinner pericarp, reduced stem diameter, and smaller leaves, but no obvious phenotypes resulted from FUL1 over-expression. Dual suppression of FUL1 and FUL2 substantially inhibited fruit ripening by blocking ethylene biosynthesis and decreasing carotenoid accumulation. In addition, the levels of transcript corresponding to ACC SYNTHASE2 (ACS2), which plays a key role in ethylene biosynthesis, were significantly decreased in the FUL1/FUL2 knock-down tomato fruits. Overall, our results suggest that FUL proteins can regulate tomato fruit ripening through fine-tuning ethylene biosynthesis and the expression of ripening-related genes.

  1. How and why does tomato accumulate a large amount of GABA in the fruit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko eTakayama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA has received much attention as a health-promoting functional compound, and several GABA-enriched foods have been commercialized. In higher plants, GABA is primarily metabolized via a short pathway called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt bypasses two steps (the oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to succinate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle via reactions catalysed by three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, GABA transaminase (GABA-T and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH. The GABA shunt plays a major role in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism and is an integral part of the TCA cycle under stress and non-stress conditions. Tomato is one of the major crops that accumulate a relatively high level of GABA in its fruits. The GABA levels in tomato fruits dramatically change during fruit development; the GABA levels increase from flowering to the mature green stage and then rapidly decrease during the ripening stage. Although GABA constitutes up to 50% of the free amino acids at the mature green stage, the molecular mechanism of GABA accumulation and the physiological function of GABA during tomato fruit development remain unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies of GABA accumulation in tomato fruits and discuss the potential biological roles of GABA in tomato fruit development.

  2. Bacterial community diversity and variation in spray water sources and the tomato fruit surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottesen Andrea R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum consumption has been one of the most common causes of produce-associated salmonellosis in the United States. Contamination may originate from animal waste, insects, soil or water. Current guidelines for fresh tomato production recommend the use of potable water for applications coming in direct contact with the fruit, but due to high demand, water from other sources is frequently used. We sought to describe the overall bacterial diversity on the surface of tomato fruit and the effect of two different water sources (ground and surface water when used for direct crop applications by generating a 454-pyrosequencing 16S rRNA dataset of these different environments. This study represents the first in depth characterization of bacterial communities in the tomato fruit surface and the water sources commonly used in commercial vegetable production. Results The two water sources tested had a significantly different bacterial composition. Proteobacteria was predominant in groundwater samples, whereas in the significantly more diverse surface water, abundant phyla also included Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. The fruit surface bacterial communities on tomatoes sprayed with both water sources could not be differentiated using various statistical methods. Both fruit surface environments had a high representation of Gammaproteobacteria, and within this class the genera Pantoea and Enterobacter were the most abundant. Conclusions Despite the major differences observed in the bacterial composition of ground and surface water, the season long use of these very different water sources did not have a significant impact on the bacterial composition of the tomato fruit surface. This study has provided the first next-generation sequencing database describing the bacterial communities living in the fruit surface of a tomato crop under two different spray water regimes, and therefore represents an

  3. Suppression of tomato SlNAC1 transcription factor delays fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chen; Yang, Dongyue; Ma, Xiaocui; Zhao, Weiyang; Liang, Xiaoqing; Ma, Nana; Meng, Qingwei

    2016-04-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex process involving many physiological and biochemical changes, including those for ethylene, carotenoid, and cell wall metabolism. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) serves as a research model for fruit development and ripening because it possesses numerous favorable genetic features. In this study, SlNAC1 was cloned. An antisense (AS) vector was constructed and transferred to tomato to further explore the function of SlNAC1. The results showed that AS fruits exhibited delayed ripening and a deeper red appearance when these fruits were fully ripened. Fully ripened AS fruits also produced higher total carotenoid and lycopene contents than those of the wild-type (WT) line. Ethylene production of AS fruits was delayed but occurred to a higher extent than that of WT fruits. The softening of AS fruits was slower than that of WT fruits. Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) level in AS-4 fruits was lower than that in WT fruits. Exogenous ABA accelerated the softening of AS fruits. Furthermore, AS fruits demonstrated up-regulated expression of genes related to lycopene and ethylene biosynthesis but down-regulated expression of genes related to cell wall metabolism and ABA synthesis. Therefore, SlNAC1 is likely implicated in fruit ripening.

  4. Hormonal and metabolic regulation of tomato fruit sink activity and yield under salinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albacete, Alfonso; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Balibrea, María E.

    2014-01-01

    Salinization of water and soil has a negative impact on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) productivity by reducing growth of sink organs and by inducing senescence in source leaves. It has been hypothesized that yield stability implies the maintenance or increase of sink activity in the reproductive...... on tomato fruit sink activity, growth, and yield: (i) exogenous hormones were applied to plants, and (ii) transgenic plants overexpressing the cell wall invertase (cwInv) gene CIN1 in the fruits and de novo cytokinin (CK) biosynthesis gene IPT in the roots were constructed. Although salinity reduces fruit...

  5. Effect Of 1-MCP Treatment On Storage Potential Of Tomato Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Wrzodak Anna; Gajewski Marek

    2015-01-01

    Tomato fruit cv. ’Faustine’ F1 were harvested at mature green and full-red stages and treated with 1 or 2 µl·l−1 of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at 20 °C and 85-90% RH, for 21 hours to investigate the ability to delay ripening. Treated and control fruit were stored at 12.5 and 20 °C and 85-90% RH. Ethylene production, rate of respiration, weight loss, market value and storage life were determined after 4-week storage. Exposure of tomato fruit to 1-MCP reduced ethylene production and respirati...

  6. Effect of tomato post-harvest fungicide treatment and storage conditions on the quality of fruits, and biological value of tomato pulp and concentrated pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parynow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of storage conditions on the quality of tomato fruits was tested. The rate of ripening was established in normal air, where tomatoes ripen quickly, under controlled atmosphere where they ripen more slowly and under low pressure, where they ripen slowest. The influence of post-harvest benomyl or methylthiophanate treatment on tomato rot, ripening, and biological value were examined. Post-harvest tomato treatment did not reduce fruit rot. The color of fruits and the processed products depended on the fungicide treatment. Concentrated tomato pulp made of fruits treated with methylthiophanate was redder than the others. The fungicide treatment increased or decreased the level of some chemical substances in the fruits in dependence on the applied fungicide, storage conditions and the length of storage, e.g. tomatoes treated with benomyl and stored for 14 days contained the highest level of vitamin C under 0% CO2:3%O2 and tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the highest level of vitamin C under 38 mm Hg. Degradation of vitamin C in pulp was faster than in the concentrated pulp. Tomato pulp made of tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the lowest level of vitamin C.

  7. Changes in Gene Expression during Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, M S; Harriman, R W; Handa, A K

    1986-06-01

    Total proteins from pericarp tissue of different chronological ages from normally ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rutgers) fruits and from fruits of the isogenic ripening-impaired mutants rin, nor, and Nr were extracted and separated by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the stained bands revealed increases in 5 polypeptides (94, 44, 34, 20, and 12 kilodaltons), decreases in 12 polypeptides (106, 98, 88, 76, 64, 52, 48, 45, 36, 28, 25, and 15 kilodaltons), and fluctuations in 5 polypeptides (85, 60, 26, 21, and 16 kilodaltons) as normal ripening proceeded. Several polypeptides present in ripening normal pericarp exhibited very low or undetectable levels in developing mutant pericarp. Total RNAs extracted from various stages of Rutgers pericarp and from 60 to 65 days old rin, nor, and Nr pericarp were fractionated into poly(A)(+) and poly(A)(-) RNAs. Peak levels of total RNA, poly(A)(+) RNA, and poly(A)(+) RNA as percent of total RNA occurred between the mature green to breaker stages of normal pericarp. In vitro translation of poly(A)(+) RNAs from normal pericarp in rabbit reticulocyte lysates revealed increases in mRNAs for 9 polypeptides (116, 89, 70, 42, 38, 33, 31, 29, and 26 kilodaltons), decreases in mRNAs for 2 polypeptides (41 and 35 kilodaltons), and fluctuations in mRNAs for 5 polypeptides (156, 53, 39, 30, and 14 kilodaltons) during normal ripening. Analysis of two-dimensional separation of in vitro translated polypeptides from poly(A)(+) RNAs isolated from different developmental stages revealed even more extensive changes in mRNA populations during ripening. In addition, a polygalacturonase precursor (54 kilodaltons) was immunoprecipitated from breaker, turning, red ripe, and 65 days old Nr in vitro translation products.

  8. Altered Levels of Aroma and Volatiles by Metabolic Engineering of Shikimate Pathway Genes in Tomato Fruits

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    Vered Tzin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fruit is an excellent source of antioxidants, dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins and therefore has been referred to as a “functional food”. Ripe tomato fruits produce a large number of specialized metabolites including volatile organic compounds. These volatiles serve as key components of the tomato fruit flavor, participate in plant pathogen and herbivore defense, and are used to attract seed dispersers. A major class of specialized metabolites is derived from the shikimate pathway followed by aromatic amino acid biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. We attempted to modify tomato fruit flavor by overexpressing key regulatory genes in the shikimate pathway. Bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive variants of 3-Deoxy-D-Arabino-Heptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase (DAHPS; AroG209-9 and bi-functional Chorismate Mutase/Prephenate Dehydratase (CM/PDT; PheA12 were expressed under the control of a fruit-specific promoter. We crossed these transgenes to generate tomato plants expressing both the AroG209 and PheA12 genes. Overexpression of the AroG209-9 gene had a dramatic effect on the overall metabolic profile of the fruit, including enhanced levels of multiple volatile and non-volatile metabolites. In contrast, the PheA12 overexpression line exhibited minor metabolic effects compared to the wild type fruit. Co-expression of both the AroG209-9 and PheA12 genes in tomato resulted overall in a similar metabolic effect to that of expressing only the AroG209-9 gene. However, the aroma ranking attributes of the tomato fruits from PheA12//AroG209-9 were unique and different from those of the lines expressing a single gene, suggesting a contribution of the PheA12 gene to the overall metabolic profile. We suggest that expression of bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive enzymes of the shikimate pathway in tomato fruits provides a useful metabolic engineering tool for the modification of

  9. Transient expression of organophosphorus hydrolase to enhance the degrading activity of tomato fruit on coumaphos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-hong ZHAO; De-gang ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    We constructed an expression cassette of the organophosphorus pesticide degrading (opd)gene under the control of the E8 promoter.Then opd was transformed into tomato fruit using an agroinfiltration transient expression system.β-Glueuronidase (GUS) staining,reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR),wavelength scanning,and fluorescent reaction were performed to examine the expression of the opd gene and the hydrolysis activity on eoumaphos of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) in tomato fruit.The results show that the agroinfiltrated tomato fruit-expressed OPH had the maximum hydrolysis activity of about 11.59 U/mg total soluble protein.These results will allow us to focus on breeding transgenie plants that could not only enhance the degrading capability of fruit and but also hold no negative effects on pest control when spraying organophosphorus pesticides onto the seedlings in fields.

  10. Effects of Al3+ and La3+ Trivalent Metal Ions on Tomato Fruit Proteomes

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    Sasikiran Sangireddy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ripening process from mature green (MG to turning and then to red stages is accompanied by the occurrences of physiological and biochemical reactions, which ultimately result in the formation of the flavor, color and texture of ripe fruits. The two trivalent metal ions Al3+ and La3+ are known to induce different levels of phytotoxicity in suppressing root growth. This paper aims to understand the impacts of these two metal ions on tomato fruit proteomes. Tomato ‘Micro-Tom’ plants were grown in a hydroponic culture system supplemented with 50 μM aluminum sulfate (Al2 (SO43.18H2O for Al3+ or La2(SO43 for La3+. Quantitative proteomics analysis, using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation, were performed for fruits at MG, turning and red stages. Results show that in MG tomatoes, proteins involved in protein biosynthesis, photosynthesis and primary carbohydrate metabolisms were at a significantly lower level in Al-treated compared to La-treated plants. For the turning and red tomatoes, only a few proteins of significant differences between the two metal treatments were identified. Results from this study indicate that compared to La3+, Al3+ had a greater influence on the basic biological activities in green tomatoes, but such an impact became indistinguishable as tomatoes matured into the late ripening stages.

  11. Tomato GOLDEN2-LIKE transcription factors reveal molecular gradients that function during fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong V; Vrebalov, Julia T; Gapper, Nigel E; Zheng, Yi; Zhong, Silin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James J

    2014-02-01

    Fruit ripening is the summation of changes rendering fleshy fruit tissues attractive and palatable to seed dispersing organisms. For example, sugar content is influenced by plastid numbers and photosynthetic activity in unripe fruit and later by starch and sugar catabolism during ripening. Tomato fruit are sinks of photosynthate, yet unripe green fruit contribute significantly to the sugars that ultimately accumulate in the ripe fruit. Plastid numbers and chlorophyll content are influenced by numerous environmental and genetic factors and are positively correlated with photosynthesis and photosynthate accumulation. GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors regulate plastid and chlorophyll levels. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), like most plants, contains two GLKs (i.e., GLK1 and GLK2/UNIFORM). Mutant and transgene analysis demonstrated that these genes encode functionally similar peptides, though differential expression renders GLK1 more important in leaves, while GLK2 is predominant in fruit. A latitudinal gradient of GLK2 expression influences the typical uneven coloration of green and ripe wild-type fruit. Transcriptome profiling revealed a broader fruit gene expression gradient throughout development. The gradient influenced general ripening activities beyond plastid development and was consistent with the easily observed yet poorly studied ripening gradient present in tomato and many fleshy fruits.

  12. Studies on water transport through the sweet cherry fruit surface. 10. Evidence for polar pathways across the exocarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichert, Holger; Knoche, Moritz

    2006-05-31

    Water uptake through the fruit surface is considered as an important factor in cracking of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit. Uptake may occur by diffusion and/or viscous flow along a polar pathway. To establish the mechanism of water uptake, the effects of viscosity and molecular weight of selected osmotica on water uptake into detached sweet cherry fruit were investigated. In addition we investigated the effect of temperature on penetration of 2-(1-naphthyl)[1-(14)C]acetic acid ([(14)C]NAA; pK(a) = 4.2) as a molecular probe in the non-dissociated (pH 2.2) and dissociated (pH 6.2) forms. Rates of water uptake were linearly related to the inverse viscosity of gum arabic solutions (range of concentrations and dynamic viscosities 10-300 g L(-1) and 1.3 x 10(-3) to 115.9 x 10(-3) Pa s, respectively). When fruit was incubated in solutions of osmotica of differing molecular weight that were isotonic to the fruit's water potential, water uptake depended on the molecular weight of the osmoticum [range 58-6000 for NaCl to poly(ethylene glycol) 6000 (PEG 6000)]. There was no uptake from PEG 6000 solutions, but rates of water uptake increased as the molecular weight of the osmotica decreased. Apparent water potentials of sweet cherry fruit, determined by incubating fruit in concentration series of selected osmotica, increased as the molecular weight of the osmotica increased up to 1500 and remained constant between 1500 and 6000. Reflection coefficients (sigma) estimated from this relationship were closely related to hydrodynamic radii (r) of the osmotica [sigma = 1.0(+/-0.0) - [10.9(+/-0.9) x 10(-11)][r(-1) (m(-1))], R(2) = 0.97, P < 0.0001]. The permeability of the sweet cherry fruit exocarp to NAA (pK(a) = 4.2) and temperature dependence of NAA permeability (P(d)) as indexed by the energy of activation (E(a), temperature range 5-35 degrees C) were significantly higher for the non-dissociated NAA (pH 2.2, P(d) = 10.2(+/-0.8) x 10(-8) m s(-1), E(a) = 67.0 +/- 1.7 kJ mol

  13. 7 CFR 930.3 - Cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cherries. 930.3 Section 930.3 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... Definitions § 930.3 Cherries. Cherries means all tart/sour cherry varieties grown in the production...

  14. Expression profile analysis of early fruit development in iaaM-parthenocarpic tomato plants

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    Spena Angelo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruit normally develops from the ovary after pollination and fertilization. However, the ovary can also generate seedless fruit without fertilization by parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic fruit development has been obtained in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum by genetic modification using auxin-synthesising gene(s (DefH9-iaaM; DefH9-RI-iaaM expressed specifically in the placenta and ovules. Findings We have performed a cDNA Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP analysis on pre-anthesis tomato flower buds (0.5 cm long collected from DefH9-iaaM and DefH9-RI-iaaM parthenocarpic and wild-type plants, with the aim to identify genes involved in very early phases of tomato fruit development. We detected 212 transcripts differentially expressed in auxin-ipersynthesising pre-anthesis flower buds, 65 of them (31% have unknown function. Several differentially expressed genes show homology to genes involved in protein trafficking and protein degradation via proteasome. These processes are crucial for auxin cellular transport and signaling, respectively. Conclusion The data presented might contribute to elucidate the molecular basis of the fruiting process and to develop new methods to confer parthenocarpy to species of agronomic interest. In a recently published work, we have demonstrated that one of the genes identified in this screening, corresponding to #109 cDNA clone, regulates auxin-dependent fruit initiation and its suppression causes parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.

  15. Effects on Sucrose Metabolism,Dry Matter Distribution and Fruit Quality of Tomato Under Water Deficit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Hong-yan; LI Tian-lai; ZHANG Jie; WANG Lei; CHEN Yuan-hong

    2003-01-01

    Four irrigation treatments were designed with 2, 4, 6 and 8 d intervals to irrigate, respectively. Watering was stopped when the reading of the moisture tension sensor reached zero. The results indicated that glucose and fructose content of tomato's fruit were increased but sucrose content was decreased with fruit growth and development. In different stages, carbohydrate content of tomato fruit in the treatment 3 was the highest, in the treatment 2 was higher, and in the other treatments was the lowest. SS(sucrose synthase) activity was decreased but SPS(sucrose phosphate synthase) activity was increased with development of tomato. SS and SPS activity were increased but acid invertase and neutral invertase activity of ripe stage were decreased under deficit irrigation. Glucose and fructose content were increased in leaves of tomato under water deficit.Soluble sugars, organic acid and the ratio of sugar/acid in tomato fruits were increased and dry matter accumulation of plant was enhanced under water deficit. But the growth of fruits upside the plant and its dry matter accumulation were badly affected under water stress.

  16. Produtividade de tomate tipo cereja cultivado em ambiente protegido e em diferentes substratos Productivity of cherry tomato cultivated in a protected environment and in different substrates

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    Mônica T A de Gusmão

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em Jaboticabal-SP, sob ambiente protegido, objetivando avaliar quatro substratos (Rendimax-Estufa®, areia, solo coberto com filme de polietileno preto e solo descoberto e quatro híbridos de tomateiro tipo cereja ('Mascot', 'Gisela', 'Cheri' e 'Sweet Million', sendo os substratos comercial e areia acondicionados em sacos plásticos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com quatro repetições. Utilizou-se irrigação por gotejamento, sendo a dotação hídrica realizada em função dos dados obtidos em um tanque Classe A. A solução nutritiva utilizada foi a recomendada por Castellane & Araújo (1995 para a cultura do tomateiro. Os frutos foram colhidos semanalmente, durante o período de 24/11/2000 a 24/01/2001, sendo avaliados o número e produtividade diária de frutos. Os cultivos em solo proporcionaram maior produção diária que no substrato comercial e em areia, para os híbridos Gisele e 'Mascot'. O híbrido 'Gisela' mostrou-se mais produtivo nos cultivos em solo, enquanto o híbrido 'Cheri', embora tenha proporcionado menores produções em peso, produziu maior número de frutos por planta. A produtividade dos tratamentos mais produtivos foi satisfatória, estando de acordo com os padrões de produção para a cultura no Brasil.The experiment was carry out in Jaboticabal-SP, under a protected environment, aiming to evaluate four substrates of root development (substrates Rendimax®, sand, soil with mulch of black polyethylene film and soil without mulch and four hybrids of cherry tomato ('Mascot', 'Gisela', 'Cheri' and 'Sweet Million'. The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks, in a factorial array (4 x 4, with four replications. The irrigation/fertigation was done with a trickle system, being the hydric dotation established based upon the measurements of the class A pan. The nutritious solution was recommended by Castellane & Araújo (1995 for

  17. Tomato fruit carotenoid biosynthesis is adjusted to actual ripening progression by a light-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Briardo; D'Andrea, Lucio; Ruiz-Sola, M Aguila; Botterweg, Esther; Pulido, Pablo; Andilla, Jordi; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid compounds that are essential for plants to protect the photosynthetic apparatus against excess light. They also function as health-promoting natural pigments that provide colors to ripe fruit, promoting seed dispersal by animals. Work in Arabidopsis thaliana unveiled that transcription factors of the phytochrome-interacting factor (PIF) family regulate carotenoid gene expression in response to environmental signals (i.e. light and temperature), including those created when sunlight reflects from or passes though nearby vegetation or canopy (referred to as shade). Here we show that PIFs use a virtually identical mechanism to modulate carotenoid biosynthesis during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, instead of integrating environmental information, PIF-mediated signaling pathways appear to fulfill a completely new function in the fruit. As tomatoes ripen, they turn from green to red due to chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation. When sunlight passes through the flesh of green fruit, a self-shading effect within the tissue maintains high levels of PIFs that directly repress the master gene of the fruit carotenoid pathway, preventing undue production of carotenoids. This effect is attenuated as chlorophyll degrades, causing degradation of PIF proteins and boosting carotenoid biosynthesis as ripening progresses. Thus, shade signaling components may have been co-opted in tomato fruit to provide information on the actual stage of ripening (based on the pigment profile of the fruit at each moment) and thus finely coordinate fruit color change. We show how this mechanism may be manipulated to obtain carotenoid-enriched fruits.

  18. Under-expression of the Auxin Response Factor Sl-ARF4 improves postharvest behavior of tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Maha; Chervin, Christian; Roustant, Jean-Paul; Bouzayen, Mondher; Zouine, Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    Auxin is one of the most prominent phytohormones regulating many aspects of fleshy fruit development including fruit set, fruit size through the control of cell division and cell expansion, and fruit ripening. To shed light on the role of auxin fruit ripening, we have previously shown that Sl-ARF4 is a major player in mediating the auxin control of sugar metabolism in tomato fruit (cv MicroTom). Further extending this study, we show here that down-regulation of Sl-ARF4 in tomato alters some ripening-related fruit quality traits including enhanced fruit density at mature stage, increased firmness, prolonged shelf-life and reduced water (weight) loss at red ripe stage. These findings suggest that Sl-ARF4 plays a role in determining fruit cell wall architecture and thus providing a potential genetic marker for improving post-harvest handling and shelf life of tomato fruits.

  19. Fruit quality and bioactive compounds relevant to human health of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballistreri, Gabriele; Continella, Alberto; Gentile, Alessandra; Amenta, Margherita; Fabroni, Simona; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2013-10-15

    The fruit quality characteristics, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown on the mountainsides of the Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy) were evaluated. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify sugars, organic acids and phenolics. A total of seven phenolic compounds were characterised as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (neochlorogenic acid, p-coumaroylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid) and anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside and peonidin 3-rutinoside). The total anthocyanin content ranged from 6.21 to 94.20mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenol content ranged from 84.96 to 162.21mg gallic acid equivalents/100g FW. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay indicated that fruit of all genotypes possessed considerable antioxidant activity. The high level of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of some sweet cherry fruits implied that they might be sources of bioactive compounds that are relevant to human health.

  20. The transcription factor AREB1 regulates primary metabolic pathways in tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Adriana; Yañez, Mónica; Osorio, Sonia; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Fernie, Alisdair R; Casaretto, José A

    2014-06-01

    Tomato fruit development is regulated both by the action of plant hormones and by tight genetic control. Recent studies suggest that abscisic acid (ABA) signalling may affect different aspects of fruit maturation. Previously, it was shown that SlAREB1, an ABA-regulated transcription factor involved in stress-induced responses, is expressed in seeds and in fruit tissues in tomato. Here, the role of SlAREB1 in regulating the expression of genes relevant for primary metabolic pathways and affecting the metabolic profile of the fruit was investigated using transgenic tomato lines. Metabolite profiling using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed on pericarp tissue from fruits harvested at three stages of fruit development. Principal component analysis of the data could distinguish the metabolite profiles of non-transgenic fruits from those that overexpress and down-regulate SlAREB1. Overexpression of SlAREB1 resulted in increased content of organic acids, hexoses, hexose-phosphates, and amino acids in immature green, mature green, and red ripe fruits, and these modifications correlated with the up-regulation of enzyme-encoding genes involved in primary carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. A non-targeted LC-MS analysis indicated that the composition of secondary metabolites is also affected in transgenic lines. In addition, gene expression data revealed that some genes associated with fruit ripening are also up-regulated in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with wild-type and antisense lines. Taken together, the results suggest that SlAREB1 participates in the regulation of the metabolic programming that takes place during fruit ripening and that may explain part of the role of ABA in fruit development in tomato.

  1. Tomato fruit cell wall : I. Use of purified tomato polygalacturonase and pectinmethylesterase to identify developmental changes in pectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J L; Nevins, D J

    1989-11-01

    Cell wall isolation procedures were evaluated to determine their effect on the total pectin content and the degree of methylesterification of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit cell walls. Water homogenates liberate substantial amounts of buffer soluble uronic acid, 5.2 milligrams uronic acid/100 milligrams wall. Solubilization appears to be a consequence of autohydrolysis mediated by polygalacturonase II, isoenzymes A and B, since the uronic acid release from the wall residue can be suppressed by homogenization in the presence of 50% ethanol followed by heating. The extent of methylesterification in heat-inactivated cell walls, 94 mole%, was significantly greater than with water homogenates, 56 mole%. The results suggest that autohydrolysis, mediated by cell wall-associated enzymes, accounts for the solubilization of tomato fruit pectin in vitro. Endogenous enzymes also account for a decrease in the methylesterification during the cell wall preparation. The heat-inactivated cell wall preparation was superior to the other methods studied since it reduces beta-elimination during heating and inactivates constitutive enzymes that may modify pectin structure. This heat-inactivated cell wall preparation was used in subsequent enzymatic analysis of the pectin structure. Purified tomato fruit polygalacturonase and partially purified pectinmethylesterase were used to assess changes in constitutive substrates during tomato fruit ripening. Polygalacturonase treatment of heat-inactivated cell walls from mature green and breaker stages released 14% of the uronic acid. The extent of the release of polyuronides by polygalacturonase was fruit development stage dependent. At the turning stage, 21% of the pectin fraction was released, a value which increased to a maximum of 28% of the uronides at the red ripe stage. Pretreatment of the walls with purified tomato pectinesterase rendered walls from all ripening stages equally susceptible to polygalacturonase. Quantitatively

  2. Radial basis network analysis of color parameters to estimate lycopene content on tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Torrecilla, José S; Cámara, Montaña; Mata, Ma Cortes Sánchez; Shoemaker, Charles

    2010-11-15

    With the purpose of estimating the lycopene concentration in tomato food samples, in an non-destructive way, several types of linear models of color parameters have been tested using individual values of L*, a* and b* values, (a*/b*), (a*(2)/b*(2)) and chroma parameters from tomato juice and fresh tomato fruits obtained with two different apparatus (Minolta CR-200b triestimulus colorimeter and HunterLab LabScan XE). Lycopene concentrations of fresh tomato and tomato juice (used as an input) were analyzed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. For all linear methods applied, the best one to estimate the lycopene concentration in tomato was the L*, a* and b* values of tomato juice measured with Hunter colorimeters (adjusted correlation coefficient, R(a)(2)>0.86 and mean prediction error, MPEcolor parameters (L*, a* and b*) designated as "Lab case", and secondly individually by the (a*/b*), (a*(2)/b*(2)) and chroma parameters. The lycopene concentration estimations were carried out with the lowest MPE and highest R(a)(2) values possible. In order to test the reliability of the non-linear models, external validation process was also performed. From the testing of the all non-linear models applied, the RBEF Lab case model was the best to estimate lycopene content from color parameters (L*, a* and b*) using Minolta or Hunter equipments (MPE lower than 0.009 and R(a)(2) higher than 0.997). This was a simple non-destructive method for predicting lycopene concentration in tomato fruits and tomato juice, which was reproducible and accurate enough to substitute chemical extraction determinations, and may be a useful tool for tomato industry.

  3. Chemical Characterization of Fruit Wine Made from Oblačinska Sour Cherry

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    Milica Pantelić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed at characterizing the wine obtained from Oblačinska, a native sour cherry cultivar. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper with the most comprehensive information on chemical characterization of Oblačinska sour cherry wine. The chemical composition was characterized by hyphenated chromatographic methods and traditional analytical techniques. A total of 24 compounds were quantified using the available standards and another 22 phenolic compounds were identified based on the accurate mass spectrographic search. Values of total phenolics content, total anthocyanin content, and radical scavenging activity for cherry wine sample were 1.938 mg gallic acid eqv L−1, 0.113 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside L−1, and 34.56%, respectively. In general, cherry wine polyphenolics in terms of nonanthocyanins and anthocyanins were shown to be distinctive when compared to grape wines. Naringenin and apigenin were characteristic only for cherry wine, and seven anthocyanins were distinctive for cherry wine.

  4. DNA Methylation Occurred around Lowly Expressed Genes of Plastid DNA during Tomato Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Kobayashi, H; Akazawa, T

    1988-09-01

    We have analyzed DNA methylation of plastid DNA from fully ripened red fruits, green mature fruits, and green leaves of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Firstmore). Essentially identical restriction profiles were obtained between chromoplast and chloroplast DNAs by EcoRI digestion. BstNI/EcoRII and HpaII/MspI are pairs of isoschizomers that can discriminate between methylated and unmethylated DNAs. These endonucleases produced different restriction patterns of plastid DNAs from tomato fruits compared to tomato leaves. Moreover, we have found from Southern blots that methylation was not detected in DNA fragments containing certain genes that are actively expressed in chromoplasts, whereas DNA fragments bearing genes that are barely transcribed in chromoplasts are methylated.

  5. Preharvest L-arginine treatment induced postharvest disease resistance to Botrysis cinerea in tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Sheng, Jiping; Zhao, Ruirui; Zhang, Jian; Lv, Shengnan; Liu, Lingyi; Shen, Lin

    2011-06-22

    L-arginine is the precursor of nitric oxide (NO). In order to examine the influence of L-arginine on tomato fruit resistance, preharvest green mature tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum cv. No. 4 Zhongshu) were treated with 0.5, 1, and 5 mM L-arginine. The reduced lesion size (in diameter) on fruit caused by Botrytis cinerea, as well as activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), Chitinase (CHI), β-1,3-glucanase (GLU), and polyphenoloxidase (PPO), was compared between L-arginine treated fruits and untreated fruits. We found that induced resistance increased and reached the highest level at 3-6 days after treatment. Endogenous NO concentrations were positively correlated with PAL, PPO, CHI, and GLU activities after treatment with Pearson coefficients of 0.71, 0.94, 0.97, and 0.87, respectively. These results indicate that arginine induces disease resistance via its effects on NO biosynthesis and defensive enzyme activity.

  6. Pericarp polypeptides and SRAP markers associated with fruit quality traits in an interspecific tomato backcross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira da Costa, J H; Rodríguez, G R; Pratta, G R; Picardi, L A; Zorzoli, R

    2014-01-24

    The aim of this study was to detect polypeptides and genomic regions associated with fruit quality traits in a backcross generation using as parent the Argentinean cultivated tomato Caimanta of Solanum lycopersicum and the wild accession LA722 of S. pimpinellifolium. We tested two types of molecular marker: polypeptide profile (at two ripening stages, mature green and red ripe) and SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism). A polypeptide of 45 kDa present in the wild parents at the mature green stage was associated with larger fruit and long shelf life. Some amplification fragments from SRAP markers were associated with more than one quality trait such as fruit color, firmness, titratable acidity, and fruit soluble solids content. This study demonstrated for the first time the usefulness of the polypeptide profiles of pericarp and SRAP markers in finding associations with quality fruit traits in a tomato backcross generation.

  7. High yield cultivation techniques of cherry tomato in greenhouse%樱桃西红柿大棚高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道锋

    2015-01-01

    总结大棚樱桃西红柿高产栽培技术,主要包括品种选择、育苗、田块整理、大棚规格设置、定植、田间管理、病虫害防治、采收等方面内容。%This paper summarized high yield cultivation techniques of cherry tomato in greenhouse,including variety selec-tion,raising seedlings,field preparation,design of greenhouse size,field planting,field management,diseases and pests control,as well as harvest.

  8. The cell size distribution of tomato fruit can be changed by overexpression of CDKA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerednik, Anna; Busscher, Marco; Angenent, Gerco C; de Maagd, Ruud A

    2015-02-01

    Tomato is one of the most cultivated vegetables in the world and an important ingredient of the human diet. Tomato breeders and growers face a continuous challenge of combining high quantity (production volume) with high quality (appearance, taste and perception for the consumers, processing quality for the processing industry). To improve the quality of tomato, it is important to understand the regulation of fruit development and of fruit cellular structure, which is in part determined by the sizes and numbers of cells within a tissue. The role of the cell cycle therein is poorly understood. Plant cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are homologues of yeast cdc2, an important cell cycle regulator conserved throughout all eukaryotes. CDKA1 is constitutively expressed during the cell cycle and has dual functions in S- and M-phase progression. We have produced transgenic tomato plants with increased expression of CDKA1 under the control of the fruit-specific TPRP promoter, which despite a reduced number of seeds and diminished amount of jelly, developed fruits with weight and shape comparable to that of wild-type fruits. However, the phenotypic changes with regard to the pericarp thickness and placenta area were remarkable. Fruits of tomato plants with the highest expression of CDKA1 had larger septa and columella (placenta), compared with wild-type fruits. Our data demonstrate the possibility of manipulating the ratio between cell division and expansion by changing the expression of a key cell cycle regulator and probably its activity with substantial effects on structural traits of the harvested fruit.

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF KEY MOLECULAR COMPONENTS OF THE RESISTANCE OF CHERRY TOMATO AGAINST Phytophthora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA LÓPEZ KLEINE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El tomate cherry Solanum lycopersicum var cerasiforme cv Matt’s es bastante resistente a la gran parte de aislamientos de Phytophthora infestans. Se han identificado dos aislamientos, US940480 y US970001 que causan interacción incompatible y compatible respectivamente. US970001 es uno de los pocos aislamientos causantes de interacción compatible con este cultivo. Con el fin de identificar genes con expresión diferencial en interacciones compatible e incompatible, analizamos DNA copia de 12899 clones independientes en tres tiempos posteriores a la inoculación del patógeno. Se aplicaron diversas herramientas estadísticas para identificar componentes moleculares claves de la respuesta de la planta al patógeno. Cuarenta y tres genes fueron detectados como activados durante la interacción incompatible a las 36 horas posinoculación, 15 genes se detectaron como activados globalmente tomando en conjunto los 3 tiempos analizados y 12 genes tanto globalmente como a las 36 horas. Análisis de Northern blot permitieron confirmar la expresión diferencial detectada con los análisis de microarreglos y estudiar la expresión diferencial de otros genes de resistencia en plantas (PR en interacciones compatible e incompatible en esta interacción.

  10. Complex and shifting interactions of phytochromes regulate fruit development in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Sharma, Sulabha; Santisree, Parankusam; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Appenroth, Klaus; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2014-07-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is a complex metabolic process regulated by a genetical hierarchy. A subset of this process is also modulated by light signalling, as mutants encoding negative regulators of phytochrome signal transduction show higher accumulation of carotenoids. In tomato, phytochromes are encoded by a multi-gene family, namely PHYA, PHYB1, PHYB2, PHYE and PHYF; however, their contribution to fruit development and ripening has not been examined. Using single phytochrome mutants phyA, phyB1 and phyB2 and multiple mutants phyAB1, phyB1B2 and phyAB1B2, we compared the on-vine transitory phases of ripening until fruit abscission. The phyAB1B2 mutant showed accelerated transitions during ripening, with shortest time to fruit abscission. Comparison of transition intervals in mutants indicated a phase-specific influence of different phytochrome species either singly or in combination on the ripening process. Examination of off-vine ripened fruits indicated that ripening-specific carotenoid accumulation was not obligatorily dependent upon light and even dark-incubated fruits accumulated carotenoids. The accumulation of transcripts and carotenoids in off-vine and on-vine ripened mutant fruits indicated a complex and shifting phase-dependent modulation by phytochromes. Our results indicate that, in addition to regulating carotenoid levels in tomato fruits, phytochromes also regulate the time required for phase transitions during ripening.

  11. Fruit illumination stimulates cell division but has no detectable effect on fruit size in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Robert C O; Heuvelink, Ep; de Visser, Pieter H B; Lammers, Michiel; de Maagd, Ruud A; Marcelis, Leo F M; Struik, Paul C

    2015-05-01

    Light affects plant growth through assimilate availability and signals regulating development. The effects of light on growth of tomato fruit were studied using cuvettes with light-emitting diodes providing white, red or blue light to individual tomato trusses for different periods during daytime. Hypotheses tested were as follows: (1) light-grown fruits have stronger assimilate sinks than dark-grown fruits, and (2) responses depend on light treatment provided, and fruit development stage. Seven light treatments [dark, 12-h white, 24-h white, 24-h red and 24-h blue light, dark in the first 24 days after anthesis (DAA) followed by 24-h white light until breaker stage, and its reverse] were applied. Observations were made between anthesis and breaker stage at fruit, cell and gene levels. Fruit size and carbohydrate content did not respond to light treatments while cell division was strongly stimulated at the expense of cell expansion by light. The effects of light on cell number and volume were independent of the combination of light color and intensity. Increased cell division and decreased cell volume when fruits were grown in the presence of light were not clearly corroborated by the expression pattern of promoters and inhibitors of cell division and expansion analyzed in this study, implying a strong effect of posttranscriptional regulation. Results suggest the existence of a complex homeostatic regulatory system for fruit growth in which reduced cell division is compensated by enhanced cell expansion.

  12. Study of the Antioxidant Property Variation of Cornelian Cherry Fruits during Storage Using HPTLC and Spectrophotometric Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Hosu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornus species fruits are well known as a rich source of antioxidant compounds responsible for their diverse health benefits. The present study aims to investigate the variation of the total antioxidant capacity of Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. fruits during storage, using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC and two spectrophotometric assays based on different mechanisms: the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolyne-6-sulphonic acid radical cation (ABTS+∙ assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. The fruit extract was stored at room temperature (22°C for 19 days. No major differences in the total antioxidant capacity were observed during this period, indicating that storage does not have any deleterious effect on the antioxidant properties of the investigated fruits extract. The antioxidant capacity varied between 12.91 and 12.83 µmol Trolox/g fruit as determined by the HPTLC method and from 36.13 to 33.93 µmol Trolox/g fruit as determined by the ABTS assay.

  13. Study of the Antioxidant Property Variation of Cornelian Cherry Fruits during Storage Using HPTLC and Spectrophotometric Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosu, Anamaria

    2016-01-01

    Cornus species fruits are well known as a rich source of antioxidant compounds responsible for their diverse health benefits. The present study aims to investigate the variation of the total antioxidant capacity of Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits during storage, using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and two spectrophotometric assays based on different mechanisms: the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolyne-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS+∙) assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The fruit extract was stored at room temperature (22°C) for 19 days. No major differences in the total antioxidant capacity were observed during this period, indicating that storage does not have any deleterious effect on the antioxidant properties of the investigated fruits extract. The antioxidant capacity varied between 12.91 and 12.83 µmol Trolox/g fruit as determined by the HPTLC method and from 36.13 to 33.93 µmol Trolox/g fruit as determined by the ABTS assay. PMID:27957382

  14. Altered cell wall disassembly during ripening of Cnr tomato fruit: implications for cell adhesion and fruit softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orfila, C.; Huisman, M.M.H.; Willats, William George Tycho;

    2002-01-01

    The Cnr (Colourless non-ripening) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutant has an aberrant fruit-ripening phenotype in which fruit do not soften and have reduced cell adhesion between pericarp cells. Cell walls from Cnr fruit were analysed in order to assess the possible contribution of pectic...... polysaccharides to the non-softening and altered cell adhesion phenotype. Cell wall material (CWM) and solubilised fractions of mature green and red ripe fruit were analysed by chemical, enzymatic and immunochemical techniques. No major differences in CWM sugar composition were detected although differences were...... that was chelator-soluble was 50% less in Cnr cell walls at both the mature green and red ripe stages. Chelator-soluble material from ripe-stage Cnr was more susceptible to endo-polygalacturonase degradation than the corresponding material from wild-type fruit. In addition, cell walls from Cnr fruit contained...

  15. A New Cherry Tomato'Jinling Tianyu'with Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus%抗番茄黄化曲叶病毒病樱桃番茄新品种‘金陵甜玉’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵统敏; 余文贵; 杨玛丽; 赵丽萍

    2011-01-01

    ‘金陵甜玉’樱桃番茄是以TY-07-5为母本,TY-07-4为父本育成的无限生长类型一代杂种,生长势较强,叶色深绿,果实短椭圆形,成熟果红色,果皮厚,耐贮运,单果质量22g左右,抗番茄黄化曲叶病毒病,抗ToMV和枯萎病。%'Jinling Tianyu'is a new cherry tomato hybrid which developed by crossing TY-07-5 as a female parent with TY-07-4 as a male parent.It is indeterminate growth type,which grows vigorously.The leaf is dark green.The fruit is red,and it has oval-round shape.The average weight of single fruit is 22 g.It is resistant to TYLCV,ToMV and wilt.

  16. Characterization and content of flavonoid glycosides in genetically modified tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; DuPont, M Susan; Mellon, Fred A; Davis, Adrienne L; Collins, Geoff J; Verhoeyen, Martine E; Colquhoun, Ian J

    2003-04-23

    There is a growing interest in producing food plants with increased amounts of flavonoids because of their potential health benefits. Tomatoes contain small amounts of flavonoids, most of which are located in the peel of the fruit. It has been shown that flavonoid accumulation in tomato flesh, and hence an overall increase in flavonoid levels in tomato fruit, can be achieved by means of simultaneous overexpression of the maize transcription factors LC and C1. Fruit from progeny of two modified lines (2027 and 2059) was selected for a detailed analysis and individual identification of flavonoids, at different stages of maturity. Nine major flavonoids were detected in the flesh of transgenic ripe tomatoes. LC/NMR, LC/MS, and LC/MS/MS enabled us to identify these as kaempferol-3,7-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside (2), two dihydrokaempferol-O-hexosides (3 and 4), rutin (5), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (6), kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (7), naringenin-7-O-glucoside (8) and naringenin chalcone (9), which were quantified by HPLC/DAD. All but 5, 6, and 9 were detected in tomato for the first time. The total flavonoid glycoside content of ripe transgenic tomatoes of line 2059 was about 10-fold higher than that of the controls, and kaempferol glycosides accounted for 60% of this. Kaempferol glycosides comprised around 5% of the flavonoid glycoside content of ripe control tomatoes (the rest was rutin and naringenin chalcone). The rutin concentration in both transgenic and control fruits was similar.

  17. Functional diversification of AGAMOUS lineage genes in regulating tomato flower and fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Irvin L; McQuinn, Ryan; Giovannoni, James J; Irish, Vivian F

    2010-06-01

    AGAMOUS clade genes encode MADS box transcription factors that have been shown to play critical roles in many aspects of flower and fruit development in angiosperms. Tomato possesses two representatives of this lineage, TOMATO AGAMOUS (TAG1) and TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 (TAGL1), allowing for an analysis of diversification of function after gene duplication. Using RNAi (RNA interference) silencing, transgenic tomato lines that specifically down-regulate either TAGL1 or TAG1 transcript accumulation have been produced. TAGL1 RNAi lines show no defects in stamen or carpel identity, but show defects in fruit ripening. In contrast TAG1 RNAi lines show defects in stamen and carpel development. In addition TAG1 RNAi lines produce red ripe fruit, although they are defective in determinacy and produce ectopic internal fruit structures. e2814, an EMS- (ethyl methane sulphonate) induced mutation that is temperature sensitive and produces fruit phenotypes similar to that of TAG1 RNAi lines, was also characterized. Neither TAG1 nor TAGL1 expression is disrupted in the e2814 mutant, suggesting that the gene corresponding to the e2814 mutant represents a distinct locus that is likely to be functionally downstream of TAG1 and TAGL1. Based on these analyses, possible modes by which these gene duplicates have diversified in terms of their functions and regulatory roles are discussed.

  18. Effect of Edible Coatings, Storage Time and Maturity Stage on Overall Quality of Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E.J, Davila-Avina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world; however, its highly perishable nature limits its postharvest life. Major losses in tomato quality and quantity occur between harvest and consumption. Therefore, the application of new technologies to extend the postharvest life of this commodity is needed. The use of edible coatings appears to be a good alternative. Approach: We evaluated the effect of carnauba and mineral oil coatings on the postharvest quality of tomato fruits (cv. Grandela. Stafresh 2505 (carnauba and Stafresh 151 (mineral oil coatings were applied on fresh tomatoes at two maturity stages (breaker and pink. The quality of tomatoes was evaluated periodically at 0, 5, 10, 15, 21 and 28 days of storage at 10°C, plus 2 days at 20°C. For respiration rate analysis, tomatoes were kept at 20°C for 16 days. Results: At the beginning of the study, CO2 production was reduced by 38 and 46% when applying the mineral oil coating on breaker and pink tomatoes, respectively. In addition, early during the study, the mineral oil coating showed suppression of ethylene biosynthesis at both maturity stages. Both coatings reduced 30% PG activity of tomato tissue. At the end of storage, mineral oil coatings delayed color changes and reduced weight losses for up 70 and 46% at the breaker and pink stages, respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: Respiration rate, color, weight loss and enzyme activity were positively affected by mineral oil coating at both maturity stages. No effects on firmness, titratable acidity and pH were found by the coating application. We concluded that mineral oil coating could be a good alternative to preserve the quality and extend the postharvest life of tomato fruit.

  19. Polyamine metabolism in ripening tomato fruit. II. Polyamine metabolism and synthesis in relation to enhanced putrescine content and storage life of alc tomato fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, R.; Davies, P.J. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The fruit of the Alcobaca landrace of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) have prolonged keeping qualities (determined by the allele alc) and contain three times as much putrescine as the standard Rutgers variety (Alc) at the ripe stage. Polyamine metabolism and biosynthesis were compared in fruit from Rutgers and Rutgers-alc-a near isogenic line possessing the allele alc, at four different stages of ripening. The levels of soluble polyamine conjugates as well as wall bound polyamines in the pericarp tissue and jelly were very low or nondetectable in both genotypes. The increase in putrescine content in alc pericarp is not related to normal ripening as it occurred with time and whether or not the fruit ripened. Pericarp discs of both normal and alc fruit showed a decrease in the metabolism of (1,4-{sup 14}C)putrescine and (terminal labeled-{sup 3}H)spermidine with ripening, but there were no significant differences between the two genotypes. The activity of ornithine decarboxylase was similar in the fruit pericarp of the two lines. Arginine decarboxylase activity decreased during ripening in Rutgers but decreased and rose again in Rutgers-alc fruit, and as a result it was significantly higher in alc fruit than in the normal fruit at the ripe stage. The elevated putrescine levels in alc fruit appear, therefore, to be due to an increase in the activity of arginine decarboxylase.

  20. Studies on the role of polygalacturonase isoenzymes in tomato fruit softening and ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, Jane Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Changes in the activity of polygalacturonase during the development and/or ripening of tomato fruit of a wide range of genotypes have been followed. Normal commercial cultivars have three forms of the enzyme; the isoenzyme having the highest molecular weight, PG1, appeared as fruit began to change colour, and its rate of accumulation was reflected in the rate of fruit softening.This early rate of softening was closely related to the eventual degree of softness shown by the fully ripe fruit.PG...

  1. Cultivo hidropônico de tomate cereja utilizando-se efluente tratado de uma indústria de sorvete Hydroponic production of cherry tomatoes using treated effluent of ice cream industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M. M. Malheiros

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de doses de efluente oriundo de indústria de sorvete, na cultura do tomate cereja em relação ao consumo hídrico e no desenvolvimento vegetativo em sistema hidropônico. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos pelo uso de doses de efluente (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% com complementação de nutrientes e com o uso de 100% de efluente sem complementação nutriente. O aumento das doses de efluente na solução nutritiva proporcionou redução linear no consumo hídrico. O efluente com 25% proporcionou a melhor produtividade. A adição de até 50% de efluente de sorvete à solução nutritiva permitiu o cultivo de tomate cereja sem redução na produtividade, com melhor eficiência do uso da água na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea, produção de frutos e máxima substituição de minerais solúveis na solução nutritiva.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ice cream raw effluent doses on consumption and vegetative development of cherry tomato under hydroponic system. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of 5 different levels of effluent (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% complemented with the amount of nutrient recommended for growing tomatoes and 100% of effluent without nutrient complementation. Increasing doses of effluent provided linear reduction in water consumption.Addition of effluent in proportion of 25% provided best production results. Addition up to 50% ice cream effluent to nutrient solution allowed growth of cherry tomato without yield reduction providing better efficiency of water use in terms of dry weight of shoots and fruit production as well as maximum substitution of soluble mineral fertilizers in nutrient solution.

  2. Regulatory specialization of xyloglucan (XG) and glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) in pericarp cell walls during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Ayami; Hyodo, Hiromi; Wada, Kanako; Ishii, Tadashi; Satoh, Shinobu; Iwai, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Disassembly of cell wall polysaccharides by various cell wall hydrolases during fruit softening causes structural changes in hemicellulose and pectin that affect the physical properties and softening of tomato fruit. In a previous study, we showed that the changes in pectin during tomato fruit ripening were unique in each fruit tissue. In this study, to clarify the changes in hemicellulose in tissues during tomato fruit ripening, we focused on glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) and xyloglucan (XG). GAX was detected only in the skin and inner epidermis of the pericarp using LM11 antibodies, whereas a large increase in XG was detected in all fruit tissues using LM15 antibodies. The activity of hemicellulose degradation enzymes, such as β-xylosidase and α-arabinofuranosidase, decreased gradually during fruit ripening, although the tomato fruits continued to soften. In contrast, GAX and XG biosynthesis-related genes were expressed in all tomato fruit tissues even during ripening, indicating that XG was synthesized throughout the fruit and that GAX may be synthesized only in the vascular bundles and the inner epidermis. Our results suggest that changes in the cell wall architecture and tissue-specific distribution of XG and GAX might be required for the regulation of fruit softening and the maintenance of fruit shape.

  3. Regulatory specialization of xyloglucan (XG and glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX in pericarp cell walls during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayami Takizawa

    Full Text Available Disassembly of cell wall polysaccharides by various cell wall hydrolases during fruit softening causes structural changes in hemicellulose and pectin that affect the physical properties and softening of tomato fruit. In a previous study, we showed that the changes in pectin during tomato fruit ripening were unique in each fruit tissue. In this study, to clarify the changes in hemicellulose in tissues during tomato fruit ripening, we focused on glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX and xyloglucan (XG. GAX was detected only in the skin and inner epidermis of the pericarp using LM11 antibodies, whereas a large increase in XG was detected in all fruit tissues using LM15 antibodies. The activity of hemicellulose degradation enzymes, such as β-xylosidase and α-arabinofuranosidase, decreased gradually during fruit ripening, although the tomato fruits continued to soften. In contrast, GAX and XG biosynthesis-related genes were expressed in all tomato fruit tissues even during ripening, indicating that XG was synthesized throughout the fruit and that GAX may be synthesized only in the vascular bundles and the inner epidermis. Our results suggest that changes in the cell wall architecture and tissue-specific distribution of XG and GAX might be required for the regulation of fruit softening and the maintenance of fruit shape.

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF KEY MOLECULAR COMPONENTS OF THE RESISTANCE OF CHERRY TOMATO AGAINSTPhytophthora infestans Identificación de los principales componentes moleculares de la resistencia de tomate cherry contra Phytophthora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA LÓPEZ KLEINE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato Solanum lycopersicum var cerasiforme cv Matt's wild cherry is a very resistant cultivar to most Phytophthora infestans isolates. Two isolates were identified, US940480 and US970001 that cause an incompatible and a compatible interaction respectively. US970001 is one of the few isolates producing a compatible interaction with this cultivar. To identify genes with a differential gene expression between compatible and incompatible interactions, gene expression patterns were analyzed with tomato cDNA microarrays including 12,899 independent tomato cDNA clones at different time points after inoculation. A diverse set of statistical tools were used to identify key components of the plant response to the pathogen. Forty-three genes were up-regulated during the incompatible reaction at time point 36 hours, 15 globally at all time points and twelve were found both in globally and at 36 hours. Northern blots analysis was performed to confirm differential expression showed by microarray analysis and to study the differential expression of more plant resistance genes (PR genes between compatible and incompatible interactions for this interaction.El tomate cherry Solanum lycopersicum var cerasiforme cv Matt's es bastante resistente a la gran parte de aislamientos de Phytophthora infestans. Se han identificado dos aislamientos, US940480 y US970001 que causan interacción incompatible y compatible respectivamente. US970001 es uno de los pocos aislamientos causantes de interacción compatible con este cultivo. Con el fin de identificar genes con expresión diferencial en interacciones compatible e incompatible, analizamos DNA copia de 12899 clones independientes en tres tiempos posteriores a la inoculación del patógeno. Se aplicaron diversas herramientas estadísticas para identificar componentes moleculares claves de la respuesta de la planta al patógeno. Cuarenta y tres genes fueron detectados como activados durante la interacci

  5. Open field trial of genetically modified parthenocarpic tomato: seedlessness and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfini Tiziana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpic tomato lines transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene have been cultivated under open field conditions to address some aspects of the equivalence of genetically modified (GM fruit in comparison to controls (non-GM. Results Under open field cultivation conditions, two tomato lines (UC 82 transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene produced parthenocarpic fruits. DefH9-RI-iaaM fruits were either seedless or contained very few seeds. GM fruit quality, with the exception of a higher β-carotene level, did not show any difference, neither technological (colour, firmness, dry matter, °Brix, pH nor chemical (titratable acidity, organic acids, lycopene, tomatine, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity – TEAC, when compared to that of fruits from control line. Highly significant differences in quality traits exist between the tomato F1 commercial hybrid Allflesh and the three UC 82 genotypes tested, regardless of whether or not they are GM. Total yield per plant did not differ between GM and parental line UC 82. Fruit number was increased in GM lines, and GM fruit weight was decreased. Conclusion The use in the diet of fruits from a new line or variety introduces much greater changes than the consumption of GM fruits in comparison to its genetic background. Parthenocarpic fruits, produced under open field conditions, contained 10-fold less seeds than control fruits. Thus parthenocarpy caused by DefH9-RI-iaaM gene represents also a tool for mitigating GM seeds dispersal in the environment.

  6. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening

    KAUST Repository

    Uluisik, Selman

    2016-07-25

    Controlling the rate of softening to extend shelf life was a key target for researchers engineering genetically modified (GM) tomatoes in the 1990s, but only modest improvements were achieved. Hybrids grown nowadays contain \\'non-ripening mutations\\' that slow ripening and improve shelf life, but adversely affect flavor and color. We report substantial, targeted control of tomato softening, without affecting other aspects of ripening, by silencing a gene encoding a pectate lyase. © 2016 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Processing Technology of Vacuum Dipping Sugar on Cherry Tomato%真空浸糖樱桃番茄果脯加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁芳斌; 黄国成; 陈发兴

    2011-01-01

    采用正交试验方法优化了樱桃番茄低糖果脯的真空浸糖加工工艺,结果表明:采用1%柠檬酸溶液护色,2%δ-葡萄糖酸内酯浸泡硬化,6g/kg海藻酸钠作保形处理,在真空为0.08 MPa、糖液温度为55℃,浸糖时间80 min后,温度65C下干制12h,可获得品质、外观和口感均较好的低糖樱桃番茄果脯.%The processes of hardening with color protection, vacuum dipping sugar by the orthogonal experiment were used to preserve the quality of cherry tomato. Results showed that the best quality of products with look and taste better cherry tomato preserves were abstained through 1% citric acid solution with color protection, 2% δ-gluconic acid lactone immersion hardening, 6 g/kg alginate syrup shaped handle secured, in a vacuum to 0.08 Mpa, sugar solution temperature was 55℃, sugar soaking time of 80 min, dried under 65℃ 12 h.

  8. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.

    1988-01-01

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application. 194 references.

  9. Melatonin promotes ripening and improves quality of tomato fruit during postharvest life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Na; Wang, Jinfang; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Dianbo; Shi, Jin; Li, Ren; Weeda, Sarah; Zhao, Bing; Ren, Shuxin; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effect of melatonin on the postharvest ripening and quality improvement of tomato fruit was carried out. The tomatoes were immersed in exogenous melatonin for 2h, and then the related physiological indicators and the expression of genes during post-harvest life were evaluated. Compared with control check (CK), the 50 µM melatonin treatment significantly increased lycopene levels by 5.8-fold. Meanwhile, the key genes involved in fruit colour development, including phytoene synthase1 (PSY1) and carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO), showed a 2-fold increase in expression levels. The rate of water loss from tomato fruit also increased 8.3%, and the expression of aquaporin genes, such as SlPIP12Q, SlPIPQ, SlPIP21Q, and SlPIP22, was up-regulated 2- to 3-fold under 50 µM melatonin treatment. In addition, 50 µM melatonin treatment enhanced fruit softening, increased water-soluble pectin by 22.5%, and decreased protopectin by 19.5%. The expression of the cell wall modifying proteins polygalacturonase (PG), pectin esterase1 (PE1), β-galactosidase (TBG4), and expansin1 (Exp1) was up-regulated under 50 µM melatonin treatment. Melatonin increased ethylene production by 27.1%, accelerated the climacteric phase, and influenced the ethylene signalling pathway. Alteration of ethylene production correlated with altered 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS4) expression. The expression of ethylene signal transduction-related genes such as NR, SlETR4, SlEIL1, SlEIL3, and SlERF2, was enhanced by 50 µM melatonin. The effect of melatonin on ethylene biosynthesis, ethylene perception, and ethylene signalling may contribute to fruit ripening and quality improvement in tomato. This research may promote the application of melatonin on postharvest ripening and quality improvement of tomato fruit as well as other horticultural productions in the future.

  10. Cloning of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) arginine decarboxylase gene and its expression during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, R; Dulson, J; Rothstein, S J

    1993-11-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) is the first enzyme in one of the two pathways of putrescine biosynthesis in plants. The genes encoding ADC have previously been cloned from oat and Escherichia coli. Degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to two conserved regions of ADC were used as primers in polymerase chain reaction amplification of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) genomic DNA, and a 1.05-kb fragment was obtained. This genomic DNA fragment encodes an open reading frame of 350 amino acids showing about 50% identity with the oat ADC protein. Using this fragment as a probe, we isolated several partial ADC cDNA clones from a tomato pericarp cDNA library. The 5' end of the coding region was subsequently obtained from a genomic clone containing the entire ADC gene. The tomato ADC gene contains an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 502 amino acids and a predicted molecular mass of about 55 kD. The predicted amino acid sequence exhibits 47 and 38% identify with oat and E. coli ADCs, respectively. Gel blot hybridization experiments show that, in tomato, ADC is encoded by a single gene and is expressed as a transcript of approximately 2.2 kb in the fruit pericarp and leaf tissues. During fruit ripening the amount of ADC transcript appeared to peak at the breaker stage. No significant differences were seen when steady-state ADC mRNA levels were compared between normal versus long-keeping Alcobaca (alc) fruit, although alc fruit contain elevated putrescine levels and ADC activity at the ripe stage. The lack of correlation between ADC activity and steady-state mRNA levels in alc fruit suggests a translational and/or posttranslational regulation of ADC gene expression during tomato fruit ripening.

  11. Effect of silver ions on ethylene biosynthesis by tomato fruit tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta-Aly, M A; Saltveit, M E; Hobson, G E

    1987-01-01

    Mature-green tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were treated asymmetrically with 2 millimolar silver thiosulfate (STS) through a cut portion of the peduncle while still attached to the plant. One-half of the fruit received silver and remained green while the other half ripened normally and was silver-free (less than 0.01 parts per billion). Harvested mature-green fruit were also treated with STS through the cut pedicel. Green tissue from silver-treated fruit had levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, the immediate ethylene precursor) slightly less or similar to that of turning or red-ripe tissue from the same fruit, and similar to that of mature-green tissue from control fruit. Ethylene production was higher in green tissue from silver-treated fruit than from either red tissue from the same fruit, or mature-green tissue from control fruit. By inhibiting ACC synthesis with aminoethoxyvinyl glycine, and by applying ACC +/- silver to excised disks of pericarp tissue from control or silver-treated tomatoes, we showed that short-term silver treatment did not affect the biological conversion of ACC to ethylene, while long-term treatment stimulated both the conversion of ACC to ethylene and the synthesis of ACC.

  12. Steroidal glycoalkaloid profiling and structures of glycoalkaloids in wild tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yoko; Watanabe, Bunta; Sasaki, Ryosuke; Takenaka, Makiko; Ono, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Nozomu; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Aoki, Koh

    2013-11-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) constitute one of the main groups of secondary metabolites in tomato fruit. However, the detailed composition of SGAs other than α-tomatine, dehydrotomatine and esculeoside A, remains unclear. Comparative SGA profiling was performed in eight tomato accessions, including wild tomato species by HPLC-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HPLC-FTICR/MS). On the basis of molecular formulae obtained from accurate m/z and fragmentation patterns by multistage MS/ MS (MS(n)), 123 glycoalkaloids in total were screened. Detailed MS(n) analysis showed that the observed structural diversity was derived from various chemical modifications, such as glycosylation, acetylation, hydroxylation and isomerization. Total SGA content in each tomato accession was in the range of 121-1986 nmol/gfr.wt. Furthermore, the compositional variety of SGA structures was distinctive in some tomato accessions. While most tomato accessions were basically categorized as α-tomatine-rich or esculeoside A-rich group, other specific SGAs also accumulated at high levels in wild tomato. Here, five such SGAs were isolated and their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopic analysis, indicating three of them were presumably synthesized during α-tomatine metabolism.

  13. Off-the-Vine Ripening of Tomato Fruit Causes Alteration in the Primary Metabolite Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana B. Boggio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of postharvest fruit ripening in the composition of metabolites, transcripts and enzymes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is poorly understood. The goal of this work was to study the changes in the metabolite composition of the tomato fruit ripened off-the-vine using the cultivar Micro-Tom as model system. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR was used for analysis of the metabolic profile of tomato fruits ripened on- and off-the-vine. Significant differences under both ripening conditions were observed principally in the contents of fructose, glucose, aspartate and glutamate. Transcript levels and enzyme activities of -amino butyrate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.19 and glutamate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15 showed differences in fruits ripened under these two conditions. These data indicate that the contents of metabolites involved in primary metabolism, and conferring the palatable properties of fruits, are altered when fruits are ripened off-the-vine.

  14. Effect of silencing the two major tomato fruit pectin methylesterase isoforms on cell wall pectin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, B; Ström, A; Tasker, A; West, G; Tucker, G A

    2013-11-01

    Post-harvest storage is largely limited by fruit softening, a result of cell wall degradation. Pectin methylesterase (PE) (EC 3.1.1.11) is a major hydrolase responsible for pectin de-esterification in the cell wall, a response to fruit ripening. Two major PE isoforms, PE1 and PE2, have been isolated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) pericarp tissue and both have previously been down-regulated using antisense suppression. In this paper, PE1 and PE2 double antisense tomato plants were successfully generated through crossing the two single antisense lines. In the double antisense fruit, approximately 10% of normal PE activity remained and ripening associated pectin de-esterification was almost completely blocked. However, double antisense fruit softened normally during ripening. In tomato fruit, the PE1 isoform was found to contribute little to total PE activity and have little effect on the degree of esterification of pectin. In contrast, the other dominant fruit isoform, PE2, has a major impact on de-esterification of total pectin. PE2 appears to act on non-CDTA-soluble pectin during ripening and on CDTA-soluble pectin before the start of ripening in a potentially block-wise fashion.

  15. 超高压处理对圣女果质构及色泽的影响%Ultra-high Pressure Treatment on Texture and Color of Cherry Tomatoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田莹; 侯建设; 薛风照; 李丹; 费斐

    2009-01-01

    利用超高压处理圣女果,探讨了处理压力对圣女果质构及色泽的影响,并对储藏期间色泽的变化进行记录.结果表明:处理压力上升到300 MPa时,圣女果硬度、脆度、黏着性等与对照相比变化不大.施加超过400MPa的压力,圣女果的质构变化明显.加压对圣女果色泽影响不大,圣女果经400 MPa以上压力处理后室温下储存,色泽稳定,可接受性好,这对于圣女果的加工保藏具有参考意义.%Cherry tomatoes were treated by ultra-high pressure. The effects on texture and color of cherry tomatoes were observed. The results showed that with pressure up to 300 MPa,the hardness,brittleness and adhesiveness of cherry tomatoes changed little compared to controls, apparent changes on texture can be detected when pressure went up to 400 MPa,500 MPa,600 MPa. The colors of cherry tomatoes could be kept quite well during 3 months with pressure above 400 MPa.

  16. Network inference analysis identifies an APRR2-like gene linked to pigment accumulation in tomato and pepper fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu; Bradley, Glyn; Pyke, Kevin; Ball, Graham; Lu, Chungui; Fray, Rupert; Marshall, Alexandra; Jayasuta, Subhalai; Baxter, Charles; van Wijk, Rik; Boyden, Laurie; Cade, Rebecca; Chapman, Natalie H; Fraser, Paul D; Hodgman, Charlie; Seymour, Graham B

    2013-03-01

    Carotenoids represent some of the most important secondary metabolites in the human diet, and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a rich source of these health-promoting compounds. In this work, a novel and fruit-related regulator of pigment accumulation in tomato has been identified by artificial neural network inference analysis and its function validated in transgenic plants. A tomato fruit gene regulatory network was generated using artificial neural network inference analysis and transcription factor gene expression profiles derived from fruits sampled at various points during development and ripening. One of the transcription factor gene expression profiles with a sequence related to an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ARABIDOPSIS PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR2-LIKE gene (APRR2-Like) was up-regulated at the breaker stage in wild-type tomato fruits and, when overexpressed in transgenic lines, increased plastid number, area, and pigment content, enhancing the levels of chlorophyll in immature unripe fruits and carotenoids in red ripe fruits. Analysis of the transcriptome of transgenic lines overexpressing the tomato APPR2-Like gene revealed up-regulation of several ripening-related genes in the overexpression lines, providing a link between the expression of this tomato gene and the ripening process. A putative ortholog of the tomato APPR2-Like gene in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) was associated with pigment accumulation in fruit tissues. We conclude that the function of this gene is conserved across taxa and that it encodes a protein that has an important role in ripening.

  17. Gr and hp-1 tomato mutants unveil unprecedented interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The roots of plants interact with soil mycorrhizal fungi to facilitate soil nutrient acquisition by the plant and carbon transfer to the fungus. Here we use tomato fruit ripening mutations to demonstrate that this root interaction communicates with and supports genetic mechanisms associated with th...

  18. Alternate partial root-zone drying irrigation improves fruit quality in tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Y.; Holm, Peter Engelund; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Alternate partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation and deficit irrigation (DI) are water-saving irrigation strategies. Here, comparative effects of PRD and DI on fruit quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. The results showed that the irrigation treatments had no effect...

  19. Isolation, Characterization, and Surfactant Properties of the Major Triterpenoid Glycosides from Unripe Tomato Fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamanaka, T.; Vincken, J.P.; Waard, de P.; Sanders, M.G.; Takada, N.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Various triterpenoid glycosides were extracted from whole unripe tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Cedrico), using aqueous 70% (v/v) ethanol to study their surfactant properties. Cation-exchange chromatography using a Source 15S column and subsequent semipreparative HPLC using an XTerra RP1

  20. Constitutively expressed DHAR and MDHAR influence fruit, but not foliar ascorbate levels in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroldsen, Victor M; Chi-Ham, Cecilia L; Kulkarni, Shashank; Lorence, Argelia; Bennett, Alan B

    2011-10-01

    Vitamin C (L-ascorbate, AsA) is an essential nutrient required in key metabolic functions in humans and must be obtained from the diet, mainly from fruits and vegetables. Given its importance in human health and plant physiology we sought to examine the role of the ascorbate recycling enzymes monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), an economically important fruit crop. Cytosolic-targeted tomato genes Mdhar and Dhar were cloned and over-expressed under a constitutive promoter in tomato var. Micro-Tom. Lines with increased protein levels and enzymatic activity were identified and examined. Mature green and red ripe fruit from DHAR over-expressing lines had a 1.6 fold increase in AsA content in plants grown under relatively low light conditions (150 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Conversely, MDHAR over-expressers had significantly reduced AsA levels in mature green fruits by 0.7 fold. Neither over-expressing line had altered levels of AsA in foliar tissues. These results underscore a complex regulation of the AsA pool size in tomato.

  1. Mechanisms involved in calcium deficiency development in tomato fruit in response to gibberellins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although gibberellins (GAs) have been shown to induce the calcium deficiency disorder, blossom-end rot (BER), development in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum), the mechanisms involved remain largely unexplored. Our objectives were to better understand how GAs and a GA biosynthesis inhibitor affect...

  2. Effect of nano-composite and Thyme oil (Tymus Vulgaris L) coating on fruit quality of sweet cherry (Takdaneh Cv) during storage period

    OpenAIRE

    Nabifarkhani, Naser; Sharifani, Mehdi; Daraei Garmakhany, Amir; Ganji Moghadam, Ebrahim; Shakeri, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Sweet cherry is one of the most appreciated fruit by consumers since it is an early season fruit and has an excellent quality. In this study effect of active nano composite formed from chitosan (as a matrix material), nano cellulose fiber (1% concentration) and Thyme oils (Tymus Vulgaris L) at 1% concentration on fruits quality was investigated. Treated fruits were stored at 1°C for 5 weeks and changes of different qualities attributes including weight loss, total acidity, TSS, anthocyanin, t...

  3. Comparative transcriptome analysis of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the red and yellow fruits of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Wei

    Full Text Available Fruit color is one of the most important economic traits of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.. The red coloration of sweet cherry fruit is mainly attributed to anthocyanins. However, limited information is available regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis and its regulation in sweet cherry.In this study, a reference transcriptome of P. avium L. was sequenced and annotated to identify the transcriptional determinants of fruit color. Normalized cDNA libraries from red and yellow fruits were sequenced using the next-generation Illumina/Solexa sequencing platform and de novo assembly. Over 66 million high-quality reads were assembled into 43,128 unigenes using a combined assembly strategy. Then a total of 22,452 unigenes were compared to public databases using homology searches, and 20,095 of these unigenes were annotated in the Nr protein database. Furthermore, transcriptome differences between the four stages of fruit ripening were analyzed using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE profiling. Biological pathway analysis revealed that 72 unigenes were involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. The expression patterns of unigenes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL, chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, flavanone 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS and UDP glucose: flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT during fruit ripening differed between red and yellow fruit. In addition, we identified some transcription factor families (such as MYB, bHLH and WD40 that may control anthocyanin biosynthesis. We confirmed the altered expression levels of eighteen unigenes that encode anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes and transcription factors using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR.The obtained sweet cherry transcriptome and DGE profiling data provide comprehensive gene expression information that lends insights

  4. Distribution of xylem hydraulic resistance in fruiting truss of tomato influenced by water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ieperen, W; Volkov, V S; Van Meeteren, U

    2003-01-01

    In this study xylem hydraulic resistances of peduncles (truss stalk), pedicels (fruit stalk) and the future abscission zone (AZ) halfway along the pedicel of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants were directly measured at different stages of fruit development, in plants grown under two levels of water availability in the root environment. The xylem hydraulic connection between shoot and fruits has previously been investigated, but contradictory conclusions were drawn about the presence of a flow resistance barrier in the pedicel. These conclusions were all based on indirect functional measurements and anatomical observations of water-conducting tissue in the pedicel. In the present study, by far the largest resistances were measured in the AZ where most individual vessels ended. Plants grown at low water availability in the root environment had xylem with higher hydraulic resistances in the peduncle and pedicel segments on both sides of the AZ, while the largest increase in hydraulic resistance was measured in the AZ. During fruit development hydraulic resistances in peduncle and pedicel segments decreased on both sides of the AZ, but tended to increase in the AZ. The overall xylem hydraulic resistance between the shoot and fruit tended to increase with fruit development because of the dominating role of the hydraulic resistance in the AZ. It is discussed whether the xylem hydraulic resistance in the AZ of tomato pedicels in response to water stress and during fruit development contributes to the hydraulic isolation of fruits from diurnal cycles of water stress in the shoot.

  5. Maturity and ripening-stage specific modulation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Alka; Gupta, Aditya K; Datsenka, Tatsiana; Mattoo, Autar K; Handa, Avtar K

    2010-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit is a model to study molecular basis of fleshy fruit development and ripening. We profiled gene expression during fruit development (immature green and mature green fruit) and ripening (breaker stage onwards) program to obtain a global perspective of genes whose expression is modulated at each stage of fruit development and ripening. A custom made cDNA macroarray containing cDNAs representing various metabolic pathways, defense, signaling, transcription, transport, cell structure and cell wall related functions was developed and used to quantify changes in the abundance of different transcripts. About 34 % of 1066 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) printed on the macroarray were differentially expressed during tomato fruit ripening. Out of these, 25 % genes classify under metabolism and protein biosynthesis/degradation related processes, while a significant proportion represented stress-responsive genes and about 44 % represented genes with unknown functions. RNA gel blot analysis validated changes in a few representative genes. Although the mature green fruit was found transcriptionally quiescent, the K-means cluster analysis highlighted coordinated up or down regulation of genes during progressive ripening; emphasizing that ripening is a transcriptionally active process. Many stress-related genes were found up-regulated, suggesting their role in the fruit ripening program.

  6. Fruit size QTLs affect in a major proportion the yield in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Hernández-Bautista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield is a complex trait that is affected by several genetic and environmental factors. Yield is defined as the amount of the part of interest that is harvested from a crop plant in a given area. We investigated the genetic basis of yield in an F2 population derived from a cross between Solatium lycopersicum L. and its most closely related wild species S. pimpinellifolium L. We found that average fruit weight, fruit diameter, and fruit length had a strong effect on yield. In addition, small effects on yield due to soluble solids content and locule number were also observed. A total of 25 different significant quantitative trait locus (QTLs were detected for six traits (fruit length and diameter, fruit weight, yield, locule number, and Brix degrees. The percentage of phenotypic variation associated with single QTLs ranged from 4.19% to 12.67%. A strong co-location of QTLs among yield and fruit size traits was observed, suggesting that these QTLs play a role in the same expression process controlling yield. We also realized that the effects of soluble solids content on yield could be due to direct effects of fruit size QTLs linked to genes controlling soluble solids content. This result then may suggest that yield in tomato is mainly formed by fruit size QTLs, whereas the remaining factors may play a complementary role in the expression of tomato yield.

  7. Effect of carbon dioxide enrichment on health-promoting compounds and organoleptic properties of tomato fruits grown in greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Liu, Lihong; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yongsong; Wang, Qiaomei

    2014-06-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment on the main health-promoting compounds and organoleptic characteristics of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits grown in greenhouse. The contents of health-promoting compounds, including lycopene, β-carotene, and ascorbic acid, as well as the flavour, indicated by sugars, titrable acidity, and sugar/acid ratio, were markedly increased in CO2 enrichment fruits. Furthermore, CO2 enrichment significantly enhanced other organoleptic characteristics, including colour, firmness, aroma, and sensory attributes in tomato fruits. The results indicated that CO2 enrichment has potential in promoting the nutritional value and organoleptic characteristics of tomatoes.

  8. Impact of Prolonged Absence of Low Temperature on Adult Eclosion Patterns of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2017-03-25

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in tropical export markets because cold temperatures, below 5 °C, in those regions appear insufficient to complete diapause. However, it is unclear how prolonged absence of cold exposure affects diapause termination in R. indifferens. Here, we examined this question by exposing R. indifferens pupae for 40 wk to simulated temperate and tropical conditions of 23 or 26 °C, 40 or 80% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 or 12:12 (L:D) h. Eclosion patterns among fly groups in the four conditions did not differ. For all groups, fly eclosion from pupae not exposed to cold exhibited a bimodal distribution. The first major peak, comprising 3.2% of the total fly emergence, occurred at 1-10 wk. The second major peak, comprising the remaining 96.8%, occurred at a mode of ∼30 wk. Based on responses to no cold and cold (3 ± 1.5 °C) exposures, there were three distinct pupal diapause groups: the first eclosion group was likely nondiapausing pupae; the second eclosion group was likely diapausing pupae; a third group that remained viable but did not produce adults after 40 wk may represent prolonged dormancy pupae. We suggest that eclosion of adults after prolonged absence of cold exposure needs to be incorporated into models for potential fly establishment in warm climates.

  9. The genetic basis of fruit morphology in horticultural crops: lessons from tomato and melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, Antonio J; Diaz, Aurora; Caño-Delgado, Ana; van der Knaap, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Fruits represent an important part of the human diet and show extensive variation in size and shape between and within cultivated species. The genetic basis of such variation has been studied most extensively in tomato, where currently six quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involving these traits have been fine-mapped and the genes underlying the QTLs identified. The genes responsible for the cloned QTLs belong to families with a few to many members. FASCIATED is encoded by a member of the YABBY family, CNR/FW2.2 by a member of the Cell Number Regulator family, SlKLUH/FW3.2 by a cytochrome P450 of the 78A class (CYP78A), LOCULE NUMBER by a member of the WOX family including WUSCHEL, OVATE by a member of the Ovate Family Proteins (OFP), and SUN by a member of the IQ domain family. A high portion of the history and current diversity in fruit morphology among tomato cultivars can be explained by modifications at four of these cloned QTLs. In melon, a number of QTLs involved in fruit morphology have been mapped, but the molecular basis for these QTLs is unknown. In the present review, we examine the current knowledge on the molecular basis of fruit morphology in tomato and transfer that information in order to define candidate genes of melon fruit shape and size QTLs. We hypothesize that different members of the gene families identified in tomato may have a role in the regulation of fruit morphology in other species. We anchored the published melon QTL map on the genome sequence and identified the melon family members of the six cloned tomato QTLs in the genome. We investigated the co-localization of melon fruit morphology QTLs and the candidate genes. We found that QTLs for fruit weight co-localized frequently with members of the CNR/FW2.2 and KLUH/FW3.2 families, as well as co-localizations between OFP family members and fruit-shape QTLs, making this family the most suitable to explain fruit shape variation among melon accessions.

  10. Comparison of ripening processes in intact tomato fruit and excised pericarp discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A D; Huysamer, M; Stotz, H U; Greve, L C; Labavitch, J M

    1990-12-01

    Physiological processes characteristic of ripening in tissues of intact tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were examined in excised pericarp discs. Pericarp discs were prepared from mature-green tomato fruit and stored in 24-well culture plates, in which individual discs could be monitored for color change, ethylene biosynthesis, and respiration, and selected for cell wall analysis. Within the context of these preparation and handling procedures, most whole fruit ripening processes were maintained in pericarp discs. Pericarp discs and matched intact fruit passed through the same skin color stages at similar rates, as expressed in the L(*)a(*)b(*) color space, changing from green (a(*) red (a(*) > 15) in about 6 days. Individual tissues of the pericarp discs changed color in the same sequence seen in intact fruit (exocarp, endocarp, then vascular parenchyma). Discs from different areas changed in the same spatial sequence seen in intact fruit (bottom, middle, top). Pericarp discs exhibited climacteric increases in ethylene biosynthesis and CO(2) production comparable with those seen in intact fruit, but these were more tightly linked to rate of color change, reaching a peak around a(*) = 5. Tomato pericarp discs decreased in firmness as color changed. Cell wall carbohydrate composition changed with color as in intact fruit: the quantity of water-soluble pectin eluted from the starch-free alcohol insoluble substances steadily increased and more tightly bound, water-insoluble, pectin decreased in inverse relationship. The cell wall content of the neutral sugars arabinose, rhamnose, and galactose steadily decreased as color changed. The extractable activity of specific cell wall hydrolases changed as in intact fruit: polygalacturonase activity, not detectable in green discs (a(*) = -5), appeared as discs turned yellow-red (a(*) = 5), and increased another eight-fold as discs became full red (a(*) value +20). Carboxymethyl-cellulase activity, low in extracts

  11. The expression of tin gene in prolongated tomato fruit ripening - Lycopersicom esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato selection programme, aiming to create a tomato hybrid with better fruit firmness, has been based on adding rin gene in perspective selection material. The fruit firmness has been based on decelerated ripening which prolongs the shelf life. Heterozygote genotypes (rin/+ have considerably longer shelf life that genotypes with uniform ripening (+/+. The effects of rin gene on shelf life have been examined on four experimental hybrids (K 56S K - 18, K - 64 and K -15 - rin/+ genetic configuration compared with Atina Fl genotype (uniform ripening +/+ K - 91 selected, line (rin/rin and Fino F1 (DRS unknown genetic construction and very good fruit firmness. The parameter for shelf life has been the fruit weight loss during the preservation - from harvest till the fading. The weight loss has been recorded every 7th day during two months. The experimental hybrids showed good agro technical characteristics of mid early tomato intended for production in the open field. During the shelf life, the genotype K - 15 faded the most slowly, both in the group of green and mature fruits.

  12. Tuning LeSPL-CNR expression by SlymiR157 affects tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Kong, Junhua; Lai, Tongfei; Manning, Kenneth; Wu, Chaoqun; Wang, Ying; Qin, Cheng; Li, Bin; Yu, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; He, Meiling; Zhang, Pengcheng; Gu, Mei; Yang, Xin; Mahammed, Atef; Li, Chunyang; Osman, Toba; Shi, Nongnong; Wang, Huizhong; Jackson, Stephen; Liu, Yule; Gallusci, Philippe; Hong, Yiguo

    2015-01-19

    In plants, microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in growth, development, yield, stress response and interactions with pathogens. However no miRNA has been experimentally documented to be functionally involved in fruit ripening although many miRNAs have been profiled in fruits. Here we show that SlymiR157 and SlymiR156 differentially modulate ripening and softening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). SlymiR157 is expressed and developmentally regulated in normal tomato fruits and in those of the Colourless non-ripening (Cnr) epimutant. It regulates expression of the key ripening gene LeSPL-CNR in a likely dose-dependent manner through miRNA-induced mRNA degradation and translation repression. Viral delivery of either pre-SlymiR157 or mature SlymiR157 results in delayed ripening. Furthermore, qRT-PCR profiling of key ripening regulatory genes indicates that the SlymiR157-target LeSPL-CNR may affect expression of LeMADS-RIN, LeHB1, SlAP2a and SlTAGL1. However SlymiR156 does not affect the onset of ripening, but it impacts fruit softening after the red ripe stage. Our findings reveal that working together with a ripening network of transcription factors, SlymiR157 and SlymiR156 form a critical additional layer of regulatory control over the fruit ripening process in tomato.

  13. Confocal laser scanning microscopy detection of chlorophylls and carotenoids in chloroplasts and chromoplasts of tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Lucio; Amenós, Montse; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells are unique among eukaryotic cells because of the presence of plastids, including chloroplasts and chromoplasts. Chloroplasts are found in green tissues and harbor the photosynthetic machinery (including chlorophyll molecules), while chromoplasts are present in non-photosynthetic tissues and accumulate large amounts of carotenoids. During tomato fruit development, chloroplasts are converted into chromoplasts that accumulate high levels of lycopene, a linear carotenoid responsible for the characteristic red color of ripe fruit. Here, we describe a simple and fast method to detect both types of fully differentiated plastids (chloroplasts and chromoplasts), as well as intermediate stages, in fresh tomato fruits. The method is based on the differential autofluorescence of chlorophylls and carotenoids (lycopene) detected by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy.

  14. Effect of postharvest UV-B irradiation on nutraceutical quality and physical properties of tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Antonella; Chiavaro, Emma; Dall'asta, Chiara; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Galaverna, Gianni; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2013-04-15

    Nutraceutical (ascorbic acid and carotenoids) and physical (colour and firmness) parameters were evaluated in two tomato genotypes (Money maker and high pigment-1) subjected to post harvest UV-B irradiation at different ripening stages (mature green and turning). UV-B treatment increased the concentration of ascorbic acid and carotenoids in Money maker flesh and peel, while high pigment-1 fruits underwent only minor changes, suggesting that hp-1 mutation decreased the fruit ability to respond to UV-B radiation. Colour parameters appeared to be more influenced by harvesting stages than UV-B with the exception of redness (a∗), which in Money maker was found to increase in both flesh and peel of irradiated fruits at turning stage, although not significantly, while control was more red than treated at mature green stage. Firmness was negatively influenced by UV-B, as tomatoes were found to soften after the treatment, although this aspect needs further studies to be clarified.

  15. Biochemical and molecular analysis of pink tomatoes: deregulated expression of the gene encoding transcription factor SlMYB12 leads to pink tomato fruit colour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballester, A.R.; Molthoff, J.W.; Vos, de C.H.; Lintel Hekkert, B.; Orzaez, D.; Fernandez-Moreno, J.P.; Tripodi, S.; Grandillo, S.; Martin, C.; Heldens, J.; Ykema, M.; Granell, A.; Bovy, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The color of tomato fruit is mainly determined by carotenoids and flavonoids. Phenotypic analysis of an introgression line (IL) population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneyberg' and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii revealed three ILs with a pink fruit color. These lines h

  16. Characterization of polyphenolic constituents and radical scavenging ability of ripe tomato and red pepper fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seun F. Akomolafe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Characterization of polyphenolic contents and the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of ripe tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum and red pepper (Capsicum annuum fruits on the sodium nitroprusside (SNP and iron(II (Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver were examined in this study. Methods: Various experimental models such as the ABTS and #8226; (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid scavenging ability and ferric reducing power were used to characterize the antioxidant activity of the extracts. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the phenolic content of the extracts. Malondialdehyde (MDA was used as a measure of oxidative stress in the rat and #8217;s liver tissue. Results: The ABTS and #8226; scavenging ability and ferric reducing power of the aqueous extract of ripe red pepper were significantly higher than that of ripe tomato. Ripe red pepper and tomato fruits extracts inhibited NO and #8226; in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, the introduction of extracts of ripe red pepper and tomato caused a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the MDA content of the SNP and Fe2+-stressed liver homogenates. In addition, HPLC analyses of the extracts revealed the presence of different phenolic compounds. Conclusion: With respect to the results of the current study, ripe tomato and red pepper could be considered to be potential sources of natural antioxidants. [J Exp Integr Med 2015; 5(1.000: 61-67

  17. fw 2.2:a major QTL controlling fruit weight is common to both red- and green-fruited tomato species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, K B; Grandillo, S; Tanksley, S D

    1995-11-01

    We have shown that a major QTL for fruit weight (fw2.2) maps to the same position on chromosome 2 in the green-fruited wild tomato species, Lycopersicon pennellii and in the red-fruited wild tomato species, L. pimpinellifolium. An introgression line F2 derived from L. esculentum (tomato) x L. pennellii and a backcross 1 (BC1) population derived from L. esculentum x L. pimpinellifolium both place fw2.2 near TG91 and TG167 on chromosome 2 of the tomato highdensity linkage map. fw2.2 accounts for 30% and 47% of the total phenotypic variance in the L. pimpinellifolium and L. pennellii populations, respectively, indicating that this is a major QTL controlling fruit weight in both species. Partial dominance (d/a of 0.44) was observed for the L. pennellii allele of fw 2.2 as compared with the L. esculentum allele. A QTL with very similar phenotypic affects and gene action has also been identified and mapped to the same chromosomal region in other wild tomato accessions: L. cheesmanii and L. pimpinellifolium. Together, these data suggest that fw2.2 represents an orthologous QTL (i.e., derived by speciation as opposed to duplication) common to most, if not all, wild tomato species. High-resolution mapping may ultimately lead to the cloning of this key locus controlling fruit development in tomato.

  18. RNA sequencing and functional analysis implicate the regulatory role of long non-coding RNAs in tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Benzhong; Yang, Yongfang; Li, Ran; Fu, Daqi; Wen, Liwei; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Hongliang

    2015-08-01

    Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play critical regulatory roles in model plants, such as Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. However, the presence of lncRNAs and how they function in fleshy fruit ripening are still largely unknown because fleshy fruit ripening is not present in the above model plants. Tomato is the model system for fruit ripening studies due to its dramatic ripening process. To investigate further the role of lncRNAs in fruit ripening, it is necessary and urgent to discover and identify novel lncRNAs and understand the function of lncRNAs in tomato fruit ripening. Here it is reported that 3679 lncRNAs were discovered from wild-type tomato and ripening mutant fruit. The lncRNAs are transcribed from all tomato chromosomes, 85.1% of which came from intergenic regions. Tomato lncRNAs are shorter and have fewer exons than protein-coding genes, a situation reminiscent of lncRNAs from other model plants. It was also observed that 490 lncRNAs were significantly up-regulated in ripening mutant fruits, and 187 lncRNAs were down-regulated, indicating that lncRNAs could be involved in the regulation of fruit ripening. In line with this, silencing of two novel tomato intergenic lncRNAs, lncRNA1459 and lncRNA1840, resulted in an obvious delay of ripening of wild-type fruit. Overall, the results indicated that lncRNAs might be essential regulators of tomato fruit ripening, which sheds new light on the regulation of fruit ripening.

  19. Tomato GDSL1 is required for cutin deposition in the fruit cuticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Anne-Laure; Mounet, Fabien; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine; Gaillard, Cédric; Elmorjani, Khalil; Vivancos, Julien; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Quemener, Bernard; Petit, Johann; Germain, Véronique; Rothan, Christophe; Marion, Didier; Bakan, Bénédicte

    2012-07-01

    The plant cuticle consists of cutin, a polyester of glycerol, hydroxyl, and epoxy fatty acids, covered and filled by waxes. While the biosynthesis of cutin building blocks is well documented, the mechanisms underlining their extracellular deposition remain unknown. Among the proteins extracted from dewaxed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) peels, we identified GDSL1, a member of the GDSL esterase/acylhydrolase family of plant proteins. GDSL1 is strongly expressed in the epidermis of growing fruit. In GDSL1-silenced tomato lines, we observed a significant reduction in fruit cuticle thickness and a decrease in cutin monomer content proportional to the level of GDSL1 silencing. A significant decrease of wax load was observed only for cuticles of the severely silenced transgenic line. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of isolated cutins revealed a reduction in cutin density in silenced lines. Indeed, FTIR-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy imaging showed that drastic GDSL1 silencing leads to a reduction in ester bond cross-links and to the appearance of nanopores in tomato cutins. Furthermore, immunolabeling experiments attested that GDSL1 is essentially entrapped in the cuticle proper and cuticle layer. These results suggest that GDSL1 is specifically involved in the extracellular deposition of the cutin polyester in the tomato fruit cuticle.

  20. Antioxidant and Antiplatelet Activities in Extracts from Green and Fully Ripe Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and Pomace from Industrial Tomato Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Carle, Reinhold; Astudillo, Luis; Guzmán, Luis; Gutiérrez, Margarita; Carrasco, Gilda; Palomo, Iván

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables is accepted to be one of the strategies to reduce risk factors for these diseases. The aim of this study was to examine potential relationships between the antioxidant and the antiplatelet activities in green mature and fully ripe (red) tomatoes and of lycopene-rich byproducts of tomato paste processing such as pomace. The total phenol content of tomato components was the highest in peels, pulp, and in the mucilaginous myxotesta covering the tomato seeds with values 36.9 ± 0.8, 33.3 ± 00.5, and 17.6 ± 0.9 mg GAE/100 g, respectively (P < 0.05). Tomato peels had the highest antioxidant activity, both, as measured by the FRAP (46.9 ± 0.9 μmol Fe+2/g, P < 0.05) and the DPPH assays (97.4 ± 0.2%, 1000 μg/mL, P < 0.05). Pomace extracts showed the highest antiplatelet activity induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6, and arachidonic acid. While the maturation stage of the tomato fruit affected the antioxidant effect, antiplatelet activity was independent of fruit ripeness. Finally, based on the present results, tomato and its byproducts may be considered as a valuable source of antioxidant and antiplatelet activities. PMID:23476707

  1. Antioxidant and Antiplatelet Activities in Extracts from Green and Fully Ripe Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum and Pomace from Industrial Tomato Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fruits and vegetables is accepted to be one of the strategies to reduce risk factors for these diseases. The aim of this study was to examine potential relationships between the antioxidant and the antiplatelet activities in green mature and fully ripe (red tomatoes and of lycopene-rich byproducts of tomato paste processing such as pomace. The total phenol content of tomato components was the highest in peels, pulp, and in the mucilaginous myxotesta covering the tomato seeds with values 36.9±0.8, 33.3±00.5, and 17.6±0.9 mg GAE/100 g, respectively (P<0.05. Tomato peels had the highest antioxidant activity, both, as measured by the FRAP (46.9±0.9 μmol Fe+2/g, P<0.05 and the DPPH assays (97.4±0.2%, 1000 μg/mL, P<0.05. Pomace extracts showed the highest antiplatelet activity induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6, and arachidonic acid. While the maturation stage of the tomato fruit affected the antioxidant effect, antiplatelet activity was independent of fruit ripeness. Finally, based on the present results, tomato and its byproducts may be considered as a valuable source of antioxidant and antiplatelet activities.

  2. Elastic stresses and plastic deformations in 'Santa Clara' tomato fruits caused by package dependent compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA ADRIANA VARGAS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the fruit compression behavior aiming to develop new tomato packages. Deformations caused by compression forces were observed inside packages and in individual 'Santa Clara' tomato fruit. The forces applied by a transparent acrylic lever to the fruit surface caused pericarp deformation and the flattened area was proportional to the force magnitude. The deformation was associated to the reduction in the gas volume (Vg, caused by expulsion of the air from the loculus cavity and reduction in the intercellular air volume of the pericarp. As ripening advanced, smaller fractions of the Vg reduced by the compressive force were restored after the stress was relieved. The lack of complete Vg restoration was an indication of permanent plastic deformations of the stressed cells. Vg regeneration (elastic recovery was larger in green fruits than in the red ones. The ratio between the applied force and the flattened area (flattening pressure, which depends on cell turgidity, decreased during ripening. Fruit movements associated with its depth in the container were observed during storage in a transparent glass container (495 x 355 x 220 mm. The downward movement of the fruits was larger in the top layers because these movements seem to be driven by a summation of the deformation of many fruits in all layers.

  3. The tomato SlSHINE3 transcription factor regulates fruit cuticle formation and epidermal patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian Xin; Adato, Avital; Alkan, Noam; He, Yonghua; Lashbrooke, Justin; Matas, Antonio J; Meir, Sagit; Malitsky, Sergey; Isaacson, Tal; Prusky, Dov; Leshkowitz, Dena; Schreiber, Lukas; Granell, Antonio R; Widemann, Emilie; Grausem, Bernard; Pinot, Franck; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Rogachev, Ilana; Rothan, Christophe; Aharoni, Asaph

    2013-01-01

    Fleshy tomato fruit typically lacks stomata; therefore, a proper cuticle is particularly vital for fruit development and interaction with the surroundings. Here, we characterized the tomato SlSHINE3 (SlSHN3) transcription factor to extend our limited knowledge regarding the regulation of cuticle formation in fleshy fruits. We created SlSHN3 overexpressing and silenced plants, and used them for detailed analysis of cuticular lipid compositions, phenotypic characterization, and the study on the mode of SlSHN3 action. Heterologous expression of SlSHN3 in Arabidopsis phenocopied overexpression of the Arabidopsis SHNs. Silencing of SlSHN3 results in profound morphological alterations of the fruit epidermis and significant reduction in cuticular lipids. We demonstrated that SlSHN3 activity is mediated by control of genes associated with cutin metabolism and epidermal cell patterning. As with SlSHN3 RNAi lines, mutation in the SlSHN3 target gene, SlCYP86A69, resulted in severe cutin deficiency and altered fruit surface architecture. In vitro activity assays demonstrated that SlCYP86A69 possesses NADPH-dependent ω-hydroxylation activity, particularly of C18:1 fatty acid to the 18-hydroxyoleic acid cutin monomer. This study provided insights into transcriptional mechanisms mediating fleshy fruit cuticle formation and highlighted the link between cutin metabolism and the process of fruit epidermal cell patterning.

  4. 7 CFR 923.5 - Cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cherries. 923.5 Section 923.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.5 Cherries. Cherries means all varieties...

  5. Cell Wall Microstructure Analysis Implicates Hemicellulose Polysaccharides in Cell Adhesion in Tomato Fruit Pericarp Parenchyma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose J. Ordaz-Ortiz; Susan E. Marcus; J. Paul Knox

    2009-01-01

    Methods developed to isolate intact cells from both unripe and ripe tomato fruit pericarp parenchyma have allowed the cell biological analysis of polysaccharide epitopes at the surface of separated cells. The LM7 pectic homoga-lacturonan epitope is a marker of the junctions of adhesion planes and intercellular spaces in parenchyma systems. The LM7 epitope persistently marked the former edge of adhesion planes at the surface of cells separated from unripe and ripened tomato fruit and also from fruits with the Cnr mutation. The LM 11 xylan epitope was associated, in sections, with cell walls lining intercellular space but the epitope was not detected at the surface of isolated cells, being lost during cell isolation. The LM15 xyloglucan epitope was present at the surface of cells isolated from unripe fruit in a pattern reflecting the former edge of cell adhesion planes/intercellular space but with gaps and apparent breaks, An equivalent pattern ofLM15 epitope occurrence was revealed at the surface of cells isolated by pectate lyase action but was not present in cells isolated from ripe fruit or from Cnr fruit. In contrast to wild-type cells, the LM5 galactan and LM21 mannan epitopes oc-curred predominantly in positions reflecting intercellular space in Cnr, suggesting a concerted alteration in cell wall mi-crostructure in response to this mutation. Galactanase and mannanase, along with pectic homogalacturonan-degrading enzymes, were capable of releasing cells from unripe fruit parenchyma. These observations indicate that hemicellulose polymers are present in architectural contexts reflecting cell adhesion and that several cell wall polysaccharide classes are likely to contribute to cell adhesion/cell separation in tomato fruit pericarp parenchyma.

  6. Different mechanisms are responsible for chlorophyll dephytylation during fruit ripening and leaf senescence in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Luzia; Hofstetter, Silvia Schelbert; Christ, Bastien; Lira, Bruno Silvestre; Rossi, Magdalena; Hörtensteiner, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    Chlorophyll breakdown occurs in different green plant tissues (e.g. during leaf senescence and in ripening fruits). For different plant species, the PHEOPHORBIDE A OXYGENASE (PAO)/phyllobilin pathway has been described to be the major chlorophyll catabolic pathway. In this pathway, pheophorbide (i.e. magnesium- and phytol-free chlorophyll) occurs as a core intermediate. Most of the enzymes involved in the PAO/phyllobilin pathway are known; however, the mechanism of dephytylation remains uncertain. During Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf senescence, phytol hydrolysis is catalyzed by PHEOPHYTINASE (PPH), which is specific for pheophytin (i.e. magnesium-free chlorophyll). By contrast, in fruits of different Citrus spp., chlorophyllase, hydrolyzing phytol from chlorophyll, was shown to be active. Here, we enlighten the process of chlorophyll breakdown in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), both in leaves and fruits. We demonstrate the activity of the PAO/phyllobilin pathway and identify tomato PPH (SlPPH), which, like its Arabidopsis ortholog, was specifically active on pheophytin. SlPPH localized to chloroplasts and was transcriptionally up-regulated during leaf senescence and fruit ripening. SlPPH-silencing tomato lines were impaired in chlorophyll breakdown and accumulated pheophytin during leaf senescence. However, although pheophytin transiently accumulated in ripening fruits of SlPPH-silencing lines, ultimately these fruits were able to degrade chlorophyll like the wild type. We conclude that PPH is the core phytol-hydrolytic enzyme during leaf senescence in different plant species; however, fruit ripening involves other hydrolases, which are active in parallel to PPH or are the core hydrolases in fruits. These hydrolases remain unidentified, and we discuss the question of whether chlorophyllases might be involved.

  7. 圣女果番茄红素提取工艺优化%Optimization of Extraction Process for Lycopene from Cherry Tomatoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽杰; 武瑞赟

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to optimize the extraction of lycopene from cherry tomatoes.Cherry tomatoes were pretreated before extraction.Soaking in the same volume of absolute ethanol for 2 h and centrifugation for water removal was found optimum for the pretreatment of cherry tomatoes.A mixture of acetone and n-hexane was found to be the solvent for lycopene extraction.The optimal conditions for lycopene extraction using the mixture were determined using an orthogonal array design to be extraction at 40 ℃ for 2.5 h with a solvent-to-solid ratio of 3:1(mL/g).Under these conditions,the extraction yield of lycopene was 4.08 mg/ 100 g.%从预处理方法、浸提溶剂、料液比、浸提温度、浸提时间等方面对圣女果中番茄红素的提取工艺进行研究。经单因素试验对预处理方法及浸提溶剂进行选择,结果表明加入等体积无水乙醇、浸泡2h、离心脱水是提取番茄红素的最佳预处理方法,丙酮-正己烷(2:1)混合液是理想的提取溶剂。采用正交试验方法对液料比、提取温度和提取时间进行优化,得到适宜的提取条件为丙酮-正己烷(2:1)溶剂液料比为3:1、提取温度40℃、提取时间2.5h。在此提取工艺下,圣女果中的番茄红素提取量为4.08mg/100g。

  8. Study on cherry tomatoes preservation by use of defatted cake of oil-tea camellia extract%油茶饼提取物对圣女果保鲜作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖新生; 胡绍文; 周洁

    2011-01-01

    油茶饼提取物中含有大量具有功能性的物质,如单宁、茶皂素、黄酮类物质。本研究分别以水和95%乙醇作为溶剂对油茶饼进行萃取分离,得到油茶饼提取物。然后研究提取物对常见微生物的抑菌作用和对圣女果的保鲜作用。结果表明,提取液对圣女果保鲜有促进作用。采用浓度为50mg/mL的乙醇提取物配制涂膜液,对圣女果进行涂膜处理,能有效保证圣女果15d不腐烂。在抑菌实验中发现,提取液明显抑制大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌的生长,而对霉菌抑制作用较弱。%There are a large number of substances with functional in defatted cake of oil-tea camellia,such as tannin,tea saponin and flavonoids.In this study,the extract of defatted cake of oil-tea camellia was obtained by choosing water and 95% ethanol as solvent.Then corrosion resistance to cherry tomatoes of those extracts was researched.At the same time,antibacterial activity to common microbiology was researched too.It was shown that the extract had certain promotion to cherry preservation when 95% ethanol was chosen as the solvent.Meanwhile,the best preservation effect was obtained when the fruit was soaked into extract which concentration was 50mg/mL for 0.5min.It can guarantee the cherry do not decay for fifteen days.Also,it was found in the inhibition experiment that the extract can restrain the growth of E.coli and Staphylococcus aureus very well,but no effect on the mildew.

  9. Row spacing and pruning regimes on organically grown cherry tomato Espaçamento e sistema de condução de tomate cereja em cultivo orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlamir F de Azevedo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of branch number and plant densities on organically grown cherry tomato yield and fruit quality were studied. Labor costs for pruning were also assessed. The essay was conducted at the experimental fields of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from September 2004 to January 2005. A factorial design was used combining three row spacings (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 m, two cherry tomato cultivars (hybrid 'Super-Sweet' and a local self pollinated 'Perinha' and three pruning regimes (free growth, one branch per plant and two branches per plant. The row spacing treatment of 0.6 x 1.5 m resulted in lower number of fruits when compared to the 0.4 x 1.5 m treatment, however, producing fruits with higher individual average mass, which resulted in similar final yield. These yields were higher than the 0.8 m treatment. Yield increases due to the higher number of plants per area were mostly due to the increase of fruit number, which compensated for the decrease of fruit size and mass. The 'free growth' treatment yielded similarly to the two branches per plant treatment. The labor costs were lower under 'free growth' due to the absence of pruning. Both cultivars responded similarly to plant population and pruning regimes.Com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito do manejo e da densidade de plantio na produtividade de frutos e no custo com mão de obra em sistema orgânico de produção de tomate cereja, foi realizado um experimento no Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFRRJ, Seropédica-RJ, de setembro de 2004 a janeiro de 2005. Foram avaliados os efeitos da combinação de três sistemas de condução (sem tutoramento e sem limitação do número de hastes por planta; tutoramento com condução de uma haste por planta e, tutoramento com condução de duas hastes por planta, três espaçamentos entre plantas (0,4; 0,6 e 0,8 m e duas cultivares de tomate cereja (Perinha Água Branca e Super Sweet. O tratamento com espaçamento de 0,6 x 1,5 m

  10. [Effects of day and night temperature difference on growth, development, yield and fruit quality of tomatoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Li, Jia; Gao, Qing; Chen, Jin-xing

    2015-09-01

    Abstract: The effects of day and night temperature difference (DIF) on tomato's growth were studied in three precisely controlled units in phytotron. Set DIF as 6 °C (25/19 C), 8 °C (26/18 °C), 10 °C (27/17 °C) respectively, with the same diurnal mean temperature as 22 °C. The results showed that, different tomato varieties needed different suitable DIF at different growth stages. Before flouring, compared with DIF 6 °C , DIF 8 °C could significantly improve the growth and development of the wild currant tomato LA1781, increasing the plant height by 23.1%, fastening leaf development by 1-2 leaves, advancing flowers by 7 d. DIF 10 °C had similar effects with DIF 8 °C on LA1781. As to the cultured ordinary tomatoes LA2397 and LA0490, DIF 6 °C made the seedlings grow well, DIF 8 °C had no significant improved effects on seedlings, DIF 10 °C depressed the seedling's growth and flouring, decreasing the plant height by 12.0%-18.3%, lowering the leaf development by 2-3 leaves, delaying flouring by 2-4 d. But DIF 10 °C increased the dry aboveground mass of these three varieties by 25.2%-44.2%. After flouring, compared with DIF 6 °C, DIF 10 °C could significantly improve the yield and fruit quality of LA1781, increasing fruit number by 34.7%, yield per plant by 92.1%, single fruit mass by 40.0%, soluble sugar content by 16.3%, lycopene content by 95.6%. Compared with DIF 6 °C, LA2397 and LA0490 had higher yields and better fruit quality under DIF 8 °C, and lycopene content increased more than twice as that under DIF 6 °C. Under DIF 10 °C, yields of LA2397 and LA0490 slightly decreased (5.0%), soluble sugar contents of fruit decreased, but fruit size and lycopene content increased. The results showed that, DIF should not be very great in the seedling period of tomatoes, and a moderate DIF in flower and fruit periods could improve the yield and fruit quality, but a too high DIF would result in poor growth and yield reduction.

  11. A tonoplast Glu/Asp/GABA exchanger that affects tomato fruit amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Christopher J; Thomas, Benjamin; Baxter, Charles J; Smith, J Andrew C; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2015-03-01

    Vacuolar accumulation of acidic metabolites is an important aspect of tomato fruit flavour and nutritional quality. The amino acids Asp and Glu accumulate to high concentrations during ripening, while γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) shows an approximately stoichiometric decline. Given that GABA can be catabolised to form Glu and subsequently Asp, and the requirement for the fruit to maintain osmotic homeostasis during ripening, we hypothesised the existence of a tonoplast transporter that exports GABA from the vacuole in exchange for import of either Asp or Glu. We show here that the tomato vacuolar membrane possesses such a transport property: transport of Glu across isolated tonoplast vesicle membranes was trans-stimulated in counterexchange mode by GABA, Glu and Asp. We identified SlCAT9 as a candidate protein for this exchanger using quantitative proteomics of a tonoplast-enriched membrane fraction. Transient expression of a SlCAT9-YFP fusion in tobacco confirmed a tonoplast localisation. The function of the protein was examined by overexpression of SlCAT9 in transgenic tomato plants. Tonoplast vesicles isolated from transgenic plants showed higher rates of Glu and GABA transport than wild-type (WT) only when assayed in counterexchange mode with Glu, Asp, or GABA. Moreover, there were substantial increases in the content of all three cognate amino acids in ripe fruit from the transgenic plants. We conclude that SlCAT9 is a tonoplast Glu/Asp/GABA exchanger that strongly influences the accumulation of these amino acids during fruit development.

  12. Regulation of auxin responses in tomato fruit development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, M. de

    2010-01-01

    The transformation from an ovary to a rapidly growing fruit includes molecular, biochemical and structural changes that must be tightly coordinated. Depending on the phase of fruit development, the temporal and spatial organization of these changes is mediated by phytohormones, such as auxin, gibber

  13. Transcriptional dynamics of the developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit: sequencing, annotation and expression profiling of exocarp-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkio, Merianne; Jonas, Uwe; Declercq, Myriam; Van Nocker, Steven; Knoche, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    The exocarp, or skin, of fleshy fruit is a specialized tissue that protects the fruit, attracts seed dispersing fruit eaters, and has large economical relevance for fruit quality. Development of the exocarp involves regulated activities of many genes. This research analyzed global gene expression in the exocarp of developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., 'Regina'), a fruit crop species with little public genomic resources. A catalog of transcript models (contigs) representing expressed genes was constructed from de novo assembled short complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences generated from developing fruit between flowering and maturity at 14 time points. Expression levels in each sample were estimated for 34 695 contigs from numbers of reads mapping to each contig. Contigs were annotated functionally based on BLAST, gene ontology and InterProScan analyses. Coregulated genes were detected using partitional clustering of expression patterns. The results are discussed with emphasis on genes putatively involved in cuticle deposition, cell wall metabolism and sugar transport. The high temporal resolution of the expression patterns presented here reveals finely tuned developmental specialization of individual members of gene families. Moreover, the de novo assembled sweet cherry fruit transcriptome with 7760 full-length protein coding sequences and over 20 000 other, annotated cDNA sequences together with their developmental expression patterns is expected to accelerate molecular research on this important tree fruit crop.

  14. Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 regulates cell division activity during early tomato fruit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Stultiens, Catharina L. M.; de Groot, Peter F. M.; Powers, Stephen J.; Tikunov, Yury M.; Bovy, Arnoud G.; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H.; Rieu, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of the ovary into a fruit after successful completion of pollination and fertilization has been associated with many changes at transcriptomic level. These changes are part of a dynamic and complex regulatory network that is controlled by phytohormones, with a major role for auxin. One of the auxin-related genes differentially expressed upon fruit set and early fruit development in tomato is Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 (SlARF9). Here, the functional analysis of this ARF is described. SlARF9 expression was found to be auxin-responsive and SlARF9 mRNA levels were high in the ovules, placenta, and pericarp of pollinated ovaries, but also in other plant tissues with high cell division activity, such as the axillary meristems and root meristems. Transgenic plants with increased SlARF9 mRNA levels formed fruits that were smaller than wild-type fruits because of reduced cell division activity, whereas transgenic lines in which SlARF9 mRNA levels were reduced showed the opposite phenotype. The expression analysis, together with the phenotype of the transgenic lines, suggests that, in tomato, ARF9 negatively controls cell division during early fruit development. PMID:25883382

  15. Integration of tomato reproductive developmental landmarks and expression profiles, and the effect of SUN on fruit shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dongmei

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universally accepted landmark stages are necessary to highlight key events in plant reproductive development and to facilitate comparisons among species. Domestication and selection of tomato resulted in many varieties that differ in fruit shape and size. This diversity is useful to unravel underlying molecular and developmental mechanisms that control organ morphology and patterning. The tomato fruit shape gene SUN controls fruit elongation. The most dramatic effect of SUN on fruit shape occurs after pollination and fertilization although a detailed investigation into the timing of the fruit shape change as well as gene expression profiles during critical developmental stages has not been conducted. Results We provide a description of floral and fruit development in a red-fruited closely related wild relative of tomato, Solanum pimpinellifolium accession LA1589. We use established and propose new floral and fruit landmarks to present a framework for tomato developmental studies. In addition, gene expression profiles of three key stages in floral and fruit development are presented, namely floral buds 10 days before anthesis (floral landmark 7, anthesis-stage flowers (floral landmark 10 and fruit landmark 1, and 5 days post anthesis fruit (fruit landmark 3. To demonstrate the utility of the landmarks, we characterize the tomato shape gene SUN in fruit development. SUN controls fruit shape predominantly after fertilization and its effect reaches a maximum at 8 days post-anthesis coinciding with fruit landmark 4 representing the globular embryo stage of seed development. The expression profiles of the NILs that differ at sun show that only 34 genes were differentially expressed and most of them at a less than 2-fold difference. Conclusion The landmarks for flower and fruit development in tomato were outlined and integrated with the effect of SUN on fruit shape. Although we did not identify many genes differentially expressed in

  16. Western flower thrips can transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus from infected tomato fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has long been known to spread via plant propagation materials including transplants. Global dissemination of TSWV has also been linked to transport of thrips-infested and virus-infected horticultural and floricultural products through trade and commerce. However, th...

  17. Specific responses of Salmonella enterica to tomato varieties and fruit ripeness identified by in vivo expression technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T Noel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent outbreaks of vegetable-associated gastroenteritis suggest that enteric pathogens colonize, multiply and persist in plants for extended periods of time, eventually infecting people. Genetic and physiological pathways, by which enterics colonize plants, are still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand interactions between Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and tomatoes, a gfp-tagged Salmonella promoter library was screened inside red ripe fruits. Fifty-one unique constructs that were potentially differentially regulated in tomato relative to in vitro growth were identified. The expression of a subset of these promoters was tested in planta using recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET and fitness of the corresponding mutants was tested. Gene expression in Salmonella was affected by fruit maturity and tomato cultivar. A putative fadH promoter was upregulated most strongly in immature tomatoes. Expression of the fadH construct depended on the presence of linoleic acid, which is consistent with the reduced accumulation of this compound in mature tomato fruits. The cysB construct was activated in the fruit of cv. Hawaii 7997 (resistant to a race of Ralstonia solanacearum more strongly than in the universally susceptible tomato cv. Bonny Best. Known Salmonella motility and animal virulence genes (hilA, flhDC, fliF and those encoded on the pSLT virulence plasmid did not contribute significantly to fitness of the bacteria inside tomatoes, even though deletions of sirA and motA modestly increased fitness of Salmonella inside tomatoes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reveals the genetic basis of the interactions of Salmonella with plant hosts. Salmonella relies on a distinct set of metabolic and regulatory genes, which are differentially regulated in planta in response to host genotype and fruit maturity. This enteric pathogen colonizes tissues of tomatoes differently than plant

  18. 壳聚糖/纳米TiO2复合涂膜对樱桃番茄的保鲜效果%Study on Preservation Effects of Chitosan/Nano-TiO2 Film on Cherry Tomatoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋姝泓; 苏海佳

    2013-01-01

    采用壳聚糖/纳米TiO2作为复合涂膜剂,对樱桃番茄进行涂膜处理,测定樱桃番茄贮藏过程中失重率、腐烂率、总酸含量、总糖含量、pH、感官品质的变化.结果表明,贮藏第10天时壳聚糖/纳米TiO2复合涂膜处理果实的总酸含量为0.16%,总糖含量为4.5%,分别比未涂膜处理组提高了45.5%、2.3%;其pH、颜色和硬度变化也比未涂膜处理组缓慢,且贮藏第10天腐烂率仅为7%,比未涂膜处理组低8个百分点.说明壳聚糖/纳米TiO2复合涂膜可以保持樱桃番茄营养成分,对樱桃番茄室温条件下的保鲜起到了较好的作用.%Cherry tomatoes were coated with edible composite film made from the mixture of chitosan and nano-TiO2.The changes of weight loss,decay rate,total acid and total sugar content,pH,and sensory quality of cherry tomatoes were determined during storage.The results showed that the content of total acid and sugar in coated cherry tomatoes was 0.16% and 4.5% respectively,which was increased by 45.5% and 2.3% compared to control,separately.The changes of pH,color and hardness were all lower than those of control.After been stored for 10 d,the rotten rate of coated cherry tomatoes was only 7%,which was 8 percentage points lower than that of control.Chitosan/nano-TiO2 composite film could effectively maintain the nutrition of cherry tomato,thus the preservation period of cherry tomatoes at room temperature could be extended.

  19. 21 CFR 145.125 - Canned cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned cherries. 145.125 Section 145.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.125 Canned cherries. (a) Identity—(1) Ingredients. Canned cherries is the food prepared from one of the optional fresh or...

  20. Peptides interfering with protein-protein interactions in the ethylene signaling pathway delay tomato fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Melanie M. A.; Kessenbrock, Mareike; Müller, Lena; Hofmann, Alexander; Schmitz, Florian; Cristescu, Simona M.; Groth, Georg

    2016-08-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is involved in the regulation of several processes with high importance for agricultural applications, e.g. ripening, aging and senescence. Previous work in our group has identified a small peptide (NOP-1) derived from the nuclear localization signal of the Arabidopsis ethylene regulator ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE-2 (EIN2) C-terminal part as efficient inhibitor of ethylene responses. Here, we show that NOP-1 is also able to efficiently disrupt EIN2-ETR1 complex formation in tomato, indicating that the NOP-1 inhibition mode is conserved across plant species. Surface application of NOP-1 on green tomato fruits delays ripening similar to known inhibitors of ethylene perception (MCP) and ethylene biosynthesis (AVG). Fruits treated with NOP-1 showed similar ethylene production as untreated controls underlining that NOP-1 blocks ethylene signaling by targeting an essential interaction in this pathway, while having no effect on ethylene biosynthesis.

  1. 大樱桃果蝇无公害防治技术浅析%Pollution-free Prevention and Control Technology of Cherry Fruit Fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小花; 侯攻科; 李琳娜

    2015-01-01

    Along with the increasing of the cultivated area and the increase of introduction quantity in the field, the kinds of pests and diseases of the great cherry were on the rise. In order to effectively prevent and control fruit fly, improve the yield and quality of cherry, the big cherry industry in Qinzhou district sustainable development, this paper simply introduces the control measures of the cherry fruit flies.%随着栽培面积的不断扩大和在外地引种量的增加,为害大樱桃的病虫害种类呈上升趋势,为了有效的预防和控制果蝇,提高大樱桃的产量和质量,使秦州区大樱桃产业健康可持续发展,本文简单介绍了几点大樱桃果蝇的防治措施。

  2. Hormonal and metabolic regulation of tomato fruit sink activity and yield under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albacete, Alfonso; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Balibrea, María E; Großkinsky, Dominik K; de la Cruz González, María; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Smigocki, Ann C; Roitsch, Thomas; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    Salinization of water and soil has a negative impact on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) productivity by reducing growth of sink organs and by inducing senescence in source leaves. It has been hypothesized that yield stability implies the maintenance or increase of sink activity in the reproductive structures, thus contributing to the transport of assimilates from the source leaves through changes in sucrolytic enzymes and their regulation by phytohormones. In this study, classical and functional physiological approaches have been integrated to study the influence of metabolic and hormonal factors on tomato fruit sink activity, growth, and yield: (i) exogenous hormones were applied to plants, and (ii) transgenic plants overexpressing the cell wall invertase (cwInv) gene CIN1 in the fruits and de novo cytokinin (CK) biosynthesis gene IPT in the roots were constructed. Although salinity reduces fruit growth, sink activity, and trans-zeatin (tZ) concentrations, it increases the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) during the actively growing period (25 days after anthesis). Indeed, exogenous application of the CK analogue kinetin to salinized actively growing fruits recovered sucrolytic activities (mainly cwInv and sucrose synthase), sink strength, and fruit weight, whereas the ethylene-releasing compound ethephon had a negative effect in equivalent non-stressed fruits. Fruit yield was increased by both the constitutive expression of CIN1 in the fruits (up to 4-fold) or IPT in the root (up to 30%), owing to an increase in the fruit number (lower flower abortion) and in fruit weight. This is possibly related to a recovery of sink activity in reproductive tissues due to both (i) increase in sucrolytic activities (cwInv, sucrose synthase, and vacuolar and cytoplasmic invertases) and tZ concentration, and (ii) a decrease in the ACC levels and the activity of the invertase inhibitor. This study provides new functional evidences about the role of

  3. Characterization of polyphenolic constituents and radical scavenging ability of ripe tomato and red pepper fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Akomolafe, Seun F.; Ganiyu Oboh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Characterization of polyphenolic contents and the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of ripe tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and red pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruits on the sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and iron(II) (Fe2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver were examined in this study. Methods: Various experimental models such as the ABTS and #8226; (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) scavenging ability and ferric reducing power were used to character...

  4. Wound-regulated accumulation of specific transcripts in tomato fruit: interactions with fruit development, ethylene and light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, B L; Mattoo, A K

    1991-09-01

    Regulation of three cDNA clones (pT52, pT53, and pT58) was analyzed in terms of wounding alone and wounding in conjunction with developmental and environmental cues (ripening, ethylene, and light) in tomato fruit tissue. The pT52-specific transcript level is induced by wounding in early-red and red stage fruit and by ethylene. The pT58-specific transcript level is also induced by wounding and ethylene in early-red stage fruit but is not induced by wounding in red fruit. The pT53-specific transcript level is repressed by wounding in early-red and red stage fruit. Like the pT52- and pT58-specific transcripts, the pT53-specific transcript is induced by ethylene. Furthermore, the level of the pT52-specific transcript is regulated by light. Analysis of unwounded tissue showed that the abundance of each cDNA-specific transcript changes during fruit ripening and that each of the transcripts is present in other plant organs as well. This analysis provides information about the interactions between developmental and environmental factors affecting these genes.

  5. Over-expression of mouse ornithine decarboxylase gene under the control of fruit-specific promoter enhances fruit quality in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Roopali; Gupta, Aarti; Chowdhary, Anuj; Pal, Ram Krishna; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

    2015-02-01

    Diamine putrescine (Put) and polyamines; spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) are essential component of every cell because of their involvement in the regulation of cell division, growth and development. The aim of this study is to enhance the levels of Put during fruit development and see its implications in ripening and quality of tomato fruits. Transgenic tomato plants over-expressing mouse ornithine decarboxylase gene under the control of fruit-specific promoter (2A11) were developed. Transgenic fruits exhibited enhanced levels of Put, Spd and Spm, with a concomitant reduction in ethylene levels, rate of respiration and physiological loss of water. Consequently such fruits displayed significant delay of on-vine ripening and prolonged shelf life over untransformed fruits. The activation of Put biosynthetic pathway at the onset of ripening in transgenic fruits is also consistent with the improvement of qualitative traits such as total soluble solids, titratable acids and total sugars. Such changes were associated with alteration in expression pattern of ripening specific genes. Transgenic fruits were also fortified with important nutraceuticals like lycopene, ascorbate and antioxidants. Therefore, these transgenic tomatoes would be useful for the improvement of tomato cultivars through breeding approaches.

  6. Vitamin E Content and Composition in Tomato Fruits: Beneficial Roles and Bio-Fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiola, Assunta; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Barone, Amalia; Frusciante, Luigi; Rigano, Maria Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that high vitamin E intakes are related to a reduced risk of non-communicable diseases, while other dietary antioxidants are not, suggesting that vitamin E exerts specific healthy functions in addition to its antioxidant role. In this regard, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), one of the most consumed vegetables of the whole world population, is an important source of both tocopherols and tocotrienols. However, vitamin E content may strongly depend on several biotic and abiotic factors. In this review we will debate the elements affecting the synthesis of tocopherols and tocotrienols in tomato fruit, such as environmental conditions, genotype, fruit maturity level, and the impact of classical processing methods, such as pasteurization and lyophilization on the amount of these compounds. In addition we will analyze the specific vitamin E mechanisms of action in humans and the consequent functional effects derived from its dietary intake. Finally, we will examine the currently available molecular techniques used to increase the content of vitamin E in tomato fruit, starting from the identification of genetic determinants and quantitative trait loci that control the accumulation of these metabolites.

  7. Feasibility in multispectral imaging for predicting the content of bioactive compounds in intact tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhong; Liu, Wei; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-04-15

    Tomato is an important health-stimulating fruit because of the antioxidant properties of its main bioactive compounds, dominantly lycopene and phenolic compounds. Nowadays, product differentiation in the fruit market requires an accurate evaluation of these value-added compounds. An experiment was conducted to simultaneously and non-destructively measure lycopene and phenolic compounds content in intact tomatoes using multispectral imaging combined with chemometric methods. Partial least squares (PLS), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) were applied to develop quantitative models. Compared with PLS and LS-SVM, BPNN model considerably improved the performance with coefficient of determination in prediction (RP(2))=0.938 and 0.965, residual predictive deviation (RPD)=4.590 and 9.335 for lycopene and total phenolics content prediction, respectively. It is concluded that multispectral imaging is an attractive alternative to the standard methods for determination of bioactive compounds content in intact tomatoes, providing a useful platform for infield fruit sorting/grading.

  8. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for Neoleucinodes elegantalis in tomato fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Helbert S.F.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Araujo, Michel M.; Santillo, Amanda G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Faria, Jose Tadeu de [Ministerio da Agricultura Pecuaria e Abastecimento (MAPA), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: dt-sp@agricultura.gov.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radibiologia e Ambiente], e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil the tomato-fruit-borer is responsible up to 45% for the loss of the production. The objective of the present report is evaluate the effects of gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) on life cycle (eggs and larvae) of Neoleucinodes elegantalis in tomato fruits. The insects were irradiated at doses of 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 400 Gy, in a Gammacell 220 source at dose rate of 1.4 kGy/h. Each treatment consists of four repetitions containing 10 insects, totaling 50 insects. After irradiation, the insects were maintained under controlled conditions of 25{+-}3 deg C and relative humidity from 65 to 75%. The evaluations were done daily, counted the number of died insects, eggs and emerged larvae. With the obtained results, we could determine the lethal and sterilizing doses for all phases of cycle life in N. elegantalis for a possible quarantine treatment to export tomato fruits. These results permit conclude that the dose capable to avoid further development of stage of eggs and larvae were doses of 100 and 200 Gy. (author)

  9. Deciphering genetic diversity and inheritance of tomato fruit weight and composition through a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Laura; Xu, Jiaxin; Biais, Benoît; Maucourt, Mickaël; Ballias, Patricia; Bernillon, Stéphane; Deborde, Catherine; Jacob, Daniel; Desgroux, Aurore; Faurobert, Mireille; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Gibon, Yves; Moing, Annick; Causse, Mathilde

    2013-12-01

    Integrative systems biology proposes new approaches to decipher the variation of phenotypic traits. In an effort to link the genetic variation and the physiological and molecular bases of fruit composition, the proteome (424 protein spots), metabolome (26 compounds), enzymatic profile (26 enzymes), and phenotypes of eight tomato accessions, covering the genetic diversity of the species, and four of their F1 hybrids, were characterized at two fruit developmental stages (cell expansion and orange-red). The contents of metabolites varied among the genetic backgrounds, while enzyme profiles were less variable, particularly at the cell expansion stage. Frequent genotype by stage interactions suggested that the trends observed for one accession at a physiological level may change in another accession. In agreement with this, the inheritance modes varied between crosses and stages. Although additivity was predominant, 40% of the traits were non-additively inherited. Relationships among traits revealed associations between different levels of expression and provided information on several key proteins. Notably, the role of frucktokinase, invertase, and cysteine synthase in the variation of metabolites was highlighted. Several stress-related proteins also appeared related to fruit weight differences. These key proteins might be targets for improving metabolite contents of the fruit. This systems biology approach provides better understanding of networks controlling the genetic variation of tomato fruit composition. In addition, the wide data sets generated provide an ideal framework to develop innovative integrated hypothesis and will be highly valuable for the research community.

  10. Screening of Suitable Tomato Varieties for Pot Culture%适于盆栽番茄品种的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓虹; 林多; 陈宁; 杨延杰

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:Potted vegetables possess ornamental value and edible value.Ten tomato varieties were taken as experimental materials,which were cultivated in black pots with 4 L substrate.The plant morphological,fructification habit,fruit appearance,fruit soluble solids content were tested and analysis in order to screen the suitable tomato varieties for pot culture.The results showed that the cherry tomato Taiwan Cherry,with red oval fruit,had the shortest plant height,large amount of fruit setting and long harvest time,and also had advantage in cultivation and management.The soluble solids content of cherry tomato Taiwan Cherry fruit was the highest to 10.3% among the ten varieties.The cherry tomatoYellow beautyhad the biggest plant width (56.7 cm),the width of plant,yellow pear shape fruit.So the cherry red fruit tomato Taiwan Cherry and the cherry yellow fruit tomato Yellow beautywere the most suitable for pot culture.%以10个番茄品种为材料,种植在4L的黑色营养钵内,通过对盆栽番茄的植株形态、结果习性、果实外观、可溶性固形物含量的比较分析,筛选出适宜盆栽的番茄品种.结果表明:台湾圣女植株株高较矮、便于管理,红色椭圆形小果,结果量大,采收期较长,果实可溶性固形物含量最高10.3%.黄美人株幅最大为56.7 cm,植株开展,果实黄色洋梨形,形状独特.台湾圣女和黄美人是适宜的家庭盆栽番茄品种.

  11. Transcriptional analysis of cell wall and cuticle related genes during fruit development of two sweet cherry cultivars with contrasting levels of cracking tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Balbontín

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rain-induced cracking before harvest is the major cause of crop loss in sweet cherry (Prunus avium [L.] L. In order to better understand the relationship between cherry fruit cracking and gene expression, the transcriptional patterns of six genes related to cell wall modification and cuticular wax biosynthesis were analyzed during fruit setting (FS, fruit color change (FC and fruit ripening (FR, employing two contrasting cultivars: the cracking resistant 'Kordia' and the cracking susceptible 'Bing'. The transcription levels of AP2/EREBP-type transcription factor (PaWINB, wax synthase (WS, ß-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (PaKCS6, and ß-galactosidase (ß-Gal showed higher levels in 'Kordia' than in 'Bing' during the FS stage, while similar values were observed in both cultivars at FR stage. In contrast to that pattern, transcription levels of expansin (PaEXPl were higher at FR stage in 'Kordia' than in 'Bing'. Transcript profile of lipid transport protein gene (PaLTPGl decreased during fruit development, with higher levels in 'Bing' than in 'Kordia' at FC and FR stages suggesting no relation with cracking tolerance. The expression profiles of PaWINB, WS, PaKCS6, and ß-Gal suggest that they are genes involved in conferring cracking tolerance, likely due to their function in cuticle deposition during early stages of fruit development. In addition, a greater expression level of expansin gene would allow for a faster growth rate in 'Kordia' at FR stage.

  12. Auxin-induced fruit-set in tomato is mediated in part by gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrani, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Rivero, Omar; Fos, Mariano; García-Martínez, José Luis

    2008-12-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit-set and growth depend on gibberellins (GAs). Auxins, another kind of hormone, can also induce parthenocarpic fruit growth in tomato, although their possible interaction with GAs is unknown. We showed that fruit development induced by the auxins indole-3-acetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were significantly reduced by the simultaneous application of inhibitors of GA biosynthesis, and that this effect was reversed by the application of GA(3). This suggested that the effect of auxin was mediated by GA. Parthenocarpic fruits induced by 2,4-D had higher levels of the active GA(1), its precursors and metabolites, than unpollinated non-treated ovaries, but similar levels as those found in pollinated ovaries. Application experiments of radioactive-labelled GAs to unpollinated ovaries showed than 2,4-D altered GA metabolism (both biosynthesis and catabolism) in vivo. Transcript levels of genes encoding copalyldiphosphate synthase (SlCPS), SlGA20ox1, SlGA20ox2 and SlGA20ox3, and SlGA3ox1 were higher in unpollinated ovaries treated with 2,4-D. In contrast, transcript levels of SlGA2ox2 (out of the five SlGA2ox genes known to encode this kind of GA-inactivating enzyme) were lower in ovaries treated with 2,4-D. Our results support the idea that auxins induce fruit-set and growth in tomato, at least partially, by enhancing GA biosynthesis (GA 20-oxidase, GA 3-oxidase and CPS), and probably by decreasing GA inactivation (GA2ox2) activity, thereby leading to higher levels of GA(1). The expression of diverse Aux/indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and auxin response factors, which may be involved in this effect of auxin, was also altered in 2,4-D-induced ovaries.

  13. RNA interference silencing of chalcone synthase, the first step in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, leads to parthenocarpic tomato fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Vos, de C.H.; Martens, S.; Jonker, H.H.; Rosin, F.M.A.; Molthoff, J.W.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Angenent, G.C.; Tunen, van A.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Parthenocarpy, the formation of seedless fruits in the absence of functional fertilization, is a desirable trait for several important crop plants, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Seedless fruits can be of great value for consumers, the processing industry, and breeding companies. In this a

  14. Analysis of softening in air- and ethylene-treated rin, nor and wild-type tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rin; ripening-inhibitor and nor; non-ripening are previously identified spontaneous mutations that affect the primary regulation of tomato fruit ripening. Mutations at these loci result in fruit that are either partially or completely inhibited in their ability to ripen. Both internal and whole frui...

  15. A tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) APETALA2/ERF gene, SlAP2a, is a negative regulator of fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transition of fleshy fruit maturation to ripening is regulated by exogenous and endogenous signals which coordinate the transition of the fruit to a final state of attractiveness to seed dispersing organisms. Tomato is a model for biology and genetics regulating specific ripening pathways includ...

  16. Traps and trap placement may affect location of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and increase injury to tomato fruits in home gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Chris; Martinson, Holly M; Raupp, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an important pest of field crops, fruit orchards, commercial vegetables, ornamental plants, and home vegetable gardens. Pheromone-baited traps designed to attract, trap, and kill H. halys are marketed for use in home gardens to reduce damage to plants. To test this assertion, we conducted the following experiment: One group of 15 gardeners placed stink bug traps at the end of a row of tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum (L.), in their vegetable garden and another group of 14 placed no traps in their garden and served as controls. Gardeners with traps were no more or less likely to have H. halys on tomato plants than those without traps, but the abundance of H. halys on tomato fruits was marginally greater in gardens with traps. However, tomato fruits grown in gardens with traps sustained significantly more injury than tomato fruits grown in gardens without traps. Furthermore, tomato fruits on plants near the trap housed more H. halys than tomato fruits on plants at the end of a row away from the trap. Traps may be useful in identifying gardens where H. halys is likely to be found and ones in which stink bug injury to tomatoes is likely. We found no evidence that stink bug traps protected tomatoes from H. halys, and it appears that the addition of traps to gardens may increase injury to tomato fruits.

  17. The Quality of Fresh Tomato Fruit Produced by Hydroponic

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    Nadica Dobričević

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of fresh tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. planted in rockwool in hydroponic system is defined by their internal parameters: contents of dry matter and soluble dry matter (°Bx, total acidity (% citric acid, pH, % NaCl and L-ascorbic acid. Research was carried out during 2003 and included 21 cultivars. Tomato plants were planted into rockwool slabs 100 cm x 15 cm x 7.5 cm. Three plants were planted 33 cm apart in 11.25 L of substrate. The trial was laid out according to the randomized complete block design with four replications, and sampling was carried out during three harvests in: June, July and August. The dry matter content was 4.29% (cultivar ΄Syta΄ to 6.21% (cultivar ΄Delfine΄, and content of soluble dry matter was 3.0% (cultivar ΄Brooklyn΄ to 4.5% (΄Lustro΄ and ΄72-503΄. Total acidity amounted from 0.19% (cultivar ΄Syta΄ to 0.45% (cultivar ΄Lustro΄, and pH values ranged from 4.20 (cultivar ΄20377΄ to 4.68 (cultivar ΄Syta΄. Salt content ranged from 0.08% (΄Campeon΄ and ΄F 18402΄ to 0.13% (΄Brooklyn΄ and ΄E 27.31299΄, and L-ascorbic acid content ranged from 260.40 (cultivar ΄Antinea΄ to 458.30 mg/dry matter (cultivar ΄F 18402΄. By studying the basic chemical composition of selected cultivars, significant differences in their soluble dry matter and pH were revealed but only at the first sampling.

  18. Regulation of fruit ascorbic acid concentrations during ripening in high and low vitamin C tomato cultivars

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    Mellidou Ifigeneia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To gain insight into the regulation of fruit ascorbic acid (AsA pool in tomatoes, a combination of metabolite analyses, non-labelled and radiolabelled substrate feeding experiments, enzyme activity measurements and gene expression studies were carried out in fruits of the ‘low-’ and ‘high-AsA’ tomato cultivars ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Santorini’ respectively. Results The two cultivars exhibited different profiles of total AsA (totAsA, AsA + dehydroascorbate and AsA accumulation during ripening, but both displayed a characteristic peak in concentrations at the breaker stage. Substrate feeding experiments demonstrated that the L-galactose pathway is the main AsA biosynthetic route in tomato fruits, but that substrates from alternative pathways can increase the AsA pool at specific developmental stages. In addition, we show that young fruits display a higher AsA biosynthetic capacity than mature ones, but this does not lead to higher AsA concentrations due to either enhanced rates of AsA breakdown (‘Ailsa Craig’ or decreased rates of AsA recycling (‘Santorini’, depending on the cultivar. In the later stages of ripening, differences in fruit totAsA-AsA concentrations of the two cultivars can be explained by differences in the rate of AsA recycling activities. Analysis of the expression of AsA metabolic genes showed that only the expression of one orthologue of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (SlGGP1, and of two monodehydroascorbate reductases (SlMDHAR1 and SlMDHAR3 correlated with the changes in fruit totAsA-AsA concentrations during fruit ripening in ‘Ailsa Craig’, and that only the expression of SlGGP1 was linked to the high AsA concentrations found in red ripe ‘Santorini’ fruits. Conclusions Results indicate that ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Santorini’ use complementary mechanisms to maintain the fruit AsA pool. In the low-AsA cultivar (‘Ailsa Craig’, alternative routes of AsA biosynthesis may

  19. Spatial and temporal distribution of genes involved in polyamine metabolism during tomato fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaniklidis, Georgios; Kotsiras, Anastasios; Tsafouros, Athanasios; Roussos, Peter A; Aivalakis, Georgios; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Delis, Costas

    2016-03-01

    Polyamines are organic compounds involved in various biological roles in plants, including cell growth and organ development. In the present study, the expression profile, the accumulation of free polyamines and the transcript localisation of the genes involved in Put metabolism, such as Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and copper containing Amine oxidase (CuAO), were examined during Solanum lycopersicum cv. Chiou fruit development and maturation. Moreover, the expression of genes coding for enzymes involved in higher polyamine metabolism, including Spermidine synthase (SPDS), Spermine synthase (SPMS), S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) and Polyamine oxidase (PAO), were studied. Most genes participating in PAs biosynthesis and metabolism exhibited an increased accumulation of transcripts at the early stages of fruit development. In contrast, CuAO and SPMS were mostly expressed later, during the development stages of the fruits where a massive increase in fruit volume occurs, while the SPDS1 gene exhibited a rather constant expression with a peak at the red ripe stage. Although Put, Spd and Spm were all exhibited decreasing levels in developing immature fruits, Put levels maxed late during fruit ripening. In contrast to Put both Spd and Spm levels continue to decrease gradually until full ripening. It is worth noticing that in situ RNA-RNA hybridisation is reported for the first time in tomato fruits. The localisation of ADC2, ODC1 and CuAO gene transcripts at tissues such as the locular parenchyma and the vascular bundles fruits, supports the theory that all genes involved in Put biosynthesis and catabolism are mostly expressed in fast growing tissues. The relatively high expression levels of CuAO at the ImG4 stage of fruit development (fruits with a diameter of 3 cm), mature green and breaker stages could possibly be attributed to the implication of polyamines in physiological processes taking place during fruit ripening.

  20. Fruit-specific RNAi-mediated suppression of DET1 enhances carotenoid and flavonoid content in tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davuluri, Ganga Rao; van Tuinen, Ageeth; Fraser, Paul D; Manfredonia, Alessandro; Newman, Robert; Burgess, Diane; Brummell, David A; King, Stephen R; Palys, Joe; Uhlig, John; Bramley, Peter M; Pennings, Henk M J; Bowler, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes are a principal dietary source of carotenoids and flavonoids, both of which are highly beneficial for human health1,2. Overexpression of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes or transcription factors have resulted in tomatoes with improved carotenoid or flavonoid content, but never with both3–7. We attempted to increase tomato fruit nutritional value by suppressing an endogenous photomorphogenesis regulatory gene, DET1, using fruit-specific promoters combined with RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Molecular analysis indicated that DET1 transcripts were indeed specifically degraded in transgenic fruits. Both carotenoid and flavonoid contents were increased significantly, whereas other parameters of fruit quality were largely unchanged. These results demonstrate that manipulation of a plant regulatory gene can simultaneously influence the production of several phytonutrients generated from independent biosynthetic pathways, and provide a novel example of the use of organ-specific gene silencing to improve the nutritional value of plant-derived products. PMID:15951803

  1. Calmodulin Gene Expression in Response to Mechanical Wounding and Botrytis cinerea Infection in Tomato Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Yang, Tianbao; Ii, Wayne M Jurick

    2014-08-29

    Calmodulin, a ubiquitous calcium sensor, plays an important role in decoding stress-triggered intracellular calcium changes and regulates the functions of numerous target proteins involved in various plant physiological responses. To determine the functions of calmodulin in fleshy fruit, expression studies were performed on a family of six calmodulin genes (SlCaMs) in mature-green stage tomato fruit in response to mechanical injury and Botrytis cinerea infection. Both wounding and pathogen inoculation triggered expression of all those genes, with SlCaM2 being the most responsive one to both treatments. Furthermore, all calmodulin genes were upregulated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, two signaling molecules involved in plant immunity. In addition to SlCaM2, SlCaM1 was highly responsive to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate. However, SlCaM2 exhibited a more rapid and stronger response than SlCaM1. Overexpression of SlCaM2 in tomato fruit enhanced resistance to Botrytis-induced decay, whereas reducing its expression resulted in increased lesion development. These results indicate that calmodulin is a positive regulator of plant defense in fruit by activating defense pathways including salicylate- and jasmonate-signaling pathways, and SlCaM2 is the major calmodulin gene responsible for this event.

  2. Calmodulin Gene Expression in Response to Mechanical Wounding and Botrytis cinerea Infection in Tomato Fruit

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    Hui Peng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Calmodulin, a ubiquitous calcium sensor, plays an important role in decoding stress-triggered intracellular calcium changes and regulates the functions of numerous target proteins involved in various plant physiological responses. To determine the functions of calmodulin in fleshy fruit, expression studies were performed on a family of six calmodulin genes (SlCaMs in mature-green stage tomato fruit in response to mechanical injury and Botrytis cinerea infection. Both wounding and pathogen inoculation triggered expression of all those genes, with SlCaM2 being the most responsive one to both treatments. Furthermore, all calmodulin genes were upregulated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, two signaling molecules involved in plant immunity. In addition to SlCaM2, SlCaM1 was highly responsive to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate. However, SlCaM2 exhibited a more rapid and stronger response than SlCaM1. Overexpression of SlCaM2 in tomato fruit enhanced resistance to Botrytis-induced decay, whereas reducing its expression resulted in increased lesion development. These results indicate that calmodulin is a positive regulator of plant defense in fruit by activating defense pathways including salicylate- and jasmonate-signaling pathways, and SlCaM2 is the major calmodulin gene responsible for this event.

  3. Metabolomics-Inspired Insight into Developmental, Environmental and Genetic Aspects of Tomato Fruit Chemical Composition and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2015-09-01

    Tomato was one of the first plant species to be evaluated using metabolomics and remains one of the best characterized, with tomato fruit being both an important source of nutrition in the human diet and a valuable model system for the development of fleshy fruits. Additionally, given the broad habitat range of members of the tomato clade and the extensive use of exotic germplasm in tomato genetic research, it represents an excellent genetic model system for understanding both metabolism per se and the importance of various metabolites in conferring stress tolerance. This review summarizes technical approaches used to characterize the tomato metabolome to date and details insights into metabolic pathway structure and regulation that have been obtained via analysis of tissue samples taken under different developmental or environmental circumstance as well as following genetic perturbation. Particular attention is paid to compounds of importance for nutrition or the shelf-life of tomatoes. We propose furthermore how metabolomics information can be coupled to the burgeoning wealth of genome sequence data from the tomato clade to enhance further our understanding of (i) the shifts in metabolic regulation occurring during development and (ii) specialization of metabolism within the tomato clade as a consequence of either adaptive evolution or domestication.

  4. Phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in tomato peel, seeds, and byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Espinosa-Alonso, Laura Gabriela; Espinoza-Torres, Libia Citlali; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Medina-Godoy, Sergio

    2014-06-11

    The phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities from the peel and seeds of different tomato types (grape, cherry, bola and saladette type), and simulated tomato industrial byproducts, were studied. Methanolic extracts were used to quantify total phenolic content, groups of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and the profile of phenolic compounds (by HPLC-DAD). Antimutagenic activity was determined by Salmonella typhimurium assay. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of tomato and tomato byproducts were comparable or superior to those previously reported for whole fruit and tomato pomace. Phenolic compounds with important biological activities, such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acids, quercetin-3-β-O-glycoside, and quercetin, were quantified. Differences in all phenolic determinations due to tomato type and part of the fruit analyzed were observed, peel from grape type showing the best results. Positive antimutagenic results were observed in all samples. All evaluated materials could be used as a source of potential nutraceutical compounds.

  5. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitel, Dario A; Chappell-Maor, Louise; Meir, Sagit; Panizel, Irina; Puig, Clara Pons; Hao, Yanwei; Yifhar, Tamar; Yasuor, Hagai; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher; Granell Richart, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-03-01

    The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A), a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1) protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process.

  6. Influence of habitat pattern on orientation during host fruit location in the tomato fruit fly, Neoceratitis cyanescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brévault, T; Quilici, S

    2007-12-01

    Fruit flies have evolved mechanisms using olfactory and visual signals to find and recognize suitable host plants. The objective of the present study was to determine how habitat patterns may assist fruit flies in locating host plants and fruit. The tomato fruit fly, Neoceratitis cyanescens (Bezzi), was chosen as an example of a specialized fruit fly, attacking plants of the Solanaceae family. A series of experiments was conducted in an outdoor field cage wherein flies were released and captured on sticky orange and yellow spheres displayed in pairs within or above potted host or non-host plants. Bright orange spheres mimicking host fruit were significantly more attractive than yellow spheres only when placed within the canopy of host plants and not when either within non-host plants or above both types of plants. Additional experiments combining sets of host and non-host plants in the same cage, or spraying leaf extract of host plant (bug weed) on non-host plants showed that volatile cues emitted by the foliage of host plants may influence the visual response of flies in attracting mature females engaged in a searching behaviour for a laying site and in assisting them to find the host fruit. Moreover, the response was specific to mature females with a high oviposition drive because starved mature females, immature females and males showed no significant preference for orange spheres. Olfactory signals emitted by the host foliage could be an indicator of an appropriate habitat, leading flies to engage in searching for a visual image.

  7. Sculpting the maturation, softening and ethylene pathway: The influences of microRNAs on tomato fruits

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    Zuo Jinhua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a ubiquitous class of short RNAs, play vital roles in physiological and biochemical processes in plants by mediating gene silencing at post-transcriptional (PTGS level. Tomato is a model system to study molecular basis of fleshy fruit ripening and senescence, ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction owing to its genetic and molecular tractability. To study the functions of miRNAs in tomato fruit ripening and senescence, and their possible roles in ethylene response, the next generation sequencing method was employed to identify miRNAs in tomato fruit. Bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches were combined to profile the miRNAs expression patterns at three different fruit ripening stages and by exogenous ethylene treatment. Results In addition to 7 novel miRNA families, 103 conserved miRNAs belonging to 24 families and 10 non-conserved miRNAs matching 9 families were identified in our libraries. The targets of many these miRNAs were predicted to be transcriptional factors. Other targets are known to play roles in the regulation of metabolic processes. Interestingly, some targets were predicted to be involved in fruit ripening and softening, such as Pectate Lyase, beta-galactosidase, while a few others were predicted to be involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway, such as ACS, EIN2 and CTR1. The expression patterns of a number of such miRNAs at three ripening stages were confirmed by stem-loop RT-PCR, which showed a strong negative correlation with that of their targets. The regulation of exogenous ethylene on miRNAs expression profiles were analyzed simultaneously, and 3 down-regulated, 5 up-regulated miRNAs were found in this study. Conclusions A combination of high throughput sequencing and molecular biology approaches was used to explore the involvement of miRNAs during fruit ripening. Several miRNAs showed differential expression profiles during fruit ripening, and a number of

  8. Weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA applied to the tomato fruit metabolome.

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    Matthew V DiLeo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advances in "omics" technologies have revolutionized the collection of biological data. A matching revolution in our understanding of biological systems, however, will only be realized when similar advances are made in informatic analysis of the resulting "big data." Here, we compare the capabilities of three conventional and novel statistical approaches to summarize and decipher the tomato metabolome. METHODOLOGY: Principal component analysis (PCA, batch learning self-organizing maps (BL-SOM and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA were applied to a multivariate NMR dataset collected from developmentally staged tomato fruits belonging to several genotypes. While PCA and BL-SOM are appropriate and commonly used methods, WGCNA holds several advantages in the analysis of highly multivariate, complex data. CONCLUSIONS: PCA separated the two major genetic backgrounds (AC and NC, but provided little further information. Both BL-SOM and WGCNA clustered metabolites by expression, but WGCNA additionally defined "modules" of co-expressed metabolites explicitly and provided additional network statistics that described the systems properties of the tomato metabolic network. Our first application of WGCNA to tomato metabolomics data identified three major modules of metabolites that were associated with ripening-related traits and genetic background.

  9. Vermicompost as a soil supplement to improve growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico A; Santiago-Borraz, Jorge; Montes Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nafate, Camerino Carlos; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Oliva Llaven, María Angela; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Dendooven, Luc

    2007-11-01

    The effects of earthworm-processed sheep-manure (vermicompost) on the growth, productivity and chemical characteristics of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) (c.v. Rio Grande) were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Five treatments were applied combining vermicompost and soil in proportions of 0:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 (v/v). Growth and yield parameters were measured 85 days and 100 days after transplanting. Addition of vermicompost increased plant heights significantly, but had no significant effect on the numbers of leaves or yields 85 days after transplanting. Yields of tomatoes were significantly greater when the relationship vermicompost:soil was 1:1, 1:2 or 1:3, 100 days after transplanting. Addition of sheep-manure vermicompost decreased soil pH, titratable acidity and increased soluble and insoluble solids, in tomato fruits compared to those harvested from plants cultivated in unamended soil. Sheep-manure vermicompost as a soil supplement increased tomato yields and soluble, insoluble solids and carbohydrate concentrations.

  10. Correlation of Rutin Accumulation with 3-O-Glucosyl Transferase and Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase Activities During the Ripening of Tomato Fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Beekwilder, J.; Matros, A.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Mock, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    In tomato, the predominant flavonoid is quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin). In this study, we aim to investigate the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the quercetin-3-O-glucosyl transferase (3-GT) reactions in the formation of rutin during tomato fruit ripening. Tomatoes of the Moneymaker variety at

  11. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of the RIN locus that regulates tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Endo, Masaki; Mikami, Masafumi; Toki, Seiichi

    2015-11-06

    Site-directed mutagenesis using genetic approaches can provide a wealth of resources for crop breeding as well as for biological research. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 endonuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) system is a novel strategy used to induce mutations in a specific genome region; the system functions in a variety of organisms, including plants. Here, we report application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to efficient mutagenesis of the tomato genome. In this study, we targeted the tomato RIN gene, which encodes a MADS-box transcription factor regulating fruit ripening. Three regions within the gene were targeted and mutations consisting either of a single base insertion or deletion of more than three bases were found at the Cas9 cleavage sites in T0 regenerated plants. The RIN-protein-defective mutants produced incomplete-ripening fruits in which red color pigmentation was significantly lower than that of wild type, while heterologous mutants expressing the remaining wild-type gene reached full-ripening red color, confirming the important role of RIN in ripening. Several mutations that were generated at three independent target sites were inherited in the T1 progeny, confirming the applicability of this mutagenesis system in tomato.

  12. Molecular markers detect stable genomic regions underlying tomato fruit shelf life and weight

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    Guillermo Raúl Pratta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating wild germplasm such as S. pimpinellifolium is an alternative strategy to prolong tomato fruit shelf life(SL without reducing fruit quality. A set of recombinant inbred lines with discrepant values of SL and weight (FW were derived byantagonistic-divergent selection from an interspecific cross. The general objective of this research was to evaluate Genotype x Year(GY and Marker x Year (MY interaction in these new genetic materials for both traits. Genotype and year principal effects and GYinteraction were statistically significant for SL. Genotype and year principal effects were significant for FW but GY interaction wasnot. The marker principal effect was significant for SL and FW but both year principal effect and MY interaction were not significant.Though SL was highly influenced by year conditions, some genome regions appeared to maintain a stable effect across years ofevaluation. Fruit weight, instead, was more independent of year effect.

  13. Absolute quantification of Pru av 2 in sweet cherry fruit by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with the use of a stable isotope-labelled peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Sasanuma, Motoe; Oike, Hideaki; Kobori, Masuko; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari

    2016-08-01

    Pru av 2, a pathogenesis-related (PR) protein present in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit, is the principal allergen of cherry and one of the chief causes of pollen food syndrome (oral allergy syndrome). In this study, a quantitative assay for this protein was developed with the use of the protein absolute quantification (AQUA) method, which consists of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) employing TGC[CAM]STDASGK[(13)C6,(15)N2], a stable isotope-labelled internal standard (SIIS) peptide. This assay gave a linear relationship (r(2)>0.99) in a concentration range (2.3-600fmol/μL), and the overall coefficient of variation (CV) for multiple tests was 14.6%. Thus, the contents of this allergenic protein in sweet cherry products could be determined using this assay. This assay should be valuable for allergological investigations of Pru av 2 in sweet cherry and detection of protein contamination in foods.

  14. Biochemical and molecular analysis of pink tomatoes: deregulated expression of the gene encoding transcription factor SlMYB12 leads to pink tomato fruit color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Molthoff, Jos; de Vos, Ric; Hekkert, Bas te Lintel; Orzaez, Diego; Fernández-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Tripodi, Pasquale; Grandillo, Silvana; Martin, Cathie; Heldens, Jos; Ykema, Marieke; Granell, Antonio; Bovy, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    The color of tomato fruit is mainly determined by carotenoids and flavonoids. Phenotypic analysis of an introgression line (IL) population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneyberg' and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii revealed three ILs with a pink fruit color. These lines had a homozygous S. chmielewskii introgression on the short arm of chromosome 1, consistent with the position of the y (yellow) mutation known to result in colorless epidermis, and hence pink-colored fruit, when combined with a red flesh. Metabolic analysis showed that pink fruit lack the ripening-dependent accumulation of the yellow-colored flavonoid naringenin chalcone in the fruit peel, while carotenoid levels are not affected. The expression of all genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes involved in the production of the flavonol rutin from naringenin chalcone was down-regulated in pink fruit, suggesting that the candidate gene underlying the pink phenotype encodes a regulatory protein such as a transcription factor rather than a biosynthetic enzyme. Of 26 MYB and basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors putatively involved in regulating transcription of genes in the phenylpropanoid and/or flavonoid pathway, only the expression level of the MYB12 gene correlated well with the decrease in the expression of structural flavonoid genes in peel samples of pink- and red-fruited genotypes during ripening. Genetic mapping and segregation analysis showed that MYB12 is located on chromosome 1 and segregates perfectly with the characteristic pink fruit color. Virus-induced gene silencing of SlMYB12 resulted in a decrease in the accumulation of naringenin chalcone, a phenotype consistent with the pink-colored tomato fruit of IL1b. In conclusion, biochemical and molecular data, gene mapping, segregation analysis, and virus-induced gene silencing experiments demonstrate that the MYB12 transcription factor plays an important role in regulating the flavonoid pathway in tomato fruit

  15. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yanwei; Hu, Guojian; Breitel, Dario; Liu, Mingchun; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Fu, Yongyao; Aharoni, Asaph; Bouzayen, Mondher; Zouine, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2) which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato.

  16. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Hao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2 which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato.

  17. Effect heat stress on subcellular localization of Ca2+ in tomato fruits

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    Grażyna Garbaczewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compare the fruit cell ultrastructure and subcellular localization of Ca2+ after heat stress with the use of the potassium antimonate method (Slocum and Roux 1982, Tretyn et al. 1992. The tomato plants Robin cv., relatively tolerant to heat stress, were grown under uncontrolled greenhouse conditions to the stage of fruiting. The plants were placed for 20h in two temperature regimes: 23oC (optimal temperature or 40oC (heat stress in darkness, under water vapour saturated atmosphere. Immediately after heat stress the fruits were harvested to estimate water soluble and insoluble calcium contents and subcellular localization of Ca2+. After heating the concentration of calcium in tomato fruits increased about twice. In both temperature treatments the water soluble fractions were lower than insoluble ones at smaller differences between insoluble and soluble fractions after heat stress. The shapes and localization of Ca2+ detected with the use of potassium antimonate method show that in fruits of control plants the precipitates were numerous, small and of oval shape. They were dispersed in cytosol or adjoined to endoplasmic reticulum or to external membrane of chloroplast. In the fruit of heated plants the precipitates were irregular in shape, amorphous and singly dispersed in the cytosol. We observed also some cytological changes in the structure of membranes and organelles of the plants of both experimental treatments. The heat induced increase of calcium content and the changes in subcellular localization of Ca2+ under heat stress suggest that calcium ions may be involved in avoiding heat injury. The problem requires more detailed further investigations.

  18. Production and quality of tomato fruits under organic management Produção e qualidade dos frutos de cultivares de tomateiro, sob manejo orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora S Toledo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Information about the production and quality of tomato cultivars under organic management and the conditions of climate and soil from the north region of Minas Gerais State, Brasil, are scarce. Thus, this research was carried out to evaluate the production and quality of tomato cultivars under organic management, in this region. The treatments consisted of four open pollination tomato cultivars (Chadwick Cherry, Pitanga vermelha, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Kada and five hybrid cultivars (Marguerita, Nicolas, Ellen, Magestade and Dominador. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replications. The experiment was carried out using organic fertilization in the initial preparation of the area, compost and rock phosphate and sprays with Bordeaux mixture, neem oil and fertilizer. The marketable yield varied from 12.3 t ha-1 to 23.9 t ha-1. The hybrid Marguerita presented higher marketable production (23.9 t ha-1. The cultivars Chadwick Cherry and Pitanga Vermelha reached similar production as most cultivars and larger proportions of marketable and giant fruits, and therefore, better market quality. All the cultivars presented low potassium and manganese levels in foliar tissue suggesting an evaluation after various organic manuring cycles and better nutrition conditions are necessary to permit the comparison of the performance of cultivars in this system.Informações sobre a produção e qualidade de frutos de cultivares de tomateiro, sob manejo orgânico, nas condições de clima e solo do Norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil, são escassas. Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção e qualidade de frutos de cultivares de tomateiro, sob manejo orgânico, em Montes Claros-MG. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro cultivares de tomate de polinização livre (Chadwick Cherry, Pitanga Vermelha, Santa Clara e Santa Cruz Kada e cinco cultivares híbridos (Marguerita, Nícolas, Ellen, Majestade e Dominador. Foi utilizado o

  19. The chloroplast-to-chromoplast transition in tomato fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, Wanping

    2012-01-01

    L'un des phénomènes les plus importants survenus pendant la maturation du fruit de tomate est le changement de couleur du vert au rouge. Ce changement a lieu dans les plastes et correspond à la différenciation des plastes photosynthétiques, les chloroplastes, en plastes non-photosynthétiques qui accumulent des caroténoïdes, les chromoplastes. Dans cette thèse, nous présentons d'abord une introduction bibliographique sur le domaine de la transition chloroplaste-chromoplaste, en décrivant les m...

  20. Enhanced polyamine accumulation alters carotenoid metabolism at the transcriptional level in tomato fruit over-expressing spermidine synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neily, Mohamed Hichem; Matsukura, Chiaki; Maucourt, Mickaël; Bernillon, Stéphane; Deborde, Catherine; Moing, Annick; Yin, Yong-Gen; Saito, Takeshi; Mori, Kentaro; Asamizu, Erika; Rolin, Dominique; Moriguchi, Takaya; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-02-15

    Polyamines are involved in crucial plant physiological events, but their roles in fruit development remain unclear. We generated transgenic tomato plants that show a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in polyamine content by over-expressing the spermidine synthase gene, which encodes a key enzyme for polyamine biosynthesis. Pericarp-columella and placental tissue from transgenic tomato fruits were subjected to (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for untargeted metabolic profiling and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection for carotenoid profiling to determine the effects of high levels of polyamine accumulation on tomato fruit metabolism. A principal component analysis of the quantitative (1)H NMR data from immature green to red ripe fruit showed a clear discrimination between developmental stages, especially during ripening. Quantification of 37 metabolites in pericarp-columella and 41 metabolites in placenta tissues revealed distinct metabolic profiles between the wild type and transgenic lines, particularly at the late ripening stages. Notably, the transgenic tomato fruits also showed an increase in carotenoid accumulation, especially in lycopene (1.3- to 2.2-fold), and increased ethylene production (1.2- to 1.6-fold) compared to wild-type fruits. Genes responsible for lycopene biosynthesis, including phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, were significantly up-regulated in ripe transgenic fruits, whereas genes involved in lycopene degradation, including lycopene-epsilon cyclase and lycopene beta cyclase, were down-regulated in the transgenic fruits compared to the wild type. These results suggest that a high level of accumulation of polyamines in the tomato regulates the steady-state level of transcription of genes responsible for the lycopene metabolic pathway, which results in a higher accumulation of lycopene in the fruit.

  1. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling.

  2. Color and state of maturity of fruit of the husk tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Benito-Bautista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics that determine the state of maturity of the fruit of four varieties of husk tomato. One hundred fruits of the varieties: San Martin, Tecozautla 04, Rendidora, and Diamante, were collected. They were cultivated at a density of 40,000 plants/ha under experimental greenhouse conditions at the Interdisciplinary Research Center for Integrated Regional Development (CIIDIR, National Polytechnic Institute (IPN, in Oaxaca, Mexico. The plants were grown during the summer-autumn 2013 and spring-summer 2014 growing cycles. The husk filling and elapsed time since the fruit set were considered as indicators of harvest. Fruits were stored at room temperature (25 ± 3 °C, and each week 10 fruits of each variety were selected and analyzed for weight loss, penetration resistance, soluble solids, color, pH and titratable acidity. The statistic results indicate that color parameters a*, h * and color index (IC, were significantly high, and showed a high correlation with the physical and chemical properties for the state of maturation. The a* color coordinate presented the highest coefficient of correlation with fruit texture, followed by IC and h*. At the same time, a * and CI showed strong correlation with variables weight loss, titratable acidity, pH, and soluble solids. According to these results, the a* color parameter showed the greatest correlation with quality features, and varieties Tecozautla 04 and San Martin had the best quality characteristics.

  3. Differential expression of nuclear- and organelle-encoded genes during tomato fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechulla, B

    1988-12-01

    Steady-state mRNA levels of nuclear-and organelle-encoded genes were determined during fruit development and ripening. Transcripts specific for subunits of the mitochondrial and chloroplast ATPase complexes appear simultaneously and reach high levels two to three weeks after anthesis, but follow a different expression pattern during the ripening period. While the chloroplast-specific mRNA levels continuously decrease to low levels in ripe tomato fruits, the transcripts specific for two mitochondrial ATPase subunits continue to be present at relative high levels in red fruits. Transcript levels for the fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase increase significantly during ripening. Structural proteins such as the alpha-subunit of tubulin and the hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein extensin are expressed during maximal fruit growth. In addition, comparisons of mRNA levels of different genes in several plant organs (leaf, fruit, stem, and root) show characteristic differences. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that changes at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level during fruit development can be correlated with morphological and physiological alterations.

  4. Effect of Sodium Chloride on Fruit Ripening of the Nonripening Tomato Mutants nor and rin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Y; Zohar, R; Malis-Arad, S

    1982-02-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) plants of the nonripening mutant nor, the ripening-inhibited mutant rin, and the normal cultivar ;Rutgers' were grown in nutrient solution supplemented with 3 grams per liter NaCl from the time of anthesis. In plants treated with NaCl, all the ripening parameters of the fruits of the nor mutant increased, but those of the rin mutant did not. The ripening of the fruits of the NaCl-treated nor plants was characterized by the development of a red color and taste, increased pectolytic activity, and increased evolution of CO(2) and ethylene. These changes do not normally take place in nor under control conditions. The values of these ripening parameters in nor were lower than those of the normal Rutgers fruits. In addition, both in nor and rin and in the normal variety, exposure of the plants to NaCl shortened the developmental period of the fruit, decreased the fruit size, and increased the concentrations of total soluble solids, Na(+), Cl(-), reducing sugars, and titratable acids in the fruit. The role of NaCl in overcoming the inability of nor to ripen is discussed.

  5. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM) in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides), IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved), and control (no pesticide was applied). IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less ...

  6. Inhibition of chloroplastic fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase in tomato fruits leads to decreased fruit size, but only small changes in carbohydrate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obiadalla-Ali, H.; Fernie, A.R.; Lytovchenko, A.;

    2004-01-01

    A potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ) cDNA coding for the chloroplastic isoform of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (cp-FBPase) was utilized to repress its activity in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using antisense techniques. The patatin B33 promoter was used to ensure fruit specificity of the a......A potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ) cDNA coding for the chloroplastic isoform of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (cp-FBPase) was utilized to repress its activity in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using antisense techniques. The patatin B33 promoter was used to ensure fruit specificity...

  7. Relationships between fruit exocarp antioxidants in the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) high pigment-1 mutant during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Preston K.; Fahy, Deirdre A.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2004-04-01

    Development-dependent changes in fruit antioxidants were examined in the exocarp (epidermal and hypodermal tissues) of the monogenic recessive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) mutant high pigment (hp-1) and its wild-type parent 'Rutgers' grown under non-stress conditions in a greenhouse. The hp-1 mutant was chosen for this study because the reportedly higher lycopene and ascorbic acid (AsA) contents of the fruit may alter its tolerance to photooxidative stress. Throughout most of fruit development, reduced AsA concentrations in the exocarp of hp-1 were 1.5 to 2.0 times higher than in 'Rutgers', but total glutathione concentrations were similar in both genotypes. Only in ripe red fruit were reduced AsA and total glutathione concentrations lower in hp-1 than in 'Rutgers'. The redox ratios (reduced : reduced + oxidized) of AsA in hp-1 and 'Rutgers' exocarps were similar and usually > 0.9, however, the redox ratio of glutathione was lower in hp-1 than in 'Rutgers' throughout development. Lycopene concentrations in ripe red fruit were about 5 times higher in hp-1 than in 'Rutgers'. Large increases in the specific enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4) occurred during fruit development in both genotypes, with an inverse relationship between the activities of these enzymes and chlorophyll content. Glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) and MDHAR-specific activities were higher in hp-1 than 'Rutgers' only at the later stages of fruit development. Dehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.8.5.1) activities, however, were usually higher in 'Rugters' than in hp-1. Catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activities increased with fruit development until the fruit were orange/light red, when CAT was higher in 'Rutgers' than in hp-1, but then declined in the ripe red fruit of both genotypes. These results suggest that elevated AsA in the exocarp of hp-1 fruit early in fruit development may

  8. Differential expression of two genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase in tomato fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, D.C.; White, J.A.; Edelman, L.; Kende, H. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States)); Harkins, R.N. (Berlex Biosciences, Alameda, CA (United States))

    1991-06-15

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase is the regulated enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of the plant hormone ethylene. A full-length cDNA encoding this enzyme has been cloned from tomato fruits. The authors report here the complete nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences of a cDNA encoding a second isoform of ACC synthase from tomato fruits. The cDNAs coding for both isoforms contain highly conserved regions that are surrounded by regions of low homology, especially at the 5{prime} and 3{prime} ends. Gene-specific probes were constructed to examine the expression of transcripts encoding the two ACC synthase isoforms under two conditions of enhanced ethylene formation--namely, during fruit ripening and in response to mechanical stress (wounding). The level of mRNA encoding both isoforms, ACC synthase 1 and 2, increased during ripening. In contrast, wounding caused an increase in only the level of mRNA coding for ACC synthase 1. Blot analysis of genomic DNA digested with restriction enzymes confirmed that ACC synthase 1 and 2 are encoded by different genes.

  9. 硬果番茄新品种选育%On Breeding New Species of Hard-Fruit Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立永; 王国华; 尹庆珍; 杨辰海; 韩建会; 郄丽娟; 赵付江

    2013-01-01

    选取河北省农林科学院经济作物研究所新配置的16个番茄F1组合为试材,以国内生产上应用的中果型硬粉果品种冀番135为对照,利用质构仪研究了上述番茄生长过程中质构硬度的变化.结果表明:不同生长阶段番茄果实硬度差异显著;16个不同番茄F1青果期和红果期果实硬度差异显著;番茄F1红果期果实硬度与青果期果实硬度极显著正相关;番茄F113#在青果期和红果期硬度都最大,并且在采后贮藏期其果实硬度比国内生产上应用的中果型硬粉果品种冀番135的大,耐贮运性能好,是硬粉果番茄选育的理想品种.%The hardness of tomato fruit is an important indicator of storability and breeding.In the project,the change of hardness degree in the growth process of the above tomato has been studied with the texture analyzer,with 16 tomato F1 combination newly bred by the Institute of Cash Crops of Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences as the test materials,with the small-fruited hard powder fruit variety of JF 135 that has been applied in the domestic production as the control.The results show that the tomato fruits in the different growth stages show significant difference in hardness; 16 different tomatoes F1 show significant difference in hardness in the green fruit period and the red fruit period; tomato F1 13# has the greatest hardness in the green fruit period and the red fruit period,it has greater hardness in the post-harvest storage period than that of the small-fruited hard powder fruit variety of JF 135 that has been applied in the domestic production,and it has good storability and transport performance,thus it is the ideal bred variety of hard powder fruit tomato.

  10. Transcriptional Activity of the MADS Box ARLEQUIN/TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 Gene Is Required for Cuticle Development of Tomato Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Estela; Dominguez, Eva; Pineda, Benito; Heredia, Antonio; Moreno, Vicente; Lozano, Rafael; Angosto, Trinidad

    2015-07-01

    Fruit development and ripening entail key biological and agronomic events, which ensure the appropriate formation and dispersal of seeds and determine productivity and yield quality traits. The MADS box gene Arlequin/tomato Agamous-like1 (hereafter referred to as TAGL1) was reported as a key regulator of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) reproductive development, mainly involved in flower development, early fruit development, and ripening. It is shown here that silencing of the TAGL1 gene (RNA interference lines) promotes significant changes affecting cuticle development, mainly a reduction of thickness and stiffness, as well as a significant decrease in the content of cuticle components (cutin, waxes, polysaccharides, and phenolic compounds). Accordingly, overexpression of TAGL1 significantly increased the amount of cuticle and most of its components while rendering a mechanically weak cuticle. Expression of the genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis agreed with the biochemical and biomechanical features of cuticles isolated from transgenic fruits; it also indicated that TAGL1 participates in the transcriptional control of cuticle development mediating the biosynthesis of cuticle components. Furthermore, cell morphology and the arrangement of epidermal cell layers, on whose activity cuticle formation depends, were altered when TAGL1 was either silenced or constitutively expressed, indicating that this transcription factor regulates cuticle development, probably through the biosynthetic activity of epidermal cells. Our results also support cuticle development as an integrated event in the fruit expansion and ripening processes that characterize fleshy-fruited species such as tomato.

  11. A novel strategy to produce sweeter tomato fruits with high sugar contents by fruit-specific expression of a single bZIP transcription factor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagor, G H M; Berberich, Thomas; Tanaka, Shun; Nishiyama, Manabu; Kanayama, Yoshinori; Kojima, Seiji; Muramoto, Koji; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2016-04-01

    Enhancement of sugar content and sweetness is desirable in some vegetables and in almost all fruits; however, biotechnological methods to increase sugar content are limited. Here, a completely novel methodological approach is presented that produces sweeter tomato fruits but does not have any negative effects on plant growth. Sucrose-induced repression of translation (SIRT), which is mediated by upstream open reading frames (uORFs), was initially reported in Arabidopsis AtbZIP11, a class S basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor gene. Here, two AtbZIP11 orthologous genes, SlbZIP1 and SlbZIP2, were identified in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). SlbZIP1 and SlbZIP2 contained four and three uORFs, respectively, in the cDNA 5'-leader regions. The second uORFs from the 5' cDNA end were conserved and involved in SIRT. Tomato plants were transformed with binary vectors in which only the main open reading frames (ORFs) of SlbZIP1 and SlbZIP2, without the SIRT-responsive uORFs, were placed under the control of the fruit-specific E8 promoter. Growth and morphology of the resulting transgenic tomato plants were comparable to those of wild-type plants. Transgenic fruits were approximately 1.5-fold higher in sugar content (sucrose/glucose/fructose) than nontransgenic tomato fruits. In addition, the levels of several amino acids, such as asparagine and glutamine, were higher in transgenic fruits than in wild-type fruits. This was expected because SlbZIP transactivates the asparagine synthase and proline dehydrogenase genes. This 'sweetening' technology is broadly applicable to other plants that utilize sucrose as a major translocation sugar.

  12. A visual reporter system for virus-induced gene silencing in tomato fruit based on anthocyanin accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzaez, Diego; Medina, Aurora; Torre, Sara; Fernández-Moreno, Josefina Patricia; Rambla, José Luis; Fernández-Del-Carmen, Asun; Butelli, Eugenio; Martin, Cathie; Granell, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for reverse genetics in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, the irregular distribution of the effects of VIGS hampers the identification and quantification of nonvisual phenotypes. To overcome this limitation, a visually traceable VIGS system was developed for fruit, comprising two elements: (1) a transgenic tomato line (Del/Ros1) expressing Antirrhinum majus Delila and Rosea1 transcription factors under the control of the fruit-specific E8 promoter, showing a purple-fruited, anthocyanin-rich phenotype; and (2) a modified tobacco rattle virus VIGS vector incorporating partial Rosea1 and Delila sequences, which was shown to restore the red-fruited phenotype upon agroinjection in Del/Ros1 plants. Dissection of silenced areas for subsequent chemometric analysis successfully identified the relevant metabolites underlying gene function for three tomato genes, phytoene desaturase, TomloxC, and SlODO1, used for proof of concept. The C-6 aldehydes derived from lipid 13-hydroperoxidation were found to be the volatile compounds most severely affected by TomloxC silencing, whereas geranial and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one were identified as the volatiles most severely reduced by phytoene desaturase silencing in ripening fruit. In a third example, silencing of SlODO1, a tomato homolog of the ODORANT1 gene encoding a myb transcription factor, which regulates benzenoid metabolism in petunia (Petunia hybrida) flowers, resulted in a sharp accumulation of benzaldehyde in tomato fruit. Together, these results indicate that fruit VIGS, enhanced by anthocyanin monitoring, can be a powerful tool for reverse genetics in the study of the metabolic networks operating during fruit ripening.

  13. The impact of organic farming on quality of tomatoes is associated to increased oxidative stress during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Aurelice B; Moura, Carlos F H; Gomes-Filho, Enéas; Marco, Claudia A; Urban, Laurent; Miranda, Maria Raquel A

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted with the objective of testing the hypothesis that tomato fruits from organic farming accumulate more nutritional compounds, such as phenolics and vitamin C as a consequence of the stressing conditions associated with farming system. Growth was reduced in fruits from organic farming while titratable acidity, the soluble solids content and the concentrations in vitamin C were respectively +29%, +57% and +55% higher at the stage of commercial maturity. At that time, the total phenolic content was +139% higher than in the fruits from conventional farming which seems consistent with the more than two times higher activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) we observed throughout fruit development in fruits from organic farming. Cell membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO) degree was 60% higher in organic tomatoes. SOD activity was also dramatically higher in the fruits from organic farming. Taken together, our observations suggest that tomato fruits from organic farming experienced stressing conditions that resulted in oxidative stress and the accumulation of higher concentrations of soluble solids as sugars and other compounds contributing to fruit nutritional quality such as vitamin C and phenolic compounds.

  14. Role of the Tomato Non-Ripening Mutation in Regulating Fruit Quality Elucidated Using iTRAQ Protein Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin-Yu; Wang, Rui-Heng; Zhao, Xiao-Dan; Luo, Yun-Bo; Fu, Da-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Natural mutants of the Non-ripening (Nor) gene repress the normal ripening of tomato fruit. The molecular mechanism of fruit ripening regulation by the Nor gene is unclear. To elucidate how the Nor gene can affect ripening and fruit quality at the protein level, we used the fruits of Nor mutants and wild-type Ailsa Craig (AC) to perform iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) analysis. The Nor mutation altered tomato fruit ripening and affected quality in various respects, including ethylene biosynthesis by down-regulating the abundance of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO), pigment biosynthesis by repressing phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1), ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO), chalcone synthase 1 (CHS1) and other proteins, enhancing fruit firmness by increasing the abundance of cellulose synthase protein, while reducing those of polygalacturonase 2 (PG2) and pectate lyase (PL), altering biosynthesis of nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and anthocyanins. Conversely, Nor mutation also enhanced the fruit’s resistance to some pathogens by up-regulating the expression of several genes associated with stress and defense. Therefore, the Nor gene is involved in the regulation of fruit ripening and quality. It is useful in the future as a means to improve fruit quality in tomato. PMID:27732677

  15. The Impact of Organic Farming on Quality of Tomatoes Is Associated to Increased Oxidative Stress during Fruit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Aurelice B.; Moura, Carlos F. H.; Gomes-Filho, Enéas; Marco, Claudia A.; Urban, Laurent; Miranda, Maria Raquel A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted with the objective of testing the hypothesis that tomato fruits from organic farming accumulate more nutritional compounds, such as phenolics and vitamin C as a consequence of the stressing conditions associated with farming system. Growth was reduced in fruits from organic farming while titratable acidity, the soluble solids content and the concentrations in vitamin C were respectively +29%, +57% and +55% higher at the stage of commercial maturity. At that time, the total phenolic content was +139% higher than in the fruits from conventional farming which seems consistent with the more than two times higher activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) we observed throughout fruit development in fruits from organic farming. Cell membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO) degree was 60% higher in organic tomatoes. SOD activity was also dramatically higher in the fruits from organic farming. Taken together, our observations suggest that tomato fruits from organic farming experienced stressing conditions that resulted in oxidative stress and the accumulation of higher concentrations of soluble solids as sugars and other compounds contributing to fruit nutritional quality such as vitamin C and phenolic compounds. PMID:23437115

  16. Fruit-specific RNAi-mediated suppression of SlNCED1 increases both lycopene and β-carotene contents in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Yuan, Bing; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Ling; Cui, Mengmeng; Wang, Qi; Leng, Ping

    2012-05-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles during tomato fruit ripening. To study the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis by ABA, the SlNCED1 gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthesis, was suppressed in tomato plants by transformation with an RNA interference (RNAi) construct driven by a fruit-specific E8 promoter. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1 transcript levels in the transgenic fruit were down-regulated to between 20-50% of that in control fruit. This significant reduction in NCED activity led to the carbon that normally channels to free ABA as well as the ABA metabolite accumulation during ripening to be partially blocked. Therefore, this 'backlogged' carbon transformed into the carotenoid pathway in the RNAi lines resulted in increased assimilation and accumulation of upstream compounds in the pathway, chiefly lycopene and β-carotene. Fruit of all RNAi lines displayed deep red coloration compared with the pink colour of control fruit. The decrease in endogenous ABA in these transgenics resulted in an increase in ethylene, by increasing the transcription of genes related to the synthesis of ethylene during ripening. In conclusion, ABA potentially regulated the degree of pigmentation and carotenoid composition during ripening and could control, at least in part, ethylene production and action in climacteric tomato fruit.

  17. Reduced levels of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase decrease the glutamate content of ripe tomato fruit but have no effect on green fruit or leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Gisela; D'Angelo, Matilde; Sulpice, Ronan; Stitt, Mark; Valle, Estela M

    2015-06-01

    Glutamate (Glu) is a taste enhancer that contributes to the characteristic flavour of foods. In fruit of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), the Glu content increases dramatically during the ripening process, becoming the most abundant free amino acid when the fruit become red. There is also a concomitant increase in NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity during the ripening transition. This enzyme is located in the mitochondria and catalyses the reversible amination of 2-oxoglutarate to Glu. To investigate the potential effect of GDH on Glu metabolism, the abundance of GDH was altered by artificial microRNA technology. Efficient silencing of all the endogenous SlGDH genes was achieved, leading to a dramatic decrease in total GDH activity. This decrease in GDH activity did not lead to any clear morphological or metabolic phenotype in leaves or green fruit. However, red fruit on the transgenic plants showed markedly reduced levels of Glu and a large increase in aspartate, glucose and fructose content in comparison to wild-type fruit. These results suggest that GDH is involved in the synthesis of Glu in tomato fruit during the ripening processes. This contrasts with the biological role ascribed to GDH in many other tissues and species. Overall, these findings suggest that GDH has a major effect on the control of metabolic composition during tomato fruit ripening, but not at other stages of development.

  18. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and quality maintenance of cherry tomatoes treated with gaseous essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils (EOs) from cinnamon bark, oregano, mustard and of their major components cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, and allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) were evaluated as a gaseous treatment to reduce Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in vitro and on tomatoes. In dif...

  19. Exploiting genomics resources to identify candidate genes underlying antioxidants content in tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eCalafiore

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The tomato is a model species for fleshy fruit development and ripening, as well as for genomics studies of others Solanaceae. Many genetic and genomics resources, including databases for sequencing, transcriptomics and metabolomics data, have been developed and are today available. The purpose of the present work was to uncover new genes and/or alleles that determine ascorbic acid and carotenoids accumulation, by exploiting one Solanum pennellii introgression lines (IL7-3 harboring quantitative trait loci (QTL that increase the content of these metabolite in the fruit. The higher ascorbic acid and carotenoids content in IL7-3 was confirmed at three fruit developmental stages. The tomato genome reference sequence and the recently released S. pennellii genome sequence were investigated to identify candidate genes that might control ascorbic acid and carotenoids accumulation. First of all, a refinement of the wild region borders in the IL7-3 was achieved by analyzing CAPS markers designed in our laboratory. Afterwards, six candidate genes associated to ascorbic acid and one with carotenoids metabolism were identified exploring the annotation and the Gene Ontology terms of genes included in the region. Variants between the sequence of the wild and the cultivated alleles of these genes were investigated for their functional relevance and their potential effects on the protein sequences were predicted. Transcriptional levels of candidate genes in the introgression region were extracted from RNA-Seq data available for the entire S. pennellii introgression lines collection and verified by Real-Time qPCR. Finally, seven IL7-3 sub-lines were genotyped using 28 species-specific markers and then were evaluated for metabolites content. These analyses evidenced a significant decrease in transcript abundance for one 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and one L-ascorbate oxidase homolog, whose role in the accumulation of carotenoids and ascorbic acid is

  20. Mannosyl- and Xylosyl-Containing Glycans Promote Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priem, B; Gross, K C

    1992-01-01

    The oligosaccharide glycans mannosylalpha1-6(mannosylalpha1-3)mannosylalpha1-6(mannosylalpha1-3) mannosylbeta1-4-N-acetylglucosamine and mannosylalpha1-6(mannosylalpha1-3)(xylosylbeta1-2) mannosylbeta1-4-N-acetylglucosaminyl(fucosylalpha1-3) N-acetylglucosamine were infiltrated into mature green tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv Rutgers). Coinfiltration of 1 nanogram per gram fresh weight of the glycans with 40 micrograms per gram fresh weight galactose, a level of galactose insufficient to promote ripening, stimulated ripening as measured by red coloration and ethylene production.

  1. PREDICTION OF DAYS AFTER ANTHESIS OF DEVELOPING TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM FRUIT FROM BLOSSOM-END CHANGES IN COLOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiznado-Hernández Martín Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of mathematical models to predict the physiological status of a developing fruit can be a useful tool to reduce the variation in fruit response to postharvest treatments. The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to predict Days After Anthesis (DAA in tomato fruit from changes in the blossom end color. Around 160 tomato flowers from 40 plants of a tomato cultivar ‘Rutgers’ and the nearly isogenic line tomato ripening mutant rin were tagged after artificial pollination and allowed to fruit set. The quantification of color was done from 5 to 85 DAA every 5 days in the tomato fruit blossom-end of both ‘Rutgers’ and mutant rin using a a Minolta chroma meter CR-300 set in the L*, a* and b* color space. The predictive model was developed using the stepwise procedure in forward selection with DAA as the response variable and all the possible combinations between the next group of regressor: L*, a* and b*, square L*, a* and b*, chroma and Hue angle calculated from measured a* and b* values. It was used the F statistic, mean square error, coefficient of determination, Mallows coefficient and distribution of residuals around zero as indicators of model prediction’s efficiency. Correlation coefficients between the different variables measured and the DAA were calculated. The reliability of the statistical analysis was tested by using the nearly isogenic line of ‘Rutgers’: The non-ripening mutant rin as a comparative control. It was concluded that the statistical procedure used is robust and sensitive enough to identify data not suitable for developing a good predictive model. Also, it is possible to predict the days after anthesis of a developing tomato fruit from changes in the blossom-end color with almost 80% of accuracy.

  2. Effect of nano-composite and Thyme oil (Tymus Vulgaris L) coating on fruit quality of sweet cherry (Takdaneh Cv) during storage period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabifarkhani, Naser; Sharifani, Mehdi; Daraei Garmakhany, Amir; Ganji Moghadam, Ebrahim; Shakeri, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Sweet cherry is one of the most appreciated fruit by consumers since it is an early season fruit and has an excellent quality. In this study effect of active nano composite formed from chitosan (as a matrix material), nano cellulose fiber (1% concentration) and Thyme oils (Tymus Vulgaris L) at 1% concentration on fruits quality was investigated. Treated fruits were stored at 1°C for 5 weeks and changes of different qualities attributes including weight loss, total acidity, TSS, anthocyanin, total sugar and malic acid content (by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method) were measured each week. Results showed that nano composite and Thyme oil significantly affect fruit's water retention and so decrease fruit weight loss and preserve anthocyanin (P < 0.05). None of applied treatments had any significant effects in comparison with control in regard to acidity while total sugar content and TSS significantly affected by treatment compared to control samples. Result of HPLC analysis showed that there was no significant difference between different treatment and control sample in term of malic acid concentrations during storage period but increase storage time lead to increase malic acid concentration in all treatments. For conclusion it can be Saied that fruits coating with nano-composite, lead to increase fruit shelf life, better appearance and prevents fungal growth that may be due to creation of an active packaging by these compounds.

  3. Purification and chemical characterisation of a cell wall-associated β-galactosidase from mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Carmela; Blando, Federica; Santino, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    Using four different chromatographic steps, β-galactosidase was purified from the ripe fruit of sweet cherry to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with approximately 131-fold purification. The Prunus avium β-galactosidase showed an apparent molecular mass of about 100 kDa and consisted of four different active polypeptides with pIs of about 7.9, 7.4, 6.9 and 6.4 as estimated by native IEF and β-galactosidase-activity staining. The active polypeptides were individually excised from the gel and subjected to SDS-PAGE. Each of the four native enzymes showing β-galactosidase activity was composed of two polypeptides with an estimated mass of 54 and 33 kDa. Both of these polypeptides were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The 54 kDa polypeptide of sweet cherry β-galactosidase showed a 43% identity with the 44 kDa subunit of persimmon and apple β-galactosidases and the 48 kDa subunit of carambola galactosidase I. The sweet cherry β-galactosidase exhibited a strict specificity towards p-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside, a pH optimum of 4.0 and K(m) and V(max) values of 0.42 mM and 4.12 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein respectively with this substrate. The enzyme was also active towards complex glycans. Taken together the results of this study prompted a role for this class of enzymes on sweet cherry fruit ripening and softening.

  4. Changing ribulose diphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity in ripening tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravdo, B A; Palgi, A; Lurie, S

    1977-08-01

    Tomato fruit (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) from green, pink, and red stages were assayed for changes in the activity of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase and oxygenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, changes in the levels of glycolate and respiratory gas exchange. The ribulose diphosphate carboxylase activity decreased as the fruit ripened. By comparison, the ribulose diphosphate oxygenase activity increased during the transition from the green to the pink stage, and declined afterward. The changes in the endogenous glycolate levels and the respiratory gas exchange, as observed at different stages of ripening, resembled the changes in the ribulose diphosphate oxygenase activity. The utilization of glycolate in further metabolic activity may result in the formation of peroxidases required for the onset of ripening.

  5. Transcriptional regulation of fruit ripening by tomato FRUITFULL homologs and associated MADS box proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Shima, Yoko; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Kimbara, Junji; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS box FRUITFULL homologs FUL1 and FUL2 act as key ripening regulators and interact with the master regulator MADS box protein RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN). Here, we report the large-scale identification of direct targets of FUL1 and FUL2 by transcriptome analysis of FUL1/FUL2 suppressed fruits and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with microarray analysis (ChIP-chip) targeting tomato gene promoters. The ChIP-chip and transcriptome analysis identified FUL1/FUL2 target genes that contain at least one genomic region bound by FUL1 or FUL2 (regions that occur mainly in their promoters) and exhibit FUL1/FUL2-dependent expression during ripening. These analyses identified 860 direct FUL1 targets and 878 direct FUL2 targets; this set of genes includes both direct targets of RIN and nontargets of RIN. Functional classification of the FUL1/FUL2 targets revealed that these FUL homologs function in many biological processes via the regulation of ripening-related gene expression, both in cooperation with and independent of RIN. Our in vitro assay showed that the FUL homologs, RIN, and tomato AGAMOUS-LIKE1 form DNA binding complexes, suggesting that tetramer complexes of these MADS box proteins are mainly responsible for the regulation of ripening.

  6. Effect of selenium on control of postharvest gray mould of tomato fruit and the possible mechanisms involved

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    Zhilin eWu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has important benefits for crop growth and stress tolerance at low concentrations. However, there is very little information on antimicrobial effect of selenium against the economically important fungus Botrytis cinerea. In the present study, using sodium selenite as Se source, we investigated the effect of Se salts on spore germination and mycelial growth of the fungal pathogen in vitro and gray mould control in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L significantly inhibited spore germination of the fungal pathogen and effectively controlled gray mould in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L seems to induce the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in the fungal spores. The membrane integrity damage was observed with fluorescence microscopy following staining with propidium iodide after treatment of the spores with Se. These results suggest that Se has the potential for controlling gray mould rot of tomato fruits and might be useful in integrated control against gray mould disease of postharvest fruits and vegetables caused by B. cinerea. The mechanisms by which Se decreased gray mould decay of tomato fruit may be directly related to the severe damage to the conidia plasma membrane and loss of cytoplasmic materials from the hyphae.

  7. Accumulation of free polyamines enhances the antioxidant response in fruits of grafted tomato plants under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, E; Romero, L; Ruiz, J M

    2016-01-15

    Polyamines, small aliphatic polycations, have been suggested to play key roles in a number of biological processes. In this paper, attempts were made to investigate the possibility of improving antioxidant response of tomato fruits in relation with endogenous free polyamines content. We studied the reactive oxygen species and polyamines content, and antioxidant and polyamine-biosynthesis enzyme activities in fruits of ungrafted and grafted tomato plants under moderate water stress. We used a drought-tolerant cultivar (Zarina) and drought-sensitive cultivar (Josefina) to obtain reciprocal graft, selfgraft and ungraft plants. Fruits contained higher endogenous polyamine content during the course of the experiment relative to the control, coupled with higher arginine decarboxylase and spermine synthase activities in Zarina ungrafted and ZarxJos. In these cultivars, tomato fruits showed a lower reactive oxygen species generation and higher catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, suggesting that a higher content in polyamines (especially spermine) exerted a positive effect on antioxidant systems. All of these data suggest that spermine leads to more effective reactive oxygen species scavenging (less tissue damage) in tomato fruits, which may function collectively to enhance dehydration tolerance.

  8. Inhibition of CUTIN DEFICIENT 2 Causes Defects in Cuticle Function and Structure and Metabolite Changes in Tomato Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbara, Junji; Yoshida, Miho; Ito, Hirotaka; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Takada, Wataru; Hayashi, Kayoko; Shibutani, Yusuke; Kusano, Miyako; Okazaki, Yozo; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Mori, Tetsuya; Saito, Kazuki; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit cuticle has been extensively studied due to its effect on the biochemical and physiological properties of the fruit. To date, several tomato mutants defective in proper cuticle formation have been identified. To gain insight into tomato cuticle formation, we investigated one such mutant, sticky peel/light green (pe lg). We verified the responsible gene by fine mapping and obtained the same conclusion as a previous report. To elucidate the pleiotropic effects of cuticle deficiency caused by the cd2 mutation, CD2 suppression lines were constructed. As found in the pe lg mutant, the suppression lines showed enhanced water permeability and aberrant leaf and fruit cuticles. Water use efficiency of the suppression line was lower than that of the wild type. However, photosynthetic ability was not affected in the suppression line. Since these phenotypes are related to altered deposition of wax and cutin, other lipidic metabolites might be changed, too. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted metabolite profiling. The metabolite profiling revealed that not only lipid but also sugar, flavonoid and glycoalkaloid metabolites in fruit were changed in the cd2 mutant. These results indicate that CD2 is essential both for normal cutin and wax deposition and for proper accumulation of specific metabolites in tomato fruit.

  9. Precursor uptake assays and metabolic analyses in isolated tomato fruit chromoplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angaman Djédoux

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are the most widespread group of pigments found in nature. In addition to their role in the physiology of the plant, carotenoids also have nutritional relevance as their incorporation in the human diet provides health benefits. In non-photosynthetic tissues, carotenoids are synthesized and stored in specialized plastids called chromoplasts. At present very little is known about the origin of the metabolic precursors and cofactors required to sustain the high rate of carotenoid biosynthesis in these plastids. Recent proteomic data have revealed a number of biochemical and metabolic processes potentially operating in fruit chromoplasts. However, considering that chloroplast to chromoplast differentiation is a very rapid process during fruit ripening, there is the possibility that some of the proteins identified in the proteomic analysis could represent remnants no longer having a functional role in chromoplasts. Therefore, experimental validation is necessary to prove whether these predicted processes are actually operative in chromoplasts. Results A method has been established for high-yield purification of tomato fruit chromoplasts suitable for metabolic studies. Radiolabeled precursors were efficiently incorporated and further metabolized in isolated chromoplast. Analysis of labeled lipophilic compounds has revealed that lipid biosynthesis is a very efficient process in chromoplasts, while the relatively low incorporation levels found in carotenoids suggest that lipid production may represent a competing pathway for carotenoid biosynthesis. Malate and pyruvate are efficiently converted into acetyl-CoA, in agreement with the active operation of the malic enzyme and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the chromoplast. Our results have also shown that isolated chromoplasts can actively sustain anabolic processes without the exogenous supply of ATP, thus suggesting that these organelles may generate this energetic

  10. Influence of Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes at 590 nm on Storage of Apple, Tomato and Bell Pepper Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Doris; Hribar, Janez; Cigić, Blaž; Zlatić, Emil; Demšar, Lea; Sinkovič, Lovro; Šircelj, Helena; Bizjak, Grega; Vidrih, Rajko

    2016-01-01

    Summary The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of irradiation from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on several fruits during storage. To improve storage and increase the contents of some bioactive compounds, apple, tomato and red bell pepper fruits were exposed to yellow light emitted from the diodes at 590 nm. The contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics, total flavonoids and several pigments were investigated, along with the antioxidant potential. The colour parameters (L*, a* and b*) and firmness of the fruit were also determined. After 7 days of LED light irradiation, there was significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant potential in apple peel extracts. The irradiated fruit of tomato had significantly higher levels of total phenolic compounds, and the fruit of red bell pepper had significantly higher antioxidant potential. LED light had no effects on the colour parameters, although there was a tendency to accelerate colour development. Apple fruit irradiated with LED light was significantly less firm. Among twelve analysed pigments, significantly more β-carotene was detected in LED light-irradiated apple and bell pepper fruit, more α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol in bell pepper fruit, and more lutein in apple peel and bell pepper fruit. The applied LED light slightly accelerated the ripening of the studied fruit, and affected the synthesis of some of the secondary metabolites. PMID:27904413

  11. Tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.

    2005-01-01

    Tomatoes are one of the most widely produced and consumed horticultural crops in the world, both for the fresh produce market and the processed food industries. This book describes the scientific principles underlying the biology and production of the tomato crop, both in the open field and in green

  12. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A Breitel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A, a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA. Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1 protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process.

  13. Polycomb-group protein SlMSI1 represses the expression of fruit-ripening genes to prolong shelf life in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Li-Jie; Fang, Mou-Jing; Dong, Qing-Long; An, Xiu-Hong; You, Chun-Xiang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2016-08-25

    Polycomb-group (PcG) protein MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA1 (MSI1) protein is an evolutionarily conserved developmental suppressor and plays a crucial role in regulating epigenetic modulations. However, the potential role and function of MSI1 in fleshy fruits remain unknown. In this study, SlMSI1 was cloned and transformed into tomato to explore its function. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that SlMSI1 was highly expressed in flowers and fruits and that its transcript and protein levels were significantly decreased in fruits after the breaker stage. Additionally, SlMSI1-overexpressing transgenic tomatoes displayed abnormal non-ripening fruit formation, whereas its suppression promoted fruit ripening in transgenic tomatoes. Quantitative real-time PCR assays also showed that RIN and its regulons were decreased in SlMSI1 overexpression transgenic tomato fruits. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that SlMSI1 inhibits fruit ripening by negatively regulating a large set of fruit-ripening genes in addition to RIN and its regulons. Finally, genetic manipulation of SlMSI1 and RIN successfully prolonged the fruit shelf life by regulating the fruit-ripening genes in tomato. Our findings reveal a novel regulatory function of SlMSI1 in fruit ripening and provide a new regulator that may be useful for genetic engineering and modification of fruit shelf life.

  14. 樱桃番茄保鲜条件优化及各指标在贮藏期的动态变化%Optimize the Fresh-keeping Condition of Cherry Tomato and the Dynamic Changes of Physiological and Biochemical Index during Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文学; 尹明安; 聂路

    2012-01-01

    以陕西关中地区主栽樱桃番茄品种“碧娇、粉玫瑰、圣桃”为试材,采用正交试验设计L9(34)优化樱桃番茄的保鲜条件,研究品种、成熟度、1-MCP体积分数和处理时间对樱桃番茄保鲜的影响.用模糊数学的方法对各指标进行归一化,得到综合评定指数,此基础上进行正交分析,并对正交试验9个处理的樱桃番茄在贮藏期的生理生化指标进行动态研究和显著性分析.正交试验结果表明,最优组合为处理4,即粉玫瑰于顶红期用50 nL/L 1-MCP处理24 h,在此条件下樱桃番茄的综合品质评定指数最高,且品种、成熟度、1-MCP体积分数和1-MCP处理时间4个因素对樱桃番茄综合品质评定指数的影响均达到极显著.动态研究和显著性分析结果表明,处理4在硬度、色度、可溶性固形物以及番茄红素含量上都显著的优于其他处理.%Orthogonal design was used to optimize the fresh-keeping condition of cherry tomato in this study. Cherry Tomato Fruits of three varieties were used to investigate the best fresh-keeping condition and dynamic changes of physiological and biochemical index during storage. Fruit firmness, fruit colar, respiration rate, total soluble solids, mass loss and lycopene content were measured at room temperature. The comprehensive index was obtained by way of fuzzy weight method. Dynamic changes and significant analysis were conducted upon that. Results indicated that optimum fresh-keeping condition was: variety "Fenmeigui"; maturity stage "pink-top"; volume fraction of 1-MCP "50 Nl/L" and treatment time "24 h". Under these conditions,the preservative effect on cherry tomatoes was the best. Treatment 4 was significantly better than other treatments on fruit firmness, fruit colar, total soluble solids and lycopene content.

  15. Activity and functional interaction of alternative oxidase and uncoupling protein in mitochondria from tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Sluse

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase (AOX is not limited to plant mitochondria and is widespread among several types of protists. The uncoupling protein (UCP is much more widespread than previously believed, not only in tissues of higher animals but also in plants and in an amoeboid protozoan. The redox energy-dissipating pathway (AOX and the proton electrochemical gradient energy-dissipating pathway (UCP lead to the same final effect, i.e., a decrease in ATP synthesis and an increase in heat production. Studies with green tomato fruit mitochondria show that both proteins are present simultaneously in the membrane. This raises the question of a specific physiological role for each energy-dissipating system and of a possible functional connection between them (shared regulation. Linoleic acid, an abundant free fatty acid in plants which activates UCP, strongly inhibits cyanide-resistant respiration mediated by AOX. Moreover, studies of the evolution of AOX and UCP protein expression and of their activities during post-harvest ripening of tomato fruit show that AOX and plant UCP work sequentially: AOX activity decreases in early post-growing stages and UCP activity is decreased in late ripening stages. Electron partitioning between the alternative oxidase and the cytochrome pathway as well as H+ gradient partitioning between ATP synthase and UCP can be evaluated by the ADP/O method. This method facilitates description of the kinetics of energy-dissipating pathways and of ATP synthase when state 3 respiration is decreased by limitation of oxidizable substrate.

  16. Quantitative Evaluation of Surface Color of Tomato Fruits Cultivated in Remote Farm Using Digital Camera Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Atsushi; Suehara, Ken-Ichiro; Kameoka, Takaharu

    To measure the quantitative surface color information of agricultural products with the ambient information during cultivation, a color calibration method for digital camera images and a remote monitoring system of color imaging using the Web were developed. Single-lens reflex and web digital cameras were used for the image acquisitions. The tomato images through the post-ripening process were taken by the digital camera in both the standard image acquisition system and in the field conditions from the morning to evening. Several kinds of images were acquired with the standard RGB color chart set up just behind the tomato fruit on a black matte, and a color calibration was carried out. The influence of the sunlight could be experimentally eliminated, and the calibrated color information consistently agreed with the standard ones acquired in the system through the post-ripening process. Furthermore, the surface color change of the tomato on the tree in a greenhouse was remotely monitored during maturation using the digital cameras equipped with the Field Server. The acquired digital color images were sent from the Farm Station to the BIFE Laboratory of Mie University via VPN. The time behavior of the tomato surface color change during the maturing process could be measured using the color parameter calculated based on the obtained and calibrated color images along with the ambient atmospheric record. This study is a very important step in developing the surface color analysis for both the simple and rapid evaluation of the crop vigor in the field and to construct an ambient and networked remote monitoring system for food security, precision agriculture, and agricultural research.

  17. Transport Properties of the Tomato Fruit Tonoplast : III. Temperature Dependence of Calcium Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, D C; Cramer, G R; Reid, M S; Bennett, A B

    1988-12-01

    Calcium transport into tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, cv Castlemart) fruit tonoplast vesicles was studied. Calcium uptake was stimulated approximately 10-fold by MgATP. Two ATP-dependent Ca(2+) transport activities could be resolved on the basis of sensitivity to nitrate and affinity for Ca(2+). A low affinity Ca(2+) uptake system (K(m) > 200 micromolar) was inhibited by nitrate and ionophores and is thought to represent a tonoplast localized H(+)/Ca(2+) antiport. A high affinity Ca(2+) uptake system (K(m) = 6 micromolar) was not inhibited by nitrate, had reduced sensitivity to ionophores, and appeared to be associated with a population of low density endoplasmic reticulum vesicles that contaminated the tonoplast-enriched membrane fraction. Arrhenius plots of the temperature dependence of Ca(2+) transport in tomato membrane vesicles showed a sharp increase in activation energy at temperatures below 10 to 12 degrees C that was not observed in red beet membrane vesicles. This low temperature effect on tonoplast Ca(2+)/H(+) antiport activity could only by partially ascribed to an effect of low temperature on H(+)-ATPase activity, ATP-dependent H(+) transport, passive H(+) fluxes, or passive Ca(2+) fluxes. These results suggest that low temperature directly affects Ca(2+)/H(+) exchange across the tomato fruit tonoplast, resulting in an apparent change in activation energy for the transport reaction. This could result from a direct effect of temperature on the Ca(2+)/H(+) exchange protein or by an indirect effect of temperature on lipid interactions with the Ca(2+)/H(+) exchange protein.

  18. Effects of the Lycopersicon chmielewskii sucrose accumulator gene (sucr) on fruit yield and quality parameters following introgression into tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetelat, R T; Deverna, J W; Bennett, A B

    1995-07-01

    A gene controlling fruit sucrose accumulation, sucr, was introgressed from the wild tomato species Lycopersicon chmielewskii into the genetic background of a hexose-accumulating cultivated tomato, L. esculentum. During introgression, the size of the L. chmielewskii chromosomal segment containing sucr was reduced by selection for recombination between RFLP markers for the sucr gene and flanking loci. The effects of sucr on soluble solids content, fruit size, yield and other fruit parameters were studied in the genetic background of the processing tomato cultivar 'Huntl00'. In a segregating BC5F2 generation, the smallest introgression containing sucr-associated markers was necessary and sufficient to confer high-level sucrose accumulation, the effects of which were completely recessive. Fruit of sucr/sucr genotypes were smaller than those of +/sucr or +/+ genotypes at all stages of development. The timing of sugar accumulation and total sugar concentration were unaffected by sugar composition. No differences in total fruit biomass (fresh weight of red and green fruit) at harvest were observed between the genotypes, and sucrose accumulators produced greater numbers of fruit than hexose accumulators in one family. However, the proportion of ripe fruit at harvest, and hence yield of ripe fruit, as well as average ripe fruit weight and seed set were reduced in sucr/sucr genotypes. Sucrose accumulation was also associated with increased soluble solids content, consistency, serum viscosity, predicted paste yield and acidity, and decreased color rating. In the first backcross to L. chmielewskii, hexose accumulators (+/sucr) had larger fruit than sucrose accumulators (sucr/sucr), while no difference in soluble solids was detected.

  19. BIO-EFFICACY OF INSECTICIDES AGAINST FRUIT BORER (HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Katroju,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment carried out during kharif, 2012 at Student’s Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides viz., emamectin benzoate 5 SG @11 g a.i. ha-1, emamectin benzoate 5 SG @ 22 g a.i. ha-1, profenophos 50 EC @ 500 g a.i. ha-1, profenophos 50 EC @1000 g a.i. ha-1, spinosad 45 SC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1, bifenthrin 10 EC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1 and Bacillus thuringiensis @ 25 g a.i. ha-1against tomato fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera. Among all the insecticides, profenophos (1000 g a.i. ha-1 was found to be the most effective one with a maximum reduction in fruit borer population (65.20%, minimum per cent of fruit damage (28.80% and maximum yield (26.43 kg/20 m2 followed by bifenthrin @ 100 g a.i.ha-1 with reduced larval population of 64.51% and damaged fruits 32.60%.

  20. Postharvest Analysis of Lowland Transgenic Tomato Fruits Harboring hpRNAi-ACO1 Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Behboodian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant hormone, ethylene, is an important regulator which involved in regulating fruit ripening and flower senescence. In this study, RNA interference (RNAi technology was employed to silence the genes involved in ethylene biosynthetic pathway. This was achieved by blocking the expression of specific gene encoding the ACC oxidase. Initially, cDNA corresponding to ACO1 of lowland tomato cultivar (MT1, which has high identity with ACO1 of Solanum lycopersicum in GenBank, was cloned through RT-PCR. Using a partial coding region of ACO1, one hpRNAi transformation vector was constructed and expressed ectopically under the 35S promoter. Results showed that transgenic lines harboring the hpRNA-ACO1 construct had lower ethylene production and a longer shelf life of 32 days as compared to 10 days for wild-type fruits. Changes in cell wall degrading enzyme activities were also investigated in cases where the transgenic fruits exhibited reduced rates of firmness loss, which can be associated with a decrease in pectin methylesterase (PME and polygalacturonase (PG activities. However, no significant change was detected in both transgenic and wild-type fruits in terms of β-galactosidase (β-Gal activity and levels of total soluble solid, titratable acid and ascorbic acid.

  1. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Supports Respiration but Not Volatile Synthesis in Tomato Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrej Kochevenko; Wagner L.Araújo; Gregory S.Maloney; Denise M.Tieman; Phuc Thi Do; Mark G.Taylor; Harry J.Klee; Alisdair R.Fernie

    2012-01-01

    The branched-chain amino acid transaminases (BCATs) have a crucial role in metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids leucine,isoleucine,and valine.These enzymes catalyze the last step of synthesis and the initial step of degradation of these amino acids.Although the biosynthetic pathways of branched chain amino acids in plants have been extensively investigated and a number of genes have been characterized,their catabolism in plants is not yet completely understood.We previously characterized the branched chain amino acid transaminase gene family in tomato,revealing both the subcellular localization and kinetic properties of the enzymes encoded by six genes.Here,we examined possible functions of the enzymes during fruit development.We further characterized transgenic plants differing in the expression of branched chain amino acid transaminases 1 and 3,evaluating the rates of respiration in fruits deficient in BCAT1 and the levels of volatiles in lines overexpressing either BCAT1 or BCAT3.We quantitatively tested,via precursor and isotope feeding experiments,the importance of the branched chain amino acids and their corresponding keto acids in the formation of fruit volatiles.Our results not only demonstrate for the first time the importance of branched chain amino acids in fruit respiration,but also reveal that keto acids,rather than amino acids,are the likely precursors for the branched chain flavor volatiles.

  2. Influence of Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes at 590 nm on Storage of Apple, Tomato and Bell Pepper Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of irradiation from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on several fruits during storage. To improve storage and increase the contents of some bioactive compounds, apple, tomato and red bell pepper fruits were exposed to yellow light emitted from the diodes at 590 nm. The contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics, total flavonoids and several pigments were investigated, along with the antioxidant potential. The colour parameters (L*, a* and ...

  3. Products Released from Enzymically Active Cell Wall Stimulate Ethylene Production and Ripening in Preclimacteric Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, J K; Huber, D J

    1988-12-01

    Enzymically active cell wall from ripe tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit pericarp release uronic acids through the action of wall-bound polygalacturonase. The potential involvement of products of wall hydrolysis in the induction of ethylene synthesis during tomato ripening was investigated by vacuum infiltrating preclimacteric (green) fruit with solutions containing pectin fragments enzymically released from cell wall from ripe fruit. Ripening initiation was accelerated in pectin-infiltrated fruit compared to control (buffer-infiltrated) fruit as measured by initiation of climacteric CO(2) and ethylene production and appearance of red color. The response to infiltration was maximum at a concentration of 25 micrograms pectin per fruit; higher concentrations (up to 125 micrograms per fruit) had no additional effect. When products released from isolated cell wall from ripe pericarp were separated on Bio-Gel P-2 and specific size classes infiltrated into preclimacteric fruit, ripening-promotive activity was found only in the larger (degree of polymerization >8) fragments. Products released from pectin derived from preclimacteric pericarp upon treatment with polygalacturonase from ripe pericarp did not stimulate ripening when infiltrated into preclimacteric fruit.

  4. 7 CFR 930.15 - Restricted percentage cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricted percentage cherries. 930.15 Section 930.15... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES... Handling Definitions § 930.15 Restricted percentage cherries. Restricted percentage cherries means...

  5. Descritores quantitativos na determinação da divergência genética entre acessos de tomateiro do grupo cereja Quantitative descriptors on determining genetic divergence among cherry tomatoes accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Camargo Rocha

    2009-06-01

    ônicas explicaram 78,58% da variação observada, com a formação de sete grupos. A variável mais importante foi a produção de frutos não-comerciais, que explicou 22,71% da variação total. A cultivar 'Perinha Água Branca' foi a que produziu menor porcentagem de frutos não-comerciais (2,0%, enquanto o híbrido Super Sweet produziu 8% de frutos não-comerciais.Cherry tomato is becoming an important crop alternative mainly for small farmers that use family hand labor and use organic management to differentiate their product. The introduction of new genotypes in this market should be supported by germplasm characterization and evaluation. This germplasm could be recommended for farmers or introduced in breeding programs. The aim of this research was to test 40 cherry tomatoes accessions from different sources, being 36 accessions from germplasm collection of Department de Fitotecnia of UFRRJ and four cultivars, namely 'Joanna', 'Perinha Água Branca', 'Samambaia' and Super Sweet. The plants were grown in field conditions, under organic management, in a randomized block design with four replications and five plants per plot, from June to December 2004. The following variables were studied: fruit total yield; commercial and non-commercial fruit yield; longitudinal and equatorial fruit diameter; pulp thickness; minimum, medium and maximum fruit mass variation per plant. The data were analyzed considering Mahalanobis distance and the cluster analysis was performed using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using an Arithmetic Average and canonic variables. The adjustment between the similarity matrix and dendrograma was performed using the cophenetic correlation. The characters relative importance was determined by Singh´s method. The accessions were clustered in two groups, one of them with only one accession (ENAS 1021 and the second group, with 39 accessions, was subdivided generating seven subgroups. The cophenetic correlation was 0.9 meaning a very good adjustment between the

  6. Adaptability of Cherry Tomato to High Temperature Stress under NFT%高温胁迫条件下营养液膜水培樱桃番茄的逆境适应性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海生; 朱兆平

    2012-01-01

    The influence of high temperature stress on several physiological indices of cherry tomato in NFT and in soil was studied in this paper.The variation of physiological indices,including leaf water potential,photosynthetic rate and superoxide dismutase of cherry tomato under high temperature stress was measured.The results showed that the physiological indices above mentioned decreased dramatically when the plants were planted in soil under high temperature condition,while only a slight decrease was found from the plants planted in NFT.It can be concluded that the heat resistance of tomato seeding under NFT was stronger than that under soil culture.%通过测定高温处理后水培和土培樱桃番茄的几项生理指标,研究了樱桃番茄在高温胁迫条件下的叶水势、光合速率、SOD酶活性等生理指标的变化特征,结果表明,高温胁迫条件下土培番茄叶水势、光合速率和SOD活性大幅度下降,而水培番茄上述生理指标虽有下降,但幅度远较土培番茄为少,因此,水培樱桃番茄对高温的抵抗能力要强于土培。

  7. An integrative genomics approach for deciphering the complex interactions between ascorbate metabolism and fruit growth and composition in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Virginie; Stevens, Rebecca; Gil, Laurent; Gilbert, Louise; Gest, Noé; Petit, Johann; Faurobert, Mireille; Maucourt, Mickael; Deborde, Catherine; Moing, Annick; Poessel, Jean-Luc; Jacob, Daniel; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Giraudel, Jean-Luc; Gouble, Barbara; Page, David; Alhagdow, Moftah; Massot, Capucine; Gautier, Hélène; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine; de Daruvar, Antoine; Rolin, Dominique; Usadel, Bjoern; Lahaye, Marc; Causse, Mathilde; Baldet, Pierre; Rothan, Christophe

    2009-11-01

    Very few reports have studied the interactions between ascorbate and fruit metabolism. In order to get insights into the complex relationships between ascorbate biosynthesis/recycling and other metabolic pathways in the fruit, we undertook a fruit systems biology approach. To this end, we have produced tomato transgenic lines altered in ascorbate content and redox ratio by RNAi-targeting several key enzymes involved in ascorbate biosynthesis (2 enzymes) and recycling (2 enzymes). In the VTC (ViTamin C) Fruit project, we then generated phenotypic and genomic (transcriptome, proteome, metabolome) data from wild type and mutant tomato fruit at two stages of fruit development, and developed or implemented statistical and bioinformatic tools as a web application (named VTC Tool box) necessary to store, analyse and integrate experimental data in tomato. By using Kohonen's self-organizing maps (SOMs) to cluster the biological data, pair-wise Pearson correlation analyses and simultaneous visualization of transcript/protein and metabolites (MapMan), this approach allowed us to uncover major relationships between ascorbate and other metabolic pathways.

  8. Water relations of GA- and ABA-deficient tomato mutants during seed and fruit development and their influence on germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Bino, R.J.; Karssen, C.M.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    To explain the differing germination behaviour of seeds of wild type, gibberellin-deficient (gib1) or abscisic acid-deficient (sitw) mutants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker), growth and water relations of fruit tissues, seeds and embryos were determined during development. Th

  9. Nitrogen Requirements for Growth and Early Fruit Development of Drip-Irrigated Processing Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of continuous application of small quantities of nitrogen (N) in irrigation water and N applied as starter on growth and development of processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), from transplanting to beginning of fruit set, was studied in two experiments: a pot experiment and a f...

  10. Induced point mutations in the phytoene synthase 1 gene cause differences in carotenoid content during tomato fruit ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gady, A.L.F.; Vriezen, W.; Wal, van de M.H.B.J.; Huang, P.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.; Bachem, C.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    In tomato, carotenoids are important with regard to major breeding traits such as fruit colour and human health. The enzyme phytoene synthase (PSY1) directs metabolic flux towards carotenoid synthesis. Through TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes), we have identified two point mutatio

  11. Transcriptome and Metabolite Profiling Show That APETALA2a Is a Major Regulator of Tomato Fruit Ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlova, R.B.; Rosin, F.M.A.; Busscher-Lange, J.; Parapunova, V.A.; Do, P.T.; Fernie, A.R.; Fraser, P.D.; Baxter, C.; Angenent, G.C.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) requires the coordination of both developmental cues as well as the plant hormone ethylene. Although the role of ethylene in mediating climacteric ripening has been established, knowledge regarding the developmental regulators that modulate the involve

  12. Cell-wall-associated endo-B-mannanase increases in the skin and outer pericarp of tomato fruits during ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewley, J.D.; Banik, M.; Bourgault, R.; Fuertado, A.; Toorop, P.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2000-01-01

    Activity of endo-ß-mannanase increases during ripening of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit of the cultivar Trust. ß-Mannoside mannohydrolase is also present during ripening, but its pattern of activity is different from that of endo-ß-mannanase. The increase in endo-ß-mannanase activity

  13. Abscisic acid and sucrose regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening through the abscisic acid-stress-ripening transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haifeng; Jiu, Songtao; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Chen; Tariq, Pervaiz; Liu, Zhongjie; Wang, Baoju; Cui, Liwen; Fang, Jinggui

    2016-10-01

    Although great progress has been made towards understanding the role of abscisic acid (ABA) and sucrose in fruit ripening, the mechanisms underlying the ABA and sucrose signalling pathways remain elusive. In this study, transcription factor ABA-stress-ripening (ASR), which is involved in the transduction of ABA and sucrose signalling pathways, was isolated and analysed in the nonclimacteric fruit, strawberry and the climacteric fruit, tomato. We have identified four ASR isoforms in tomato and one in strawberry. All ASR sequences contained the ABA stress- and ripening-induced proteins and water-deficit stress-induced proteins (ABA/WDS) domain and all ASR transcripts showed increased expression during fruit development. The expression of the ASR gene was influenced not only by sucrose and ABA, but also by jasmonic acid (JA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and these four factors were correlated with each other during fruit development. ASR bound the hexose transporter (HT) promoter, which contained a sugar box that activated downstream gene expression. Overexpression of the ASR gene promoted fruit softening and ripening, whereas RNA interference delayed fruit ripening, as well as affected fruit physiological changes. Change in ASR gene expression influenced the expression of several ripening-related genes such as CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS, UFGT, PG, PL, EXP1/2, XET16, Cel1/2 and PME. Taken together, this study may provide new evidence on the important role of ASR in cross-signalling between ABA and sucrose to regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening. The findings of this study also provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism underlying fruit development.

  14. Mortality and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to different insecticide baits for varying periods in the presence and absence of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2011-02-01

    Spinosad bait is used to control western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), by killing flies before they oviposit. However, effects of different insecticide baits on management of reproductively mature flies are largely unknown. Objectives here were to determine mortality and oviposition of reproductively mature R. indifferens exposed to different insecticide baits for varying periods in the presence and absence of dried yeast extract and sucrose food. Spinosad bait (spinosad in a mix of protein, sugar, and other ingredients) was compared with acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid in sucrose or Nu-Lure + sucrose bait. When flies were exposed to treatments and then offered cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., for oviposition or when they were exposed to treatments and cherries simultaneously, both thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait resulted in higher mortality and lower oviposition than spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait. Exposures to thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait for six and 24 h were similarly effective, but 6-h exposures to spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait were less effective than 24-h exposures. There was little difference between sucrose and Nu-Lure + sucrose baits. When food was present, thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait caused greater mortality and lower oviposition than spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait, but when food was absent, patterns were less consistent. Because of its ability to kill flies sooner after it is exposed to flies when food is present or absent, thiamethoxam or imidacloprid in sucrose or Nu-Lure bait may reduce infestations in cherries more than spinosad bait when mature R. indifferens are present in orchards.

  15. The sweet branch of metabolic engineering: cherry-picking the low-hanging sugary fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rachel

    2015-12-09

    In the first science review on the then nascent Metabolic Engineering field in 1991, Dr. James E. Bailey described how improving erythropoietin (EPO) glycosylation can be achieved via metabolic engineering of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In the intervening decades, metabolic engineering has brought sweet successes in glycoprotein engineering, including antibodies, vaccines, and other human therapeutics. Today, not only eukaryotes (CHO, plant, insect, yeast) are being used for manufacturing protein therapeutics with human-like glycosylation, newly elucidated bacterial glycosylation systems are enthusiastically embraced as potential breakthrough to revolutionize the biopharmaceutical industry. Notwithstanding these excitement in glycoprotein, the sweet metabolic engineering reaches far beyond glycoproteins. Many different types of oligo- and poly-saccharides are synthesized with metabolically engineered cells. For example, several recombinant hyaluronan bioprocesses are now in commercial production, and the titer of 2'-fucosyllactose, the most abundant fucosylated trisaccharide in human milk, reaches over 20 g/L with engineered E. coli cells. These successes represent only the first low hanging fruits, which have been appreciated scientifically, medically and fortunately, commercially as well. As one of the four building blocks of life, sugar molecules permeate almost all aspects of life. They are also unique in being intimately associated with all major types of biopolymers (including DNA/RNA, proteins, lipids) meanwhile they stand alone as bioactive polysaccharides, or free soluble oligosaccharides. As such, all sugar moieties in biological components, small or big and free or bound, are important targets for metabolic engineering. Opportunities abound at the interface of glycosciences and metabolic engineering. Continued investment and successes in this branch of metabolic engineering will make vastly diverse sugar-containing molecules (a

  16. 高密度CO_2预处理对樱桃番茄干燥的影响%Effect of dense phase carbon dioxide pretreatment on drying cherry tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙婉蓉; 郭蕴涵; 赵翠萍; 汪政富; 胡小松

    2012-01-01

    将樱桃番茄经过和未经过高密度CO2(DPCD)预处理,然后进行热风干燥,以比较干燥速率和干燥后产品品质的变化,探索新型干燥工艺。结果发现,经过1、2和3MPaDPCD处理组与对照组相比,干燥速率提高,干燥时间缩短,产品收缩率降低,复水率提高,褐变度没有显著变化;但经高压处理的干燥产品VC和颜色比对照组差。综合各指标分析,除了VC和颜色,DPCD预处理后的干燥指标优于对照组。%In order to explore a new drying technique,cherry tomatoes treated with and without dense phase carbon dioxide(DPCD) were dried with hot air,and their drying rates and physicochemical quality were compared.The results indicated that,as compared to the control group without pretreatment of DPCD,the cherry tomatoes after DPCD treatment at 1,2,and 3MPa reduced in drying time and shrinkage,and increased in drying rate and rehydration rate,while their browning degrees had no significant change.The VC content and color of the dried products after higher DPCD pretreatment were significantly worse than that of the control group,In a word,excepted color and VC,the drying effect of cherry tomatoes after DPCD pretreatment was better than that of the control group.

  17. Tomato transcriptome and mutant analyses suggest a role for plant stress hormones in the interaction between fruit and Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eBlanco-Ulate

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit-pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interaction between plant vegetative tissues and microbial pathogens has been documented extensively, but the relevance of these hormones during infections of fruit is unclear. In this work, we analyzed a transcriptome study of tomato fruit infected with Botrytis cinerea in order to profile the expression of genes for the biosynthesis, modification and signal transduction of ethylene (ET, salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA, and abscisic acid (ABA, hormones that may be not only involved in ripening, but also in fruit interactions with pathogens. The changes in relative expression of key genes during infection and assays of susceptibility of fruit with impaired synthesis or perception of these hormones were used to formulate hypotheses regarding the involvement of these regulators in the outcome of the tomato fruit-B. cinerea interaction.

  18. Tomato transcriptome and mutant analyses suggest a role for plant stress hormones in the interaction between fruit and Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Vincenti, Estefania; Powell, Ann L T; Cantu, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Fruit-pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interaction between plant vegetative tissues and microbial pathogens has been documented extensively, but the relevance of these hormones during infections of fruit is unclear. In this work, we analyzed a transcriptome study of tomato fruit infected with Botrytis cinerea in order to profile the expression of genes for the biosynthesis, modification and signal transduction of ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and abscisic acid (ABA), hormones that may be not only involved in ripening, but also in fruit interactions with pathogens. The changes in relative expression of key genes during infection and assays of susceptibility of fruit with impaired synthesis or perception of these hormones were used to formulate hypotheses regarding the involvement of these regulators in the outcome of the tomato fruit-B. cinerea interaction.

  19. 不同避雨栽培措施对樱桃果实经济性状的影响%Effects of Different Shelter Cultivation Measures on Economic Characters of Cherry Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱东南; 钭凌娟; 周秦

    2013-01-01

    研究了不同避雨栽培措施对樱桃果实经济性状的影响.结果表明:在樱桃接近成熟时遇雨的年份,采用避雨设施栽培,对樱桃的生态环境和果实品质影响不大,但可以显著地降低其裂果率,且果实采收期比露地栽培推后了5~7d.%The effects of different shelter cultivation measures on the economic characters of cherry fruit were studied. The results showed that: when the mature period of cherry fruit met rainfall, rain - avoiding shelter cultivation had little effect on the ecological environment and fruit quality of cherry, but it could significantly reduce the dehiscent fruit rate. Moreover, as compared with the open cultivation, rain - avoiding shelter cultivation could delay the cherry fruit harvest date by 5 - 7 days.

  20. 1-Methylcyclopropene delays tomato fruit ripening Retardamento do amadurecimento de tomates com 1-metilciclopropeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Moretti

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. fruits, cv. Santa Clara, were harvested at the breaker stage from commercial fields in Brazlândia, Brazil, to investigate the ability of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP to retard tomato fruit ripening. Fruit without external blemishes were graded for size (diameter = 80±5 mm and mass (m = 130±10 g, placed inside hermetically sealed boxes, and 1-MCP was applied for 12 hours (T = 22±1°C; RH = 80-85% at four different concentrations: 0 (control, 250, 500 and 1000 mL.L-1. Fruits were held at ambient conditions (T = 23±2°C; RH 80-85% for 2 days and then stored inside a cold room (T = 20±1°C; RH = 85-95%. Every 3 days, during a 15-day period, fruits were analyzed for firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, external color, and total carotenoids. Firmness of fruit treated with 1000 mL.L-1 was about 88% higher than control fruits after 17 days. The a*/b* ratio, an indicator of skin color, for fruit treated with 1000 mL.L-1 of 1-MCP was 38% lower than control fruits at the end of the storage period. Treatments with higher concentrations of 1-MCP delayed total carotenoids synthesis and color development. Control fruits stored for 17 days had about 190% more total carotenoids than fruits treated with 1000 mL.L-1 of 1-MCP. Postharvest application of 1-MCP was an efficient method to delay tomato fruit ripening. As 1-MCP concentration increased, ripening was further delayed. Tomatoes treated with 250, 500, and 1000 mL.L-1 of 1-MCP were delayed by 8 to 11, 11 to 13 and 15 to 17 days, respectively.Tomates (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., 'Santa Clara', foram colhidos no estádio verde-rosado em campos de produção comercial em Brazlândia (DF com o objetivo de investigar a capacidade do 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP em retardar o amadurecimento de tomates. Frutos sem danos mecânicos externos aparentes foram selecionados para tamanho (diâmetro = 80±5 mm e massa (m = 130±10 g, foram colocados em câmaras herm

  1. Transient silencing of CHALCONE SYNTHASE during fruit ripening modifies tomato epidermal cells and cuticle properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, Laura; Heredia-Guerrero, José A; Reina-Pinto, José J; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Heredia, Antonio; Domínguez, Eva

    2014-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening is accompanied by an increase in CHALCONE SYNTHASE (CHS) activity and flavonoid biosynthesis. Flavonoids accumulate in the cuticle, giving its characteristic orange color that contributes to the eventual red color of the ripe fruit. Using virus-induced gene silencing in fruits, we have down-regulated the expression of SlCHS during ripening and compared the cuticles derived from silenced and nonsilenced regions. Silenced regions showed a pink color due to the lack of flavonoids incorporated to the cuticle. This change in color was accompanied by several other changes in the cuticle and epidermis. The epidermal cells displayed a decreased tangential cell width; a decrease in the amount of cuticle and its main components, cutin and polysaccharides, was also observed. Flavonoids dramatically altered the cuticle biomechanical properties by stiffening the elastic and viscoelastic phase and by reducing the ability of the cuticle to deform. There seemed to be a negative relation between SlCHS expression and wax accumulation during ripening that could be related to the decreased cuticle permeability to water observed in the regions silencing SlCHS. A reduction in the overall number of ester linkages present in the cutin matrix was also dependent on the presence of flavonoids.

  2. Pyrophosphate levels strongly influence ascorbate and starch content in tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eOsorio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbate (vitamin C deficiency leads to low immunity, scurvy, and other human diseases and is therefore a global health problem. Given that plants are major ascorbate sources for humans, biofortification of this vitamin in our foodstuffs is of considerable importance. Ascorbate is synthetized by a number of alternative pathways: (i from the glycolytic intermediates D-glucose-6P (the key intermediates are GDP-D-mannose and L-galactose, (ii from the breakdown of the cell wall polymer pectin which uses the methyl ester of D-galacturonic acid as precursor and (iii from myo-inositol as precursor via myo-inositol oxygenase. We report here the engineering of fruit-specific overexpression of a bacterial pyrophosphatase, which hydrolyzes the inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi to orthophosphate (Pi. This strategy resulted in increased vitamin C levels up to 2.5 fold in ripe fruit as well as increasing in the major sugars, sucrose and glucose, yet decreasing the level of starch. When considered together, these finding indicate an intimate linkage between ascorbate and sugar biosynthesis in plants. Moreover, the combined data reveal the importance of PPi metabolism in tomato fruit metabolism and development.

  3. Determination of the Elastic Properties of Tomato Fruit Cells with an Atomic Force Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kurenda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the mechanical properties of single cells together with the intercellular adhesive properties determine the macro-mechanical properties of plants, a method for evaluation of the cell elastic properties is needed to help explanation of the behavior of fruits and vegetables in handling and food processing. For this purpose, indentation of tomato mesocarp cells with an atomic force microscope was used. The Young’s modulus of a cell using the Hertz and Sneddon models, and stiffness were calculated from force-indentation curves. Use of two probes of distinct radius of curvature (20 nm and 10,000 nm showed that the measured elastic properties were significantly affected by tip geometry. The Young’s modulus was about 100 kPa ± 35 kPa and 20 kPa ± 14 kPa for the sharper tip and a bead tip, respectively. Moreover, large variability regarding elastic properties (>100% among cells sampled from the same region in the fruit was observed. We showed that AFM provides the possibility of combining nano-mechanical properties with topography imaging, which could be very useful for the study of structure-related properties of fruits and vegetables at the cellular and sub-cellular scale.

  4. Rapid phenotyping of the tomato fruit model, Micro-Tom, with a portable VIS-NIR spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecarnot, Martin; Bączyk, Paulina; Tessarotto, Lydie; Chervin, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) quality traits such as juice soluble solid content (Brix), juice pH, color parameters (Hue and Chroma), firmness and water content, are critical factors for fruit quality assessment. The need for screening very large numbers of fruit has led to the development of a high-throughput method using visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectrometry. We are reporting here a set of results obtained with a portable spectrometer using the 350-2500 nm range, showing good prediction of the quality traits cited above, over a wide range of developmental stages from immature green to ripe tomato fruit, cv. Micro-Tom. This is a rather good set of quality traits compared to previous publications predicting tomato quality with VIS-NIR spectrometry, and the prediction is robust, as it was obtained by grouping sets of different operators. This would be a useful tool to phenotype hundreds of Micro-Tom per day, making it possible to follow the dynamics of the described parameters on growing fruits. Thus the method can be used to study the biochemistry and physiology of fruit development in planta.

  5. Changes of Activities in NAD Kinase and NADP Phosphatase During Ripening and Senescence of Tomato and Strawberry Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Cai-qin; GUAN Jun-feng; XI Yu-fang; LI Guang-min

    2002-01-01

    Activities of NAD kinase(NADK)and NADP phosphatase and relationship between the two enzymes and temperature, respiration, ethylene production and trifluoperazine(TFP) were studied during ripening and senescence of strawberry and tomato frnits after harvest at 4℃and 20℃. The activity of NAD kinase in strawberry decreased slowly during first four days, then increased gradually. The NADP phosphatase activity increased at the second day, decreased the next day,then increased again. In tomato fruit, the activities of NAD kinase and NADP phosphatase increased at the second day, decreased with the ripening and senescence of the fruit. The change trend of NAD kinase and respiration in the two fruits were similar, the same were NADP phosphatase and ethylene production. TFP enhanced the activity of NAD kinase and had little effect on NADP phosphatase. Low temperature(4℃ ) activated the NAD kinase and reduced the activity of NADP phosphatase. These results indicated that the NAD kinase and NADP phosphatase were related to the ripening and senescence of strawberry and tomato fruits. The activation of NAD kinase probably postponed the ripening and senescence of the fruits.

  6. Bioinformatic and molecular analysis of hydroxymethylbutenyl diphosphate synthase (GCPE) gene expression during carotenoid accumulation in ripening tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel; Querol, Jordi; Lois, Luisa María; Imperial, Santiago; Boronat, Albert

    2003-07-01

    Carotenoids are plastidic isoprenoid pigments of great biological and biotechnological interest. The precursors for carotenoid production are synthesized through the recently elucidated methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here we have identified a tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cDNA sequence encoding a full-length protein with homology to the MEP pathway enzyme hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase (HDS, also called GCPE). Comparison with other plant and bacterial HDS sequences showed that the plant enzymes contain a plastid-targeting N-terminal sequence and two highly conserved plant-specific domains in the mature protein with no homology to any other sequence in the databases. The ubiquitous distribution of HDS-encoding expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the tomato collections suggests that the corresponding gene is likely expressed throughout the plant. The role of HDS in controlling the supply of precursors for carotenoid biosynthesis was estimated from the bioinformatic and molecular analysis of transcript abundance in different stages of fruit development. No significant changes in HDS gene expression were deduced from the statistical analysis of EST distribution during fruit ripening, when an active MEP pathway is required to support a massive accumulation of carotenoids. RNA blot experiments confirmed that similar transcript levels were present in both the wild-type and carotenoid-depleted yellow ripe ( r) mutant fruit independent of the stage of development and the carotenoid composition of the fruit. Together, our results are consistent with a non-limiting role for HDS in carotenoid biosynthesis during tomato fruit ripening.

  7. Foliar application of calcium chloride and borax influences plant growth, yield, and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit

    OpenAIRE

    RAB, Abdur; Haq, Ihsan-ul

    2012-01-01

    The influence of CaCl2 and borax on growth, yield, and quality of tomato was investigated during the years 2009 and 2010. The experiment was laid out with a randomized complete block design. Calcium chloride (0.3% and 0.6%) and borax (0.2% and 0.4%) solutions were applied as foliar sprays either alone or in combination and data were recorded for plant height, branches per plant, flowers per cluster, fruits per plant, yield, fruit weight, fruit firmness, and total soluble solid content of the ...

  8. CHS silencing suggests a negative cross-talk between wax and flavonoid pathways in tomato fruit cuticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Antonio; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro; Domínguez, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L.) accumulate flavonoids in their cuticle and epidermal cells during ripening. These flavonoids come from de novo biosynthesis due to a significant increase in chalcone synthase (CHS) activity during ripening. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of tomato fruits have been used to down-regulate SlCHS expression during ripening and analyze the effects at the epidermal and cuticle level. Besides the expected change in fruit color due to a lack of flavonoids incorporated to the cuticle, several other modifications such as a decrease in the amount of cutin and polysaccharides were observed. These indicate a role for either flavonoids or CHS in the alteration of the expression levels of some genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis. Moreover, a negative interaction between the 2 cuticle components, flavonoids and waxes, suggests a relationship between these 2 metabolic pathways.

  9. Mitochondrial ascorbate-glutathione cycle and proteomic analysis of carbonylated proteins during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vidal, O; Camejo, D; Rivera-Cabrera, F; Konigsberg, M; Villa-Hernández, J M; Mendoza-Espinoza, J A; Pérez-Flores, L J; Sevilla, F; Jiménez, A; Díaz de León-Sánchez, F

    2016-03-01

    In non-photosynthetic tissues, mitochondria are the main source of energy and of reactive oxygen species. Accumulation of high levels of these species in the cell causes damage to macromolecules including several proteins and induces changes in different metabolic processes. Fruit ripening has been characterized as an oxidative phenomenon; therefore, control of reactive oxygen species levels by mitochondrial antioxidants plays a crucial role on this process. In this work, ascorbate-glutathione cycle components, hydrogen peroxide levels and the proteomic profile of carbonylated proteins were analyzed in mitochondria isolated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit at two ripening stages. A significant increase on most ascorbate-glutathione cycle components and on carbonylated proteins was observed in mitochondria from breaker to light red stage. Enzymes and proteins involved in diverse cellular and mitochondrial metabolic pathways were identified among the carbonylated proteins. These results suggest that protein carbonylation is a post-translational modification involved in tomato fruit ripening regulation.

  10. Differential responses of five cherry tomato varieties to water stress: changes on phenolic metabolites and related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Eva; Moreno, Diego A; Ferreres, Federico; Rubio-Wilhelmi, María del Mar; Ruiz, Juan Manuel

    2011-06-01

    Different tomato cultivars (Solanum lycopersicum L.) with differences in tolerance to drought were subjected to moderate water stress to test the effects on flavonoids and caffeoyl derivatives and related enzymes. Our results indicate that water stress resulted in decreased shikimate pathway (DAHP synthase, shikimate dehydrogenase, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, 4-coumarate CoA ligase) and phenolic compounds (caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, quercetin and kaempferol) in the cultivars more sensitive to water stress. However, cv. Zarina is more tolerant, and registered a rise in querc-3-rut-pent, kaempferol-3-api-rut, and kaempferol-3-rut under the treatment of water stress. Moreover, this cultivar show increased activities of flavonoid and phenylpropanoid synthesis and decreased in degradation-related enzymes. These results show that moderate water stress can induce shikimate pathway in tolerant cultivar.

  11. Surface Drainage and Mulching Drip-Irrigated Tomatoes Reduces Soil Salinity and Improves Fruit Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Maomao; Zhu, Lvdan; Jin, Qiu

    2016-01-01

    A study on the effects of mulched drip irrigation combined with surface drainage on saline soil and tomatoes was conducted in coastal areas of eastern China, where the crops are subjected to excessive salt. The treatments contained three irrigation rates—200, 250 and 300 m3/ha—and three drain ditch depths—10, 20 and 30 cm. The contents of soil salinity, organic matter and available nutrient were observed, and the tomato plant height, stem diameter and leaf area index during different growth periods were recorded. Results showed that the total removal rate of salt from soil at a 0–1 m depth was 8.7–13.2% for the three drainages. Compared with the control, the treatments increased the content of available N (by 12.1–47.1%) and available K (by 5.0–21.9%) in the soils inside the mulch and decreased the content of available N (by 3.4–22.1%) and available K (by 7.5–16.4%) in the soils outside the mulch. For tomatoes, the plant height and the stem diameter was increased significantly by the irrigations but was not significantly affected by the drainages, and the leaf area index was increased by 0.39~1.76, 1.10~2.90 and 2.80~6.86 respectively in corresponding to the seedling, flowering and fruit-set stage. Moreover, yield-increase rates of 7.9–27.6% were found for the treatments compared to the control with a similar amount of applied water. PMID:27153110

  12. Pyrophosphate Fructose-6-P 1-Phosphotransferase from Tomato Fruit : Evidence for Change during Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J H; Kiss, F; Wu, M X; Buchanan, B B

    1990-10-01

    Three forms of pyrophosphate fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP) were purified from both green and red tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit: (a) a classical form (designated Q(2)) containing alpha- (66 kilodalton) and beta- (60 kilodalton) subunits; (b) a form (Q(1)) containing a beta-doublet subunit; and (c) a form (Q(0)) that appeared to contain a beta-singlet subunit. Several lines of evidence suggested that the different forms occur under physiological conditions. Q(2) was purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity; Q(1) and Q(0) were highly purified, but not to homogeneity. The distribution of the PFP forms from red (versus green) tomato was: Q(2), 29% (90%); Q(1), 47% (6%); and Q(0), 24% (4%). The major difference distinguishing the red from the green tomato enzymes was the fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P(2))-induced change in K(m) for fructose-6-phosphate (Fru-6-P), the ;green forms' showing markedly enhanced affinity on activation (K(m) decrease of 7-9-fold) and the ;red forms' showing either little change (Q(0), Q(1)) or a relatively small (2.5-fold) affinity increase (Q(2)). The results extend our earlier findings with carrot root to another tissue and indicate that forms of PFP showing low or no affinity increase for Fru 6-P on activation by Fru-2,6-P(2) (here Q(1) and Q(0)) are associated with sugar storage, whereas the classical form (Q(2)), which shows a pronounced affinity increase, is more important for starch storage.

  13. microRNA156-targeted SPL/SBP box transcription factors regulate tomato ovary and fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira e Silva, Geraldo Felipe; Silva, Eder Marques; Azevedo, Mariana da Silva; Guivin, Mike Anderson Corazon; Ramiro, Daniel Alves; Figueiredo, Cassia Regina; Carrer, Helaine; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Nogueira, Fabio Tebaldi Silveira

    2014-05-01

    Fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is well understood at the molecular level. However, information regarding genetic pathways associated with tomato ovary and early fruit development is still lacking. Here, we investigate the possible role(s) of the microRNA156/SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like (SPL or SBP box) module (miR156 node) in tomato ovary development. miR156-targeted S. lycopersicum SBP genes were dynamically expressed in developing flowers and ovaries, and miR156 was mainly expressed in meristematic tissues of the ovary, including placenta and ovules. Transgenic tomato cv. Micro-Tom plants over-expressing the AtMIR156b precursor exhibited abnormal flower and fruit morphology, with fruits characterized by growth of extra carpels and ectopic structures. Scanning electron microscopy and histological analyses showed the presence of meristem-like structures inside the ovaries, which are probably responsible for the ectopic organs. Interestingly, expression of genes associated with meristem maintenance and formation of new organs, such as LeT6/TKN2 (a KNOX-like class I gene) and GOBLET (a NAM/CUC-like gene), was induced in developing ovaries of transgenic plants as well as in the ovaries of the natural mutant Mouse ear (Me), which also displays fruits with extra carpels. Conversely, expression of the MADS box genes MACROCALYX (MC) and FUL1/TDR4, and the LEAFY ortholog FALSIFLORA, was repressed in the developing ovaries of miR156 over-expressors, suggesting similarities with Arabidopsis at this point of the miR156/SPL pathway but with distinct functional consequences in reproductive development. Altogether, these observations suggest that the miR156 node is involved in maintenance of the meristematic state of ovary tissues, thereby controlling initial steps of fleshy fruit development and determinacy.

  14. Four peroxidase Loci in red-fruited tomato species: genetics and geographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, C M; Zobel, R W; Fobes, J F

    1974-03-01

    The banding patterns of certain anodal peroxidase variants of red-fruited tomato species are governed by alleles at four loci-two alleles per locus. Alleles at three loci code for modified enzyme migration patterns and are codominant in heterozygotes; those at the fourth locus code for presence or absence of a band. No evidence of linkage was detected in preliminary tests between four of the six possible combinations of loci. All variant alleles-i.e., those not represented in the standard genotype of Lycopersicon esculentum-exist in the wild L. pimpinellifolium from coastal Peru; all but Prx-3(n) are also known in L. esculentum from the sympatric region but are rare or absent elsewhere. Between the distributions of alleles of Prx-1 and those of Ge, the gamete-eliminator locus, a significant association exists, which probably does not owe to genetic linkage. The tendency of alleles of Prx loci, as well as those of cm, Ge, h, and Od, to be shared between wild and cultivated taxa in the sympatric region but seldom elsewhere, in addition to published correlated evidence, suggests that the wild alleles tend to substitute in cultivated forms as a result of introgression. In respect to the number of common alleles, cultivated tomatoes more closely resemble the wild L. esculentum var. cerasiforme than L. pimpinellifolium.

  15. Relationship Between Ca2+-CaM and Ethylene-Induced PG Activity in Tomato Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Cai-qin; XI Yu-fang; GUAN Jun-feng; LI Guang-min

    2003-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) was studied during ripening and senescence of postharvest tomatofruit at pink stage at low and normal temperature. The results showed that the PG activity increased, thendecreased during ripening and senescence of tomato. Low temperature inhibited but ethylene enhanced PGactivity. Ethylene also enhanced caimodulin content, which was dependent on Ca2+ concentration in cell.When EGTA(Ca2+ chelator), verapamil (Vp) and LaCl3 (Ca2+ channel blockers), trifluoperazine and chloro-promaize (two CaM antagonisms) were used to treat tomato fruit at green mature stage with ethylene, theycould reverse ethylene-induced increase in PG activity, but Vp, chloropromaize (CPZ), trifluoperazine(TFP) could not directly influence PG activity, which indirectly indicated that influx of Ca2+ from the ex-tracellular space including the cell wall via the Ca2+ channel localized in plasma membrane and CaM were re-quired for ethylene-induced PG activity increase and that ethylene signal transduction may be related to Ca2+- CaM messenger system.

  16. Effects of phosphorus fertilizer supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities in tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Taehyun; Oke, Moustapha; Schofield, Andrew; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

    2005-03-09

    The effects of soil and foliar phosphorus supplementation on the activities and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in tomato fruits were evaluated by determining enzyme activities and isoenzyme analysis. Both protein levels and enzyme activities varied depending on the variety and season. In general, phosphorus supplementation did not alter SOD, POX, and APX activities significantly;however, some treatments showed season- and stage-specific enhancement in activities as noticed with hydrophos and seniphos supplementation. Three different SOD isozymes were observed, and these isozymes showed very similar staining intensities in response to P application and during the three developmental stages studied. Two major isozymes of POX and two different APX isozymes were observed at all the developmental stages. The results suggest that antioxidant enzyme activities may be influenced by the availability of phosphorus, but are subject to considerable variation depending on the developmental stage and the season.

  17. Movement of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 to Ripe Tomato Fruit Following Various Routes of Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella serovars have been associated with the majority of foodborne illness outbreaks involving tomatoes, and E. coli O157:H7 has caused outbreaks involving other fresh produce. Contamination by both pathogens has been thought to originate from all points of the growing and distribution process. To determine if Salmonella serovar Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 could move to the mature tomato fruit of different tomato cultivars following contamination, three different contamination scenar...

  18. The Influence of Co-Suppressing Tomato 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase Ⅰ on the Expression of Fruit Ripening-Related and Pathogenesis-Related Protein Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zong-li; CHEN Xu-qing; CHEN Guo-ping; L(U) Li-juan; Grierson Donald

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of co-suppressing tomato ACC oxidase I on the expression of fruit ripening-related and pathogenesis-related protein genes, and on the biosynthesis of endogenous ethylene and storage ability of fruits. Specific fragments of several fruit ripening-related and pathogenesis-related protein genes from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were cloned, such as the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase 1 gene (LeACO1), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase 3 gene (LeAC03), EIN3-binding F-box 1 gene (LeEBF1), pathogenesisrelated protein 1 gene (LePR1), pathogenesis-related protein 5 gene (LePR5), and pathogenesis-related protein osmotin precursor gene (LeNP24) by PCR or RT-PCR. Then these specific DNA fragments were used as probes to hybridize with the total RNAs extracted from the wild type tomato Ailsa Craig (AC++) and the LeACO1 co-suppression tomatoes (V1187 and T4B), respectively. At the same time, ethylene production measurement and storage experiment of tomato fruits were carried out. The hybridization results indicated that the expression of fruit ripening-related genes such as LeACO3 and LeEBF1, and pathogenesis-related protein genes such as LePR1, LePR5, and LeNP24, were reduced sharply, and the ethylene production in the fruits, wounded leaves decreased and the storage time of ripening fruits was prolonged, when the expression of LeACO1 gene in the transgenic tomato was suppressed. In the co-suppression tomatoes, the expression of fruit ripening-related and pathogenesis-related protein genes were restrained at different degrees, the biosynthesis of endogenous ethylene decreased and the storage ability of tomato fruits increased.

  19. Expressing yeast SAMdc gene confers broad changes in gene expression and alters fatty acid composition in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotilin, Igor; Koltai, Hinanit; Bar-Or, Carmiya; Chen, Lea; Nahon, Sahadia; Shlomo, Haviva; Levin, Ilan; Reuveni, Moshe

    2011-07-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits expressing a yeast S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase (ySAMdc) gene under control of a ripening-induced promoter show altered phytonutrient content and broad changes in gene expression. Genome-wide transcriptional alterations in pericarp tissues of the ySAMdc-expressing fruits are shown. Consistent with the ySAMdc expression pattern from the ripening-induced promoter, very minor transcriptional alterations were detected at the mature green developmental stage. At the breaker and red stages, altered levels of numerous transcripts were observed with a general tendency toward upregulation in the transgenic fruits. Ontological analysis of up- and downregulated transcript groups revealed various affected metabolic processes, mainly carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis, which appeared to be intensified in the ripening transgenic fruits. Other functional ontological categories of altered transcripts represented signal transduction, transcription regulation, RNA processing, molecular transport and stress response, as well as metabolism of lipids, glycans, xenobiotics, energy, cofactors and vitamins. In addition, transcript levels of genes encoding structural enzymes for several biosynthetic pathways showed strong correlations to levels of specific metabolites that displayed altered levels in transgenic fruits. Increased transcript levels of fatty acid biosynthesis enzymes were accompanied by a change in the fatty acid profile of transgenic fruits, most notably increasing ω-3 fatty acids at the expense of other lipids. Thus, SAMdc is a prime target in manipulating the nutritional value of tomato fruits. Combined with analyses of selected metabolites in the overripe fruits, a model of enhanced homeostasis of the pericarp tissue in the polyamine-accumulating tomatoes is proposed.

  20. Identification of potential target genes for the tomato fruit-ripening regulator RIN by chromatin immunoprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakano Toshitsugu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During ripening, climacteric fruits increase their ethylene level and subsequently undergo various physiological changes, such as softening, pigmentation and development of aroma and flavor. These changes occur simultaneously and are caused by the highly synchronized expression of numerous genes at the onset of ripening. In tomatoes, the MADS-box transcription factor RIN has been regarded as a key regulator responsible for the onset of ripening by acting upstream of both ethylene- and non-ethylene-mediated controls. However, except for LeACS2, direct targets of RIN have not been clarified, and little is known about the transcriptional cascade for ripening. Results Using immunoprecipitated (IPed DNA fragments recovered by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP with anti-RIN antibody from ripening tomato fruit, we analyzed potential binding sites for RIN (CArG-box sites in the promoters of representative ripening-induced genes by quantitative PCR. Results revealed nearly a 5- to 20-fold enrichment of CArG boxes in the promoters of LeACS2, LeACS4, PG, TBG4, LeEXP1, and LeMAN4 and of RIN itself, indicating direct interaction of RIN with their promoters in vivo. Moreover, sequence analysis and genome mapping of 51 cloned IPed DNAs revealed potential RIN binding sites. Quantitative PCR revealed that four of the potential binding sites were enriched 4- to 17-fold in the IPed DNA pools compared with the controls, indicating direct interaction of RIN with these sites in vivo. Near one of the four CArG boxes we found a gene encoding a protein similar to thioredoxin y1. An increase in the transcript level of this gene was observed with ripening in normal fruit but not in the rin mutant, suggesting that RIN possibly induces its expression. Conclusions The presented results suggest that RIN controls fruit softening and ethylene production by the direct transcriptional regulation of cell-wall-modifying genes and ethylene biosynthesis genes

  1. Identification and characterization of tomato gibberellin 2-oxidases (GA2oxs) and effects of fruit-specific SlGA2ox1 overexpression on fruit and seed growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shen; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Liying; Lin, Shanshan; Liu, Decai; Wang, Quanzhi; Cai, Shanya; El-Tanbouly, Rania; Gan, Lijun; Wu, Han; Li, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) play a crucial role in growth and development of the tomato fruit. Previously published studies focusing on the effect of GAs on tomato fruits used chemical treatments, constitutive overexpression or silencing of GA biosynthetic and catabolic genes globally throughout the plant. Fruit-specific overexpression of GA catabolic enzyme genes GA2-oxidases (GA2oxs), however, may provide an alternative method to study the role of endogenous GAs on the fruit development. In this study, we have identified 11 SlGA2ox proteins in tomato that are classified into three subgroups. Motif analysis and multiple sequence alignments have demonstrated that all SlGA2oxs, except SlGA2ox10, have similar motif compositions and high-sequence conservation. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis has showed that SlGA2oxs exhibit differential expression patterns in tomato fruits at different developmental stages. When the fruit-specific promoter TFM7 was used to control the expression of SlGA2ox1, we observed no changes in growth and development of vegetative organs. However, fruit weight, seed number and germination rate were significantly affected. We also treated tomato fruits with GA biosynthesis inhibitor and observed phenotypes similar to those of the transgenic fruits. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that expression of cell expansion and GA responsive genes were downregulated in transgenic tomato fruits, supporting that overexpression of the SlGA2ox1 leads to reduction in endogenous GAs. This study provides additional evidence that endogenous GAs and the SlGA2ox1 gene play an important role in controlling on fruit weight, seed development and germination in tomato plant. PMID:28018605

  2. Identification and characterization of tomato gibberellin 2-oxidases (GA2oxs) and effects of fruit-specific SlGA2ox1 overexpression on fruit and seed growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shen; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Liying; Lin, Shanshan; Liu, Decai; Wang, Quanzhi; Cai, Shanya; El-Tanbouly, Rania; Gan, Lijun; Wu, Han; Li, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) play a crucial role in growth and development of the tomato fruit. Previously published studies focusing on the effect of GAs on tomato fruits used chemical treatments, constitutive overexpression or silencing of GA biosynthetic and catabolic genes globally throughout the plant. Fruit-specific overexpression of GA catabolic enzyme genes GA2-oxidases (GA2oxs), however, may provide an alternative method to study the role of endogenous GAs on the fruit development. In this study, we have identified 11 SlGA2ox proteins in tomato that are classified into three subgroups. Motif analysis and multiple sequence alignments have demonstrated that all SlGA2oxs, except SlGA2ox10, have similar motif compositions and high-sequence conservation. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis has showed that SlGA2oxs exhibit differential expression patterns in tomato fruits at different developmental stages. When the fruit-specific promoter TFM7 was used to control the expression of SlGA2ox1, we observed no changes in growth and development of vegetative organs. However, fruit weight, seed number and germination rate were significantly affected. We also treated tomato fruits with GA biosynthesis inhibitor and observed phenotypes similar to those of the transgenic fruits. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that expression of cell expansion and GA responsive genes were downregulated in transgenic tomato fruits, supporting that overexpression of the SlGA2ox1 leads to reduction in endogenous GAs. This study provides additional evidence that endogenous GAs and the SlGA2ox1 gene play an important role in controlling on fruit weight, seed development and germination in tomato plant.

  3. Respiratory activity of ‘Chelan’, ‘Bing’ and ‘Selah’ sweet cherries in relation to fruit traits at green, white-pink, red and mahogany ripening stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet cherry fruit development is subjectively sub-divided into four stages on the basis of exocarp color, which includes green, white-pink, red and mahogany stages. ‘Chelan’, ‘Bing’ and ‘Selah’, representing early-, mid- and late-season cultivars, respectively, and three different abscission-respon...

  4. Polyuronides in Avocado (Persea americana) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Fruits Exhibit Markedly Different Patterns of Molecular Weight Downshifts during Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, D. J.; O'Donoghue, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana) fruit experience a rapid and extensive loss of firmness during ripening. In this study, we examined whether the chelator solubility and molecular weight of avocado polyuronides paralleled the accumulation of polygalacturonase (PG) activity and loss in fruit firmness. Polyuronides were derived from ethanolic precipitates of avocado mesocarp prepared using a procedure to rapidly inactivate endogenous enzymes. During ripening, chelator (cyclohexane-trans-1,2-diamine tetraacetic acid [CDTA])-soluble polyuronides increased from approximately 30 to 40 [mu]g of galacturonic acid equivalents (mg alcohol-insoluble solids)-1 in preripe fruit to 150 to 170 [mu]g mg-1 in postclimacteric fruit. In preripe fruit, chelator-extractable polyuronides were of high molecular weight and were partially excluded from Sepharose CL- 2B-300 gel filtration media. Avocado polyuronides exhibited marked downshifts in molecular weight during ripening. At the postclimacteric stage, nearly all chelator-extractable polyuronides, which constituted from 75 to 90% of total cell wall uronic acid content, eluted near the total volume of the filtration media. Rechromatography of low molecular weight polyuronides on Bio-Gel P-4 disclosed that oligomeric uronic acids are produced in vivo during avocado ripening. The gel filtration behavior and pattern of depolymerization of avocado polyuronides were not influenced by the polyuronide extraction protocol (imidazole versus CDTA) or by chromatographic conditions designed to minimize interpolymeric aggregation. Polyuronides from ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit extracted and chromatographed under conditions identical with those used for avocado polyuronides exhibited markedly less rapid and less extensive downshifts in molecular weight during the transition from mature-green to fully ripe. Even during a 9-d period beyond the fully ripe stage, tomato fruit polyuronides exhibited limited additional depolymerization and

  5. The Tomato MIXTA-Like Transcription Factor Coordinates Fruit Epidermis Conical Cell Development and Cuticular Lipid Biosynthesis and Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashbrooke, Justin; Adato, Avital; Lotan, Orfa; Alkan, Noam; Tsimbalist, Tatiana; Rechav, Katya; Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Widemann, Emilie; Grausem, Bernard; Pinot, Franck; Granell, Antonio; Costa, Fabrizio; Aharoni, Asaph

    2015-12-01

    The epidermis of aerial plant organs is the primary source of building blocks forming the outer surface cuticular layer. To examine the relationship between epidermal cell development and cuticle assembly in the context of fruit surface, we investigated the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MIXTA-like gene. MIXTA/MIXTA-like proteins, initially described in snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) petals, are known regulators of epidermal cell differentiation. Fruit of transgenically silenced SlMIXTA-like tomato plants displayed defects in patterning of conical epidermal cells. They also showed altered postharvest water loss and resistance to pathogens. Transcriptome and cuticular lipids profiling coupled with comprehensive microscopy revealed significant modifications to cuticle assembly and suggested SlMIXTA-like to regulate cutin biosynthesis. Candidate genes likely acting downstream of SlMIXTA-like included cytochrome P450s (CYPs) of the CYP77A and CYP86A subfamilies, LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE2, GLYCEROL-3-PHOSPHATE SN-2-ACYLTRANSFERASE4, and the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE11 cuticular lipids transporter. As part of a larger regulatory network of epidermal cell patterning and L1-layer identity, we found that SlMIXTA-like acts downstream of SlSHINE3 and possibly cooperates with homeodomain Leu zipper IV transcription factors. Hence, SlMIXTA-like is a positive regulator of both cuticle and conical epidermal cell formation in tomato fruit, acting as a mediator of the tight association between fruit cutin polymer formation, cuticle assembly, and epidermal cell patterning.

  6. Overexpression of a novel MADS-box gene SlFYFL delays senescence, fruit ripening and abscission in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiaoli; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Zhiguo; Dong, Tingting; Zhao, Zhiping; Cui, Baolu; Chen, Guoping

    2014-03-01

    MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors involved in many biological processes of plants. In our study, a tomato MADS-box gene, SlFYFL, was isolated. SlFYFL is expressed in all tissues of tomato and significantly higher in mature leave, fruit of different stages, AZ (abscission zone) and sepal. Delayed leaf senescence and fruit ripening, increased storability and longer sepals were observed in 35S:FYFL tomato. The accumulation of carotenoid was reduced, and ethylene content, ethylene biosynthetic and responsive genes were down-regulated in 35S:FYFL fruits. Abscission zone (AZ) did not form normally and abscission zone development related genes were declined in AZs of 35S:FYFL plants. Yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that SlFYFL protein could interact with SlMADS-RIN, SlMADS1 and SlJOINTLESS, respectively. These results suggest that overexpression of SlFYFL regulate fruit ripening and development of AZ via interactions with the ripening and abscission zone-related MADS box proteins.

  7. Divergence in the enzymatic activities of a tomato and Solanum pennellii alcohol acyltransferase impacts fruit volatile ester composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Charles; Kamiyoshihara, Yusuke; Lam, Nghi B; Richard, Théo; Taylor, Mark G; Tieman, Denise M; Klee, Harry J

    2015-01-01

    Tomato fruits accumulate a diverse set of volatiles including multiple esters. The content of ester volatiles is relatively low in tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and far more abundant in the closely related species Solanum pennellii. There are also qualitative variations in ester content between the two species. We have previously shown that high expression of a non-specific esterase is critical for the low overall ester content of S. lycopersicum fruit relative to S. pennellii fruit. Here, we show that qualitative differences in ester composition are the consequence of divergence in enzymatic activity of a ripening-related alcohol acyltransferase (AAT1). The S. pennellii AAT1 is more efficient than the tomato AAT1 for all the alcohols tested. The two enzymes have differences in their substrate preferences that explain the variations observed in the volatiles. The results illustrate how two related species have evolved to precisely adjust their volatile content by modulating the balance of the synthesis and degradation of esters.

  8. The ascorbic acid content of tomato fruits is associated with the expression of genes involved in pectin degradation

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    Di Matteo Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of ascorbic acid (AsA in tomato fruits provide health benefits for humans and also play an important role in several aspects of plant life. Although AsA metabolism has been characterized in detail, the genetic mechanisms controlling AsA accumulation in tomatoes are poorly understood. The transcriptional control of AsA levels in fruits can be investigated by combining the advanced genetic and genomic resources currently available for tomato. A comparative transcriptomic analysis of fruit tissues was carried out on an introgression line containing a QTL promoting AsA accumulation in the fruit, using a parental cultivar with lower AsA levels as a reference. Results Introgression line IL 12-4 (S. pennellii in a S. lycopersicum background was selected for transcriptomic analysis because it maintained differences in AsA levels compared to the parental genotypes M82 and S. pennellii over three consecutive trials. Comparative microarray analysis of IL 12-4 and M82 fruits over a 2-year period allowed 253 differentially-expressed genes to be identified, suggesting that AsA accumulation in IL 12-4 may be caused by a combination of increased metabolic flux and reduced utilization of AsA. In particular, the upregulation of a pectinesterase and two polygalacturonases suggests that AsA accumulation in IL12-4 fruit is mainly achieved by increasing flux through the L-galactonic acid pathway, which is driven by pectin degradation and may be triggered by ethylene. Conclusions Based on functional annotation, gene ontology classification and hierarchical clustering, a subset of the 253 differentially-expressed transcripts was used to develop a model to explain the higher AsA content in IL 12-4 fruits in terms of metabolic flux, precursor availability, demand for antioxidants, abundance of reactive oxygen species and ethylene signaling.

  9. A tomato MADS-box transcription factor, SlMADS1, acts as a negative regulator of fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tingting; Hu, Zongli; Deng, Lei; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Mingku; Zhang, Jianling; Chen, Guoping

    2013-10-01

    MADS-box genes encode a highly conserved gene family of transcriptional factors that regulate numerous developmental processes in plants. In this study, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS-box gene, SlMADS1, was cloned and its tissue-specific expression profile was analyzed. The real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that SlMADS1 was highly expressed in sepals and fruits; its expression level was increased with the development of sepals, while the transcript of SlMADS1 decreased significantly in accordance with fruit ripening. To further explore the function of SlMADS1, an RNA interference (RNAi) expression vector targeting SlMADS1 was constructed and transformed into tomato plants. Shorter ripening time of fruit was observed in SlMADS1-silenced tomatoes. The accumulation of carotenoid and the expression of PHYTOENE SYNTHETASE1 were enhanced in RNAi fruits. Besides, ethylene biosynthetic genes, including 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE1A, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE6, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE OXIDASE1, and 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE OXIDASE3, and the ethylene-responsive genes E4 and E8, which were involved in fruit ripening, were also up-regulated in silenced plants. SlMADS1 RNAi fruits showed approximately 2- to 4-fold increases in ethylene production compared with the wild type. Furthermore, SlMADS1-silenced seedlings displayed shorter hypocotyls and were more sensitive to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate than the wild type. Additionally, a yeast two-hybrid assay revealed a clear interaction between SlMADS1 and SlMADS-RIN. These results suggest that SlMADS1 plays an important role in fruit ripening as a repressive modulator.

  10. Plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adult mortality and associated fruit injury after exposure to field-aged insecticides on tart cherry branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Eric J; Vandervoort, Christine; Wise, John C

    2010-08-01

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were exposed to field-aged residues of thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, indoxacarb, or azinphos-methyl on tart cherry, Prunus cerasus L. variety Montmorency. At 1, 3, 7, and 14 d postapplication, fruit were sampled for chemical residues, and bioassays were used to assess beetle mortality and plant tissue injury. Azinphos-methyl had lethal activity within 1 d of exposure at all postapplication intervals and significant fruit protection extended to 14 d postapplication. All of the neonicotinoids had lethal activity at 3 d posttreatment, with acetamiprid activity extending to 7 d. Antifeedant and oviposition deterrent effects were seen with thiamethoxam and thiacloprid; damage incidence was significantly reduced in the absence of significant beetle mortality or intoxication. Thiamethoxam and acetamiprid penetrated into leaf and fruit tissue and were detected in the interior tissues at 14 d postapplication, but interior thiacloprid residues were not detected after day 1. Indoxacarb provided some fruit protection out to 7 d postapplication, and 14-d-old residues intoxicated beetles, but the slow action of this compound allowed significant damage to occur before beetles were incapacitated. Indoxacarb was only detected as a surface residue after the first day postapplication. These data on the plant-insect-chemistry interactions will support use and management decisions as compounds with acute contact activity are phased out.

  11. Modelling central metabolic fluxes by constraint-based optimization reveals metabolic reprogramming of developing Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombié, Sophie; Nazaret, Christine; Bénard, Camille; Biais, Benoît; Mengin, Virginie; Solé, Marion; Fouillen, Laëtitia; Dieuaide-Noubhani, Martine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Gibon, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of metabolic networks is a powerful tool to analyse the behaviour of developing plant organs, including fruits. Guided by our current understanding of heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells, a medium-scale stoichiometric model, including the balance of co-factors and energy, was constructed in order to describe metabolic shifts that occur through the nine sequential stages of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit development. The measured concentrations of the main biomass components and the accumulated metabolites in the pericarp, determined at each stage, were fitted in order to calculate, by derivation, the corresponding external fluxes. They were used as constraints to solve the model by minimizing the internal fluxes. The distribution of the calculated fluxes of central metabolism were then analysed and compared with known metabolic behaviours. For instance, the partition of the main metabolic pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, etc.) was relevant throughout fruit development. We also predicted a valid import of carbon and nitrogen by the fruit, as well as a consistent CO2 release. Interestingly, the energetic balance indicates that excess ATP is dissipated just before the onset of ripening, supporting the concept of the climacteric crisis. Finally, the apparent contradiction between calculated fluxes with low values compared with measured enzyme capacities suggest a complex reprogramming of the metabolic machinery during fruit development. With a powerful set of experimental data and an accurate definition of the metabolic system, this work provides important insight into the metabolic and physiological requirements of the developing tomato fruits.

  12. Tomato second cycle hybrids as a source of genetic variability for fruit quality traits

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    Pereira da Costa JH

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and molecular variability in a F2 generation derived from a SCH (Second Cycle Hybrid in order to detect QTLs for some fruit traits of tomato. Genome coverage at different levels was achieved by three types of molecular markers (polypeptides, sequence-related amplified polymorphism-SRAP and amplified restriction fragment polymorphism - AFLP. Different degrees of polymorphism were detected by SRAP and AFLP at the DNA structure level and also by polypeptides at the DNA expression level. The first two markers, associated with phenotypic variation, detected QTLs involved in important agronomic traits such as fruit shelf life, soluble solids content, pH, and titratable acidity. New gene blocks originated by recombination during the first cycle of crossing were detected. This study confirmed that the observed phenotypic differences represent a new gene rearrangement and that these new gene blocks are responsible for the presence of the genetic variability detected for these traits.

  13. Chromoplast formation during tomato fruit ripening. No evidence for plastid DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, M R; Carrillo, N

    1991-01-01

    Ripening of tomato fruits involves differentiation of chloroplasts into non-photosynthetic chromoplasts. Plastid DNAs isolated either from green leaf chloroplasts or mature red fruit chromoplasts were compared by restriction endonuclease and DNA/DNA hybridization analyses. The same restriction and gene maps were obtained for both types of DNAs, illustrating the lack of major recombinational events during chromoplast formation. Several enzymes were used that discriminate the presence of methylated bases in their target sequences (Pst I, Pvu II, Sal I, Mbo I/Sau 3AI, Msp I/Hpa II, Bst NI/Eco RII). Plastid DNA fragments generated by these enzymes were hybridized against DNA probes encompassing about 85% of the tobacco chloroplast genome. These probes represented genes that follow very different expression behaviors in response to plastid development. Extensive restriction and hybridization analyses failed to reveal any difference between the chloroplast and chromoplast genomes, indicating that no developmentally related DNA methylation was detected by these methods. The results presented here do not support the hypothesis that selective DNA methylation of the chromoplast genome might play a major role in the transcriptional control of gene expression in these non-photosynthetic plastids.

  14. Rapid ester biosynthesis screening reveals a high activity alcohol-O-acyltransferase (AATase) from tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jyun-Liang; Zhu, Jie; Wheeldon, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Ethyl and acetate esters are naturally produced in various yeasts, plants, and bacteria. The biosynthetic pathways that produce these esters share a common reaction step, the condensation of acetyl/acyl-CoA with an alcohol by alcohol-O-acetyl/acyltransferase (AATase). Recent metabolic engineering efforts exploit AATase activity to produce fatty acid ethyl esters as potential diesel fuel replacements as well as short- and medium-chain volatile esters as fragrance and flavor compounds. These efforts have been limited by the lack of a rapid screen to quantify ester biosynthesis. Enzyme engineering efforts have also been limited by the lack of a high throughput screen for AATase activity. Here, we developed a high throughput assay for AATase activity and used this assay to discover a high activity AATase from tomato fruit, Solanum lycopersicum (Atf-S.l). Atf1-S.l exhibited broad specificity towards acyl-CoAs with chain length from C4 to C10 and was specific towards 1-pentanol. The AATase screen also revealed new acyl-CoA substrate specificities for Atf1, Atf2, Eht1, and Eeb1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Atf-C.m from melon fruit, Cucumis melo, thus increasing the pool of characterized AATases that can be used in ester biosynthesis of ester-based fragrance and flavor compounds as well as fatty acid ethyl ester biofuels.

  15. Inheritance of fruit color and pigment changes in a yellow tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. mutant

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    Elizanilda R. do Rêgo

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A naturally occurring yellow tomato fruit mutant cv. Santa Clara was reciprocally crossed with the red wild type, after which F1 plants were self pollinated or backcrossed with both parents. Plants from F1 generations produced all fruits with a homogeneous deep red color when ripe. F2 plants showed a 3:1 red:yellow segregation of fruit color, and 100% red when backcrossed with red wild type or 1:1 red:yellow segregation in backcrosses with the yellow mutant; hence, yellow fruit color was determined by a recessive allele. Based on reciprocal crosses, fruit color is unlikely to be determined by maternal genes. Accumulation of lycopene dropped by 99.3% and b-carotene by 77% in ripe yellow fruits, compared to the red wild type. Leaf and flower chlorophyll and total carotenoid concentrations were not affected by the yellow mutation. However, the mutant fruit had a higher rate of chlorophyll degradation during fruit ripening, whilst fruit from the F1 generation showed lower rates of degradation, similar to that observed in red wild type fruits.Neste trabalho avaliou-se a herança da cor do fruto de um mutante natural da cv. Santa Clara, por meio da análise das gerações F1 e segregantes, obtidas mediante cruzamento entre plantas da cv. Santa Clara normal e o mutante amarelo. A caracterização das plantas normais, mutantes e F1 foi feita com base na análise quantitativa dos pigmentos carotenóides e clorofila em flores, folhas e frutos verdes e maduros. Plantas F1 e provenientes do retrocruzamento com o progenitor normal apresentaram 100% de frutos vermelhos. A semelhança entre os F1 recíprocos mostra que há ausência de herança materna para as características avaliadas. Em gerações segregantes, as freqüências observadas foram compatíveis com herança monogênica pelo teste qui-quadrado, com dominância completa para o gene que confere cor vermelha. Os frutos amarelos apresentaram teores reduzidos de b-caroteno e licopeno, enquanto o h

  16. Nutritional properties of cherry tomatoes harvested at different times and grown in an organic cropping Propriedades nutricionais de tomates cereja colhidos em diferentes épocas e cultivado em sistema orgânico

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    Lucinéia de Pinho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical characteristics of the cherry tomato cultivated in organic and conventional production systems and harvested at either 30 or 45 days of cropping were evaluated using a randomized, 2x2 factorial design (2 cropping systems x 2 harvesting times with five repetitions. The parameters analyzed were color, centesimal composition, total energetic value, carotenoids and bioactive amine content. Tomatoes harvested at 30 days had higher total soluble solid (TSS content when grown conventionally, but when harvested at 45 days, both conventional and organic tomatoes had similar TSS values, probably due to increased N availability in the soil. Organic cherry tomatoes had higher contents of β-carotene, lycopene and bioactive amine. On the other hand, tomatoes from conventional cropping were more alkaline and brighter. In conclusion, organic tomatoes are more nutritious than conventional varieties, and if allowed to ripen for up to 45 days, contain higher levels of TSS, carotenoids and total bioactive amines.As características físico-químicas de tomates cereja cutivados em sistema orgânico e convencional e colhidos em 30 ou 45 dias de cultivo foram avaliadas em um delineamento casualizado, fatorial 2x2 (2 sistemas de cultivo x 2 épocas de colheita com cinco repetições. Foram analisados os parâmetros cor, composição centesimal, valor energético total e conteúdo de carotenóides e de aminas bioativas. Tomates colhidos em 30 dias tiveram maior conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, possivelmente devido ao aumento de disponibilidade de N no solo. Os tomates orgânicos tiveram maior conteúdo de β-caroteno, licopeno e aminas bioativas. Por outro lado, os tomates convencionais foram menos ácidos e tiveram maior brilho. Conclui-se que tomates orgânicos são mais nutritivos que os convencionais, e se amadurecerem até 45 dias concentram maior teor de SST, carotenóides e aminas bioativas totais.

  17. Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene on fruit browning of sweet cherry%1-甲基环丙烯对甜樱桃果实褐变的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尊英; 曾名勇; 董士远; 宋艳; 张玉玉

    2005-01-01

    在预实验基础上,(24±1)℃,RH 80%-90%条件下,采用1μL/L甲基环丙烯(1-MCP)对甜樱桃处理24 h,后置于(0±0.5)℃条件下冷藏18 d,对果实的褐变参数及相关酶活性进行检测.结果表明,1μL/L 1-MCP明显抑制甜樱桃果实L*和H°值的下降及苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)、多酚氧化酶(PPO)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性的上升.(0±0.5)℃贮藏18 d后,1-MCP处理的果实风味和口感无明显变化,色泽和综合评分明显优于对照(P<0.05).%Experiment was conducted with just harvested sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit which were treated with 1μL/L 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) for 24 h at (24±1)℃ and 80%-90% RH, then the fruit were stored at (0±0.5)℃ for 18 days.Fruit browning parameters and related enzyme activities were examined. The results showed that application of 1-MCP retarded the decrease in L * and H° values and suppressed the increase in PAL, PPO and POD activities. 1-MCP treatment delayed the changes of fruit coloration and no effects on the fruit eating quality were noted. Comparing with the control the treated fruit quality was obviously better after 18 days stored at (0±0.5)℃.

  18. Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII markers

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    Felix Enciso-Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam. and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt. are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32 and tree tomatoes (n = 30 through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII in other Solanaceae (Asterid species. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested and tree tomatoes (26 out of 41 for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in tree tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with F ST > 0.90, which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit species.

  19. KNOX genes influence a gradient of fruit chloroplast development through regulation of GOLDEN2-LIKE expression in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadakuduti, Satya Swathi; Holdsworth, William L; Klein, Chelsey L; Barry, Cornelius S

    2014-06-01

    The chlorophyll content of unripe fleshy fruits is po