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Sample records for cherry prunus avium

  1. Genetic relationships between diploid and allotetraploid cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus x gondouinii and Prunus cerasus).

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    Tavaud, M; Zanetto, A; David, J L; Laigret, F; Dirlewanger, E

    2004-12-01

    Prunus avium L. (diploid, AA, 2n=2x=16), Prunus cerasus L. (allotetraploid, AAFF, 2n=4x=32) species, and their hybrid Prunus x gondouinii Rehd., constitute the most widely cultivated cherry tree species. P. cerasus is supposed to be an hybrid species produced by the union of unreduced P. avium gametes and normal P. fruticosa gametes. A continuum of morphological traits between these three species makes their assignation difficult. The aim of this paper is to study the genetic relationships between tetraploid and diploid cherry species. In all, 114 genotypes belonging to these species were analyzed using 75 AFLP markers. The coordinates of these genotypes on the first axis of a correspondence analysis allowed us to clearly distinguish each species, to identify misclassifications and to assign unknown genotypes to one species. We showed that there are specific alleles in P. cerasus, which are not present in the A genome of P. avium and which probably come from the F genome of P. cerasus. The frequencies of each marker in the A and the F genomes were estimated in order to identify A and F specific markers. We discuss the utility of these specific markers for finding the origin of the A and F genomes in the allopolyploid species.

  2. Influence of cultivar and processing on cherry (Prunus avium) allergenicity.

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    Primavesi, L; Brenna, O V; Pompei, C; Pravettoni, V; Farioli, L; Pastorello, E A

    2006-12-27

    Oral allergy syndrome is an immediate food allergic event that affects lips, mouth, and pharynx, is often triggered by fruits and vegetables, and may be associated with pollinosis. Here, we report on the allergenic pattern of different varieties of cherry (Prunus avium) and results obtained by applying several technological processes to the selected varieties. Whole cherries were submitted to chemical peeling, thermal treatment, and syruping processes, and the relative protein extracts were analyzed by in vitro (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis) and in vivo tests (skin prick test). Electrophoretic analyses demonstrated that there was no marked difference among cherry cultivars. Chemical peeling successfully removed Pru av 3, a lipid transfer protein (LTP) responsible for oral allergy syndrome in patients without pollinosis, leading to the industrial production of cherry hypoallergenic derivatives. Furthermore, the syruping process removed almost all allergenic proteins to whom patients with pollinosis are responsive. In vivo tests confirmed electrophoretic results.

  3. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit during development.

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    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2011-11-01

    In this study the abundance and location of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was determined in the flesh and skin of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivar Durone Nero II during development. PEPCK was not present in young fruit but appeared in both tissues as the fruit increased in size. In these there was no net dissimilation of malic acid, which accounts for the bulk of their organic acid contents when PEPCK was present. To assist in understanding the function of PEPCK, the abundance of a number of other enzymes was determined. These enzymes were aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco). A potential role for PEPCK in the regulation of pH and the utilization of malate in gluconeogenesis in the flesh and skin of cherries is presented.

  4. Ascorbic acid metabolism during sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit development.

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    Liang, Dong; Zhu, Tingting; Ni, Zhiyou; Lin, Lijin; Tang, Yi; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Xun; Wang, Jin; Lv, Xiulan; Xia, Hui

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate metabolism of ascorbic acid (AsA) in sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium 'Hongdeng'), we quantified AsA concentration, cloned sequences involved in AsA metabolism and investigated their mRNA expression levels, and determined the activity levels of selected enzymes during fruit development and maturation. We found that AsA concentration was highest at the petal-fall period (0 days after anthesis) and decreased progressively during ripening, but with a slight increase at maturity. AsA did nevertheless continue to accumulate over time because of the increase in fruit fresh weight. Full-length cDNAs of 10 genes involved in the L-galactose pathway of AsA biosynthesis and 10 involved in recycling were obtained. Gene expression patterns of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP2), L-galactono-1, 4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH), ascorbate peroxidase (APX3), ascorbate oxidase (AO2), glutathione reductase (GR1), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1) were in accordance with the AsA concentration pattern during fruit development, indicating that genes involved in ascorbic acid biosynthesis, degradation, and recycling worked in concert to regulate ascorbic acid accumulation in sweet cherry fruit.

  5. Bioactive components of Prunus avium L. black gold (red cherry) and Prunus avium L. stark gold (white cherry) juices, wines and vinegars.

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    Budak, Nilgün H

    2017-01-01

    Cherries are one of the most popular fruits, characterized by attractive colour, firmness, appearance and delicious tastes. Cherries are consumed fresh as well as in jams, wine, dried, candy and other processed products. Cherries vary in antioxidant properties and phenolic substances. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of ethanol and acetic acid fermentation on total antioxidant activities and phenolic substances of cherry juice. Total investigation of solids, pH, soluble solids, phenolic substances, ORAC and TEAC of Prunus avium L. cherry juices, macerated cherries wine, and vinegars were analyzed. All samples had 300.1-854.79 mg GAE/L of total phenolic contents, and 6.62-17.97 µmol/mL of ORAC values, and 1.5-5.5 mmol/mL of TEAC. Chlorogenic acid was present in the highest amount P. avium L. black gold vinegar.

  6. Detecting local establishment strategies of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

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    Gregorius Hans-Rolf

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround P. avium, a pioneer tree species that colonizes early forest successional stages, is assumed to require an effective strategy allowing stably repeatable rounds of local establishment, dispersal and local extinction. Consequently, the early replacement of cherry by climax tree species makes the establishment of several local generations very unlikely, especially in central European continuous cover forests. This has to be seen in connection with the mixed reproduction system involving asexual reproduction as a complementary adaptational strategy. Tests of the local establishment of wild cherry must therefore consider the possibility of first generation establishment via seedling recruitment potentially followed by an asexual generation (root suckering. Successful establishment can therefore be determined only among adult individuals with the option of detecting vegetative reproduction at these stages. To test the implied suggestion about local establishment strategies of wild cherry, nuclear microsatellites were used to analyse patterns of asexual propagation among adult stages that have been subjected to one of two major types of forest management. These management types, the historical "coppice with standards system" (CWS and the "high forest system" (HFS, can be reasonably assumed to have affected the reproduction system of P. avium. Results Clear differences were found in the reproduction pattern between two stands representing the two forest management types: 1 Clonal propagation is observed in both management systems, but with a distinctly higher frequency in the CWS. Hence, sexual recruitment as a first local generation is followed by a second asexual generation in both, whereas in the CWS there is evidence for an additional clonal generation. 2 The estimation of amounts of clonal reproduction critically depends on the assumptions about multilocus gene associations. This is revealed by the application of newly developed

  7. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

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    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z.; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; Hashemi, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing,

  8. Genetic diversity in wild sweet cherries (Prunus avium) in Turkey revealed by SSR markers.

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    Ercisli, S; Agar, G; Yildirim, N; Duralija, B; Vokurka, A; Karlidag, H

    2011-06-21

    Wild sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees are abundant in the northern part of Turkey, including the Coruh Valley. We analyzed 18 wild sweet cherry genotypes collected from diverse environments in the upper Coruh Valley in Turkey to determine genetic variation, using 10 SSR primers. These SSR primers generated 46 alleles; the number of alleles per primer ranged from 3 to 7, with a mean of 4.6. The primer PS12A02 gave the highest number of polymorphic bands (N = 7), while CPSCT010, UDAp-401 and UDAp-404 gave the lowest number (N = 3). Seven groups were separated in the dendrogram, although most of the genotypes did not cluster according to phenological and morphological traits. This level of genetic diversity in these wild sweet cherry genotypes is very high and therefore these trees would be useful as breeders for crosses between cultivated sweet cherry and wild genotypes.

  9. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

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    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  10. Prunus avium: nuclear DNA study in wild populations and sweet cherry cultivars.

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    Guarino, Carmine; Santoro, Simona; De Simone, Luciana; Cipriani, Guido

    2009-04-01

    The PCR-SSR technique was used to detect nuclear DNA diversity in five wild populations of Prunus avium from deciduous forests in Italy, Slovenia, and Croatia and 87 sweet cherry accessions from different geographical areas that have been maintained in the sweet cherry collection in Italy. This sweet cherry collection includes local accessions from the Campania Region as well as accessions from different countries. Twenty-eight microsatellites, previously developed in this species, generated polymorphic amplification products. Between 2 and 14 alleles were revealed for the polymorphic loci studied, with the expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.045 to 0.831. The total probability of identity was 56.94 x 10-18. A model-based Bayesian clustering analysis identified nine distinct gene pools in cultivated P. avium. The probability that wild populations were assigned to cultivated gene pools indicated that three gene pools accounted for the genomic origin of 53% of P. avium sampled. A dendrogram was generated using UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages) based on Nei genetic distance analysis. This dendrogram classified most of the genotypes into one major group with an additional group of five accessions. The results indicate that this set of SSRs is highly informative, and they are discussed in terms of the implications for sweet cherry characterization.

  11. Analysis of wild sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. germplasm diversity in south-east Serbia

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    Mratinić Evica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten wild growing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. genotypes from South-East Serbia with different fruit skin color were analyzed for its phenological, morphological and chemical traits. Agronomic evaluation of germplasm accessions revealed considerable diversity among different accessions for all the characters studied. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among all genotypes for almost all examined properties. Cluster analysis showed adequate grouping of wild sweet cherry genotypes according to pomological characterization and distinguished them into two distinct groups. The first group had two subgroups and consisted of seven genotypes, while the second one included only three accessions. Despite of the significant differences among genotypes, the total concentration of phenols made a clear separation between the clusters. The level of genetic diversity in these wild sweet cherry genotypes is very high and therefore these trees are useful sources of variability for attributes studied and can be employed in further breeding programs or conservation.

  12. Physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar contents of 12 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Turkey.

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    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2015-03-01

    Physical characteristics, antioxidant activity and chemical constituents of 12 cultivars (Prunus avium L.) of sweet cherry (Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat) were investigated. Significant differences (P cherries. Four different sugars were observed in the samples and their concentrations ordered as glucose > fructose > sucrose > xylose. Sugar alcohol in the cherries was represented by sorbitol (more than 90%) and its concentration varied between 13.93 and 27.12 g/kg. As a result significant differences were observed among the physical properties and chemical constituents of the cherry cultivars.

  13. Early-screening for resistance to Phytophthora sp.p. in wild cherry clones (Prunus avium L.

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    Guerri S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for early selection of wild cherry clones for resistance to Phytophthora sp. is presented. Four Phytophthora species (P. cinnamomi, P. citrophthora, P. megasperma, P. alni were tested in vitro on four micropropagated cherry (Prunus avium clones, obtaining reliable and reproducible results. Variability in clones susceptibilities and in parasite virulence has been evidenced. Phytophthora citrophthora is confirmed to be a dangerous parasite, due to its capability to produce symptoms rapidly and its fitness to Mediterranean environments. On the contrary P. alni does not seem a dangerous parasite for wild cherry.

  14. Phenolic compounds in cherry ( Prunus avium ) heartwood with a view to their use in cooperage.

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    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández De Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-04-28

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Prunus avium , commonly known as cherry tree, before and after toasting in cooperage were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS. Nonflavonoid (16 compounds) and flavonoid (27 compounds) polyphenols were identified, 12 of them in only a tentative way. The nonflavonoids found were lignin constituents, and their pattern is different compared to oak, since they include compounds such as protocatechuic acid and aldehyde, p-coumaric acid, methyl vanillate, methyl syringate, and benzoic acid, but not ellagic acid, and only a small quantity of gallic acid. In seasoned wood we found a great variety of flavonoid compounds which have not been found in oak wood for cooperage, mainly, in addition to the flavan-3-ols (+)-catechin, a B-type procyanidin dimer, and a B-type procyanidin trimer, the flavanones naringenin, isosakuranetin, and eriodictyol and the flavanonols aromadendrin and taxifolin. Seasoned and toasted cherry wood showed different ratios of flavonoid to nonflavonoid compounds, since toasting results in the degradation of flavonoids, and the formation of nonflavonoids from lignin degradation. On the other hand, the absence of hydrolyzable tannins in cherry wood, which are very important in oak wood, is another particular characteristic of this wood that should be taken into account when considering its use in cooperage.

  15. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

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    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols.

  16. Distribution and fine-scale spatial-genetic structure in British wild cherry (Prunus avium L.).

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    Vaughan, S P; Cottrell, J E; Moodley, D J; Connolly, T; Russell, K

    2007-05-01

    Insights into the within-population spatial-genetic structure (SGS) of forest tree species, where little is known regarding seed and pollen dispersal patterns, enhance understanding of their ecology and provide information of value in conservation and breeding. This study utilised 13 polymorphic simple sequence repeat loci to investigate the impact of asexual recruitment, management regime and tree size on the development of SGS in wild cherry (Prunus avium L). Only 246 genotypes were identified in the 551 trees sampled, reflecting significant levels of clonal reproduction in both managed and unmanaged populations. Naturally regenerated wild cherry was spatially aggregated under both management regimes. However, in the managed population, sexually derived trees accounted for a greater proportion of the smaller size classes, whereas vegetatively produced trees dominated the smaller size classes in the unmanaged population. High overall SGS values (Sp 0.030-Sp 0.045) were observed when considering only sexually derived genets and kinship coefficients were significant up to the 120 m distance class for both populations. The inclusion of clonal ramets in the analysis significantly increased the overall SGS (Sp 0.089-Sp 0.119) as well as kinship coefficients in the 40-80 m distance classes, illustrating the dramatic impact of vegetative propagation on SGS in this species. Increased spatial aggregation and regeneration appeared to be concomitant with increased SGS in the 40 m distance class in the unmanaged population. Neighbourhood size estimates were relatively small for both populations and kinship coefficients were found to decline with distance under both management regimes, suggesting that common mechanisms may restrict gene dispersal in wild cherry.

  17. Dormancy in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. under Mediterranean climatic conditions

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    Ahmed Mahhou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is admitted that the lack of winter chilling is a limiting factor for the cultivation of temperate fruit trees in warm climates. Nevertheless, the characteristics of dormancy in sweet cherry under such conditions are still not fully understood. Therefore, and in order to contribute to the elucidation of these mechanisms, the objective of this work is to evaluate the dormancy of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. under the Mediterranean conditions of Meknes region (Morocco. Evaluation of dormancy behaviour of four varieties was made on the basis of a biological test, known as the « single node cuttings », and histological dissections of flower buds at the time of bud break. The variations of mean time to bud break (MTB were interpreted in terms of the evolution of growth capacity of the buds. The lack of cold affected tree phenological development. The evolution of dormancy in cherry buds showed three phases with variable levels of inertia: the first and third phases being of similar intensity and duration while the second phase was of a high level of inertia (endo-dormancy. The correlative inhibitions of the leaves imposed on the buds continued up to the arrival of continuous low temperatures. The delay in the decrease of inertia reveals insufficient chilling accumulation causing incomplete release from dormancy and low bud break percentage in the orchard. Histological observations showed that vascular connection of flower buds was established during bud break stage. However, flowers showed certain abnormalities, ie low pollen production and malformations of pistils, which limit the possibilities of pollination.

  18. Management of genetic resources in the nursery system of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

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    Proietti R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetic and adaptive traits of reproductive materials used in the nursery system of wild cherry, could be an useful instrument to improve ecological and economic sustainability of plantation ecosystems. This work reports results from a research which the objectives were: 1 to study the genetic variation of a Prunus avium L. Population, used for seed harvesting, through its multi-locus genotypes detected by starch gel electrophoresis; 2 to analyze the level of genetic variation within and among different steps in a commercial nursery system (basic population and sub-populations, seedlings aged S1T1 and S1T2, plantation. Results showed low genetic variation levels of the basic population, similar to a reference system of other 12 wild cherry Italian populations and to other French and Caucasian materials. The genetic distances among Monte Baldo and some closer Lombardy provenances (Area Garda, Bosco Fontana, Valtellina were smaller than the Venice Region populations (Monti Lessini and Asiago. Number of alleles and percentage of polymorphic loci within the complex of Monte Baldo provenance and multiplication materials were similar, whilst a variable value of Fis was noted. Indeed, along with the nursery system until the plantation, heterozygosis initially (S1T1 increased, then decreased proceeding to the plantation. This fluctuation of FIS values could be determined by seed lots characterized initially by higher levels of variation, due to self-incompatibility. In the following steps, a possible selection pressure can affect randomly the genotypic structure of wild cherry by increasing the homozygosity. There is not among population a well defined geographic characterization, as suggested by genetic distances, therefore homogeneous seed harvest could be established an area larger than geographic and administrative borders. On this way we could have reproductive material with a wide genetic base and environmental adaptability. To

  19. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Sweet Cherries (Prunus Avium L. from West and South-West of Romania

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    Sofia Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases (such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Currently, most research is focused on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds found in fruit and vegetable. Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. contain a significant amount of polyphenols and several antioxidants that possess many biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. In present study were investigated the quantification of total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in fruits of a number of selected sweet cherry genotypes. Although sweet cherry fruits are a significant source of different phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity of sweet cherries is not related only with the total phenolic content.  

  20. [Identifying the S genotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars].

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    Chen, Xiao-Liu; Chen, Xue-Sen; Shu, Huai-Rui

    2004-10-01

    This report identified S-RNase genes (S genes) of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), presented the sequences of S genes by using a pair of specific primers PruC2 and PruC4R based on the conserved regions C2 and RC4 of Rosaceous S-RNase genes and researched the S gene specific products from the genomic DNAs of different cultivars in which most of the S genotypese were unknown. The bands of PCR were cloned and their sequences were compared in GenBank. Four S genes were defined and the conclusion was made that all the same bands from PCR in the agarose gel had the same length and sequence of nucleic acid and were the same kind of S gene. The lengths of the amplified S genes are as follows: S1 is 677 bp, S3 762 bp, S4 945 bp, S6 456 bp. The S genotypes (S gene genotypes) of the tested self-incompatible cultivars were identified as follows: 'Hongdeng', 'Hongyan' and 'Early ruby', as same as 'Van', were S1 S3; 'Jueze', 'Hongfeng' and 'Napoleon' were S3S4; 'Dazi' was S1 S6; 'Changbahong' was S1 S4; 'Elton' was S3S6. The self-compatibile cultivars 'Waiyin No.7' and 'Stella' had the same S genotypes S3 S4'.

  1. In vitro plant regeneration from leaves and internode sections of sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

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    Matt, Andrea; Jehle, Johannes A

    2005-10-01

    Regeneration of adventitious shoots from leaves and, for the first time, from internode sections were compared and optimized for five economically important sweet cherry cultivars, i.e. "Schneiders", "Sweetheart", "Starking Hardy Giant", "Kordia" and "Regina" (Prunus avium L.). The influence of basal media, carbon source, combination and dosage of phytohormones, ethylene inhibitor such as silver thiosulfate and a 16 h:8 h light:dark photoperiod versus complete darkness were evaluated. Both, DKW/WPM (1:1) and Quoirin/Lepoivre (QL) basal media stimulated organogenesis more than QL/WPM (1:1), Chee and Pool (CP), Murashige Skoog (MS), Driver and Kuniyuki (DKW) or woody plant (WPM) media did. An induction phase in darkness resulted in lower or zero regeneration rates. The best regeneration efficiencies were generally obtained with thidiazuron in combination with indole-3-butyric-acid. The addition of silver thiosulfate resulted in a similar or reduced regeneration efficiency. Significant genotypic variability in adventitious bud formation was evident for both explant sources, leaf and internode section. Adventitious shoots were obtained from 11% of leaf explants and 50% of internode sections indicating that shoot regeneration from internodes was significantly more efficient than from leaves.

  2. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & TurpinRehd. and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin Rehd. y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L. y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.

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    Rodrigo Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA were carried out. For qualitative descriptors, statistical comparisons were done by means of the chi-square (χ2 test. As result of the study, two quantitative (titratable acidity and number of lenticels and six qualitative descriptors (shape of the central and lateral lobes in the internal bracts of the flower fascicles, leaf shape and margin, pubescence in the veins of the lower side of the leaf, and type of sulci of the seed coat were identified as differential parameters in P. avium, P. cerasus and P. x gondouinii(Poit. & Turpin Rehd. Also, another four qualitative descriptors (petal coloration at the end of blooming, leaf stipule type, and seed shape and viability were found to be useful for easy differentiation between sour and duke cherry. None of these parameters has been employed previously to discriminate among sweet, sour and duke cherry.Los híbridos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. y guindo (Prunus cerasus L. no son fáciles de identificar. Para resolver este problema, 18 cultivares de cerezo, guindo y sus híbridos fueron prospectados y caracterizados agromorfológicamente mediante el estudio de 43 descriptores evaluados en flores, hojas, frutos, ramas de 1 año y árbol durante los años 2005 y 2006. En base a los resultados obtenidos del estudio de los diferentes parámetros cuantitativos se realizaron un ANDEVA y un análisis discriminante escalonado (SDA. Los descriptores cualitativos fueron analizados mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado (χ². Como resultado del estudio se identificaron

  3. Characterization of microsatellites in wild and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)--markers for individual identification and reproductive processes.

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    Schueler, Silvio; Tusch, Alexandra; Schuster, Mirko; Ziegenhagen, Birgit

    2003-02-01

    Nuclear microsatellites were characterized in Prunus avium and validated as markers for individual and cultivar identification, as well as for studies of pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow. We used 20 primer pairs from a simple sequence repeat (SSR) library of Prunus persica and identified 7 loci harboring polymorphic microsatellite sequences in P. avium. In a natural population of 75 wild cherry trees, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 9 and expected heterozygosity from 0.39 to 0.77. The variability of the SSR markers allowed an unambiguous identification of individual trees and potential root suckers. Additionally, we analyzed 13 sweet cherry cultivars and differentiated 12 of them. An exclusion probability of 0.984 was calculated, which indicates that the seven loci are suitable markers for paternity analysis. The woody endocarp was successfully used for resolution of all microsatellite loci and exhibited the same multilocus genotype as the mother tree, as shown in a single seed progeny. Hence, SSR fingerprinting of the purely maternal endocarp was also successful in this Prunus species, allowing the identification of the mother tree of the dispersed seeds. The linkage of microsatellite loci with PCR-amplified alleles of the self-incompatibility locus was tested in two full-sib families of sweet cherry cultivars. From low recombination frequencies, we inferred that two loci are linked with the S locus. The present study provides markers that will significantly facilitate studies of spatial genetic variation and gene flow in wild cherry, as well as breeding programs in sweet cherry.

  4. Proteomic Comparison of Fruit Ripening between 'Hedelfinger' Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) and Its Somaclonal Variant 'HS'.

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    Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Espen, Luca; Piagnani, M Claudia

    2016-05-25

    The somaclonal variant HS, from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) 'Hedelfinger' (H), was previously selected for reduced tree vegetative vigor and lesser canopy density. In this work, we compared H and HS fruits at early unripe (green) and full ripe (dark red) stages by biochemical and proteomic approaches. The main biochemical parameters showed that fruit quality was not affected by somaclonal variation. The proteomic analysis identified 39 proteins differentially accumulated between H and HS fruits at the two ripening stages, embracing enzymes involved in several pathways, such as carbon metabolism, cell wall modification, stress response, and secondary metabolism. The evaluation of fruit phenolic composition by mass spectrometry showed that HS sweet cherries have higher levels of procyanidin, flavonol, and anthocyanin compounds. This work provides the first proteomic characterization of fruit ripening in sweet cherry, revealing new positive traits of the HS somaclonal variant.

  5. [Characteristics of urea 15N absorption, allocation, and utilization by sweet-cherry (Prunus avium L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-Xia; Jiang, Yuan-Mao; Peng, Fu-Tian; Gao, Xiang-Bin; Liu, Bing-Hua; Wang, Hai-Yun; Zhao, Lin

    2008-03-01

    With five-year old 'Zaodaguo' sweet-cherry (Prunus avium L.) as test material, this paper studied the characteristics of its urea 15N absorption, allocation, and utilization when applied before bud-break. The results showed that the Ndff of different organs increased gradually with time, and was higher in fine roots and storage organs at full-blooming stage. At fruit core-hardening stage, the Ndff of long shoots and leaves increased quickly, reaching to 0.72% and 0.59% , respectively. From fruit core-hardening to harvesting stage, the Ndff of fruit had a rapid increase, with the peak (1.78%) at harvesting stage. After harvest, the Ndff of neonatal organs increased slowly while that of storage organs increased quickly. At full-blooming stage, the absorbed 15N in roots was firstly allocated to storage organs, with the highest allocation rate (54.91%) in large roots. At fruit core-hardening stage, the allocation rate in fine roots and storage organs decreased from 85.43% to 55.11%, while that in neonatal branches and leaves increased to 44.89%. At harvesting stage, the allocation rate in different organs had no significant change, but after harvest, the absorbed 15N had a rapid translocation to storage organs, and the allocation rate in fine roots and storage organs reached the highest (72.26%) at flower bud differentiation stage. The 15N allocation rate in neonatal branches and leaves at flower bud differentiation stage was decreased by 19.31%, compared with that at harvesting stage. From full-blooming to flower bud differentiation stage, the utilization rate of urea 15N was increasing, and reached the peak (16.86%) at flower bud differentiation stage.

  6. Evaluation of evapotranspiration estimation methods for sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium) in sub-humid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmirtas, Cigdem; Buyukcangaz, Hakan; Yazgan, Senih; Candogan, Burak Nazmi

    2007-02-01

    This study was carried out in the summer of 2001 in a 3 year old and in the summer of 2002 in a 4 year old sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium, variety Z-900) on Mazzard rootstocks in Bayramic-Canakkale which is located in the west part of Turkey. Micro-sprinkler irrigation was selected as the irrigation method. The trees were subjected to four micro-sprinkler irrigation treatments (T-1, T-2, T-3 and T-4). The water applied in treatment T-3 was considered sufficient to satisfy fully needs of the crop (100% of ETc) and to allow good rooting and tree growth. The water balance relationship was used in estimating ETc. A total of 4 climatological methods were selected for estimating reference crop evapotranspiration on a daily basis. Some of these methods are based on combination theory and others are empirical methods based primarily on solar radiation, temperature ans relative humidity. An attempt was made in the current study to develop regional relationship between the evapotranspiration measured and that estimated by the climatological methods, such as FAO-Penman, Penman-Monteith, FAO-Radiation and FAO-Blaney-Criddle. Performance of the climatological methods in estimating the ETo values as compared to the measured values was evaluated on the basis of root mean square error (RMSE). In 2001, the Penman-Monteith equation gave the best results followed by FAO-Penman, FAO-Radiation and FAO-Blaney-Criddle. In 2002, the Penman-Monteith and FAO-Blaney-Criddle equations gave same results.

  7. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries.

  8. The effect of different types of rootstock on the quality of maiden trees of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cv. ‘Regina’

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    Piotr Baryła

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five types of rootstock: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘GiSelA 5’ and ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L., on the growth and quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ in a commercial nursery. Based on the three-year average, rootstocks were shown to have a significant effect on the investigated quality characteristics of maiden sweet cherry trees. Trees budded on ‘Colt’ vegetative rootstock were characterized by strongest growth and best quality. In each year, they were thicker, higher and better branched than sweet cherries on the rootstock. Under the tested conditions, ‘GiSelA 5’ dwarf rootstock significantly reduced the growth and quality of budded sweet cherry trees in the nursery. During the period 2007–2009, no physiological incompatibility symptoms were observed ‘Regina’ sweet cherry cv. and ‘Piast’ seedling rootstocks. The growth of trees budded on ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry was poorer than on ‘Colt’ clonal rootstock, but it was stronger than on ‘F12/1’ and Prunus avium L. rootstocks.

  9. Factors affecting branch wound occlusion and associated decay following pruning – a case study with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

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    Jonathan Sheppard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pruning wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is a common silvicultural practice carried out to produce valuable timber at a veneer wood quality. Sub-optimal pruning treatments can permit un-occluded pruning wounds to develop devaluing decay. The aim of this study is to determine relevant branch, tree and pruning characteristics affecting the occlusion process of pruning wounds. Important factors influencing occlusion time for an optimised pruning treatment for valuable timber production utilising wild cherry are derived. 85 artificially pruned branches originating from ten wild cherry trees were retrospectively analysed. Branch stub length, branch diameter and radial stem increment during occlusion were found to be significant predictors for occlusion time. From the results it could be concluded that for the long term success of artificial pruning of wild cherry it is crucial to (i keep branch stubs short (while avoiding damage to the branch collar, (ii to enable the tree to maintain significant radial growth after pruning, (iii to avoid large pruning wounds (>2.5 cm by removing steeply angled and fast growing branches at an early stage.

  10. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood. Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ℃ were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness was largely determined by the yields of the Na2CO3- and KOH-soluble fractions, enriched in covalently-bound pectins and in matrix glycans, respectively, and correlated well with ascorbic acid contents. The yields of these two cell wall fractions were correlated inversely with pectinmethylesterase and endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase activities, indicating a relevant role of these two enzymes in postharvest firmness changes in sweet cherry. The amount of solubilised cell wall materials was closely associated to the contents of dehydroascorbic acid, suggesting the possible involvement of oxidative mechanisms in cell wall disassembly. These data may help understanding the evolution of fruit quality during the marketing period, and give hints for the design of suitable management strategies to preserve key attributes.

  11. Effects of Seed Gathering, Sowing Time and Growing Conditions on Wild Cherry (Prunus avium L. Seed Germination

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    Şemsettin Kulaç

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild cherry (Prunus avium L., in our forests, can be found either as an individual or as in small groups. Hardness and thickness of seed coat, immature embryo, chemical substances in seed and pericarp are well known problems on germination. In this study, Germination impediment tests have done on seeds that were gathered from KTU campus on three different times, on 10th, 20th and 30th of June 2006, these seeds had sown, 200 of each seed with pericarp and with the ones haven’t have pericarp, in four different germination media (soil, perlite, needle and leaf mould to overcome wild cherry’s germination impediment. The highest germination percentage (82.5 % had found among seeds gathered on 20th of June; these were sown in needle mould and had no pericarp. However, our researches show that seeds with pericarp, gathered on 20th of June have maximum germination percentage of (34 % in leaf mould.

  12. Morphological indicators of the quality of one-year-old bare-root seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

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    Stjepanović Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents morphological indicators of the quality of one-year-old seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L. with special reference to their correlations. The examined parameters were: length, diameter, weight of the aboveground and underground parts, number of buds, root volume, root length and leaf area. The ratio of heights was determined on the basis of the parameters derived: diameter, and the ratio of aboveground and underground parts of a seedling and the Quality Index. Height and diameter have proven to be good indicators of quality. Root volume has proven to be a better indicator of the quality of seedlings than root length. The weight ratio of the aboveground and underground parts of broadleaved trees in the dry state must be defined in advance, both when the measurements are carried out with and without leaves. The Quality Index has proven to be the most comprehensive morphological indicator of quality.

  13. Transcriptional dynamics of the developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit: sequencing, annotation and expression profiling of exocarp-associated genes

    OpenAIRE

    Merianne Alkio; Uwe Jonas; Myriam Declercq; Steven van Nocker; Moritz Knoche

    2014-01-01

    The exocarp, or skin, of fleshy fruit is a specialized tissue that protects the fruit, attracts seed dispersing fruit eaters, and has large economical relevance for fruit quality. Development of the exocarp involves regulated activities of many genes. This research analyzed global gene expression in the exocarp of developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘Regina’), a fruit crop species with little public genomic resources. A catalog of transcript models (contigs) representing expressed genes...

  14. Fruit quality and bioactive compounds relevant to human health of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballistreri, Gabriele; Continella, Alberto; Gentile, Alessandra; Amenta, Margherita; Fabroni, Simona; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2013-10-15

    The fruit quality characteristics, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown on the mountainsides of the Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy) were evaluated. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify sugars, organic acids and phenolics. A total of seven phenolic compounds were characterised as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (neochlorogenic acid, p-coumaroylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid) and anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside and peonidin 3-rutinoside). The total anthocyanin content ranged from 6.21 to 94.20mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenol content ranged from 84.96 to 162.21mg gallic acid equivalents/100g FW. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay indicated that fruit of all genotypes possessed considerable antioxidant activity. The high level of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of some sweet cherry fruits implied that they might be sources of bioactive compounds that are relevant to human health.

  15. Effect of pulsed electric fields on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Kristine Ann Gualberto; Hamid, Nazimah; Oey, Indrawati; Gutierrez-Maddox, Noemi; Ma, Qianli; Leong, Sze Ying

    2015-03-23

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella). The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3) generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2). Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  16. Cloning and characterization of genomic DNA sequences of four self-incompatibility alleles in sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünsch, A; Hormaza, J I

    2004-01-01

    Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) in sweet cherry is determined by a locus S with multiple alleles. In the style, the S-locus codifies for an allele-specific ribonuclease ( S-RNase) that is involved in the rejection of pollen that carries the same S allele. In this work we report the cloning and genomic DNA sequence analysis including the 5' flanking regions of four S-RNases of sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L., Rosaceae). DNA from the cultivars Ferrovia, Pico Colorado, Taleguera Brillante and Vittoria was amplified through PCR using primers designed in the conserved sequences of sweet cherry S-RNases. Two alleles were amplified for each cultivar and three of them correspond to three new S-alleles named S23, S24 and S25 present in 'Pico Colorado', 'Vittoria' and 'Taleguera Brillante' respectively. To confirm the identity of the amplified fragments, the genomic DNA of these three putative S-RNases and the allele S12 amplified in the cultivar Ferrovia were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and deduced amino-acid sequences obtained contained the structural features of rosaceous S-RNases. The isolation of the 5'-flanking sequences of these four S-RNases revealed a conserved putative TATA box and high similarity among them downstream from that sequence. However, similarity was low compared with the 5'-flanking regions of S-RNases from the Maloideae. S6- and S24-RNase sequences are highly similar, and most amino-acid substitutions among these two RNases occur outside the rosaceous hypervariable region (RHV), but within another highly variable region. The confirmation of the different specificity of these two S-RNases would help elucidate which regions of the S-RNase sequences play a role in S-pollen specific recognition.

  17. Complete nucleotide sequence of a virus associated with rusty mottle disease of sweet cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, D V; Druffel, K L; Eastwell, K C

    2013-08-01

    Cherry rusty mottle is a disease of sweet cherries first described in 1940 in western North America. Because of the graft-transmissible nature of the disease, a viral nature of the disease was assumed. Here, the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of virus isolates from two trees expressing cherry rusty mottle disease symptoms are characterized; the virus is designated cherry rusty mottle associated virus (CRMaV). The biological and molecular characteristics of this virus in comparison to those of cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) are described. CRMaV was subsequently detected in additional sweet cherry trees expressing symptoms of cherry rusty mottle disease.

  18. Genetic variability of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed stands in Slovenia as revealed by nuclear microsatellite loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarni, Kristjan; De Cuyper, Bart; Brus, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Microsatellite markers were used to describe the genetic variability of four seed stands of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.). One hundred and thirty one individuals were genotyped at ten nuclear microsatellite loci. Total genetic diversity was high (H(E) = 0.704), while differences between stands were small but significant (F(ST) = 0.053, G'(ST) = 0.234). There was a significant amount of clonal reproduction in one stand, with only 11 genotypes identified among 36 trees. One stand showed a significant excess (F(IS) = -0.044) of heterozygosity, and one showed a deficit (F(IS) = 0.044). Our results demonstrate the importance of taking into account the biological and genetic characteristics of species in forest management, especially when determining a new seed stand. The small genetic differences found between seed stands indicate that a large number of stands are not required. However, they should be carefully selected and should possess adequate genetic variability to ensure low relatedness between seed trees.

  19. Genetic variability of wild cherry (Prunus avium L. seed stands in Slovenia as revealed by nuclear microsatellite loci.

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    Kristjan Jarni

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers were used to describe the genetic variability of four seed stands of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.. One hundred and thirty one individuals were genotyped at ten nuclear microsatellite loci. Total genetic diversity was high (H(E = 0.704, while differences between stands were small but significant (F(ST = 0.053, G'(ST = 0.234. There was a significant amount of clonal reproduction in one stand, with only 11 genotypes identified among 36 trees. One stand showed a significant excess (F(IS = -0.044 of heterozygosity, and one showed a deficit (F(IS = 0.044. Our results demonstrate the importance of taking into account the biological and genetic characteristics of species in forest management, especially when determining a new seed stand. The small genetic differences found between seed stands indicate that a large number of stands are not required. However, they should be carefully selected and should possess adequate genetic variability to ensure low relatedness between seed trees.

  20. Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on the Flavour Profile of Red-Fleshed Sweet Cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella

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    Kristine Ann Gualberto Sotelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella. The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS–SPME method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS. A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E-2-hexenal, (Z-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3 generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2. Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  1. Construction of an intra-specific sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) genetic linkage map and synteny analysis with the Prunus reference map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkage maps of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Emperor Francis’ (EF) and the wild forest cherry ‘New York 54’ (NY) were constructed using primarily simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and gene-derived markers with known positions on the Prunus reference map. The success rate for identifying SSR markers...

  2. Melatonin enhances root regeneration, photosynthetic pigments, biomass, total carbohydrates and proline content in the cherry rootstock PHL-C (Prunus avium × Prunus cerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarropoulou, Virginia; Dimassi-Theriou, Kortessa; Therios, Ioannis; Koukourikou-Petridou, Magdalene

    2012-12-01

    The present study, investigates the effects of melatonin (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM) on the morphogenic and biochemical responses in the cherry rootstock PHL-C (Prunus avium L. × Prunus cerasus L.), from shoot tip explants. The incorporation of melatonin (0-10 μM) in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, greatly influenced rooting either positively or negatively. Melatonin, irrespective of its concentration, had a negative effect concerning the number of roots. However, application of 0.5 μM melatonin significantly increased the root length; while 1 μM melatonin increased the root length by 2.5 times, and the fresh weight of the roots by 4 times, in comparison to the control. Although 0.05 μM melatonin increased rooting by 11.11%, 5 μM melatonin had a significant reduction on the number, the fresh weight of roots, and the rooting percentage. Melatonin concentration of 0.1 μM resulted in the greatest chlorophyll (a + b) content, and 5-10 μM reduced the chlorophyll concentration by 2 times, compared to the control. The high melatonin concentrations (5 and 10 μM), increased the levels of proline and carbohydrates in leaves by 3-4 times. In the roots, 0.5 μM of melatonin concentration increased the carbohydrate levels by 1.5 times, while 0.05, 0.1 and 1 μM melatonin concentration significantly reduced the proline content.

  3. A pollen-expressed gene for a novel protein with an F-box motif that is very tightly linked to a gene for S-RNase in two species of cherry, Prunus cerasus and P. avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Hisayo; Ikeda, Kazuo; Ushijima, Koichiro; Sassa, Hidenori; Tao, Ryutaro

    2003-07-01

    This study describes a novel F-box protein gene in the S-locus of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) and sweet cherry (P. avium). The gene showed an S-haplotype-specific sequence polymorphism and the expression was specific to pollen. Genomic DNA blot analysis of eight sweet cherry cultivars with the probe for the F-box protein gene under low stringency conditions yielded RFLP bands specific to the S-haplotypes of each cultivar. We discuss the possibility of the gene for the F-box protein being a candidate for the male determinant of gametophytic self-incompatibility in PRUNUS:

  4. Characterization of sour (Prunus cerasus L. and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. varieties with five isozyme systems Caracterização de variedades de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L. e cerejeira (Prunus avium L. em cinco sistemas isoenzimáticos

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    Remedios Morales Corts

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from young leaves of nine sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and eight sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. varieties, located in the germplasm collection of the 'Direção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior' (Fundão, Portugal, were analysed for five isozyme systems in order to characterise these varieties and detect problems of synonymies and homonymies that frequently present. The sweet and sour cherry varieties analyzed showed low isoenzymatic polymorphism, being PGM and PGI the systems with the highest discrimination power. These systems presented seven and five different zymogrames, respectively. IDH showed four patterns. SKDH and 6-PGD grouped the varieties only into two patterns. The evident and discriminant restrictions of this type of analysis had got results that have only been a complement for agronomical and morphological characterization.Nove extratos de folhas com desenvolvimento encompleto foram obtidos de 9 variedades de cerejeira (Prunus avium L. e 8 de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L., localizados no campo de germoplasma da "Direcção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior" (Fundão, Portugal. Esses extratos foram analisados para 5 sistemas isoenzimáticos a fim de caracterizar essas variedades e simultaneamente detectar sinonímias e homonímias, freqüentes neste tipo de estudos. As variedades de cerejeira e ginjeira analisadas mostraram baixo polimorfismo isoenzimático, sendo que os sistemas PGM e PGI mostraram maior poder de discriminação. Estes sistemas apresentaram 7 e 5 zimogramas diferentes, respectivamente. IDH mostrou 4 padrões. SKDH e 6-PGD agruparam as variedades em 2 padrões. Os evidentes limites discriminatórios desse tipo de análise serviram somente de complemento para a caracterização agronômica e morfológica.

  5. The effect of rootstocks on the efficiency of a nursery of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. trees cv. ‘Regina’

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    Piotr Baryła

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five rootstocks: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘GiSelA 5’, and ‘Piast’, on bud take in the cultivar ‘Regina’, the quality of budded trees and the efficiency of a sweet cherry tree nursery. The highest percentage of bud take in cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ and the best efficiency of the sweet cherry tree nursery were obtained for the rootstocks ‘Piast’ and ‘Colt’. In two years during the three-year study period, the rootstock was found to significantly affect the efficiency of the sweet cherry tree nursery. When grafted on the rootstocks ‘Colt’ and ‘Piast’, a significantly higher percentage of trees met the requirements of the Polish Standard PN-R-67010 than on the clonal rootstock ‘GiSelA 5’. Under the tested conditions, the quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ grafted on the dwarfing rootstock ‘GiSelA 5’ was lowest.

  6. Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Bud Dormancy and Flowering Time in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castède, Sophie; Campoy, José Antonio; Le Dantec, Loïck; Quero-García, José; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The timing of flowering in perennial plants is crucial for their survival in temperate climates and is regulated by the duration of bud dormancy. Bud dormancy release and bud break depend on the perception of cumulative chilling during endodormancy and heat during the bud development. The objectives of this work were to identify candidate genes involved in dormancy and flowering processes in sweet cherry, their mapping in two mapping progenies 'Regina' × 'Garnet' and 'Regina' × 'Lapins', and to select those candidate genes which co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with temperature requirements for bud dormancy release and flowering. Based on available data on flowering processes in various species, a list of 79 candidate genes was established. The peach and sweet cherry orthologs were identified and primers were designed to amplify sweet cherry candidate gene fragments. Based on the amplified sequences of the three parents of the mapping progenies, SNPs segregations in the progenies were identified. Thirty five candidate genes were genetically mapped in at least one of the two progenies and all were in silico mapped. Co-localization between candidate genes and QTLs associated with temperature requirements and flowering date were identified for the first time in sweet cherry. The allelic composition of the candidate genes located in the major QTL for heat requirements and flowering date located on linkage group 4 have a significant effect on these two traits indicating their potential use for breeding programs in sweet cherry to select new varieties adapted to putative future climatic conditions.

  7. In vitro bioavailability of phenolic compounds from five cultivars of frozen sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzari, Marco; Fukumoto, Lana; Mazza, Giuseppe; Livrea, Maria A; Tesoriere, Luisa; Marco, Luigi Di

    2008-05-28

    The bioavailability of phenolic compounds from five cultivars of frozen sweet cherries was assessed by a digestion process involving pepsin-HCl digestion (to simulate gastric digestion) and pancreatin digestion with bile salts (to simulate small intestine conditions) and dialyzed to assess serum- and colon-available fractions. After pepsin digestion, the % recovery of total phenolics, relative to the original starting material, increased, whereas the % anthocyanins did not change. Following pancreatic digestion and dialysis, the total phenolics in the IN (serum-available) fraction was about 26-30% and the OUT (colon-available) fraction was about 77-101%. The anthocyanin content in the IN fraction was 15-21%, and in the OUT fraction, it was 52-67%. Skeena, Lapins, and Sweetheart cultivars contained higher levels of total phenolics and anthocyanins, which resulted in higher concentrations of these compounds in the IN and OUT fractions. The potential bioavailability of phenolic compounds was also assessed in Bing and Lapins cultivars at three ripening stages. Immature cherries had higher % total phenolics in the IN fraction than mature or overmature cherries. However, immature cherries had the lowest concentrations of these compounds, making the actual bioavailable amounts of these compounds lower than for mature and overmature fruit. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of Lapins cherries at three maturity stages confirmed the results obtained using spectrophotometric methods for total phenolics and anthocyanins.

  8. Metabolic profiling of ethephon-treated sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing costs and decreasing labor availability for sweet cherry harvest in Washington State, USA, has reinvigorated commercial and research interest of mechanized harvest. Ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) can be used to improve fruit abscission for mechanical harvest. Our previous work s...

  9. Effect of ripeness and postharvest storage on the phenolic profiles of cherries (Prunus avium L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves, B.; Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Knudsen, D.;

    2004-01-01

    The phenolic compounds hydroxycinnamates, anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols of sweet cherry cultivars Burial, Saco, Summit, and Van harvested in 2001 and 2002 were quantified by HPLC-DAD. Phenolics were analyzed at partially ripe and ripe stages and during storage at 15+/-5 degreesC (room...

  10. Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Bud Dormancy and Flowering Time in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Castède

    Full Text Available The timing of flowering in perennial plants is crucial for their survival in temperate climates and is regulated by the duration of bud dormancy. Bud dormancy release and bud break depend on the perception of cumulative chilling during endodormancy and heat during the bud development. The objectives of this work were to identify candidate genes involved in dormancy and flowering processes in sweet cherry, their mapping in two mapping progenies 'Regina' × 'Garnet' and 'Regina' × 'Lapins', and to select those candidate genes which co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with temperature requirements for bud dormancy release and flowering. Based on available data on flowering processes in various species, a list of 79 candidate genes was established. The peach and sweet cherry orthologs were identified and primers were designed to amplify sweet cherry candidate gene fragments. Based on the amplified sequences of the three parents of the mapping progenies, SNPs segregations in the progenies were identified. Thirty five candidate genes were genetically mapped in at least one of the two progenies and all were in silico mapped. Co-localization between candidate genes and QTLs associated with temperature requirements and flowering date were identified for the first time in sweet cherry. The allelic composition of the candidate genes located in the major QTL for heat requirements and flowering date located on linkage group 4 have a significant effect on these two traits indicating their potential use for breeding programs in sweet cherry to select new varieties adapted to putative future climatic conditions.

  11. Cracking susceptibility of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) under different conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha-Pelzer, T; Müller, S; Rohr, F; Mewis, I

    2006-01-01

    Rain and hail during ripening and harvesting season can cause yield losses up to 90 % in sweet cherry cultivations in Germany. Particularly, high yield losses after precipitation are due to the cracking and the following rotting process through bacteria and fungi's. In order to protect the crop and improve cherry quality they can be treated with chemicals dried or healthier covered with rain shelters. To date the cracking phenomenon of cherries is still not clearly understood. Therefore, in the present study the cracking resistance of three cherry varieties under different conditions was observed. We used 'Regina', 'Karina', and 'Summit' grafted on the rootstock GiSelA 5. The test-section in the field was covered with a plastic-foil (pc) as rain shelter and a bird net, whereby the control (c) was covered with a bird protection-net only. The cherry varieties have been harvested, weight and sorted into undamaged, rotten and cracked fruits. In order to compare the varieties under equal conditions the cracking sensitivity was also tested under laboratory conditions with the method from CHRISTENSEN (1996). The average yield per tree was significantly higher in the pc treatment in 'Summit' and 'Regina' than in the control. Furthermore, the average weight of rotten fruits per tree in these varieties was in c, without rain shelter, about two to three times higher as in the pc treatment. There was no significant difference in yield and rotten fruits among treatments in 'Karina'. But the percentage of cracked fruits between the cultivation methods was significant different. Hereby improvement of cherry quality was observed in the pc treatment with reduced numbers of useless fruits. Under field conditions 'Karina' was at least susceptible to cracking resistance followed by 'Regina' and 'Summit'. In the laboratory Cracking Test the result was different. Here, the variety 'Summit' showed the best cracking resistance compared to the other varieties. According to the method of

  12. Genetic diversity and relatedness of sweet cherry (prunus avium L.) cultivars based on single nucleotide polymorphic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez I Marti, Angel; Athanson, Blessing; Koepke, Tyson; Font I Forcada, Carolina; Dhingra, Amit; Oraguzie, Nnadozie

    2012-01-01

    Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from 3' untranslated regions (UTR) for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars, and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with seven SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3' UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, "Stella" was separated from "Compact Stella." This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3' UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping, and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry.

  13. Genetic diversity and relatedness of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cultivars based on single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eFernandez i Marti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD and SSR markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of SNP markers generated from 3’UTRs for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with 7 SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3’UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content (PIC values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, ‘Stella’ was separated from ‘Compact Stella’. This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3’ UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry.

  14. Ultrasound treatment: effect on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Sabeera; Ahmad, Mudasir; Wani, S M; Gani, Adil; Baba, Waqas N; Shah, Umar; Khan, Asma Ashraf; Masoodi, F A; Gani, Asir; Wani, Touseef Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The cherry was treated with ultrasonic waves (33 kHz, 60 W) at different time intervals (10, 20, 30, 40, 60 min) and study was carried out to analyze the change in physico-chemical properties (TSS, pH, color, acidity and firmness), antioxidant potential and microbial load of the fruit during the storage period of 15 days at 4 °C. It was observed that ultrasound treatment (US) between 30 and 40 min showed better retention of color of the fruit during the storage period. The antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS and TPC) also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) up to 40 min, however the firmness of the fruit was affected and it showed a significant decrease beyond 20 min of US treatment. The sample with 40 min US treatment showed significantly less microbial load than other samples. The 20-40 min US treatment time (33 kHz, 60 W) was suggested for preservation of cherry during the storage at 4 °C.

  15. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ya-Qin; He, Fei; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Li, Chun-You; Reeves, Malcolm J; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of both free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three sweet cherry cultivars ('Hongdeng', 'Hongyan' and 'Rainier'), with 97 compounds being identified in the three cultivars. The major free volatile compounds found were hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. The major bound volatile compounds found were benzyl alcohol, geraniol, 2-phenylethanol. Also 4-vinylphenol was found in cherry fruit for the first time, and has a relatively high concentration of the glycosidically-bound form in 'Rainier'. Odour activity values (OAVs) were determined for both free and bound volatiles, with 18 compounds having an OAV above 1. The highest OAVs for three cultivars were (E)-β-ionone, hexanal, decanal and (E)-2-hexenal with the highest being over 800 for (E)-β-ionone in 'Honyang'. From these results, it was concluded that the aroma compounds present were similar in all three cultivars, but there was significant variation found in their levels and hence contribution to the aroma of these cultivars.

  16. Flowering time and incompatibility groups: Cultivar combination in commercial sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of eight-year study (1999-2006 of flowering phenophase in 21 introduced sweet cherry cultivars grown under the agro-environmental conditions of West Serbia. Flowering time, as well as progress and abundance of flowering were studied, and classification of the studied cultivars according to flowering time was derived. On the basis of mean several-year overlap in phenophase of full flowering and on the grounds of so far known data on classification of these cultivars among incompatibility groups, we have offered a recommendation for their cultivation in orchards whereby the most effective pollination and fertilization can be ensured as well as good fruit-set and satisfactory fruit yields.

  17. Over-expression of the PaAP1 gene from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) causes early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Kaichun

    2013-02-15

    A homologue of SQUAMOSA/APETALA1, designated PaAP1, was isolated from Prunus avium by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The full length of PaAP1 cDNA is 753 bp, and it codes for a polypeptide of 250 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PaAP1 belongs to the MADS-box gene family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaAP1 shared the highest identity with SQUA/AP1 homologues from Prunus serrulata. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that PaAP1 was expressed at high levels in petal, sepal, style, and flower buds, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. To characterize the functions of PaAP1, we assessed Arabidopsis transformed with 35S::PaAP1. A total of 8 transgenic T(1) lines with an early flowering phenotype were obtained, and a 3:1 segregation ratio of flowering time was observed in the T(2) generation of 4 lines. This study provides the first functional analysis of an SQUA/AP1 homolog from P. avium and suggests that PaAP1 is potentially useful for shortening the juvenile period in sweet cherry.

  18. Metabolism of the seed and endocarp of cherry (Prunus avium L.) during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2011-08-01

    In this study some aspects of organic and amino acid metabolism in cherry endocarp and seed were investigated during their development. The abundance and location of a number of enzymes involved in these processes were investigated. These enzymes were aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT; EC:2.6.1.1), glutamine synthetase (GS; EC:6.3.1.2), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC:4.1.1.31), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK; EC:4.1.1.49), and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco; EC:4.1.1.39). There was a transient and massive accumulation of vegetative storage proteins in the endocarp. These proteins were remobilised as the endocarp lignified and at the same time that proteins were accumulated in the seed. This raised the possibility that a proportion of imported amino acids were temporarily stored in the endocarp as protein, and that these were later utilised by the seed when it started to accumulate storage proteins. Rubisco was present in the embryo and integuments of the seed although no chlorophyll was present. This is the first time that Rubisco has been detected in non-green seeds. The maximum abundance of Rubisco in the seed coincided with the deposition of seed storage proteins. A possible function for Rubisco in cherry seed is discussed. PEPCK was located in the integuments and appeared when seed storage proteins were being accumulated. In the integuments and embryo AspAT, GS, PEPC and Rubisco also appeared, or greatly increased in abundance, when seed storage proteins were being deposited.

  19. Comparative transcriptome analysis of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the red and yellow fruits of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Wei

    Full Text Available Fruit color is one of the most important economic traits of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.. The red coloration of sweet cherry fruit is mainly attributed to anthocyanins. However, limited information is available regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis and its regulation in sweet cherry.In this study, a reference transcriptome of P. avium L. was sequenced and annotated to identify the transcriptional determinants of fruit color. Normalized cDNA libraries from red and yellow fruits were sequenced using the next-generation Illumina/Solexa sequencing platform and de novo assembly. Over 66 million high-quality reads were assembled into 43,128 unigenes using a combined assembly strategy. Then a total of 22,452 unigenes were compared to public databases using homology searches, and 20,095 of these unigenes were annotated in the Nr protein database. Furthermore, transcriptome differences between the four stages of fruit ripening were analyzed using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE profiling. Biological pathway analysis revealed that 72 unigenes were involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. The expression patterns of unigenes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL, chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, flavanone 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS and UDP glucose: flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT during fruit ripening differed between red and yellow fruit. In addition, we identified some transcription factor families (such as MYB, bHLH and WD40 that may control anthocyanin biosynthesis. We confirmed the altered expression levels of eighteen unigenes that encode anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes and transcription factors using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR.The obtained sweet cherry transcriptome and DGE profiling data provide comprehensive gene expression information that lends insights

  20. Assessment of self-(in compatibility in some sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a three-year study of self-(incompatibility in four economically important sweet cherry genotypes - ‘Karina’, ‘Kordia’, ‘Regina’ and ‘Summit’, under agro-environmental conditions of Western Serbia. Determination of S-RNase genotype, microscopic observation of the pollen tube growth rate and assaying of the fruit set level after self-pollination were used to assess the genotypes. ‘Kordia’ (S3S6, ‘Regina’ (S1S3 and ‘Summit’ (S1S2 are self-incompatible genotypes, with a considerable number of pollen tubes ending the growth in the middle third of the style and lack of fruit set. ‘Karina’, as S3S4 genotype, behaved as self-compatible, since its pollen tubes reached the base of the style and ovary, penetrating the nucellus. In addition, fruit set for ‘Karina’ was recorded in all three years of study (40.26%, 18.79% and 21.81%, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064: Development and preservation of genetic potential of temperate zone fruits

  1. Radiation-induced mutations in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. ) cvs Napoleon and Bing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saamin, S.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were conducted using gamma radiation to determine radiosensitivities of main and accessory buds, to increase the proportion of mutant tissue, and to determine the type of damage and mode of recovery in irradiated shoot spices of sweet cherry cvs Napoleon and Bin. Survival, growth, and the types of mutations of V/sub 1/ (primary) shoots and V/sub 2/ plants were observed. LD/sub 50/ values, based on survival of forced buds were about 5kR for both acute and fractionated irradiation in air, 5.5kR for acute exposure in water, and 6kR for fractionated dose in water. 0.39-0.69 accessory buds/site on non-irradiated Napoleon had forced after 30 days in the glasshouse. In the Bing field experiment with main buds, the LD/sub 50/ for both acute and fractionated irradiation in air was 3.5kR. In water, the LD/sub 50/ was 5kR for acute treatment and 6.5kR for fractionated dose. The overall mutation frequency in Napoleon V/sub 2/ shoots derived from main buds was 7.6%: 0.04% growth-reduced mutants, 0.4% total leaf mutants, and7.1% partial leaf mutants.

  2. 诱导樱桃试管苗生根的研究%Adventitious root induction of cherry(Prunus cerasus × p· avium ) in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙清荣; 孙洪雁

    2000-01-01

    Propagation on vitro with cherry(Prunus cerasus × P. avium )hybrid "S2" showed that culture in dark marked ly affected rooting, IBA and sucrose had smaller effect on rooting.%以甜樱桃和酸樱桃杂种"S2"的试管苗为试材,研究了IBA、蔗糖及暗培养时间对不定根产生的影响。结果表明,暗培养对不定根产生有显著影响,IBA和蔗糖的影响作用较小,获得高生根率的最优组合为1/2 MS+IBA 0.1m/gL+蔗糖3%培养基、暗培养7天。

  3. Impact of Cultivar on Profile and Concentration of Lipophilic Bioactive Compounds in Kernel Oils Recovered from Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) by-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górnaś, Paweł; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Raczyk, Marianna; Mišina, Inga; Segliņa, Dalija

    2016-06-01

    Lipophilic bioactive compounds in oils recovered from the kernels of seven sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars, harvested at single location in 2013, were studied. Oil yield in sweet cherry ranged between 30.3-40.3 % (w/w) dw. The main fatty acids were oleic acid (39.62-49.92 %), linoleic acid (31.13-38.81 %), α-eleostearic acid (7.23-10.73 %) and palmitic acid (5.59-7.10 %), all four represented approximately 95 % of the total detected fatty acids. The ranges of total tocochromanols and sterols were between 83.1-111.1 and 233.6-419.4 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Regardless of the cultivar, the γ-tocopherol and β-sitosterol were the main lipophilic minor bioactive compounds. The content of the carotenoids and squalene were between 0.38-0.62 and 60.9-127.7 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Three significant correlations were found between oil yield and total contents of sterols (r = -0.852), tocochromanols (r = -0.880) and carotenoids (r = -0.698) in sweet cherry kernel oils. The oil yield, as well as the content of lipophilic bioactive compounds in oil was significantly affected by the cultivar.

  4. Genetic Diversity and Relatedness of Sweet Cherry (Prunus Avium L.) Cultivars Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez i Marti, Angel; Athanson, Blessing; Koepke, Tyson; Font i Forcada, Carolina; Dhingra, Amit; Oraguzie, Nnadozie

    2012-01-01

    Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from 3′ untranslated regions (UTR) for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars, and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with seven SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3′ UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, “Stella” was separated from “Compact Stella.” This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3′ UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping, and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry. PMID:22737155

  5. A role for PacMYBA in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinjie; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Kaichun; Yuan, Huazhao; Liao, Xiong; Wang, Qi; Guo, Xinwei; Li, Fang; Li, Tianhong

    2014-05-01

    The MYB transcription factors and plant hormone ABA have been suggested to play a role in fruit anthocyanin biosynthesis, but supporting genetic evidence has been lacking in sweet cherry. The present study describes the first functional characterization of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, PacMYBA, from red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.). Transient promoter assays demonstrated that PacMYBA physically interacted with several anthocyanin-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors to activate the promoters of PacDFR, PacANS and PacUFGT, which are thought to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, the immature seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PacMYBA exhibited ectopic pigmentation. Silencing of PacMYBA, using a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-induced gene silencing technique, resulted in sweet cherry fruit that lacked red pigment. ABA treatment significantly induced anthocyanin accumulation, while treatment with the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) blocked anthocyanin production. PacMYBA expression peaked after 2 h of pre-incubation in ABA and was 15.2-fold higher than that of sweet cherries treated with NDGA. The colorless phenotype was also observed in the fruits silenced in PacNCED1, which encodes a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthesis pathway. The endogenous ABA content as well as the transcript levels of six structural genes and PacMYBA in PacNCED1-RNAi (RNA interference) fruit were significantly lower than in the TRV vector control fruit. These results suggest that PacMYBA plays an important role in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis and ABA is a signal molecule that promotes red-colored sweet cherry fruit accumulating anthocyanin.

  6. Characterization and mapping of non-S gametophytic self-compatibility in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachi, A M; Wünsch, A

    2011-03-01

    Self-incompatibility in Prunus (Rosaceae) species, such as sweet cherry, is controlled by a multiallelic locus (S), in which two tightly linked genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box), determine the specificity of the pollen and the style. Fertilization in these species occurs only if the S-specificities expressed in the pollen and the pistils are different. However, modifier genes have been proposed to be necessary for a full manifestation of the self-incompatibility response. 'Cristobalina' is a spontaneous self-compatible sweet cherry cultivar that originated in Eastern Spain. Previous studies with this genotype suggested that pollen modifier gene(s), not linked to the S-locus, may be the cause of self-incompatibility breakdown. In this work, an F(1) population from 'Cristobalina' that segregates for this trait was used to identify molecular markers linked to self-compatibility by bulked segregant analysis. One simple sequence repeat (SSR) locus (EMPaS02) was found to be linked to self-compatibility in this population at 3.2 cM. Two additional populations derived from 'Cristobalina' were used to confirm the linkage of this marker to self-compatibility. Since EMPaS02 has been mapped to the sweet cherry linkage group 3, other markers located on the same linkage group were analysed in these populations to confirm the location of the self-compatibility locus.

  7. Purification and chemical characterisation of a cell wall-associated β-galactosidase from mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Carmela; Blando, Federica; Santino, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    Using four different chromatographic steps, β-galactosidase was purified from the ripe fruit of sweet cherry to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with approximately 131-fold purification. The Prunus avium β-galactosidase showed an apparent molecular mass of about 100 kDa and consisted of four different active polypeptides with pIs of about 7.9, 7.4, 6.9 and 6.4 as estimated by native IEF and β-galactosidase-activity staining. The active polypeptides were individually excised from the gel and subjected to SDS-PAGE. Each of the four native enzymes showing β-galactosidase activity was composed of two polypeptides with an estimated mass of 54 and 33 kDa. Both of these polypeptides were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The 54 kDa polypeptide of sweet cherry β-galactosidase showed a 43% identity with the 44 kDa subunit of persimmon and apple β-galactosidases and the 48 kDa subunit of carambola galactosidase I. The sweet cherry β-galactosidase exhibited a strict specificity towards p-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside, a pH optimum of 4.0 and K(m) and V(max) values of 0.42 mM and 4.12 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein respectively with this substrate. The enzyme was also active towards complex glycans. Taken together the results of this study prompted a role for this class of enzymes on sweet cherry fruit ripening and softening.

  8. Transcriptional dynamics of the developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit: sequencing, annotation and expression profiling of exocarp-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkio, Merianne; Jonas, Uwe; Declercq, Myriam; Van Nocker, Steven; Knoche, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    The exocarp, or skin, of fleshy fruit is a specialized tissue that protects the fruit, attracts seed dispersing fruit eaters, and has large economical relevance for fruit quality. Development of the exocarp involves regulated activities of many genes. This research analyzed global gene expression in the exocarp of developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., 'Regina'), a fruit crop species with little public genomic resources. A catalog of transcript models (contigs) representing expressed genes was constructed from de novo assembled short complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences generated from developing fruit between flowering and maturity at 14 time points. Expression levels in each sample were estimated for 34 695 contigs from numbers of reads mapping to each contig. Contigs were annotated functionally based on BLAST, gene ontology and InterProScan analyses. Coregulated genes were detected using partitional clustering of expression patterns. The results are discussed with emphasis on genes putatively involved in cuticle deposition, cell wall metabolism and sugar transport. The high temporal resolution of the expression patterns presented here reveals finely tuned developmental specialization of individual members of gene families. Moreover, the de novo assembled sweet cherry fruit transcriptome with 7760 full-length protein coding sequences and over 20 000 other, annotated cDNA sequences together with their developmental expression patterns is expected to accelerate molecular research on this important tree fruit crop.

  9. Techniques for Protected Cultivation of Dwarfed Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium) in Warm Area%南方矮化甜樱桃设施栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪莉; 陈令会; 曹锦萍; 卢秀友

    2016-01-01

    Basing on cultivation practices of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) grafted on dwarf stocks Gisela 5 and Gisela 6 in Zhejiang Province for several years, its growth habit and phenological period were studied. Then a set of techniques suitable for the protected cultivation of dwarf sweet cherry in warm area was concluded as folows: farm facilities, variety choice, plantation and tree pruning, pest control and prevention, and other ifeld management measures.%通过引进以“吉塞拉5号”和“吉塞拉6号”为砧木的甜樱桃嫁接苗,经过观察其在南方地区设施栽培条件下的生长习性、物候期等,在园地和设施、品种选择、定植和树形培养、花果期管理、采后管理、越冬管理、灾害防控和病虫害防治方面总结出了一套适合南方地区矮化甜樱桃设施栽培的技术。

  10. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: I. the immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanbali, Lama B; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; K Nakhal, Yasmine; Haddad, John J

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have meticulously examined the efficacy of the measurable antimicrobial activity of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts on a wide spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, in addition to the fungus, Candida albicans, a priori. In order to further understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of sweet cherries, antioxidant compounds of immunological significance, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity were simultaneously measured under varying and versatile extraction conditions (mild heating [5, 10 and 20 min.], and brief microwave exposure [1, 2 and 5 min.]) for a variety of extracts: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity under the versatile extraction conditions adopted in this study was conspicuously reduced, such that the % inhibition against 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed an inverse, negative correlational trendline. Moreover, ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure, except tangibly with dPOM and mPOM. The total phenols content assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts. In a manner similar to ascorbic acid, total flavonoids were mildly reduced under varying conditions, an effect mimicked to a certain extent with anthocyanins. Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp decrease in the antioxidant activity for dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for dPOM and mPOM. These results confirm the measurable antioxidant activities and contents of P. avium extracts under versatile conditions of mild exposure, an effect

  11. Paternal-specific S-allele transmission in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.): the potential for sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedhly, A; Wünsch, A; Kartal, Ö; Herrero, M; Hormaza, J I

    2016-03-01

    Homomorphic self-incompatibility is a well-studied example of a physiological process that is thought to increase population diversity and reduce the expression of inbreeding depression. Whereas theoretical models predict the presence of a large number of S-haplotypes with equal frequencies at equilibrium, unequal allele frequencies have been repeatedly reported and attributed to sampling effects, population structure, demographic perturbation, sheltered deleterious mutations or selection pressure on linked genes. However, it is unclear to what extent unequal segregations are the results of gametophytic or sexual selection. Although these two forces are difficult to disentangle, testing S-alleles in the offspring of controlled crosses provides an opportunity to separate these two phenomena. In this work, segregation and transmission of S-alleles have been characterized in progenies of mixed donors and fully compatible pollinations under field conditions in Prunus avium. Seed set patterns and pollen performance have also been characterized. The results reveal paternal-specific distorted transmission of S-alleles in most of the crosses. Interestingly, S-allele segregation within any given paternal or maternal S-locus was random. Observations on pollen germination, pollen tube growth rate, pollen tube cohort size, seed set dynamics and transmission patterns strongly suggest post-pollination, prezygotic sexual selection, with male-male competition as the most likely mechanism. According to these results, post-pollination sexual selection takes precedence over frequency-dependent selection in explaining unequal S-haplotype frequencies.

  12. Contemporary pollen flow, characterization of the maternal ecological neighbourhood and mating patterns in wild cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, J E; Vaughan, S P; Connolly, T; Sing, L; Moodley, D J; Russell, K

    2009-08-01

    Conversion of lowland woodland to agricultural land and resulting fragmentation in Britain has been ongoing since Neolithic times. To counteract this decline, plantations of native species, often based on non-British planting stock, have been established. This may ultimately be detrimental to the integrity of the native gene pool. We explore the genetic and ecological factors influencing the success of components of the local pollen pool, including the effect of a non-native planting on an ancient woodland population of wild cherry. Wild cherry exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) and vegetative reproduction, both of which may be determinants of paternal success. The majority (61%) of the successful pollen originated from within the study site with a maximum pollen transfer distance of 694 m. There was a distinct departure from random mating, with over half the successful pollen originating from trees which occur within 100 m of the mother tree. Self-incompatibility, clonality, tree size and proximity to the mother tree were all found to influence paternal success. Kinship of pollen gametes within a maternal progeny was highest when a mother tree was surrounded by a large number of ramets of a single, compatible clone consisting of large, adult trees. Although the contribution from the non-native plantation is currently low, it is likely that this will increasingly contribute to the progeny of the adjacent ancient population as it matures. The results clearly show that in self-incompatible species, such as P. avium, close neighbours may be pollinated by very different components of the local pollen pool.

  13. Molecular characterization of Spanish Prunus avium plus trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernandez-Cruz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The Breeding Program of wild cherry (Prunus avium developed by Lourizán Forest Research Center (NW Spain, aims for the creation of the Main Breeding Population, that is formed by a large number of plus trees and for obtaining an Elite Population generated from controlled crosses of a number of plus trees selected by, at least, one trait of economic importance. The aim of this study was to genotype 131 accessions of Prunus avium plus trees, included in the breeding program.Area of study: The Prunus avium plus trees are located in the North, Northwest and Central Spain.Material and Methods: The Prunus avium plus trees were genotyped with nine microsatellites. Several genetic parameters were calculated. Genetic data were analyzed with STRUCTURE and the genetic distance between the plus trees were calculated.Main results: A total of 122 multilocus genotypes were detected. Several accessions with the same genotype were identified, which could be due to clonality or to labelling errors. The nine microsatellites are useful for identifying individuals because the combined probability of identity was low (PI = 5.19X10-9. Bayesian methods detected two genetic clusters in the sampled plus trees.Research highlights: The unique genotypes identified in this work are suitable for being included in the elite breeding population for economic traits.Keywords: Prunus avium; breeding program; microsatellite; genetic distance.

  14. Above-ground woody biomass allocation and within tree carbon and nutrient distribution of wild cherry (Prunus avium L. – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Morhart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global search for new ways to sequester carbon has already reached agricultural lands. Such land constitutes a major potential carbon sink. The production of high value timber within agroforestry systems can facilitate an in-situ carbon storage function. This is followed by a potential long term ex- situ carbon sinkwithin long lasting products such as veneer and furniture. For this purpose wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is an interesting option for middle Europe, yielding high prices on the timber market. Methods: A total number of 39 wild cherry were sampled in 2012 and 2013 to assess the leafless above ground biomass. The complete trees including stem and branches were separated into 1 cm diameter classes. Wood and bark from sub-samples were analysed separately and nutrient content was derived. Models for biomass estimation were constructed for all tree compartments. Results: The smallest diameter classes possess the highest proportion of bark due to smaller cross sectional area. Tree boles with a greater amount of stem wood above 10 cm in diameter will have a more constant bark proportion. Total branch bark proportion also remains relatively constant above d1.3m measurements of 8 cm. A balance is evident between the production of new branches with a low diameter and high bark proportion offset by the thickening and a relative reduction in bark proportion in larger branches. The results show that a single tree with an age of 17 and 18 years can store up to 85 kg of carbon within the aboveground biomass portion, an amount that will increase as the tree matures. Branches display greater nutrient content than stem sections per volume unit which can be attributed to a greater bark proportion. Conclusions: Using the derived models the carbon and the nutrient content of above-ground woody biomass of whole trees can be calculated. Suggested values for carbon with other major and minor nutrients held within relatively immature trees

  15. Phenolic Compounds, Volatiles, and Sensory Characteristics of Twelve Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Cultivars Grown in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports the phenolic, anthocyanin, and volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of 12 cultivars of sweet cherries including cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat. Eight individual phenolic compounds were determined by the HPLC-DAD method. Among these cherries, cvs. Bing, Durona di Cesena, and Lambert contained higher levels of total individual phenolic compounds than the other cultivars. Six anthocyanins were detected in cherries and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside was principal and it was the highest level in cv. Bing. The major volatiles found were 1-hexanol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzylalcohol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, and benzaldehyde. Sensory evaluation of the cherries showed that cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, and Summit have higher textural and flavor scores than others. It was concluded that the same compounds for phenolic or volatiles profiles of sweet cherries were similar in qualitative; however, quantitative differences were observed in these cultivars.

  16. Compositional changes in cell wall polysaccharides from five sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars during on-tree ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, María F; Ponce, Nora M A; Salum, María L; Raffo, María D; Vicente, Ariel R; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Stortz, Carlos A

    2014-12-24

    Excessive softening is a major cause of postharvest deterioration during transportation and storage of fresh cherries. In continuing our studies to identify the factors determining the textural differences between sweet cherry fruit genotypes, we evaluated the solubilization, depolymerization, and monosaccharide composition of pectin and hemicelluloses from five sweet cherry cultivars ('Chelan', 'Sumele', 'Brooks', 'Sunburst', and 'Regina') with contrasting firmness and cracking susceptibility at two developmental stages (immature and ripe). In contrast to what is usually shown in most fruits, cherry softening could occur is some cultivars without marked increases in water-soluble pectin. Although polyuronide and hemicellulose depolymerization was observed in the water-soluble and dilute-alkali-soluble fractions, only moderate association occurs between initial polymer size and cultivar firmness. In all the genotypes the Na2CO3-soluble polysaccharides (NSF) represented the most abundant and dynamic wall fraction during ripening. Firm cultivars showed upon ripening a lower neutral sugars/uronic acid ratio in the NSF, suggesting that they have a lower proportion of highly branched polyuronides. The similar molar ratios of arabinose plus galactose to rhamnose [(Ara+Gal)/Rha] suggest that the cultivars differed in their relative proportion of homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) rather than in the size of the RG side chains; with greater proportions of HG in firmer cherries. Ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was useful to identify the depolymerization patterns of weakly bound pectins, but gave less accurate results on ionically bound pectins, and was unable to find any pattern on covalently bound pectins.

  17. Expression and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis-Modulating Potential of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) MYB10 and bHLH Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkevič, Pavel; Paukštytė, Jurgita; Kazanavičiūtė, Vaiva; Denkovskienė, Erna; Stanys, Vidmantas; Bendokas, Vidmantas; Šikšnianas, Tadeušas; Ražanskienė, Aušra; Ražanskas, Raimundas

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are essential contributors to fruit coloration, an important quality feature and a breed determining trait of a sweet cherry fruit. It is well established that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is regulated by an interplay of specific transcription factors belonging to MYB and bHLH families accompanied by a WD40 protein. In this study, we isolated and analyzed PaWD40, PabHLH3, PabHLH33, and several closely related MYB10 gene variants from different cultivars of sweet cherry, analyzed their expression in fruits with different anthocyanin levels at several developmental stages, and determined their capabilities to modulate anthocyanin synthesis in leaves of two Nicotiana species. Our results indicate that transcription level of variant PaMYB10.1-1 correlates with fruit coloration, but anthocyanin synthesis in Nicotiana was induced by another variant, PaMYB10.1-3, which is moderately expressed in fruits. The analysis of two fruit-expressed bHLH genes revealed that PabHLH3 enhances MYB-induced anthocyanin synthesis, whereas PabHLH33 has strong inhibitory properties.

  18. Eating quality and health-promoting properties of two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars stored in passive modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Isabel; Camats, Josep A; Comabella, Eva; Ortiz, Abel

    2015-03-01

    Two sweet cherry cultivars ('New Star' and 'Sweet Heart') were chosen to explore the impact of passive modified atmosphere packaging on the eating quality and health-promoting properties of fruit. Packaged and unpackaged fruits were stored at 0 ℃ for 15 or 30 days, followed by zero or three days at 20 ℃, after which the analyses were undertaken. In most cases, modified atmosphere packaging helped preserving higher firmness values and reducing the incidence of alterations and decay in both cultivars, but the effects on other physicochemical attributes were different for each cultivar. Partial least squares regression procedures were used to reveal relationships among the different variables assessed. Generally, fruits displaying higher antioxidant capacity were also characterised by higher values for firmness and titratable acidity, in turn related to better acceptability scores in both cultivars. However, the attributes contributing most to acceptability were different in each case. In 'New Star' fruit, acceptability was closely related to the perception of cherry flavour. In this cultivar, acetaldehyde content was related to the perception of off-flavours, while ethanol content was found to associate to soluble solids and to the perception of sweetness. In contrast, acceptability of 'Sweet Heart' fruit was related mainly to the perception of firmness and, to a lower extent, of sweetness.

  19. Expression and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis-Modulating Potential of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. MYB10 and bHLH Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Starkevič

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are essential contributors to fruit coloration, an important quality feature and a breed determining trait of a sweet cherry fruit. It is well established that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is regulated by an interplay of specific transcription factors belonging to MYB and bHLH families accompanied by a WD40 protein. In this study, we isolated and analyzed PaWD40, PabHLH3, PabHLH33, and several closely related MYB10 gene variants from different cultivars of sweet cherry, analyzed their expression in fruits with different anthocyanin levels at several developmental stages, and determined their capabilities to modulate anthocyanin synthesis in leaves of two Nicotiana species. Our results indicate that transcription level of variant PaMYB10.1-1 correlates with fruit coloration, but anthocyanin synthesis in Nicotiana was induced by another variant, PaMYB10.1-3, which is moderately expressed in fruits. The analysis of two fruit-expressed bHLH genes revealed that PabHLH3 enhances MYB-induced anthocyanin synthesis, whereas PabHLH33 has strong inhibitory properties.

  20. Exploitation of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) puree added of stem infusion through fermentation by selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Surico, Rosalinda Fortunata; Minervini, Giovanna; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lovino, Raffaella; Servili, Maurizio; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Sefania; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-08-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides were identified from 8 cultivars of sweet cherry by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence and subjected to typing by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. Representative isolates from each species and each cultivar were screened based on the kinetics of growth on cherry puree added of (10%, v/v) stem infusion (CP-SI). A protocol for processing and storage of CP-SI, which included fermentation by selected autochthonous P. pentosaceus SWE5 and L. plantarum FP3 (started CP-SI) or spontaneous fermentation (unstarted CP-SI), was set up. Starters grew and remained viable at elevated cell numbers (ca. 9.0 log cfu g(-1)) during 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The number of presumptive lactic acid bacteria of the unstarted CP-SI did not exceed the value of ca. 3.0 log cfu g(-1). Consumption of carbohydrates (e.g., glucose and fructose) by starter lactic acid bacteria was limited as well as it was the lactic acid fermentation. Consumption of organic acids (e.g., malic acid) and free amino acids was evident, especially, throughout storage. Compared to CP-SI before processing, the concentrations of total phenolic compounds and anthocyanins did not vary in the started CP-SI. The concentration of anthocyanins slightly decreased in the unstarted CP-SI. The antioxidant activity, expressed as the scavenging activity toward DPPH radical, was found at highest level in the started CP-SI which approached that found in CP-SI before processing. During storage, viscosity and, especially, color indexes of started CP-SI were higher than those found in the unstarted CP-SI. Fermentation by autochthonous lactic acid bacteria seemed to also positively interfere with the sensory attributes of CP-SI.

  1. Maillard reaction and enzymatic browning affect the allergenicity of Pru av 1, the major allergen from cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Patrick; Vieths, Stefan; Wangorsch, Andrea; Nerkamp, Jörg; Hofmann, Thomas

    2004-06-16

    The influence of thermal processing and nonenymatic as well as polyphenoloxidase-catalyzed browning reaction on the allergenicity of the major cherry allergen Pru av 1 was investigated. After thermal treatment of the recombinant protein rPru av 1 in the absence or presence of carbohydrates, SDS-PAGE, enzyme allergosorbent tests, and inhibition assays revealed that thermal treatment of rPru av 1 alone did not show any influence on the IgE-binding activity of the protein at least for 30 min, thus correlating well with the refolding of the allergen in buffer solution as demonstrated by CD spectroscopic experiments. Incubation of the protein with starch and maltose also showed no effect on IgE-binding activity, whereas reaction with glucose and ribose and, even more pronounced, with the carbohydrate breakdown products glyceraldehyde and glyoxal induced a strong decrease of the IgE-binding capacity of rPru av 1. In the second part of the study, the effect of polyphenoloxidase-catalyzed oxidation of polyphenols on food allergen activity was investigated. Incubation of rPru av 1 with epicatechin in the presence of tyrosinase led to a drastic decrease in IgE-binding activity of the protein. Variations of the phenolic compound revealed caffeic acid and epicatechin as the most active inhibitors of the IgE-binding activity of rPru av 1, followed by catechin and gallic acid, and, finally, by quercetin and rutin, showing significantly lower activity. On the basis of these data, reactive intermediates formed during thermal carbohydrate degradation as well as during enzymatic polyphenol oxidation are suggested as the active chemical species responsible for modifying nucleophilic amino acid side chains of proteins, thus inducing an irreversible change in the tertiary structure of the protein and resulting in a loss of conformational epitopes of the allergen.

  2. Cryopreservation of Prunus avium L. embryogenic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier-de March, Ghislaine; de Boucaud, Marie-Therese; Chmielarz, Pawel

    2005-01-01

    Embryogenic tissues from wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) were successfully cryopreserved by using a one-step freezing procedure. Cryoprotection consisted of a pretreatment on solid medium with increasing sucrose concentrations (0.25 M for 1 day, 0.5 M for 1 day, 0.75 M for 2 days, and 1.0 M for 3 days), followed by air desiccation to about 20 percent moisture content (fresh weight basis). This method was compared with a pretreatment on solid medium containing 5 percent DMSO and 2 percent proline, followed by immersion in a modified PVS2 cryoprotective solution. Pretreatment on solid medium with increasing concentrations of sucrose led to regrowth of frozen embryogenic tissues, and after 6 weeks of culture, growth was comparable to that of non-dehydrated and non-frozen tissues. By contrast, no regrowth was observed when embryogenic tissues were submitted to the solid/liquid pretreatment with DMSO/proline and a modified PVS2 solution.

  3. Physicochemical characterisation of four cherry species (Prunus spp.) grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinping; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-15

    The physicochemical characteristics of four cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus pseudocerasus and Prunus tomentosa) were evaluated. Inter-species variability was greater than intra-species differences. Glucose and fructose were the main sugars, and malic acid was the main organic acid in all species. Combining HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS/MS technologies, total 25 phenolic components were preliminarily identified. P. avium was characterised by high fruit weight, edible proportion, sugar content and low acid content, which made it suitable for fresh eating. P. cerasus was high in acid content and anthocyanins content, making it a good processing species. P. pseudocerasus had rich flavonols varieties and high proportion of hydrocinnamic acids. P. tomentosa was characterised by high total phenolics content (especially flavonols and tannins) and antioxidant activity, indicating a great developmental potential as a health fruit. The results of the present study might provide theoretical guidance for the further development and utilisation of cherries.

  4. Preliminary study on polymorphism of ACO gene in six varieties of sweet cherryPrunus avium )%6个甜樱桃品种ACO基因多态性的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王廿; 张开春; 王晶; 张晓明; 闫国华

    2012-01-01

    乙烯在植物果实成熟过程中起着重要的作用,ACC合酶(1-aminocyclop ropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase,ACS)和ACC氧化酶(1-aminocyclop ropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase,ACO)是植物乙烯生物合成途径的限速酶。通过DNA序列分析,以不同果实成熟期的6个甜樱桃品种(Prunus avium L.)为材料,检测ACO基因的多态性。获得甜樱桃ACO基因约1kh,与桃(Ppersica)ACO基因(GenBank登录号:AF532976)序列的同源性达96%,其预测的氨基酸序列与桃、梅(Pmume)、美洲李(Parmeniaca)和欧洲李(Pdomestica)等ACO的氨基酸序列同源性超过95%。该片段包括4个外显子和4个内含子,内含子符合GT—AT规律。用DNAMAN进行多序列比对分别在内含子2和内含子4内发现2个多态性简单重复序列(AT)n。内含子2有3种片段:即(AT)6、(AT)7和(AT)8;内含子4有2种片段,即(AT)5和(AT)6,组合后共得到4种ACO单倍型。研究在甜樱桃ACO基因座上发现2个SSR标记,为进一步研究4CD基因多态性与果实成熟期相关性奠定基础。%Ethylene plays an important role in ripening of plants. ACC synthease ( 1-aminocyclop ropane- 1-carboxylic acid synthase, ACS) and ACC oxidase (1-aminocyclop ropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase, ACO) are rate-limiting enzymes in ethylene biosynthesis in plants. DNA sequence analysis was applied to detect the polymorphism of A CO gene in 6 sweet cherry varieties (Prunus avium L.) of different maturity time. The DNA sequences of partial A CO gene about 1 kb were obtained from sweet cherry (P. avium). The identity of these DNA sequences was 96% with A CO of peach (P. persica). The identity of predicted amino acid sequences was 95% with the amino acid sequence of ACO in P. persica, Prunus mume, Prunus armeniaca, and Prunus domestica. These fragments contained four extrons and four introns which has GT-AG sequence. Two SSR markers

  5. Micropropagation of Prunus species relevant to cherry fruit production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druart, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Cherry tree micropropagation is limited to the production of healthy cultivars of Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus, and their rootstocks; mainly the dwarfing ones. By using meristem-tip (0.1 mm long) or healthy shoot tips/nodes, four successive steps are needed to obtain whole plants capable of growing in the nursery: multiplication by axillary branching, shoot elongation, rooting, and plantlet acclimation. Along this process, several parameters have to be adjusted for each phase of the culture, including media composition, environmental culture conditions and plant handling. These parameters vary depending on genotypic response and specific vulnerability to physiological disorders such as hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, unstable propagation, and rooting rates. Based on a 40 year-long experience of study and application of culture conditions to large-scale plant production, this document summarizes the main problems (variability of the propagation rate, hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, plant re-growth) and solutions encountered to solve them, with means validated on many mericlones.

  6. Formulation of indomethacin emulsion using biopolymer of Prunus avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shivangi; Dabral, Prashant; Rana, Vinod; Upadhaya, Kumud; Bhardwaj

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the investigation was to formulate Indomethacin Emulsion using Bio-polymer as Emulsifier. Different batches of emulsions were prepared by varying concentration of biopolymer prunus avium. Based evaluation of the prepared polymers, a conclusion can be drawn that in the Prunus avium bio-material can serve as a promising film forming agent for formulating various drug.

  7. Formulation of indomethacin emulsion using biopolymer of Prunus avium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivangi Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to formulate Indomethacin Emulsion using Bio-polymer as Emulsifier. Different batches of emulsions were prepared by varying concentration of biopolymer prunus avium. Based evaluation of the prepared polymers, a conclusion can be drawn that in the Prunus avium bio-material can serve as a promising film forming agent for formulating various drug.

  8. Procyanidins in fruit from Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) differ strongly in chainlength from those in Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus) and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus), and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) fruits are widely used in Turkey, both as food and as traditional medicines. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these three cherry types were compared. Fruit flesh was evalua

  9. Comparative analysis of the within-population genetic structure in wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) at the self-incompatibility locus and nuclear microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Silvio; Tusch, Alexandra; Scholz, Florian

    2006-10-01

    Gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) systems in plants exhibit high polymorphism at the SI controlling S-locus because individuals with rare alleles have a higher probability to successfully pollinate other plants than individuals with more frequent alleles. This process, referred to as frequency-dependent selection, is expected to shape number, frequency distribution, and spatial distribution of self-incompatibility alleles in natural populations. We investigated the genetic diversity and the spatial genetic structure within a Prunus avium population at two contrasting gene loci: nuclear microsatellites and the S-locus. The S-locus revealed a higher diversity (15 alleles) than the eight microsatellites (4-12 alleles). Although the frequency distribution of S-alleles differed significantly from the expected equal distribution, the S-locus showed a higher evenness than the microsatellites (Shannon's evenness index for the S-locus: E = 0.91; for the microsatellites: E = 0.48-0.83). Also, highly significant deviations from neutrality were found for the S-locus whereas only minor deviations were found for two of eight microsatellites. A comparison of the frequency distribution of S-alleles in three age-cohorts revealed no significant differences, suggesting that different levels of selection acting on the S-locus or on S-linked sites might also affect the distribution and dynamics of S-alleles. Autocorrelation analysis revealed a weak but significant spatial genetic structure for the multilocus average of the microsatellites and for the S-locus, but could not ascertain differences in the extent of spatial genetic structure between these locus types. An indirect estimate of gene dispersal, which was obtained to explain this spatial genetic pattern, indicated high levels of gene dispersal within our population (sigma(g) = 106 m). This high gene dispersal, which may be partly due to the self-incompatibility system itself, aids the effective gene flow of the

  10. Melatonin promotes adventitious root regeneration in in vitro shoot tip explants of the commercial sweet cherry rootstocks CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.), Gisela 6 (P. cerasus × P. canescens), and MxM 60 (P. avium × P. mahaleb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarropoulou, Virginia N; Therios, Ioannis N; Dimassi-Theriou, Kortessa N

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the effects of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a natural compound of edible plants on the rooting of certain commercial sweet cherry rootstocks. Shoot tip explants from previous in vitro cultures of the cherry rootstocks CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.), Gisela 6 (P. cerasus × P. canescens), and M × M 60 (P. avium × P. mahaleb) were included in the experiment. The effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) alone or in combination with melatonin was tested concerning their rooting potential. Seven concentrations of melatonin (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 μM) alone or in combination with 5.71 μM of IAA or 4.92 μM of IBA were tested. For each rootstock, 21 treatments were included. The explants were grown in glass tubes containing 10 mL of substrate. The parameters measured include rooting percentage, number of roots per rooted explant, root length, and callus formation. The data presented in this study show that melatonin has a rooting promoting effect at a low concentration but a growth inhibitory effect at high concentrations. In the absence of auxin, 1 μM melatonin had auxinic response concerning the number and length of roots, but 10 μM melatonin was inhibitory to rooting in all the tested rootstocks. The final conclusion of this experiment is that exogenously applied melatonin acted as a rooting promoter and its action was similar to that of IAA.

  11. Molecular basis of pollen-related food allergy: identification of a second cross-reactive IgE epitope on Pru av 1, the major cherry (Prunus avium) allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Regina; Gubesch, Michaela; König, Herbert; Fötisch, Kay; Hoffmann, Andreas; Wangorsch, Andrea; Scheurer, Stephan; Vieths, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen-associated food allergy is a well-characterized syndrome, which is due to the cross-reactivity of IgE antibodies to homologous allergens in various foods. One crossreacting area on the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and its homologue in cherry (Prunus avium) Pru av 1 has already been identified. This is the so-called 'P-loop' region, which encompasses amino acid residues around position 45 and is found on the two virtually identical tertiary protein structures. We tried to determine an additional IgE cross-reacting patch on Pru av 1 and Bet v 1. The putative IgE-binding region on Pru av 1 was localized with a mAb (monoclonal antibody) that was generated against Bet v 1, and cross-reacts with several Bet v 1 homologues in food and inhibits the binding of patients' IgE to Pru av 1. mAb reactivity pattern was analysed and amino acid positions 28 and 108 of Pru av 1 were selected and mutated by site-directed mutagenesis. The Pru av 1 mutants were produced as recombinant proteins and characterized for their folding, mAb- and IgE-binding capacity and allergenic potency with a cellular assay using the humanized rat basophilic leukaemia cell line RBL-25/30. Amino acid position 28 is involved in a second major IgE-binding region on Pru av 1 and probably on Bet v 1. The identification of this second major IgE-binding region is an essential prerequisite to understand the phenomenon of cross-reactivity and its clinical consequences, and to produce hypoallergenic proteins for an improved immunotherapy of type I allergy.

  12. 樱桃叶片气孔导度动态模拟研究%Study on Dynamic Simulation of Stomatal Conductance( Gs ) of Cherry(Prunus avium L.' Hongdeng' ) Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高照全; 赵晨霞; 冯社章; 程建军

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to simulate the dynamic change law of cherry leaf s Gs under different weather by Gs model. [ Method] The experiment was conducted in a ' Hongdeng' cherry orchard. The parameters of the model were tested by the data observed in upper canopy from 2008 to 2011 during the growing seasons. [ Result] The diurnal course of Gs showed a double-peak curve on sunny days. And it reached the first peak of 240 mmol/(m2 · S) at mid-morning about 08:00 and the second at mid-afternoon about 16:00. The decline of Gs at noon was caused by lower RH and ψt. During a whole day (12 h) , average Gs was about 154. 36 mmol/( m2 · S) on sunny day. [ Conclusion] The study provides a scientific basis for using Gs model to simulate Gs of fruit tree leaf under different weather.%[目的]利用气孔导度(Gs)模型模拟红灯樱桃(Prunus avium L.‘Hongdeng’)叶片G,在不同气象条件下的动态变化规律.[方法]于2008~2011年在红灯樱桃园中,利用树冠上层叶片气体交换数据拟合相应参数.[结果]在晴天,樱桃上层叶片Gs呈双峰曲线,最大峰值出现在08:00左右,约240 mmol/( m2·s);第2峰值在16:00,气孔的“午休”现象主要与中午较低的RH和ψ1有关.晴天时,一天当中Gs的平均值为154.36 mmol/( m2·s).[结论]该研究为采用Gs模型来模拟不同气象条件下果树叶片G1提供了科学依据.

  13. Differences in body size and egg loads of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from introduced and native cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, infests introduced, domesticated sweet [Prunus avium (L.) L.] and tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) as well as native bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas) Eaton. Bitter cherries are smaller than sweet and tart cherries and this coul...

  14. Construction of High Density Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Linkage Maps Using Microsatellite Markers and SNPs Detected by Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Verónica; Solís, Simón; Sagredo, Boris; Gainza, Felipe; Muñoz, Carlos; Gasic, Ksenija; Hinrichsen, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Linkage maps are valuable tools in genetic and genomic studies. For sweet cherry, linkage maps have been constructed using mainly microsatellite markers (SSRs) and, recently, using single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs) from a cherry 6K SNP array. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), a new methodology based on high-throughput sequencing, holds great promise for identification of high number of SNPs and construction of high density linkage maps. In this study, GBS was used to identify SNPs from an intra-specific sweet cherry cross. A total of 8,476 high quality SNPs were selected for mapping. The physical position for each SNP was determined using the peach genome, Peach v1.0, as reference, and a homogeneous distribution of markers along the eight peach scaffolds was obtained. On average, 65.6% of the SNPs were present in genic regions and 49.8% were located in exonic regions. In addition to the SNPs, a group of SSRs was also used for construction of linkage maps. Parental and consensus high density maps were constructed by genotyping 166 siblings from a 'Rainier' x 'Rivedel' (Ra x Ri) cross. Using Ra x Ri population, 462, 489 and 985 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups in 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and the Ra x Ri map, respectively, with 80% of mapped SNPs located in genic regions. Obtained maps spanned 549.5, 582.6 and 731.3 cM for 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and consensus maps, respectively, with an average distance of 1.2 cM between adjacent markers for both 'Rainier' and 'Rivedel' maps and of 0.7 cM for Ra x Ri map. High synteny and co-linearity was observed between obtained maps and with Peach v1.0. These new high density linkage maps provide valuable information on the sweet cherry genome, and serve as the basis for identification of QTLs and genes relevant for the breeding of the species.

  15. Application of Response Surface Methodology to Study the Combined Effect of Temperature, Time and pH on Antioxidant Activity of Cherry (Prunus avium Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayik Gulzar Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was employed to analyze the effect of independent variables viz. temperature, time and pH on antioxidant properties of cherry honey. Seventeen runs including five replicates were used to study the combined effect of temperature (60–80°C, time (10–15 min and pH (3 to 6 on the antioxidant properties [radical scavenging activity (DPPH-RSA, total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC] of cherry honey. Statistical analysis revealed that process variables significantly affected all the responses. All the three parameters viz. DPPH-RSA, TPC and TFC increased with increase in time and temperature. The antioxidant properties of cherry honey were significantly decreased with increase in pH from 3 to 6. The thermal treatment of honey at 80°C was found to be more effective than at 70 and 60°C. The results demonstrated that antioxidant activity significantly increased with formation of browning pigments.

  16. Construction of High Density Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. Linkage Maps Using Microsatellite Markers and SNPs Detected by Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Guajardo

    Full Text Available Linkage maps are valuable tools in genetic and genomic studies. For sweet cherry, linkage maps have been constructed using mainly microsatellite markers (SSRs and, recently, using single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs from a cherry 6K SNP array. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS, a new methodology based on high-throughput sequencing, holds great promise for identification of high number of SNPs and construction of high density linkage maps. In this study, GBS was used to identify SNPs from an intra-specific sweet cherry cross. A total of 8,476 high quality SNPs were selected for mapping. The physical position for each SNP was determined using the peach genome, Peach v1.0, as reference, and a homogeneous distribution of markers along the eight peach scaffolds was obtained. On average, 65.6% of the SNPs were present in genic regions and 49.8% were located in exonic regions. In addition to the SNPs, a group of SSRs was also used for construction of linkage maps. Parental and consensus high density maps were constructed by genotyping 166 siblings from a 'Rainier' x 'Rivedel' (Ra x Ri cross. Using Ra x Ri population, 462, 489 and 985 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups in 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and the Ra x Ri map, respectively, with 80% of mapped SNPs located in genic regions. Obtained maps spanned 549.5, 582.6 and 731.3 cM for 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and consensus maps, respectively, with an average distance of 1.2 cM between adjacent markers for both 'Rainier' and 'Rivedel' maps and of 0.7 cM for Ra x Ri map. High synteny and co-linearity was observed between obtained maps and with Peach v1.0. These new high density linkage maps provide valuable information on the sweet cherry genome, and serve as the basis for identification of QTLs and genes relevant for the breeding of the species.

  17. Root density of cherry trees grafted on prunus mahaleb in a semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Gavat, Corina; Chitu, Emil; Oprita, Alexandru; Moale, Cristina; Lamureanu, Gheorghe; Vrinceanu, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    Root density was investigated using the trench method in a cherry (Prunus avium grafted on Prunus mahaleb) orchard with clean cultivation in inter-rows and in-row. Trenches of 1 m width and 1.2 m depth were dug up between neighbouring trees. The objectives of the paper were to clarify the spatial distribution of root density of cherry trees under the soil and climate conditions of the region to expand knowledge of optimum planting distance and orchard management for a broad area of chernozems. Some soil physical properties were significantly worsened in inter-rows versus in-row, mainly due to soil compaction, and there were higher root density values in in-row versus inter-rows. Root density decreased more intensely with soil depth than with distance from trees. The pattern of root density suggests that the cherry tree density and fruit yield could be increased. However, other factors concerning orchard management and fruit yield should also be considered. The results obtained have a potential impact to improve irrigation and fertilizer application by various methods, considering the soil depth and distance from trees to wet soil, in accordance with root development.

  18. Effect of Prunus avium roots on river bank strong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibalani, Ghassem Habibi; Bazhrang, Zia; Mohsenifar, Hani; Shibaei, Naeime; Joodi, Lila

    2008-04-15

    A pulling effect by side roots is one way in which roots help to side in-plane strong of a little depth soil mass. In contrast to the effect of vertically-enlarge roots, whereby soil is strengthened by an increase in its shear strength, the pulling effect strengthens the soil by increasing the tensile strength of the rooted soil zone. To verify whether or not a pulling effect exists in the root system of Prunus avium in the Roudsar, North Iran and to study the importance and size of this effect, a direct in situ test was led at a site in the Chaboksar Forests. The results from the site showed that, in the surface soil (0-30 cm), Side roots can provide a pull force of up to 490-712 N (Newtons) over a vertical cross-section area of 20-50 cm2, or an enhance in the pulling stability of the rooted soil by about 48.1%. The test results suggest that, together with the Prunus avium vertical roots, which keep the little depth rooted soil zone to the deep and more stable soil mass, the side roots of the Prunus avium, with their pulling effect, are able to make less against little depth instability in the forest slopes, such as little depth slide, to a certain degree.

  19. 76 FR 31577 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit From South Africa Into the Continental United... importation into the continental United States of fresh apricot, sweet cherry, and plumcot fruit from South... (Prunus armeniaca L.), sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L., and plumcot (Prunus domestica x...

  20. 甜樱桃黄酮醇合酶基因的克隆及其表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis of PacFLS in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳爱玲; 沈欣杰; 刘芸; 袁华招; 张晓明; 李天红

    2013-01-01

    The flavonol synthase gene is an important gene involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. A full-length cDNA sequence of FLS gene, PaFLS (GenBank accessionn number:JQ289290), was cloned from the young leaves of Prunus avium L. by using RT-PCR and RACE method. The full-length cDNA of PaFLS was 1 077 bp with an open reading frame of 1 014 bp, which encoded a putative protein of 337 amino acids with a molecular weight of about 38 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.58. GenBank conserved domain search and function analysis revealed that PaFLS belonged to the 2-oxoglutarate iron-dependent oxygenase (2OG-Fell_Oxy) family. Sequence analysis showed that the homologies of FLS protein from P. avium with Malus domestica, Pyrus communis and Fragaria ananassa were 99% ,97% and 77% , respectively. The prokaryotic expression system of pGEX-4T-1 /PaFLS was constructed and transformed into E.coli BL21. The protein expression was induced by 0.5 mmol/L IPTG. A 65 kDa fusion protein was detected by SDS-PAGE. The expression levels of PaFLS in different tissues of plants were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Higher level of transcription was observed in the flowers than that in the fruits, pholems and leaves, which might be associated with pollinator attraction and pollen germination.%为了解黄酮醇合酶在甜樱桃类黄酮生物合成途径中的作用,根据其他物种已知的FLS cDNA保守序列设计简并引物,采用RT-PCR和RACE的技术,从甜樱桃(Prunus avium.L)嫩叶中扩增获得FLS cDNA全长,命名为PaFLS(GenBank登录号:JQ289290).该基因cDNA全长为1 077 bp,开放阅读框为1 014 bp,编码337个氨基酸,分子质量为38 ku,等电点pI为5.58.生物信息学分析表明PaFLS属于依赖2-酮戊二酸的双加氧酶家族(2OG-FeII_Oxy),该基因所编码的氨基酸序列与苹果、梨和草莓的同源性分别为99%、97%和77%.将该基因重组到表达载体pGEX4T-1中进行原核表达,电泳检测到一条约为65 ku

  1. Cell number regulator genes in Prunus provide candidate genes for the control of fruit size in sweet and sour cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Franceschi, P; Stegmeir, T; Cabrera, A; van der Knaap, E; Rosyara, U R; Sebolt, A M; Dondini, L; Dirlewanger, E; Quero-Garcia, J; Campoy, J A; Iezzoni, A F

    2013-01-01

    Striking increases in fruit size distinguish cultivated descendants from small-fruited wild progenitors for fleshy fruited species such as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Prunus spp. (peach, cherry, plum, and apricot). The first fruit weight gene identified as a result of domestication and selection was the tomato FW2.2 gene. Members of the FW2.2 gene family in corn (Zea mays) have been named CNR (Cell Number Regulator) and two of them exert their effect on organ size by modulating cell number. Due to the critical roles of FW2.2/CNR genes in regulating cell number and organ size, this family provides an excellent source of candidates for fruit size genes in other domesticated species, such as those found in the Prunus genus. A total of 23 FW2.2/CNR family members were identified in the peach genome, spanning the eight Prunus chromosomes. Two of these CNRs were located within confidence intervals of major quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously discovered on linkage groups 2 and 6 in sweet cherry (Prunus avium), named PavCNR12 and PavCNR20, respectively. An analysis of haplotype, sequence, segregation and association with fruit size strongly supports a role of PavCNR12 in the sweet cherry linkage group 2 fruit size QTL, and this QTL is also likely present in sour cherry (P. cerasus). The finding that the increase in fleshy fruit size in both tomato and cherry associated with domestication may be due to changes in members of a common ancestral gene family supports the notion that similar phenotypic changes exhibited by independently domesticated taxa may have a common genetic basis.

  2. Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on polyp

  3. Inheritance of hetero-diploid pollen S-haplotype in self-compatible tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chao; Liu, Qing-Zhong; Yang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Khan, Muhammad Awais; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The breakdown of self-incompatibility, which could result from the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes or competitive interaction between two different functional S-haplotypes, has been studied extensively at the molecular level in tetraploid Rosaceae species. In this study, two tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus) cultivars and one diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivar were used to investigate the ploidy of pollen grains and inheritance of pollen-S alleles. Genetic analysis of the S-genotypes of two intercross-pollinated progenies showed that the pollen grains derived from Chinese cherry cultivars were hetero-diploid, and that the two S-haplotypes were made up of every combination of two of the four possible S-haplotypes. Moreover, the distributions of single S-haplotypes expressed in self- and intercross-pollinated progenies were in disequilibrium. The number of individuals of the two different S-haplotypes was unequal in two self-pollinated and two intercross-pollinated progenies. Notably, the number of individuals containing two different S-haplotypes (S1- and S5-, S5- and S8-, S1- and S4-haplotype) was larger than that of other individuals in the two self-pollinated progenies, indicating that some of these hetero-diploid pollen grains may have the capability to inactivate stylar S-RNase inside the pollen tube and grow better into the ovaries.

  4. Inheritance of hetero-diploid pollen S-haplotype in self-compatible tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Gu

    Full Text Available The breakdown of self-incompatibility, which could result from the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes or competitive interaction between two different functional S-haplotypes, has been studied extensively at the molecular level in tetraploid Rosaceae species. In this study, two tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus cultivars and one diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium cultivar were used to investigate the ploidy of pollen grains and inheritance of pollen-S alleles. Genetic analysis of the S-genotypes of two intercross-pollinated progenies showed that the pollen grains derived from Chinese cherry cultivars were hetero-diploid, and that the two S-haplotypes were made up of every combination of two of the four possible S-haplotypes. Moreover, the distributions of single S-haplotypes expressed in self- and intercross-pollinated progenies were in disequilibrium. The number of individuals of the two different S-haplotypes was unequal in two self-pollinated and two intercross-pollinated progenies. Notably, the number of individuals containing two different S-haplotypes (S1- and S5-, S5- and S8-, S1- and S4-haplotype was larger than that of other individuals in the two self-pollinated progenies, indicating that some of these hetero-diploid pollen grains may have the capability to inactivate stylar S-RNase inside the pollen tube and grow better into the ovaries.

  5. Efecto de la Inclusión de un Extracto de Cereza (Prunus avium L. sobre el Estado de Oxidación y las Características Fisicoquímicas y Sensoriales de Salchichas Tipo Frankfurt Effect of the Inclusion of a Cherry Extract (Prunus avium L. on the Oxidation and Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Frankfurter Type Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Lorena Isaza Maya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resúmen. Uno de los principales factores limitantes de la calidad y aceptabilidad de la carne y los derivados cárnicos es la oxidación lipídica. Con el objetivo de inhibir o minimizar el deterioro ocasionado por la misma en salchichas tipo Frankfurt, se adiciona un extracto de cereza comercial, y se evalúa el efecto de éste sobre el estado de oxidación y las características fisicoquímicas y sensoriales durante 60 días de almacenamiento. Se encontró que el extracto de cereza mantiene los valores de TBARS (ácido tiobarbitúrico y la concentración de peróxido de las salchichas por debajo de los del producto testigo (sin adición de extracto de cereza, pero con presencia de ascorbato de sodio. Las salchichas con adición del extracto de cereza no presentan diferencias con el producto testigo desde el punto de la percepción de los descriptores sensoriales y las diferencias de las características fisicoquímicas y de color no son demasiado grandes en comparación con el testigo, de esta manera, el extracto de cereza puede ser usado para minimizar la oxidación lipídica de las salchichas tipo Frankfurt, sin afectar en gran medida las características propias de la misma.Abstract. Lipid oxidation is a limiting factor in quality and acceptability of meat and meat products. In order to inhibit or to minimize lipid oxidation in Frankfurters sausages, a commercial cherry extract was added and evaluated the effect on oxidation and physicochemical and sensorial characteristics for 60 days of storage. It was found that commercial cherry extract hold TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values and peroxides concentration, lesser than a product no added with cherry extract but added with sodium ascorbate. Frankfurters added with cherry extract no showed any difference with Frankfurters no added with cherry extract from sensorial descriptors perception and were no much greater differences in physicochemical and color characteristics

  6. Extraction and characterization of montmorency (Prunus cerasus L.) sour cherry pit oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pit oil was extracted and characterized by various methods including: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorime...

  7. Endophytic bacteria in plant tissue culture: differences between easy- and difficult-to-propagate Prunus avium genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quambusch, Mona; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Winkelmann, Traud; Bartsch, Melanie

    2014-05-01

    The endophytic bacterial communities of six Prunus avium L. genotypes differing in their growth patterns during in vitro propagation were identified by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Five morphologically distinct isolates from tissue culture material were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. To detect and analyze the uncultivable fraction of endophytic bacteria, a clone library was established from the amplified 16S rDNA of total plant extract. Bacterial diversity within the clone libraries was analyzed by amplified ribosomal rDNA restriction analysis and by sequencing a clone for each identified operational taxonomic unit. The most abundant bacterial group was Mycobacterium sp., which was identified in the clone libraries of all analyzed Prunus genotypes. Other dominant bacterial genera identified in the easy-to-propagate genotypes were Rhodopseudomonas sp. and Microbacterium sp. Thus, the community structures in the easy- and difficult-to-propagate cherry genotypes differed significantly. The bacterial genera, which were previously reported to have plant growth-promoting effects, were detected only in genotypes with high propagation success, indicating a possible positive impact of these bacteria on in vitro propagation of P. avium, which was proven in an inoculation experiment.

  8. Chilling and host plant/site associated eclosion times of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...

  9. First Report of a New Phytoplasma Subgroup, 16SrIII-S, Associated with Decline Disease Affecting Sweet and Sour Cherry Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    During July 2007, we observed sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) trees exhibiting disease symptoms suggestive of possible phytoplasma infection in a large orchard in the Kaunas region of Lithuania. Samples of leaf tissue were collected from sweet cherry trees that were aff...

  10. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Anthocyanins: effects of juice processing on phenolic compounds and bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Capanoglu, E.

    2014-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.), has gained growing interest in recent years due to the envisaged health benefits associated with a regular intake of anthocyanins and related polyphenolic compounds. Turkish sour cherries are widely consumed as processed products and are renowned for their high juice

  11. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale proce

  12. Effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on growth and chloroplast proteins in Prunus avium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, D.; Oosten, J.-J. van; Besford, R.T. (Horticulture Research International, Littlehampton, Sussex (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted of the growth response of Prunus avium L. Stella (wild cherry) to elevated CO[sub 2]. The associated changes in photosynthetic machinery of the leaf tissue were characterized. Self-pollinated seedlings and mature cuttings (clones) from the same parent plant of P. avium were grown for two consecutive growing seasons (about 60 days each) in ambient or elevated CO[sub 2] with high or low nutrient supply. The degree of acclimation of leaf biochemistry and growth response to elevated CO[sub 2] depended on the plant material (seedling or mature cutting) and nutrient supply. There was little or no growth response to elevated CO[sub 2] in seedlings or cuttings in the low nutrient supply treatments, whereas in both seasons, there was a strongly positive growth response to elevated CO[sub 2] in seedlings and cuttings in the high nutrient supply regimes, resulting in increases in the root/shoot ratio and in carbon allocation to the roots. In contrast, the protein content and activity of ribulose-1,5-biophosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco, EC 4.1.1.39) were down regulated in elevated CO[sub 2]. The loss of Rubisco on an area basis in plants in the elevated CO[sub 2] treatments was compensated for at the canopy level by increased leaf area. The loss of Rubisco protein was accompanied by decreases in the contents of chlorophyll and the thylakoid membrane proteins D[sub 1], D[sub 2] and cytochrome f, which are involved in light harvesting and photo-electron transport. It is concluded that in the medium- to long-term, the initial stimulation of biomass production by elevated CO[sub 2] may be increasingly offset by a lower photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf area in perennial plants. 27 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. The R2R3 MYB transcription factor PavMYB10.1 involves in anthocyanin biosynthesis and determines fruit skin colour in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wanmei; Wang, Hua; Li, Maofu; Wang, Jing; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Jiashen; Zhang, Kaichun

    2016-11-01

    Sweet cherry is a diploid tree species and its fruit skin has rich colours from yellow to blush to dark red. The colour is closely related to anthocyanin biosynthesis and is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level by transcription factors that regulate the expression of multiple structural genes. However, the genetic and molecular bases of how these genes ultimately determine the fruit skin colour traits remain poorly understood. Here, our genetic and molecular evidences identified the R2R3 MYB transcription factor PavMYB10.1 that is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway and determines fruit skin colour in sweet cherry. Interestingly, we identified three functional alleles of the gene causally leading to the different colours at mature stage. Meanwhile, our experimental results of yeast two-hybrid assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that PavMYB10.1 might interact with proteins PavbHLH and PavWD40, and bind to the promoter regions of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes PavANS and PavUFGT; these findings provided to a certain extent mechanistic insight into the gene's functions. Additionally, genetic and molecular evidences confirmed that PavMYB10.1 is a reliable DNA molecular marker to select fruit skin colour in sweet cherry.

  14. In-time and in-space tandem mass spectrometry to determine the metabolic profiling of flavonoids in a typical sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivar from Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupi, Pasquale; Genghi, Rosalinda; Antonacci, Donato

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analytical methodology, based on 'in-time' and 'in-space' tandem mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, to identify and quantify flavonoid compounds in a typical Italian sweet cherry cultivar (cv. Ferrovia). Five anthocyanins, four flavan-3-ols and nine flavonols were determined by means of hyphenated high-performance liquid chromatography - multi-stage MS (HPLC-MS(n)) analyses (MS(n) up to MS(4)), among which quercetin-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactosyl-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-coumaroylglucoside were tentatively identified in sweet cherries for the first time. Ultrafast HPLC and tandem MS (UHPLC-MS/MS) analyses through multiple reaction monitoring experiments showed that cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside were the main anthocyanins of cv. Ferrovia at maturity. Moreover, consistent levels of catechin and epicatechin as well as quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside were also found. Because flavonoids have been ascribed as potential health-promoting compounds, gathered findings provide new insight into the knowledge of the quali-quantitative profile of these phytochemicals into a widespread fruit such as sweet cherry.

  15. Heterozygote excess in a self-incompatible and partially clonal forest tree species -- Prunus avium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Solenn; Grange, Jérôme; Fernández-Manjarres, Juan F; Bilger, Isabelle; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie; Mariette, Stéphanie

    2006-07-01

    Wild cherry (Prunus avium L.), a partially asexual self-incompatible forest tree, shows heterozygote excess, which is a poorly studied phenomenon. In three natural populations, we found significant heterozygote excess at almost all investigated loci (eight microsatellites and markers for the self-incompatibility locus). We examined four hypotheses to account for this observed heterozygote excess. First, negative F(IS) can result from a lack of selfed progeny in small populations of outcrossing species. A second explanation for negative F(IS) is selection during the life cycle of the most heterozygous individuals. A third explanation is negative assortative mating when reproduction occurs between individuals bearing phenotypes more dissimilar than by chance. The last explanation for negative F(IS) relies on asexual reproduction. Expectations for each hypothesis were tested using empirical data. Patterns of F(IS) differed among loci. Nevertheless, our experimental results did not confirm the small sample size hypothesis. Although one locus is probably under a hitch-hiking effect from the SI locus, we rejected the effect of the self-incompatibility locus for the genome as a whole. Similarly, although one locus showed a clear pattern consistent with the selection of heterozygous individuals, the heterosis effect over the whole genome was rejected. Finally, our results revealed that clonality probably explains significant negative F(IS) in wild cherry populations when considering all individuals. More theoretical effort is needed to develop expectations and hypotheses, and test them in the case of species combining self-incompatibility and partially asexual reproduction.

  16. Diversità funzionale in cloni di ciliegio da legno (Prunus avium L. di provenienza Appennino toscano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cutini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Functionality in wild cherry (Prunus avium L. clones of Tuscany Appenines provenances. Results of a research regarding the functionality of already selected wild cherry (Prunus avium L. clones are reported. The main target was to select the genotypes with the best ecological efficiency and less sensible to environmental stress, in order to give concrete indications for arboriculture for wood productions. Starting from 2002, measurements were carried out in the experimental plot of Papiano (Stia, AR, where the following clones with provenance from the Tuscan Apennines were compared: Casina Alpe 1 (A, Casina Alpe 2 (D, Puzzòlo (C, Paradisino (E, Piantata Catenaia (F. Dendrometrical data were collected at the beginning and at the end of each season, in order to evaluate the growth and the individual current increment of the clones. To better characterize the canopies of each clone, measurements of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR and of the leaf area index (LAI where carried out with ceptometers and PCA LAI 2000. In order to evaluate differences between the clones regarding functionality and response to environmental stress, growth and productivity were related to the most important canopy characteristics. Ecological efficiency was calculated for the different clones using the net assimilation rate (NAR. The results show that the clone E has the most developed canopies and the best results in terms of growth. But at the same time it also presents densely branched round canopies and results more sensible to the effects of summer drought. These elements contribute to advise against the use of this clone in future genetic improvement programs and in high quality wood productions. On the contrary, the clones C and A have both good growth characteristics and a better general architecture and are therefore advised for high quality wood productions especially in the same geographic region.

  17. A cDNA encoding a cold-induced glycine-rich RNA binding protein from Prunus avium expressed in embryonic axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, John R; Dent, Katherine C; Finch-Savage, William E

    2003-11-27

    A cDNA clone encoding a presumed full-length glycine-rich ribonucleic acid (RNA) binding protein was isolated from a lambda-ZAP Express cDNA library generated from primarily nondormant Prunus avium (wild cherry) embryonic axes. The cDNA, designated Pa-RRM-GRP1 (Prunus avium RNA recognition motif glycine-rich protein 1), contains a single N-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM) and single C-terminal glycine-rich domain. The glycine-rich domain is unusually long at 91 amino acids, 58 of which are glycines. The 534-base pair (bp) open reading frame (ORF) of this clone encodes a 178-amino-acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular weight of 17.33 kDa and pI of 7.84. Comparative sequence alignment of Pa-RRM-GRP1 reveals extensive homology to known and presumed glycine-rich RNA binding proteins from angiosperms and gymnosperms. Genomic Southern blot analysis suggests that this gene exists as a single copy in P. avium. Expression of this gene in P. avium embryonic axes during low-temperature dormancy-breaking treatments was studied and found to be induced by cold (3 degrees C) using real-time PCR of total cDNA supported by Northern blot analysis of total RNA. Expression dropped during prolonged storage at 3 degrees C and was reduced to control levels by interruption of cold treatment by warming to 20 degrees C.

  18. 甜樱桃品种吉列玛叶片再生不定梢的研究%Shoot regeneration from leaves of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙清荣; 李勃; 张力思; 石荫坪

    2001-01-01

    本培养基NN69或WPM上附加BA和低浓度的NAA,IAA,IBA作培养基,诱导甜樱桃品种吉列玛试管苗的叶片产生了不定梢。以WPM附加BA 3mg/L和IAA0.3mg/L的处理,不定梢再生率最高,为33.3%。%Shoot regenerated from leaves of sweet cherry variety Dilemma in vitro on the media WPM or NN69 supplemented with cytokinin BA and auxin IAA, NAA or IBA. The regeneration ratio accounted for 33.3% when cultured on the medium WPM supplemented with 4mg/L BA and 0.3mg/L IAA.

  19. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  20. First Report of Cherry virus A in Sweet Cherry Trees in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants in the genus Prunus of the family Rosaceae are important ornamental and fruit trees in China (1). In June 2007, sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees with mottling and mosaic symptoms were observed in a private garden near Kunming, Yunnan Province. Twenty-four samples were then collected from swe...

  1. Molecular and quantitative signatures of biparental inbreeding depression in the self-incompatible tree species Prunus avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, C; Rogge, M; Degen, B

    2013-05-01

    Genetic diversity strongly influences populations' adaptability to changing environments and therefore survival. Sustainable forest management practices have multiple roles including conservation of genetic resources and timber production. In this study, we aimed at better understanding the variation in genetic diversity among adult and offspring individuals, and the effects of mating system on offspring survival and growth in wild cherry, Prunus avium. We analysed adult trees and open pollinated seed-families from three stands in Germany at eight microsatellite loci and one incompatibility system locus and conducted paternity analyses. Seed viability testing and seed sowing in a nursery allowed further testing for the effects of pollen donor diversity and genetic similarity between mates on the offspring performance at the seed and seedling stages. Our results were contrasting across stands. Loss of genetic diversity from adult to seedling stages and positive effect of mate diversity on offspring performance occurred in one stand only, whereas biparental inbreeding depression and significant decrease in fixation index from adults to seedlings was detected in two stands. We discussed the effects of stand genetic diversity on the magnitude of biparental inbreeding depression at several life-stages and its consequences on the management of genetic resources in P. avium.

  2. Isolation of flavonoids from the heartwood and resin of Prunus avium and some preliminary biological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James; Nair, Jerald J; Bollareddy, Endreddy; Keskar, Kunal; Thorat, Amol; Crankshaw, Denis J; Holloway, Alison C; Khan, Ghaznia; Wright, Gerard D; Ejim, Linda

    2009-12-01

    An investigation of the constituents in heartwood and resin of Prunus avium is reported. A mini-library of structurally diverse flavanones and flavones was screened for human cytochrome P450 1A1, 3A4 and 19 (aromatase) inhibition, and for antifungal activity against a panel of pathogenic fungi. The defensive role of these natural plant flavonoids as antifungal phytoalexins and phytoanticipins is discussed.

  3. Acute toxicity effects of Prunus avium fruit extract and selection of optimum dose against radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Sharma, K; Singh, Smita

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of different doses of the methanolic extract of the fruit pulp of Prunus avium (family Rosaceae), which is used ethno-medicinally for the treatment of various diseases, and to find out the optimal dose of Prunus avium extract against 10 Gy gamma-radiation exposure. To test acute toxicity in mice, different doses of PAE (Prunus avium fruit extract) were given orally for 15 consecutive days, after which the animals were observed for another 15 days; the LD50/15 of the methanolic extract was calculated to be 4.947 gm/kg body weight (b.wt). In optimum dose selection against radiation exposure, oral administration of 450 mg/kg b.wt/d of PAE for 15 consecutive days before exposure to 10 Gy of gamma-radiation was found to afford maximum protection in terms of body weight and survivability of the mice in comparison to other doses.

  4. Oviposition in Sweet Cherry by Reproductively Mature Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Tephritidae:Diptera) Fed Spinosad and Neonicotinoid Insecticide Baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Spinosad bait is applied weekly to kill flies before they develop eggs, but its effects on oviposition by flies that are reproductively mature are unknown. ...

  5. Development and evaluation of a genome-wide 6K SNP array for diploid sweet cherry and tetraploid sour cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-throughput genome scans are important tools for genetic studies and breeding applications. Here, a 6K SNP array for use with the Illumina Infinium® system was developed for diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and allotetraploid sour cherry (P. cerasus). This effort was led by RosBREED, a commun...

  6. First report of sweet cherry virescence disease in China and its association with infection by a ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma ziziphi’-related strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a deciduous tree originating in the Black Sea/Caspian Sea region where Asia and Europe converge. Being highly valued for its timber and fruit, sweet cherry has been cultivated and naturalized on all continents. Over the past decade, the area of sweet cherry culti...

  7. Detection and quantification of the antioxidant melatonin in Montmorency and Balaton tart cherries (Prunus cerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, S; Tan, D X; Manchester, L C; Hardeland, R; Reiter, R J

    2001-10-01

    The antioxidant melatonin was recently identified in a variety of edible plants and seeds in high concentrations. In plants, as in animals, melatonin is believed to function as a free radical scavenger and possibly in photoperiodism. In this study, melatonin was detected and quantified in fresh-frozen Balaton and Montmorency tart cherries (Prunus cerasus) using high-performance liquid chromatography. Both cherry species contain high levels of melatonin compared to the melatonin concentrations in the blood of mammals. Montmorency cherries (13.46 +/- 1.10 ng/g) contain approximately 6 times more melatonin than do Balaton cherries (2.06 +/- 0.17 ng/g). Neither the orchard of origin nor the time of harvest influenced the amount of melatonin in fresh cherries. The implication of the current findings is that consuming cherries could be an important source of dietary melatonin inasmuch as melatonin is readily absorbed when taken orally. Also, previously published data and the results presented here show that melatonin is not only endogenously produced but also present in the diet.

  8. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Assessing the potential for establishment of western cherry fruit fly using ecological niche modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., grown in the western United States are exported to many countries around the world. Some of these countries have enforced strict quarantine rules and trade restrictions due to concerns about the potential establishment and subsequent spread of western cherry fru...

  10. 甜樱桃果实果肉Ca2+质量浓度变化规律及其与裂果的关系%Change of Ca2+ concentration in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)fruit and its relationship with fruit cracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阁; 朱国英; 刘成连; 原永兵; 李志军; 王永章

    2008-01-01

    通过对拉宾斯(Lapins),滨库(Bing)和红丰(Hongfeng)3个抗裂性不同的甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)品种进行果实发育期外源补钙处理,研究了甜樱桃果实整个发育过程中果肉Ca2+质量浓度变化规律,及其对甜樱桃裂果的影响.结果表明,1)拉宾斯果实在成熟后期果肉Ca2+质量浓度呈稳定的上升趋势,而滨库和红丰在果实成熟期果肉Ca2+质量浓度则呈下降趋势.2)外源补钙处理可明显提高果实中的钙含量,所有处理的果实在整个发育过程中果肉Ca2+质量浓度都明显高于对照,其中拉宾斯比对照高12%、比滨库高13%、比红丰高40%.3)在裂果试验中,高抗裂品种拉宾斯对于外源补钙不敏感,叶面补钙处理后裂果率由7%降为4%;而抗裂性较差的滨库和红丰则非常敏感,裂果率滨库由49%降为28%、红丰由92%降为60%,证明果肉Ca2+质量浓度的提高可明显降低果实裂果率.

  11. Engineering cherry rootstocks with resistance to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus through RNAi-mediated silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Sink, Kenneth C; Walworth, Aaron E; Cook, Meridith A; Allison, Richard F; Lang, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is a major pollen-disseminated ilarvirus that adversely affects many Prunus species. In this study, an RNA interference (RNAi) vector pART27-PNRSV containing an inverted repeat (IR) region of PNRSV was transformed into two hybrid (triploid) cherry rootstocks, 'Gisela 6' (GI 148-1) and 'Gisela 7'(GI 148-8)', which are tolerant and sensitive, respectively, to PNRSV infection. One year after inoculation with PNRSV plus Prune Dwarf Virus, nontransgenic 'Gisela 6' exhibited no symptoms but a significant PNRSV titre, while the transgenic 'Gisela 6' had no symptoms and minimal PNRSV titre. The nontransgenic 'Gisela 7' trees died, while the transgenic 'Gisela 7' trees survived. These results demonstrate the RNAi strategy is useful for developing viral resistance in fruit rootstocks, and such transgenic rootstocks may have potential to enhance production of standard, nongenetically modified fruit varieties while avoiding concerns about transgene flow and exogenous protein production that are inherent for transformed fruiting genotypes.

  12. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Prunus avium with special reference to hematopoietic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Singh, Smita; Mundotiya, Chaturbhuj; Meghnani, Ekta; Srivastava, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Prunus avium (family Rosaceae) has been used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of many diseases,but its radioprotective efficacy has hardly been explored. Presence of high anthocyanin content and phenolic compound with good antioxidative capacity has been reported by researchers. Its radioprotective effect against 5, 7, 10, and 12 Gygamma radiation was evaluated by 30 day survival assay. Regression analysis yielded LD(50/30) 5.81 and 9.43Gy for irradiated only and (P. avium fruit extract) PAE + radiation groups, respectively. The dose reduction factor was computed as 1.62. For biochemical and hematological studies, Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: (i) control (vehicle treated), (ii) PAE treated (450 mg kg/day for 15 consequetive days), (iii) irradiated (5 Gy), and (4) PAE + irradiated. The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation and depletion in glutathione and protein levels in blood serum and spleen, which could be significantly checked by administration of PAE. Radiation-induced deficit in blood sugar, cholesterol, and hematological constituents could also be modulated by supplementation of PAE before and after irradiation. The possible prophylactic and therapeutic action noted by P. avium against radiation induced metabolic disorders may be due to synergistic action of various antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, etc., present in the fruit. Further mechanistic studies aimed at identifying the role of major ingredients in the extract are needed.

  13. Nutritional Value and Volatile Compounds of Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia García-Aguilar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prunus serotina (black cherry, commonly known in Mexico as capulín, is used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal diseases. Particularly, P. serotina seeds, consumed in Mexico as snacks, are used for treating cough. In the present study, nutritional and volatile analyses of black cherry seeds were carried out to determine their nutraceutical potential. Proximate analysis indicated that P. serotina raw and toasted seeds contain mostly fat, followed by protein, fiber, carbohydrates, and ash. The potassium content in black cherry raw and toasted seeds is high, and their protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores suggest that they might represent a complementary source of proteins. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry analysis allowed identification of 59 and 99 volatile compounds in the raw and toasted seeds, respectively. The major volatile compounds identified in raw and toasted seeds were 2,3-butanediol and benzaldehyde, which contribute to the flavor and odor of the toasted seeds. Moreover, it has been previously demonstrated that benzaldehyde possesses a significant vasodilator effect, therefore, the presence of this compound along with oleic, linoleic, and α-eleostearic fatty acids indicate that black cherry seeds consumption might have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.

  14. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Blando

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L (also called tart cherries contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 μmol TE/100 g FW and a lower one for the callus extract (688 μmol TE/100 g FW.

  15. Genetic determinism of phenological traits highly affected by climate change in Prunus avium: flowering date dissected into chilling and heat requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castède, Sophie; Campoy, José Antonio; García, José Quero; Le Dantec, Loïck; Lafargue, Maria; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the genetic determinism of flowering date (FD), dissected into chilling (CR) and heat (HR) requirements. Elucidation of the genetic determinism of flowering traits is crucial to anticipate the increasing of ecological misalignment of adaptative traits with novel climate conditions in most temperate-fruit species. CR and HR were evaluated over 3 yr and FD over 5 yr in an intraspecific sweet cherry (Prunus avium) F1 progeny, and FD over 6 yr in a different F1 progeny. One quantitative trait locus (QTL) with major effect and high stability between years of evaluation was detected for CR and FD in the same region of linkage group (LG) 4. For HR, no stable QTL was detected. Candidate genes underlying the major QTL on LG4 were investigated and key genes were identified for CR and FD. Phenotypic dissection of FD and year repetitions allowed us to identify CR as the high heritable component of FD and a high genotype × environment interaction for HR. QTLs for CR reported in this study are the first described in this species. Our results provide a foundation for the identification of genes involved in CR and FD in sweet cherry which could be used to develop ideotypes adapted to future climatic conditions.

  16. Temperature-mediated kill and oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the presence of Spinosad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...

  17. Reduction in Emergence of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Sweet Cherries with Different Egg and Larval Distributions Using Newer Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major insect pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. To reduce fly populations in unharvested fruit following the completion of commercial harvest, it is important to cont...

  18. Soil moisture and relative humidity effects during post-diapause on emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in western North America that is found in relatively moist and dry habitats. In this study, fly pupae from Kennewick and Roslyn in Washington state, U.S.A., were used to test the hypotheses tha...

  19. Behavioral responses, rate of mortality, and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly exposed to Malathion, Zeta-cypermethrin, and Spinetoram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of sweet and tart cherry, Prunus avium L. (L.) and P. cerasus L., respectively, in western North America. This fly is commonly controlled with spinosad bait sprays, but these sprays are ineffective against sp...

  20. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  1. Isolation of S-locus F-box alleles in Prunus avium and their application in a novel method to determine self-incompatibility genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, S P; Russell, K; Sargent, D J; Tobutt, K R

    2006-03-01

    This study characterises a series of 12 S-locus haplotype-specific F-box protein genes (SFB) in cherry (Prunus avium) that are likely candidates for the pollen component of gametophytic self-incompatibility in this species. Primers were designed to amplify 12 SFB alleles,including the introns present in the 50 untranslated region;sequences representing the S-alleles S1, S2, S3, S4, S40, S5,S6, S7, S10, S12, S13 and S16 were cloned and characterized. [The nucleotide sequences reported in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL/GenBank database under the following accession numbers: PaSFB1(AY805048), PaSFB2 (AY805049), PaSFB3 (AY805057),PaSFB4 (AY649872), PaSFB40 (AY649873), PaSFB5(AY805050), PaSFB6 (AY805051), PaSFB7 (AY805052),PaSFB10 (AY805053), PaSFB12 (AY805054), PaSFB13(AY805055), PaSFB16 (AY805056).] Though the coding regions of six of these alleles have been reported previously,the intron sequence has previously been reported only for S6. Analysis of the introns revealed sequence and length polymorphisms. A novel, PCR-based method to genotype cultivars and wild accessions was developed which combines fluorescently labelled primers amplifying the intron of SFB with similar primers for the first intron of S-RNase alleles. Intron length polymorphisms were then ascertained using a semi-automated sequencer. The convenience and reliability of this method for the determination of the self-incompatibility (SI) genotype was demonstrated both in sweet cherry cultivars representing alleles S1 to S16 and in individuals from a wild population encompassing S-alleles S17 to S22. This method will greatly expedite SI characterisation in sweet cherry and also facilitate large-scale studies of self-incompatibility in wild cherry and other Prunus populations.

  2. Hyperhydricity of Prunus avium shoots cultured on gelrite: a controlled stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Thierry; Kevers, Claire; Gaspar, Thomas; Dommes, Jacques; Deby, Carol; Greimers, Roland; Serteyn, Didier; Deby-Dupont, Ginette

    2004-06-01

    Hyperhydricity is a physiological disorder frequently affecting shoots vegetatively propagated in vitro. Hyperhydric shoots are characterised by a translucent aspect due to a chlorophyll deficiency, a not very developed cell wall and a high water content. Hyperhydricity of Prunus avium shoots was expressed in vitro in one multiplication cycle by replacing the gelling agent agar (normal shoots: NS) by gelrite (hyperhydric shoots: HS). P. avium shoots evolving towards the hyperhydric state produced higher amounts of ethylene, polyamines (PAs) and proline, which are substances considered as stress markers. A higher activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX; EC 1.11.1.9), involved in organic hydroperoxide elimination, suggested an increased production of these compounds in HS. The unchanged free fatty acid composition indicated no HS membrane damages compared to NS. The ploidy level of HS nuclei was not affected, but the bigger size and the lower percentage of nuclei during the S phase suggested a slowing down of the cell cycle. The results argued for a stress response of the HS, but no signs of oxidative damages of lipid membrane and nucleus were observed. The discussion points out paradoxical results in a classical analysis of stress and suggests an alternative way of defense mechanisms in HS, involving homeostatic regulation and controlled degradation processes to maintain integrity and vital functions of the cell.

  3. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  4. Differences in body size and egg loads of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from introduced and native cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2011-12-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, infests introduced, domesticated sweet [Prunus avium (L.) L.], and tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) as well as native bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas) Eaton. Bitter cherries are smaller than sweet and tart cherries and this could affect various life history traits of flies. The objectives of the current study were to determine 1) if body size and egg loads of flies infesting sweet, tart, and bitter cherries differ from one another; and 2) if any observed body size differences are genetically based or caused by the host fruit environment. Pupae and adults of both sexes reared from larval-infested sweet and tart cherries collected in Washington and Montana were larger than those reared from bitter cherries. In addition, flies of both sexes caught on traps in sweet and tart cherry trees were larger than those caught in bitter cherry trees and females trapped from sweet and tart cherry trees had 54.0-98.8% more eggs. The progeny of flies from naturally-infested sweet and bitter cherries reared for one generation in the laboratory on sweet cherry did not differ in size. The same also was true for progeny of sweet and bitter cherry flies reared in the field on bitter cherry. The results suggest that the larger body sizes of flies from sweet and tart cherries than bitter cherries in the field are caused by host fruit and not genetic factors.

  5. Messa a punto di un metodo per l'individuazione di β-1,3- glucanasi e chitinasi attraverso Native PAGE su estratti di piante di Prunus avium L. inoculate con Phytophthora spp.

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    Anna De Rogatis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tecnique to detect on ß-1,3- glucanase and chitinasi by native PAGE, in Prunus avium (L.clones inoculated with Phytophthora spp. ß-1,3-glucanase and chitinase activities have been detected by native PAGE (poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis on leaf extracts of wild cherry (P. avium inoculated with different species of Phytophthora spp.. These pathogens are aggressive in wild cherry and they can cause wiltings and death of the plant. These two PR (pathogen-related proteins are normally produced by plants as first resistance strategy towards pathogens. The PR activities are involved in ifal cell wall degradation and growth. Usually, the techniques to detect them are based on colorimetric assay performed with the total protein extracts or in the poliacrylamide gels, through expensive procedures. In this work a direct colorimetric detection on a Carboximetil (cm-Curdlan RBB (Remazol Brilliant Blu and Glycol Chitosan substrate, is used to reveal ß-1,3-glucanase and chitinasi respectively. This protocol resulted to be very sensible in detecting the two proteins, very simply, reliable and cheap.

  6. Unequal allelic frequencies at the self-incompatibility locus within local populations of Prunus avium L.: an effect of population structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, S; Castric, V; Mariette, S; Vekemans, X

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we investigated the genetic structure and distribution of allelic frequencies at the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus in three populations of Prunus avium L. In line with theoretical predictions under balancing selection, genetic structure at the self-incompatibility locus was almost three times lower than at seven unlinked microsatellites. Furthermore, we found that S-allele frequencies in wild cherry populations departed significantly from the expected isoplethic distribution towards which balancing selection is expected to drive allelic frequencies (i.e. identical frequency equal to the inverse of the number of alleles in the population). To assess whether this departure could be caused either by drift alone or by population structure, we used numerical simulations to compare our observations with allelic frequency distributions expected : (1) within a single deme from a subdivided population with various levels of differentiation; and (2) within a finite panmictic population with identical allelic diversity. We also investigated the effects of sample size and degree of population structure on tests of departure from isoplethic equilibrium. Overall, our results showed that the observed allele frequency distributions were consistent with a model of subdivided population with demes linked by moderate migration rate.

  7. 晚熟甜樱桃新品种‘彩霞’%A New Late Ripening Prunus avium Cultivar Caixia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓明; 张开春; 闫国华; 周宇; 王晶

    2012-01-01

    Caixia, a new late ripening cultivar ofPrunus avium L. was selected. 'Caixia' is a medium to large-sized, firm, crisp, attractive, good-flavor red cherry. Its average fruit weight is 6.23 g, and the biggest one is 9.04 g. The soluble solids content is 17.05%. It ripens in late June in Beijing area, nearly 15 days later than'Van' (ripens in mid-June in Beijing). The tree is moderately vigorous. No special susceptibility to common pests, diseases and stress injuries. It has good adaptability to chilling and freezing damages.%‘彩霞’为晚熟甜樱桃新品种。平均单果质量6.23g,最大9.04g,可食率93%,可溶性固形物含量17.05%。果肉黄色,质地脆,汁多,风味酸甜可口。6月下旬成熟,是目前适宜北京地区种植的晚熟樱桃品种之一。

  8. Loss of pollen-S function in two self-compatible selections of Prunus avium is associated with deletion/mutation of an S haplotype-specific F-box gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneveld, Tineke; Tobutt, Kenneth R; Vaughan, Simon P; Robbins, Timothy P

    2005-01-01

    Recently, an S haplotype-specific F-box (SFB) gene has been proposed as a candidate for the pollen-S specificity gene of RNase-mediated gametophytic self-incompatibility in Prunus (Rosaceae). We have examined two pollen-part mutant haplotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium). Both were found to retain the S-RNase, which determines stylar specificity, but one (S3' in JI 2434) has a deletion including the haplotype-specific SFB gene, and the other (S4' in JI 2420) has a frame-shift mutation of the haplotype-specific SFB gene, causing amino acid substitutions and premature termination of the protein. The loss or significant alteration of this highly polymorphic gene and the concomitant loss of pollen self-incompatibility function provides compelling evidence that the SFB gene encodes the pollen specificity component of self-incompatibility in Prunus. These loss-of-function mutations are inconsistent with SFB being the inactivator of non-self S-RNases and indicate the presence of a general inactivation mechanism, with SFB conferring specificity by protecting self S-RNases from inactivation.

  9. Evaluation of physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant property of Prunus avium gum exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Hossein; Askari, Gholamreza; Jahanbin, Kambiz; Khodaeian, Faramarz

    2016-12-01

    In this study some physicochemical properties and elemental analysis of Prunus avium gum exudates were investigated. The gum studied had, on average, 75.14% carbohydrate, 11.3% uronic acids, 1.11% protein, 7.53% moisture content (w.b.) and 3.12% ash. Measured values for the angle of repose, Carr's index and Hausner ratio showed the good flow ability for the gum powder. The viscosity of 1% aqueous solution of the gum exhibited a Newtonian type of flow and with pH reduction the swelling index was increased. The average molecular weight of the main polysaccharide fraction was about 1.46×10(5)Da (146kDa). GC analysis showed that the main polysaccharide was composed of four kinds of neutral monosaccharides, namely mannose (Man), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal) and xylose (Xyl) with a relative molar ratio of 1.0:14.7:7.1:2.4. FTIR analysis showed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups and glycosidic linkage. The antioxidant activity of the gum was evaluated by determining DPPH scavenging and total phenolic contents which showed poor antioxidant property.

  10. The effect of the time of budding of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. seedlings on the quality of maiden trees of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. 'Łutówka'

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    Piotr Baryła

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted at the Felin Experi- mental Farm, belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin, during the period 2005–2008. The experimental material consisted of maiden trees of sour cherry 'Łutówka' budded on seedlings of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. of unknown origin. The experiment evaluated the effect of four budding times: 15 July, 1 August, 15 August, and 1 September, on the quality of cherry trees in a nursery. The mean for the three years showed that budding time did not have a significant effect on the quality of cherry trees in the nursery. It was observed that the budding of mahaleb cherry performed on the two August dates (1st and 15th had a more beneficial effect on the growth and branching of trees than the budding done on 15 July and 1 September. The quality of maiden cherry trees 'Łutówka' in the nursery was primarily dependent on weather conditions in a given growing season, which is evidenced by the significant differences between production cycles, high variation in the quantitative results in individual years, and the absence of significant differences in the mean for 2006–2008.

  11. Pomological and technological characteristics of collected selections of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr.

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    Miletić Rade

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A plantation collection containing 32 genotypes selected from spontaneous populations of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr. was set up in the region of the Eastern Serbian town of Svrljig. The fruit trees budded from Prunus cerasifera seedlings and were planted at 5x4 m spacing on a mild slope of south-western aspect. This study shows the most important characteristics of the 19 selections in the collection, and the average results recorded in the 2000-2003 period. The most significant characteristics of the trees, their productivity, and fruit and stone characteristics are presented. The average coarseness of fruits, i.e. their length, width and thickness, measured 25.0x 24.4x25.0 mm, while stone coarseness was 14.4x10.3x3.6 mm. The average fruit weight was 12.1 g (24.3-4.8 g, and stone weight 0.85 g (2.2-0.3 g. Depending on fruit and stone weight, the mesocarp content was 93% (96.3-90.3%. Taking into consideration the possibility of fruit exploitation for the production of biologically high-quality food, the mesocarp chemical composition was thoroughly examined. The fruits were found to have increased contents of total acids, achieving an average of 3.09% (3.44-2.60%, which was the initial objective of this selection. Total solids content was 13.5% (16.2-10.3%, total soluble solids 12.5% (14.5-9.5% and total sugars 6.00% (11.45-3.14%. Considering these characteristics, the selections that were singled out deserve more attention in terms of preserving their biodiversity, forming a gene bank and commercial cultivation.

  12. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  13. The African cherry (Prunus africana): can lessons be learned from an over-exploited medicinal tree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, K M

    2003-11-01

    For the last 35 years, the African cherry (Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalm.) has been used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and other disorders. The bark, from which the treatment is derived, is entirely wild-collected. The major exporters of bark include Cameroon, Madagascar, Equatorial Guinea, and Kenya. Groupe Fournier of France and Indena of Italy produce 86% of the world's bark extract, both for their own products and for the free market. Worldwide exports of dried bark in 2000 have been estimated at 1350-1525 metric tons per year, down from its peak of 3225 tons in 1997. Bark extracts (6370-7225 kg per year) are worth an estimated $4.36 million US dollars per year. In 2000, Plantecam, the largest bark exporter in Africa, closed its extraction factory in Cameroon, due to complex ecological, social, and economic factors. Wild-collection is no longer sustainable (and probably never was) where harvest seriously affects morbidity and mortality rates of harvested populations. Since 1995, it has been included in CITES Appendix II as an endangered species. In this paper, alternatives to wild-collection to meet future market demand are investigated, including conservation practices, enrichment plantings, small- and large-scale production, and protection of genetic resources. The species is at the beginning of a transition from an exclusively wild-collected species to that of a cultivated medicinal tree.

  14. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekber Sulusoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and IKI (iodine potassium iodide, were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.. Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  15. In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r(2) = 0.0614 and r(2) = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  16. The effect of the time and the budding method on the growth of young cherry trees cv. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies concerning the effect of the time and the methods of budding on the growth of young cherry trees were conducted in the years at Felin Experimental Farm of Lublin Agricultural University. The objects of investigations were the young cherry trees obtained as a result of budding of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. seedlings in the way by the chip budding-15th July and T-graft-15th July and 1st September. The used methods and the times of budding insignificantly affected the growth of young cherry trees cv. «Łutówka» in a nursery. There was showed that quality features of the trees were dependet on stock used type. Cherry trees obtained on mahaleb cherry were thicker, higher and better branched than on sweet cherry.

  17. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: II. The immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of black sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, John J; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; Nakhal, Yasmine K; Hanbali, Lama B

    2013-01-01

    Retrospectively, we have measured the antioxidant activity and a variety of antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts. Further in this study, in order to understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of black sour cherries (P. cerasus), a related species, antioxidant compounds, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant activity were simultaneously measured under varying extraction conditions (mild heating and brief microwave exposure) for: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity for WJE was substantially increased with mild and prolonged exposure to either heating or microwave, such that the % inhibition against 2,2-diphenyl-1-bspicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed a positive correlation (heating, 5-20 min.; microwave, 1-2 min.), insignificant with MEJ and dPOM, whereas with mPOM there was sharp downregulation. L-Ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure (WEJ and mPOM), except a mild increase with MEJ and dPOM. Similarly, total phenols assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts, except a mild decrease with exposure for mPOM. In a manner similar to L-ascorbic acid, total flavonoid content was increased under varying conditions for WEJ and MEJ, and slightly decreased for dPOM and mPOM. On the other hand, anthocyanins showed differential variations with exposure (up- and downregulation). Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp increase in the antioxidant activity for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM. These results

  18. 极早熟甜樱桃新品种‘早丹’%A New Extremely Early Ripening Prunus avium Cultivar 'Zaodan'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫国华; 张开春; 张晓明; 周宇; 王晶

    2012-01-01

    'Zaodan', a new extremely early ripening cultivar of Prunus avium L., is derived from mutations of cultivar 'Xesphye' . It is a medium to large-sized red skin cherry with juicy red flesh, its average fruit weight is 6.2 g, and the biggest one is 8.3 g. Its good-flavor is due to medium acidity and high sweetness, average soluble solids content is 16.6%. It matures in mid-May in Beijing area, 3 - 6 days earlier than 'Burlat' . It is very suitable for protected cultivations because of its low-chilling requirement and extremely early ripening. The tree is moderately vigorous. No special susceptibility to common pests, diseases and stress injuries, with good adaptability to chilling and freezing damages.%‘早丹’为极早熟甜樱桃新品种。平均单果质量6.2g,最大果质量8.3g。果肉红色,汁多,可溶性固形物16.6%,风味酸甜可口。在北京地区果实发育期30~35d,5月中旬成熟,比‘伯兰特’早成熟3~6d。需冷量低,适宜温室及南方地区栽培。早果丰产性好,树体和花芽抗寒力均较强,无特殊的敏感性病虫害和逆境伤害。

  19. Ethanol vapor and saprophytic yeast treatments reduce decay and maintain quality of intact and fresh-cut cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of an ethanol vapor release pad and a saprophytic yeast (Cryptococcus infirmo-miniatum) to reduce decay and maintain postharvest quality of intact or fresh-cut sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) cv. Lapins and Bing. Intact or fresh-cut fruit were pac...

  20. The role of polar auxin transport through pedicels of Prunus avium L. in relation to fruit development and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Mark A; Stankiewicz-Davies, Anna P; Crisp, Carol M; Atkinson, Christopher J

    2004-09-01

    It was investigated whether premature fruit abscission in Prunus avium L. was triggered by a reduction in polar auxin transport (PAT). The capacity of pedicels to transport tritiated IAA ([3H]-IAA) via the PAT pathway was measured at intervals throughout flower and fruit development. The extent of passive diffusion, assessed by concurrent applications of [14C]-benzoic acid ([14C]-BA), was negligible. Transported radioactivity recovered from agar blocks eluted at the same retention time as authentic [3H]-IAA during HPLC fractionation. The capacity for PAT was already high 7 d before anthesis and increased further following the fertilization of flowers at anthesis. PAT intensity was greatest immediately following fertilization and at the beginning of the cell expansion phase of fruit growth; the transport intensity in fruitlets destined to abscind was negligible. The amount of endogenous IAA moving through the PAT pathway was greatest during the first 3 weeks after fertilization and was again high at the beginning of the fruit expansion stage. IAA export in the phloem increased following fertilization then declined below detectable levels. ABA export in the phloem increased markedly during stone formation and at the onset of fruit expansion. TIBA applied to pedicels of fruit in situ promoted fruitlet abscission in 2000 but not in 2001, despite PAT capacity being reduced by over 98% in the treated pedicels. The application of TIBA to pedicels did not affect fruit expansion. The role of PAT and IAA in relation to the development and retention of Prunus avium fruit is discussed.

  1. Diversification of almonds, peaches, plums and cherries - molecular systematics and biogeographic history of Prunus (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Siew-Wai; Shaw, Joey; Haberle, Rosemarie; Wen, Jun; Potter, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Most previous molecular phylogenetic studies of Prunus have been conducted primarily with crop species and their close relatives. As the center of crop diversity of the genus is in Eurasia, the geographic origin of Prunus has inevitably been inferred to be Eurasia as well. The lesser-known tropical Prunus species have not been well represented in previous phylogenetic reconstructions; therefore, their effects on inferences about the phylogenetic structure and geographic origin of Prunus are uncertain. In this study, we examined the phylogeny of Prunus, including an expanded sampling of species from tropical regions in Southeast Asia and the Americas, using sequences from four plastid markers and the nuclear ribosomal ITS region. A penalized likelihood method was used to estimate the absolute age of Prunus and the timing of infrageneric cladogenic events. The geographic origin of Prunus and ancestral sites of cladogenesis were inferred using the Bayes-DIVA approach. Our results indicate that the modern genus appeared ∼61Myr in eastern Asia and that diversification of all major lineages may have been triggered by the global warming period of the early Eocene. In addition, our molecular dating estimates suggest that the crown clade that includes the temperate deciduous crop species is older than the one that includes the tropical evergreen species, while incongruence between plastid and nuclear phylogenies suggests that the latter lineage originated via an ancient hybridization event. The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the temperate crop species was a component of the continuous boreotropical forests of the Northern Hemisphere, while the MRCA of the tropical species represented the last remains of the boreotropical elements and subsequently radiated throughout the Old and New World tropics from refugial areas at lower latitudes. Complex biogeographic histories leading to the present global distribution of the genus were driven by several geologic events

  2. The importance of bee pollination of the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus Cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Hansted

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low fruit set, despite normally-developed flowers, is often a significant contributor to poor yield of the self-fertile sour cherry (Prunus cerasus cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ in Denmark. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insect, and particularly, bee pollination on the fruit set of this cultivar, in order to provide orchard management information for both Danish ‘Stevnsbaer’ growers and beekeepers. Visits to cherry flowers by honey bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus species and solitary bees, were recorded during the flowering of ‘Stevnsbaer’ in five separate Danish orchards. The results indicate that there is a significantly higher fruit set on open pollinated branches when compared to caged branches, where bees and other pollinating insects where excluded. The results were qualitatively consistent over three different seasons (2007, 2009 and 2010. A period of prolonged cold, humid weather before and during early flowering probably reduced fruit set significantly in 2010 compared to 2009. Regarding the apparent benefits of bee pollination on fruit set and subsequent implications for yield, we recommend placing honeybees in ‘Stevnsbaer’ orchards during flowering to sustain commercially viable production. Another valuable management strategy would be to improve foraging and nesting conditions to support both honey and wild bees in and around the orchards.

  3. Promising sour cherry hybrids (Prunus cerasus L. developed at Fruit Research Institute Čačak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At Fruit Research Institute in Čačak, major objectives of the work on breeding new sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cultivars are high cropping, large, high-quality fruits and resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests. As a result of the planned hybridization, more than 10,000 hybrid seedlings have been developed from about 40 cultivars within more than 110 parental combinations, among which are 'Čačanski rubin' ('Shasse Morello' x 'Köröser Weichsel' and 'Šumadinka' ('Köröser Weichsel' x 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel' which have been named and released. Ten-year study of 11 hybrids, selected from the population of about 3,000 hybrid seedlings, gave four hybrids which have been singled out as elite (III/23, III/31, II/40 i XII/57. These hybrids are currently under procedure of being released as new cultivars. The paper presents two-year results of the study of ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits, and field resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests attacking the above named genotypes which were compared to standard cultivar 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel'. In the studied hybrids, fruit weight, soluble solids content and sugars content were higher than in standard cultivar. In addition, they exhibit substantial field resistance to causal agents of brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz., cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi L. attack.

  4. Molecular analysis of East Anatolian traditional plum and cherry accessions using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öz, M H; Vurgun, H; Bakir, M; Büyük, İ; Yüksel, C; Ünlü, H M; Çukadar, K; Karadoğan, B; Köse, Ö; Ergül, A

    2013-01-01

    We conducted SSR analyses of 59 accessions, including 29 traditional plum (Prunus domestica), 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium), and 1 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) selected from East Anatolian gene sources and 3 plum and 2 cherry reference accessions for molecular characterization and investigation of genetic relationships. Eight SSR loci [1 developed from the apricot (UDAp-404), 4 from the peach (UDP96-010, UDP96-001, UDP96-019, Pchgms1) and 3 from the cherry (UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31) genome] for plum accessions and 9 SSR loci [5 developed from the cherry (PS12A02, UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31, UCD-CH21), 3 from the peach (Pchgms1, UDP96-001, UDP96-005) and 1 from the plum (CPSCT010) genome] for cherry accessions were used for genetic identification. A total of 66 and 65 alleles were obtained in the genetic analyses of 31 plum and 28 cherry accessions, respectively. The number of alleles revealed by SSR analysis ranged from 4 to 14 alleles per locus, with a mean value of 8.25 in plum accessions, and from 5 to 10 alleles per locus with a mean value of 7.2 in cherry accessions. Only one case of synonym was identified among the cherry accessions, while no case of synonym was observed among the plum accessions. Genomic SSR markers used in discrimination of plum and cherry accessions showed high cross-species transferability in the Prunus genus. Because of their appreciable polymorphism and cross species transferability, the SSR markers that we evaluated in this study will be useful for studies involving fingerprinting of cherry and plum cultivars.

  5. Color Parameters and Total Anthocyanins of Sour Cherries (Prunus cerasus L. During Ripening

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    Sandra Pedišić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Color is very important indicator of quality of fresh fruit. It also serves for estimating the stage of maturity of fruit. Plant pigments responsible for the color of some kind of fruits are anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are the flavonoids which are present in high amounts in sour cherries. The aim of this study was to determine total anthocyanins and color parameters of sour cherries ‘Cigančica’ and ‘Keleris’ collected in Osijek and Zadar (Croatia in 2005 during ripening. Color parameters of skin and fl esh of sour cherries were determined with colorimetric CIE LAB method and total anthocyanins were determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC using UV/VIS PDA detector. Total anthocyanin was higher in sour cherries cv. Keleris grown in Zadar than in cv. Cigančica grown in Osijek during ripening although cv. Keleris is light colored genotype. Obtained results suggested that warm Mediterranean climate could have influence on high anthocyanin synthesis during ripening. Analysis of variance showed that stage of ripening did not influence total anthocyanin concentrations, but influenced almost all color parameters. Parameter H° was good indicator of color variation during ripening in both sour cherry cultivars.

  6. Electricity pylons may be potential foci for the invasion of black cherry Prunus serotina in intensive farmland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Przemysław; Sparks, Tim H.; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Electricity pylons are used by birds for nesting platforms, song posts, roosting, perching and therefore as defecation sites. Consequently we predict that pylons may facilitate the dispersal of endozoochorous plants, such as black cherry Prunus serotina, an invasive species in Europe producing fruits that are often eaten by birds. To test the influence of electricity pylons on the abundance of P. serotina in farmland in western Poland we surveyed 124 areas under pylons and 124 paired control plots within fields under power lines. P. serotina occurred under 81.5% of the investigated pylons but only in 2.4% of the control plots. The vast majority of P. serotina plants occurred under pylons (99.9% of 5820 individuals) of which only 0.7% (42 individuals), found under 12 pylons, were fruiting. The few plants in control plots were all seedlings. The density of plants was related to landscape variables; the occurrence of P. serotina was higher when pylons were situated within arable crops, had a lower level of herb cover and were closer to human settlements. These results suggest that one approach to protect semi natural or even anthropogenic landscapes from exotic and invasive species is by encouraging permanent land use involving some form of annual disturbance, such as hay cutting or ploughing.

  7. Effects of 10-GHz microwaves on hematological parameters in Swiss albino mice and their modulation by Prunus avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Rifat, Faiza; Sharma, Archana; Srivastava, Preeti; Sharma, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the modulatory role of Prunus avium fruit extract (PAE) on several blood parameters after exposure to 10-GHz microwaves. Swiss albino mice from an inbred colony were selected and divided into 3 groups. Mice in group I served as the control; they were placed in a Plexiglas cage (without energizing the system) for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Group II mice were exposed to 10-GHz microwaves for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Mice in group III received PAE (500 mg/kg/body weight) orally once daily 1 hour before exposure to 10-GHz microwaves (2 hours/day) for 30 consecutive days. After 30 days of treatment, blood samples were collected from mice in all groups and analyzed. Hemoglobin, monocytes, packed cell volume, red blood cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration declined significantly (P ≤ 0.01), whereas white blood cells, lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01) compared to the control group (group I). Cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, and lipid peroxidation also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01). Depletion in blood sugar, total protein, acid phosphatase, and glutathione levels was noted after microwave exposure compared with levels in the sham-exposed (control) mice. Histopathological alterations in blood cells also were seen. Signs of improvements in the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters were recorded in group III, where PAE was supplemented before exposure. Exposure to microwaves influences hematological parameters, which could be ameliorated by the supplementation of PAE.

  8. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult.

  9. 甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)品种S基因型鉴定%Identifying the S Genotypes of Sweet Cherry ( Prunus avium L.) Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓流; 陈学森; 束怀瑞

    2004-01-01

    根据蔷薇科S-RNase基因(S基因)高度保守区C2和RC4区设计一对特异引物PruC2和PruC4R,对甜樱桃品种的基因组DNA进行S基因特异PCR扩增.克隆S基因的扩增片段,核酸序列在GenBank上搜索,确定了4种S基因的核酸序列和大小.结果表明,在琼脂糖凝胶上位置相同的扩增带其核酸序列相同,是同一种S基因.4种S基因扩增片段的大小分别是:S1为677 bp,S3为762 bp,S4为945 bp,S6为456 bp.参试的自交不亲和品种的S基因型分别是:红灯、红艳、早红宝石和先锋相同,为S1S3;抉择、红丰和那翁相同,为S3S4;大紫为S1S6;长把红为S1S4;养老为S3S6;自交亲和品种外引7号和斯太拉为S3S4'.

  10. The S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene, SFB, is defective in self-compatible haplotypes of Prunus avium and P. mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Koichiro; Yamane, Hisayo; Watari, Akiko; Kakehi, Eiko; Ikeda, Kazuo; Hauck, Nathanael R; Iezzoni, Amy F; Tao, Ryutaro

    2004-08-01

    Many Prunus species, including sweet cherry and Japanese apricot, of the Rosaceae, display an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI). The specificity of this outcrossing mechanism is determined by a minimum of two genes that are located in a multigene complex, termed the S locus, which controls the pistil and pollen specificities. SFB, a gene located in the S locus region, encodes an F-box protein that has appropriate S haplotype-specific variation to be the pollen determinant in the self-incompatibility reaction. This study characterizes SFBs of two self-compatible (SC) haplotypes, S(4') and S(f), of Prunus. S(4') of sweet cherry is a pollen-part mutant (PPM) that was produced by X-ray irradiation, while S(f) of Japanese apricot is a naturally occurring SC haplotype that is considered to be a PPM. DNA sequence analysis revealed defects in both SFB(4') and SFB(f). A 4 bp deletion upstream from the HVa coding region of SFB(4') causes a frame-shift that produces transcripts of a defective SFB lacking the two hypervariable regions, HVa and HVb. Similarly, the presence of a 6.8 kbp insertion in the middle of the SFB(f) coding region leads to transcripts for a defective SFB lacking the C-terminal half that contains HVa and HVb. As all reported SFBs of functional S haplotypes encode intact SFB, the fact that the partial loss-of-function mutations in SFB are present in SC mutant haplotypes of Prunus provides additional evidence that SFB is the pollen S gene in GSI in Prunus.

  11. Some features of one-year-old tart Cherry shoots of cv. Sehattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Świetlik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to obtain data on the relationship between the length of 1-year-old shoots and their fruiting, and both their terminal and lateral growtn produced in the current year. The measurements were taken in 1977 and 1979 from the tart cherry trees of cv. Schattenmorelle grafted of Prunus mahaleb L. or Prunus avium L. grown in loose sandy soil. In 1977 there were more shoots of over 30 cm than in 1979. The longer the shoots, the more lateral shoots were there. Only the shortest shoots (1-10 cm bore more fruit per unit length as compared to the longer shoots.

  12. SOUR CHERRY (Prunus cerasus L. GENETIC VARIABILITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY DURING DROUGHT

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    Marija Viljevac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry is an important fruit in Croatian orchards. Cultivar Oblačinska is predominant in existing orchards with noted intracultivar phenotypic heterogeneity. In this study, the genetic variability of 22 genotypes of cvs. Oblačinska, Maraska and Cigančica, as well as standard cvs. Kelleris 14, Kelleris 16, Kereška, Rexelle and Heimann conserved were investigated. Two types of molecular markers were used: microsatellite markers (SSR in order to identify intercultivar, and AFLP in order to identify intracultivar variabilities. A set of 12 SSR markers revealed small genetic distance between cvs. Maraska and Oblačinska while cv. Cigančica is affined to cv. Oblačinska. Furthermore, cvs. Oblačinska, Cigančica and Maraska were characterized compared to standard ones. AFLP markers didn`t confirm significant intracultivar variability of cv. Oblačinska although the variability has been approved at the morphological, chemical and pomological level. Significant corelation between SSR and AFLP markers was found. Identification of sour cherry cultivars tolerant to drought will enable the sustainability of fruit production with respect to the climate change in the future. For this purpose, the tolerance of seven sour cherry genotypes (cvs. Kelleris 16, Maraska, Cigančica and Oblačinska represented by 4 genotypes: OS, 18, D6 and BOR to drought conditions was tested in order to isolate genotypes with the desired properties. In the greenhouse experiment, cherry plants were exposed to drought stress. The leaf relative water content, OJIP test parameters which specify efficiency of the photosynthetic system based on measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and concentrations of photo-synthetic pigments during the experiment were measured as markers of drought tolerance. Photosynthetic performance index (PIABS comprises three key events in the reaction centre of photosystem II affecting the photosynthetic activity: the absorption of energy

  13. High throughput sequencing reveals a novel fabavirus infecting sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, D E V; Pillai, S S; Eastwell, K C

    2017-03-01

    The genus Fabavirus currently consists of five species represented by viruses that infect a wide range of hosts but none reported from temperate climate fruit trees. A virus with genomic features resembling fabaviruses (tentatively named Prunus virus F, PrVF) was revealed by high throughput sequencing of extracts from a sweet cherry tree (Prunus avium). PrVF was subsequently shown to be graft transmissible and further identified in three other non-symptomatic Prunus spp. from different geographical locations. Two genetic variants of RNA1 and RNA2 coexisted in the same samples. RNA1 consisted of 6,165 and 6,163 nucleotides, and RNA2 consisted of 3,622 and 3,468 nucleotides.

  14. Investigating the transport dynamics of anthocyanins from unprocessed fruit and processed fruit juice from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Tomassen, Monic M M; Hall, Robert D; Mes, Jurriaan J; Beekwilder, Jules

    2013-11-27

    Anthocyanins can contribute to human health through preventing a variety of diseases. The uptake of these compounds from food and the parameters determining uptake efficiency within the human body are still poorly understood. Here we have employed a Caco-2 cell based system to investigate the transport of key antioxidant food components from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across the intestinal epithelial barrier. Anthocyanins and (-)-epicatechin were supplied in three contrasting matrices: fruit, processed fruit cherry juice, and polyphenolic fractions obtained by solid-phase extraction. Results show that both compound types behave differently. Fruit or juice matrices display comparable transport across the epithelial cell layer. The juice supplements sucrose and citric acid, which are regularly added to processed foods, have a positive effect on stability and transport. Polyphenolic fractions display a lower transport efficiency, relative to that of the fruit or juice, indicating the importance of food matrix components for intestinal absorption of polyphenols.

  15. Genetic divergence of Oblačinska sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dragan 3

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on examination of 10 important pomologic and technologic properties, genetic divergence of 10 selected Oblačinska sour cherry clones was established. The genetic divergence between the analyzed clones was determined using the hierarchical cluster analysis. The UPGA method was used and the Euclidean distance in order to determine the difference between the groups. Four similar clone groups were obtained on the dendrogram. The objective of clone differentiation was primarily yield, although other properties were taken into account as well. As the most yielded clones for the production, that can be recommended, were clone D8 or clone D4 that are genetically very similar, and clone D3.

  16. Propagation of the endangered Azorean cherry Prunus azorica using stem cuttings and air layering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOREIRA, O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus azorica (Hort. ex Mouillef. Rivas Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Dias, J.C. Costa &C. Aguiar is an endangered tree endemic to the Azores, with an ecological and ornamentalinterest. The objective of this study was to determine the conditions necessary for thesuccessful propagation of P. azorica by stem cuttings and air-layering. Stem cuttingscollected in March with two apical leaf pairs pruned to 1/3 of their leaf area were submittedto different treatments, including a basal split wound, two rooting mixtures, namely, perlite and peat (1:1 or perlite and natural soil (1:1, and dipping of the base in indole-3-butyric acid (IBA solution at four concentrations (0, 2500, 5000 or 7000 mg/L. After eight weeks 75% rooting was achieved with 75 to 88% survival, without addition of IBA and with split wound using both substrate mixtures. Air layering was conducted in June in branches of adult trees with the addition of 0, 2500 or 3000 mg/L of IBA. After 12 months 100%rooting and survival was recorded in all treatments. Our study thus indicates that P. azorica is a taxon amenable for vegetative propagation by stem cuttings and air layering withoutrequiring addition of IBA to induce rooting. Both methods should be used in order to recover natural populations, when seeds are not available or are available in reduced amounts.

  17. 欧洲甜樱桃研究进展及开发利用前景%Research Progress of Prunus avium and the Development Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰士波

    2012-01-01

    在汲取国内外相关研究成果及学术观点的基础上,详细阐述了欧洲甜樱桃的生物学和生态学特性、起源及地理分布,探讨了果实所含营养成分及其营养和医疗保健价值;分析了存量资源的保存现状、优良品种及砧木选育的研究进展;指出了资源开发利用过程中存在的不足,展望了欧洲甜樱桃系列产品综合开发和创新利用的广阔前景。旨在实现欧洲甜樱桃无公害、标准化栽培及资源的可持续利用,为推动功能性饮品、保健品及药品的产业化发展,提供理论依据和科技支撑。%This paper expounded systematically the biological and ecological characteristics of Prunus avium L.,and its the origin and geographic distribution on the basis of generalized the research production and science paper of P.avium at home and abroad in the recently years.We discussed the nutrition ingredient of P.avium and its nutrition and health function,analyzed the status quo of germplasm resources conservation,utilization and estimate,and the progress of variety breeding study.We pointed out the insufficiencies in exploitation and utilization,and expected the bright future for the development of series production of P.avium The aim was to carry out nuisanceless,standardization planting and sustainable utilization of P.avium resources,provided theory warranty and support of science and technology for promoted the industrialization development of functionality beverage,health products and material medica of P.avium.

  18. Development and evaluation of a genome-wide 6K SNP array for diploid sweet cherry and tetraploid sour cherry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Peace

    Full Text Available High-throughput genome scans are important tools for genetic studies and breeding applications. Here, a 6K SNP array for use with the Illumina Infinium® system was developed for diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium and allotetraploid sour cherry (P. cerasus. This effort was led by RosBREED, a community initiative to enable marker-assisted breeding for rosaceous crops. Next-generation sequencing in diverse breeding germplasm provided 25 billion basepairs (Gb of cherry DNA sequence from which were identified genome-wide SNPs for sweet cherry and for the two sour cherry subgenomes derived from sweet cherry (avium subgenome and P. fruticosa (fruticosa subgenome. Anchoring to the peach genome sequence, recently released by the International Peach Genome Initiative, predicted relative physical locations of the 1.9 million putative SNPs detected, preliminarily filtered to 368,943 SNPs. Further filtering was guided by results of a 144-SNP subset examined with the Illumina GoldenGate® assay on 160 accessions. A 6K Infinium® II array was designed with SNPs evenly spaced genetically across the sweet and sour cherry genomes. SNPs were developed for each sour cherry subgenome by using minor allele frequency in the sour cherry detection panel to enrich for subgenome-specific SNPs followed by targeting to either subgenome according to alleles observed in sweet cherry. The array was evaluated using panels of sweet (n = 269 and sour (n = 330 cherry breeding germplasm. Approximately one third of array SNPs were informative for each crop. A total of 1825 polymorphic SNPs were verified in sweet cherry, 13% of these originally developed for sour cherry. Allele dosage was resolved for 2058 polymorphic SNPs in sour cherry, one third of these being originally developed for sweet cherry. This publicly available genomics resource represents a significant advance in cherry genome-scanning capability that will accelerate marker-locus-trait association discovery

  19. Evaluation of ozone injury on foliage of black cherry (Prunus serotina) and tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelka, A; Renfro, J; Somers, G; Nash, B

    1997-01-01

    The incidence and severity of visible foliar ozone injury on black cherry (Prunus serotina) seedlings and saplings and tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) plants in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by surveys along selected trails conducted during late summer 1992. The incidence (% injured plants) of ozone injury on black cherry was 47% and the percent injured leaves/injured plant and average leaf area injured were 43 and 6%, respectively. Maximum severity (avg. leaf area of the most severely injured leaf) was 12%. Black cherry seedlings and saplings exhibiting ozone injury were taller than non-injured plants. When insect feeding was present, it occurred 96% of the time on plants with ozone injury. Significantly more injury (p=0.007) on black cherry (% injured leaves/injured black cherry) occurred in the NW section of GRSM compared with the other Park sections. Regression analyses showed no relationships in ozone injury with respect to aspect, slope or elevation. Tall milkweed was evaluated twice during August for ozone injury. The incidence (% injured plants) of ozone injury was 74 and 79% for the first and second survey, respectively. The percentage of injured leaves per plant from the first to second survey was 63 to 79%, respectively. Tall milkweeds showing ozone injury were taller than the non-injured plants. The percentage of insect-damaged plants was 50% among plants without ozone injury and 60% among ozone-injured plants. Non-injured tall milkweed had fewer flowers and/or pods than the injured plants. Mean leaf area injured increased over time, and mean maximum leaf area injured increased from 8 to 11% during the same period. Regression analyses showed no differences in ozone injury regarding aspect, slope or elevation. Our findings indicate that ozone injury is widespread throughout the Park on sensitive vegetation.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Prunus angustifolia Genotypes from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Mustafa; Polat, Mehmet; Ercisli, Sezai; Sorkheh, Karim

    2016-08-25

    Prunus angustifolia var. angustifolia is a deciduous shrub with 1.5-3.0 m plant height and mostly found in rural areas between 1400 and 1600 m in northeastern Turkey including Bayburt, Gumushane, and Kars provinces. The plant has multistems and well known to adapt severe winter and dry-hot summer conditions. In this study, we aimed to explore the genetic diversity within this specie and also to investigate its phylogenetic relationship with economically important the other cherry species; Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus laurocerasus, and Prunus mahaleb. A total of 50 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers used to elucidate the genetic variation among 32 P. angustifolia var. angustifolia genotypes selected from three locations (Bayburt, Gumushane, and Kars) in northeastern Turkey. The cross-species transportability of used 50 SSRs was 80 % indicating a high degree of homology between P. angustifolia and the other Prunus species. The genetic distance between P. angustifolia var. angustifolia genotypes belonging to a particular geographic site was lower than that between genotypes of different geographic origins. Cluster analysis in general differentiated P. angustifolia var. angustifolia genotypes according to their geographic sites and separated them from the other Prunus species. P. angustifolia found more closer to P. mahaleb and P. cerasus, in the subgenus Cerasus, The analysis of molecular variance revealed that genetic variation among individuals within populations was much higher than among Prunus groups and among P. angustifolia var. angustifolia populations of different geographic sites. The results indicate a substantial genetic diversity in P. angustifolia var. angustifolia and the need of exploring a wider area to increase the chance of finding a particular genotype.

  1. Breeding rootstocks for Prunus species: Advances in genetic and genomics of peach and cherry as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Guajardo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prunus rootstock is an important choice in optimizing productivity of grafted cultivars. Nevertheless, many Prunus rootstocks are notoriously intolerant to hypoxia which is caused by waterlogging and/or heavy soils. There is no available information to help select Prunus rootstocks that are tolerant to stress conditions such as root hypoxia caused by excess moisture. Information from genetic maps has demonstrated a high level of synteny among Prunus species, and this suggests that they all share a similar genomic structure. It should be possible to identify the genetic determinants involved in tolerance to hypoxia and other traits in Prunus rootstocks by applying methods to identify regions of the genome involved in the expression of important traits; these have been developed mainly in peach which is the model species for the genus. Molecular markers that are tightly linked to major genes would be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS to optimize new rootstock selection. This article provides insight on the advances in the development of molecular markers, genetic maps, and gene identification in Prunus, mainly in peach; the aim is to provide a general approach for identifying the genetic determinants of hypoxia stress in rootstocks.

  2. An assessment of Osmia rufa (syn. bicornis) as a pollinator of the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cv. Stevnsbaer in eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansted, Lise; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo;

    2014-01-01

    The sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cv. Stevnsbaer is self-fertile but it is recommended that bees are placed in the orchards during flowering. The solitary bee Osmia rufa can be managed, and has previously been suggested as an alternative pollinator to Apis mellifera, so consequently, this study....... The remaining 8 pollen types were from entomophilous plants. Based on the results it is estimated that a mean of 220,000 O. rufa cocoons would be needed per hectare if the species were to be an effective, supplementary pollinator of P. cerasus cv. Stevnsbaer. Practical, economic and environmental considerations...... suggest that the use of O. rufa as an alternative pollinator to A. mellifera in this instance is not realistic....

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Tart Cherry (Prunus cerasus) Juice on Xanthine Oxidoreductase Activity and its Hypouricemic and Antioxidant Effects on Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, F; Mohammad Shahi, M; Keshavarz, S A; Rashidi, M R

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tart cherry juice on serum uric acid levels, hepatic xanthine oxidoreductase activity and two non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress (total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde concentration), in normal and hyperuricemic rats. Tart cherry juice (5 ml/kg) was given by oral gavage to rats for 2 weeks. Allopurinol (5 mg/kg) was used as a positive control and was also given by oral gavage. Data showed that tart cherry juice treatment did not cause any significant reduction in the serum uric acid levels in normal rats, but significantly reduced (PTart cherry juice treatment also inhibited hepatic xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase activity. Moreover, a significant increase (Ptart cherry juice treated-rats in both normal and hyperuricemic groups. The oral administration of tart cherry juice also led to a significant reduction (Ptart cherry, it could not significantly change anti-oxidative parameters. These features of tart cherry make it an attractive candidate for the prophylactic treatment of hyperuricaemia, particularly if it is to be taken on a long-term basis. Further investigations to define its clinical efficacy would be highly desirable.

  4. HPLC-Q-TOF-MS identification of antioxidant and antihypertensive peptides recovered from cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) subproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María Concepción; Endermann, Jochan; González-García, Estefanía; Marina, María Luisa

    2015-02-11

    The processing of fruits, such as cherries, is characterized by generating a lot of waste material such as fruit stones, skins, etc. To contribute to environmental sustainability, it is necessary to recover these residues. Cherry stones contain seeds with a significant amount of proteins that are underused and undervalued. The aim of this work was to extract cherry seed proteins, to evaluate the presence of bioactive peptides, and to identify them by mass spectrometry. The digestion of cherry seed proteins was optimized, and three different enzymes were employed: Alcalase, Thermolysin, and Flavourzyme. Peptide extracts obtained by the digestion of the cherry seed protein isolate with Alcalase and Thermolysin yielded the highest antioxidant and antihypertensive capacities. Ultrafiltration of hydrolysates allowed obtaining fractions with high antioxidant and antihypertensive capabilities. HPLC-Q-TOF-MS together with bioinformatics tools enabled one to identify peptides in these fractions.

  5. Comparative study of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in different species of cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Xinyan; Zhong, Fei; Tian, Rongrong; Zhang, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Tianhong

    2011-05-01

    A new spectrometric method ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric with high precision and rapid analysis was developed to separate 17 phenolic compounds. Different species of cherries, including 10 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars, a tart cherry (P. cerasus L.) rootstock (CAB), and a hybrid rootstock 'Colt' (P. avium × P. pseudocerasus), were analyzed for phenolics contents by this method. The results showed that significant differences were observed among the phenolic compound contents in different cherry species. In 10 sweet cherry cultivars, the contents of neochlorogenic acid and cyanidin-3O-rutinoside were much higher in red-colored fruits (for example, 64.60 and 44.50 mg/100 g fresh weight in Burlat, respectively) than those in bicolored ones. Principal component analysis revealed that cyanidin-3O-rutinoside was an effective index for grouping the cultivars with similar species and fruit colors. Moreover, there were strong positive correlations between phenolics content and antioxidant activity, which was higher in red-colored cherries.

  6. The effect of the times and the budding methods on the quality of young trees and the nursery efficiency of cherry trees cv. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies concerning the effect of the times and the methods of budding on the growth of young cherry trees were conducted in the years 1997-2000 at Felin Experimental Farm of Lublin Agricultural University. The objects of investigations were the young cherry trees obtained as a result of budding of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. seedlings in the way by the chip budding-15th July and T-budding-on the 15th July and the 1st September. The used terms and budding methods did not affect the bud taking and the quality of cherry trees during three years studies. Chip budding of the sweet cherry on the 15th July was the most effective way of this seedling budding. Late budding-on the 1st September-did not change the efficiency of the nursery only in case of mahaleb cherry. The highest number-33 000 of the young trees, average per 1 ha was got as a result of the chip and "T" mahaleb cherry budding on the 1st September.

  7. Population structure and genetic bottleneck in sweet cherry estimated with SSRs and the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Stéphanie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestication and breeding involve the selection of particular phenotypes, limiting the genomic diversity of the population and creating a bottleneck. These effects can be precisely estimated when the location of domestication is established. Few analyses have focused on understanding the genetic consequences of domestication and breeding in fruit trees. In this study, we aimed to analyse genetic structure and changes in the diversity in sweet cherry Prunus avium L. Results Three subgroups were detected in sweet cherry, with one group of landraces genetically very close to the analysed wild cherry population. A limited number of SSR markers displayed deviations from the frequencies expected under neutrality. After the removal of these markers from the analysis, a very limited bottleneck was detected between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces, with a much more pronounced bottleneck between sweet cherry landraces and modern sweet cherry varieties. The loss of diversity between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces at the S-locus was more significant than that for microsatellites. Particularly high levels of differentiation were observed for some S-alleles. Conclusions Several domestication events may have happened in sweet cherry or/and intense gene flow from local wild cherry was probably maintained along the evolutionary history of the species. A marked bottleneck due to breeding was detected, with all markers, in the modern sweet cherry gene pool. The microsatellites did not detect the bottleneck due to domestication in the analysed sample. The vegetative propagation specific to some fruit trees may account for the differences in diversity observed at the S-locus. Our study provides insights into domestication events of cherry, however, requires confirmation on a larger sampling scheme for both sweet cherry landraces and wild cherry.

  8. Comparison of the genetic determinism of two key phenological traits, flowering and maturity dates, in three Prunus species: peach, apricot and sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlewanger, E; Quero-García, J; Le Dantec, L; Lambert, P; Ruiz, D; Dondini, L; Illa, E; Quilot-Turion, B; Audergon, J-M; Tartarini, S; Letourmy, P; Arús, P

    2012-11-01

    The present study investigates the genetic determinism of flowering and maturity dates, two traits highly affected by global climate change. Flowering and maturity dates were evaluated on five progenies from three Prunus species, peach, apricot and sweet cherry, during 3-8 years. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection was performed separately for each year and also by integrating data from all years together. High heritability estimates were obtained for flowering and maturity dates. Several QTLs for flowering and maturity dates were highly stable, detected each year of evaluation, suggesting that they were not affected by climatic variations. For flowering date, major QTLs were detected on linkage groups (LG) 4 for apricot and sweet cherry and on LG6 for peach. QTLs were identified on LG2, LG3, LG4 and LG7 for the three species. For maturity date, a major QTL was detected on LG4 in the three species. Using the peach genome sequence data, candidate genes underlying the major QTLs on LG4 and LG6 were investigated and key genes were identified. Our results provide a basis for the identification of genes involved in flowering and maturity dates that could be used to develop cultivar ideotypes adapted to future climatic conditions.

  9. Effect of Different Photoperiods on Cold Hardiness in Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z. Makaraci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have investigated the effects of different photoperiods on cold hardiness of cherry trees (Prunus avium cv. Ulster. One year old, cherry trees were exposed 8 hours of day length and 16 hours of dark period for short day conditions and 16 hours of light and 8 hours of dark period for long day conditions. We also compared the acclimatization pattern of cherry trees with hybrid aspen (Populus tremula ×Populus tremuloides trees. LT50 values indicated that short day and long day conditions did not alter the cold hardiness of cherry trees. Under the same experimental conditions hybrid aspen trees were affected from different photoperiods. Aspen trees exposed to short day conditions were hardier than the trees exposed to long day conditions. We also investigated the acclimatization the patterns of basal and apical parts of the branches both in cherry and aspen trees. There were no significant differences in cold hardiness of the basal and apical parts of the branches in aspen and cherry trees.

  10. Chitosan acetate as an active coating material and its effects on the storing of Prunus avium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qi Feng; Yan, Jing Quan; Li, Yan; Cheng, Xiao Jie; Liu, Cheng Sheng; Chen, Xi Guang

    2010-03-01

    In this article, chitosan acetate (CA) was prepared by the method of solid-liquid reaction. CA was a stable faint yellow powder with water solubility. CA kept the same backbone in the chemical structure as the raw material of chitosan, and it also had the similar antibacterial properties with chitosan. CA could form a coating film on the outside surface of the sweet cherries, could effectively retard the loss of the water, titratable acidity, and ascorbic acid of sweet cherries, and could induce a significant increase in the peroxidase and catalase activities in the fruit. The CA coating could also increase the ratio of the total soluble solids and titratable acidity in the fruit. The application of CA effectively maintained quality attributes and extended postharvest life of the sweet cherries. The results revealed that the CA salts had potential application in active edible coating materials in the storage of fresh fruit.

  11. Simple sequence repeat-based assessment of genetic relationships among Prunus rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, Z; Bilgener, S; Ercisli, S; Bakir, M; Koc, A; Akbulut, M; Gercekcioglu, R; Gunes, M; Esitken, A

    2010-11-03

    Ten SSR loci, previously developed for Prunus, were analyzed to examine genetic relationships among 23 rootstock candidates for sweet and sour cherries, of the species P. avium, P. cerasus, P. mahaleb, and P. angustifolia. Five genotypes of P. laurocerasus, not used as rootstock, were included in the molecular analysis. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 12, with a mean of 9, while the number of microsatellite genotypes varied from 8 to 17, indicating that the SSRs were highly informative. The degree of heterozygosity (0.61) was high. Clustering analysis resulted in two main clusters. The first cluster was divided into two subclusters; the first subcluster consisted of P. avium and P. cerasus, and the second subcluster consisted of P. laurocerasus. The second cluster was divided into two subclusters. The first subcluster consisted of P. mahaleb genotypes and the second consisted of P. angustifolia genotypes. The reference rootstocks also clustered with their associated botanical species. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean analysis demonstrated that P. laurocerasus genotypes had less genetic variation and that P. avium genotypes were more closely related to P. cerasus. The SSR-based phylogeny was generally consistent with Prunus taxonomy information, suggesting the applicability of SSR analysis for genotyping and phylogenetic studies in the genus Prunus.

  12. 甜樱桃胚培养研究%Embryo Culture of Sweet Cherry( Prunus avium L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱华; 戴洪义; 于士梅

    2003-01-01

    对甜樱桃品种"拉宾斯"和"斯特拉"种胚的离体培养进行了研究.基本培养基为1/2MS,蔗糖浓度为3%.结果表明,甜樱桃胚培养的最佳取样时期为盛花后45d(PF1=0.9).60和80d的低温(2~4℃)处理对于打破胚休眠效果较好.在不进行低温处理的条件下,GA3(15mg/L)对打破带种皮和不带种皮胚的休眠有作用,GA3(10mg/L,5mg/L)与BA(2mg/L,4mg/L)同时使用对打破胚的休眠更为有效.在去种皮的条件下,GA3和BA打破胚休眠的作用更为明显.

  13. Storage affects the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of cherries (Prunus avium L) on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves, B.; Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Let, Mette Bruni;

    2004-01-01

    -performance liquid chromatography. Hydroxycinnamates dominated in all samples and represented 60-74% by weight of the phenols in the fresh and stored samples of the cvs Saco, Summit and Van, and 45% by weight of the phenols in the cv Burlat samples, which were richer in anthocyanins. The relative and total levels...... of hydroxycinnamates, anthocyanins, flavonols and flavan-3-ols varied among cultivars and during storage. Storage at 15degreesC increased the phenol levels, particularly the cyanidin-3-rutinoside concentration. Cold storage induced decreased total phenol levels in the cvs Summit and Van but increased total phenol...

  14. 甜樱桃组培苗的生根研究%Research on tissue culture rooting of Prunus avium L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小环; 彭向永; 李青; 张开春

    2004-01-01

    研究了基本培养基(1/2 WPM,1/2 F14,1/2 MS)、培养方式(液体培养、根部黑暗、两步生根法)和生长素浓度对甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)品系"6-7"组培苗生根的作用效果.结果表明,1/2 F14为最适基本培养基;液体培养对组培苗的生根有很大的促进作用,根部黑暗条件培养次之,两步生根法作用不明显;生长素质量浓度配比以IBA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 1.0 mg/L效果最好,生根率可达89.7%.据此认为,要提高组培生根困难的木本植物的有效生根率,以岩棉为支撑物的液体培养是一项有效措施.

  15. A collection of European sweet cherry phenology data for assessing climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenden, Bénédicte; Campoy, José Antonio; Lecourt, Julien; López Ortega, Gregorio; Blanke, Michael; Radičević, Sanja; Schüller, Elisabeth; Spornberger, Andreas; Christen, Danilo; Magein, Hugo; Giovannini, Daniela; Campillo, Carlos; Malchev, Svetoslav; Peris, José Miguel; Meland, Mekjell; Stehr, Rolf; Charlot, Gérard; Quero-García, José

    2016-12-01

    Professional and scientific networks built around the production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) led to the collection of phenology data for a wide range of cultivars grown in experimental sites characterized by highly contrasted climatic conditions. We present a dataset of flowering and maturity dates, recorded each year for one tree when available, or the average of several trees for each cultivar, over a period of 37 years (1978-2015). Such a dataset is extremely valuable for characterizing the phenological response to climate change, and the plasticity of the different cultivars' behaviour under different environmental conditions. In addition, this dataset will support the development of predictive models for sweet cherry phenology exploitable at the continental scale, and will help anticipate breeding strategies in order to maintain and improve sweet cherry production in Europe.

  16. Cracking in sweet cherries: A comprehensive review from a physiological, molecular, and genomic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Balbontín

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rain-induced cracking in fruits of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is a problem in most producing areas of the world and causes significant economic losses. Different orchard management practices have been employed to reduce the severity of this problem, although a complete solution is not yet available. Fruit cracking is a complex phenomenon and there are many factors that seem to be involved in its development. During the last decade, genomic and biochemical approaches have provided new insights on the different mechanisms that could be involved in the differential susceptibility shown by commercial cultivars. For instance, sweet cherry genome and transcriptome sequencing information have provided new opportunities to study the expression and structure of genes involved in cracking, which may help in the development of new tolerant cultivars. The present review summarizes, discuss, and integrate most of the recently generated information in cultural practices, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics in relation to cracking in sweet cherries.

  17. Main viruses in sweet cherry plantations of Central-Western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez Sánchez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium L. are susceptible to a range of diseases, but there have been no studies to date about the viral infection of sweet cherry trees in Spain. To determine the phytosanitary status of Spanish sweet cherry plantations, the incidence and leaf symptoms induced by Prune dwarf (PDV, Prunus necrotic ringspot (PNRSV and Apple chlorotic leaf spot (ACLSV viruses were investigated during 2009. Young leaf samples were taken from 350 sweet cherry trees, corresponding to 17 cultivars, and were analysed by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. To associate the leaf symptoms with the virus, 50 mature leaves from each infected tree were visually inspected during the summer. The ELISA results revealed that 72 % of sweet cherry trees were infected by at least one of the viruses. PDV occurred in all sampled cultivars and presented the highest infection rate, followed by ACLSV and PNRSV. A high number of trees showed asymptomatic, in both single and mixed infections. The leaf symptoms associated with the viruses involved generalized chlorosis around the midvein (PDV, chlorotic and dark brown necrotic ringspots on both secondary veins and intervein regions (PNRSV, chlorotic and reddish necrotic ringspots (ACLSV and generalized interveinal chlorosis (PDV-PNRSV.

  18. Chemical characterisation and bioactive properties of Prunus avium L.: the widely studied fruits and the unexplored stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Claudete; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this study was to characterise sweet cherry regarding nutritional composition of the fruits, and individual phytochemicals and bioactive properties of fruits and stems. The chromatographic profiles in sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds were established. All the preparations (extracts, infusions and decoctions) obtained using stems revealed higher antioxidant potential than the fruits extract, which is certainly related with its higher phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and flavonoids) concentration. The fruits extract was the only one showing antitumor potential, revealing selectivity against HCT-15 (colon carcinoma) (GI50∼74 μg/mL). This could be related with anthocyanins that were only found in fruits and not in stems. None of the preparations have shown hepatotoxicity against normal primary cells. Overall, this study reports innovative results regarding chemical and bioactive properties of sweet cherry stems, and confirmed the nutritional and antioxidant characteristics of their fruits.

  19. 中国甜樱桃病毒病及其检测技术研究进展%Advances in Sweet Cherry Viruses and Detection Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文文; 宗晓娟; 陈立伟; 王甲威; 魏海蓉; 徐丽; 严雪瑞; 刘庆忠

    2012-01-01

    综述了近年来中国对甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)病毒病及其检测技术的相关报道,介绍了中国甜樱桃上常见病毒的种类、危害及特性,主要包括:李属坏死环斑病毒(PNRSV)、李矮缩病毒(PDV)、苹果褪绿叶斑病毒(ACLSV)、樱桃锉叶病毒(CRLV)、樱桃病毒A(CVA)、樱桃绿环斑驳病毒(CGRMV)、樱桃小果病毒(LChV);阐述了甜樱桃病毒检测中所用的方法、技术,包括指示植物法(生物学鉴定法)、电子显微镜技术、血清学方法、分子生物学技术方法等.%The recent virus disease research on sweet cherry in China was reviewed, the species of the main sweet cherry viruses identified and the characteristics of these viruses were introduced. These viruses included Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, Prunus dwarf virus, Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, Cherry rasp leaf virus, Cherry virus A, Cherry green ring mottle virus,Little cherry virus. The detection technologies were also described, including indicator plant,electron microscopy,sero-logical method and molecular biological techniques.

  20. Polyphenolic extracts of cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves as natural preservatives in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyzowska, Agata; Efenberger, Magdalena; Krala, Lucjan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using polyphenolic extracts from cherry and blackcurrant leaves as natural antimicrobial agents in meat products. The polyphenolic composition of the extracts was analyzed and their impact on the microbial quality, lipid oxidation, color, and sensory evaluation of pork sausages was studied. Polyphenolic extracts were obtained from leaves collected in September. The total polyphenolic content in sour cherry leaf extract was 1.5 times higher than that found in blackcurrant leaf extract. Analysis of the polyphenol profile of each extract revealed two major groups: phenolic acids and flavonoids, including epigallocatechin and glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. After chilling the sausages for 14 and 28 days, the extracts caused significantly lower MDA generation, indicating an antioxidant effect. Color changes after 28 days of storage were perceptible in the case of all treatments, with and without polyphenols. The application of sour cherry and black currant leaf extracts increased the shelf life of vacuum-packed sausages. Both extracts enhanced the microbial quality of the pork sausages over 14 days of refrigerated storage. Sour cherry leaf polyphenols were more effective against almost all studied groups of microorganisms.

  1. Chilling and Host Plant/Site-Associated Eclosion Times of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a Host-Specific Parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Hood, Glen R; Forbes, Andrew A; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an endemic herbivore of bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ∼100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of adult R. indifferens from sweet and bitter cherry differ according to the phenology of their respective host plants and if eclosion times of the host-specific parasitoid Diachasma muliebre (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking bitter and sweet cherry flies differ according to the eclosion phenology of their fly hosts. Fly pupae from sweet and bitter cherry fruit were collected from sympatric and allopatric sites in Washington state, and chilled at 5°C. Because timing of eclosion in R. indifferens depends on chill duration, eclosion time in wasps could also vary with chill duration. To account for this, fly pupae were chilled for 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, or 8 mo. Both flies and wasps eclosed earlier with longer chill durations. Eclosion times of sweet and bitter cherry flies from a sympatric site in central Washington did not differ. However, at allopatric sites in northwestern and central Washington, bitter cherry flies eclosed later than sweet and bitter cherry flies at the sympatric site. Correspondingly, D. muliebre parasitizing a more isolated bitter cherry fly population eclosed later than D. muliebre parasitizing earlier-emerging sweet and bitter cherry fly populations. These results provide evidence for D. muliebre rapidly responding to changes in host plant shifts by R. indifferens.

  2. Effects of invasive European bird cherry (Prunus padus) on leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredder communities in urban Alaskan streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.

    2014-01-01

    European bird cherry (Prunus padus) (EBC) is an invasive ornamental tree that is spreading rapidly in riparian forests of urban Alaska. To determine how the spread of EBC affects leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredders, we conducted complementary leaf pack experiments in two streams located in Anchorage, Alaska. The first experiment contrasted invasive EBC with three native tree species—thin-leaf alder (Alnus tenuifolia), paper birch (Betula neoalaskana), and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)—in one reach of Chester Creek; finding that EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than birch and cottonwood, but at a similar rate to alder. The second experiment contrasted EBC with alder in four reaches of Campbell and Chester creeks; finding that while EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than alder in Chester Creek, EBC broke down at a similar rate to alder in Campbell Creek. Although EBC sometimes supported fewer shredders by both count and mass, shredder communities did not differ significantly between EBC and native plants. Collectively, these data suggest that invasive EBC is not currently exhibiting strong negative impacts on leaf litter processing in these streams, but could if it continues to spread and further displaces native species over time.

  3. Anthocyanin composition, antioxidant efficiency, and α-amylase inhibitor activity of different Hungarian sour cherry varieties (Prunus cerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homoki, Judit R; Nemes, Andrea; Fazekas, Erika; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Balogh, Péter; Gál, Ferenc; Al-Asri, Jamil; Mortier, Jérémie; Wolber, Gerhard; Babinszky, László; Remenyik, Judit

    2016-03-01

    Five Hungarian sour cherry cultivars were studied to determine their anthocyanin contents and their possible inhibitory properties. The water and methanol soluble antioxidant capacities were separately assessed by photoluminescence showing values ranged from 3.4μgmg(-1) to 15.4μgmg(-1), respectively. The "VN1" variety (selected from "Csengődi csokros") showed the highest antioxidant capacity. The anthocyanin content, measured by pH differential method or isolated by solid phase extraction, was the highest also in "VN1". Correlation was found between the anthocyanin content and the high antioxidant capacity. The main anthocyanin components were cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. The presence of malvidin-3,5-O-diglycoside was verified by MALDI-TOF MS. Sour cherry extracts and selected anthocyanins inhibited the human salivary alpha-amylase catalyzed hydrolysis competitively. The lowest IC50 value, 55μgmL(-1) or 80μM, was measured for malvidin-3,5-O-diglycoside, for which possible binding modes within the alpha-amylase active site could be investigated in silico using molecular docking and molecular dynamics.

  4. Construction and comparative analyses of highly dense linkage maps of two sweet cherry intra-specific progenies of commercial cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Klagges

    Full Text Available Despite the agronomical importance and high synteny with other Prunus species, breeding improvements for cherry have been slow compared to other temperate fruits, such as apple or peach. However, the recent release of the peach genome v1.0 by the International Peach Genome Initiative and the sequencing of cherry accessions to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs provide an excellent basis for the advancement of cherry genetic and genomic studies. The availability of dense genetic linkage maps in phenotyped segregating progenies would be a valuable tool for breeders and geneticists. Using two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. intra-specific progenies derived from crosses between 'Black Tartarian' × 'Kordia' (BT×K and 'Regina' × 'Lapins'(R×L, high-density genetic maps of the four parental lines and the two segregating populations were constructed. For BT×K and R×L, 89 and 121 F(1 plants were used for linkage mapping, respectively. A total of 5,696 SNP markers were tested in each progeny. As a result of these analyses, 723 and 687 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups (LGs in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The resulting maps spanned 752.9 and 639.9 cM with an average distance of 1.1 and 0.9 cM between adjacent markers in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The maps displayed high synteny and co-linearity between each other, with the Prunus bin map, and with the peach genome v1.0 for all eight LGs (LG1-LG8. These maps provide a useful tool for investigating traits of interest in sweet cherry and represent a qualitative advance in the understanding of the cherry genome and its synteny with other members of the Rosaceae family.

  5. 上海地区栽培甜樱桃光合特性研究%Study on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Prunus avium L. in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勃; 蔚玉红; 刘庆忠

    2010-01-01

    [目的]研究上海地区栽培甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)的光合特性.[方法]对上海地区栽植的拉宾斯、先锋、萨米脱和布鲁克斯4个甜樱桃品种的光合特性进行研究.[结果]布鲁克斯和萨米脱的叶绿素含量高于拉宾斯和先锋,但4个甜樱桃品种叶片中叶绿素含量与光合速率(Pn)不存在正相关关系.拉宾斯和先锋的气孔密度明显大于布鲁克斯和萨米脱,气孔纵径和横径却较相对小.4个甜樱桃品种的饱和光强都在800 μmol/(m2·s)附近,拉宾斯的光饱和光合速率最高,为11.7 μmol/(m2·s),光合能力最强.布鲁克斯存在一定程度的光抑制现象,与其他品种相比,表现出了一定的阴生植物的倾向,能较充分地利用弱光,而且利用低浓度CO2的能力仅次于拉宾斯,比较适合在光照较差的设施内或者南方地区栽培.[结论]该研究可为上海等长江以南地区甜樱桃的引种和优质高效栽培提供理论支持.

  6. Characterization of cuticle composition after cold storage of "Celeste" and "Somerset" sweet cherry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Burcu; Llovera, Montserrat; Comabella, Eva; Gatius, Ferran; Guillén, Pere; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2014-08-27

    Cuticle composition and structure may be relevant factors affecting the storage potential of fruits, but very few studies have analyzed fruit cuticle composition from a postharvest perspective. In this work, the chemical composition of waxes and cutin (major cuticular components) was analyzed in cuticle samples isolated from "Celeste" and "Somerset" cherries (Prunus avium L.) after cold storage at 0 °C. Total cuticle amounts per surface unit (μg cm(-2)) increased along with cold storage. The triterpene ursolic acid, the alkane nonacosane, linoleic acid, and β-sitosterol were the most abundant components of cuticular waxes, whereas cutin composition was dominated by C18-type monomers. In spite of being comprised of similar chemical families, cultivar-related differences were found regarding the abundance and the evolution of some compound families during cold storage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on changes in cuticle composition of sweet cherry during postharvest storage.

  7. Montmorency Tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) modulate vascular function acutely, in the absence of improvement in cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, K M; Haskell-Ramsay, C F; Veasey, R C; Howatson, G

    2016-12-01

    Cerebral blood volume and metabolism of oxygen decline as part of human ageing, and this has been previously shown to be related to cognitive decline. There is some evidence to suggest that polyphenol-rich foods can play an important role in delaying the onset or halting the progression of age-related health disorders such as CVD and Alzheimer's disease and to improve cognitive function. In the present study, an acute, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over, randomised Latin-square design study with a washout period of at least 14 d was conducted on twenty-seven, middle-aged (defined as 45-60 years) volunteers. Participants received either a 60 ml dose of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC), which contained 68·0 (sd 0·26) mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/l, 160·75 (sd 0·55) mean gallic acid equivalent/l and 0·59 (sd 0·02) mean Trolox equivalent/l, respectively, or a placebo. Cerebrovascular responses, cognitive performance and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and 1, 2, 3 and 5 h following consumption. There were significant differences in concentrations of total Hb and oxygenated Hb during the task period 1 h after MC consumption (P≤0·05). Furthermore, MC consumption significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (P≤0·05) over a period of 3 h, with peak reductions of 6±2 mmHg at 1 h after MC consumption relative to the placebo. Cognitive function and mood were not affected. These results show that a single dose of MC concentrate can modulate certain variables of vascular function; however, this does not translate to improvements in cognition or mood.

  8. 甜樱桃果实MAP试验和不同部位呼吸强度变化规律研究%MAP Experiment and Variation of Respiratory Intensity of Different Parts of Fruit in Prunus avium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志华; 王文辉; 佟伟; 张志云; 贾晓辉; 姜云斌

    2009-01-01

    @@ 甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)又名大樱桃,果实色泽艳丽、风味鲜美,成熟时正值夏季高温季节,易失水、褐变、腐烂,风味品质下降较快,耐贮性差,常温下只能放3~5 d,极大地限制了樱桃的异地销售,而且成熟期集中,造成旺季吃不完、淡季吃不着.自发气调包装(简称MAP)作为一种投资小,使用方便的贮藏技术,广泛应用于果蔬贮运保鲜中.

  9. The relationship between the anthocyanin and vitamin C contents of red-fleshed sweet cherries and the ability of fruit digests to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sze Ying; Burritt, David J; Hocquel, Alice; Penberthy, Ari; Oey, Indrawati

    2017-07-15

    The present work investigated the bioprotective capacities of red-fleshed sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium; Lapins, Stella, Sweetheart and Staccato), with distinct differences in anthocyanins and vitamin C contents, on human intestinal Caco-2 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress. Three assays of cell health, the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide cell viability assay, the lactate dehydrogenase membrane leakage assay and nitric oxide production, were used to determine if these cherry digests differed in their ability to protect Caco-2 cells from H2O2. Cells treated with digests from cherries identified as containing high anthocyanins provided the greatest protection against H2O2. A strong linear correlation (-0.82stress than vitamin C.

  10. Implication of abscisic acid on ripening and quality in sweet cherries: differential effects during pre- and postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica eTijero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during postharvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4ºC and 23ºC during 10d of postharvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during postharvest at 23ºC. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during preharvest, but not during postharvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during preharvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed.

  11. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed. PMID:27200070

  12. Quality of sour cherry juice of different clones and cultivars (Prunus cerasus L.) determined by a combined sensory and NMR spectroscopic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.;

    2011-01-01

    Juice was manufactured from seven different sour cherry clones/cultivars and evaluated by quantitative descriptive sensory analysis and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The sensory evaluation showed a large variation in several sensory attributes between the sour cherry clones/cultivars, which could be divided...... quality of different sour cherry clones. In addition, malic acid was the most important metabolite for modeling the two highly correlated sensory attributes sweetness and sourness, whereas the glucose content had a slight effect and the fructose content had no impact on sweetness/sourness. Other...

  13. Genetic Diversity of Some Sweet Cherry Cultivars Based on Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Virginia Berindean

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., originated around the Caspian and Black Sea, is an important fruit tree species of economic interest, and hence, breeding and conservation are requested (. Genetic analysis at the molecular level can be used effectively to study molecular polymorphism existing between intraspecific and interspecific tree species and phylogenetic relationships between them and their hybrids. The purpose of this study was to characterize and determine genetic relationships among the sweet cherry native genotypes belonging to Fruit Research & Development Station Bistrita, Romania, using RAPD markers. To eliminate the existence of possible synonyms from national romanian collection, we collect four Van cultivars, from four different national collection. For molecular analysis of the 16 varieties of sweet cherry were considered 13 RAPD primers selected from the literature. They were later used to determine the genetic variability at the molecular level using PAST program, and the dendrogram was generated based on Jaccard’s genetic distance. The dendrogram constructed by PAST software. The quantity and quality of the DNA obtained was suitable to achieve PCR amplification step. Only seven out of the 13 RAPD primers have generate polymorphic bands. The rest of seven were monomorphics. The most polymorphic primer was OPB10 which generated 11 bands from which 100% were polymorphic.Seven RAPD primers generated a high level of polymorphism which allowed to divide these cherry varieties into two groups according to their genetic geographical origin and the pedigree.

  14. Energy and economic analysis of sweet cherry production in Turkey: A case study from Isparta province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demircan, Vecdi [Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta 32260 (Turkey); Ekinci, Kamil [Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta 32260 (Turkey)]. E-mail: kekinci@ziraat.sdu.edu.tr; Keener, Harold M. [Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, Ohio Agricultural Research Centre, The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio 44691 (United States); Akbolat, Davut [Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta 32260 (Turkey); Ekinci, Caglar [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Infrastructure and Environment Department, Bauhaus University (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    A survey was conducted using a face to face questionnaire with 92 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) producers from 10 villages in five districts of the Isparta province where there is intensive sweet cherry production. The data collected was analyzed for the energy and economics of sweet cherry production. The results showed that the most energy consuming input for the different operations investigated was chemical fertilisers (45.35%), especially nitrogen (38.05%). The energy consumption for Diesel fuel was 21.53% of the total energy input. Although chemicals for plant protection had a small portion (1.45%) of the total energy input, the use of pesticide in sweet cherry production per hectare in the Isparta province was 5.36 times higher than that of Turkey's average, increasing the environmental risk problem. The energy use efficiency, defined as energy produced per unit of energy used, was 1.23. The specific energy of sweet cherry production was determined to be 3163.43 MJ tonnes{sup -1}. It was found that the direct and indirect energy inputs were 34.48% and 54.91% of the total energy input, respectively. Among the inputs, renewable energy sources constituted 16.34% of the total energy input, which was lower than that of the non-renewable resources (chemical fertilisers and Diesel fuel). The results showed that the net return from sweet cherry production in the surveyed farms was satisfactory, as demonstrated by the benefit-cost ratio of 2.53 calculated by dividing the gross value of production by the total cost of production per hectare.

  15. 甜樱桃李矮缩病毒(PDV) RT-PCR检测方法的优化与应用%Optimization and application of Prunus dwarf virus (PDV) detection by RT-PCR in sweet cherry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文文; 刘庆忠; 宗晓娟; 陈立伟; 王甲威; 魏海蓉; 徐丽; 严雪瑞

    2012-01-01

    以甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)品种红灯的叶片为材料,提取总RNA,选用随机六聚体引物进行反转录合成cDNA,根据李矮缩病毒外壳蛋白基因设计2对特异引物,分别从感病样品中扩增出与预期片段大小相符的目的片段.通过对RT-PCR反应体系中引物、模板浓度和退火温度的优化,改进了现有的李矮缩病毒的RT-PCR检测方法,并成功用于山东泰安地区甜樱桃果园的病毒调查.另外,还可以扩增18 sRNA,实现对李矮缩病毒外壳蛋白基因表达的相对定量分析.

  16. 大樱桃丰产栽培技术%High-yield Horticultural Techniques for Sweet Cherry Prunus avium cv. Dayingtao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕平会; 李淑琴

    2001-01-01

    @@ 大樱桃是北方落时果树中成熟最早的树种.春末夏初正当果品市场鲜果缺乏之际,大樱桃首先供应市场,弥补了早期果品市场的空缺,1998年西安市场最高售价为每公斤32元.樱桃果实发育期很短,从开花到果实成熟仅需50~60天,其间很少打药或不打药,是真正的"绿色食品".樱桃的果实除供鲜食之外,还可加工成樱桃汁、酒、酱等20多种加工品,产品供不应求.山东省滕州市羊庄乡大西庄村栽植的13亩10年生甜樱桃园,1996年总产6000多kg,平均价格每公斤40多元,总收入达20多万元.因此,因地制宜发展大樱桃生产,对于脱贫致富具有重要意义,笔者结合我省大樱桃发展现状,就以后生产发展提出应注意的几个问题.

  17. 甜樱桃S等位基因与育种%S alleles of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) and breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王关林; 李晓燕; 王家庆

    2007-01-01

    樱桃为蔷薇科李属植物,属配子体自交不亲和系统.该属植物其S基因在雌蕊中特异表达的蛋白产物S-RNase, 能够降解同一品种花粉管中的RNA, 抑制自体花粉的受精作用.S等位基因的结构在基因水平上都具有3个外显子和2个内含子,在蛋白水平上有5个高度保守区.S等位基因在雌蕊和花粉中的表达具有时间和组织特异性,并且受植物生长发育时期的调控,这种特异性的自交不亲和反应由多态的S位点单模型决定.分子系统发育树显示甜樱桃S等位基因聚为三类.S等位基因在樱桃各品种间配置授粉树和亲本育种的选配方面起重要作用.

  18. Competitive interaction between two functional S-haplotypes confer self-compatibility on tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl. CV. Nanjing Chuisi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S-X; Wu, H-Q; Li, Y-R; Wu, J; Zhang, S-J; Heng, W; Zhang, S-L

    2008-06-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) has been studied extensively at the molecular level in Solanaceae, Rosaceae and Scrophulariaceae, all of which exhibit gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI). In the present study, four PpsS-haplotypes (Prunus pseudocerasus S-haplotypes) comprising at least two genes, i.e., PpsS-RNase (P. pseudocerasus S-RNase) and PpsSFB (P. pseudocerasus S-haplotype-specific F-box) have been successfully isolated in tetraploid P. pseudocerasus Lindl. CV. Nanjing Chuisi ("NC") which exhibited self-compatibility (SC), and its S-genotype was determined as S-1/S-3'/S-5/S-7. These PpsS-RNases, which were expressed exclusively in style, shared the typical structural features with S-RNases from other Prunus species exhibiting GSI. All PpsSFBs showed similar structure characteristics of SFBs from other Prunus species, and matched with the necessary conditions for pollen S-determinant. No mutations leading to dysfunction of S-haplotype were found in their full-length c-DNA sequences, except for PpsS-3'-haplotype which was not amplified by PCR. These four S-haplotypes complied with tetrasomic inheritance. Diploid pollen grains with S-genotypes S-7/S-1, S-7/S-5 and S-1/S-5 can grow the full length of the style after self-pollination, while pollen grains with S-3'/S-7, S-3'/S-1 and S-3'/S-5 cannot. These results suggest that PpsS-haplotypes-1, -5 and -7 are functional, and that competitive interaction between two of them confer self-compatibility on cultivar "NC". Furthermore, in terms of recognition specificity, diploid pollen grains carrying PpsS-3'-haplotype are equal to monoploid pollen grains carrying the other functional S-haplotype.

  19. Effects of alginate edible coating on quality and antioxidant properties in sweet cherry during postharvest storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chiabrando

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cultivars (“Big Lory” and “Grace Star”, were treated with 1%, 3% and 5% sodium alginate as an edible coating before storage. Analytical determinations were made after 7, 14 and 21 days of storage at 4°C. Cherries were analyzed for the following quality parameters: firmness, weight loss, titratable acidity, soluble solid content, external color, anthocyanin content, phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity. Alginate treatment at 3% delayed changes in most of the ripening parameters, weight and acidity losses, softening and color changes. However, the soluble solids content was not affected by the alginate fruit coating. In terms of the antioxidant properties, no significant results were obtained with the use of the alginate coating. The results of this study suggest that alginate treatments at 1% and 3% could be used as natural postharvest treatments in cherry cultivars with the aim of delaying the postharvest ripening process and maintaining fruit quality.

  20. Observations of ozone-induced foliar injury on black cherry (Prunus serotina, var. capuli) within the Desierto de Los Leones National Park, Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, J M; Savage, J E; de Bauer, M de L; Alvarado, D

    1997-01-01

    A survey for ozone-induced foliar injury of black cherry was conducted in mid-June 1995 within the Desierto de Los Leones National Park located southwest of Mexico City. Evaluations of the upper and lower tree crowns of 18 trees revealed evidence of significant upper surface stipple, leaf reddening and premature senescence on 72% of the trees. A general survey of an additional 169 trees disclosed that 41% exhibited similar symptoms. A gradient of increasing symptoms with increasing elevation was also evident. For the most part, asymptomatic trees were observed to be situated within well-shaded coves at the lower elevations with very few symptomatic trees present in these areas.

  1. Influence des facteurs climatiques sur la phénologie de Merisier (Prunus avium au Nord-Ouest de la Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouri JDAIDI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The phenology of five populations of wild cherry in the northwest of Tunisia was studied over the period 2010-2014. The phenological events studied are leafing, blooming and fruiting. The appearance of leaves is significantly correlated with the increase of rain, coupled with the rise of temperature during the months of March and April. The peak of blooming took place once a year: at the end of April-beginning of May at Ain Draham and in the middle of April at Tabarka. The fruiting is plentiful when the average rain of the months in June, July and August increases in the forest of Ain Draham. The climatic variability could compromise the survival of plants of the northwest of Tunisia.

  2. The effect of foliar fertilization on growth and yield of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cv. Łutówka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Wociór

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study, carried out in the period 2007-2009 in the Sandomierz Upland, did not show a significant effect of foliar fertilization on trunk thickness and canopy volume in the cultivar Łutówka. However, under the influence of urea applied three times in combination with Florovit at a concentration of 0.5%, a clear increasing trend was observed in the above mentioned parameters used to assess the strength of growth. In years of abundant fruiting, this study showed a significant increase, or on the verge of significance, in yield after threefold application of urea and Florovit in combination. A small insignificant effect of fertilization on fruit weight shows that the growth in yield after the application of fertilization was produced as a consequential effect of a significant increase in the length of one-year shoots and thereby in flowering intensity of the 'Łutówka' cherry trees. In the case of the sour cherry cultivar Łutówka bearing fruit on one-year shoots, foliar feeding after flowering using multi-nutrient fertilizers and urea can be recommended as a technological treatment, in particular in years of abundant fruiting.

  3. Prunus transcription factors: Breeding perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor João Bianchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs. In peach, 1,533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome.

  4. Absolute quantification of Pru av 2 in sweet cherry fruit by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with the use of a stable isotope-labelled peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Sasanuma, Motoe; Oike, Hideaki; Kobori, Masuko; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari

    2016-08-01

    Pru av 2, a pathogenesis-related (PR) protein present in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit, is the principal allergen of cherry and one of the chief causes of pollen food syndrome (oral allergy syndrome). In this study, a quantitative assay for this protein was developed with the use of the protein absolute quantification (AQUA) method, which consists of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) employing TGC[CAM]STDASGK[(13)C6,(15)N2], a stable isotope-labelled internal standard (SIIS) peptide. This assay gave a linear relationship (r(2)>0.99) in a concentration range (2.3-600fmol/μL), and the overall coefficient of variation (CV) for multiple tests was 14.6%. Thus, the contents of this allergenic protein in sweet cherry products could be determined using this assay. This assay should be valuable for allergological investigations of Pru av 2 in sweet cherry and detection of protein contamination in foods.

  5. Dehydrogenase isoenzyme polymorphism in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolić Slavica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrogenase polymorphism was studied in 36 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., sweet cherry (Prunus avuim L., mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L., ground cherry (Prunus fruticosa Pall., duke cherry (Prunus gondounii Redh., Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. and four iterspecific hybrids (standard cherry rootstocks ‘Gisela 5’, ‘Gisela 6’, ‘Max Ma’ and ‘Colt’. Inner bark of one-year-old shoots, in dormant stage, was used for enzyme extraction. Vertical PAGE was used for isoenzyme analysis: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, formate dehydrogenase (FDH, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, isocitrate dehydrogenaze (IDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH. All studied systems were polymorphic at 10 loci: Adh -1 (3 genotypes and Adh-2 (5 genotypes, Fdh-1 (2 genotypes, Gdh-1 (3 genotypes, Idh-1 (4 genotypes i Idh -2 (5 genotypes, Mdh-1 (3 genotypes, Pgd-1 (4 genotypes, Sdh-1 (1 genotype i Sdh-2 (3 genotypes. Cluster analysis was used to construct dendrogram on which four groups of similar genotypes were separated. Obtained results indicate that studied enzyme systems can be used for determination of genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus. Among studied enzyme systems ADH, IDH and SDH were the most polymorphic and most useful to identify genetic variability. Polymorphism of FDH and GDH in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus was described first time in this work. First results for dehydrogenase variability of Oblačinska indicate that polymorphism of loci Idh-2 and Sdh-2 can be useful for discrimination of different clones.

  6. Role of Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in the Vasodilator Effect of Ursolic Acid and Uvaol from Black Cherry Prunus serotina Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Romo-Mancillas, Antonio; López-Vallejo, Fabián H; Solís-Gutiérrez, Mariana; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Rivero-Cruz, Fausto

    2016-01-12

    The present research aimed to isolate the non-polar secondary metabolites that produce the vasodilator effects induced by the dichloromethane extract of Prunus serotina (P. serotina) fruits and to determine whether the NO/cGMP and the H2S/KATP channel pathways are involved in their mechanism of action. A bioactivity-directed fractionation of the dichloromethane extract of P. serotina fruits led to the isolation of ursolic acid and uvaol as the main non-polar vasodilator compounds. These compounds showed significant relaxant effect on rat aortic rings in an endothelium- and concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), DL-propargylglycine (PAG) and glibenclamide (Gli). Additionally, both triterpenes increased NO and H2S production in aortic tissue. Molecular docking studies showed that ursolic acid and uvaol are able to bind to endothelial NOS and CSE with high affinity for residues that form the oligomeric interface of both enzymes. These results suggest that the vasodilator effect produced by ursolic acid and uvaol contained in P. serotina fruits, involves activation of the NO/cGMP and H2S/KATP channel pathways, possibly through direct activation of NOS and CSE.

  7. 山东地区樱桃绿环斑驳病毒(CGRMV)的RT-PCR 检测及外壳蛋白基因的克隆%DETECTION OF CHERRY GREEN RING MOTTLE VIRUS (CGRMV) AND ISOLATION OF ITS COAT PROTEIN GENES FROM SWEET CHERRY IN SHANDONG PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文文; 宗晓娟; 陈立伟; 王甲威; 魏海蓉; 徐丽; 孟艳玲; 严雪瑞; 刘庆忠

    2012-01-01

    为调查我省甜樱桃感染樱桃绿环斑驳病毒(Cherry Green Ring Mottle Virus,CCRMV)情况,本研究以甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)品种“红灯”叶片总RNA为模板,根据CGRMV基因组序列设计特异引物,对山东地区37份甜樱桃“红灯”样品进行RT - PCR检测,共检测出19份阳性样品.利用CGRMV外壳蛋白基因序列引物,从阳性植物样本中分离到约800bp的目的片段,克隆测序,序列分析显示该片段全长807 bp,编码268个氨基酸,与G enBank中已登录的CGRMV分离物的外壳蛋白基因序列一致性为87% ~97%,氨基酸序列相似性为95%~99%.该结果表明山东地区甜樱桃生产园中感染CGRMV的病例较为普遍.%In order to investigate the infection of Cherry Green Ring Mottle Virus (CGRMV) from sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L. ) in Shandong province, total RNA was extracted from the leaves of the sweet cherry cultivar Red Lamp' The specific primers were designed corresponding to the CGRMV genome sequence and used for the RT - PCR detection. Thirty - seven sweet cherry samples from six orchards were analyzed in the experiment and nineteen of them were detected as positive. The gene that encodes the virus coat protein was amplified and se-quenced. Sequence analysis revealed that the fragment was 807 nucleotides in length, encoding 268 amino acids. It shared 87% ~97% identity to the other CGRMV isolates reported in GenBank in the nucleotide level and 95% ~99% similarity in the amino acids level. These results showed CGRMV had been wide spread on sweet cherry in Shandong district.

  8. Assessing the potential for establishment of western cherry fruit fly using ecological niche modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2014-06-01

    Sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., grown in the western United States are exported to many countries around the world. Some of these countries have enforced strict quarantine rules and trade restrictions owing to concerns about the potential establishment and subsequent spread of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), a major quarantine pest of sweet cherry. We used 1) niche models (CLIMEX and MaxEnt) to map the climatic suitability, 2) North Carolina State University-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Pest Forecasting System to examine chilling requirement, and 3) host distribution and availability to assess the potential for establishment of R. indifferens in areas of western North America where it currently does not exist and eight current or potential fresh sweet cherry markets: Colombia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam. Results from niche models conformed well to the current distribution of R. indifferens in western North America. MaxEnt and CLIMEX models had high performance and predicted climatic suitability in some of the countries (e.g., Andean range in Colombia and Venezuela, northern and northeastern India, central Taiwan, and parts of Vietnam). However, our results showed no potential for establishment of R. indifferens in Colombia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam when the optimal chilling requirement to break diapause (minimum temperature < or = 3 degree C for at least 15 wk) was used as the criterion for whether establishment can occur. Furthermore, these countries have no host plant species available for R. indifferens. Our results can be used to make scientifically informed international trade decisions and negotiations by policy makers.

  9. Construction of Commercial Sweet Cherry Linkage Maps and QTL Analysis for Trunk Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Feng, Laibao; Ni, Yang; Duan, Xuwei

    2015-01-01

    A cross between the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars 'Wanhongzhu' and 'Lapins' was performed to create a mapping population suitable for the construction of a linkage map. The specific-locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing technique used as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery platform and generated 701 informative genotypic assays; these, along with 16 microsatellites (SSRs) and the incompatibility (S) gene, were used to build a map which comprised 8 linkage groups (LGs) and covered a genetic distance of 849.0 cM. The mean inter-marker distance was 1.18 cM and there were few gaps > 5 cM in length. Marker collinearity was maintained with the established peach genomic sequence. The map was used to show that trunk diameter (TD) is under the control of 4 loci, mapping to 3 different LGs. Different locus influenced TD at a varying stage of the tree's development. The high density 'W×L' genetic linkage map has the potential to enable high-resolution identification of QTLs of agronomically relevant traits, and accelerate sweet cherry breeding.

  10. PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS AMONG WOOD PROPERTIES AND GROWTH IN WILD CHERRY PLANTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Nocetti,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the major users of cherry wood (Prunus avium L., and its cultivation has been increasing since the early nineties, together with studies aimed at improving genotypes, with a selection usually based on growth, stem form, vigor, and tree adaptation. Here, the phenotypic correlations between growth rate and the physical and mechanical properties of wood are investigated in two wild cherry plantations. X-ray microdensitometry was also applied to analyze the age-age correlations of wood density. It was shown that growth rate did not affect wood properties, and density was confirmed to be the trait that best represents the main properties of wood. The absence of relationships between wood density and growth rate was confirmed by densitometric analysis, although an increase of wood density with an increase of ring width was detected for very narrow rings (less than 3 mm wide. The average density at age 7 to 8 was observed to be highly correlated (r > 0.90 to the average density of a 19-year-old tree, allowing reliable estimation of the wood properties of older trees by early investigation of young trees.

  11. Construction of Commercial Sweet Cherry Linkage Maps and QTL Analysis for Trunk Diameter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available A cross between the sweet cherry (Prunus avium cultivars 'Wanhongzhu' and 'Lapins' was performed to create a mapping population suitable for the construction of a linkage map. The specific-locus amplified fragment (SLAF sequencing technique used as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP discovery platform and generated 701 informative genotypic assays; these, along with 16 microsatellites (SSRs and the incompatibility (S gene, were used to build a map which comprised 8 linkage groups (LGs and covered a genetic distance of 849.0 cM. The mean inter-marker distance was 1.18 cM and there were few gaps > 5 cM in length. Marker collinearity was maintained with the established peach genomic sequence. The map was used to show that trunk diameter (TD is under the control of 4 loci, mapping to 3 different LGs. Different locus influenced TD at a varying stage of the tree's development. The high density 'W×L' genetic linkage map has the potential to enable high-resolution identification of QTLs of agronomically relevant traits, and accelerate sweet cherry breeding.

  12. Impact of prolonged absence of low temperature on adult eclosion patterns of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in ...

  13. Tart Cherry Juice as a Treatment for Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Cindy Alberts

    2015-01-01

    are on more than 1 of these medications but, even with polypharmacy and optimal dosing, only 40%–60% of patients report partial relief of symptoms, and many have significant adverse effects, such as somnolence, constipation, and drug dependence. Objective Tart cherry juice has been shown to be effective in the treatment of some inflammatory conditions and has a very low incidence of adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether tart cherry juice is an effective treatment for neuropathic pain from nondiabetic peripheral polyneuropathies. Methods The study group consisted of 12 primary care patient volunteers with painful lower extremity peripheral neuropathy. Patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy were excluded due to the potentially confounding effect of the increased glycemic load from cherry juice. All study patients had carried a diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy for 5–10 y. All patients described 9–10 out of 10 pain more than 50% of the time. All study patients had been on multiple antiepileptics, analgesics, and antidepressants for more than 2 y without significant improvement of symptoms. All study patients were allowed to remain on their prescribed doses of gabapentin, pregabalin, SNRIs, tricyclics, and SSRIs during the study. The patients agreed not to use NSAIDs, steroids, lidocaine, and narcotic pain relievers during the study. There were no restrictions on diet or activity. Presumed etiologies of the peripheral neuropathies in the study group were: 3 HIV, 2 chemotherapy-induced, 5 spinal disorders, and 2 idiopathic. All patients drank 4 oz of tart cherry juice 2 ×/d for 14 d. The juice used was a combination of Prunus cerasus, Prunus acida, Prunus avium, and Prunus fructicosa, imported from the Caucasus and sold commercially as “100% cherry juice from concentrate.” Results After 14 d of treatment, the patients were questioned regarding the level of their peripheral neuropathy pain. Two patients (HIV and spinal DJD

  14. Cloning and Expression Analysis of PaGAI gene of DELLA Protein from Prunus avium%甜樱桃DELLA蛋白基因PaGAI的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟翡; 沈欣杰; 刘芳; 袁华招; 刘兰英; 李天红

    2012-01-01

    利用RT-PCR和RACE技术从甜樱桃(PrunusaviumL.)嫩叶中克隆了赤霉素信号转导途径中的关键负调控因子DELLA蛋白基因cDNA全序列,将其命名为PaGAI。该基因cDNA全长2310bp,开放阅读框ORF为1788bp,推测其编码一个含有595个氨基酸残基的多肽链,蛋白质分子量约64kD。生物信息学分析结果表明,PaGAI编码蛋白具有DELLA蛋白保守结构域,其N端存在两个非常保守的酸性结构域DELLA和VHYNP作为信号感知区域,C端有VHIID、RVER和SAW结构域作为阻遏区域。PaGAI与其它植物的DELLA蛋白具有较高的同源性,其中与苹果MdRGL2b蛋白同源性最高,达到84%。构建pGEX.4T-1/PaGAI原核表达体系,并转化EcoliBL21,经0.5mmol.L^-1IPTG诱导蛋白表达,SDS.PAGE检测获得了分子质量为91kD的融合蛋白,半定量RT-PCR分析表明,PaGAI在花、果实、叶片、韧皮部中普遍表达,在花与韧皮部中的表达远远强于在果实与叶片中的表达。%DELLA protein is a key negative regulation factor of gibberellins (GAs)signal transduction pathway. A whole cDNA sequence of DELLA protein gene, named PaGAI, was cloned from Prunus avium L. tender leaves using RTPCR and RACEPCR. The cDNA of PaGAI had a length of 2 310 bp and contain an openingreading frame (ORF) of 1 788 bp, which was supposed to encode a 595 aminoacid residues polypeptide of 64 kD. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the protein encoded by PaGAI had a conservative structural domain of DELLA protein. It had two strict Conservative amino acid domains DELLA and VHYNP in the N terminal and three repression regions ofVHVID, RVER and SAW in the Cterminal. PaGAI, with high homologous with the DELLA proteins in some other plants, and showed the highest homology of 84% with Malus domestica. The prokaryotic expression system of pGEX4T1/PaGAI was constructed and transformated into E. coli BL21, and the protein expression was induced by 0.5 mmol

  15. Bioassay-based isolation and identification of phenolics from sweet cherry that promote active glucose consumption by HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinping; Li, Xin; Liu, Yunxi; Leng, Feng; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-02-01

    A variety of phenolics had been found to be functional in promoting cellular glucose consumption that is important for blood glucose regulation. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) is rich in such kinds of phenolics, including hydrocinnamic acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols. Furthermore, a sweet cherry phenolics-rich extract (PRE) was found to be effective in promoting HepG2 glucose consumption. Seventeen components were preliminarily identified by HPLC-ESI-MS, including 9 hydrocinnamic acids, 4 anthocyanins, 3 flavonols, and 1 flavan-3-ol. To investigate the cellular glucose consumption-promotion activity of different phneolics subclasses, the phenolics were further fractionated into an anthocyanin-rich fraction (ARF), hydrocinnamic acid-rich fraction (HRF), and flavonol-rich fraction (FRF) through liquid-liquid extraction and mix-mode cation-exchange solid-phase extraction. The 3 fractions promoted HepG2 glucose consumption to different levels, with the promotion effects of HRF and FRF stronger than that of the ARF. The results provide guidance on the use of sweet cherry as a functional fruit.

  16. Effect of Phytohormone Proportion on the In Vitro Cultured Leaf Regeneration System of Prunus avium L%外源激素配比对樱桃叶片再生体系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯思宇; 孙朝霞; 王玉国

    2011-01-01

    Prunus a vium L mass production is low limited by cutting propagation, so establishment of the rapid propagation system by cherry tissue culture plays a key role in solving this problem. The effect of three plant hormone proportions (BA, TDZ and IBA) on the in vitro cultured leaf regeneration system was investigated with orthogonal test design. The callus and shoots ratio of leaves was analyzed by intuitive, variance and effect analysis, and the soluble protein content of leaf callus were tested. The result showed that BA concentration variation had a remarkable effect on the callus and shoots ratio of leaves. TDZ and IBA had no effect on the ratio. Among the three plant hormones, the effect of callus rating was BA>IBA>TDZ; and the effect of shoots rating was BA>TDZ>IBA. The best culture medium of inducible leaf regeneration was combination 13 medium: MS+ BA 2. O mg · L-1 +TDZ 2. O mg · L-1 + IBA 2. O mg ·L-1. The soluble protein content of inducible leaf regeneration was 21. 17 g · L-1 in the combination 13 medium. This research succeeded in constructing leaf regeneration and screening the best plant hormone proportions (combination 13). That proportion was favorable for advancing protein metabolism and improving nutritional substances in cells.%为解决樱桃大规模生产实践中扦插繁殖系数低的限制,建立樱桃组织培养快繁体系,基于正交实验设计研究3种外源激素配比(BA、TDZ和IBA)对樱桃叶片离体再生过程中出愈率、出芽率及组合愈伤组织中可溶性蛋白含量的影响.结果表明:BA 2.0 mg·L-1对樱桃叶片出愈率和出芽率有显著影响.TDZ和IBA对樱桃叶片再生体系建立影响不显著.不同激素之间对叶片出愈率的作用效应大小为:BA>IB>>TDZ:不同激素之间对叶片出芽率的作用效应大小为:BA>TDZ>IBA.诱导叶片高频再生体系最适培养基为组合13:MS+BA 2.0 mg.L-1+TDZ 1.0 mg ·L-1+IBA 0·7 mg,L-,其诱导叶片愈伤组

  17. Genetic Characterization and Relatedness among Cherry Cultivars in a Germplasm Bank by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Moreno

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was performed on 38 cultivars of cherry (Prunus avium L. grown in the Jerte Valley, Cáceres, Spain. Thirty five selected decamer primers produced 69 reproducible polymorphic amplification products. The degree of polymorphism detected made possible the identification of all the cultivars by combining the RAPD banding patterns of only seven primers: OPK-08, OPQ-14, OPR-09, OPS-19, OPX-02, OPX-15 and OPZ-13. Eleven unique markers allowed identification of nine cultivars while 15 cultivars were identified by unique banding patterns. A similarity matrix derived from the RAPD amplification products generated by all the primers was obtained using the index of similarity of Jaccard. The similarity coefficients among cultivars ranged from 0.27 to 0.81 with an average of 0.50. A dendrogram based on UPGMA clustering method was constructed using the similarity matrix. The dendrogram showed a good correlation between the clustering of cherry cultivars and their geographic origin, especially revealing a stronger genetic proximity between some of the most characteristic cultivars of the Jerte Valley. This result supports the autochthonous origin hypothesis for these cultivars.

  18. 77 FR 50617 - Pesticide Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III; Revisions to General Tolerance Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... tomentosa Thunb.)...... 12-12A Cherry, sweet (Prunus avium (L.) L.) 12-12A Cherry, tart (Prunus cerasus L.... Table 1--Crop Group 12-12: Stone Fruit Group Commodities Related crop subgroup Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) 12-12C Apricot, Japanese (Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc.) 12-12C Capulin (Prunus serotina Ehrh....

  19. Single amino acid changes in the 6K1-CI region can promote the alternative adaptation of Prunus- and Nicotiana-propagated Plum pox virus C isolates to either host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, María; Malinowski, Tadeusz; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) C is one of the less common PPV strains and specifically infects cherry trees in nature. Making use of two PPV-C isolates that display different pathogenicity features, i.e., SwCMp, which had been adapted to Nicotiana species, and BY101, which had been isolated from cherry rootstock L2 (Prunus lannesiana) and propagated only in cherry species, we have generated two infective full-length cDNA clones in order to determine which viral factors are involved in the adaptation to each host. According to our results, the C-P3(PIPO)/6K1/N-CI (cylindrical inclusion) region contains overlapping but not coincident viral determinants involved in symptoms development, local viral amplification, and systemic movement capacity. Amino acid changes in this region promoting the adaptation to N. benthamiana or P. avium have trade-off effects in the alternative host. In both cases, adaptation can be achieved through single amino acid changes in the NIapro protease recognition motif between 6K1 and CI or in nearby sequences. Thus, we hypothesize that the potyvirus polyprotein processing could depend on specific host factors and the adaptation of PPV-C isolates to particular hosts relies on a fine regulation of the proteolytic cleavage of the 6K1-CI junction.

  20. Gene flow in Prunus species in the context of novel trait risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cici, S Zahra H; Van Acker, Rene C

    2010-01-01

    Prunus species are important commercial fruit (plums, apricot, peach and cherries), nut (almond) and ornamental trees cultivated broadly worldwide. This review compiles information from available literature on Prunus species in regard to gene flow and hybridization within this complex of species. The review serves as a resource for environmental risk assessment related to pollen mediated gene flow and the release of transgenic Prunus. It reveals that Prunus species, especially plums and cherries show high potential for transgene flow. A range of characteristics including; genetic diversity, genetic bridging capacity, inter- and intra-specific genetic compatibility, self sterility (in most species), high frequency of open pollination, insect assisted pollination, perennial nature, complex phenotypic architecture (canopy height, heterogeneous crown, number of flowers produced in an individual plant), tendency to escape from cultivation, and the existence of ornamental and road side Prunus species suggest that there is a tremendous and complicated ability for pollen mediated gene movement among Prunus species. Ploidy differences among Prunus species do not necessarily provide genetic segregation. The characteristics of Prunu s species highlight the complexity of maintaining coexistence between GM and non-GM Prunus if there were commercial production of GM Prunus species. The results of this review suggest that the commercialization of one GM Prunus species can create coexistence issues for commercial non-GM Prunus production. Despite advances in molecular markers and genetic analysis in agroecology, there remains limited information on the ecological diversity, metapopulation nature, population dynamics, and direct measures of gene flow among different subgenera represented in the Prunus genus. Robust environmental impact, biosafety and coexistence assessments for GM Prunus species will require better understanding of the mechanisms of gene flow and hybridization

  1. Are commercial sweet cherry rootstocks adapted to climate change? Short-term waterlogging and CO2 effects on sweet cherry cv. 'Burlat'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Hernández-Munuera, María; Piñero, M Carmen; López-Ortega, Gregorio; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2017-01-20

    High CO2 is able to ameliorate some negative effects due to climate change and intensify others. This study involves the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivar 'Burlat' grafted on the 'Mariana 2624', 'Adara' and 'LC 52' rootstocks. In a climate chamber at two CO2 concentrations: ambient (400 µmol mol(-1) ) and elevated (800 µmol mol(-1) ), the plants were submitted to waterlogging for seven days, followed by seven days of recovery after drainage. Waterlogging drastically decreased the rate of photosynthesis, significantly endangering plant survival, particularly for the 'LC 52' and 'Adara' rootstocks. 'Mariana 2624' was also clearly affected by waterlogging, that increased lipid peroxidation and the Cl(-) and SO4(2-) concentrations in all the studied plants. Nevertheless, CO2 was able to overcome this reduction in photosynthesis, augmenting growth, increasing soluble sugars and starch, raising turgor and regulating the concentrations of Cl(-) and SO4(2-) , while lowering the NO3(-) concentration in leaves of all the studied rootstocks. In concordance with these results, the proline levels indicated a more intense stress at control CO2 than at high CO2 for waterlogged plants. 'Mariana 2624' was more resistant to waterlogging than 'Adara' and both were more resistant than 'LC 52' in control CO2 conditions; this clearly enhanced the chance of survival under hypoxia.

  2. Mortality and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to different insecticide baits for varying periods in the presence and absence of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2011-02-01

    Spinosad bait is used to control western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), by killing flies before they oviposit. However, effects of different insecticide baits on management of reproductively mature flies are largely unknown. Objectives here were to determine mortality and oviposition of reproductively mature R. indifferens exposed to different insecticide baits for varying periods in the presence and absence of dried yeast extract and sucrose food. Spinosad bait (spinosad in a mix of protein, sugar, and other ingredients) was compared with acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid in sucrose or Nu-Lure + sucrose bait. When flies were exposed to treatments and then offered cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., for oviposition or when they were exposed to treatments and cherries simultaneously, both thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait resulted in higher mortality and lower oviposition than spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait. Exposures to thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait for six and 24 h were similarly effective, but 6-h exposures to spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait were less effective than 24-h exposures. There was little difference between sucrose and Nu-Lure + sucrose baits. When food was present, thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait caused greater mortality and lower oviposition than spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait, but when food was absent, patterns were less consistent. Because of its ability to kill flies sooner after it is exposed to flies when food is present or absent, thiamethoxam or imidacloprid in sucrose or Nu-Lure bait may reduce infestations in cherries more than spinosad bait when mature R. indifferens are present in orchards.

  3. The Assessment Of The Risk Of Allergenicity Of ‘Sabina’ And ‘Debreceni Bötermö’ Sour Cherry Cvs (Prunus Cerasus L. In A Guinea Pig Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasińska-Stroschein Magdalena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The allergic reactions to fruits are lesser known among food sensitivities. The most common fruits belonging to the Rosaceae family that might cause allergic reactions are apples, pears and peaches. However, little is known about the potential allergic reactions caused by another member of the Rosaceae, the cherry. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of any allergic reaction or food hypersensitivity resulting from topical application and chronic oral administration of cherry fruits. The cherry fruits ‘Sabina’ cv. were produced in the orchard in Dąbrowice according to the principles of integrated (IFP and organic (OR productions. Fruits of ‘Debreceni Bötermö’ cv. were produced in Dąbrowice (IFP, and in the orchard in Nowy Dwór (OR. The experiments were performed on 65 outbred young, adult, white albinotic guinea pigs (Dankin Hartley. Three procedures were applied: I. Guinea-Pig Maximization Test (GPMT; II. Chronic administration of fruits and III. Skin prick (Dreborg test. The skin reactions based on GPMT or Dreborg tests revealed no differences between the two cherry cultivars ‘Sabina’ and ‘Debreceni’ obtained from integrated or organic production. Similarly, it was not observed of any effect of cultivars of cherries nor the type of fruits production on the guinea pig skin reaction as a result of chronic feeding with fruits.

  4. Recognition of a wide-range of S-RNases by S locus F-box like 2, a general-inhibitor candidate in the Prunus-specific S-RNase-based self-incompatibility system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Daiki; Tao, Ryutaro

    2016-07-01

    Many species in the Rosaceae, the Solanaceae, and the Plantaginaceae exhibit S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI). This system comprises S-ribonucleases (S-RNases) as the pistil S determinant and a single or multiple F-box proteins as the pollen S determinants. In Prunus, pollen specificity is determined by a single S haplotype-specific F-box protein (SFB). The results of several studies suggested that SFB exerts cognate S-RNase cytotoxicity, and a hypothetical general inhibitor (GI) is assumed to detoxify S-RNases in non-specific manner unless it is affected by SFB. Although the identity of the GI is unknown, phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses have indicated that S locus F-box like 1-3 (or S locus F-box with low allelic sequence polymorphism 1-3; SLFL1-3), which are encoded by a region of the Prunus genome linked to the S locus, are good GI candidates. Here, we examined the biochemical characteristics of SLFL1-3 to determine whether they have appropriate GI characteristics. Pull-down assays and quantitative expression analyses indicated that Prunus avium SLFL1-3 mainly formed a canonical SCF complex with PavSSK1 and PavCul1A. Binding assays with PavS(1,3,4,6)-RNases showed that PavSLFL1, PavSLFL2, and PavSLFL3 bound to PavS(3)-RNase, all PavS-RNases tested, and none of the PavS-RNases tested, respectively. Together, these results suggested that SLFL2 has the appropriate characteristics to be the GI in sweet cherry pollen, while SLFL1 may redundantly work with SLFL2 to detoxify all S-RNases. We discuss the possible roles of SLFL1-3 as the GI in the Prunus-specific S-RNase-based GSI mechanism.

  5. 1H NMR metabolic fingerprinting to probe temporal postharvest changes on qualitative attributes and phytochemical profile of sweet cherry fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasios eGoulas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry fruits (Prunus avium cvs. ‘Canada Giant’, ‘Ferrovia’ were harvested at commercial maturity stage and analyzed at harvest and after maintenance at room temperature (storage at ~ 20°C, shelf life for 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, respectively. Fruit were initially analyzed for respiration rate, qualitative attributes and textural properties: ‘Canada Giant’ fruit were characterized by higher weight losses and stem browning index, being more intense over the late stages of shelf life period; meanwhile ‘Ferrovia’ possessed appreciably better performance even after extended shelf life period. A gradual decrease of respiration rate was monitored in both cultivars, culminated after 8 days at 20°C. The sweet cherry fruit nutraceutical profile was monitored using an array of instrumental techniques (spectrophotometric assays, HPLC, 1H-NMR. Fruit antioxidant capacity was enhanced with the progress of shelf life period, concomitant with the increased levels of total anthocyanin and of phenolic compounds. ‘Ferrovia’ fruit presented higher contents of neochlorogenic acid and p-coumarolquinic acid throughout the shelf life period. We further developed an 1H-NMR method that allows the study of primary and secondary metabolites in a single running, without previous separation and isolation procedures. Diagnostic peaks were located in the aliphatic region for sugars and organic acids, in the aromatic region for phenolic compounds and at 8.2 to 8.6 ppm for anthocyanins. This NMR-based methodology provides a unifying tool for quantitative and qualitative characterization of metabolite changes of sweet cherry fruits; it is also expected to be further exploited for monitoring temporal changes in other fleshy fruits.

  6. Cherry Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    When I am homesick, the cherry trees dotting here and there in my hometown always visit me in my dreams. The cherry tree is a common and special plant. Full of vigor, it grows by itself and needs little care. In early spring, people use simple tools to cut seedlings from the mother root and plant them in soil, then the seedlings start to grow. Three years later, the young plant becomes a big tree and it

  7. Transcriptional analysis of cell wall and cuticle related genes during fruit development of two sweet cherry cultivars with contrasting levels of cracking tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Balbontín

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rain-induced cracking before harvest is the major cause of crop loss in sweet cherry (Prunus avium [L.] L. In order to better understand the relationship between cherry fruit cracking and gene expression, the transcriptional patterns of six genes related to cell wall modification and cuticular wax biosynthesis were analyzed during fruit setting (FS, fruit color change (FC and fruit ripening (FR, employing two contrasting cultivars: the cracking resistant 'Kordia' and the cracking susceptible 'Bing'. The transcription levels of AP2/EREBP-type transcription factor (PaWINB, wax synthase (WS, ß-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (PaKCS6, and ß-galactosidase (ß-Gal showed higher levels in 'Kordia' than in 'Bing' during the FS stage, while similar values were observed in both cultivars at FR stage. In contrast to that pattern, transcription levels of expansin (PaEXPl were higher at FR stage in 'Kordia' than in 'Bing'. Transcript profile of lipid transport protein gene (PaLTPGl decreased during fruit development, with higher levels in 'Bing' than in 'Kordia' at FC and FR stages suggesting no relation with cracking tolerance. The expression profiles of PaWINB, WS, PaKCS6, and ß-Gal suggest that they are genes involved in conferring cracking tolerance, likely due to their function in cuticle deposition during early stages of fruit development. In addition, a greater expression level of expansin gene would allow for a faster growth rate in 'Kordia' at FR stage.

  8. Combined effect of antagonistic yeast and modified atmosphere to control Penicillium expansum infection in sweet cherries cv. Ambrunés.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, E; Serradilla, M J; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Córdoba, M G; Villalobos, M C; Casquete, R; Hernández, A

    2017-01-16

    Fruit decay caused by pathogenic moulds is a major concern in the postharvest quality and shelf life of fruit. Blue mould decay is caused by Penicillium expansum (P. expansum) and is one of the most important postharvest diseases in cherries (Prunus avium L.). Synthetic fungicides are the main medium used to control pathogenic moulds. However, alternative approaches are available for developing safer technologies to control postharvest disease. An integrated approach that combines biological control, using antagonistic yeasts and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with cold storage is a promising alternative to synthetic fungicide treatment. In this work, two microperforated films (M10 and M50) and two antagonistic yeast strains (Hanseniaspora opuntiae L479 and Metschnikowia pulcherrima L672) were evaluated for their effectiveness to control the development of P. expansum in wounded cherries stored at 1°C. Results showed that the microperforated films had fungistatic effects, particularly M50, due to the level of CO2 achieved (mean CO2 of 11.2kPa at 35days), and the decrease in disease severity. Antagonistic yeasts, particularly Metschnikowia pulcherrima L672, delayed the development of P. expansum and decreased disease incidence and severity. The combination of MAP and antagonistic yeasts was the most effective approach to control P. expansum, during cold storage.

  9. 酸樱桃新品种‘玫丽’%A New Sour Cherry Cultivar ‘Meili'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宇良; 冯瑛; 邱蓉; 韩宇; 张雪; 宛甜

    2013-01-01

    'Meili' is a natural hybrid of Primus avium and Prunus fruticosa selected by cherry research group of Northwest A & F University and approved by Shaanxi Forestry Variety Examining Committee in 2010, which is suitable for processing. It is arbor and the tree growth vigor is middle, semi-dwarf, the tree height is 2.5 - 3.5 m with a dark brown bark colour. The fruit skin is purplish red. The good characteristic includes early ripening, self-pollination, stress resistance and productive. Average fruit weight is 5 g, total sugar concentration is 7.96%, total acidity is 1.45%, soluble solids is 14.1%, soluble protein content is 1.87% and the juice processing rate of fruit is 86.9%, its colour is red which is a good character for processing. It is suitable for cultivation in the area of south of Weibei highland, middle and south of Shaanxi and Long Hai railway line surrounding area.%‘玫丽’属甜樱桃(Prunus avium)和草原樱桃(Prunus fruticosa)的自然杂交种,是西北农林科技大学樱桃课题组通过实生选育而成的樱桃加工品种.乔木,树势中,半矮化,树冠高达2.5~3.5 m,树皮暗褐色.果实紫红色,早熟,自花授粉,抗逆性、丰产性强.单果质量5 g,总糖为7.96%,总酸度为1.45%,果实可溶性固形物含量14.1%,可溶性蛋白质含量1.87%,果实出汁率达86.9%,汁液红色,适宜加工.适宜渭北南部、关中、陕南及陇海线周边地区栽植.

  10. 动态气调贮藏对甜樱桃果实采后生理、品质和耐藏性的影响%Effect of dynamic controlled atmosphere on postharvest physiology, quality and storability of sweet cherry fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜爱丽; 何煜波; 兰鑫哲; 胡文忠

    2011-01-01

    研究了甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)品种"艳阳"在1℃的静态气调(SCA,static controlled atmospheres)、动态气调(DCA,dynamic controlled atmospheres)和普通冷藏(CK)条件下果实生理、品质和耐藏性的变化.结果表明,与CK和SCA相比,DCA能更有效地抑制Vc含量的降低,减慢MDA含量上升的速率,明显减少贮藏后期果实褐变和腐烂的发生,有效增加和保持果实的有机酸含量,并可较好地保持果实的原有风味,证明DCA比SCA更适合甜樱桃贮藏保鲜.同时,随着贮藏时间的延长,SCA和DCA条件下果实的过氧化物酶(POD,peroxidase)活性均迅速上升,以DCA中的果实上升得更为迅速.%Sweet cherries ( Prunus avium L. cvs Sunburst) were stored in static controlled atmospheres ( SCA),dynamic controlled atmospheres(DCA) and air(CK)at 1 ℃ to determine the effects of different mode of controlled atmospheres on physiology, quality and storability during storage period. The results showed that in the comparison with CK and SCA,DCA effectively decreased the loss of Vc content, inhibited browning and decay, increased the amount of fruit acid and maintained fruit intrinsic quality. These indicated that DCA was more suitable than SCA for sweet cherry storage. Meanwhile,fruit stored in SCA and DCA showed rapid increase in peroxidase(POD) activity with the storage,and fruit stored in DCA increased more sharply.

  11. THE STUDY OF EFFECTIVE POLLINATION PERIOD AND THE EFFECT OF POLLINATION ON FRUIT CHARACTERS IN SWEET CHERRY( PRUNUS AVIUM L.)%甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)有效授粉期及授粉对果实性状影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓流; 束怀瑞; 陈学森; 李宪利; 于丽艳

    2003-01-01

    本文研究了甜樱桃早红宝石品种的有效授粉期和不同品种授粉组合对果实的重量、果核重、坐果率、果柄长度、果形指数的影响.研究表明,早红宝石开花后的4d内为有效授粉期.红艳和红灯杂交不亲和.红灯不是养老、大紫的适宜授粉树;大紫是红灯的适宜授粉树,可使红灯的单果重较大,单核重与单果重之比较小;养老是大紫的适宜授粉树,使大紫的单果重较大.其他品种给养老授粉,使单果重降低.与自然授粉相比,用单一授粉品种授粉,缩短了果柄长度,改变了果形指数.不同品种用同一品种授粉或同一品种用不同品种授粉时,果柄缩短的程度不同,果形指数发生变化(或增加或减少).果实成熟期与子房授粉后发育的天数有关,与授粉品种无关.

  12. Molecular typing of Dutch isolates of Xanthomonas arboricola pathovar pruni isolated from ornamental cherry laurel.Journal of Plant Pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma-Vlami, M.; Martin, W.; Koenraadt, H.; Teunissen, H.; Pothier, J.F.; Duffy, B.; Doorn, van J.

    2012-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) has been found in several cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) nurseries in the Netherlands, causing leaf spot. As no information is available yet about the epidemiology of this quarantine bacterium in cherry laurel, molecular typing of Xap isolates can consider

  13. FROM BUD EXPLANTS TO ESTABLISHED GREENHOUSE PLANTS - A 30-WEEK PROGRAM OF MICR OPROPAGATION FOR SWEET AND SOUR CHERRY%从芽外植体到温室栽培--甜樱桃和酸樱桃30周快繁技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    甜樱桃(Prunus avium)和酸樱桃(Prunus cerasus)分步微繁技术,此技术涵盖了微繁全过程所需的全套技术,包括外植体和培养基的制备方法,各个阶段的培养技术及培养基配方、试管苗炼苗和移栽等,采用这一技术体系,可在30周内完成从芽外植体建立到温室植株的全过程。此外,还提出了进一步改进该技术体系的建议,如调整总氮量及NO3-/NH4+比率,添加蔗糖以外的其他碳源,优化BAP和IBA浓度及配比等。%This paper describes a step-by-step protocol of micropropagation for s weet cheery (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (P. cerasus). The protocol co vers the full information related to the whole process of micropropagation, including pr eparation of initial explants and media, a detailed account of the culture techn iques and medium formulae, and hardening and transplanting of the micro-plants. By using the protocol, complete plants of greenhouse acclimatization can be rege nerated within 30 weeks from bud explants. To further improve the protocol, some suggestions are offered, including adjusting the total nitrogen content and the ratio of NO3- to NH4+, supplementing sugars other than sucrose and optimi zing the concentrations of BAP and IBA and their balance.

  14. Identification of a Skp1-like protein interacting with SFB, the pollen S determinant of the gametophytic self-incompatibility in Prunus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Daiki; Yamane, Hisayo; Abe, Kazuyuki; Tao, Ryutaro

    2012-07-01

    Many species in Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Plantaginaceae exhibit S-RNase-based self-incompatibility (SI). In this system, the pistil and pollen specificities are determined by S-RNase and the S locus F-box protein, respectively. The pollen S determinant F-box protein in Prunus (Rosaceae) is referred to by two different terms, SFB (for S-haplotype-specific F-box protein) and SLF (for S locus F box), whereas it is called SLF in Solanaceae and Plantaginaceae. Prunus SFB is thought to be a molecule indispensable for its cognate S-RNase to exert cytotoxicity and to arrest pollen tube growth in incompatible reactions. Although recent studies have demonstrated the molecular function of SCF(SLF) in the SI reaction of Solanaceae and Plantaginaceae, how SFB participates in the Prunus SI mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we report the identification of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) SFB (PavSFB)-interacting Skp1-like1 (PavSSK1) using a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid screening against the pollen cDNA library. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PavSSK1 belongs to the same clade as Antirrhinum hispanicum SLF-interacting Skp1-like1 and Petunia hybrida SLF-interacting Skp1-like1 (PhSSK1). In yeast, PavSSK1 interacted not only with PavSFBs from different S haplotypes and Cullin1-likes (PavCul1s), but also with S-locus F-box-likes. A pull-down assay confirmed the interactions between PavSSK1 and PavSFB and between PavSSK1 and PavCul1s. These results collectively indicate that PavSSK1 could be a functional component of the SCF complex and that PavSFB may function as a component of the SCF complex. We discuss the molecular function of PavSFB in self-/nonself-recognition in the gametophytic SI of Prunus.

  15. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing.

  16. 秋季叶施尿素对甜樱桃产量与品质的影响%STYDUES on THE EFFECT OF FOIAR SPRAY OF UREA ON THE YIELD AND OUALITY OF SWEET CHERRY(PRUNUS,AVIUM L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵祥奎; 张序; 姜远茂

    2007-01-01

    以田间7年生'红灯'甜樱桃/大青叶为试材,研究了叶面喷施尿素对甜樱桃产量与品质的影响.结果表明:叶面施氮有利于甜樱桃花器官发育,提高完全花比例和坐果率,增大果实体积,提高果实单果重,进而提高产量;同时,提高果实糖含量及果实糖酸比;总之,叶面施氮提高了甜樱桃果实的产量和品质.

  17. Effects of hot water and Vc treatment on the storage quality of sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. )%热水结合Vc处理对甜樱桃果实贮藏品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尊英; 曾名勇; 董士远; 杜亚楠

    2005-01-01

    在预实验基础上,采用热水42℃,10min和0.1%Vc+热水42℃,10min对新鲜甜樱桃(品种:红灯)进行热处理.处理后的甜樱桃置于0+0.5℃条件下冷藏18d,货架期条件下2d后对果实的感官性状和贮藏品质进行检测.结果表明,热水处理后果实的色泽、风味和口感均明显优于对照.热处理明显抑制了甜樱桃果实褐变和腐烂率的上升及可滴定酸和Vc含量的下降.热水结合Vc处理强化了这一抑制效果.

  18. The Dynamic Changes of Endogenous Hormones in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.)Pulp%甜樱桃果实发育过程中激素含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丙花; 姜远茂; 彭福田; 隋静; 赵凤霞; 王海云

    2007-01-01

    以9年生'红灯'甜樱桃为试材,对不同发育时期果实果肉内源激素变化动态进行了测定分析.结果表明:果肉中ZRS含量在果实第Ⅰ速长期开始时最高,之后除在果实第Ⅱ速长期开始时有小幅增加外,均呈逐渐下降趋势; IAA和GAS的变化动态相似,在果实第Ⅰ速长期含量较高,随果实发育逐渐减少,均在硬核期结束时(盛花后25 d)降到最低值,进入第Ⅱ速长期后又迅速增加并达到最大值,与果实生长动态吻合; ABA含量分别在盛花后5、15、35 d出现高峰,与落果(花)时期基本一致.

  19. 大樱桃冬暖式大棚栽培技术%The culture techniques of sweet cherry(Prunus avium)in solar energy-saving plastic greenhouse in winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄爱玲; 刘蔚霞; 乔健

    2009-01-01

    大樱桃又称甜樱桃或洋樱桃,原产于欧洲。20世纪初传入我国。其果实营养丰富,色、形、味俱佳,素有“果里第一枝”、“果中珍品”的美称。多年来,大樱桃露地栽培的效益很好,但由于其树体抗寒能力差,栽种地域窄,果实供应时间短.难以满足市场的需要。利用冬暖式大棚栽培大樱桃,扩大了其种植区域.延长了其鲜果的供应期,提高了果实的商品价值。为了满足广大栽培者的需要,本文从10个方面介绍大樱桃冬暖式大棚栽培技术。

  20. Effects of 1-MCP on the post-harvested decay and quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)fruits%1-MCP对甜樱桃采后腐烂与食用品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尊英; 董士远; 曾名勇; 杜亚楠

    2006-01-01

    在预实验基础上,将新鲜甜樱桃(品种:红灯)置于1μL/L 1-甲基环丙烯(1-MCP)条件下室温处理24h,后置于(0±0.5)℃条件下冷藏18d,对果实的感官性状和采后品质进行检测.结果表明,1-MCP处理的果实其色泽、风味和口感均优于对照.1-MCP处理明显抑制甜樱桃果实褐变和腐烂率的上升及vc和可滴定酸含量的下降,保持了甜樱桃的新鲜品质.

  1. 甜樱桃SFB4与SFB4’基因的鉴别%Distinguish SFB4’Gene from SFB4 Gene of Sweet Cherry(Prunus avium)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱墨; 张开春; 姜立杰; 张晓明

    2005-01-01

    本研究以最近发现的李属花粉决定子候选基因"S单元型特异F-box蛋白基因(SFB)"为基础,根据甜樱桃SFB4基因设计引物,从自交不亲和'雷尼'和'佳红'以及自交亲和的'斯坦拉'总DNA中分别扩增出SFB4和SFB4'基因的部分序列.经测序结果发现:SFB4'基因比SFB4基因缺失了4个碱基TAAA.根据这个缺失差异,设计了一对引物BFP200和BFP201,这对引物只能扩增SFB4'基因,而不能扩增SFB4基因,从而利用SFB基因区分开了甜樱桃自交不亲和的S4和自交亲和的S4'单元型.

  2. Effects of Cutting Back Pruning Degree on Distribution and Utilization of 13C and 15N for Prunus avium ‘Hongdeng’%短截修剪程度对‘红灯’甜樱桃13C和15N分配利用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付莹; 姜远茂; 张世忠; 雷庆国; 汤先状

    2015-01-01

    以2年生‘红灯’(Prunus avium L.‘Hongdeng’)/东北山樱(Cerasus sachalinensis Kom.)为试材,研究了不同短截程度对13C和15N分配和利用的影响.结果表明,新梢生长期,短截处理修剪促进了碳水化合物向根系分配,极重度短截处理使叶片和新梢中13C分配率分别减少了29.15%和7.3%,粗根和细根中13C分配率增加了46.65%和48.43%.随着时间的推移,短截处理的叶片和新梢的13C分配率均显著高于对照,多年生枝干的13C分配率随短截程度的增加而减小,根系的13C分配率以中短截最低,极重度短截最高.各处理15N利用率从高到底依次为中度短截>对照>极重度短截,在新梢停长期差别最大,3个处理15N利用率分别为6.91%、5.54%和3.60%;多年生枝干15N分配率随短截程度的增加而减小,短截处理叶片和新梢的15N分配率随短截程度的增加而增加.

  3. Polymorphism of DFR Gene Intron 2 and Intron 3 in Sweet Cherry%甜樱桃DFR基因内含子2和内含子3的多态性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王廿; 鄢锦辉; 张开春; 王晶; 张晓明; 闫国华

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The relationship between polymorphism of DFR gene and pericarp colors was studied in 70 sweet cherry varieties. [Method] DNA sequences analysis was applied to detect the polymorphism of DFR gene in 10 sweet cherry varieties (Prunus avium L.) of different colors in pericarp. Special primers were designed to amplify the polymorphic DNA fragments. 70 sweet cherry varieties (P. Avium L.) were used to test DFR gene polymorphism. [Result] The DNA sequences of partial DFR gene about 1 kb were obtained from sweet cherry (P. Avium). The identity of these DNA sequences was 80% with DFR gene of peach (Prunus persica). The identity of predicted amino acid sequences was 99% with the amino acid sequence of DFR in sweet cherry. This partial DFR gene contained 3 extrons and 3 introns. Two polymorphic loci were detected in intron 2 and intron 3. Three haplotypes and five haplotype combinations were found among 70 sweet cherry varieties which are composed of yellow pericarp group, yellow with a pink blush pericarp group and red pericarp group. There was no significant difference in the DFR gene frequencies between yellow with a pink blush pericarp group and dark red pericarp group. [Conclusion] Two polymorphism loci were detected in intron 2 and intron 3 of DFR gene. Preponderatn alleles frequencies of 70 sweet cherry varieties was 0.864 in intron 2 and 0.679 in intron 3. Respectively. There is no direct relationship between pericarp colors and polymorphisms DFR gene in intron 2 and intron 3.%[目的]研究70个甜樱桃品种DFR基因多态性与果皮颜色的相关性.[方法]通过DNA序列分析,以不同果皮颜色的10个甜樱桃品种(Prunus aviumL.)为材料,检测DFR基因的多态性.根据多态性出现的位点设计特异引物,通过PCR扩增检测70个甜樱桃品种DFR基因的多态性.[结果]获得甜樱桃DFR基因约1 kb的片段,测序结果用BLAST分析发现,其核苷酸序列与樱桃李(Prunus cerasifera)的核苷酸相似性为80%,预

  4. 梅花 CBF 转录因子的克隆及表达%Cloning and Expression of CBF Transcription Factor from Prunus mume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 张启翔; 杨炜茹

    2012-01-01

    根据GenBank中与梅花同属的桃、甜樱桃等已发表CBFs转录因子序列设计简并引物,采用PCR和RTPCR方法,从梅花基因组DNA和cDNA中克隆CBF转录因子片段.结果表明,两种途径获得的CBF基因序列一致,基因全长821 bp,编码238个氨基酸,其氨基酸序列具有典型的CBF蛋白特征,包含保守的AP2/EREB DNA 结合结构域及CBF家族蛋白特征短多肽序列(PKK/RPAGRxKFxETRHP和DSAWR).氨基酸相似性分析结果表明,该基因与欧洲甜樱桃、矮扁桃等CBF转录因子相似性较高.相对荧光定量PCR结果显示,4℃低温胁迫下,其表达量符合CBF转录因子表达特点,随着胁迫时间的增长表达量呈上升趋势,8h时达峰值,说明该基因在低温胁迫下上调表达.%Primers were designed according to the CBF transcription factors of Peach (Prunus persica), Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) et al from GenBank. Fragments of CBF gene were isolated from Prunus mume by PCR and RT-PCR, The CBF gene was 821 bp long, encoding a putative protein of 238 amino acids;The amino acids sequence owns the characteristics of the CBF protein,which contains an AP2/EREB DNA-binding domain and two special short amino acids sequences;Similarity analysis showed that the nu-cleotide were highly similarity to that of P. avium, P. tenella et al. Relative real-time PCR experiment showed the expression of PmCBFl was coincidence with the expression characteristics of the CBF gene after exposed to 4℃. The expression of PmCBFl increased at beginning and achieved the highest after 8 hour,indicating PmCBFl was induced under low temperature stress.

  5. A new self-compatibility haplotype in the sweet cherry 'Kronio', S5', attributable to a pollen-part mutation in the SFB gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Annalisa; Bosković, Radovan I; Caruso, Tiziano; Raimondo, Antonio; Cutuli, Marcello; Tobutt, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    'Kronio' is a Sicilian cultivar of sweet cherry (Prunus avium), nominally with the incompatibility genotype S(5)S(6), that is reported to be naturally self-compatible. In this work the cause of its self-compatibility was investigated. Test selfing confirmed self-compatibility and provided embryos for analysis; PCR with consensus primers designed to amplify S-RNase and SFB alleles showed that the embryos were of two types, S(5)S(5) and S(5)S(6), indicating that S(6) pollen failed, but S(5) succeeded, perhaps because of a mutation in the pollen or stylar component. Stylar RNase analysis indicated active S-RNases for both S(5) and S(6). The S-RNase alleles were cloned and sequenced; and sequences encode functional proteins. Cloning and sequencing of SFB alleles showed that S(6) was normal but S(5) had a premature stop codon upstream of the variable region HVa resulting in a truncated protein. Therefore, the self-compatibility can be attributed to a pollen-part mutation of S(5), designated S(5)', the first reported case of breakdown of self-incompatibility in diploid sweet cherry caused by a natural mutation at the S-locus. The second intron of the S-RNase associated with S(5)' contained a microsatellite smaller than that associated with S(5); primers designed to amplify across this microsatellite effectively distinguished S(5) from S(5)'. Analysis of some other Sicilian cherries with these primers indicated that S(5)' is also present in the Sicilian cultivar 'Maiolina a Rappu', and this proved to be self-compatible.

  6. Effects of cherry leaf spot on photosynthesis in tart cherry 'Montmorency' foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, B R; Kruger, E L; McManus, P S

    2012-07-01

    Results described here span a total of three field seasons and quantitatively depict the effects of an economically important fungal pathogen (Blumeriella jaapii) on tart cherry (Prunus cerasus 'Montmorency') leaf physiology. For the first time, leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance (g(s)), maximum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation rate (V(cmax)), and maximum electron transport (J(max)) were measured as functions of visible cherry leaf spot disease (CLS) severity. Defined as the proportion of chlorotic and necrotic tissue per leaf, CLS severity was estimated from leaves of mature 'Montmorency' trees in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Briefly, as visible disease severity increased, all of the leaf-level physiological parameters decreased significantly (P tart cherry leaves due to CLS appears to be mediated through disproportionately large perturbations in g(s), V(cmax), and J(max). These findings offer a new perspective on the amount of damage that this serious disease can inflict.

  7. Bioactivity of sour cherry cultivars grown in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoo, Gaik Ming; Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted;

    2012-01-01

    Thirty four varieties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were investigated for their total antioxidant activity, Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activity and effect on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Total phenolic content, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cancer cell...... proliferation inhibitory activity of sour cherries were closely correlated but not PGE2 production. The cultivars ‘BirgitteBöttermö’, ‘Fanal’ and ‘Tiki’ were the three cultivars with the highest ORAC values (180, 147 and 133mmol TE/g, respectively) and inhibition against Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation (74...

  8. Transformation of somatic embryos of Prunus incisa ‘February Pink’ with a visible reporter gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was developed for the ornamental cherry species Prunus incisa. This system uses both an antibiotic resistance gene (NPTII) and a visible selectable marker, the green fluorescent protein (GFP), to select plants. Cells from leaf and root explants were tr...

  9. 外源GA3和PP333对甜樱桃新梢生长及赤霉素代谢关键基因表达的影响%Effects of GA3 And PP333 on Shoot Growth and Gene Expression of Gibberellins Metabolism in Prunus Avium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 袁华招; 沈欣杰; 廖雄; 李天红

    2013-01-01

    本研究以9年生甜樱桃红灯(Prunus avium L.‘Hongdeng’)为试材,于新梢生长期进行100mg·L-1赤霉素(GA3)、300 mg·L-1多效唑(PP333)叶面喷施处理.试验结果表明GA3可明显促进新梢生长,新梢生长量长达15.04cm,为对照的2倍,而PP333则显著抑制了新梢的生长.GA3处理可使其内源GA3含量发生明显变化,在处理后14d更高达对照的2.2倍,之后迅速下降,而PP333处理后内源GA3含量呈持续下降趋势.实时荧光定量PCR结果表明GA3处理能够抑制GA20-ox、GA3-ox2种合成关键酶基因的转录,而PP333处理则使GA20-ox、GA3-ox转录水平在后期明显升高.同时赤霉素代谢关键酶GA2-ox转录水平在不同处理中均表现出与赤霉素含量类似的变化规律.说明在甜樱桃内源赤霉素含量与合成代谢酶转录水平间,反馈调节机制可能发挥着重要作用.该研究结果将为生产中采用基因工程手段控制营养生长,实现矮化密植提供理论参考.

  10. 从进境美国樱桃中首次截获美澳型核果褐腐病菌%The first interception of Monilinia fructicola from USA cherry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫芳; 章柱; 余辛

    2012-01-01

    Monilinia fructicola是我国禁止进境的检疫性真菌有害生物。广州白云机场口岸从美国输华樱桃中截获可疑病果,病果表面有微小的圆形褐色病斑。保湿培养4d后,病斑迅速扩展至全果,并簇生绒状灰白至灰黄色菌落,导致果实腐烂。经对分离物进行形态学观察和ITS序列分析,将病菌鉴定为美澳型核果褐腐病菌(Monilinia fructicola(Winter)Honey),从进境美国樱桃大宗货物中截获该病菌在我国尚属首次。%Monilinia fructicola is a quarantine pest in China.Suspicious diseased fruits of cherry(Prunus avium) imported from USA.were intercepted at Guangzhou airport in China,which displayed symptom of small brown spot on the fruit surface.The spot spread quickly through the whole fruits and formed tufty greyish to yellowish colony causing the fruits rotten after 4d under humidity.On the basis of the morphological characteristics and rDNA molecular analysis of isolates,the causal agent of brown rot fruits of the cherry was identified as M.fructicola(Winter) Honey.The interception of M.fructicola from a batch of cherry goods of USA was the first time in China.

  11. Research on high- producing and highly active Physiology and Ecology of cultivation in cherry%甜樱桃高产高效栽培的生理生态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海娥

    2005-01-01

    樱桃(Cherry)为蔷薇科(Rosaceae),李属(Prunus),樱桃亚属(Cerasus)的乔木型果树,常见的栽培种包括:欧洲甜樱桃(Prunus)、欧洲酸樱桃(P.cerasus)、中国樱桃(P.pscudocerasus)和毛樱桃。

  12. Preliminary results on seasonal changes in flower bud cold hardiness of sour cherry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guangping; Pagter, Majken; Andersen, Lillie

    2012-01-01

    Irregular yields of Prunus cerasus ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte’, which is the preferred sour cherry cultivar in Denmark, have been proposed to be a result of freeze injury to floral tissues. This study determined floral mortality of P. cerasus ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte’ and the supposedly more cold hardy P...

  13. Processed tart cherry products--comparative phytochemical content, in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Boxin; Bosak, Kristen N; Brickner, Paula R; Iezzoni, Dominic G; Seymour, E Mitchell

    2012-05-01

    Processing of fruits and vegetables affects their phytochemical and nutrient content. Tart cherries are commercially promoted to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. However, processing affects their phytochemical content and may affect their related health benefits. The current study compares the in vitro antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase activity of processed tart cherry (Prunus cerasus) products-cherry juice concentrate, individually quick-frozen cherries, canned cherries, and dried cherries. Cherry products were analyzed for total anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin content and profile. On a per serving basis, total anthocyanins were highest in frozen cherries and total proanthocyanidins were highest in juice concentrate. Total phenolics were highest in juice concentrate. Juice concentrate had the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and peroxynitrite radical averting capacity (NORAC). Dried cherries had the highest hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) and superoxide radical averting capacity (SORAC). Processed tart cherry products compared very favorably to the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture-reported ORAC of other fresh and processed fruits. Inhibition of in vitro inflammatory COX-1 activity was greatest in juice concentrate. In summary, all processed tart cherry products possessed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, but processing differentially affected phytochemical content and in vitro bioactivity. On a per serving basis, juice concentrate was superior to other tart cherry products.

  14. Self-incompatibility of Prunus tenella and evidence that reproductively isolated species of Prunus have different SFB alleles coupled with an identical S-RNase allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbanovski, Nada; Tobutt, Kenneth R; Konstantinović, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna; Sargent, Daniel J; Stevanović, Vladimir; Bosković, Radovan I

    2007-05-01

    Many species of Prunus display an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI), controlled by a single highly polymorphic multigene complex termed the S-locus. This comprises tightly linked stylar- and pollen-expressed genes that determine the specificity of the SI response. We investigated SI of Prunus tenella, a wild species found in small, isolated populations on the Balkan peninsula, initially by pollination experiments and identifying stylar-expressed RNase alleles. Nine P. tenella S-RNase alleles (S(1)-S(9)) were cloned; their sequence analysis showed a very high ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions (K(a)/K(s)) and revealed that S-RNase alleles of P. tenella, unlike those of Prunus dulcis, show positive selection in all regions except the conserved regions and that between C2 and RHV. Remarkably, S(8)-RNase, was found to be identical to S(1)-RNase from Prunus avium, a species that does not interbreed with P. tenella and, except for just one amino acid, to S(11) of P. dulcis. However, the corresponding introns and S-RNase-SFB intergenic regions showed considerable differences. Moreover, protein sequences of the pollen-expressed SFB alleles were not identical, harbouring 12 amino-acid replacements between those of P. tenella SFB(8) and P. avium SFB(1). Implications of this finding for hypotheses about the evolution of new S-specificities are discussed.

  15. A 280-Year Long Series of Phenological Observations of Cherry Tree Blossoming Dates for Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutishauser, T.; Luterbacher, J.; Wanner, H.

    2003-04-01

    Phenology is generally described as the timing of life cycle phases or activities of plants and animals in their temporal occurrence throughout the year (Lieth 1974). Recent studies have shown that meteorological and climatological impacts leave their 'fingerprints' across natural systems in general and strongly influence the seasonal activities of single animal and plant species. During the 20th century, phenological observation networks have been established around the world to document and analyze the influence of the globally changing climate to plants and wildlife. This work presents a first attempt of a unique 280-year long series of phenological observations of cherry tree blossoming dates for the Swiss plateau region. In Switzerland, a nation-wide phenological observation network has been established in 1951 currently documenting 69 phenophases of 26 different plant species. A guidebook seeks to increase objectiveness in the network observations. The observations of the blooming of the cherry tree (prunus avium) were chosen to calculate a mean series for the Swiss plateau region with observations from altitudes ranging between 370 and 860 asl. A total number of 737 observations from 21 stations were used. A linear regression was established between the mean blooming date and altitude in order to correct the data to a reference altitude level. Other ecological parameters were unaccounted for. The selected network data series from 1951 to 2000 was combined and prolonged with observations from various sources back to 1721. These include several historical observation series by farmers, clergymen and teachers, data from various stations collected at the newly established Swiss meteorological network from 1864 to 1873 and the single long series of observations from Liestal starting in 1894. The homogenized time series of observations will be compared with reconstructions of late winter temperatures as well as statistical estimations of blooming time based on

  16. Effects of Auto-MA Box on Qualities and Antioxidative Enzymes in Sweet Cherry Fruit during Storage%自动自发气调箱贮藏对甜樱桃品质及抗氧化酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝刚; 侯玉茹; 李文生; 冯晓元; 杨军军; 张开春

    2013-01-01

    Sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. cv. Sunburst) were held into auto-modified atmosphere box ( M AB). The postharvest qualities and antioxidative enzymes of sweet cherry fruit were investigated at interval. Results showed that CO2 and O2 concentration in MAB were kept at about 11% -12% and 9% ~ 10% after 30 d of storage of sweet cherry fruit. Firmness in fruit stored in MAB was higher than those in control during storage. MAB treatment maintained the higher Vitamin C content, and was effective in inhibition of the declining of soluble solids content in contrast to control, and increased peroxidase ( POD ) , catalase ( CAT) , superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) , ascorbate peroxidase ( APX ) activity in the early storage. But MAB treatment delayed the increase of pH value, anthocyanin and total phenol content of sweet cherry fruit. MAB treatment inhibited significantly the decay incidence of sweet cherry fruit during storage. The sweet cherry fruit treated by MAB still had good sensory quality significantly after 60 d of storage.%以艳阳樱桃为试材,研究了气调箱保鲜处理对甜樱桃果实贮藏品质变化的影响以及抗氧化酶的调控.结果表明:甜樱桃果实在贮藏30 d后,气调箱内CO2和O2体积分数分别维持在11% ~ 12%和9%~10%.经气调箱贮藏的甜樱桃果实硬度在各个贮藏时期均高于对照果实,并且,它保持了果实中较高的维生素C含量,有效地延缓了可溶性固形物含量的下降,诱导了贮藏前期果实中过氧化物酶、过氧化氢酶、超氧化物歧化酶及抗坏血酸过氧化物酶活性.气调箱贮藏延缓了果实的pH值、花青素和总酚含量的升高.气调箱贮藏最明显的效果是降低了甜樱桃果实的病害发生率,在(0±0.5)℃贮藏60 d后仍具有较好的感官品质.

  17. Immature Embryo Culture for Interspecific Hybrids of Cherry%樱桃种间杂交种的幼胚培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文生; 牛爱国; 闫国华; 张晓明; 周宇; 姜立杰; 张开春

    2005-01-01

    1 植物名称 樱桃种间杂交后代。杂交组合有甜樱桃(Prunus avium)×酸樱桃(P.cerasus),甜樱桃(P.avium)×欧洲李(P.domesaca)、甜樱桃(P.avium)×中国樱桃(P.pseudocerasus)、酸樱桃(P.cerasus)×欧洲李(P.domestica)、酸樱桃(P.cerasus)×中国樱桃(P.pseudocerasus)。

  18. Cherry-Slush-Candling Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, James B.; Weiss, James R.; Hoover, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Proposed infrared-scanning apparatus for use in bakeries making cherry pies detect cherry pits remaining in cherry slush after pitting process. Pits detected via their relative opacity to infrared radiation.

  19. Development of deficit irrigation scheduling strategies for 'Prime Giant' sweet cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Víctor; Domingo, Rafael; Torres, Roque; Pérez Pastor, Alejandro; García, Manuel; López, Juan Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Precision regulated deficit irrigation scheduling is useful for improving water productivity and ensuring crop production sustainability. This form of water management requires continuous monitoring in order to know soil and/or plant water status at all times. Water status sensors are key tools for modulating irrigation water amounts. The objective of this work was to study the physiological and agronomic response of cherry trees to different irrigation treatments based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc). However, the final purpose was to establish threshold values of water stress indicators, which can be considered of practical applicability in automatic irrigation scheduling. The experiment was carried out in 2015 in a 0.5 ha commercial plot of 'Prime Giant' cherry [Prunus avium (L.)] in SE Spain. Three treatments were studied i) T110, irrigated above the maximum crop water requirements (110% of ETc), ii) T85, sustained deficit irrigation, irrigated to satisfy 85% of ETc, throughout the growing season, and iii) T100-55, regulated deficit irrigation with different water deficit levels: 100% and 55% of ETc during pre- and postharvest, respectively. Each treatment was randomly distributed in blocks and run in triplicate. Soil and plant water status were assessed from the soil matric potential and volumetric water content (Ym and Ov), midday stem and fruit water potential (Ys and Yf), maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS), daily trunk growth rate (TGR), stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration rates (E). Vegetative growth, yield and the quality of the fruit were also evaluated. Ys and MDS signal intensity were used as the main indicators of water stress. The water applied during the 2015 growing season was 7190, 5425 and 4225 m3 ha-1 for T110, T85 and T100-55, respectively. The mean values of Ys during pre- and postharvest were -0.51, -0.57, -0.54 and -0.65, -0.77 and -0.97 MPa in T110, T85 and T100-55, respectively, while Yf was -1.20, -1.36, -1

  20. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of sour cherries from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Milan N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the content of phenolics: the total phenols (TP, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA, as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC in three sour cherry cultivars (Prunus cerasus L. introduced to the southeast Serbia climate conditions. Among the researched sour cherries, ‘Oblacinska’ cultivar contained the highest amounts of all groups of phenolics, followed by ‘Cigancica’ > ‘Marela’. A significant difference were observed in the phenolic content among different cultivars and growing seasons (p<0.05, and the phenolic compounds were significantly higher in the growing season 2009. The examined cultivars possess a high antioxidant capacity, and all phenolics of highy correlation with TAC. The following compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD: 4 anthocyanins, the most abundant of which was cyaniding-3-glucoside in ‘Marela’ and ‘Oblacinska’, and cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside in ‘Cigancica’, and 4 hydroxycinnamic acids, the most abundant of which was neochlorogenic acid in all sour cherry cultivars. The growing and ripening process on the tree of sour cherry cv. Oblacinska was evaluated, also. The results showed significant increases in total phenols during the ripening, the total anthocyanins and total antioxidant capacity and 4 quantified anthocyanins, however the neochlorogenic acid decreased during the ripening. The study indicated that the growing and climate conditions in southeast Serbia are convenient for introducing sour cherry cultivars.

  1. Studies on water transport through the sweet cherry fruit surface. 10. Evidence for polar pathways across the exocarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichert, Holger; Knoche, Moritz

    2006-05-31

    Water uptake through the fruit surface is considered as an important factor in cracking of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit. Uptake may occur by diffusion and/or viscous flow along a polar pathway. To establish the mechanism of water uptake, the effects of viscosity and molecular weight of selected osmotica on water uptake into detached sweet cherry fruit were investigated. In addition we investigated the effect of temperature on penetration of 2-(1-naphthyl)[1-(14)C]acetic acid ([(14)C]NAA; pK(a) = 4.2) as a molecular probe in the non-dissociated (pH 2.2) and dissociated (pH 6.2) forms. Rates of water uptake were linearly related to the inverse viscosity of gum arabic solutions (range of concentrations and dynamic viscosities 10-300 g L(-1) and 1.3 x 10(-3) to 115.9 x 10(-3) Pa s, respectively). When fruit was incubated in solutions of osmotica of differing molecular weight that were isotonic to the fruit's water potential, water uptake depended on the molecular weight of the osmoticum [range 58-6000 for NaCl to poly(ethylene glycol) 6000 (PEG 6000)]. There was no uptake from PEG 6000 solutions, but rates of water uptake increased as the molecular weight of the osmotica decreased. Apparent water potentials of sweet cherry fruit, determined by incubating fruit in concentration series of selected osmotica, increased as the molecular weight of the osmotica increased up to 1500 and remained constant between 1500 and 6000. Reflection coefficients (sigma) estimated from this relationship were closely related to hydrodynamic radii (r) of the osmotica [sigma = 1.0(+/-0.0) - [10.9(+/-0.9) x 10(-11)][r(-1) (m(-1))], R(2) = 0.97, P < 0.0001]. The permeability of the sweet cherry fruit exocarp to NAA (pK(a) = 4.2) and temperature dependence of NAA permeability (P(d)) as indexed by the energy of activation (E(a), temperature range 5-35 degrees C) were significantly higher for the non-dissociated NAA (pH 2.2, P(d) = 10.2(+/-0.8) x 10(-8) m s(-1), E(a) = 67.0 +/- 1.7 kJ mol

  2. Observation on characteristics of floral differentiation and development of sweet cherry in late phase%甜樱桃花芽分化后期特征观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵长竹; 姜建福; 张慧琴; 李淑平; 顾红; 林苗苗; 谢鸣; 方金豹

    2012-01-01

    In order to grope for the mechanism in fruiting problem of sweet cherryPrunus avium L. ) in southern areas of China, three experiments, including variety comparison, location comparison and artifi- cial environmental simulation, had been carried out from the stage of post-defoliation to the stage of post- bloom for observation of the characteristics of differentiation and development of floral bud of sweet cherry. The results showed that the floral bud of sweet cherry had ultimately displayed the basic characteristics of differentiation and development in identity at the phases of multi-phenological calendars in the stages mentioned above in those tested varieties which were Zaohongbaoshi, Hongdeng and Lapins cultured in Zhengzhou, and Hongdeng cultured in Yantai, Zhengzhou, and Jinhua, and Zaohongbaoshi cultured in openfield and greenhouse in the period of floral bud differentiation in those three experimental designs. It was argued that the mechanism of fruiting difficulty mentioned above had no relationship with the floral bud differentiation in growth season, and not only the embryo sac in poorly developmental quality which was induced by high temperature before the stage of post-bloom but laso the shortage of chilling accumu- lation should be responsible for the fruiting difficulty.%通过品种比较、地区比较和人工环境模拟3个关联的试验设计,观察甜樱桃从落叶后至谢花后的花芽分化发育的特征,探求其南引试栽、结实困难的原因。结果表明,郑州的早红宝石、红灯和拉宾斯.烟台、郑州和金华的红灯,以及花芽分化期置于露地和日光温室中的早红宝石在多个物候期阶段的最终分化发育的基本特征一致。因此。造成甜樱桃南引试栽、结实困难的主要原因可能与生长季的花芽分化无关,不能仅限于与花前高温引发的胚珠、胚囊发育不良有关,低温累积量不足也是不可被忽视的因素。

  3. Basic RNases of wild almond (Prunus webbii): cloning and characterization of six new S-RNase and one "non-S RNase" genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banović, Bojana; Surbanovski, Nada; Konstantinović, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna

    2009-03-01

    In order to investigate the S-RNase allele structure of a Prunus webbii population from the Montenegrin region of the Balkans, we analyzed 10 Prunus webbii accessions. We detected 10 different S-RNase allelic variants and obtained the nucleotide sequences for six S-RNases. The BLAST analysis showed that these six sequences were new Prunus webbii S-RNase alleles. It also revealed that one of sequenced alleles, S(9)-RNase, coded for an amino acid sequence identical to that for Prunus dulcis S(14)-RNase, except for a single conservative amino acid replacement in the signal peptide region. Another, S(3)-RNase, was shown to differ by only three amino acid residues from Prunus salicina Se-RNase. The allele S(7)-RNase was found to be inactive by stylar protein isoelectric focusing followed by RNase-specific staining, but the reason for the inactivity was not at the coding sequence level. Further, in five of the 10 analyzed accessions, we detected the presence of one active basic RNase (marked PW(1)) that did not amplify with S-RNase-specific DNA primers. However, it was amplified with primers designed from the PA1 RNase nucleotide sequence (basic "non-S RNase" of Prunus avium) and the obtained sequence showed high homology (80%) with the PA1 allele. Although homologs of PA1 "non-S RNases" have been reported in four other Prunus species, this is the first recorded homolog in Prunus webbii. The evolutionary implications of the data are discussed.

  4. Molecular characterization of Prunus mahaleb L. rootstock canditates by ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozyurt Ibrahim Kursat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus mahaleb is widely used as rootstocks particularly on calcareous and dry soils for both sweet and sour cherry cultivars in Turkey. Genetic diversity and relationships among members of Prunus mahaleb including 29 preselected rootstock candidate accessions from Tokat region in Turkey were investigated by using 15 ISSR markers. The study revealed high genetic diversity among accessions, detecting 138 fragments, of which 103 (75% were polymorphic. The number of polymorphic bands per primer was between 3-13, with average of 6.86. The primers 890 and 891 gave the highest polymorphism ratio (100%. The UPGMA dendrogram and the principal coordinate analysis revealed a clear differentiation among accessions. Reference rootstock, SL-64 clustered separately. The study demonstrates that ISSRs provide promising marker tools in revealing genetic diversity and relationships in Prunus mahaleb rootstock candidate accessions and can contribute to efficient identification, conservation, and utilization of germplasm for rootstock improvement through conventional as well as molecular breeding approaches.

  5. Clonal stability and epigenetic variation in sour cherry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sabine Karin

    Harvested yields of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cultivar 'Stevnsbaer' grown in Denmark have been highly variable over the years, yet some propagated derived trees selected from within the two widely grown clones of 'Stevnsbaer' cl. 'Birgitte' and cl. 'Viki' have consistently produced higher yields....... This observed variability within the clones raises the question as to whether more suitable plant material for the future might be found through similar selection. In this study, a number of the selected individuals were evaluated based on their morphological (harvested yield, number of buds/flowers/fruits......, leaf chlorophyll content, cold hardiness and tree structure) and genomic (DNA fingerprinting, nuclear DNA content, DNA methylation) differences to better understand the differences that produced the improved individuals within the existing clones of sour cherry. In addition, it was investigated whether...

  6. 气调箱贮藏甜樱桃品质变化研究%Changes of Qualites in Sweet Cherry Stored with CA Box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝刚; 李文生; 冯晓元; 石磊; 杨媛; 张开春

    2011-01-01

    以‘美早’和‘萨米脱’甜樱桃为试材,研究了气调箱保鲜处理对甜樱桃果实贮藏期间品质变化的影响.结果显示,2个品种甜樱桃贮藏过程中,气调箱内CO2浓度基本维持在12%~15%,O2浓度不低于6%;气调箱处理甜樱桃果实硬度显著高于对照果实;气调箱处理轻微降低了可溶性固形物的含量,但却保持了果实较高的可滴定酸以及维生素C含量.气调处理最明显的效果就是降低了甜樱桃果实的腐烂率.2个品种相比较,‘萨米脱’的腐烂率要远低于美早,耐贮性较好.2个品种果实经0℃贮藏60天后仍具有较好的感官品质,并可以保证3天的常温货架期.综上所述,气调箱能够保持果实较好的贮藏品质,可以用于贮运甜樱桃果实,具有很好的推广前景.%Sweet cherry fruit {Prunus avium L. Cv. Tieton and cv. Summit) were held into controlling atmosphere box (CAB), and then stored at (0 ± 0.5)t. The postharvest qualities of sweet cherry fruit were investigated at interval. Results showed that the carbon dioxide concentration in CAB were 12%-15%, and 6% higher O2 concentration. Firmness in fruit stored in CAB was higher than those in control. CAB treatment decreased the soluble solids content of sweet cherry fruit, but maintained the higher tritratable acidity and Vc content in contrast to control. CAB treatment inhibited significantly the decay incidence of sweet cherry fruit during storage and shelf-life. The lower decay incidence was found in 'Summit' fruit compared with 'Tieton' fruit. The sweet cherry fruit treated by CAB still had good sensory quality significantly after 60 days of storage and 3 days of shelf-life at ambient temperature. In general, CAB can keep better qualities, and be suitable for transportation and sales industry of sweet cherry fruit.

  7. Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene on fruit browning of sweet cherry%1-甲基环丙烯对甜樱桃果实褐变的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尊英; 曾名勇; 董士远; 宋艳; 张玉玉

    2005-01-01

    在预实验基础上,(24±1)℃,RH 80%-90%条件下,采用1μL/L甲基环丙烯(1-MCP)对甜樱桃处理24 h,后置于(0±0.5)℃条件下冷藏18 d,对果实的褐变参数及相关酶活性进行检测.结果表明,1μL/L 1-MCP明显抑制甜樱桃果实L*和H°值的下降及苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)、多酚氧化酶(PPO)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性的上升.(0±0.5)℃贮藏18 d后,1-MCP处理的果实风味和口感无明显变化,色泽和综合评分明显优于对照(P<0.05).%Experiment was conducted with just harvested sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit which were treated with 1μL/L 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) for 24 h at (24±1)℃ and 80%-90% RH, then the fruit were stored at (0±0.5)℃ for 18 days.Fruit browning parameters and related enzyme activities were examined. The results showed that application of 1-MCP retarded the decrease in L * and H° values and suppressed the increase in PAL, PPO and POD activities. 1-MCP treatment delayed the changes of fruit coloration and no effects on the fruit eating quality were noted. Comparing with the control the treated fruit quality was obviously better after 18 days stored at (0±0.5)℃.

  8. Control of Cherry Leaf Spot and Cherry Fruit Fly at Sour Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria BOROVINOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were made in the experimental sour cherry orchard from the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil, Bulgaria, during the period 2010-2014, in order to compare conventional and integrated sour cherry protection against cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Two variants were investigated, with two different treatment approaches for the control of cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Variant 1 – cherry leaf spot was controlled by protective treatments with dodin and tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin and cherry fruit fly was controlled by treatments with deltametrin and thiacloprid, independently of density. Variant 2 - cherry leaf spot was controlled by post-infection (curative treatments with tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin and cherry fruit fly was controlled by treatments based on biological threshold: 10-11 cherry fruit fly females caught in traps up to the moment for chemical treatment. It was established that Blumeriella japii can be successfully controlled by post-infection treatments and by this the number of insecticide treatments was reduced. The treatments against cherry fruit fly can be avoided or reduced when the attack control is based on the biological threshold established in the studied area.

  9. Evaluating correlative and mechanistic niche models for assessing the risk of pest establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological niche modeling was used to assess the risk of establishment of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the commercial cherry-growing areas of California. We integrated species occurrence records and spatial...

  10. Modeling daily flowering probabilities: expected impact of climate change on Japanese cherry phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jenica M; Terres, Maria A; Katsuki, Toshio; Iwamoto, Kojiro; Kobori, Hiromi; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Primack, Richard B; Wilson, Adam M; Gelfand, Alan; Silander, John A

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the drivers of phenological events is vital for forecasting species' responses to climate change. We developed flexible Bayesian survival regression models to assess a 29-year, individual-level time series of flowering phenology from four taxa of Japanese cherry trees (Prunus spachiana, Prunus × yedoensis, Prunus jamasakura, and Prunus lannesiana), from the Tama Forest Cherry Preservation Garden in Hachioji, Japan. Our modeling framework used time-varying (chill and heat units) and time-invariant (slope, aspect, and elevation) factors. We found limited differences among taxa in sensitivity to chill, but earlier flowering taxa, such as P. spachiana, were more sensitive to heat than later flowering taxa, such as P. lannesiana. Using an ensemble of three downscaled regional climate models under the A1B emissions scenario, we projected shifts in flowering timing by 2100. Projections suggest that each taxa will flower about 30 days earlier on average by 2100 with 2-6 days greater uncertainty around the species mean flowering date. Dramatic shifts in the flowering times of cherry trees may have implications for economically important cultural festivals in Japan and East Asia. The survival models used here provide a mechanistic modeling approach and are broadly applicable to any time-to-event phenological data, such as plant leafing, bird arrival time, and insect emergence. The ability to explicitly quantify uncertainty, examine phenological responses on a fine time scale, and incorporate conditions leading up to an event may provide future insight into phenologically driven changes in carbon balance and ecological mismatches of plants and pollinators in natural populations and horticultural crops.

  11. Seasonal trends in the elemental content of sweet cherry leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Alonso, F.; Lachica, M.

    1987-01-01

    Seasonal variation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B were determined in leaves of Prunus avium L., cv Napoleon. An equation for each element relating sampling date and content is given. Nitrogen, P, K, and Zn concentrations decreased during the vegetative cycle, while Ca, Mg, Fe and B increased. There was no seasonal change for S and Cu. The most suitable sampling period for a nutritional diagnosis is from mid-July to mid-August. There are significant interevolutive correlations among all the pairs of elements except those in which S and/or Cu take part. Certain soil parameters, such as an alkaline pH, a coarse texture and low content of k and organic matter could be responsible for the nutritive observed.

  12. 7 CFR 930.3 - Cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cherries. 930.3 Section 930.3 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... Definitions § 930.3 Cherries. Cherries means all tart/sour cherry varieties grown in the production...

  13. The application of SYBR Green I real-time quantitative RT-PCR in quantitative analysis of sweet cherry viruses in different tissues%SYBR Green I实时定量RT-PCR技术在甜樱桃病毒定量分析中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗晓娟; 王文文; 王甲威; 魏海蓉; 严霉瑞; 刘庆忠

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨SYBRGreenI实时定量RT—PCR技术在甜樱桃病毒粒子定量分析中的应用前景,以复合感染李属坏死环斑病毒(Prunusnecrotic ringspot virus,PNRSV)、李矮缩病毒(Prune Dwarf vi—rus,PDV)、樱桃病毒A(CherryvirusA,CVA)、樱桃小果病毒一2(Little cherry virus一2,LChV-2)的甜樱桃“红灯”PrunusaviumCV.RedLamp植株为研究对象,采用相对定量方法,分析各病毒的外壳蛋白基因的表达,用以指示病毒的增殖量。在花、幼叶、功能叶、衰老叶中均能检测到4个基因,但各基因表达量在各器官中存在差异。PNRSV-CP与CVA—CP表达模式相似,功能叶中明显高于其它器官,衰老叶中急剧降低。PDV-CP与LChV2一卯表达模式类似,幼叶中的表达量较高,功能叶片中较低。PNRSV-CP在花、功能叶中的表达显著高于其它3个病毒基因。LChV2一cP在各器官中的表达量均低于其余3个基因。该方法适用于植物组织内多种甜樱桃病毒增殖量的分析。%To explain the application of SYBR Green I real-time quantitative RT-PCR in the analysis of the viruses amounts, the plant samples were collected from the sweet cherry trees Prunus avium cv. Red Lamp which were infected by Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Cherry virus A (CVA) and Little cherry virus-2 (LChV-2) simultaneously. Relative expression of the virus coat protein gene was determined and selected to estimate the amounts of the virus in different plant tissues. The results showed that all of the four virus genes can be detected in flowers, young leaves, mature leaves and senescent leaves, but the expression levels of the genes among the samples were different. PNRSV- CP and CVA-CP obtained similar expression patterns, which were high in the functionally active plant tis- sues and low in the senescent tissues. The expression patterns of PDV-CP were similar to that of LChV2- CP, which

  14. Expression of gibberellin 3 beta-hydroxylase gene in a gravi-response mutant, weeping Japanese flowering cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Mami; Nakagawa, Yuriko; Nyunoya, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Teruko

    2004-01-01

    Expressions of the gibberellin biosynthesis gene were investigated in a normal upright type and a gravi-response mutant, a weeping type of Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus spachiana), that is unable to support its own weight and elongates downward. A segment of the gibberellin 3 beta-hydroxylase cDNA of Prunus spachiana (Ps3ox), which is responsible for active gibberellin synthesis, was amplified by using real-time RT-PCR. The content of Ps3ox mRNA in the weeping type was much greater than that in the upright type, while the endogenous gibberellin level was much higher in the elongating zone of the weeping type. These results suggest that the amount and distribution of synthesized gibberellin regulate secondary xylem formation, and the unbalanced distribution of gibberellin affects the gravi-response of the Prunus tree.

  15. Analysis of Hydraulic Conductance Components in Field Grown, Mature Sweet Cherry Trees Análisis de los Componentes de Conductancia Hidráulica en Árboles Maduros de Cerezo Dulce en Condiciones de Campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Oyarzún

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As a necessary step towards understanding soil water extraction and plant water relationships, the components of hydraulic conductance (K of mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. trees were evaluated in situ based on a Ohm´s law analog method. In June 2004, K was determined for 10-yr-old ‘Bing’/‘Gisela® 5’ trees, from simultaneous measurements of whole canopy gas exchange and leaf (sunlit and shaded and stem water potentials (Ψ. Leaf water potential of sunlit leaves was lower than shaded leaves, reaching minimum values of ca. -2.3 MPa around 14:00 h (solar time. Average total hydraulic conductance was 60 ± 6 mmol s-1 MPa-1, presenting a slight decreasing trend as the season progressed. The analysis of tree K components showed that it was higher on the stem-leaf pathway (150 ± 50 mmol s-1 MPa-1, compared to the root-stem component (100 ± 20 mmol s-1 MPa-1, which is in agreement with literature reports for other fruit trees. A weak hysteresis pattern in the daily relationship between whole-canopy transpiration (weighted sunlit and shaded leaves vs. Ψ was observed, suggesting that water storage within the tree is not a significant component of sweet cherry water balance.Como un paso necesario para la comprensión de la extracción de agua desde el suelo y las relaciones suelo-agua-planta, los componentes de la conductancia hidráulica (K en árboles adultos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. fue evaluada in situ con un método basado en una analogía de la Ley de Ohm. En Junio de 2004, K fue determinada para árboles ‘Bing’/‘Gisela® 5’ de 10 años de edad, a partir de mediciones simultáneas de intercambio gaseoso del follaje en forma integrada y potenciales hídricos (Ψ de hojas individuales (soleadas y sombreadas y del xilema. Los potenciales hídricos de las hojas soleadas fueron menores que los de las hojas sombreadas, alcanzando valores mínimos de ca. -2.3 MPa alrededor de 14:00 h (hora solar. La conductancia hidr

  16. Genetic Mapping and QTL Analysis for Fruit Color in Sweet Cherry Using the Intra-specific Crossing 'Rainier' x '8-100'%甜樱桃遗传图谱的构建及果皮红色性状QTL分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高平; 郑玮; 冯瑛; 李俞涛; 潘凤荣; 蔡宇良

    2012-01-01

    以甜樱桃(PrunusaviumL.)黄红皮品种‘雷尼’为母本,红皮品种‘8-100’为父本杂交获得的90株F,代群体为试材,利用RAPD、ISSR和SSR分子标记进行遗传分析,构建了含8个连锁群共50个分子标记(30条RAPD、15条ISSR、5对SSR标记)的遗传图谱,全长634.67cM,标记间的平均距离12.69cM。用基于混合线性模型的QTLNetwork2.0软件分析其果皮红色性状的QTL以及基因与环境的互作,发现了两个加性效应QTL和1对上位性互作QTL分布在Chrl和Cllr7染色体上,两个加性效应的遗传贡献率(膏。)分别为32.28%~n47.52%,1对上位效应的遗传贡献率(H^2AA)为37.87%,加性和上位性的效应位点与环境互作均为0。研究结果表明樱桃果皮红色性状的遗传受两个加性效应QTL和1对上位性互作OTL的影响。%A genetic linkage map was constructed using a F1 population comprising 90 seedlings from a crossing between a sweet and yellow with red flush skin color cherryPrunus avium L.) cultivar ‘Rainier' crossed with a red skin selection (Prunus avium L.) ‘8-100' . This map included 50 genetic markers, including 30 RAPD markers, 15 ISSR makers and 5 pairs SSR makers mapped in the eight linkage groups. The map covered 634.67 cM with an average gentic distance of 12.69 cM. QTL analysis was performed using the software of ‘ QTL Network' (version 2.0) based on the mixed 1 inear model. Two additive QTLs and one pair of epistatic effects were detected, which were located on chromosomes chrl and chr7. The additive QTL effects on Chrl were detected for the fruit color which explained 32.28% andon Chr7 which explained 47.52% of the total phenotypic variation. The epistatic effects between Chrl and Chr7 explained 37.87% of the total phenotypic variation. We did not find any interaction betweenenvironment and additive effect or epistatic effect. The results showed that both additive and

  17. The Dynamic Simulation of Stomatal Conductance of Cherry Leaf%樱桃叶片气孔导度模型构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高照全; 赵晨霞; 冯社章

    2012-01-01

    A coupled model of gas exchange was developed which was able to systematically simulate the diurnal courses of Gs and the response of Gs to microclimatic factors. The experiment was conducted in a Hongdeng cherryPrunus avium L. Hongdeng) orchard. The parameters of the model were tested by the data observed in upper canopy from 2008 to 2011 during the growing seasons.The simulation showed that Gs depends on plant characteristics and microclimatic factors including leaf water potential (41), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH) and air CO2 concentration. The results showed that Gs was mostly affected by ψ1, RH and Ta. Gs increased with the increase of ψ1 and RH, especially when ψ1 was below -1.5 MPa. As Ta increased, the change of Gs followed a bell-shaped curve. 28 ℃ was the optimum Ta for Gs in normal conditions. It should be noted that the optimum Ta for Gs shifted to a higher level as PAR or CO2 increased. There existed a positive linear relationship between Gs and PAR when PAR was below 600μmol·m^-2·s^-1 and Gs did not show a significant increase when PAR increased from 600 to 1800 μmol·m^-2·s^-1 Generally there was a negative correlation between CO2 concentration and Gs. Strong interactions existed among the various microclimatic factors to Gs, especially between Ta and PAR, PAR and CO2.%通过构建樱桃叶片气孔导度模型模拟Gs对小气候因子的响应。试验于2008—2011年在红灯樱桃(Prunus avium L.Hongdeng)园中进行,利用树冠上层叶片气体交换数据拟合了相应参数。结果表明,Gs的变化主要与小气候因子(如光合有效辐射PAR、空气温度Ta、相对湿度RH和CO2浓度等)和自身特性(如叶片水势ψ1)有关,其中ψ1、RH和Ta对Gs的影响较大。G8随ψ1,和RH增加而增加,当ψ1低于-1.5MPa时两者之间相关性尤为显著。当温度增加时Gs呈“钟

  18. Cloning and Expression Analysis of the Self-Incompatibility S9-Haplotype Specific F-box Genes in Cherry (Prunus avium)%樱桃自交不亲和S9-单元型特异的F-box基因克隆及其表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成建红; 白松龄; 韩振海; 许雪峰; 李天忠

    2006-01-01

    [目的]克隆李属甜樱桃自交不亲和性花粉S-决定子基因,为今后果树配子体自交不亲和性机理研究奠定理论基础.[方法]根据GenBank登录的16个S-locus F-box同源基因保守区设计兼并引物,利用RT-PCR、RACE等手段,从甜樱桃品种红灯花粉cDNA中克隆到两个编码376-氨基酸多肽的全长基因.[结果]GenBank Blast分析显示,克隆的两个基因中一个基因编码的蛋白产物与数据库甜樱桃自交不亲和性S3-单元型特异的PaSFB3(AB096857)编码的氨基酸序列完全一致.另一个基因编码一新的PaSFB同源序列,其推测的氨基酸序列N-端同SFB3一样具有明显的F-box基序,与PaSFB1~6的一致性为76%~82%.研究显示该基因在花粉组织中特异性表达,并表现出S9-单元型特异的连锁信号.[结论]新基因为甜樱桃自交不亲和性花粉S-决定子候选基因PaSFB家族中一新成员,命名为PaSFB9 (GenBank登录号:DQ422809),红灯自交不亲和基因型确定为S3S9.

  19. Combination of hot water with or without vitamin C treatment to control browning of sweet cherry fruit(Prunus avium L.)%热水结合维生素C处理对甜樱桃果实褐变的控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尊英; 曾名勇; 董士远; 杜亚楠

    2005-01-01

    在预试验基础上,甜樱桃果实采用42℃热水及42℃热水添加0.1%维生素C各处理10 min,在0±0.5℃,相对湿度为85%~90%的条件下贮藏18 d后,再置于24±1℃,相对湿度为65%~70%条件下存放2 d,对果实的褐变参数及相关酶活性进行检测.结果表明,热水处理明显抑制甜樱桃果实L*和H0值的下降及苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)、多酚氧化酶(PPO)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性的上升.热水添加维生素C处理强化了这一抑制效果.贮藏后,热水和热水添加维生素C处理的果实感官综合评分分别为6.9和7.5,而对照仅为5.7.相关分析表明,感官综合评分与L*、b*和H0呈显著正相关,与a*、PPO和POD活性呈显著负相关(P<0.05).

  20. 7 CFR 923.5 - Cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cherries. 923.5 Section 923.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.5 Cherries. Cherries means all varieties...

  1. Influence of the date of cut of rootstocks to the stub on growth of maider sour cherry trees cv. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Wociór

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over a three-year period (1997-1999 investigations were conducted on the effect of 6 date of cut to the stub on tree trunk diameter, height and branching of sour cherry maidens in the nursery.On the Prunus mahaleb seedling rootstock were found no significant influen ce of the date between January, 15 - March, 30 of cut to the stub on growth of sour cherry maidens cv. ´Łutówka' (tree trunk diameter and branching and efficiency of nursery. The date of cutting in 15 April decreased trunk diameter and percent of the first quality trees.

  2. Effects of Different Atmospheres on the Postharvest Physiology and Quality of the Sweet Cherry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ai-li; TIAN Shi-ping; XU Yong; WANG Yi; FAN Qing

    2002-01-01

    The changes in physiological characteristics, quality and storability of the sweet cherry (Prumus avium L. cv. Hongdeng) stored in controlled atmospheres (CA), in modified atmosphere packages (MAP) and in air (CK) were investigated in this paper. The results showed that CA and MAP treatments significantly inhibited fruit rot and flesh browning, kept firmness and fruit color, reduced ethylene and ethanol content in pulp, slowed down the increase of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in comparison with CK. Meanwhile, CA treatments showed a better benefit of reducing ethylene and ethanol contents, inhibiting PPO and POD activities, declining rot rate and browning index compared to MAP. The fruit could be stored in CA conditions for 60 days without any off-flavor. The sweet cherries kept in CA with 5% O2 + 10% CO2 showed a better storability than that in CA with 5% O2 +5% CO2.

  3. Simultaneous detection and identification of four cherry viruses by two step multiplex RT-PCR with an internal control of plant nad5 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorani, Md Salik; Awasthi, Prachi; Sharma, Maheshwar Prasad; Ram, Raja; Zaidi, Aijaz Asgar; Hallan, Vipin

    2013-10-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) was developed and standardized for the simultaneous detection of four cherry viruses: Cherry virus A (CVA, Genus; Capillovirus), Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV, unassigned species of the Betaflexiviridae), Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1, Genus; Closterovirus) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV, Genus; Ilarvirus) with nad5 as plant internal control. A reliable and quick method for total plant RNA extraction from pome and stone fruit trees was also developed. To minimize primer dimer formation, a single antisense primer for CVA and CNRMV was used. A mixture of random hexamer and oligo (dT) primer was used for cDNA synthesis, which was highly suited and economic for multiplexing. All four viruses were detected successfully by mRT-PCR in artificially created viral RNA mixture and field samples of sweet cherry. The identity of the viruses was confirmed by sequencing. The assay could detect above viruses in diluted cDNA (10(-4)) and RNA (10(-3), except PNRSV which was detected only till ten times lesser dilution). The developed mRT-PCR will not only be useful for the detection of viruses from single or multiple infections of sweet cherry plants but also for other stone and pome fruits. The developed method will be therefore quite helpful for virus indexing, plant quarantine and certification programs. This is the first report for the simultaneous detection of four cherry viruses by mRT-PCR.

  4. Detection of Self Incompatibility Genotypes in Prunus africana: Characterization, Evolution and Spatial Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Ssali Nantongo

    Full Text Available In flowering plants, self-incompatibility is an effective genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization. Most Prunus tree species exhibit a homomorphic gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI system, in which the pollen phenotype is encoded by its own haploid genome. To date, no identification of S-alleles had been done in Prunus africana, the only member of the genus in Africa. To identify S-RNase alleles and hence determine S-genotypes in African cherry (Prunus africana from Mabira Forest Reserve, Uganda, primers flanking the first and second intron were designed and these amplified two bands in most individuals. PCR bands on agarose indicated 26 and 8 different S-alleles for second and first intron respectively. Partial or full sequences were obtained for all these fragments. Comparison with published S-RNase data indicated that the amplified products were S-RNase alleles with very high interspecies homology despite the high intraspecific variation. Against expectations for a locus under balancing selection, frequency and spatial distribution of the alleles in a study plot was not random. Implications of the results to breeding efforts in the species are discussed, and mating experiments are strongly suggested to finally prove the functionality of SI in P. africana.

  5. Detection of Self Incompatibility Genotypes in Prunus africana: Characterization, Evolution and Spatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantongo, Judith Ssali; Eilu, Gerald; Geburek, Thomas; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, self-incompatibility is an effective genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization. Most Prunus tree species exhibit a homomorphic gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system, in which the pollen phenotype is encoded by its own haploid genome. To date, no identification of S-alleles had been done in Prunus africana, the only member of the genus in Africa. To identify S-RNase alleles and hence determine S-genotypes in African cherry (Prunus africana) from Mabira Forest Reserve, Uganda, primers flanking the first and second intron were designed and these amplified two bands in most individuals. PCR bands on agarose indicated 26 and 8 different S-alleles for second and first intron respectively. Partial or full sequences were obtained for all these fragments. Comparison with published S-RNase data indicated that the amplified products were S-RNase alleles with very high interspecies homology despite the high intraspecific variation. Against expectations for a locus under balancing selection, frequency and spatial distribution of the alleles in a study plot was not random. Implications of the results to breeding efforts in the species are discussed, and mating experiments are strongly suggested to finally prove the functionality of SI in P. africana.

  6. Effect of high light on PS Ⅱ in sweet cherry and the protective role of NaHSO3 and AsA%强光对甜樱桃光系统Ⅱ的影响及NaHSO3和AsA的保护效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计玮玮; 邱翠花; 李生辉; 郭延平; 滕元文

    2012-01-01

    以三年生欧洲甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)‘先锋’(砧木为马哈利)盆栽苗为试验材料,测定了小同光强对叶绿素荧光参数和DI蛋白含量的影响,以及NaHSO3和外源活性氧清除剂抗坏血酸(AsA)对叶片内H2O2积累的效应.结果表明,叶片在1800μmol·m-2·s-1光强下处理6h后,光系统Ⅱ最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)、电子传递速率(ETR)、PSⅡ量子产量(ΦpsⅡ)及非光化学淬火系数(NPQ)下降,初始荧光(Fo)和光化学猝灭系数(qP)以及DI蛋白的相对含量变化不大.与对照(H2O)相比,叶片经5mmol·L-1NaHSO3和4mmol·L-1AsA处理后,Fv/Fm下降幅度减小.这些结果表明,强光下甜樱桃Fv/Fm的下降并非是光合机构遭受破坏所致而是光合功能下调的一种保护机制,低浓度的NaHSO3和AsA对保护光系统Ⅱ有一定作用.%Effects of different light intensity on chlorophyll fluorescence and the level of Dl protein in three-year-old sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. ) variety Xianfeng grafted on P. mahaleb L. were investigated. The accumulation of H, 02 in leaves treated with NaHSO3 and exogenous ROS scavenger ascorbic acid (AsA) was also studied. The results showed that maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II ( Fv/Fm), electron transport rate ( ETR), quantum yield of PS II (ΦPSII), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) declined, while initial fluorescence (Fo), photochemical quenching (qP) and the relative content of Dl protein had no obvious changes in leaves under 1 800μmol ·m-2·s-1 radiation for 6 h. Compared with the control ( H2O), leaves treated with 5 mmol · L-1 NaHSO3 and 4 mmol·L-1 AsA had a less decline in Fv/Fm. These results indicated that the reduction in Fv/Fm was not a damage to the photosynthetic apparatus but a photoprotective strategy by down-regulating of photosynthetic function in sweet berry under high light, and low concentrations of NaHSO3 and AsA solution could protect the PS II against photo-damage in cherry leaves.

  7. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of PaEIL1 Gene Encoding Ethylene Transcription Factors in Sweet Cherry Fruit%甜樱桃乙烯转录因子PaEIL1基因的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳艳; 魏绍冲; 张静; 苏秀伟

    2011-01-01

    The fragment of PaElLl was isolated from mature sweet cherry fruit by RT - PCR using degenerate primers corresponding to the EIN3/EIL conserved region sequence. Both 5' and 3' end sequences of the cDNA were cloned using RACE technique. PaEILl was 2 636 bp in length, while the predicted open reading frame (ORF) of the cDNA was 1 806 bp and the deduced amino acid sequence of PaEILl consisted of 601 amino acids. The results of phylogenic analysis indicated that PaEILl could be classified into EIN3/EIL protein family.%根据植物乙烯转录因子EIL( EIN3- like)家族的氨基酸和核苷酸保守区序列设计简并引物,以甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)果实的cDNA为模板,通过RT- PCR方法得到了PaEIL1部分序列.随后进一步通过RACE技术克隆得到了PaEIL1全长片段,其大小为2636 bp,包含一个1 806bp大小的完整开放阅读框(ORF)及部分非编码区序列,编码蛋白大小约为601个氨基酸.聚类分析结果表明,PaEIL1属于EIN3/EIL家族乙烯转录因子成员.

  8. Mortality of Rhagoletis indifferens exposed to hydrolyzed protein baits and spinosad in the absence and presence of yeast extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is the major quarantine pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium L. (L.), in the Pacific Northwest of the USA and in British Columbia in Canada. Although spinosad bait (GF-120 NF Naturalyte® Fruit Fly Bait, Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, IN, USA) ...

  9. Efficacy of brown sugar flotation and hot water methods for detecting Rhagoletis indifferens (Dipt., Tephritidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown sugar flotation and hot water methods are accepted procedures for detecting larval western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, in sweet cherry [Prunus avium (L.) L.] and could be included in a systems approach for showing the absence of larvae in fruit. The methods require cr...

  10. Development of Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae) in crabapple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...

  11. Maraschino Cherry: A Laboratory-Lecture Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Oregon State Univ. has offered FST 102 "Maraschino Cherry" as a 1-credit orientation course since 1994. The maraschino cherry serves as a vehicle from which faculty give their disciplinary perspective, for example, the chemistry of the maraschino cherry, processing unit operations, microbiology and food safety, food law, sensory…

  12. 21 CFR 145.125 - Canned cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned cherries. 145.125 Section 145.125 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.125 Canned cherries. (a) Identity—(1) Ingredients. Canned cherries is the food prepared from one of the optional fresh or...

  13. Maraschino Cherry: A Laboratory-Lecture Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Oregon State Univ. has offered FST 102 "Maraschino Cherry" as a 1-credit orientation course since 1994. The maraschino cherry serves as a vehicle from which faculty give their disciplinary perspective, for example, the chemistry of the maraschino cherry, processing unit operations, microbiology and food safety, food law, sensory analysis, product…

  14. 樱桃新砧木——马哈利‘CDR-1’的选育%A new cherry dwarf rootstock variety——Mahaleb ‘ CDR-1'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宇良; 冯瑛; 张雪; 宛甜; 高平; 王玉

    2013-01-01

    樱桃新砧木马哈利‘CDR-1’属于马哈利樱桃种(Prunus mahaleb),为自然杂交种.‘CDR-1’萌芽力和成枝力强;抗根癌病能力优于中国樱桃和考特砧木;‘CDR-1’砧甜樱桃比酸樱桃及中国樱桃砧甜樱桃早果1~2 a;‘CDR-1’砧甜樱桃矮化效果达到中国樱桃砧甜樱桃的70%;有较强的耐盐碱性.适宜在陕西渭北、关中、陕南等同类地区栽植.%Mahaleh 'CDR-1' is a new Cherry rootstock of Prunus mahaleb , a natural hybrid with strong sprout capacity and branching ability. The resistance ability of 'CDR-1' rootstock to crown gall disease is superior to Chinese cherry (P. pseudo- cerasus) and Colt; Sweet cherry grafted on 'CDR-1' is one or two years earlier bearing than that on sour cherry(prunus cera- sus) and Chinese cherry (P. pseudocerasus); Dwarfing effect of 'CDR-1' compared with Chinese cherry (P. pseudocerasus L) is 70 percent and it has strong salt and alkaline tolerance ability. It is suitable for cultivation in Weibei Plateau , middle and south parts of Shaanxi or the similar area.

  15. Mitochondrial COI and morphological evidence for host specificity of the black cherry aphids Myzus cerasi (Fabricius, 1775 collected from different cherry tree species in Europe (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimantas Rakauskas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene of forty eight European and two Turkish population samples of Myzus cerasi from different winter hosts (Prunus spp. were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The analysed M. cerasi samples emerged as paraphyletic relative to a Myzus borealis sample used as an out-group, and formed two major clades in neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference trees, corresponding to subspecies living specifically on Prunus avium and P. cerasus. Multivariate discriminant analysis (method of canonical variates was applied to find out if morphological variation of samples correlated with mitochondrial COI and host plant information. Mean scores on the first two canonical variables clustered samples fully in accordance with their COI haplotypes and host plants confirming the existence of two morphologically similar winter host - specific subspecies of M.cerasi in Europe. No single morphological character enabled satisfactory discrimination between apterous viviparous females of the two subspecies. A three-character linear discriminant function enabled 92.37% correct identification of apterous viviparous females of M. cerasi cerasi (n=118 and 93.64% of M. cerasi pruniavium (n=110. A key for the morphological identification of the two subspecies is presented and their taxonomic status is discussed.

  16. Light conditions affect the performance of Yponomeuta evonymellus on its native host Prunus padus and the alien Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukowski, A; Giertych, M J; Walczak, U; Baraniak, E; Karolewski, P

    2017-04-01

    The bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus L., is considered an obligatory monophagous insect pest that feeds only on native European Prunus padus L. In recent years, however, increased larval feeding on alien P. serotina Ehrh. has been observed. In both species, general defoliation is extensive for shade grown trees, whereas it is high in P. padus, but very low in P. serotina, when trees are grown in full light conditions. The aim of the present study was to identify how the plant host species and light conditions affect the performance of Y. evonymellus. The influence of host species and light condition on their growth and development, characterized by the parameters of pupation, adult eclosion, body mass, potential fecundity, and wing size, was measured in a 2 × 2 experimental design (two light treatments, two hosts). In comparison with high light (HL) conditions, a greater percentage of pupation and a longer period and less dynamic adult emerge was observed under low light (LL) conditions. The effect of host species on these parameters was not significant. In contrast, mass, fecundity and all of the studied wing parameters were higher in larvae that grazed on P. padus than on P. serotina. Similarly the same parameters were also higher on shrubs in HL as compared with those grown under LL conditions. In general, light conditions, rather than plant species, were more often and to a greater extent, responsible for differences in the observed parameters of insect development and potential fecundity.

  17. Cherry blossom phenological data since the seventeenth century for Edo (Tokyo), Japan, and their application to estimation of March temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    The changes in March mean temperatures in Edo (Tokyo), Japan, since the seventeenth century, were reconstructed using phenological data for the cherry blossoms of Prunus jamasakura deduced from old diaries and chronicles. The observations of the time of full blossoming and of cherry blossom viewing parties were acquired and used to construct a full-blossoming phenological data series for P. jamasakura. Phenological data from 207 of the years from 1601 to 1905 were used for this study. The reconstructed temperatures suggested the existence of two cold periods (the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century), during which times the estimated March mean temperatures were about 4 °C and 5 °C, respectively. These two cold periods at Edo coincided with those reconstructed at Kyoto in previous studies. These cold periods coincided with two less extreme periods, the Maunder and Dalton minima, in the long-term solar variation cycle.

  18. Cherry blossom phenological data since the seventeenth century for Edo (Tokyo), Japan, and their application to estimation of March temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    The changes in March mean temperatures in Edo (Tokyo), Japan, since the seventeenth century, were reconstructed using phenological data for the cherry blossoms of Prunus jamasakura deduced from old diaries and chronicles. The observations of the time of full blossoming and of cherry blossom viewing parties were acquired and used to construct a full-blossoming phenological data series for P. jamasakura. Phenological data from 207 of the years from 1601 to 1905 were used for this study. The reconstructed temperatures suggested the existence of two cold periods (the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century), during which times the estimated March mean temperatures were about 4 °C and 5 °C, respectively. These two cold periods at Edo coincided with those reconstructed at Kyoto in previous studies. These cold periods coincided with two less extreme periods, the Maunder and Dalton minima, in the long-term solar variation cycle.

  19. Rapid Propagation of Sweet and Sour Cherry Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica DORIĆ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a protocol for micropropagation of Prunus sp. rootstocks included in the sweet and sour cherry breeding program. Germplasm diversity for rootstock breeding derives from natural populations, where conditions and biological vectors for systematic infection with viral diseases are constantly present. The establishment of aseptic culture depends primarily on the explant type, as all selections were collected from natural habitat. For nearly all investigated selections, dormant buds were the favored source, due to enabling rosette initiation in more than 58% cases. In P. cerasus L. selections, 100% contamination was noted when shoot tips were used as an explant source. Significant influence of the double-phase medium on the number and height of multiplied shoots was observed in the standard cherry rootstock, ‘Gisela 6’. For P. fruticosa Pall., selection ‘SV1’ and ‘SV2’, and P. cerasus ‘D6’ selection, the double-phase medium also had a significant effect on the height of multiplied shoots, when compared to solid DKW (Driver and Kuniyuki Walnut medium. Genetic variability of selections within the investigated species resulted in variable plant rooting success. Adding Fe-EDDHA (Ethylenediamine di-2-hydroxy-phenyl acetate ferric in the 200 mg l-1 concentration to the rooting medium significantly enhanced the percentage of rooted plants. The highest rooting percentage was noted for ‘Gisela 6’ and ‘D6’ genotype at 1 mg l-1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid, while 0.8 mg l-1 was the optimum concentration for P. mahaleb L. ‘M1’ selection. P. fruticosa genotypes required significantly higher IBA concentration for rooting (2.5 and 3.5 mg l-1.

  20. Ireland's Cherry Orchard National School

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Cuiv, Shan

    2007-01-01

    This recently completed primary school illustrates how architecture can contribute to creating a safe and warm environment in a difficult area and can meet the particular needs of the student community. In its first year in operation, Cherry Orchard National School is proving to be a successful project. Presented here are the architectural…

  1. Chopping Down the Cherry Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Jerry

    1995-01-01

    Attempts once again to put to rest the infamous "I cannot tell a lie" episode involving George Washington and a downed cherry tree. Appends an editor's note that states that William Bennett's "The Children's Book of Virtues" which perpetuates this infamous piece of "fakelore." (RS)

  2. Cloning and molecular characterisation of resuscitation promoting factor-like gene from Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kavitha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Resuscitation promoting factor (Rpf-like gene of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis has been known to stimulate the growth of mycobacteria and enhances the recovery of replicating cells from non-replicating phases. The objective of the study was to produce recombinant rpf-like protein of M. avium subspecies avium protein for purification and physico-chemical characterisation. Materials and Methods: The identified rpf gene of M. avium subspecies avium was cloned, subcloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli expression system for the production of the recombinant protein. The expressed recombinant Rpf protein was confirmed by Western blot and the extract was purified to yield a pure recombinant protein. Results: An rpf-like gene of 675 bp size in the M. avium subspecies avium was identified. This gene was expressed and the recombinant Rpf weighed 65 kDa as confirmed by Western blot. The M. avium recombinant Rpf protein was extracted under denatured conditions and purified yielding a recombinant protein with >90% purity. Conclusions: Identification, cloning, sequencing and expression of a rpf-like gene from M. avium suggest that RpfA is present in this species also, which might be involved in reactivation phenomenon in this high-risk pathogen.

  3. 甜樱桃品种S基因型研究概况%General situation of studies on S genotypes of sweet cherry cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾呈祥; 张力思; 刘庆忠

    2007-01-01

    甜樱桃(Prunus avium L)属配子体型自交不亲和(Gametophyticself-incompatibility,GSI),遗传上由染色体上具有复等位基因构成的单一位点或基因座控制(称为S基因座)。在一个S基因座上,植物种群内可含有多个S等位基因,称为S基因。

  4. Reproductive biology traits affecting productivity of sour cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Fotiric Aksic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate variability in reproductive biology traits and the correlation between them in genotypes of 'Oblačinska' sour cherry (Prunus cerasus. High genetic diversity was found in the 41 evaluated genotypes, and significant differences were observed among them for all studied traits: flowering time, pollen germination, number of fruiting branches, production of flower and fruit, number of flowers per bud, fruit set, and limb yield efficiency. The number of fruiting branches significantly influenced the number of flower and fruit, fruit set, and yield efficiency. In addition to number of fruiting branches, yield efficiency was positively correlated with fruit set and production of flower and fruit. Results from principal component analysis suggested a reduction of the reproductive biology factors affecting yield to four main characters: number and structure of fruiting branches, flowering time, and pollen germination. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of the 'Oblačinska' genotypes can be used to select the appropriate ones to be grown or used as parents in breeding programs. In this sense, genotypes II/2, III/9, III/13, and III/14 have very good flower production and satisfactory pollen germination.

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of drought resistance of four cherry rootstocks by membership function analysis%4种砧木樱桃的抗旱生理特性及抗旱性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥丽; 徐坚; 陈文荣; 李永强; 郭卫东

    2011-01-01

    Aimed to screen the drought-endurable rootstocks, using pot experiments, different rootstocks (Benxishanying, Laiyangaiying, Daqingye and Colt) grafted with sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L. ) were analyzed for the physiological responds to drought stress. With the increasing level of drought stress and prolonging of duration time, the content of H2O2 and O2- of four rootstocks showed a straight increase trend, meanwhile, significant increases were also observed in the contents of proline and the permeability of plasma membrane. However, the increases of those indexes greatly differed among the four grafted seedlings with different rootstocks, the biggest increase was observed in the seedling grafted on Colt rootstock and the smallest increase occurred in the seedlings grafted on Benxishanying rootstock. The changes of praline content showed opposite trends. A comprehensive evaluation on drought resistance was given based on membership function analysis. The results indicated that the order of drought resistance from high to low was Benxishanying, Laiyangaiying, Daqingye and Colt.%利用盆栽试验,研究4种砧木的甜樱桃嫁接苗的在干旱胁迫条件下的生理特性变化,用于筛选较耐旱的甜樱桃砧木品种.随干旱胁迫程度的增加,4种砧木嫁接苗叶片的过氧化氢和超氧阴离子的含量呈上升的趋势,上升幅度较大的是‘考特'品种,幅度最小的是‘本溪山樱';质膜相对透性和脯氨酸含量呈上升趋势,相对透性‘考特'品种的增幅最大,‘本溪山樱'最小;脯氨酸含量‘本溪山樱'的增幅最大,其次为‘莱阳矮樱'、‘大青叶'、‘考特'.利用隶属函数法对材料进行抗旱性的综合评价,4种不同砧木樱桃的抗旱性由强到弱的顺序依次是‘本溪山樱',‘莱阳矮樱',‘大青叶',‘考特'.

  6. Michigan Tart Cherry Processors: Issues and Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Lourdes R.; Thornsbury, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Michigan accounts for approximately 70 percent of the total number of tart cherry processing firms in the U.S. Changes in preferences of consumers and increasing participation of global competitors are driving down demand for traditional tart cherry products and imposing new pressures on the U.S. industry, particularly in Michigan. The objective of this report is to document main characteristics of the tart cherry processing industry in Michigan; namely, business characteristics, category of ...

  7. Open cherry picker simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The simulation program associated with a key piece of support equipment to be used to service satellites directly from the Shuttle is assessed. The Open Cherry Picker (OCP) is a manned platform mounted at the end of the remote manipulator system (RMS) and is used to enhance extra vehicular activities (EVA). The results of simulations performed on the Grumman Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS) and at the JSC Water Immersion Facility are summarized.

  8. Translocation of nitrogen in the xylem of field-grown cherry and poplar trees during remobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Peter; Wendler, Renate; Grassi, Giacomo; Grelet, Gwen-Aelle; Tagliavini, Massimo

    2006-04-01

    Studies of small trees growing in pots have established that individual amino acids or amides are translocated in the xylem sap of a range of tree species following bud burst, as a consequence of nitrogen (N) remobilization from storage. This paper reports the first study of N translocation in the xylem of large, deciduous, field-grown trees during N remobilization in the spring. We applied 15N fertilizer to the soil around 10-year-old Prunus avium L. and Populus trichocharpa Torr. & Gray ex Hook var. Hastata (Dode) A. Henry x Populus balsamifera L. var. Michauxii (Dode) Farwell trees before bud burst to label N taken up by the roots. Recovery of unlabeled N in xylem sap and leaves was used to demonstrate that P. avium remobilizes N in both glutamine (Gln) and asparagine (Asn). Sap concentrations of both amides rose sharply after bud burst, peaking 14 days after bud burst for Gln, and remaining high some 45 days for Asn. There was no 15N enrichment of either amide until 21 days after bud burst. In the Populus trees, nearly all the N was translocated in the sap as Gln, the concentration of which peaked and then declined before the amide was enriched with 15N, 40 days after bud burst. Xylem sap of clonal P. avium trees was sampled at different positions in the crown to assess if the amino acid and amide composition of the sap varied within the crown. Sap was sampled during remobilization (when the concentration of Gln was maximal), at the end of remobilization and at the end of the experiment (68 days after bud burst). Although the date of sampling had a highly significant effect on sap composition, the effect of position of sampling was marginal. The results are discussed in relation to N translocation in adult trees and the possibility of measuring N remobilization by calculating the flux of N translocation in the xylem.

  9. Effects of Controlled Atmospheres with High-O2 or High-CO2 Concentrations on Postharvest Physiology and Storability of "Napoleon" Sweet Cherry%高O2或高CO2浓度气调贮藏对"那翁"甜樱桃采后生理和贮藏性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜爱丽; 田世平; 徐勇

    2002-01-01

    Sweet cherries ( Prunus avium L. cv. Napoleon) were stored in controlled atmospheres (CA) of high O2 (70% O2+0% CO2) or high CO2 (5% O2+10% CO2), in modified atmosphere package (MAP, (13%-18%) O2+(2%-4%) CO2) and in air (control) at 1 ℃ to investigate the effects of different O2 and CO2 concentrations on physiological properties, quality and storability of the fruits during storage. The results indicated that compared with other treatments, CA with high O2 concentration decreased fruit decay and ethanol content, but increased the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and stimulated browning. CA with high CO2 concentration inhibited polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced MDA content, maintained vitamin C content and firmness, decreased fruit decay and browning. Soluble solids contents (SSC) were not significantly affected by different atmosphere treatments. "Napoleon" fruits stored in 5% O2+10% CO2 for as long as 80 d were of good quality, but only 40, 20 and 30 d stored in MAP, 70% O2+ 0% CO2 and air, respectively.%研究了甜樱桃品种"那翁" ( Prunus avium L. cv. Napoleon)在1 ℃的高O2 浓度气调(CA-I: 70% O2+0% CO2)、高CO2 浓度气调 (CA-II: 5% O2+10% CO2)、自发气调 (modified atmosphere package, MAP) 和普通冷藏条件下果实生理、品质、耐藏性的变化.结果表明:与其他处理相比,高O2 浓度的气调可以抑制果实腐烂、减少果肉中乙醇含量,但果实的丙二醛(MDA)含量迅速上升、褐变严重.高CO2浓度的气调能有效抑制MDA含量上升的速率和多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性,保持果实硬度和维生素C含量,减少果实腐烂和褐变,延长贮藏寿命.不同处理对果实可溶性固形物含量的影响不大."那翁" 甜樱桃在5% O2+10% CO2气调中贮藏80 d能保持果实固有的风味品质.在MAP下, 70% O2+0% CO2和普通冷藏中的适宜贮藏期分别为40 d、20 d和30 d.

  10. REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN SOUR CHERRY DURING WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate changes in photosynthetic efficiency applying repeated measures ANOVA using the photosynthetic performance index (PIABS of the JIP-test as a vitality parameter in seven genotypes of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, L. during 10 days of continuous water deficit. Both univariate and multivariate ANOVA repeated measures revealed highly significant time effect (Days and its subsequent interactions with genotype and water deficit. However, the multivariate Pillai’s trace test detected the interaction Time × Genotype × Water deficit as not significant. According to the Tukey’s Studentized Range (HSD test, differences between the control and genotypes exposed to water stress became significant on the fourth day of the experiment, indicating that the plants on the average, began to lose their photosynthetic efficiency four days after being exposed to water shortage. It corroborates previous findings in other species that PIABS is very sensitive tool for detecting drought stress.

  11. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  12. Large-scale climate variability and its effects on mean temperature and flowering time of Prunus and Betula in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormsen, A. K.; Hense, A.; Toldam-Andersen, T. B.; Braun, P.

    2005-08-01

    Large-scale climate variability largely affects average climatic conditions and therefore is likely to influence the phenology of plants. In NW-Europe, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) particularly influences winter climate and, through climate interactions on plants, flowering time of all tree species. In Denmark, like in many other NW-European countries, flowering of most tree species has become earlier since the end of the 1980’s. To quantify a possible relation between NAO and flowering time of tree species, two sources of phenological information from the Copenhagen area (Denmark) were analysed, i.e. pollen counts of the genus Betula and observed first bloom dates of Prunus avium. The Winter NAO explained 29 and 37% of the variation of monthly mean temperature for February and March, respectively. The influence of temperature on flowering time was up to 56% to 60% for the February April mean. A direct correlation of Winter NAO-index and flowering time also revealed a clear relation but the time of influence was earlier (December to February). This was shown to be the likely result of a combination of direct and time-lagged effects of the NAO on air and sea surface temperature. The NAO signal is apparently stored in the North Sea and then influences temperature east up to the Baltic States. It is shown that Denmark is right in the centre of direct and time-lagged effects of the NAO. This offers the possibility of using the NAO-index for predicting flowering time of Prunus avium. The beginning of pollen flow appears to be influenced too much by short-term perturbations of the climate system decreasing the value of the NAO-index for prediction. However, it indicates a close relationship between natural climate variability, measured by the NAO index, and flowering time of tree species for Denmark.

  13. 7 CFR 930.15 - Restricted percentage cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricted percentage cherries. 930.15 Section 930.15... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES... Handling Definitions § 930.15 Restricted percentage cherries. Restricted percentage cherries means...

  14. 21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126... § 145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries. (a) Artificially sweetened canned cherries is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned cherries by §...

  15. Monitoring Drosophila suzukii Matsumura in Oregon, USA sweet cherry orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii rapidly became a significant cherry pest in the western United States after it was observed damaging cherries in 2009 in California. It has caused significant damage to ripening cherries in all major USA cherry production districts leading to increased management costs and reduced...

  16. Curative activity of insecticides against plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in tart cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Eric J; Vandervoort, Christine; Wise, John C

    2009-10-01

    Tart cherry, Prunus cerasus L. variety Montmorency, fruit were infested with plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and treated with insecticides to target late instars, neonates, and eggs. The organophosphates azinphos-methyl and phosmet and the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam reduced larval emergence rates by >90% for all life stage targets; after >30 d, few surviving larvae were found inside fruit. Acetamiprid and thiacloprid also had curative activity and yielded >75% reductions in emergence and few surviving larvae in the fruit after >30 d. The juvenile hormone analog pyriproxyfen reduced larval emergence, but 66% of fruit that was treated to target late-instars still had live larvae inside of them after >30 d. Novaluron, chlorantraniliprole, and esfenvalerate had no curative activity. Indoxacarb had limited curative activity, and all targeted life stages had larval emergence. Internal and external residues were analyzed and are discussed in relation to their penetration and curative potential. The curative activity of azinphos-methyl has played an important role in meeting federal standards for infestation-free tart cherries at processing. Regulatory changes are eliminating the use of this compound, and new integrated pest management programs for plum curculio will need to address the loss of azinphos-methyl's curative activity.

  17. The growth relationships in maiden trees of sour cherry ‘Łutówka’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Lipecki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted in a nursery of sour cherry ‘Łutówka’ budded on Prunus mahaleb L. in the years 1993, 2000–2003, and 2013. The height of trees, the diameter of stems, and the length of lateral shoots were measured. The air temperature and precipitation higher than the long-term mean (by approximately 10 % and 28%, respectively contributed to the increase in the stem diameter, the total length of shoots, and the number of shoots per tree. The length of lateral shoots increased from the top of the crown towards the lower parts, however, the number of feathers per tree and the mean length of shoots decreased. A strong positive relationship (r = 0.74, P < 0.05 was revealed between the stem diameter and the total length of shoots. Generally, the correlations between the type of growth of sour cherry maiden trees and morphological traits were similar to those characteristic for apple maiden trees or “knip-boom” type trees.

  18. Cherry Antioxidants: From Farm to Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Belleggia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The dietary consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds found in vegetable products. Sweet and sour cherries contain several antioxidants and polyphenols that possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammation properties. The review describes the effect of environment and other factors (such as production, handling and storage on the nutritional properties of cherries, with particular attention to polyphenol compounds. Moreover the health benefits of cherries and their polyphenols against human diseases such as heart disease, cancers, diabetes are reviewed.

  19. Effective pollination period in "Oblačinska" sour cherry clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotirić-Akšić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain high yields there should be high flower density and fruit set in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. production. Furthermore, in order to ensure successful fertilization, there should be satisfactory stigma receptivity, rapid pollen tube growth along the style, as well as adequate ovule longevity. This manuscript presents the study of the effective pollination period (EPP of four ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry clones (II/2, III/9, XI/3 and XIII/1 that differs in pollen germination, fruit set and yields. In order to estimate EPP, pollination was conducted in six different stages of flower development: balloon stage, 2 d before anthesis (-2, at anthesis (0, and 2, 4, 6 and 8 d after anthеsis (DAA. The initial (IFS and final fruit set (FFS were recorded under the field conditions. Alongside with this, the rate of pollen tubes growth in the style was observed with fluorescent microscopy. The experimental design was completely randomized, a two-factorial analysis of variance was carried out and individual testing was performed using LSD test (p ≤ 0.05; p ≤ 0.01. The experiment was set in triplicates. Regarding FFS, clones II/2 and III/9 showed the best results (p ≤ 0.01 in 4 and 6 DAA. The number of pollen tubes in the style of the pistil decreased with subsequent terms of pollination, while its number in the ovule increased up to sixth day after pollination, followed by a decline. Clones II/2 and III/9 showed EPP which lasted from 6 to 8 d, while EPP found in clone XI/3, lasted only 2 d. It is concluded that only clone having long EPP should be used as parents for creating new sour cherry cultivars. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063 and FP7 Project AREA 316004

  20. 日本樱桃产业沿革、现况与趋向%Evolution, current situation and tendency of cherry industry in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 孙玉刚; 刘伟; 李桂祥; 董晓民

    2016-01-01

    简述日本樱桃产业历史沿革、现状与发展动向.樱桃品种资源来自欧洲甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)、欧洲酸樱桃(Prunus cerasus L.)、中国樱桃(Prunus pseudocerasus L.),均为引进种,主要经济栽培种为欧洲甜樱桃.1872年前后开始引种试验栽培,1975年前以加工原料栽培为主,1988年完成向鲜食栽培的转型,1911年命名第1个本土选育品种'北光'.目前主栽品种为1928年命名的'佐藤锦',占栽培总面积64.9%,形成以'佐藤锦'及'红秀峰'为主的适合本地栽培环境、本地消费需求的品种群,以及以遮雨栽培为主要特征的栽培技术体系.

  1. Lead residues in eastern tent caterpillars (Malacosoma americanum) and their host plant (Prunus serotina) close to a major highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, W.N.; Moore, J.

    1980-02-01

    Eastern tent caterpillars, Malacosoma americanum (F.) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), and leaves of their host plant, black cherry, Prunus serotina Ehrh., were collected in May, 1978, at various distances from the Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Prince George's Co., MD, and were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Caterpillars collected within 10 m of the parkway contained 7.1 to 7.4 ppM lead (dry weight). Caterpillars collected at greater distances from the parkway and from a control area had lead concentrations ca. half as high (2.6 to 5.3 ppM). Lead concentrations in caterpillars averaged 76% as high as those in leaves and were much lower than concentrations that have been reported in some roadside soil and litter invertebrates.

  2. Lead residues in eastern tent caterpillars (Malacosoma americanum) and their host plant (Prunus serotina) close to a major highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Moore, J.

    1980-01-01

    Eastern tent caterpillars, Malacosoma americanum (F.) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae and leaves of their host plant, black cherry, Prunus serotina Ehrh., were collected in May, 1978, at various distances from the Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Prince George's Co., MD, and were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Caterpillars collected within 10 m of the parkway contained 7.1-7.4 ppm lead (dry weight). Caterpillars collected at greater distances from the parkway and from a control area had lead concentrations ca. half as high (2.6-5.3 ppm). Lead concentrations in caterpillars averaged 76% as high as those in leaves and were much lower than concentrations that have been reported in some roadside soil and litter invertebrates

  3. Lynne Cherry's World: A Celebration of Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarski, Diana L.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles Lynne Cherry, author-illustrator whose books convey her interest in environmentalism and preserving natural resources. Describes her career, process of illustrating several recent books, and founding of the Center for Children's Environmental Literature in 1992. (TM)

  4. Invariant Measures for Cherry Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghin, Radu; Vargas, Edson

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the invariant probability measures for Cherry flows, i.e. flows on the two-torus which have a saddle, a source, and no other fixed points, closed orbits or homoclinic orbits. In the case when the saddle is dissipative or conservative we show that the only invariant probability measures are the Dirac measures at the two fixed points, and the Dirac measure at the saddle is the physical measure. In the other case we prove that there exists also an invariant probability measure supported on the quasi-minimal set, we discuss some situations when this other invariant measure is the physical measure, and conjecture that this is always the case. The main techniques used are the study of the integrability of the return time with respect to the invariant measure of the return map to a closed transversal to the flow, and the study of the close returns near the saddle.

  5. Invariant measures for Cherry flows

    CERN Document Server

    Saghin, Radu

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the invariant probability measures for Cherry flows, i.e. flows on the two-torus which have a saddle, a source, and no other fixed points, closed orbits or homoclinic orbits. In the case when the saddle is dissipative or conservative we show that the only invariant probability measures are the Dirac measures at the two fixed points, and the Dirac measure at the saddle is the physical measure. In the other case we discuss some situations when there exists another invariant measure supported on the quasi-minimal set, which is the physical measure, and conjecture that this is always the case. The main techniques used are the study of the integrability of the return time with respect to the invariant measure of the return map to a closed transversal to the flow, and the study of the close returns near the saddle.

  6. Investigation on the pollen morphology of traditional cultivars of Prunus species in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Geraci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study pollen grains of 13 cultivars and 3 rootstocks belonging to 5 species (P. armeniaca, P. domestica, P. dulcis, P. persica, P. avium of the genus Prunus collected from North-East Sicily were examined for the micromorphological characterization through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The length of polar axis (P and the equatorial diameter (E of grain, P/E ratio, the length of colpi (C, diameter of perforations (DP and the number of perforations in 25 μm2 (PN, the width of muri (WM, the distance between muri (DM and their number in 25 μm2 (MN, the width of grooves (WG were measured and their variation was compared among studied taxa. Moreover multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to distinguish morphometric information from measured parameters. All pollen grains are trizonocolpate, isopolar, medium-large sized and their shape varies from prolate to perprolate. Regarding outline pollen grains are subtriangular in polar view and elliptic in equatorial view. Exine sculpturing is striate with perforations on grain surface. The arrangement of ridges appears roughly parallel but too sloped (sometimes curved compared to polar axis, or branched and oriented in different directions, or perfectly parallel or more irregular with bifurcated ridges often sinuous. The analyses showed a great variability (particularly in P. domestica cultivars related in some cases to the diversity in the morphological features of the leaves and the fruits of the investigated entities.

  7. Micropropagation of ornamental Prunus spp. and GF305 peach, a Prunus viral indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, Anna; Brown, Daniel C W

    2007-07-01

    A micropropagation approach was developed for nine ornamental Prunus species, P. americana, P. cistena, P. glandulosa, P. serrulata 'Kwanzan', P. laurocerasus, P. sargentii, P. tomentosa, P. triloba, P. virginiana 'Schubert', commercially important in North America, and GF305 peach, commonly used for Prunus virus indexing. The micropropagation cycle based on proliferation of vegetative tissues includes establishment of tissue culture through introduction of shoot meristems in vitro, shoot proliferation, root induction and plant acclimatization steps and can be completed in 5 months. A meristem sterilization protocol minimized bacterial and fungal contamination. Multiple shoot formation in ornamental Prunus was obtained through the use of 1 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine. For GF305 peach, alteration in the sugar composition, fructose instead of sucrose, and addition of 1 mg l(-1 )ferulic acid had a significant impact on the shoot proliferation rate and maintenance of long-term in vitro culture. Rooting and plant acclimatization conditions were improved using a two-step protocol with a 4-day root induction in indole-3-butiric acid (IBA)-containing media with consequent 3-week root elongation in IBA-free media. One-month incubation of rooted shoots in a vermiculite-based medium resulted in additional shoot and root growth and provided better acclimatization and plant recovery. The micropropagation approach can be used for maintenance of the clonal properties for Prunus spp. as well as a protocol to support meristem therapy against viral infection.

  8. Genome-wide sequence variations among Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yi eHsu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. ap, the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD, infects many farmed ruminants, wildlife animals and humans. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of these infections, we analyzed the whole genome sequences of several M. ap and M. avium subspecies avium (M. avium strains isolated from various hosts and environments. Using Next-generation sequencing technology, all 6 M. ap isolates showed a high percentage of homology (98% to the reference genome sequence of M. ap K-10 isolated from cattle. However, 2 M. avium isolates (DT 78 and Env 77 showed significant sequence diversity from the reference strain M. avium 104. The genomes of M. avium isolates DT 78 and Env 77 exhibited only 87% and 40% homology, respectively, to the M. avium 104 reference genome. Within the M. ap isolates, genomic rearrangements (insertions/deletions, Indels were not detected, and only unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were observed among the 6 M. ap strains. While most of the SNPs (~100 in M. ap genomes were non-synonymous, a total of ~ 6000 SNPs were detected among M. avium genomes, most of them were synonymous suggesting a differential selective pressure between M. ap and M. avium isolates. In addition, SNPs-based phylo-genomic analysis showed that isolates from goat and Oryx are closely related to the cattle (K-10 strain while the human isolate (M. ap 4B is closely related to the environmental strains, indicating environmental source to human infections. Overall, SNPs were the most common variations among M. ap isolates while SNPs in addition to Indels were prevalent among M. avium isolates. Genomic variations will be useful in designing host-specific markers for the analysis of mycobacterial evolution and for developing novel diagnostics directed against Johne’s disease in animals.

  9. 7 CFR 923.322 - Washington cherry handling regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington cherry handling regulation. 923.322 Section... CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Grade, Size, Container and Pack Regulation § 923.322 Washington cherry handling regulation. (a) Grade. No handler shall...

  10. 7 CFR 930.8 - Free market tonnage percentage cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Free market tonnage percentage cherries. 930.8 Section... CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.8 Free market tonnage percentage cherries. Free...

  11. Mycobacterium avium subspecies impair dendritic cell maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, Tina; Brumshagen, Christina; Beineke, Andreas; Goethe, Ralph; Bäumer, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic, granulomatous enteritis of ruminants. Dendritic cells (DC) of the gut are ideally placed to combat invading mycobacteria; however, little is known about their interaction with MAP. Here, we investigated the interaction of MAP and the closely related M. avium ssp. avium (MAA) with murine DC and the effect of infected macrophages on DC maturation. The infection of DC with MAP or MAA induced DC maturation, which differed to that of LPS as maturation was accompanied by higher production of IL-10 and lower production of IL-12. Treatment of maturing DC with supernatants from mycobacteria-infected macrophages resulted in impaired DC maturation, leading to a semi-mature, tolerogenic DC phenotype expressing low levels of MHCII, CD86 and TNF-α after LPS stimulation. Though the cells were not completely differentiated they responded with an increased IL-10 and a decreased IL-12 production. Using recombinant cytokines we provide evidence that the semi-mature DC phenotype results from a combination of secreted cytokines and released antigenic mycobacterial components of the infected macrophage. Our results indicate that MAP and MAA are able to subvert DC function directly by infecting and indirectly via the milieu created by infected macrophages.

  12. Influence of Mahaleb and Gisela 5 Rootstocks on the Growth of „Bigarreau Burlat” Sweet Cherry Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of Prunus Mahaleb L. and ‘Gisela 5’ rootstocks on the growth of ‘Biggareau Burlat’ sweet cherry cultivar was evaluate on the environmental conditions of Cluj-Napoca city, in 2015, in a high-density plot (trees are planted at the distance of 4 x 1.5 m with 1666 trees/ha, trained as spindle busch, with trellis system and drip fert-irigation provided. The measurements were done in April, on 10 trees of the cultivar grafted on different rootstock, in the 4th year after planting. The trunck diameter growth was measured 5 cm above the graft, and it was also recorded the number and length of annual increases (long, medium and spur fruiting branches and calculated the tree height. After first four years from planting, ‘Biggareau Burlat’ grafted on ‘Gisela 5’ rootstock proved to be more vigorously than grafted on Prunus Mahaleb L., considering the total numbers of the medium and long branches per tree. ‘Biggareau Burlat’/Gisela 5, compared to ‘Biggareau Burlat’/P. Mahaleb significantly exceeded in the number of medium branches (4.7 comparatively to 3, number of long branches on the tree (17.2 comparatively to 7.9, number of inflorescences buds (74.7 comparatively to 41.3  and the total length of annual tree branches.

  13. A Subinhibitory Concentration of Clarithromycin Inhibits Mycobacterium avium Biofilm Formation

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium causes disseminated infection in immunosuppressed individuals and lung infection in patients with chronic lung diseases. M. avium forms biofilm in the environment and possibly in human airways. Antibiotics with activity against the bacterium could inhibit biofilm formation. Clarithromycin inhibits biofilm formation but has no activity against established biofilm.

  14. Complete nucleotide sequence of little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1) infecting sweet cherry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1), associated with little cherry disease (LCD), has a significant impact on fruit quality of infected sweet cherry trees. We report the full genome sequence of an isolate of LChV-1 from China, detected by small RNA deep sequencing and amplified by overlapping RT-PCR. The...

  15. The effects of the cherry variety on the chemical and sensorial characteristics of cherry brandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINOSLAV NIKIĆEVIĆ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and sensorial characteristics of cherry brandy produced from five cherry varieties (Oblacinska, Celery’s 16, Rexle, Heiman’s Ruby and Heiman’s Conserve grown in Serbia were studied. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of these distillates led to the identification of 32 components, including 20 esters, benzaldehyde, 6 terpenes and 5 acids. The ethyl esters of C8–C18 acids were the most abundant in all samples. The benzaldehyde content was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The average benzaldehyde concentration in the samples ranged between 2.1 and 24.1 mg L-1. The total sensory scores of the cherry brandies ranged between 17.30 to 18.05, with the cherry brandy produced from the Celery’s 16 variety receiving the highest score (18.05.

  16. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF BIRD CHERRY FRUIT FOR INCLUSION IN THE MONOGRAPH OF STATE PHARMACOPOEIA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bird cherry Padus avium Mill, Rosaceae, is widespread in Ukraine, especially in forests and forest-steppe areas. Bird cherry fruits have long been used in medicine and is a valuable medicinal raw materials. They stated to posess astringent, anti-inflammatory, phytoncidal properties. Bird cherry fruits are included in the USSR Pharmacopoeia IX ed., The State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation, The State Pharmacopoeia of Republic of Belarus. In Ukraine there are no contemporary normative documents for this medicinal plant material, therefore it is the actual to develop projects in the national monographs "dry bird cherry fruit" and "fresh bird cherry fruit" to be included in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. According to European Pharmacopoeia recommendation method of thin-layer chromatography (TLC is prescribed only for the identification of the herbal drug. The principles of thin-layer chromatography and application of the technique in pharmaceutical analysis are described in State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. As it is effective and easy to perform, and the equipment required is inexpensive, the technique is frequently used for evaluating medicinal plant materials and their preparations. The TLC is aimed at elucidating the chromatogram of the drug with respect to selected reference compounds that are described for inclusion as reagents. Aim of this study was to develop methods of qualitative analysis of bird cherry fruits for a monograph in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine (SPU. Materials and Methods. The object of our study was dried bird cherry fruits (7 samples and fresh bird cherry fruits (7 samples harvested in 2013-2015 in Kharkiv, Poltava, Luhansk, Sumy, Lviv, Mykolaiv regions and the city Mariupol. Samples were registered in the department of SPU State Enterprise "Pharmacopeia center". In accordance with the Ph. Eur. and SPU requirements in "identification C" determination was performed by TLC. TLC was performed on

  18. Activation of macrophages and interference with CD4+ T-cell stimulation by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur Lage, Susanne; Goethe, Ralph; Darji, Ayub; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Weiss, Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. ptb) and M. avium subspecies avium (M. avium) are closely related but exhibit significant differences in their interaction with the host immune system. The macrophage line, J774, was infected with M. ptb and M. avium and analysed for cytokine production and stimulatory capacity towards antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. Under all conditions J774 cells were activated to produce proinflammatory cytokines. No influence on the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), B7.1, B7.2 or CD40 was found. However, the antigen-specific stimulatory capacity of J774 cells for a CD4+ T-cell line was significantly inhibited after infection with M. ptb, but not with M. avium. When a T-cell hybridoma expressing a T-cell receptor identical to that of the T-cell line was used, this inhibition was not observed, suggesting that costimulation which is essential for the CD4+ T-cell line is influenced by the pathogenic bacterium M. ptb.

  19. Perspectives for sustainable Prunus africana production and trade. Factsheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.; Loo, van J.; Dawson, I.; Vinceti, B.; Duminil, J.; Muchugi, A.; Awono, A.; Asaah, E.

    2015-01-01

    This brief documents current knowledge about pygeum (Prunus africana). It aims to inform decision makers in governments in producing and consumer countries, international and civil society organisations and researchers, about sustainable (international) trade and governance of the species.

  20. MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM AS AN ACTUAL PATHOGEN OF HUMAN MYCOBACTERIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Starkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Mycobacteriosis is an infectious disease of animals and humans caused by non-tuberculosis mycobacteria including M. avium complex. Despite the fact that the transmission of M. avium from human to human has not been proved, and mycobacteriosis has been sporadic, the number of cases of disseminated forms of disease caused by M. avium among HIV-positive patients during the last ten years was increasing. Limited knowledge about the structure of M. avium population in Russia and the lack of simple methods for the microbiological diagnosis make difficult the epidemiological monitoring of mycobacteriosis. This facilitates the use of modern, efficient molecular genetic methods for the species and subspecies identification and typing of M. avium. Thus, the detection of mobile element IS901, restriction fragment polymorphism analysis of hsp65 gene and IS1245 allow the detection and subspecies identification of M. avium. The study of genomic polymorphisms of bacterial strains for the assessment of M. avium population structure became feasible due to a complex of molecular techniques: VNTR-typing, IS1245-and IS1311-RFLP-typing.

  1. Impact of Prolonged Absence of Low Temperature on Adult Eclosion Patterns of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2017-03-25

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in tropical export markets because cold temperatures, below 5 °C, in those regions appear insufficient to complete diapause. However, it is unclear how prolonged absence of cold exposure affects diapause termination in R. indifferens. Here, we examined this question by exposing R. indifferens pupae for 40 wk to simulated temperate and tropical conditions of 23 or 26 °C, 40 or 80% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 or 12:12 (L:D) h. Eclosion patterns among fly groups in the four conditions did not differ. For all groups, fly eclosion from pupae not exposed to cold exhibited a bimodal distribution. The first major peak, comprising 3.2% of the total fly emergence, occurred at 1-10 wk. The second major peak, comprising the remaining 96.8%, occurred at a mode of ∼30 wk. Based on responses to no cold and cold (3 ± 1.5 °C) exposures, there were three distinct pupal diapause groups: the first eclosion group was likely nondiapausing pupae; the second eclosion group was likely diapausing pupae; a third group that remained viable but did not produce adults after 40 wk may represent prolonged dormancy pupae. We suggest that eclosion of adults after prolonged absence of cold exposure needs to be incorporated into models for potential fly establishment in warm climates.

  2. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye-Ryun Kim; Il-Doo Kim; Sanjeev Kumar Dhungana; Mi-Ok Kim; Dong-Hyun Shin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample.Methods:The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid (˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities.Results:Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively.Conclusions:The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.

  3. Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov., isolated from crown gall tumors on raspberry and cherry plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Jones, Jeffrey B; Obradović, Aleksa

    2015-09-01

    Two plant-tumorigenic strains KFB 330(T) and KFB 335 isolated from galls on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in Serbia, and a non-pathogenic strain AL51.1 recovered from a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) tumor in Poland, were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA placed them within the genus Agrobacterium, with A. nepotum as their closest relative. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB housekeeping genes suggested that these three strains represent a new Agrobacterium species, that clustered with type strains of A. nepotum, A. radiobacter, "A. fabrum" and A. pusense. This was further supported by average nucleotide identity values (<92%) between the whole genome sequences of strain KFB 330(T) and related Agrobacterium species. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were 18:1 w7c (72.8-77.87%) and 16:0 (6.82-8.58%). Phenotypic features allowed their differentiation from closely related species. Polyphasic characterization showed that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Agrobacterium, for which the name Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. arsenijevicii is KFB 330(T) (= CFBP 8308(T) = LMG 28674(T)).

  4. Determination of some B Vitamins in Sour Cherry Juice Using Dispersive Liquid-liquid Microextraction Followed by High-performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaei, Parvin; Bahmaei, Manouchehr; Ghannadi, AliReza

    2014-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method (DLLME) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was used to determine thiamine (B1), nicotinamide (B3) and pyridoxine (B6) in sour cherry juice. This method was rapid, simple and sensitive. Separation was accomplished using a C18 column. The optimum chromatographic conditions were found to be: mobile phase consisted of 8% methanol and 92% aqueous phase (1% (V/V) acetic acid water solution); flow rate, 0.7 mL/min; detection wavelength, 260 nm and pH, 3.3. The extraction efficiency of thiamine, nicotinamide and pyridoxine was influenced by factors such as: additional salt effect, the kind and volume of disperser and extraction solvents. In this research, the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.9 and 3 ng/mL for thiamine, 1.5 and 5 ng/mL for nicotinamide, 0.9 and 3 ng/mL for pyridoxine. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 2.87% (n=3). An appropriate linear behavior over the observed concentration range was obtained with the value of R²>0.996 for the target vitamins. This method was successfully applied to the sour cherry juice samples. Sour cherry var. Gise (Prunus cerasus var. Gise), which was used in this research, was a local variety of the sour cherry with large stone, double flowers, double fruits, dark red skin and dark red juice. This variety was identified in high altitude areas of Isfahan province after five years of study, since 2005, by Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Isfahan. PMID:25587335

  5. Effect of Heat Treatment of Wild Cherry Wood on Abrasion Resistance and Withdrawal Capacity of Screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Aytin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In its wise use, many properties of wood are important. Among these properties, wood abrasion resistance (AR and withdrawal capacity of screws (WCS are deemed to be relatively signifi cant. It is well know that heat treatment changes the resistance features of wooden materials by changing the structural characteristics of wood. Within the scope of this study, the effects were investigated of the temperature and duration of heat treatment of Wild Cherry (Cerasus avium (L. Monench on its AR and its WCS in the radial direction and tangential direction. The test results indicated that weight loss (WL and thickness reduction (TR remained almost the same in the radial direction specimen, but there was significant TR in the tangential direction specimen. As a result of these changes, the abrasion effect of the S-42 abrader diminished based on the increase in the number of cycles. However, in both the radial and tangential direction, the WCS decreased to a significantly greater extent in the heat-treated specimens than in the control specimens.

  6. Tart Cherry Yield and Economic Response to Alternative Planting Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Me-Nsope, Nathalie Mongue

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates the economic response of tart cherry yields to planting density using an unbalanced longitudinal yield data from tart cherry orchards in Northwest Michigan. The relationship between tart cherry yield and tree age is specified as a linear spline function and planting density interacts with tree age. A random effect method, treating block as random, is used to estimate the spline function. Stochastic simulation was used to estimate the mean and variance of the product of ...

  7. Surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the potential for improvements in surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection and paratuberculosis in dairy herds was investigated, leading to a reduction in surveillance costs whilst continuing to meet specific quality targets. In particular, differen

  8. Variabilidad interspecífica de duraznos (Prunus pérsica L. Batsch. y ciruelos (Prunus domestica usando RAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Intraespecific variability of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch. and plums (Prunus domestica using RAMsResumen: Se seleccionó una muestra de 41 materiales de Prunus de la colección de caducifolios de la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, para evaluar su variabilidad genética usando ocho marcadores Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAMs. Se generaron un total de 121 alelos con pesos moleculares entre 260 y 1000 Kb. Se formaron tres grupos, a un coeficiente de similitud de 0.75, de acuerdo a las características del fruto y a la especie, encontrándose en el grupo II a los materiales de ciruelo. El porcentaje de loci polimórficos varío entre 71 y 99% para los cebadores CGA y CCA, respectivamente. El valor promedio de heterocigosidad fue de 0.22, mucho más bajo que los encontrados en otros estudios de diversidad genética en el género Prunus. La técnica RAMs mostró ser una herramienta útil para evaluar la diversidad genética en frutales caducifolios, al discriminar a los materiales en tres grupos e identificar el alto grado de consanguinidad que existe entre las diferentes especies de Prunus lo cual debe ser aprovechado dentro de las estrategias de hibridación que busquen la obtención de nuevos y mejores materiales. Palabras claves: Prunus, Diversidad genética, Microsatélites RAMs, caducifolios.Abstract: A sample of 41 Prunus materials from the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia was selected to evaluate its genetic diversity using eight primers for Random Amplified Microsatellite (RAMs. A total of 121 alleles were generated with molecular weights ranging between 260 and 1000 Kb. Three groups were formed, a similarity coefficient of 0.75, according to fruit characteristics and specie, found plum materials in group II. The percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 71 to 99% for the primers CGA and CCA, respectively. The average value of

  9. Chlorine, Chloramine, Chlorine Dioxide, and Ozone Susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Robert H; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Norton, Cheryl D.; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and patient isolates of Mycobacterium avium were resistant to chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. For chlorine, the product of the disinfectant concentration (in parts per million) and the time (in minutes) to 99.9% inactivation for five M. avium strains ranged from 51 to 204. Chlorine susceptibility of cells was the same in washed cultures containing aggregates and in reduced aggregate fractions lacking aggregates. Cells of the more slowly growing strains wer...

  10. Development and Application of a Multiplex RT-PCR Assay for Detecting Three Sweet Cherry Virus Species%3种甜樱桃病毒PNRSV、PDV及LChV-2的多重RT-PCR检测方法的建立与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗晓娟; 王文文; 魏海蓉; 王甲威; 陈新; 徐丽; 刘庆忠

    2014-01-01

    敏度分析结果显示,2个引物组合在cDNA的23×稀释液中仍能特异性扩增,但扩增条带的强度稍有差异,其对植物总RNA的反转录产物的最低检测浓度为107.9 ng·μL-1。克隆测序及序列分析表明,2个引物组合对各自靶病毒的检测结果可靠。应用该方法对9个中国樱桃样本进行检测,结果显示,测试样品均至少感染了2种病毒,其中5个样品复合感染了3种病毒,2个样品同时感染PDV和LChV-2,2个样品同时感染PNRSV和LChV-2。【结论】应用建立的多重RT-PCR检测方法可稳定、准确、灵敏的同时检测单一或复合侵染的3种甜樱桃病毒。%Objective]The objective of this study is to develop a multiplex RT-PCR protocol to detect 3 sweet cherry virus species Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Little cherry virus-2 (LChV-2) simultaneously.[Method] The leaves of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium Lindl.) infected by 3 virus species were selected as the experimental materials. Total RNA was extracted using CTAB extraction buffer. For cDNA synthesis, reverse transcription was carried out using random hexamer primer. Six pairs of primers were designed according to the genome sequences of PNRSV, PDV and LChV-2 which were published in GenBank. Single RT-PCR and multiplex RT-PCR were carried out, respectively, to select the primer groups which could be used in the multiplex virus detection. Annealing temperature and the number of the PCR cycles were evaluated to optimize the multiplex RT-PCR conditions. The specificity of the primers was analyzed by using the single-virus infected samples, complex-virus infected samples and virus-free leaf samples. To analyze the sensitivity of the multiples RT-PCR, the transcript which was prepared from the complex-virus infected samples was diluted to 2-fold series. All of the reactions were carried out in the same reaction buffer and under the same conditions. To confirm the accuracy of the multiplex RT

  11. Economic Sustainability of Italian Greenhouse Cherry Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Testa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato cultivation plays an important role in Sicily, being the primary production area in Italy, due to its favorable pedo-climatic conditions that permit extra-seasonal productions. In Sicily, more than half of greenhouse tomato production is derived from the Province of Ragusa on the southeastern coast, where especially cherry tomato typologies are cultivated. Over the last decade, the Ragusa Province has registered a decrease both in terms of greenhouse tomato area and harvested production due to several structural problems that would require restructuring of the tomato supply chain. Thus, since recognition of real costs and profitability of tomato growing is a vital issue, both from the perspective of the farm, as well as from that of the entrepreneur, the aim of this paper was to analyze the economic sustainability of Sicilian greenhouse cherry tomato cultivated in the Ragusa Province. In particular, an economic analysis on 30 representative farms was conducted in order to estimate production costs and profits of greenhouse cherry tomato. According to our results, the lack of commercial organization, which characterizes the small farms we surveyed, determines low contractual power for farmers and, consequently, low profitability.

  12. Sweet and sour cherry decorative forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubojević Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity of natural populations, biodiversity located on farm and the introduced cultivars and selections are a rich source of genetic variability in sour and sweet cherries, but they have never been bread with the aim of creating decorative varieties. Low vigour − dwarfing and upright − sour cherry genotypes, NS 1/16 KK and NS 1/24 KK, were selected from natural population of Fruška Gora and private arboretum, respectively. Sweet cherry selections NS 6/15 K and RŠ 8/27 were part of on farm conservation of genetic resources. Furthermore, reduction in vigour was achieved by defining specific combining abilities as a result of rootstock/scion interaction. The outcome of this study is unique columnar and dwarf forms that integrate specific genetic potential of varieties and selections, their interaction with rootstocks and traditional horticultural skills. Collected biodiversity is another confirmation that the Balkan peninsula is one of the most valuable secondary centres of genetic diversity and inexhaustible gene pool for breeding both, varieties and vegetative rootstocks.

  13. 樱桃不同杂种优系的组织培养与快速繁殖%In Vitro Culture and Micropropagation of Different Hybrids in Cherry Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国利; 闫国华; 张开春; 周宇; 张晓明; 于泽源

    2009-01-01

    为进一步探讨不同遗传背景的优良樱桃杂种优系再生体系的建立和通过基因工程选育樱桃抗性砧木,以F8、F10(Prunus. avium L.×Prunus.pseudocerasus L.)以及H8、H10(Prunus.cerasus L.×Prunus.pseudocerasus L.)等新品系为材料,MS和F14为基本培养基,通过添加不同浓度的6-苄基氨基腺嘌呤(6-BA)、3-吲哚丁酸(IBA)、赤霉素(GA3)进行杂种樱桃组织培养和快速繁殖技术的研究.各杂种优系在初代、继代、生根各阶段需要特定的培养基和激素配比.结果表明:F14+6-BA(0.3~0.5)mg/L+GA30.1(单位下同)适合各个杂种优系初代培养诱导出植株,成活率65%以上,F14+6.BA(0.5~1.0)+IBA(0.1~0.3)+GA30.1能够很好的促进各个杂种优系分化不定芽,增值系数在5.6倍以上,1/2MS+IBA0.5(或NAA0.8)是各个杂种优系的最佳生根培养基,生根率在83.3%以上.

  14. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, U; Mostert, L; Crous, P W; Fourie, P H

    2008-06-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from different stone fruit growing areas in South Africa. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as DNA sequence data (5.8S rDNA, ITS1, ITS2, beta-tubulin, actin and 18S rDNA) were used to identify known, and describe novel species. From the total number of wood samples collected (257), 42 Phaeoacremonium isolates were obtained, from which 14 species were identified. Phaeoacremonium scolyti was most frequently isolated, and present on all Prunus species sampled, followed by Togninia minima (anamorph: Pm. aleophilum) and Pm. australiense. Almost all taxa isolated represent new records on Prunus. Furthermore, Pm. australiense,Pm. iranianum, T. fraxinopennsylvanica and Pm. griseorubrum represent new records for South Africa, while Pm. griseorubrum, hitherto only known from humans, is newly reported from a plant host. Five species are newly described, two of which produce a Togninia sexual state. Togninia africana, T. griseo-olivacea and Pm. pallidum are newly described from Prunus armeniaca, while Pm. prunicolum and Pm. fuscum are described from Prunus salicina.

  15. Effect of hydrogen fluoride on pollen germination and pollen tube growth in Prunus avium L. cv. Royal Ann

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facteau, T.J.; Wang, S.Y.; Rowe, K.E.

    1973-05-01

    Increased fluoride (F) fumigation levels resulted in decrease in percent Royal Ann pollen germination and pollen tube growth. As dose (hour x concentration in ..mu.. gF/m/sup 3/) increased, Van pollen tube growth in vivo decreased. A linear relationship between increased dose and fluoride residue in the flowers was shown. 14 references, 5 figures.

  16. Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2004-11-01

    The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

  17. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared by... ingredients as prescribed by paragraph (a)(2) of this section. The finished food is frozen. (2) The...

  18. The quality of sweet cherries stored under hypobaric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherries cvs 'Emperor Francis' and 'Grosse Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' were stored under hypobaric conditions, 5 kPa and 25 kPa at 2°C. These sweet cherries could be stored for 30 days without a high losses. Sweet cherries of both cvs tasted the best after storage under LPS, worse under CA, and the worst in normal air. Titrate acidity decreased during the storage period, the percent of soluble solids decreased for 15 days after which it increased. Mostly Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia spp. destroyed the sweet cherries during storage. Penicillium spp. affected fruits by less than 1% under kPa, and those subsequently stored for 3 days at 20°C. Hypobaric storage 5 kPa at 2°C seems to be patricularly good for storage of sweet cherries cv. 'Emperor Francis'.

  19. 7 CFR 930.54 - Prohibition on the use or disposition of inventory reserve cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH... reserve cherries. 930.54 Section 930.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... disposition of inventory reserve cherries. Cherries that are placed in inventory reserve pursuant to...

  20. The Cherry Trees in Our School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕迪; 吕铁雄

    2004-01-01

    “The cherry Trees in Our School”是吕迪同学描述自己校园的一篇文章,通过对樱花的描述,使得整篇文章内容生动、语言流畅,充分体现了他对事物细腻的观察力,对生活的热爱,对提供他学习环境的肯定。在此刊登全文,以飨读者。

  1. Effects of polysaccharide on chicks co-infected with Bordetella avium and Avian leukosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fanxia; Xue, Cong; Wu, Cun; Zhao, Xue; Qu, Tinghe; He, Xiaohua; Guo, Zhongkun; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2014-08-30

    Chicks' co-infection with immunosuppressive virus and bacteria seriously threaten the development of the poultry industry. In this study, a model was established in which chicks were injected with either subgroup B ALV (ALV-B)+Bordetella avium (B. avium), or ALV-B+B. avium+Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), or B. avium only, or B. avium+TPPPS. The data showed that the group injected with ALV-B and B. avium exhibited significant inhibition of the immune function and therefore increased pathogenicity compared with the group injected with B. avium-only. Application of TPPPS effectively alleviated immunosuppression, and body weights increased sharply in the TPPPS groups compared with non-TPPPS groups. To some extent, TPPPS may reduce the proliferation of ALV-B. These results suggest that Pinus pollen polysaccharides are beneficial treating co-infections with immunosuppressive virus and bacteria and therefore have potential for development into safe and effective immunoregulator.

  2. Genotyping of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates from naturally infected lofts of domestic pigeons in Ahvaz by IS901 RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Parvandar Asadollahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Avian tuberculosis is one of the most important infections affecting most species of birds.Mycobacterium avium can not only infect all species of birds, but also infect some domesticated mammals.The most crucial aspect of control and eradication scheme is identification of infection sources and transmission routs. Mo- lecular techniques such as restriction fragment length polymorphism and pulse field gel electrophoresis have been shown to be much more discriminatory and suitable for use in the epidemiological study.Materials and Methods: Eighty suspected pigeons to avian tuberculosis based on their clinical signs, were subjected to the study. Forty Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates out of a total of 51 identified isolates were subjected to the test.Results: IS901-RFLP using Pvu II was successfully conducted and produced 7 patterns. The majority of isolates (60% were RFLP type PI.1. This type was the most similar type to standard strain. However, all the patterns obtained in this study were different from the standard strain.Conclusion: The result of this study indicate that these isolates probably are limited to Khuzestan region. We recommend DNA fingerprinting differentiation of non tuberculous Mycobacteria particularly Mycobacterium avium complex isolated from infected birds and human to possibly find source of infections. Keywords: Mycobacterium avium, RFLP, polymorphism, avian tuberculosis

  3. Chlorine, Chloramine, Chlorine Dioxide, and Ozone Susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert H.; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Norton, Cheryl D.; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and patient isolates of Mycobacterium avium were resistant to chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. For chlorine, the product of the disinfectant concentration (in parts per million) and the time (in minutes) to 99.9% inactivation for five M. avium strains ranged from 51 to 204. Chlorine susceptibility of cells was the same in washed cultures containing aggregates and in reduced aggregate fractions lacking aggregates. Cells of the more slowly growing strains were more resistant to chlorine than were cells of the more rapidly growing strains. Water-grown cells were 10-fold more resistant than medium-grown cells. Disinfectant resistance may be one factor promoting the persistence of M. avium in drinking water. PMID:10742264

  4. Vasorelaxant effect of Prunus yedoensis bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyungjin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus yedoensis Matsum. is used as traditional medicine—‘Yaeng-Pi’ or ‘Hua-Pi’—in Japan and Korea. However, no studies have examined the pharmacological activities of the P. yedoensis bark. Only the antioxidant and antiviral activities of P. yedoensis fruit and the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of P. yedoensis leaf have been investigated. While studying the antihypertensive effects of several medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of P. yedoensis bark (MEPY had distinct vasorelaxant effects on rat aortic rings. Methods The aortic rings were removed from Sprague–Dawley rats and suspended in organ chambers containing 10 ml Krebs-Henseleit solution. The aortic rings were placed between 2 tungsten stirrups and connected to an isometric force transducer. Changes in tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. Results MEPY relaxed the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings concentration dependently. However, the vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-denuded aortic rings were lower than endothelium-intact aortic rings. The vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pre-treatment with l-NAME, methylene blue, or ODQ. However, pre-treatment with indomethacin, atropine, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, or 4-aminopyridine had no affection. In addition, MEPY inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted by PE (1 μM or KCl (60 mM in Ca2+-free solution. Conclusions Our results suggest that MEPY exerts its vasorelaxant effects via the activation of NO formation by means of l-Arg and NO-cGMP pathways and via the blockage of extracellular Ca2+ channels.

  5. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Mostert, L.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from

  6. Waardplantonderzoek Prunus laurocerasus voor Xanthomonas : Consultancy-onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, van A.J.; Hollinger, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    In de teelt van Prunus laurocerasus komt de laatste jaren een nieuwe ziekte voor, veroorzaakt door de Q-bacterie Xanthomonas aboricola pv pruni (Xap). r Op 9 oktober 2009 is een door de NBvB georganiseerde Xanthomonas-bijeenkomst geweest. Gezien de ernst van de situatie voor de boomkwekerijsector is

  7. Embryo Culture and Plant Regeneration from Cotyledons in Interspecies Hybrids of Cherry%樱桃种间杂交种胚培养及子叶植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文生; 闫国华; 张晓明; 牛爱国; 张开春

    2004-01-01

    2002年4月3日,在北京市农林科学院林业果树研究所樱桃资源圃进行种间远缘杂交,设两个杂交组合,即‘先锋(Prunus avium)×对樱(P.pseudocerasus)’、‘CAB(P.cerasus)×对樱(P.pseudocerasus)’。杂交亲本生长健壮,先锋为8年生,对樱和CAB为4年生。两个组合分别杂交293朵和163朵花,分别获得杂交果9个和6个,杂交

  8. Experimental infection of Eurasian wild boar with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, J M; Vicente, J; Carrasco-García, R; Galindo, R C; Minguijón, E; Ballesteros, C; Aranaz, A; Romero, B; Sevilla, I; Juste, R; de la Fuente, J; Gortazar, C

    2010-07-29

    The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is increasingly relevant as a host for several pathogenic mycobacteria. We aimed to characterize the first experimental Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) infection in wild boar in order to describe the lesions and the immune response as compared to uninfected controls. Twelve 1-4-month-old wild boar piglets were housed in class III bio-containment facilities. Four concentrations of MAA suspension were used: 10, 10(2) and 10(4) mycobacteria (2 animals each, oropharyngeal route) and 2.5 x 10(6) mycobacteria (2 animals each by the oropharyngeal and nasal routes). No clinical signs were observed and pathology evidenced a low pathogenicity of this MAA strain for this particular host. Bacteriological and pathological evidence of successful infection after experimental inoculation was found for the group challenged with 2.5 x 10(6) mycobacteria. These four wild boar showed a positive IFN-gamma response to the avian PPD and the real-time RT-PCR data revealed that three genes, complement component C3, IFN-gamma and RANTES, were significantly down regulated in infected animals. These results were similar to those found in naturally and experimentally M. bovis-infected wild boar and may constitute biomarkers of mycobacterial infection in this species.

  9. Enraizamento in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus In vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rogalski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Na micropropagação de Prunus sp., o enraizamento tem sido considerado uma fase crítica, pois determina a sobrevivência das plantas durante a aclimatização. Dentre os fatores importantes ao enraizamento in vitro, destacam-se o genótipo e as auxinas por serem determinantes na indução e na formação de raízes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de IBA no enraizamento in vitro dos porta-enxertos de espécies do gênero Prunus: cultivares Capdeboscq e GF677, e seleções VP411 e VP417. Para o enraizamento in vitro, brotos com 2-3cm de comprimento foram introduzidos em meio de Lepoivre suplementado com 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 IBA. Observou-se que o porta-enxerto 'Capdeboscq' apresentou maior taxa de enraizamento e maior número de raízes in vitro, sendo superior aos demais genótipos quanto a estas características. O nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA esteve associado à maior taxa média de enraizamento (100%, 64% e 64,0%, respectivamente para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq', 'GF677' e VP411. O nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA foi superior para a seleção VP417 com taxa de 64% de enraizamento. Para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq' e 'GF677', o número máximo de raízes foi de 9,6 e 5,2 raízes por broto, respectivamente, em resposta ao nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA, enquanto as seleções VP411 e VP417 apresentaram o maior número de raízes (3,6 e 3,9, respectivamente em resposta ao nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA.In Prunus sp. micropropagation of rooting is considered a critical stage, since it determines the plant survival during the acclimatization. Among important factors associated with rooting, the genotype and the auxins are considered important in the induction and formation of roots. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different IBA on the in vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks Capdeboscq and GF677, and the selections VP411 and VP417. For the in vitro rooting stage, shoots of

  10. A single or multistage mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subunit vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention provides one or more immunogenic polypeptides for use in a preventive or therapeutic vaccine against latent or active infection in a human or animal caused by a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Furthermore a single or multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides is provided for administration for the prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additionally, nucleic acid vaccines, capable of in vivo expression of the multi-phase vaccine...

  11. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE MORPHOLOGY OF POLLEN FROM SOME VARIETIES OF MALUS DOMESTICA, PYRUS COMMUNIS, PRUNUS DOMESTICA, PRUNUS PERSICA AND PRUNUS ARMENIACA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare Rosaceae genotypes from for their pollen viability and morphology. The pollen of some varieties of Malus domestica, Pyrus communis, Prunus domestica, Prunus persica and Prunus armeniaca was identified. Pollen from mature anthers was collected. Pollen grains of all genera of Rosaceae surveyed occur as radially symmetric isopolar monads. The main aspect studied were the shape of pollen in the polar view (polar perimeter and polar area of pollen. Shape of pollen is triangular-obtuse-convex in polar view. The pollen class is trizonocolpate-obtus-triangular while the sculpturing of exine surface is striate. The number of colpi is three while the spines are absent. Apart from fully developed pollen grains, also much smaller, not completely developed pollen were found in the samples of the examined species. The viability of the pollen was determined on 1% 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC. Viable, semi-viable and dead pollen numbers and their percentages were determined. This stain test may be used to determine pollen viability in these species to provide only a rough estimate of viability. The results presented here are important for improving our understanding of Rosaceae reproduction biology. Knowledge of reproduction biology, particularly pollen viability and quality, is critical for the newly-developed cultivars.

  12. Rhizobium skierniewicense sp. nov., isolated from tumours on chrysanthemum and cherry plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puławska, Joanna; Willems, Anne; Sobiczewski, Piotr

    2012-04-01

    Three isolates of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were recovered from galls on chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum L.; Ch11T, Ch12) and cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera var. divaricata; AL9.3). All three isolates were able to cause crown galls on various plant species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three isolates were probably identical (100% sequence similarity) and closely related to Rhizobium rubi (99.6 %), Rhizobium radiobacter (98.7 %) and Rhizobium larrymoorei (98.1 %). Similar analysis based on the housekeeping genes glnA, gyrB and rpoB also indicated that the novel isolates were identical and closely related to R. rubi. The major cellular fatty acids of strain Ch11T were C18:1ω7c (62.1 %), summed feature 2 (comprising C12:0 aldehyde, iso-C16:1 I and/or C14:0 3-OH; 10.8 %), summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH; 7.7 %) and C10:0 3-OH (7.5 %). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness between Ch11T and R. rubi LMG 156T was only 48 % and, unlike phylogenetically related established Rhizobium species, the novel isolates were able to utilize β-hydroxybutyric acid but not L-fucose. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, the isolates are considered to represent a single novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium skierniewicense sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is Ch11T (=LMG 26191T=CFBP 7420T).

  13. Cherry: development of a non traditional crop in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Scarpati, Olga; Maio, Silvina; Puga, Yamile

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of non-traditional crops for Argentine Republic became notable in the late XX century and early XXI by technological innovations that allow very significant yields, the opportunity represented by the exportation of agricultural products, as is the case of cherry, favoured by the exchange rate, and against seasonality of production for consumer markets in the Northern Hemisphere. The main cherry-growing areas are three: the Uco Valley in Mendoza province, the Los Antiguos Val...

  14. Tuberculosis in Birds: Insights into the Mycobacterium avium Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Dhama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis, a List B disease of World Organization for Animal Health, caused by M. avium or M. genavense predominantly affects poultry and pet or captive birds. Clinical manifestations in birds include emaciation, depression and diarrhea along with marked atrophy of breast muscle. Unlike tuberculosis in animals and man, lesions in lungs are rare. Tubercular nodules can be seen in liver, spleen, intestine and bone marrow. Granulomatous lesion without calcification is a prominent feature. The disease is a rarity in organized poultry sector due to improved farm practices, but occurs in zoo aviaries. Molecular techniques like polymerase chain reaction combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism and gene probes aid in rapid identification and characterization of mycobacteria subspecies, and overcome disadvantages of conventional methods which are slow, labour intensive and may at times fail to produce precise results. M. avium subsp. avium with genotype IS901+ and IS1245+ causes infections in animals and human beings too. The bacterium causes sensitivity in cattle to the tuberculin test. The paper discusses in brief the M. avium infection in birds, its importance in a zoonotic perspective, and outlines conventional and novel strategies for its diagnosis, prevention and eradication in domestic/pet birds and humans alike.

  15. Invasive European bird cherry disrupts stream-riparian linkages: effects on terrestrial invertebrate prey subsidies for juvenile coho salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.; Blanchard, Arny L.

    2016-01-01

    The spread of invasive species in riparian forests has the potential to affect both terrestrial and aquatic organisms linked through cross-ecosystem resource subsidies. However, this potential had not been explored in regards to terrestrial prey subsidies for stream fishes. To address this, we examined the effects of an invasive riparian tree, European bird cherry (EBC, Prunus padus), spreading along urban Alaskan salmon streams, by collecting terrestrial invertebrates present on the foliage of riparian trees, their subsidies to streams, and their consumption by juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Riparian EBC supported four to six times less terrestrial invertebrate biomass on its foliage and contributed two to three times lower subsidies relative to native deciduous trees. This reduction in terrestrial invertebrate biomass was consistent between two watersheds over 2 years. In spite of this reduction in terrestrial prey resource input, juvenile coho salmon consumed similar levels of terrestrial invertebrates in stream reaches bordered by EBC. Although we did not see ecological effects extending to stream salmonids, reduced terrestrial prey subsidies to streams are likely to have negative consequences as EBC continues to spread.

  16. Influence of herbicides on growth of one-year-old trees of sour cherry cv. Łutówka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Wociór

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies performed in 1997 - 1999 have shown that herbicides such as Azotop 50 (simazine, 6-chloro-N, N-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine in the dose lkg ha-1 or Afalon 50 WP (linuron, N'-(3,4-dichlorophenylN-methoxy-N-methylurea in dose 1,5 kg ha-1 or its mixture with Dual 960 EC (metolachlor, 2-chloro-N(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl acetamide in dose 1,5 l ha-1 applied in early spring significantly decreased number of weeds in nursery of sourcherry trees cv. Lut6wka budded on Prunus mahaleb L rootstocks as compared with mechanical weed control. Both, Azotop 50 and Azotop 50 in mixture with Dual 960 EC eliminated weeds for the longer period than Afalon 50 WP and Afalon 50 WP with Dual 960 EC. Herbicides did not affect tree trunk diameter (at 30 cm. from the ground level, the number and total length of shoots of one-year-old sour cherry trees in comparison with mechanical control of weeds.

  17. Lama glama con signología y lesiones compatibles con paratuberculosis causadas por Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium Lama glama with signology and lesion compatible with paratuberculosis and injuries caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C Jorge

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Los camélidos sudamericanos (CS incluyen cuatro especies, guanaco, vicuña, alpaca y llama (Lama glama. En Argentina las llamas eran consideradas fauna y actualmente ganado, revalorizando su carne, fibra, cueros y pieles, también son un medio de subsistencia. Los CS son susceptibles a las enfermedades ocasionadas por micobacterias. El diagnóstico presuntivo se realiza por los signos clínicos y los hallazgos de necropsia y se confirma por técnicas bacteriológicas, moleculares e histopatología. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir un caso clínico con signos compatibles de paratuberculosis y el diagnóstico de laboratorio en una llama en cautiverio perteneciente a un zoológico de Olavarría, Provincia de Buenos Aires. En la necropsia se observaron lesiones granulomatosas en yeyuno, íleon y linfonodos mesentéricos compatibles con paratuberculosis, en los frotis directos y en la histopatología se observaron bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes en cluster. Se confirmó la presencia de Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium por bacteriología y por PCR fue detectada la IS1245 característica de este agente, no detectando la IS900 correspondiente a Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis. Esto permitió arribar al diagnóstico etiológico, combinando técnicas, de un caso de enteritis granulomatosa en llamas causado por Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium con signología y lesiones compatibles con paratuberculosis.Guanaco, vicuña, alpaca and llama (Lama glama are also known as Sudamerican camelids (SC. In Argentina llama was considered non profitable wildlife specie but now it is considered a mean for surviving because their meat, wool, leather and skin is valuable. SC are susceptible hosts of mycobacterial infections. A presumptive diagnosis is based on clinical and necropsy findings and is confirmed with bacterial isolation, molecular identification and histopathology. The objective of this publication is to describe a clinical

  18. Fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Swiss Hard and Semihard Cheese Manufactured from Raw Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Spahr, U.; Schafroth, K.

    2001-01-01

    Raw milk was artificially contaminated with declumped cells of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at a concentration of 104 to 105 CFU/ml and was used to manufacture model hard (Swiss Emmentaler) and semihard (Swiss Tisliter) cheese. Two different strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were tested, and for each strain, two model hard and semihard cheeses were produced. The survival of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells was monitored over a ripening period of 120 days by plat...

  19. Pollen morphology of the Maddenia clade of Prunus and its taxonomic and phylogenetic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenting SHI; Jun WEN; Susan LUTZ

    2013-01-01

    Maddenia (Rosaceae) was long recognized as a distinct genus closely related to Prunus and was recently merged with the latter.The Maddenia clade of Prunus has been revised taxonomically with four species from eastern Asia recognized.Recent molecular studies have provided evidence that this group is nested within Prunus,having a close relationship with the Padus-Laurocerasus complex.To further test the phylogenetic position of Maddenia,this study investigates pollen morphology of all former Maddenia species and 28 other Prunus species,using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy.The Prunus species sampled here represent major subgenera:Amygdalus,Cerasus,Laurocerasus,Padus,and Prunus s.s.We found that pollen grains of these groups are all monad and tricolporate with striate or rugulate sculpturing.The pollen evidence supports a close relationship between Maddenia and species of Padus and Laurocerasus subgroups (excluding the Pygeum group),all of which have elongated,thicker,and less directional muri.Pollen of the subgenera ofCerasus,Amygdalus,and Prunus has generally thinner,highly directional,and predominantly parallel muff.The pollen grains of the Pygeum subgroup are quite distinct from the other groups of Prunus.Pygeum pollen has rugulate exines with much shorter and rod-shaped muri.

  20. Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points in Cherry Juice Processing Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Peilong Xu; Na Na

    2015-01-01

    Qingdao is one of the homelands for Cherry in China and in recent years, deep processing industry of cherry is developing rapidly. In this study, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) quality control system is introduced into production process of cherry juice, which has effectively controlled food safety risks in food production processes. The practices have proved that application of HACCP system reduced probability of pollution in cherry juice production process effectively. ...

  1. Characterization of Pseudomonas pathovars isolated from rosaceous fruit trees in East Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzallah, D; Sadallah, S; Larous, L

    2004-01-01

    A survey of bacterial diseases due to Pseudomonas on rosaceous fruit trees was conducted. In forty two orchards located in the Constantine region ( East Algeria). Pseudomonas isolates were identified on the bases of their cultural and biochemical characteristics . A total of fifty nine phytopathogenic bacteria were isolated from diseased pome and stone fruit trees. Thirty one strains comparable to Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae were isolated from cherry (Prunus avium L.), plum (P. domestica L.), apricot (P. armeniaca L.), almond (P. dulcis L.) and pear trees (Pirus communis L.); sixteen strains comparable to Pseudomonas syringae pv. morsprunorum were obtained from samples of cherry and plum. Twelve strains of Pseudomonas viridiflava were isolated from cherry, apricot and peach (Prunus persica L.).

  2. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation..., shall operate Hetch Hetchy Dam and Reservoir and Cherry Valley Dam and Reservoir in the interest...

  3. 7 CFR 930.29 - Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry Administrative Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry... AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON... Cherry Industry Administrative Board. (a) Each grower member and each grower alternate member of...

  4. 7 CFR 52.784 - Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. 52.784 Section 52.784 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Pitted Cherries 1 Score Sheet § 52.784 Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  5. 76 FR 65357 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington... prescribed under the marketing order for tart cherries (order). The order regulates the handling of tart... amended (7 CFR part 930), regulating the handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New...

  6. 75 FR 77564 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for the 2010-2011 Crop Year for Tart Cherries AGENCY: Agricultural... handling of tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah,...

  7. 76 FR 69673 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New... tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin. These... handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington,...

  8. 76 FR 42072 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon... changes to the grower diversion regulations prescribed under the marketing order for tart cherries (order). The order regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New...

  9. 77 FR 13015 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon... the handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and... 40 handlers of tart cherries subject to regulation under the order and approximately 600 producers...

  10. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries....

  11. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind of... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries....

  12. Host responses to persistent Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in surgically isolated bovine ileal segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charavaryamath, Chandrashekhar; Gonzalez-Cano, Patricia; Fries, Patrick; Gomis, Susantha; Doig, Kimberley; Scruten, Erin; Potter, Andrew; Napper, Scott; Griebel, Philip J

    2013-02-01

    A lack of appropriate disease models has limited our understanding of the pathogenesis of persistent enteric infections with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. A model was developed for the controlled delivery of a defined dose of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to surgically isolated ileal segments in newborn calves. The stable intestinal segments enabled the characterization of host responses to persistent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections after a 9-month period, including an analysis of local mucosal immune responses relative to an adjacent uninfected intestinal compartment. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained localized at the initial site of intestinal infection and was not detected by PCR in the mesenteric lymph node. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific T cell proliferative responses included both CD4 and γδ T cell receptor (γδTcR) T cell responses in the draining mesenteric lymph node. The levels of CD8(+) and γδTcR(+) T cells increased significantly (P avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and gamma interferon secretion by lamina propria leukocytes was also significantly (P avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. In conclusion, surgically isolated ileal segments provided a model system for the establishment of a persistent and localized enteric M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle and facilitated the analysis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific changes in mucosal leukocyte phenotype and function. The accumulation of DC subpopulations in the lamina propria suggests that further investigation of mucosal DCs may provide insight into host responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and improve vaccine strategies to prevent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection.

  13. Variable agreement among experts regarding Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Theodore K; Prevots, D Rebecca; Jamieson, Frances B; Winthrop, Kevin L

    2015-02-01

    Data regarding many clinical aspects of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (pMAC) are lacking. Guidelines rely substantially upon expert opinion, integrated through face-to-face meetings, variably weighting individual opinions. We surveyed North American non-tuberculous mycobacteria experts regarding clinical aspects of pMAC using Delphi methods. Nineteen of 26 invited experts (73%) responded, with extensive variability. Convergence could not be reached for most questions. Respondents described extensive uncertainty around specific issues. Findings underscore urgent need for more research.

  14. Deterioration of sweet cherry fruit during storage period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry fruit cv. 'Emperor Francis' and 'Grosse Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' could be stored in cold storage conditions with normal air without big loss. Fruits stored under CA conditions were less affected by fungi during storage period, but later when were kept for 3 days at 20°C were more deteriorated than those stored at the same temperature in normal air. Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia spp. were the main fungi causing rot of sweet cherry fruit. Low temperature decreased the development of Monilinia spp. The most important factor for good fruit storage was the size of baskets. Sweet cherries stored in small baskets containing 0.5 kg of fruits were of good quality after one month of storage; in 2-kg boxes they were more damaged.

  15. 76 FR 13528 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York... Marketing Agreement and Order No. 930 (order), which regulate the handling of tart cherries grown in... agreements, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Tart cherries. PART 930--TART CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  16. 77 FR 40250 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increasing the Primary Reserve Capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increasing... order for tart cherries (order). The order regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in the States... locally by the Cherry Industry Administrative Board (Board). This action increases the volume of...

  17. Full genome sequence of a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Mamuna; Abidi, Soad; Mikkelsen, Heidi

    , consisting of 4317 unique gene families. Comparison with M. avium paratuberculosis strain K10 revealed only 3436 genes in common (~70%). We have used GenomeAtlases to show conserved (and unique) regions along the Ejlskov2007 chromosome, compared to 2 other Mycobacterium avium sequenced genomes. Pan-genome...

  18. Antigenic Profiles of Recombinant Proteins from Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in Sheep with Johne's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to improve the ELISA test to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis have been explored over several years. Previously, selected recombinant proteins of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were found to be immunogenic in cattle with Johne’s disease. In the present study, antibo...

  19. Roles for Cell Wall Glycopeptidolipid in Surface Adherence and Planktonic Dispersal of Mycobacterium avium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium is a significant inhabitant of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems. M. avium expresses on its cell surface serovar-specific glycopeptidolipids (ssGPLs). Studies have implicated the core GPL in biofilm formation by M. aviu...

  20. 樱桃品种资源间遗传差异的RAPD分析%RAPD Analysis of the Genetic Differences among Several Cherry Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩虹; 田义轲; 赵静; 戴洪义; 王东

    2005-01-01

    以来自欧洲甜樱桃(Prunus avium)和中国樱桃(Prunuspseudocerasus)的11份品种资源为试材,用34个随机引物对这些种质间的RAPD多态性进行了分析.除了S1090外,几乎所有的引物均能将欧洲甜樱桃品种和中国樱桃品种区分开来.用11个能在甜樱桃品种间表现多态性的引物所产生的101个位点进行相似系数的计算和聚类分析,结果将供试种质划分为两大组群:中国樱桃组群和甜樱桃组群,其中甜樱桃组群又可分为两个亚组.这一研究结果对了解这些种质的遗传差异程度,从而有目的地拓宽育种材料的遗传背景和在育种过程中创造出较大幅度的遗传变异有重要意义.

  1. Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points in Cherry Juice Processing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilong Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Qingdao is one of the homelands for Cherry in China and in recent years, deep processing industry of cherry is developing rapidly. In this study, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP quality control system is introduced into production process of cherry juice, which has effectively controlled food safety risks in food production processes. The practices have proved that application of HACCP system reduced probability of pollution in cherry juice production process effectively. The application of risk control system in cherry juice production provides benefits for standardization of the production process and helps in food safety supervision in production processes.

  2. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare cellulitis occurring with septic arthritis after joint injection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdoch David M

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulitis caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare has rarely been described. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is a rare cause of septic arthritis after intra-articular injection, though the causative role of injection is difficult to ascertain in such cases. Case presentation A 57-year-old with rheumatoid arthritis treated with prednisone and azathioprine developed bilateral painful degenerative shoulder arthritis. After corticosteroid injections into both acromioclavicular joints, he developed bilateral cellulitis centered over the injection sites. Skin biopsy showed non-caseating granulomas, and culture grew Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. Joint aspiration also revealed Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection. Conclusion Although rare, skin and joint infections caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare should be considered in any immunocompromised host, particularly after intra-articular injection. Stains for acid-fast bacilli may be negative in pathologic samples even in the presence of infection; cultures of tissue specimens should always be obtained.

  3. Reproductive maturity of cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in managed and natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Gut, Larry J; Isaacs, Rufus; Alston, Diane G

    2009-08-01

    We studied the timing of reproductive maturity of cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew), a key pest of sweet and tart cherries in the eastern United States. To determine when cherry fruit fly females become reproductively mature in managed and natural habitats, we deployed traps in sweet and tart cherry orchards and nearby stands of the ancestral host tree, black cherry. Flies were removed from the traps and females were dissected to determine the presence of fully developed eggs. We found that capture of reproductively mature female flies occurred earlier in orchards that are not sprayed with insecticides than in sprayed orchards or in black cherry tree sites. In addition, the gap between the flights of immature and mature females in unmanaged sweet or tart cherry orchards was shorter than in managed orchards or black cherry tree sites. We also determined fruit color, size, and skin hardness to characterize the progression of fruit maturity. We found that fruit became mature earlier in sweet and tart cherry orchards than in black cherry tree sites. This study indicates that the timing of female reproductive maturity is plastic and varies among cherry fruit fly populations present in distinct habitats. Variation in the timing of reproductive maturity is related to the fruit maturity period of distinct host plant species and to orchard management.

  4. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical

  5. Expression of PiABP19, Picdc2 and PiSERK3 during induction of somatic embryogenesis in leaflets of Prunus incisa (Thunb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mahmoud, Kaouther; Delporte, Fabienne; Muhovski, Yordan; Elloumi, Nadhra; Jemmali, Ahmed; Druart, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a useful tool of plant breeding. In this context, a procedure for inducing somatic embryogenesis in Prunus incisa leaf explants had been previously developed. The original in vitro protocol relies on picloram treatments and exposure to darkness as inductive conditions, the best frequency of embryogenesis being obtained on the second leaf (F(2)) exposed to 4 μM picloram during 30 days. The morphological and biochemical changes observed during somatic embryogenesis occur in response to alterations in gene expression regulation patterns. A molecular study was conducted in order to provide deeper insight into the fundamental biological factors involved in the induction of this process using a gene candidate strategy and semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. So far, no sequence data related to somatic embryogenesis has been available in cherry. In the present study, we cloned and sequenced cDNA fragments of putative genes encoding auxin-binding protein, cell cycle regulator and somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase. Time-course differential transcript accumulations were observed for all investigated genes in leaves or derived callus tissues during the observation period (first month of culture). Their possible involvement in the sequential steps of the embryogenic pathway (dedifferentiation, cell proliferation, differentiation through somatic embryogenesis) is presented and discussed.

  6. Distribution of IS901 in strains of Mycobacterium avium complex from swine by using IS901-detecting primers that discriminate between M. avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimori, K; Eguchi, M; Nakaoka, Y; Onodera, Y; Ito, T; Tanaka, K

    1995-08-01

    The presence of the mycobacterial insertion sequence IS901 was studied by PCR with reference strains of Mycobacterium avium complex; 122 veterinary strains of mycobacteria, mainly M. avium complex, isolated from swine; and 15 clinical strains. Four kinds of DNA extraction methods for PCR were compared. Use of the commercial extraction matrix allowed for the faster and easier preparation of PCR-amplifiable DNA than use of NaOH heating extraction or sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction of pretreated mycobacteria. It also provided more effective protection than boiling extraction against the destruction of DNA. Four reference strains of serovars 1 to 3 possessed IS901. Nine reference strains of serovars 1, 4 to 6, 8 to 11, and 21 possessed only IS901 insertion sites. A novel PCR product was found in the other reference strains of serovars 7, 12 to 17, 19, and 20 and two clinical strains of serovar 15. It is suggested that the primers that amplified the insertion portion of IS901 divided the M. avium complex into M. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and other mycobacteria. None of the 110 strains of M. avium complex isolated from swine possessed IS901. It is suggested that the absence of IS901 might be characteristic of swine-derived strains of M. avium complex.

  7. Genetic Relationships among Prunus mume var. pendula Using AFLP Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Jun; Zhang Qixiang; Ru Guangxin; Mao Qingshan; Yan Xiaolan; Lan Yanping

    2003-01-01

    Genetic relationships among Prunus mume var. pendula were studied by using AFLP markers. 18 accessions representing 14 cultivars ofPrunus murne var. pendula were selected from the germplasm collection at the Research Center of China Mci Flower. Seven Mse I-EcoR I AFLP primer combinations revealed 450 legible bands, and 269 of which were polymorphic markers. A similarity matrix was prepared using the simple matching coefficient of similarity and Nei's (72) distance coefficient. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated the genetic relationships of the cultivars. The information given by AFLP markers was basically consistent with the morphological classification and the evolutionary history of the morphotypes, and roughly supported the new revised classification system for Chinese Mci Cultivars. But there were still several exceptions: 1) the 'Guhong Chuizhi' inserted between the 'Tiaoxue Chuizhi' and the 'Danfen Chuizhi'; 2) the 'Wufu Chuizhi' kept off the Pink Pendant Form, and the 'Moshan Chuizhi' was removed from Viridiflora Pendant Form; 3) the 'Danbi Chuizhi' and the 'Shuangbi Chuizhi' of Viridiflora Pendant Form got together well but fell within the Pink Pendant Form.

  8. Cloning and Expression Analysis of MADS box Gene in Sweet Cherry(Prunus avium)%甜樱桃MADS box基因的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林苗苗; 赵长竹; 姜建福; 顾红; 陈锦永; 方金豹

    2011-01-01

    A MADS box gene was isolated from the floral bud of sweet cherry(Prunus avium L.'Lapins')by using RT-PCR and RACE approaches,the gene was named PaMADS3(The accession number in GenBank:HQ229605).The full length cDNA of PaMADS3 is 1 095 bp,with an ORF of 723 bp encoding 240 putative amino acid residues.Sequence analysis indicated that PaMADS3 shared highly homology with Arabidopsis SEP gene.Tissue specific analysis showed that PaMADS3 expressed in petal,stamen,and carpel.Real-time RT-PCR revealed that when the shoots were treated with 15℃ and 25℃,respectively,the expression of PaMADS3 was increased in carpel under the temperature of 25℃.%以甜樱桃'拉宾斯'(Prunus avium L.'Lapins')为试材,采用RT-PCR结合RACE技术,克隆获得1个与花发育相关的MADS box基因,命名为PaMADS3,其在GenBank中的登录号为HQ229605。PaMADS3基因全长1095bp,包含1个723bp的开放阅读框,推断其编码240个氨基酸。序列分析表明:PaMADS3蛋白与拟南芥中的SEP蛋白高度同源。组织特异性表达显示PaMADS3基因在花瓣、雄蕊、心皮中表达。实时定量RT-PCR分析表明,花芽露绿期的离体枝条经过15和25℃处理后,其雌蕊中PaMADS3基因在25℃的表达量高于在15℃的表达量。

  9. Two Types of New Natural Materials for Fruit Vinegar in Prunus Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica and P. domestica × P. armeniaca added value; three natural fruit vinegars were designed. The results showed the nutrition of Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca cultivar Fengweimeigui vinegar (T1 had high minerals and microelements, especially the Ca and Mg reached to the 150.00mg/L, 85.40 mg/L, respectively; the vinegar of Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica cultivar Zhongren No.1 (T2 not only have rich Na (2800.00 mg/L, P (123.00 mg/L, but also have plentiful amino acid that content reached to 200.08 mg/L. However, the mixture vinegar (T3 with pulps from Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca and Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica had the middle nutrient contents, but the property was balanced. We therefore conclude that solid fermentation is a suitable method to preserve nutrients and value-added for Prunus plants fruit, and three types vinegars are suitable for different age people, and the difference nutrient contents and typical characteristic indicate that three vinegars are competitive products in market.

  10. Mycobacterium avium subspecies induce differential expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in a murine macrophage model: evidence for enhanced pathogenicity of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, Tina; Geffers, Robert; Weiss, Siegfried; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies (ssp.) paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic, non-treatable granulomatous enteritis of ruminants. MAP is the only mycobacterium affecting the intestinal tract, which is of interest since it is presently the most favoured pathogen linked to Crohn's disease (CD) in humans due to its frequent detection in CD tissues. MAP is genetically closely related to other M. avium ssp. such as M. avium ssp. avium (MAA) and M. avium ssp. hominissuis (MAH) which can cause mycobacteriosis in animals and immunocompromised humans. We have recently shown that murine macrophage cell lines represent suitable systems to analyse M. avium ssp. patho-mechanisms and could show that MAP, but not MAA, specifically inhibited the antigen-specific stimulatory capacity for CD4(+) T-cells. In the present study, we compared gene expression profiles of murine RAW264.7 macrophages in response to infections with MAP or MAA using murine high-density oligonucleotide Affymetrix microarrays. A comparison of MAP and MAA infection revealed 17 differentially expressed genes. They were expressed at a much lower level in MAP-infected macrophages than in MAA-infected macrophages. Among these were the genes for IL-1beta, IL-1alpha, CXCL2, PTGS2 (COX2), lipocalin (LCN2) and TNF, which are important pro-inflammatory factors. The microarray data were confirmed for selected genes by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and, by protein array analyses and ELISA. Similar to MAA, infection with MAH also showed robust induction of IL-1beta, CXCL2, COX2, LCN2 and TNF. Taken together, our results from M. avium ssp.-infected murine macrophages provide evidence that MAP in contrast to MAA and MAH specifically suppresses the pro-inflammatory defence mechanisms of infected macrophages.

  11. A New Disease of Cherry Plum Tree with Yellow Leaf Symptoms Associated with a Novel Phytoplasma in the Aster Yellows Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zheng-nan; ZHANG Lei; TAO Ye; CHI Ming; XIANG Yu; WU Yun-feng

    2014-01-01

    A novel phytoplasma was detected in a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh) tree that mainly showed yellow leaf symptom. The tree was growing in an orchard located in Yangling District, Shaanxi Province, China. The leaves started as chlorotic and yellowing along leaf minor veins and leaf tips. Chlorosis rapidly developed to inter-veinal areas with the whole leaf becoming pale yellow in about 1-4 wk. Large numbers of phytoplasma-like bodies (PLBs) were seen under transmission electron microscopy. The majority of the PLBs was spherical or elliptical vesicles, with diameters in range of 0.1-0.6 µm, and distributed in the phloem cells of the infected tissues. A 1 246-bp 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragment was ampliifed from DNA samples extracted from the yellow leaf tissues using two phytoplasma universal primer pairs R16mF2/R16mR1 and R16F2n/R16R2. Phylogenetic analysis using the 16S rRNA gene sequence suggested that the phytoplasma associated with the yellow leaf symptoms belongs to a novel subclade in the aster yellows (AY) group (16SrI group). Virtual and actual restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed that the phytoplasma was distinguishable from all existing 19 subgroups in the AY group (16SrI) by four restriction sites, Hinf I, Mse I, Sau3A I and Taq I. The similarity coefifcients of comparing the RFLP pattern of the 16S rRNA gene fragment of this phytoplasma to each of the 19 reported subgroups ranged from 0.73 to 0.87, which indicates the phytoplasma associated with the cherry plum yellow leaf (CPYL) symptoms is probably a distinct and novel subgroup lineage in the AY group (16SrI). In addition, the novel phytoplasma was experimentally transmitted to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) plants from the tree with CPYL symptoms and then back to a healthy 1-yr-old cherry plum tree via dodder (Cuscuta odorata) connections.

  12. Plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adult mortality and associated fruit injury after exposure to field-aged insecticides on tart cherry branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Eric J; Vandervoort, Christine; Wise, John C

    2010-08-01

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were exposed to field-aged residues of thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, indoxacarb, or azinphos-methyl on tart cherry, Prunus cerasus L. variety Montmorency. At 1, 3, 7, and 14 d postapplication, fruit were sampled for chemical residues, and bioassays were used to assess beetle mortality and plant tissue injury. Azinphos-methyl had lethal activity within 1 d of exposure at all postapplication intervals and significant fruit protection extended to 14 d postapplication. All of the neonicotinoids had lethal activity at 3 d posttreatment, with acetamiprid activity extending to 7 d. Antifeedant and oviposition deterrent effects were seen with thiamethoxam and thiacloprid; damage incidence was significantly reduced in the absence of significant beetle mortality or intoxication. Thiamethoxam and acetamiprid penetrated into leaf and fruit tissue and were detected in the interior tissues at 14 d postapplication, but interior thiacloprid residues were not detected after day 1. Indoxacarb provided some fruit protection out to 7 d postapplication, and 14-d-old residues intoxicated beetles, but the slow action of this compound allowed significant damage to occur before beetles were incapacitated. Indoxacarb was only detected as a surface residue after the first day postapplication. These data on the plant-insect-chemistry interactions will support use and management decisions as compounds with acute contact activity are phased out.

  13. IN VITRO PERFECTED PROPAGATION BIOTECHNOLOGY OF PRUNUS SERRULATA SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Duţă

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of this study are original because in vivo rooting of microshoots is not reported in both national and international scientific literature for this species. In vivo rooting capacity of 'Kanzan' cherry microshoots was studied according to nutrient substrate, microshoots height and rooting stimulant. From the interaction of the three factors (A×B×C, the 18 experimental variants have revealed that the best in vivo rooting capacity (84% was when 2.5 to 4.5 cm height microshoots were planted in peat mixed with perlite (1:1 and treated with Radistim.

  14. Development of ochratoxin A during robusta (Coffea canephora) coffee cherry drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheli, P; Kanchanomai, C; Meyer, I; Pittet, A

    2000-04-01

    The occurrence and formation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in Robusta coffee was studied for three consecutive seasons under tropical conditions in Thailand. Sun drying of coffee cherries consistently led to OTA formation in the pulp and parchment (husks) of the cherries. In replicated trials, dried coffee beans (green coffee) were shown to contain on average OTA concentrations that were approximately 1% of those found in husks. OTA contamination of green coffee depended on cherry maturity, with green cherries being the least, and overripe cherries the most susceptible. Defects, and in particular the inclusion of husks, are the most important source of OTA contamination. OTA contamination occurred independently of whether cherries were placed on concrete, on bamboo tables, or on the ground. The study suggests that better raw material quality, an appropriate drying and dehulling procedure combined with a reduction of green coffee defects can effectively contribute to the reduction of OTA in green coffee.

  15. Surviving within the amoebal exocyst: the Mycobacterium avium complex paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drancourt Michel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of environmental mycobacteria have been previously demonstrated to resist free-living amoeba with subsequent increased virulence and resistance to antibiotics and biocides. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC comprises of environmental organisms that inhabit a wide variety of ecological niches and exhibit a significant degree of genetic variability. We herein studied the intra-ameobal location of all members of the MAC as model organisms for environmental mycobacteria. Results Type strains for M. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium chimaera, Mycobacterium colombiense, Mycobacterium arosiense, Mycobacterium marseillense, Mycobacterium timonense and Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense were co-cultivated with the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain Linc-AP1. Microscopic analyses demonstrated the engulfment and replication of mycobacteria into vacuoles of A. polyphaga trophozoites. Mycobacteria were further entrapped within amoebal cysts, and survived encystment as demonstrated by subculturing. Electron microscopy observations show that, three days after entrapment into A. polyphaga cysts, all MAC members typically resided within the exocyst. Conclusions Combined with published data, these observations indicate that mycobacteria are unique among amoeba-resistant bacteria, in residing within the exocyst.

  16. Ilarviruses of Prunus spp.: a continued concern for fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, V; Aparicio, F; Herranz, M C; Amari, K; Sanchez-Pina, M A; Myrta, A; Sanchez-Navarro, J A

    2012-12-01

    Prunus spp. are affected by a large number of viruses, causing significant economic losses through either direct or indirect damage, which results in reduced yield and fruit quality. Among these viruses, members of the genus Ilarvirus (isometric labile ringspot viruses) occupy a significant position due to their distribution worldwide. Although symptoms caused by these types of viruses were reported early in the last century, their molecular characterization was not achieved until the 1990s, much later than for other agronomically relevant viruses. This was mainly due to the characteristic liability of virus particles in tissue extracts. In addition, ilarviruses, together with Alfalfa mosaic virus, are unique among plant viruses in that they require a few molecules of the coat protein in the inoculum in order to be infectious, a phenomenon known as genome activation. Another factor that has made the study of this group of viruses difficult is that infectious clones have been obtained only for the type member of the genus, Tobacco streak virus. Four ilarviruses, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, Prune dwarf virus, Apple mosaic virus, and American plum line pattern virus, are pathogens of the main cultivated fruit trees. As stated in the 9th Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, virions of this genus are "unpromising subjects for the raising of good antisera." With the advent of molecular approaches for their detection and characterization, it has been possible to get a more precise view of their prevalence and genome organization. This review updates our knowledge on the incidence, genome organization and expression, genetic diversity, modes of transmission, and diagnosis, as well as control of this peculiar group of viruses affecting fruit trees.

  17. THE REAL OPTIONS PUZZLE FOR MICHIGAN TART CHERRY PRODUCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Nyambane, Gerald G.; Black, J. Roy

    2004-01-01

    Capital budgeting decisions faced by tart cherry producers often challenge our traditional valuation techniques. Real Options Valuation (ROV) methods may be useful but assumptions of existing ROV approaches are restrictive and, in some cases, unrealistic. In this paper we assert that use of existing option pricing methods can not be justified. Instead, dynamic programming approach is more appropriate. We develop a multi-period model and use it to obtain an optimal orchard replacement policy. ...

  18. AMPLIFIED FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX ISOLATES RECOVERED FROM SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine-scale genotyping methods are necessary in order to identify possible sources of human exposure to opportunistic pathogens belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was evaluated for fingerprintin...

  19. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  20. Analysis of pomological traits in new promising sweet cherry genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotirić-Akšić Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry breeding programs are interested in developing new cultivars that are very early or very late in ripening, high yielding, with excellent fruit size and quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate new, promising, sweet cherry genotypes (G-1 and G-2 for ripening time, fruit morphology and fruit chemical content, and compare it with the standard sweet cherry cultivars (Bigarreau Jaboulay, B. H. Burlat, Seneca, Hedelfiger Riesenkirsche, Germersdorfer Grosse Kirsche, Emperor Francis and Bing. Experiment was done during four consecutive years (2006-2009 in Grocka, near Belgrade. The earliest fruit ripening was recorded in G-2 (22nd April while the latest in `Bing` (2nd June. Fruit weight varied from 5.83 g (G-2 up to 8.93 g (G-1. Soluble solid content and total sugar content were the lowest in genotype G-2 (10.48%; 8.45%, respectively but the highest in Emperor Francis (18.28%; 15.98%, respectively. No matter the fact that some standard cultivars showed better results for some traits, genotypes G-1 and G-2 are considered very promising. So, genotype G-1 could be intended for table consumption since it ripens 2-3 days after cv. B. H. Burlat, but have much higher fruit weight. Also, genotype G-2, the earliest in this trial, showed satisfactory fruit weight for this ripening time, which makes it very interesting for fresh market production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31063 i br. 31038

  1. Effect of lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium avium subsp avium in Freund’s incomplete adjuvant on the immune response of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Colavecchia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether lipoarabinomannan (LAM, in combination with Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (FIA, was able to improve cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA in cattle. Twenty-three calves were assigned to four treatment groups, which were subcutaneously immunized with either OVA plus FIA, OVA plus FIA and LAM from Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, FIA plus LAM, or FIA alone. Lymphoproliferation, IFN-γ production and cell subpopulations on peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and 15 days after treatment were evaluated. Delayed hypersensitivity was evaluated on day 57. Specific humoral immune response was measured by ELISA. Inoculation with LAM induced higher levels of lymphoproliferation and IFN-γ production in response to ConA and OVA (P < 0.05. Specific antibody titers were similar in both OVA-immunized groups. Interestingly, our results showed that the use of LAM in vaccine preparations improved specific cell immune response evaluated by lymphoproliferation and IFN-γ production by at least 50 and 25%, respectively, in cattle without interfering with tuberculosis and paratuberculosis diagnosis.

  2. Bordetella avium Causes Induction of Apoptosis and Nitric Oxide Synthase in Turkey Tracheal Explant Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, David M.; Ruff, Kristin; Beach, Nathan M.; Dorsey-Oresto, Angella; Masters, Isaac; Temple, Louise M.

    2011-01-01

    Bordetellosis is an upper respiratory disease of turkeys caused by Bordetella avium in which the bacteria attach specifically to ciliated respiratory epithelial cells. Little is known about the mechanisms of pathogenesis of this disease, which has a negative impact in the commercial turkey industry. In this study, we produced a novel explant organ culture system that was able to successfully reproduce pathogenesis of B. avium in vitro, using tracheal tissue derived from 26 day-old turkey embr...

  3. Infection by Mycobacterium avium intracellulare in AIDS: endoscopic duodenal appearance mimicking Whipple's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Iglesias, J L; Yañez, J; Durana, J; Arnal, F

    1988-09-01

    We report the case of a 24-year-old woman who presented with diarrhea, weight loss and abdominal lymph node enlargement. A diagnosis of infection by Mycobacterium avium intracellulare with a clinical picture similar to Whipple's disease was established. The endoscopic study of the duodenum revealed multiple yellow nodules that became confluent in the second portion, entirely replacing the normal mucosa. These endoscopic findings have not been described previously in intestinal infection by Mycobacterium avium intracellulare.

  4. Maximum growth rate of Mycobacterium avium in continuous culture or chronically infected BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, C M; Taylor, M A; Dennis, M W

    1987-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium is a human pathogen which may cause either chronic or disseminated disease and the organism exhibits a slow rate of growth. This study provides information on the growth rate of the organism in chronically infected mice and its maximal growth rate in vitro. M. avium was grown in continuous culture, limited for nitrogen with 0.5 mM ammonium chloride and dilution rates that ranged from 0.054 to 0.153 h-1. The steady-state concentration of ammonia nitrogen and M. avium cells for each dilution rate were determined. The bacterial saturation constant for growth-limiting ammonia was 0.29 mM (4 micrograms nitrogen/ml) and, from this, the maximal growth rate for M. avium was estimated to be 0.206 h-1 or a doubling time of 3.4 h. BALB/c mice were infected intravenously with 3 x 10(6) colony-forming units and a chronic infection resulted, typical of virulent M. avium strains. During a period of 3 months, the number of mycobacteria remained constant in the lungs, but increased 30-fold and 8,900-fold, respectively, in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. The latter increase appeared to be due to proliferation in situ. The generation time of M. avium in the mesenteric lymph nodes was estimated to be 7 days.

  5. Characterization of clinical and environmental Mycobacterium avium spp. isolates and their interaction with human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Guirado

    Full Text Available Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC are naturally occurring bacteria in the environment. A link has been suggested between M. avium strains in drinking water and clinical isolates from infected individuals. There is a need to develop new screening methodologies that can identify specific virulence properties of M. avium isolates found in water that predict a level of risk to exposed individuals. In this work we have characterized 15 clinical and environmental M. avium spp. isolates provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA to improve our understanding of the key processes involved in the binding, uptake and survival of these isolates in primary human macrophages. M. avium serovar 8 was predominant among the isolates studied. Different amounts and exposure of mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM and glycopeptidolipids (GPLs, both major mycobacterial virulence factors, were found among the isolates studied. Reference clinical isolate 104 serovar 1 and clinical isolates 11 and 14 serovar 8 showed an increased association with macrophages. Serum opsonization increased the cell association and survival at 2 h post infection for all isolates. However, only the clinical isolates 104 and 3 among those tested showed an increased growth in primary human macrophages. The other isolates varied in their survival in these cells. Thus we conclude that the amounts of cell envelope ManLAM and GPL, as well as GPL serovar specificity are not the only important bacterial factors for dictating the early interactions of M. avium with human macrophages.

  6. Expression library immunization confers protection against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, J F; Stabel, J R; Paustian, M L; Reinhardt, T A; Bannantine, J P

    2005-10-01

    Currently, paratuberculosis vaccines are comprised of crude whole-cell preparations of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Although effective in reducing clinical disease and fecal shedding, these vaccines have severe disadvantages as well, including seroconversion of vaccinated animals and granulomatous lesions at the site of vaccination. DNA vaccines can offer an alternative approach that may be safer and elicit more protective responses. In an effort to identify protective M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis sequences, a genomic DNA expression library was generated and subdivided into pools of clones (approximately 1,500 clones/pool). The clone pools were evaluated to determine DNA vaccine efficacy by immunizing mice via gene gun delivery and challenging them with live, virulent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Four clone pools resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis recovered from mouse tissues compared to mice immunized with other clone pools and nonvaccinated, infected control mice. One of the protective clone pools was further partitioned into 10 clone arrays of 108 clones each, and four clone arrays provided significant protection from both spleen and mesenteric lymph node colonization by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The nucleotide sequence of each clone present in the protective pools was determined, and coding region functions were predicted by computer analysis. Comparison of the protective clone array sequences implicated 26 antigens that may be responsible for protection in mice. This study is the first study to demonstrate protection against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection with expression library immunization.

  7. Oral immunization of animals with transgenic cherry tomatillo expressing HBsAg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Gao; Yina Ma; Mei Li; Tonq Chenq; Shao-Wei Li; Jun Zhang; Ning-Shao Xia

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of recombinant HBsAg (rHBsAg) in transgenic cherry tomatillo in order to explore the feasibility of producing HBV oral vaccine with cherry tomatillo by animal immune tests.METHODS: The recombinant plant expression vector containing HBsAg gene was constructed. Mediated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, HBsAg gene was transferred into cotyledons of cherry tomatillo. Transformed cherry tomatillos were obtained through hygromycin delay-selection. Integrated DNA in transgenic cherry tomatillo was confirmed by hygromycin resistance selection, Gus detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blotting analysis. Antigenicity of rHBsAg was examined by ELISA and the immunogenicity of rHBsAg derived from transgenic cherry tomatillo tissues was confirmed by oral feed of transformed tissues to BALB/c mice primed with commercial HBV vaccines. Specific antibody titers in mice's serum were examined by ELISA every week.RESULTS: By far, 10 positive lines of transgenic cherry tomatillos containing HBsAg gene were obtained. Among different organs of the same transgenic cherry tomatillo,level of rHBsAg expressed in leaves was the highest with the yield up to 300ng/g fresh weight. And the rHBsAg expression level in fruits was about 10 ng/g fresh weight.In animal immune tests, oral delivery with transgenic tissues to mice primed with commercial vaccine instead of naive mice resulted in significant immune response.CONCLUSION: The result of this animal immune test indicated the rHBsAg derived from transgenic cherry tomatillo possessed normal immunogenicity. This work demonstrated the feasibility to generate oral immunogenic rHBsAg in transgenic cherry tomatillo, and would provide some experimental approach for the production of low-cost oral vaccines using transgenic cherry tomatillo in large scale.

  8. Emphysematous pyometra secondary to Enterococcus avium infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, An-Chi; Cheng, Ching-Chang; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Lee, Wei-Ming; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Kuan-Sheng

    2016-06-16

    A 5-year-old female intact Mastiff dog was presented with a history of vaginal discharge for 1 day. Physical examination revealed a sanguineo-purulent vaginal discharge and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Abdominal radiographs showed several dilated and gas- filled tubular loops. The differential diagnoses included emphysematous pyometra or small intestinal mechanical ileus. Surgical exploration of the abdomen demonstrated a severely dilated and gas-filled uterus, and emphysematous pyometra was confirmed. The patient's clinical signs resolved after ovariohysterectomy. Histopathology revealed mild endometrial cystic hyperplasia with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the superficial endometrial epithelia. Enterococcus avium, an α-hemolytic gram-positive coccus, was isolated from the uterus. This paper highlights the radiographic features of emphysematous pyometra and a pathogen that has never been reported to be associated with canine pyometra previously.

  9. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in an immunocompetent pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts, which is associated with abnormal cellular immunity. Case presentation A 26-year-old pregnant woman presented with fever and general weakness. Miliary lung nodules were noted on chest X-ray. Under the impression of miliary tuberculosis, anti-tuberculosis medication was administered. However, the patient was not improved. Further work-up demonstrated MAC in the sputum and placenta. The patient was treated successfully with clarithromycin-based combination regimen. Conclusion This appears to be the first case of disseminated MAC in an otherwise healthy pregnant woman. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of MAC infection in diverse clinical conditions.

  10. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  11. 78 FR 25407 - Safety Zones; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display; West Grand Traverse Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; National Cherry Festival Air Show and..., the National Cherry Festival in Traverse City, MI will host an air show over the West Arm of Grand Traverse Bay. At the conclusion of the National Cherry Festival on July 6, 2013, fireworks will be...

  12. 77 FR 24640 - Tart Cherries Grown in the State of Michigan, et al.; Increasing the Primary Reserve Capacity and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the State of... diversion activities prescribed under the marketing order for tart cherries (order). The order regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah,...

  13. 77 FR 33303 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York.... 930 (order), which regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania... (77 FR 13015). This document directed that a referendum among tart cherry growers and processors...

  14. 75 FR 29647 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted... Federal marketing order regulating tart cherries grown in seven States (order). The percentages are 32... tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington,...

  15. 75 FR 29684 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increased Assessment Rate for the 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increased Assessment Rate for the 2010-2011 Crop Year for Tart Cherries AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... assessable tart cherries. The Board locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling...

  16. 77 FR 36115 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for the 2011-12 Crop Year for Tart Cherries AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... year under the marketing order for tart cherries grown in the states of Michigan, New...

  17. 75 FR 12702 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for the 2009-2010 Crop Year for Tart Cherries... order regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New York,...

  18. 75 FR 33673 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah... regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington... referendum among tart cherry growers and processors be conducted during the period February 1, 2010,...

  19. 75 FR 33736 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York... regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington... amend Marketing Agreement and Order No. 930 (order) regulating the handling of tart cherries grown...

  20. 76 FR 10471 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for the 2010-2011 Crop Year for Tart Cherries AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... the tart cherry marketing order for the 2010-2011 crop year. The percentages are 58 percent free...

  1. 77 FR 12748 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for the 2011-12 Crop Year for Tart Cherries AGENCY... tart cherries grown in the states of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington,...

  2. 78 FR 46494 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York... prescribed under the marketing order for tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New York... tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington,...

  3. Sensing the Moisture Content of Dry Cherries - A Rapid and Nondestructive Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impedance (Z), and phase angle (') of a parallel-plate capacitor with a single cherry fruit between the plates was measured using a CI meter (Chari’s Impedance meter), at 1 and 9 MHz . Capacitance C, was derived from Z and ', and using the C, ', and Z values of a set of cherries whose moisture cont...

  4. Construction and validation of a mCherry protein vector for promoter analysis in Lactobacillus acidophilus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohedano, M.L.; Garcia-Cayuela, T.; Perez-Ramos, A.; Gaiser, R.A.; Requena, T.; Lopez, P.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli are widespread in natural environments and are increasingly being investigated as potential health modulators. In this study, we have adapted the broad-host-range vector pNZ8048 to express the mCherry protein (pRCR) to expand the usage of the mCherry protein for analysis of gene express

  5. NIR detection of pits and pit fragments in fresh cherries (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the detection of pits and pit fragments in cherries was demonstrated. For detection of whole pits, 300 cherries were obtained locally and pits were removed from half. NIR reflectance spectra were obtained in triplicate...

  6. Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Prunus avium. L%欧洲大樱桃的组织培养与快速繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王计平; 侯思宇; 孙朝霞; 王玉国

    2007-01-01

    以欧洲大樱桃幼嫩茎段为外植体材料,研究了不同浓度6-BA和IAA外源激素配比组合和不同培养温度对樱桃茎段离体培养的影响,结果表明:在附加6-BA 1.5 mg/L、IAA0.3 mg/L的MS培养基上茎段外植体生长健壮,芽分化数和诱导率较高,为茎段初代培养的最适培养基.温度对茎段组织培养再生不定芽也有一定的影响.在培养温度为先15℃、后25℃的条件下,茎段外植体芽分化数为7.4个,芽诱导率为99%.这表明经低温15℃条件下处理的外植体比其他温度条件更能诱导芽分化.

  7. Yield-increasing techniques of Prunus avium in Dalian area%大连地区甜樱桃增产技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘立新; 龙忠伟

    2010-01-01

    大连地区大面积栽培甜樱桃过程中,普遍存在树势衰弱,病害较重,单株产量低的问题.针对现状,结合甜樱桃的生物学特性和当地生境特点,运用综合性的技术措施,不断增加甜樱桃的产量,促进甜樱桃产业的可持续发展.

  8. Fast breeding techniques in tubes of Prunus avium%欧洲大樱桃试管快繁技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯修胜

    2002-01-01

    取欧洲大樱桃茎段作外植体,探讨了其快速繁殖技术,筛选出最佳增殖、生根培养基,找出了影响试管苗移栽成活率的因素.试管苗增殖系数达到10左右,生根率达92.5%,移栽成活率达95%以上.

  9. Preliminary Research on Grafting Prunus avium with Cerasus tomentosa as Rootstock%毛樱桃作砧木嫁接大樱桃初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓刚; 李文远; 张昱

    2009-01-01

    [目的]比较毛樱桃作砧木2种方法嫁接大樱桃的效果.[方法]以毛樱桃作为砧木,大樱桃作为接穗,比较腹接和插皮接2种方法进行大樱桃嫁接的效果.[结果]嫁接方法对接穗的成苗率和成活率影响不是很大.采用腹接的方式成活率在85.0%,采用插皮接的方式成活率是86.4%.二者的成苗率差别也不大,成苗率腹接还要高于插皮接,腹接的成苗率为81.0%,插皮接成苗率为80.9%.嫁接方法对接口愈合状况和苗木生长量也有影响,采用腹接接口的愈合程度要好于插皮接,但是插皮接的苗木生长量好于腹接.当年苗插皮接的长势较好,新梢高和新梢粗均高于腹接.[结论]该研究为大樱桃的广泛栽培奠定了基础.

  10. Cambios de volumen, área superficial y factor de forma de Heywood durante la deshidratación de cerezas (Prunus avium)

    OpenAIRE

    Michelis,Antonio de; Pirone,Beatriz Noemi; Vullioud,Mabel Beatriz; Ochoa,Mónica Roselva; Kesseler,Alicia Graciela; Márquez,Carlos Alberto

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo, se evaluaron experimentalmente los cambios de volumen, área superficial y factores de forma durante la deshidratación de cerezas enteras. En base a los resultados obtenidos, se propusieron modelos muy simples para la evaluación matemática de dichos cambios para su uso en simulación de lechos profundos de partículas. Los cambios de volumen se pudieron representar con una ecuación lineal y los de área superficial con un polinomio de tercer orden, en ambos casos como una función...

  11. Zoonotic aspects of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biet, Franck; Boschiroli, Maria Laura; Thorel, Marie Françoise; Guilloteau, Laurence A

    2005-01-01

    Pathogens that are transmitted between the environment, wildlife, livestock and humans represent major challenges for the protection of human and domestic animal health, the economic sustainability of agriculture, and the conservation of wildlife. Among such pathogens, the genus Mycobacterium is well represented by M. bovis, the etiological agent of bovine tuberculosis, M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map) the etiological agent of Johne disease, M. avium ssp. avium (Maa) and in a few common cases by other emergent environmental mycobacteria. Epidemiologic surveys performed in Europe, North America and New Zealand have demonstrated the existence and importance of environmental and wildlife reservoirs of mycobacterial infections that limit the attempts of disease control programmes. The aim of this review is to examine the zoonotic aspects of mycobacteria transmitted from the environment and wildlife. This work is focused on the species of two main groups of mycobacteria classified as important pathogens for humans and animals: first, M. bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, which belongs to the M. tuberculosis complex and has a broad host range including wildlife, captive wildlife, domestic livestock, non-human primates and humans; the second group examined, is the M. avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) which includes M. avium ssp. avium causing major health problems in AIDS patients and M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis the etiological agent of Johne disease in cattle and identified in patients with Crohn disease. MAC agents, in addition to a broad host range, are environmental mycobacteria found in numerous biotopes including the soil, water, aerosols, protozoa, deep litter and fresh tropical vegetation. This review examines the possible reservoirs of these pathogens in the environment and in wildlife, their role as sources of infection in humans and animals and their health impact on humans. The possibilities of control and management programmes for

  12. In vitro shoot tip tissue virus-free culture of sweet cherry%甜樱桃茎尖培养脱毒研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付宏岐; 吴云锋; 王睿; 郝兴安

    2005-01-01

    以甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)嫩梢芽为外植体进行了茎尖组培脱毒研究,筛选出的增殖培养基为MS+6-BA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L+GA3 0.5 mg/L+AgNO3 5.0~10.0 mg/L+蔗糖30 g/L+琼脂7 g/L,丛生芽增殖数达到6个以上;确定良好的生根培养基为1/2 MS+IBA 0.7 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L+蔗糖20 g/L+琼脂7 g/L,生根率达75.1%,移栽成活率可达80.5%以上;利用生物学方法对甜樱桃试管苗进行了初步病毒鉴定,结果表明,0.5~0.8 mm茎尖培养对苹果褪绿叶斑病毒(ACLSV)和李矮缩病毒(PDA)的脱毒率达39.4%和48.1%;0.5 mm以下茎尖培养对ACLSV和PDA的脱毒率达75.8%和78.6%,证明甜樱桃试管苗0.5 mm以下的小茎尖培养能有效脱除ACLSV和PDA病毒.

  13. Relationship between Presence of Cows with Milk Positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Specific Antibody by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Dust in Cattle Barns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenberg, S.W.F.; Chuchaisangrat, R.; Nielen, M.; Koets, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne’s disease, in cattle is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which has recently been suspected to be transmitted through dust. This longitudinal study on eight commercial M. avium subsp. paratuberculosispositive dairy farms studied the relationship betwee

  14. A Phase Transition for Circle Maps and Cherry Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Liviana

    2013-07-01

    We study C 2 weakly order preserving circle maps with a flat interval. The main result of the paper is about a sharp transition from degenerate geometry to bounded geometry depending on the degree of the singularities at the boundary of the flat interval. We prove that the non-wandering set has zero Hausdorff dimension in the case of degenerate geometry and it has Hausdorff dimension strictly greater than zero in the case of bounded geometry. Our results about circle maps allow to establish a sharp phase transition in the dynamics of Cherry flows.

  15. A Phase Transition for Circle Maps and Cherry Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Palmisano, Liviana

    2012-01-01

    We study $C^{2}$ weakly order preserving circle maps with a flat interval. The main result of the paper is about a sharp transition from degenerate geometry to bounded geometry depending on the degree of the singularities at the boundary of the flat interval. We prove that the non-wandering set has zero Hausdorff dimension in the case of degenerate geometry and it has Hausdorff dimension strictly greater than zero in the case of bounded geometry. Our results about circle maps allow to establish a sharp phase transition in the dynamics of Cherry flows.

  16. Models for the beginning of sour cherry blossom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Blümel, Klaus; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2014-07-01

    Seven different model approaches to calculate the onset of sour cherry blossom for the main growing regions in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) were compared. Three of the approaches were pure forcing models (M1, M2, M2DL) and the remaining four models were combined sequential chilling-forcing (CF) models. Model M1 was the commonly used growing degree day (GDD) model in which the starting date of temperature accumulation ( t 1), the base temperature ( T BF) and the forcing requirement F* were optimized on the basis of observed data. Because of a relatively late optimal starting date ( t 1 = 1 March), the model can be applied only to calculate the onset of cherry blossom for present climate conditions. In order to develop forcing models that could possibly be used to estimate possible shifts in the timing of cherry blossom due to climate change, the starting date t 1 of the models was intentionally set to 1 January (M2, M2DL). Unfortunately, model M2 failed in both the optimization and validation period. The introduction of a daylength term (DL) in model M2DL improved model performance. In order to project possible shifts in the timing of plant phenological events, combined CF-models are preferred over pure GDD-models. For this reason four CF-models were developed with (M3DL, M4DL) and without (M3, M4) consideration of daylength in the GDD-approach. The chilling requirement was calculated using chilling hours (M3, M3DL) and chill portions (M4, M4DL). Both models without daylength estimated implausible model parameters and failed model validation. However, models M3DL and M4DL showed meaningful model parameter estimations and the error between modelled and observed data was markedly reduced. Moreover, the models optimized and validated (internal validation) for one sour cherry growing region in Germany, were applied successfully to calculate the beginning of the blossom period in other regions in Europe and even at one station in North America (external validation).

  17. 欧洲甜樱桃幼胚子叶离体培养再生植株研究%Adventitious Shoot Regeneration in Vitro from Immature Cotyledon of the Sweet Cherry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 赵改荣; 韩礼星; 黄贞光; 齐秀娟; 李玉红

    2009-01-01

    以欧洲甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)幼胚子叶为试材,研究不同品种、不同子叶发育时期、6-BA和 NAA配比和培养条件等对其离体再生不定芽的影响.结果表明,以MS为基本培养基,附加6-BA 2.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.2 mg·L-1,用PF(子叶的长度/胚的长度×100)=50-80发育阶段的子叶,'那翁'品种幼胚子叶再生不定芽效果最好,再生率最高可达79.2%.暗培养2周后再转入光照下培养,对子叶再生不定芽具有一定的促进作用.'雷尼尔'品种子叶再生率为72.2%,'先锋'为61.1%,'拉宾斯'为33.3%.子叶再生不定芽全部发生于子叶正面近胚芽端切口处,表现出明显的极性效应.

  18. 樱桃酒中有机酸种类和含量的研究%Study on Determination of Kinds and Contents of Organic Acids in Cherry Peach Wine by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高卫卫; 杜金华; 于玲; 李兰晓; 耿赟; 马明

    2008-01-01

    采用反相高效液相色谱法(RP-HPLC)对樱桃(Prunus avium L.)酒中有机酸的种类和含量进行了研究.采用Atlantis dC18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 um),以0.02 mol/L的KH2PO4溶液(pH值2.80)为流动相,流速为0.70 mL/min,柱温30℃,紫外检测器检测波长为210 nm.在此色谱条件下,方法重现性好,精密度高,有机酸在浓度(0~9.0)×103mg/L,线性相关系数均大干0.9990.加标回收率为96%~105%,各有机酸检出限≤8.0 mg/L.在此条件下测定发酵樱桃酒中的有机酸,得到樱桃酒中主要有机酸是苹果酸,其次是柠檬酸、乳酸、琥珀酸、酒石酸和草酸.

  19. 甜樱桃品种SSR指纹检索系统的开发及遗传多样性分析%Development of Fingerprinting Key and Analysis of Genetic Diversity with SSR Marker for Sweet Cherry Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琪静; 张新忠; 代红艳; 谷大军; 闫桂军; 李春敏; 张志宏

    2008-01-01

    应用SSR技术开发了甜樱桃(Prunus avium)指纹检索系统并进行遗传多样性分析.18对樱桃、桃和杏的引物在19份甜樱桃及2份草原樱桃(P.fruticosa)品种中共扩增出83个等位位点,每个SSR位点的等位位点数2~8个,平均4.6个,多态性信息量(PIC)变化范围为0.38~0.80,平均为0.64.7个甜樱桃品种具有特殊位点或特殊带型.利用UDP98-414、UDP98-406、UDP96-001及PMS40等4对引物开发的指纹检索系统,可以区分18个甜樱桃品种.根据遗传距离进行聚类分析,19个甜樱桃品种分成2组,甜樱桃品种间的聚类结果基本反映了供试材料之间的亲缘关系.

  20. Effects of 1-MCP on Quality of Sweet Cherry "Hongdeng" during Cold Storage%1-MCP处理对“红灯”大樱桃低温贮藏效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王风霞; 张鸿; 谢天柱; 呼丽萍

    2013-01-01

    以“红灯”大樱桃(Prunus avium L.)为材料,研究1-MCP对其低温贮藏效果的影响,为大樱桃的贮藏保鲜提供一定的理论依据和技术指导.用1-MCP处理采后大樱桃,定期测定可溶性固形物含量、维生素C(VC)含量、有机酸含量、果实外观、风味以及腐烂率等各项指标.结果表明,1-MCP能显著减缓果实VC含量的下降,降低腐烂率,能较好地维持外观色泽与口感,但1-MCP处理对可溶性固形物含量的影响极小.

  1. Effects of Different Atmospheres on Postharvest Physiology and Quality of Sweet Cherry%不同气体成分对甜樱桃果实采后生理及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜爱丽; 田世平; 徐勇; 汪沂; 范青

    2002-01-01

    研究了甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)品种"红灯"在气调(CA,controlled atmosphere)、自发气调(MA,modified atmosphere)和普通冷藏(CK)条件下果实的生理变化、褐变指数、风味品质和耐藏性.结果表明,与CK相比,CA和MA贮藏均能有效地减少果实腐烂和褐变,保持果实硬度和颜色,降低果肉中乙烯和乙醇含量,抑制多酚氧化酶和过氧化物酶的活性,减慢丙二醛含量上升的速率.但是,甜樱桃果实在CA条件下的贮藏效果明显地好于MA,贮藏时间是MA的1.5~2倍.在CA贮藏中又以高CO2浓度处理组合的效果更佳.

  2. 上海地区栽培的欧洲甜樱桃花器发育的观察%Development of Flower Organs in Sweet Cherry in Shanghai Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世平; 袁彩娟; 戴韵婷; 舒缓; 杨天仪; 张才喜

    2004-01-01

    为了探讨上海地区甜樱桃结实不良的原因,以5年生欧洲甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)为试验材料,就其花器发育状况进行了探讨.结果表明,上海地区生长的甜樱桃花芽形成良好,雌蕊、雄蕊外观形态无异常.花粉粒形态正常,发芽率达50%左右,但有98.2%的子房发育不正常,其中无胚珠分化的子房占26.3%,有胚珠而无胚囊分化的子房占71.9%.胚珠、胚囊发育不良是上海甜樱桃不能正常结实的主要原因.

  3. 7 CFR 319.37-3 - Permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., English laurel, nectarine, peach, plum, prune), Cydonia spp. (quince), Chaenomeles spp. (flowering quince... Prunus spp. (almond, apricot, cherry, cherry laurel, English laurel, nectarine, peach, plum, prune)...

  4. Concomitant Mycobacterium avium infection and Hodgkin's disease in a lymph node from an HIV-negative child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, Yaxsier; Capó, Virginia; González, Ida; Mederos, Lilian; Díaz, Raúl; de Waard, Jacobus H; Rodríguez, Alberto; García, Yarmila; Cabanas, Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of an immunocompetent child with simultaneously an infection with Mycobacterium avium and Hodgkin's disease in a cervical lymph node. A positive PCR result for M. avium on a biopsy of the lymph node directed the definitive diagnosis for both etiologies and avoided a possible dissemination of this infection after chemotherapy was started.

  5. Lymphadenitis in children is caused by Mycobacterium avium hominissuis and not related to ‘bird tuberculosis’

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, P. E. W.; Lindeboom, J. A.; Kuijper, E. J.; van Soolingen, D.

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium is the most commonly encountered mycobacterium species among non-Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (nontuberculous mycobacteria) isolates worldwide and frequently causes lymphadenitis in children. During a multi-centre study in The Netherlands that was performed to determine the optimal treatment for mycobacterial lymphadenitis, concern was expressed in the media about the possible role of birds as sources of these M. avium infections, referred to as ‘bird tuberculosis.’ To examine the involvement of birds in mycobacterial lymphadenitis, 34 M. avium isolates from lymphadenitis cases were subjected to IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing. This genotyping method enables the distinction of the subspecies M. avium subsp. hominissuis and the ‘bird-type’ M. avium spp. avium. Highly variable RFLP patterns were found among the lymphadenitis M. avium isolates, and all belonged to the M. avium hominissuis subspecies. A relation to pet birds in the etiology of mycobacterial lymphadenitis could not be established, and the source of the infections may be environmental. PMID:18320245

  6. Assessing the effectiveness of low-pressure ultraviolet light for inactivating Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To assess low-pressure ultraviolet light (LP-UV) inactivation kinetics of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) strains in a water matrix using collimated beam apparatus. Methods and Results: Strains of M. avium (n = 3) and Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 2) were exposed t...

  7. Characterization of the fibronectin-attachment protein of Mycobacterium avium reveals a fibronectin-binding motif conserved among mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorey, J S; Holsti, M A; Ratliff, T L; Allen, P M; Brown, E J

    1996-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium is an intracellular pathogen and a major opportunistic infectious agent observed in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Evidence suggests that the initial portal of infection by M. avium is often the gastrointestinal tract. However, the mechanism by which the M. avium crosses the epithelial barrier is unclear. A possible mechanism is suggested by the ability of M. avium to bind fibronectin, an extracellular matrix protein that is a virulence factor for several extracellular pathogenic bacteria which bind to mucosal surfaces. To further characterize fibronectin binding by M. avium, we have cloned the M. avium fibronectin-attachment protein (FAP). The M. avium FAP (FAP-A) has an unusually large number of Pro and Ala residues (40% overall) and is 50% identical to FAP of both Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Using recombinant FAP-A and FAP-A peptides, we show that two non-continuous regions in FAP-A bind fibronectin. Peptides from these regions and homologous sequences from M. leprae FAP inhibit fibronectin binding by both M. avium and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). These regions have no homology to eukaryotic fibronectin-binding proteins and are only distantly related to fibronectin-binding peptides of Gram-positive bacteria. Nevertheless, these fibronectin-binding regions are highly conserved among the mycobacterial FAPs, suggesting an essential function for this interaction in mycobacteria infection of their metazoan hosts.

  8. Screening of solvent dependent antibacterial activity of Prunus domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqeen, Zahra; Naqvi, Naim-ul-Hasan; Sohail, Tehmina; Rehman, Zakir-ur; Fatima, Nudrat; Imran, Hina; Rehman, Atiqur

    2013-03-01

    Fruit of Prunus domestica was extracted in ethanol. The ethanol extract was further extracted with two solvents ethyl acetate and chloroform. The crude ethanol extract and two fractions (ethyl acetate and chloroform) were screened for their antibacterial activity using the agar well diffusion method .They were tested against nine bacteria; five Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcuc intermedius, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus) and four Gram negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Proteus mirabilis Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiela pneumoniae). The susceptibility of microorganisms to all three fractions was compared with each other and with standard antibiotic (Ampicillin) Among all fractions ethyl acetate exhibited highest antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 34.57mm ± 1.3) while ethyl alcohol exhibited least antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 17.42mm ± 3.3). Minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions was found in the range of 78 μ g/ml to 2500 μ gl/ml against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

  9. Graft incompatibility in plants: Metabolic changes during formation and establishment of the rootstock/scion union with emphasis on Prunus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gainza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Commercial fruit trees are usually formed by the combination of a rootstock and a scion to broaden the adaptability of scion cultivars to soil and climatic conditions, facilitate agricultural management, and/or increase productivity. In the different cultivated species of the genus Prunus, rootstocks having a wide range of uses are scarce, because of rootstock/ scion graft incompatibilities that prevent the establishment of a strong and lasting functional union. Graft incompatibility is a problem in cherry, almond, and apricot than in peach or plum. In general, closely related cultivars and species tend to be compatible, but taxonomically distant plants often manifest incompatibility. This review will focus on the knowledge currently available on the metabolic response during the formation and establishment of the stock/scion graft union in order to help the effort for identify future metabolic markers to be used in breeding programs. The physiological, metabolic and molecular mechanisms that cause incompatibility remain unclear and several hypotheses have been proposed to explain it, mostly based on herbaceous species. Few studies are available to explain incompatibility in woody plants. Various phenolic compounds are known to affect cell division, development and differentiation at the graft union. Flavonol (catechins and proanthocyanidins concentrations increase shortly after grafting and, as a result of the stress induced during the healing response, vacuolar membrane disruption occurs resulting in the escape of phenols from the vacuole into the cytoplasmic matrix, causing dysfunctions in the growth of certain tissues (xylem and phloem, interference with the synthesis of lignin or inducing hormonal imbalances. All these abnormalities result in mechanical weakening of the union, which may manifest during the first year after grafting (translocated incompatibility or may appear several years later (localized incompatibility, leading to major

  10. KatG protein: A novel marker for differential diagnosis of Myobacterium avium complex infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Biochemical or nucleic acid based diagnostic techniques for MAC infection are unsatisfactory. This study aims to identify and evaluate M. avium secretory protein(s of diagnostic potential, so as to develop a rapid and simple method for diagnosis of MAC infection. Material and Methods: Initially, a specific protein band of ~80-85 kDa was recognised by differential immunoblotting; which was subjected to anion exchange column chromatography for purification of proteins. After fractionisation using SDS-PAGE and electroelution, blast search was carried out. Further immunoreactivity studies were done with M. avium and Mtb infected mice sera. Clinical utilisation of separated protein was evaluated by conducting indirect ELISA with serum samples from mycobacterial infected patients. Results: A specific 81.6 kDa protein, shown to be catalase-peroxidase protein (KatG by blast search was separated. Immunoreactivity studies of purified KatG proteins with mice sera confirmed it to be specific for M. avium infection. Indirect ELISA with patient samples further confirmed it to be M. avium infection specific. Conclusion: KatG protein is specifically recognised by MAC patients and can be used as a marker for simple and rapid ELISA based tests for differential diagnosis of M. avium infection.

  11. Immunoreactivity of protein tyrosine phosphatase A (PtpA) in sera from sheep infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Ratna B; Begg, Douglas J; Purdie, Auriol C; Bach, Horacio; Whittington, Richard J

    2014-07-15

    Evasion of host defense mechanisms and survival inside infected host macrophages are features of pathogenic mycobacteria including Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease in ruminants. Protein tyrosine phosphatase A (PtpA) has been identified as a secreted protein critical for survival of mycobacteria within infected macrophages. The host may mount an immune response to such secreted proteins. In this study, the humoral immune response to purified recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis PtpA was investigated using sera from a cohort of sheep infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and compared with uninfected healthy controls. A significantly higher level of reactivity to PtpA was observed in sera collected from M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected sheep when compared to those from uninfected healthy controls. PtpA could be a potential candidate antigen for detection of humoral immune responses in sheep infected with M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

  12. Effectiveness of managed populations of wild and honey bees as supplemental pollinators of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) under different climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansted, Lise; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2015-01-01

    ’ was recorded. Also, using insect-proof cages constructed around ‘Stevnsbaer’ trees, fruit set and yield were recorded and compared with self-pollination in the absence of insects and open pollination. When floral development and seasonal conditions are suitable, there is a potential role for introduced Osmia...... rufa and B. terrestris to add to the pollination activity of conventionally employed A. mellifera. However, in a season with a less favourable weather history, and despite comparable activity of the three species during the pollen-receptive period, introduced bees had only a limited effect on fruit set...... be impractical due to cost. Known ecological risks associated with species introduction also need to be considered. Consequently, if wild bee populations are to be used to secure the potential benefits of increased fruit set and yield, then positive habitat management will be necessary to sustain the required...

  13. Investigating the Transport Dynamics of Anthocyanins from Unprocessed Fruit and Processed Fruit Juice from Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Capanoglu, E.; Meer, van der I.M.; Tomassen, M.M.M.; Hall, R.D.; Mes, J.J.; Beekwilder, J.

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins can contribute to human health through preventing a variety of diseases. The uptake of these compounds from food and the parameters determining uptake efficiency within the human body are still poorly understood. Here we have employed a Caco-2 cell based system to investigate the transp

  14. Cherry juice targets antioxidant potential and pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Kerry S

    2012-01-01

    Strenuous physical activity increases the risk of musculoskeletal injury and can induce muscle damage resulting in acute inflammation and decreased performance. The human body's natural response to injury results in inflammation-induced pain, swelling, and erythema. Among sports medicine physicians and athletic trainers, the mainstays of urgent treatment of soft tissue injury are rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE). In order to reduce pain and inflammation, anti-inflammatory agents such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) act on the multiple inflammatory pathways, which, although often very effective, can have undesirable side effects such as gastric ulceration and, infrequently, myocardial infarction and stroke. For centuries, natural anti-inflammatory compounds have been used to mediate the inflammatory process and often with fewer side effects. Tart cherries appear to possess similar effectiveness in treating the inflammatory reaction seen in both acute and chronic pain syndromes encountered among athletes and non-athletes with chronic inflammatory disease. This article reviews the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of tart cherries on prevention, treatment, and recovery of soft tissue injury and pain.

  15. Tart Cherry Extracts Reduce Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Signaling in Microglial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Kelly, Megan E; Bielinski, Donna F; Fisher, Derek R

    2016-09-22

    Tart cherries contain an array of polyphenols that can decrease inflammation and oxidative stress (OS), which contribute to cognitive declines seen in aging populations. Previous studies have shown that polyphenols from dark-colored fruits can reduce stress-mediated signaling in BV-2 mouse microglial cells, leading to decreases in nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Thus, the present study sought to determine if tart cherries-which improved cognitive behavior in aged rats-would be efficacious in reducing inflammatory and OS signaling in HAPI rat microglial cells. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations (0-1.0 mg/mL) of Montmorency tart cherry powder for 1-4 h, then treated with 0 or 100 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) overnight. LPS application increased extracellular levels of NO and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and intracellular levels of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Pretreatment with tart cherry decreased levels of NO, TNF-α, and COX-2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner versus those without pretreatment; the optimal combination was between 0.125 and 0.25 mg/mL tart cherry for 2 h. Higher concentrations of tart cherry powder and longer exposure times negatively affected cell viability. Therefore, tart cherries (like other dark-colored fruits), may be effective in reducing inflammatory and OS-mediated signals.

  16. Efficacy of tart cherry juice in reducing muscle pain during running: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Diane L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long distance running causes acute muscle damage resulting in inflammation and decreased force production. Endurance athletes use NSAIDs during competition to prevent or reduce pain, which carries the risk of adverse effects. Tart cherries, rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, may have a protective effect to reduce muscle damage and pain during strenuous exercise. This study aimed to assess the effects of tart cherry juice as compared to a placebo cherry drink on pain among runners in a long distance relay race. Methods The design was a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Fifty-four healthy runners (36 male, 18 female; 35.8 ± 9.6 yrs ran an average of 26.3 ± 2.5 km over a 24 hour period. Participants ingested 355 mL bottles of tart cherry juice or placebo cherry drink twice daily for 7 days prior to the event and on the day of the race. Participants assessed level of pain on a standard 100 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS at baseline, before the race, and after the race. Results While both groups reported increased pain after the race, the cherry juice group reported a significantly smaller increase in pain (12 ± 18 mm compared to the placebo group (37 ± 20 mm (p Conclusions Ingesting tart cherry juice for 7 days prior to and during a strenuous running event can minimize post-run muscle pain.

  17. Genetic characterization of pathogenic fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from necrotic cherry and plum buds in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Veljko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During past few years a symptoms of plum and cherry bud necrosis were observed in some regions with significant cherry production in Serbia. Gram negative, fluorescent, oxidative bacterial strains were isolated from the margin of necrotic tissue. All investigated strains are levan and HR positive, while negative results are recorded in oxidase, pectinase and arginin dihydrolase tests (LOPAT+---+. Symptoms similar to those observed in natural infection were obtained after artificial inoculation of cherry leaf scares and dormant one year old cherry shoots. Investigated strains as well as reference strain of P. syringae pv. morsprunorum cause the superficial necrosis on artificially inoculated immature cherry fruits, but negative results were recorded in immature pear and lemon fruit tests as well as syringae leaves and bean pods. Gelatin and aesculin tests were negative and tyrosinase and tartrate were positive. Investigated strains isolated from necrotic cherry buds had identical REP-PCR pattern with reference strain of P. syringae pv. morsprunorum. On the basis of obtained results, it was concluded that this bacterium is causal agent of cherry trees bud necrosis in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31018 i br. 173026

  18. Tracking cholesterol/sphingomyelin-rich membrane domains with the ostreolysin A-mCherry protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Skočaj

    Full Text Available Ostreolysin A (OlyA is an ∼15-kDa protein that has been shown to bind selectively to membranes rich in cholesterol and sphingomyelin. In this study, we investigated whether OlyA fluorescently tagged at the C-terminal with mCherry (OlyA-mCherry labels cholesterol/sphingomyelin domains in artificial membrane systems and in membranes of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK epithelial cells. OlyA-mCherry showed similar lipid binding characteristics to non-tagged OlyA. OlyA-mCherry also stained cholesterol/sphingomyelin domains in the plasma membranes of both fixed and living MDCK cells, and in the living cells, this staining was abolished by pretreatment with either methyl-β-cyclodextrin or sphingomyelinase. Double labelling of MDCK cells with OlyA-mCherry and the sphingomyelin-specific markers equinatoxin II-Alexa488 and GST-lysenin, the cholera toxin B subunit as a probe that binds to the ganglioside GM1, or the cholesterol-specific D4 domain of perfringolysin O fused with EGFP, showed different patterns of binding and distribution of OlyA-mCherry in comparison with these other proteins. Furthermore, we show that OlyA-mCherry is internalised in living MDCK cells, and within 90 min it reaches the juxtanuclear region via caveolin-1-positive structures. No binding to membranes could be seen when OlyA-mCherry was expressed in MDCK cells. Altogether, these data clearly indicate that OlyA-mCherry is a promising tool for labelling a distinct pool of cholesterol/sphingomyelin membrane domains in living and fixed cells, and for following these domains when they are apparently internalised by the cell.

  19. Optimization of Enzymolysis of Sour Cherry by Commercial Pectinase%商业果胶酶对酸樱桃果浆酶解效果的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高佳; 王宝刚; 冯晓元; 李文生; 张开春

    2012-01-01

    以酸樱桃(Prunus cerasus)成熟果实为试材,结合出汁率、透光率、浊度、可溶性固形物、pH值、果胶含量和花色苷含量等指标,从7种商品果胶酶制剂中筛选出对酸樱桃果浆酶解效果较好的Ultra AFP果胶酶。通过单因素试验和Box-Behnken响应面分析确定酸樱桃果浆酶解最优工艺条件。结果表明:加酶量、酶解温度和酶解时间对出汁率、透光率和浊度具有显著影响;加酶量1.73mL/kg、酶解温度46℃、酶解时间2.3h最优条件下,酸樱桃果浆出汁率为86.2%、透光率为90.5%、浊度为2.67NTU。%Physico-chemical characteristics of juice yield,transmittance,turbidity,soluble solid content,pH,pectin content and anthocyanin content of sour cherry pulp were evaluated after treatment with various commercial pectinases.Ultra AFP was the best enzymes among 7 commercial pectinases.One-factor-at-a-time testing and response surface analysis based on Box-Behnken design were used to determine the optimal conditions for hydrolyzing sour cherry pulp with Ultra AFP.It was indicated that all hydrolysis conditions under investigation significantly influenced juice yield,transmittance and turbidity.Under the optimal hydrolysis conditions: 2.3 h of hydrolysis at 46 ℃ and an enzyme dose of 1.73 mL/kg,the juice yield,transmittance and turbidity of the samples were 86.2%,90.5% and 2.67 NTU,respectively.

  20. Evaluation of a bovine antibody test for diagnosing Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Pressler, Tacjana; Katzenstein, Terese L;

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to test a commercial bovine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for investigating antibody activity against Mycobacterium avium complex. METHODS: All patients at the Copenhagen Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Center who had culture for nontuberculous mycobacteria...... before and after culture conversion was performed in case patients. RESULTS: Out of 286 included subjects, six had clinical M. avium complex pulmonary disease at the time of sera sampling. These patients presented with higher antibody test values (P-value ... at ruling out pulmonary disease. Screening sera from patients with CF could guide clinicians to focus attention on patients at higher risk of M. avium complex pulmonary disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016; 9999:XX-XX. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....