WorldWideScience

Sample records for chernobyl tragedy perspective

  1. The Perspective of Tragedy in the Book of Job

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立芳; 宁贵霞

    2015-01-01

    The Book of Job and Greek tragedy have the profound hi storical origin. Although it is not a real sense of tragedy, it has natural tragic ingredients and inherited tragic ingredients from Greek tragedy. The Book of Job is not only an epic or a poetic drama, but also contains tragic perspective.

  2. An Interpretation of Mary’s Tragedy from the Perspective of Interpersonal Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁彩荣

    2013-01-01

      The novel, The Grass is Singing, written by Doris Lessing, describes the tragic life of a white woman Mary living in South Africa. The article tries to explore the factors resulting in Mary’s tragedy from the perspective of interpersonal ethics so as to reveal the suppression and distortion of traditional ethics over men’s spirit and Lessing’s humanistic feelings.

  3. Chernobyl vis-à-vis the nuclear future: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Abel J

    2007-11-01

    The paper aims to provide an international perspective on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident vis-à-vis the future development of the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. It describes the major international initiatives that were undertaken over the years in order to quantify the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and also analyzes the impact of the accident on the development of nuclear energy taking account of the perception of its consequences. The paper revisits the historical saga flowing since the fateful explosion at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukraine 20 y ago. It looks at some of the misunderstandings about the consequences of the accident and explores the worldwide nuclear stagnation that followed Chernobyl, surveying the negative public reaction and also the possibilities of a nuclear revival. It finally searches for a way forward, concluding that an effective international nuclear safety regime is urgently needed with the purpose of preventing catastrophes like Chernobyl from occurring and also that the Chernobyl consequences need to be readdressed properly. The paper concludes with an appeal to the radiation protection community to resolve once and for all the difficult issues of attributing health effects to low-level radiation exposure.

  4. A New Perspective on the Tragedy of Tess —Analysis of Tess of D'Urbervilles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫芊倩; 杨泽辉; 张鹏

    2016-01-01

    Tess of D'Urbervilles is regarded as the most famous tragedy work of the British writer Thomas Hardy. In this novel, the main character, Tess, is a tragic figure. The tragedy of Tess is not accidental. This study analyzes the tragedy of Tess as a woman from the perspective of economy. It is important to strive for economic independence, equality of love and marriage for woman like Tess. Similarly, in the modern society, if women want to maintain equality with men, they must keep themselves independence in economy first, instead of relying on men.

  5. Euripides’s Helena and Pentateuch traditions: The Septuagint from the perspective of Ancient Greek Tragedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia G. Dafni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In some cases discussed below, the present form of the Septuagint is not representative of how Ancient Greek Tragedies were received by the LXX translators, but of how Old Testament traditions in Greek form were received by the tragedians.

  6. Analysis onScarlett’s Love Tragedy-From the Perspectives of Her Personality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗辉

    2014-01-01

    The outstanding female protagonist Scarlett O’Hara in Gone with the Wind is full of conflicting and complicated fea⁃tures, who is the daughter of a rich plantation owner. Based on the background of American Civil War, this novel depicts Scar⁃lett’s love tragedy with the clue of the triangular love between Scarlett, Ashley and Rhett.

  7. Constructing a climate change logic: An institutional perspective on the "tragedy of the commons"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Ansari (Shahzad); F.H. Wijen (Frank); B. Gray (Barbara)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDespite increasing interest in transnational fields, transnational commons have received little attention. In contrast to economic models of commons, which argue that commons occur naturally and are prone to collective inaction and tragedy, we introduce a social constructionist account

  8. 亚里士多德、尼采与悲剧%On the Comparison of Aristotle and Nietzsche from the Perspective of Their Tragedy Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙丽芳

    2014-01-01

    亚里士多德和尼采在不同时期给西方文明留下了理论著作和文化财富,分别在《诗学》和《悲剧的诞生》中阐述了各自的悲剧理论。试从理论派别、理论核心和理论联系等角度对其悲剧观进行对比分析,以探讨他们在悲剧发展史中的地位。%Aristotle and Nietzsche lived in different times and left great wealth of theoretical writings and culture. They elaborat-ed their theories for the definition and understanding of the tragedy in their works“Poetics”and“The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music”. The following paper will compare and analyze their theoretical differences and similarities in the tragedy from the perspective of their two different tragedy works. It will be helpful to study their theories and their special roles in the develop-ment of tragedy.

  9. On the Tragedy of Miss Brill in Katherine Mansfield's Miss Brill From the Perspective of Contrast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiaojuan

    2016-01-01

    Miss Brill is a well-known short story of the English writer Katherine Mansfield who is adept in the description of one's interior monologue and analyzing the mental world of human being. Through contrasts between Miss Brill's recalls of her past and the present world, between her good mood from the very beginning to the very end and bad mood in the end, and between the aging Miss Brill and the young lovers, this paper shows the loneliness, disillusionment and tragedy of Miss Brill.

  10. The Tragedy of the Commons from a Game-Theoretic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian K. Diekert

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years after the declarations from the Earth Summit in Rio, the world faces an unattenuated host of problems that threaten the goal of sustainable development. The challenge to cooperatively solve socio-ecological problems has been portrayed in Garrett Hardin’s essay “The Tragedy of the Commons”. While this paper remains controversial, it has inspired a vast number of theoretical, experimental, and empirical contributions that have clarified the mechanisms of collective action problems and suggested ways to overcome these. This article reviews the recent game-theoretic research in this field.

  11. Some additional notes on Shakespeare : his great tragedies from a Slovene perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Jurak

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first chapter of this study the author stresses the importance of literature and Shakespeare's plays for our age. Although the enigma of Shakespeare's life still concerns many scholars it is relevant only as far as the solutions of some biographical details from Shakespeare's life influence the interpretation of his plays. In the section on feminism the focus of the author's attention is the changed role of women in the present day society as compared to previous centuries. In the final part of the article the role of the main female characters in Shakespeare's great tragedies is discussed. The author suggests that so far their importance has been underestimated and that Shakespeare left some of them open to different interpretations. Hamlet is definitely one of the most popular Shakespeare's plays in Slovenia and in addition to "classical" interpretations of this drama we have seen during the past two decades a number of experimental productions, done by both Slovene and foreign theatrical companies. In Appendix (1 the title of this paper is briefly discussed and the author' a work on Shakespeare is sketched; Appendix (2 presents a rap song on Hamlet written in English by a Slovene author. The song was used in the Glej Eperimental Theatre production (Hamlett/Packard, Ljubljana, 1992.

  12. Chernobyl bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

  13. The cause of Emma's tragedy life from female perspective interpretation%从女性视角解读爱玛人生悲剧的原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓玲

    2015-01-01

    19世纪法国作家福楼拜的代表作品《包法利夫人》,它它讲述的是一个受过贵族化教育的农家女爱玛的感情生活和悲惨的命运。爱玛的悲剧,是由自身原因造成的,原因在于她过于幻想、虚荣、极端的爱情观,她短暂的一生是在不断追求理想爱情的过程中度过的,可她追求的理想爱情一再破灭,最后在走投无路中死去。本文从女性视角出发,解读爱玛人生悲剧原因,从而达到对我们世人的警示作用。%In the 19th century French writer Flaubert's representative work Madame Bovary, tells a highly nobility education farm girl Emma's love life and tragic fate. The tragedy of Emma, is due to their own, the reason is that she is too fancy, vanity, extreme love, her brief life is spent in the process of constant pursuit of ideal love, but her pursuit of ideal love repeatedly burst, finally died in desperation. This article starts from the female perspective, Emma life tragedy, so as to achieve the warning role of the world to us.

  14. An Analysis of the Black’s Tragedy in The Bluest Eye--from the Postcolonial Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕琼; 王昕

    2013-01-01

    In her novel The Bluest Eye, Toni Morrison criticizes the aggression of the white culture to the black which can be seen in the description the black girl’s tragic experience. The novel aims to reveal human nature of the black people’s under colonialism and racial discrimination, at the same time condemn the actions of the colonialism and racism .Toni Morrison strives to wake up the self-consciousness of the whole black nation and inspire them to set up their own national self-esteem and confidence. In this essay the writer probes into the tragedy of the main characters’and the reason of the racial discrimination the black people suffer.

  15. When Tragedy Strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Timothy D.

    1993-01-01

    The key to coping successfully with a school tragedy rests with the principal's leadership and a well-developed crisis response plan. One middle school's response to a field trip tragedy involved several stages: keeping communication flowing, meeting with crisis-management team, informing faculty and students, providing counseling, helping with…

  16. Perspective of Using the Results of Monitoring and Modeling of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant's Cooling Pond as Analogue for the US DOE Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faybishenko, B.; Voitsekhovich, O. V.; Bugay, D.; Skalskjj, A.; Shestopalov, V. M.; Zheleznyak, M.; Kashparov, V. A.; Antropov, A. S.; Kireev, S. I.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Ivanov, Y.; Oskolkov, B.; Marra, J.; Jannik, T.; Farfan, E.; Monken-Fernandes, H.; Hinton, T.; Smith, J.; Onishi, Y.; Konoplev, A.

    2010-12-01

    Although there are many contaminated sites that may be suitable candidates for providing analogue information for the development and testing of environmental modeling and risk assessment approaches, of particular scientific and practical interests is the feasibility study of planned decommissioning and remediation of the highly contaminated Chernobyl Cooling Pond (CP), located within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ). The presence of the CP has caused an artificially high groundwater table within the ChEZ. After the planned cessation of water pumping from the Pripyat River to the CP, substantial areas of sediments, containing 137Cs, 90Sr, and hot particles with U, Pu, and Am. will be exposed to the atmosphere, and the groundwater level is expected to decline by as much as 7 m. The areal extent of the exposed zone, the dissolution rate, mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides will vary over time, depending on the dynamics of seepage losses from the pond and climatic conditions. The objective of the presentation is to discuss hydrological and geochemical processes, a conceptual model, and the results and perspectives of numerical modeling of coupled surface water-groundwater flow and transport, including the parameter estimation and uncertainty evaluation for various decommissioning and remediation options of the CP. In particular, the results of 1D, 2D, and 3D simulations of radionuclide transport in surface water and groundwater will be discussed, along with the evaluation of Kd parameters from the results of field monitoring and modeling of seasonal variations of 137Cs concentrations in pond water and sediments. It will be shown that the results of field monitoring and modeling of the Chernobyl CP can be used as analogue for several US DOE sites to improve scientific and practical understanding of subsurface hydrological and geochemical processes, as well as to obtain a better understanding of processes affecting natural attenuation of radionuclides in

  17. Behavior of accidentally released radiocesium in soil-water environment: Looking at Fukushima from a Chernobyl perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplev, A; Golosov, V; Laptev, G; Nanba, K; Onda, Y; Takase, T; Wakiyama, Y; Yoshimura, K

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative characteristics of dissolved and particulate radiocesium wash-off from contaminated watersheds after the FDNPP accident are calculated based on published monitoring data. Comparative analysis is provided for radiocesium wash-off parameters and distribution coefficients, Kd, between suspended matter and water in rivers and surface runoff on Fukushima and Chernobyl contaminated areas for the first years after the accidents. It was found that radiocesium distribution coefficient in Fukushima rivers is essentially higher (1-2 orders of magnitude) than corresponding values for rivers and surface runoff within the Chernobyl zone. This can be associated with two factors: first, the high fraction of clays in the predominant soils and sediments of the Fukushima area and accordingly a higher value of the radiocesium Interception Potential, RIP, in general, and secondly the presence of water insoluble glassy particles containing radiocesium in the accidental fallout at Fukushima. It was found also that normalized dissolved wash-off coefficients for Fukushima catchments are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than corresponding values for the Chernobyl zone. Normalized particulate wash-off coefficients are comparable for Fukushima and Chernobyl. Results of the investigation of radiocesium's ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) vertical distribution in soils of the close-in area of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP - Okuma town and floodplain of the Niida river are presented. The radiocesium migration in undisturbed forest and grassland soils at Fukushima contaminated area has been shown to be faster as compared to the Chernobyl 30-km zone during the first three years after the accidents. This may be associated with higher annual precipitation (by about 2.5 times) in Fukushima as compared to the Chernobyl zone, as well as the differences in the soil characteristics and temperature regime throughout a year. Investigation and analysis of Fukushima's radiocesium distribution in soils of Niida

  18. Disillusionment of the American Dream——On An American Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管秀丽

    2008-01-01

    Theodore Dreiser is now regarded as one of the pre-eminent American realistic novelists of the first half of the twentieth century.an anatomist of the American Dream.In his great work An American Tragedy,Dreis- er exposes and criticizes mercilessly the corruption and black side of American society.The disillusionment of the American Dream is an important theme of the fiction.This paper illustrates "An American Tragedy" is the re- flection of disillusionment of the American Dream in the perspectives of the tragedy of a mortal,the tragedy of American society,and the tragedy of the American Dream.

  19. An Interpretation of Tess of the D’Urbervilles from the Perspective of Aristotle’s Theory of Tragedy in The Poetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程琳

    2014-01-01

    In The Poetics, Aristotle says that a tragedy should include some elements. Tess of the D’ Urbervil es embodies and develops the elements of a tragedy:The story of Tess of the D'Urbervil es as whole, has a beginning, a middle and an end to achieve the unity of plot;Tess as the protagonist is wel descried as a not eminently good and just man in character;what’ s more, Aristotle thinks that the goal of tragedy is to arose fear and pity, in Tess of the D'Urbervil es, Thomas Hardy succeeded in reaching this.

  20. 潘金莲的婚姻悲剧--由法律视角探析悲剧原因%The Marriage Tragedy of P an Jinlian- Analysis of the Tragedy from Legal Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雪子

    2016-01-01

    The prostitute image of Pan Jinlian is the product of specific social and personal circumstances. As the society let go of women’ s chastity and respect the individual needs of women, the phenomenon of reversed Pan Jinlian verdict appears constantly. Because the tragedy of Pan Jinlian is resulted from the ancient ethical culture that women are inferior to men and wife to husband and further decided by the legal culture, so the tragedy of Pan Jinlian is inevitably the product of the era.%潘金莲的淫妇形象是特定社会和特定个人际遇的产物,随着社会对女性贞洁观念的放开与对女性个人需求的尊重,为潘金莲“翻案”的现象不断出现。由于潘金莲的悲剧是由古代社会男尊女卑、夫尊妻卑的伦理文化及伦理文化影响下的法律文化所决定的,所以潘金莲的悲剧是时代的产物,是不可避免的。

  1. Displacement, Dialogue and Tension of Tragedy from the Perspectives of Youngsters and the Aged. One Aspect of William Faulkner's Narrative of Modern Tragedy%少年、老年视角:错位、对话与悲剧张力——威廉·福克纳的现代悲剧叙事的一个侧面

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冠夫

    2011-01-01

    As a writer always concerned about the situation of modern human beings, William Faulkner distilled a kind of collective experience of mankind from the regional history and reality of the Southern United States, and realized the combining of traditiohal tragic art and modern narrative. His Yoknapatawpha Novels construct a series of meaningful modern tragedies, and his excellent practice of the narrative of modern tragedy reflects a wide range of meaning of poetics. The choice of narrative perspectives is one significant aspect of the practice.%作为一位始终关注人类现代境遇的作家,福克纳将美国南方地域性的历史和现实升华为人类的集体经验,并实现了悲剧艺术传统与现代叙事的结合。约克纳帕塔法系列作品建构了深具意义的现代悲剧文本,福克纳的现代悲剧叙事的卓越实践体现了多方面的诗学意义。叙述视角的选择即是其中的一个重要方面。

  2. Trauma management: Chernobyl in Belarus and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Ekatherina

    2016-06-01

    Although the Chernobyl nuclear disaster happened in the Soviet Union in 1986, we still do not know how the most affected states - Ukraine and Belarus - have managed this tragedy since independence. Drawing on the concept of cultural trauma, this article compares Chernobyl narratives in Belarus and Ukraine over the past 28 years. It shows that national narratives of Chernobyl differ, representing the varying ways in which the state overcomes trauma. Our understanding of post-communist transformations can be improved by analysing trauma management narratives and their importance for new national identity construction. These narratives also bring new insights to our vision of cultural trauma by linking it to ontological insecurity. The article demonstrates how the state can become an arena of trauma process as it commands material and symbolic resources to deal with trauma. In general, it contributes to a better understanding of how the same traumatic event can become a source of solidarity in one community, but a source of hostility in another.

  3. An Analysis of the Flaws in the Spanish Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淞婷

    2016-01-01

    The Spanish Tragedy, written by Thomas Kyd in the late 1580s, was the grandfather of all revenge tragedies. It estab-lished a new genre named revenge tragedy in English theater. Its well-developed characters, timeless themes, dramatic intrigue and pioneering adoption of blank verse enabled it to be viewed as a classic of London theater. Yet it also has received criticisms over the past centuries. Based on Aristotle's opinion of a perfect tragedy in"Poetics", this paper aims to point out the flaws of the play from five perspectives:the fate of Hieronimo, the cause of it, Bel-imperia's sudden love for Horatio, subplot concern-ing Villuppo and Alexandro, the discovery and the diction.

  4. Tragedie og bystat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian

    . Tre tragedier er i fokus: Aischylos' Syv mod Theben, Sofokles' Antigone og Euripides' Bakkantiderne. Fælles for disse værker er, at de alle foregår i byen Theben, der hos de athenske tragediedigtere stiliseres som arnested for politiske og civilisatoriske sammenbrud. Det er karakteristisk for den...

  5. The Tragedy of the Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons is one of the principal tenets of ecology. Recent developments in experiential computer-based simulation of the tragedy of the commons are described. A virtual learning environment is developed using the popular video game "Minecraft". The virtual learning environment is used to experience first-hand depletion…

  6. On Source of Mary's Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡杰

    2016-01-01

    Long Day's Journey into Night is a great work of American dramatist Eugene O'Neill. As the only female protagonist fully portrayed in the play, Mary's tragedy generated a hot debate. In this thesis, through detailed analysis, it is found that Mary is the victim of male-dominated society and men are the source of her tragedy.

  7. The Tragedy of the Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons is one of the principal tenets of ecology. Recent developments in experiential computer-based simulation of the tragedy of the commons are described. A virtual learning environment is developed using the popular video game "Minecraft". The virtual learning environment is used to experience first-hand depletion…

  8. Eugene O'Neill Interpreted from the Perspective of Tragedy%悲剧视界中的尤金·奥尼尔

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚珉; 夏玉玲

    2012-01-01

    Tragedy,usually viewed as the highest form of art,is composed of tragic consciousness and tragic spirit.Man,inevitably caught up in the complex conflicts between sense and sensibility,reality and ideal,survival and death,constantly keeps pursuing his own self-realization.Therefore,tragedy does not only lie in man's suffering and destruction but,more importantly,in his resisting attitude and his surpassing spirit when confronted with doomed misery and death.Honored as "father of modern American drama",Eugene O'Neill,composes a great number of tragedies to expose the social evils and inspire human life by their tragic spirit,and thus casts a long shadow on American literature and even the world literature.%悲剧素来被看作艺术的最高形式,由悲剧意识和悲剧精神两个要素构成。人在情感与理智、现实与理想、生存与死亡的复杂悲剧矛盾关系中,始终不懈地追求自我本质力量的实现。悲剧并非仅指生命的苦难与毁灭,更重要的是面对不可避免的苦难和死亡的来临时,人所持的敢于抗争的态度和勇于超越的精神。尤金.奥尼尔以悲剧进行创作、借悲剧阐释社会现实、用悲剧精神启迪人生,在美国文学乃至世界文学中影响深远。

  9. The Tragedy of Tess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时雪华; 孙欣

    2007-01-01

    The beautiful and warm-hearted girl,Tess of the D'urbervilles was Thomas Hardy's masterpiece.In this novel,Hardy described a beautiful and warm hearted girl's experience.As we take pity on her,we can't restrain ourselves from wondering what caused her tragedy.The capitalist moral bias and hypocritical martial system were the main reasons.Of course,there were also other related factors,which worked together:this pure girl became the sacrifice of that society.

  10. Aristotle's Aesthetic Thoughts in Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿利红

    2010-01-01

    @@ Aristotle is the greatest thinker and profound scholar in ancient Greece,who inherits the philosophy achievements of ancient Greece since Thales,especially the fruits of Plato'S thought.His inheritance takes criticism as the basis and innovation as the objective.Poetics has long been known as the foundation-laying work in the history of western literary theory among the most works of Aristotle.In Poetics,tragedy is focused by Aristotle.He attaches more importance to tragedy,analyzes its artistic features and elements to show its aesthetic significance and value.This is not simply to discuss the artistic technique but to discuss his aesthetic thoughts in tragedy.

  11. Analysis of Tess'Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭靖

    2004-01-01

    Thomas Hardy was one of the representative writers of English critical realism at the end of the 19th century. His sharp criticism of the Victorian social system and morality finds full expression in his masterpiece Tess of the D'Urbervillers. Tess' tragedy is personal but of profound social significance. From her tragedy, we can dig into the Victorian society that allows justice and tolerance only to the wealthy to which all their system, morality and convention serve, while leaving no hope, no happiness for the poor. It is the author' strong protest against the evil society.

  12. Ecology and the Tragedy of the Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Roopnarine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops mathematical models of the tragedy of the commons analogous to ecological models of resource consumption. Tragedies differ fundamentally from predator–prey relationships in nature because human consumers of a resource are rarely controlled solely by that resource. Tragedies do occur, however, at the level of the ecosystem, where multiple species interactions are involved. Human resource systems are converging rapidly toward ecosystem-type systems as the number of exploited resources increase, raising the probability of system-wide tragedies in the human world. Nevertheless, common interests exclusive of exploited commons provide feasible options for avoiding tragedy in a converged world.

  13. The legacy of Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojcun, M.

    1991-04-20

    This article looks at daily life in the Northern Ukraine, where the fallout effects from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident were felt most keenly. High levels of radioactive iodine 131, strontium 90 and caesium 137 are still present five years on and the health of the population, including those evacuated from the exclusion zones, is at risk from leukaemia and thyroid problems, especially among children. Other worrying reports suggest the occurence of a new disease, ''Chernobyl AIDs'', in which sufferers' immune systems are depressed. Other major outstanding problems include the integrity of the concrete sarcophagus enclosing the damaged reactor, and the continued consumption of locally grown contaminated food due to government inadequacies in supplying ''clean'' equivalents. (UK).

  14. Tragedy and Grenzsituationen in genetic prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommetveit, Kjetil; Porz, Rouven

    2009-03-01

    Philosophical anthropologies that emphasise the role of the emotions can be used to expand existing notions of moral agency and learning in situations of great moral complexity. In this article we tell the story of one patient facing the tough decision of whether to be tested for Huntington's disease or not. We then interpret her story from two different but compatible philosophical entry points: Aristotle's conception of Greek tragedy and Karl Jaspers' notion of Grenzsituationen (boundary situations). We continue by indicating some ways in which these two positions may be used for reflecting upon different perspectives involved in clinical decision-making, those of patients, clinicians and bioethicists. We conclude that the ideas we introduce can be used as hermeneutic tools for situating learning and dialogue within a broader cultural field in which literature and art may also play important roles.

  15. Et brud i fransk tragedie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Med Marmontels 5 tragedier omkring 1750 betones en ny deklamerende kunstform med brug af moralske maksimer løsrevet fra handlingen, Dydens sejr, det ondes fortrængning mm. Bruddet kan følges i de franske oplysningsforfatteres brug af fiktion (drama og prosa) og understreger det stærkt propagandis...

  16. American Tragedy:Ethical Choice from the Perspective of Clyde’s Three Periods of Emotional Experience%《美国悲剧》:从克莱德的三段感情经历看其伦理选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋红波; 张建伟

    2015-01-01

    American Tragedy is a representative work of human tragedy.This novel describes that pro-tagonist Clyde sacrifices love and dignity for upper-class life and finally gets death penalty.It’s clearer to see the ethical essence of Clyde’s tragedy by analyzing Clyde’s ethical selections among his emotional ex-perience with Hortense,Roberta and Sondra and showing the struggle process of animal factor and human factor from the perspective of ethical literary criticism.%《美国悲剧》描述了其主人公克莱德为了追求上流社会生活,不惜牺牲爱情和尊严,最终因杀人而被判死刑的人生悲剧。从文学伦理学批评角度解读《美国悲剧》,分析克莱德在与霍旦斯、罗伯塔和桑德拉三段感情交往中的伦理选择,及其中所呈现出的兽性因子与人性因子的斗争过程,能够更加清晰地看到克莱德悲剧的内在本质。

  17. Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacronique, J.F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Deconinck, F.; Govaerts, P.; Eggermont, C. [SCK-CEN - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Cort, M. de [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, DG JRC EC (Italy); Joulia, J.P. [EuropeAid Co-operation Office, EC, Brussels (Belgium); Dal, A.H.; Balonov, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Kenigsberg, J. [Commission on Radiation protection, council of ministry (Belarus); Hindie, E. [Universites Paris, 75 (France); Havenaar, M. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

  18. Chernobyl: the facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanbridge, R. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden) Dept. of Journalism, Media and Communication Studies)

    1993-08-01

    In these Search Strategies, searchers from different countries and professions are given a question to answer, a budget of Pounds 50 and a time in which to produce their report. We hope that these blow-by-blow accounts, together with the hints and tips picked up along the way, will help readers to develop their own search strategies. Journalists are more and more coming to use online services and here the author gives a journalist's account of tracking down the elusive facts surrounding the Chernobyl disaster. (author).

  19. Lessons from Chernobyl

    OpenAIRE

    Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl disaster on April 26th, 1986, led to the emission of radioactive substances such as iodine-131 and radioactive cesium. As the Soviet Union did not control food distribution and intake, residents were exposed to high levels of internal radiation, leading to the internal radiation exposure of the thyroid gland by iodine-131. As a result, the number of people who had thyroid cancer increased drastically among those who had been under 15 years old at the time of the accident. The ag...

  20. The Tragedy of the Few

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scavenius, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    that the tragedy of the commons as a story of climate change is inadequate. The second is positive: to suggest a more satisfactory framework, which I call thetragedy of the few. In this view, climate politics is neither primarily mitigation nor economic incentive politics, but one of distributing rights to access...... of the tragedy of the commons and demonstrate its inadequacy. I then provide an account of the rights-based view of climate change that consists of two arguments. First, I demonstrate the normative side of the argument by highlighting the importance of environmental rights, and second, I outline the empirical......In this article I elaborate and defend a rights-based understanding of climate politics, that is, one that takes climate politics to concern the rights to access of natural resources as opposed to people’s economic incentives. The argument contains two parts. The first is negative: to demonstrate...

  1. Lessons from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl disaster on April 26th, 1986, led to the emission of radioactive substances such as iodine-131 and radioactive cesium. As the Soviet Union did not control food distribution and intake, residents were exposed to high levels of internal radiation, leading to the internal radiation exposure of the thyroid gland by iodine-131. As a result, the number of people who had thyroid cancer increased drastically among those who had been under 15 years old at the time of the accident. The age predilection is about to move to 25 or older. However, there has been no scientific evidence of impacts for solid tumor other than thyroid cancer, leukemia, benign diseases, or inheritance including unborn babies. On the other hand, the accident was thought to have caused social unrest and mental damage which had far more impact than that caused by radiation exposure. In this paper, we would like to summarize the impacts on the health of the people in Chernobyl compared to those caused by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

  2. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed.

  3. The Democratic Appreciation of Athenian Tragedy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen belyser i et receptionshistorisk perspektiv, hvordan man i nyere tid har spejlet det moderne demokrati i den græske tragedie. Hvor artiklens første halvdel fokuserer på tragediereceptionen i Europa, belyser den sidste halvdel, hvordan græsk tragedie er blevet brugt i afrikansk politisk t...

  4. Young Children, National Tragedy, and Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMath, Joan S.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that, rather than exposing young children to media coverage of national tragedies and disasters, caregivers should read aloud to children from picture books that convey stability, calmness, and reassurance. Includes tips for helping children cope with tragedy, guidelines for selecting books, and an annotated list of 25 books that can help…

  5. Chernobyl and after

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daglish, J.; Gittus, J.

    1986-10-01

    The paper contains two reports on the Chernobyl post-accident review meeting. The first is a factual account of the meeting, the topics discussed include: the accident, preventative action, outcome of the accident, and future interactions with the Russians on nuclear power issues. This report also describes two Accident Conventions, drawn up at the time of the meeting, which cover notification, information, and commitment of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident. The second report is by a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency, who reviews the accident, health effects, human factors, man-machine interference, positive void coefficient, and handling of the accident by the Soviet Authorities. (U.K.).

  6. Analysis of Tess’s Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琳

    2013-01-01

    Tess of the D’Urbervilles (1891),the masterpiece of Thomas Hardy,tells the tragical life story of a beautiful country girl. Although the heroine, Tess, was intelligent, beautiful,industrious and kind-hearted,she was finally hanged as the only victim of the story. The root of her tragedy was caused by the bourgeoisie society. Firstly her tragedy comes from the society:the inequali-ty of the law, the false of the religion and the hypocrisy of the bourgeoisie society. Secondly, Tess ’s tragedy is produced by her own characters. In addition, the tragedy of Tess is inevitable. Thus, Tess’s tragedy was produced by both the society and her own character, which is closely related to the bourgeoisie society.

  7. First a tragedy, then farce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Brian

    2008-09-01

    It is impossible to think about the problems in the UK over the last 10 months arising from the £80m shortfall in the budget of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) without recalling Marx's famous aphorism: "History repeats itself, first as tragedy, then as farce." Certainly the repetition of a funding crisis in UK particle physics and astronomy is hardly unexpected; they seem to occur every decade or so with unwelcome regularity. The consequent loss of morale, jobs and opportunities in the UK for the brightest young people to pursue their dreams in what is widely acknowledged to be world-class science is a tragedy. What perhaps marks the uniqueness of the funding crisis this time round is the level of farce. The sums that did not add up; the consultations without interlocutors; and the truculent and damaging statements about withdrawal from the Gemini telescopes based in Hawaii and Chile, and the International Linear Collider (ILC) - the next big particle-physics project after the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  8. A Naturalistic Interpretation of The Characters’Tragedies in Of Mice and Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ting-ting

    2015-01-01

    In Of Mice and Men, John Steinbeck tells a tragic story about how two migrant ranch workers’dream of obtaining a piece of land of their own is ultimately broken during Great Depression. According to research, there are few people categorizing the characters’tragedies and analyzing each with naturalism. Through detailed reading of the text, efforts are made to probe into the underlying reasons for the characters’doomed tragedy and analyze their inborn weaknesses and social environment at that time from the naturalistic perspective.

  9. Death of a Salesman:an Aristotelian Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽明

    2013-01-01

    Death of a Salesman is Arthur Miller's most famous tragedy and caused great repercussions in the East-West literary. Aristotle is an outstanding representative of the early Western literary theory, and his Poetics epitomizes his theory of tragedy and marked the beginning of western tragedy theory. Based on Aristotle’s part theory of tragedy, a detailed analysis is made on the tragedy of Death of a Salesman.

  10. Shakespearean tragedies dynamics: identifying a generic structure in Shakespeare's four major tragedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rué, Emma; Mrotzek, Maximilian

    2012-10-01

    Many interpretations of Shakespearean tragedy have been conducted, mostly following the principles of interpretation in literary study. In our paper, four tragedies by William Shakespeare - Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth - were analysed systemically to find out whether they inhabit a common structure. Using the plot structure as the basis for our analysis, we identified the most important system elements, their connections, and interactive behaviour using causal loop diagrams (CLDs). Our results revealed that all four tragedies basically conform to Senge's archetypal structure 'shifting the burden', adding the action of the heroine or villain and the characters' boundaries of perception. The results suggest that, even though characters and settings vary highly, these tragedies have similar structures and archetypal solutions exist to overcome the problem. Furthermore, we propose that CLDs and systems archetypes are a reasonable hermeneutic tool to analyse not only Shakespearean tragedies but also other literary works.

  11. Chernobyl, 25 years later... Fukushima: what future for nuclear energy?; Tchernobyl, 25 ans apres... Fukushima: Quel avenir pour le nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouha, M.; Reuss, P.

    2011-07-01

    Starting from a precise analysis of the Chernobyl accident and of its consequences, this book follows with a general analysis of: the present day worldwide energy context and of its projections, the physical and technical aspects of nuclear energy, the place it can share with the other energy sources and its perspectives of development. Content: Introduction; man and energy; nuclear energy; RBMK-type reactors; the Chernobyl accident; the nuclear energy renaissance; conclusion. (J.S.)

  12. Chernobyl, 14 years later; Tchernobyl, 14 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) International cooperation, (7) More information about Chernobyl and (8) Glossary.

  13. The politics of adaptation: contemporary African drama and Greek tragedy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weyenberg, A.L.B.

    2011-01-01

    Astrid van Weyenberg onderzocht hedendaagse Zuid-Afrikaanse en Nigeriaanse bewerkingen van klassieke Griekse tragedies. De toneelschrijvers Athol Fugard, Wole Soyinka, Femi Osofisan, Yael Farber en Mark Fleishman bewerken Griekse tragedies vanwege de relevantie van deze teksten binnen het

  14. On the Causes of Pan Jinlian’ s Marriage Tragedy from the Perspective of Law%法律视角下潘金莲婚姻悲剧原因探析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雪子

    2016-01-01

    The prostitute image of Pan Jinlian was the product of specific social and personal circumstances. With women’ s chastity idea opening and respect for the individual needs of women, the phenomenon of overturning Pan Jinlian has appeared constantly. The tragedy of Pan Jinlian was the inevitable product of the era because her tragedy was determined by the ancient social roles of husband and wife, the ethical culture and legal culture.%潘金莲的淫妇形象是特定社会和特定个人际遇的产物,随着社会对女性贞洁观念的放开与对女性个人需求的尊重,为潘金莲“翻案”的现象不断出现。由于潘金莲的悲剧是由古代社会男尊女卑、夫尊妻卑的伦理文化及伦理文化影响下的法律文化所决定的,所以潘金莲的悲剧是时代的产物,是不可避免的。

  15. On Personal Reasons for Gatsby’s Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林卉

    2014-01-01

    The Great Gatsby is a tragedy of both Gatsby, an individual, and his generation. The times he is from is widely accepted as the cause of his tragedy. But he should also be blamed due to his idealism, and lack of moral sense. This paper tries to analyze the reasons of Gatsby’s tragedy on his own part.

  16. Leukemia following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Geoffrey R

    2007-11-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine in 1986 led to a substantial increase of thyroid cancer among those exposed as children. The other cancer that is the most sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation is leukemia, and this paper evaluates the evidence relating exposure to Chernobyl radioactivity and leukemia risk. Two types of objectives are identified, namely, scientific evidence and public health, and two approaches to addressing such objectives are discussed. Empirical studies in affected populations are summarized, and it is concluded that, possibly apart from Russian cleanup workers, no meaningful evidence of any statistical association between exposure and leukemia risk as yet exists. However, it is important to carry on with such studies to satisfy various public health objectives.

  17. On Causes to the Tragedy of Tess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶攀

    2009-01-01

    Tess of the D'Urbervilles is one of the Hardy's masterpieces.Under Hardy's pen,the heroine Tess is created as an attractive and warm-hearted pure woman,who has the quality of endurance and self-sacrifice.Tess has long been regarded as the most exceptional woman character in English literary history.However,the life of this pure woman is tragic.In this paper I will talk about the causes for Tess' tragedy as well as the analysis of her characteristic.The first reason for Tess' tragedy is her poor personal background and the ignorance and vanity of her parents.Secondly,the evil power from the wealthy "relative" likes Alec.Thirdly,the conventional theory towards women from Angle is the most fatal spiritual torture to Tess.Finally,Tess' tragedy also comes from herself.

  18. [Effects on health of the Chernobyl accident: 30 years on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, N; Steiner, Dr M; Grosche, B

    2016-09-01

    This paper reflects the current state of research into the short- and long-term effects on health in the former Soviet Union and Europe of the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. It discusses the latest results of epidemiological studies and presents future research perspectives.

  19. The Birth and Death of Tragedy in Nietzsche\\'s thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S TA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Friedrich Nietzsche, one of the most influential and thoughtful philosopher in the 19th century, in an attempt to reassess values, finds himself in confrontation with accepted ideas of the modern world. Therefore, in his critical review, in order to reform and revive the modern civilization and culture, he writes his first book, i.e. The Birth of Tragedy. His various intentions in this book are as following: a cultural concerns and saving the culture of his age from nihilism and the danger of falling apart, b reassessing values, c showing the opposition of Christianity and conceptual philosophy of Socrates with the nature of life, Dionysus element as well as the desire to live, d aesthetic interpretation of living and being and e viewing life from the perspective of art. Nietzsche considers the last two cases as the special features of Greek's tragic art and praises Greek's tragic age for such perspective. He admires ancient Greeks as well as their culture and thought because they are the creators of tragic art and through such creation as well as by considering Dionysus element they accepted life with all of its good and bad aspects. Nietzsche discusses two fundamental concepts of birth and death of tragedy as well. However, he views the birth and death of tragedy in two different ways a in a particular age, Greek tragedy emerged from Greek culture and became an influential factor in the development of that nation’s culture but died later on, b Nietzsche's hope in the re-emergence of Greek tragic art in the modern world lies in Wagner's music which died, too. In his view, the factors behind the death of tragedy are as following: the Socrates' conceptual philosophy and Euripides' plays, Christianity and ethicality as well as modern dialectic and Wagner himself. This article, first, tries to study Nietzsche’s important intentions in writing The Birth of Tragedy and explain such birth in the first sense emphasizing the interpretation of its

  20. The Failure of a Black Hero in a White World——A Study of Othello's Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官燕

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses the real cause of the tragedy of Othello. From the perspective of his social status, the article points out that the implication of his collapse into murderous violence is actually his constant worries about the threats to his social identity as a black hero in a white world.

  1. An Analysis of An American Tragedy from the Perspective of Freud' s Personality Structure%弗洛伊德人格结构理论下的《美国的悲剧》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建春; 黄梅

    2012-01-01

    An American Tragedy is Theodore Dreiser' s most successful novel. It mainly portrays the protagonist, Clyde, who uses any kind of means with the purpose of rich and a high social status to enjoy himself and eventually be punished by sitting in the electric chair for the sake of murdering her pregnant girlfriend. Freud' s personality structure is applied in this thesis to illustrate the tragedy of the protagonist. From the discussion, it is obvious that Clyde is in conflict with all kinds of instinctive desire, reality and conscience and ethical standards. However, the conflicts and imbalances among the id, ego and superego bring about the tragic life of him.%《美国的悲剧》是西奥多·德莱赛最成功的长篇小说。小说主人公克莱德·格里菲斯为了金钱和社会地位不择手段。最终,为进入上层社会谋杀了自己已怀孕的女友而被送上电椅。本文通过运用弗洛伊德人格结构理论分析了克莱德的悲剧命运。从西奥多·德莱赛对克莱德的描写可看出,克莱德处在本能欲望、现实、良心和道德标准的矛盾冲突之中。也正是因为克莱德的本我、自我、超我三者的冲突和不平衡导致了他的悲剧命运。

  2. Wormwood forest: a natural history of Chernobyl

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mycio, Mary

    2005-01-01

    ... of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Mycio, Mary. Wormwood forest : a natural history of Chernobyl / Mary Mycio. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-309-09430-5 (cloth) 1. Radioisotopes- Environmental aspects- Ukraine- Chornobyl Region. 2. Chernobyl Nuclear Accident, Chornobyl, Ukraine, 1986- Environmental aspects. 3. Radioisotopes- Health asp...

  3. Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, E.D. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Abelin, T.; Egger, M. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)) (and others)

    1994-11-12

    Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK).

  4. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  5. History and Catastrophe: Tragedy and Reconciliation in Schiller and Hegel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Aranzueque

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To what extent is it possible be reconciled with a tragic past? Could historical narration or dramatic performance help to get over the traumatic event indeed? Or do they just ascertain its constitutive contradictions, the split and the rift from a pain wich is impossible to sublimate? Is the mourning experience based on the recovery of a feeble balance between the opposite drives, emotions and feelings from the will? Or does it depend on the synthetic assimilation of that opposition into another way of life? This essay travels hand in hand with Schiller and Hegel across the space opened by those questions. It starts from the dissatisfaction generated in the young Hegel by his reading of Schiller’s Wallenstein and it analyzes his different conceptions of the ethic pathos, as well as his uneven perspective about the function of the chorus in the Attic tragedy

  6. Tragedy and Teaching: The Education of Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This is the second of two articles that are connected in a reading of "The plague" by Albert Camus. The other article is a determined narration of the events of a tragedy that befalls a city on the coast of Algeria. That article resists analysis beyond the decisions that are made regarding text to use, and of course interpretations to…

  7. Tragedy and Teaching: The Education of Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This is the second of two articles that are connected in a reading of "The plague" by Albert Camus. The other article is a determined narration of the events of a tragedy that befalls a city on the coast of Algeria. That article resists analysis beyond the decisions that are made regarding text to use, and of course interpretations to…

  8. Politeness Theory and Shakespeare's Four Major Tragedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger; Gilman, Albert

    1989-01-01

    Shakespeare's use of Early Modern English in four major tragedies was analyzed to test a theory that power, distance, and the ranked extremity of a face-threatening act are the universal determinants of politeness levels in dyadic discourse. While affect strongly influenced politeness, interactive closeness had little or no effect on politeness.…

  9. The Patchwork Text in Teaching Greek Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the rewards and challenges of using the Patchwork Text to teach Greek Tragedy to Cambridge University English final-year students. The article uses close reading of the students' texts, analysis and reflection to discuss both the products and the process of Patchwork writing. (Author/AEF)

  10. Global Warming, A Tragedy of the Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philander, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    What is the appropriate balance between our responsibilities towards future generations, and our obligations to those who live in abject poverty today? Global warming, a tragedy of the commons, brings such ethical questions to the fore but, whether "matured" or not, is itself mute on ethical issues.

  11. Chernobyl, 12 years later; Tchernobyl, douze ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3) Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) The Franco-German cooperation, and (7) Glossary.

  12. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.; Bonell, P.G.; Hicks, D.

    1987-01-01

    The USSR power reactor programme is first described. The reasons for the accident at the Chernobyl-4 RBMK nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986, the sequence of events that took place, and the immediate and long-term consequences are considered. A description of the RBMK-type reactors is given and the design changes resulting from the experience of the accident are explained. The source terms describing the details of the radioactivity release associated with the accident and the environmental consequences are covered in the last two sections of the report. Throughout the text comments referring to the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Safety assessment principles have been inserted. (U.K.).

  13. Chernobyl record. The definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, R.F

    2000-07-01

    The contents of Chernobyl Record have taken 14 years to compile and this period of time was necessary to enable information to be released from Soviet sources, measurements to be made in the environment, for estimation of radiation doses and for follow-up of the health of population groups which had been exposed. This time frame also includes the 10th anniversary conferences and the completion of joint projects of the European Commission, Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. It has also enabled me to visit the power plant site, Chernobyl town and Pripyat relatively soon after the accident and also some 10 years later: December 1987 and June 1998. Without such visits some of the photographs in this Record could not have been obtained. Information is also contained in these pages of comparisons of various aspects of the Chernobyl accident with data from the Three Mile Island accident in the USA in 1979, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, the highly contaminated Techa river area in the Urals in Russia and the accident in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. The first two chapters are introductory in that they describe terminology which is necessary for an understanding of the remaining chapters. Chapters 3-6 describes the early events: including those leading up to the explosion and then what followed in the immediate aftermath. Chapters 7-8 describe the Sarcophagus and the past and future of nuclear power for electricity generation, including the future of the Chernobyl power station. Chapters 9-11 consider the radiation doses received by various populations, including liquidators, evacuees and those living on contaminated territories: and the contamination of milk by {sup 131}I, and the contamination of other parts of the food chain by {sup 137}Cs. Chapters 12-14 describe the environmental impact of the accident, as does chapter 11. Chapters 15-18 detail the long-term effects on health, including not only the incidence of cancer, but also of non

  14. Chernobyl - state of the art; Chernobyl - o estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Borges, Jessica F.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Benega, Marcos A.G.; Souza, Anderson S. de; Silva, Thais H. da, E-mail: dcsouza@ipen.br, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.br, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br, E-mail: rtiezzi@ipen.br, E-mail: carladdsouza@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marcosagbenega@ipen.br, E-mail: bteigarodrigues@gmail.com, E-mail: thaishunk@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to analyze what has been done so far in relation to damage caused by the accident and the state of art in Chernobyl, as well as the impact on radiation protection applied safety nuclear power plants. In the first part of the work a data survey was done through a bibliographic review and the in the second part data was collected during a visit, in June 2013 at the crash site, when was observed dose values in the affected areas and the works of repairs that have been made in the sarcophagus and surroundings as well as in official reports available through active international bodies. The main results indicate significant improvements in radiation protection systems.

  15. A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Robinson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The confinement of some 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II, often called the Japanese American internment, has been described as the worst official civil rights violation of modern U. S. history. Greg Robinson not only offers a bold new understanding of these events but also studies them within a larger time frame and from a transnational perspective. Drawing on newly discovered material, Robinson provides a backstory of confinement that reveals for the first time the extent of the American government's surveillance of Japanese communities in the years leading up to war and the construction of what officials termed "concentration camps" for enemy aliens. He also considers the aftermath of confinement, including the place of Japanese Americans in postwar civil rights struggles, the long movement by former camp inmates for redress, and the continuing role of the camps as touchstones for nationwide commemoration and debate. Most remarkably, A Tragedy of Democracy is the first book to analyze official policy toward West Coast Japanese Americans within a North American context. Robinson studies confinement on the mainland alongside events in wartime Hawaii, where fears of Japanese Americans justified Army dictatorship, suspension of the Constitution, and the imposition of military tribunals. He similarly reads the treatment of Japanese Americans against Canada's confinement of 22,000 citizens and residents of Japanese ancestry from British Columbia. A Tragedy of Democracy recounts the expulsion of almost 5,000 Japanese from Mexico's Pacific Coast and the poignant story of the Japanese Latin Americans who were kidnapped from their homes and interned in the United States. Approaching Japanese confinement as a continental and international phenomenon, Robinson offers a truly kaleidoscopic understanding of its genesis and outcomes.

  16. A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Robinson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The confinement of some 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II, often called the Japanese American internment, has been described as the worst official civil rights violation of modern U. S. history. Greg Robinson not only offers a bold new understanding of these events but also studies them within a larger time frame and from a transnational perspective. Drawing on newly discovered material, Robinson provides a backstory of confinement that reveals for the first time the extent of the American government's surveillance of Japanese communities in the years leading up to war and the construction of what officials termed "concentration camps" for enemy aliens. He also considers the aftermath of confinement, including the place of Japanese Americans in postwar civil rights struggles, the long movement by former camp inmates for redress, and the continuing role of the camps as touchstones for nationwide commemoration and debate. Most remarkably, A Tragedy of Democracy is the first book to analyze official policy toward West Coast Japanese Americans within a North American context. Robinson studies confinement on the mainland alongside events in wartime Hawaii, where fears of Japanese Americans justified Army dictatorship, suspension of the Constitution, and the imposition of military tribunals. He similarly reads the treatment of Japanese Americans against Canada's confinement of 22,000 citizens and residents of Japanese ancestry from British Columbia. A Tragedy of Democracy recounts the expulsion of almost 5,000 Japanese from Mexico's Pacific Coast and the poignant story of the Japanese Latin Americans who were kidnapped from their homes and interned in the United States. Approaching Japanese confinement as a continental and international phenomenon, Robinson offers a truly kaleidoscopic understanding of its genesis and outcomes.

  17. Analyzing Necessity of Tess’s Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏红艳

    2014-01-01

    One of the most famous novels of Hardy’s is “Tess of D’Urbervil es”. In this novel Hardy created a beautiful country girl with emotion vividly. It tel s us the tragic life story of Tess. This thesis is aimed at exploring the necessity of Tess’s tragedy in order to understand this novel better from society her personality and the author.

  18. A Study of Tess’s Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚丽格

    2012-01-01

      Tess of the D'Urbervilles, one of Hardy's most famous novels, describes a girl that is seduced by one man and deserted by the other. In this paper, I will try to analyze this work from the female point of view to disclose the various predicaments that Tess faces in the patriarchal world. And then draw such a conclusion:Tess stands no chance to escape from the patriarchal fence. Tess's tragedy is unavoidable.

  19. Aristotle's theory of tragedy plot and comparison with modern plot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋莹

    2008-01-01

    This paper is to study Aristotle's theory of tragedy and his tragedy plot from the Poetics. He says,'tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious,complete,and of adequate magnitude-in language embellished in different ways in different parts-in the form of action,not of narration-through pity and fear effecting the purgation of these emotions. The elements of tragedy are plot,character,thought,diction,melody and spectacle in their order of importance.' However there exist some differences and similarities between his plot in Poetics and modern plot.

  20. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  1. Freud, evolution, and the tragedy of man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, K R

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that Freud was not, as Sulloway (1979) contends, a "crypto-biologist" of the mind, but rather a cultural anthropologist of the mind. Freud's genetic conception of the psychic apparatus was neither exclusively nor critically derived from biology. Rather, it was based on an anthropogenetic approach to the archaic heritage of mind inspired in part by the moral philosophy of Nietzsche. The idea of tragedy was the unifying theme of Freud's cultural interpretation of evolutionary psychology. The historical search for the primal origins of neurosis led Freud to the unavoidable conclusion that neurosis was in the beginning a prehistoric moral dilemma which, over the course of mental evolution, eventually evolved into guilt, discontent, and neurosis as modern-day phylogenetically endowed facts of life. Freud (1930) made it clear that the source of man's biological and cultural evolutionary progress--self-denial--was also responsible for the tragedy of the human condition, namely, repression, eternal psychic ambivalence, and chronic mental illness. He believed that neurosis began, as Nietzsche (1887) exclaimed, with the "reduction of the beast of prey 'man' to a tame and civilized animal..." (p. 42). For both Freud and Nietzsche, the cause of the human tragedy was not merely the fall from Nature, but the inexorable knowledge that Man's denial of his biological heritage was the very basis for being human.

  2. Death, Catastrophe, and the Significance of Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ballengee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This NANO note will examine the tension between representation, memorial, and the catastrophe of death that emerges in the space of tragedy, as the problem arises in two quite different works: Oedipus at Colonus, a fairly typical fifth-century Greek tragedy, and Falling Man, Don DeLillo’s novel that, in its attempt to address the events of 9/11, reflects in form and subject matter many of Aristotle’s terms of tragic representation. It is not the intent of this note to engage with the recent proliferation of work in “performance theory.” Rather than being concerned with an imagined exchange between audience and actor, this study examines how the supplementary relationship of gesture and speech in tragedy disrupts the public/private distinction, and how this articulation effects and enables the public memorialization of death. Thus, this paper will consider the representation of death as an event whose catastrophic, and somewhat mysterious, collision of the public and the private lends it its tragic significance.

  3. Chernobyl operators: criminals or victims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munipov, V M

    1992-10-01

    The blame for the 1986 Chernobyl disaster has been variously attributed to the operating personnel, the plant management, the design of the reactor, and the lack of adequate safety information in the Soviet nuclear industry. This paper considers a number of design faults, operational shortcomings and human errors that combined in the accident. It examines the sequence of events leading up to the accident, design problems in the reactor and cooling rods, and the course of the accident itself. It considers the ergonomics aspects, and expresses the view that the main cause of the accident was inadequate human-machine interaction. Finally, it stresses the continuing inadequacies of the Soviet nuclear system, and emphasizes that unless the ergonomics lessons are fully learned, a similar disaster could still occur.

  4. After Chernobyl. Psychological factors affecting health after a nuclear disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havenaar, J.M.

    1996-04-23

    During his stay in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the author learned much about the medical and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and about the rapidly changing societies of the former Soviet Union. The chapters of this dissertation may be regarded as being stations along the way in this learning process. Chapter 1 describes his first impressions and the accounts he heard about the events that followed the catastrophe. It summarizes the current knowledge about the radiological consequences of the disaster. Chapter 2 presents a review of the literature about the psychological impact of disasters, such as Chernobyl, Bhopal and Three Mile Island, events that are characterized by the release of potentially harmful quantities of toxic substances into the environment. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the painstaking process of obtaining the necessary reliable research instruments, which were totally lacking in the Russian language. Without such instruments no valid epidemiological research is possible. Furthermore, these research instruments were to provide a tool to assist the Byelorussian physicians in their daily practice, helping them to assess the presence of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in their patients in a more reliable fashion. Chapter 5 describes the mental health situation in the region and analyses the presence of high-risk groups towards whom special intervention programmes. Chapter 6 investigates the question to what extent the high levels of psychopathology in Gomel can be attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster, even more than six years after the event. In chapter 7 the perspective is widened. The field of mental health is left behind and the domain of public health is addressed. This chapter describes the relationship between subjective health and illness behaviour in relation to objective clinical parameters of physical and mental health. Finally, in chapter 8, the findings from these studies are critically reviewed and

  5. The politics of adaptation: contemporary African drama and Greek tragedy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weyenberg, A.L.B.

    2011-01-01

    Astrid van Weyenberg onderzocht hedendaagse Zuid-Afrikaanse en Nigeriaanse bewerkingen van klassieke Griekse tragedies. De toneelschrijvers Athol Fugard, Wole Soyinka, Femi Osofisan, Yael Farber en Mark Fleishman bewerken Griekse tragedies vanwege de relevantie van deze teksten binnen het Zuid-Afrik

  6. Is Tragedy the “Imitation of a Serious Action”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Golden

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In Aristotle’s definition of tragedy as distinct from comedy, σπουδαῖος as elsewhere in the Poetics should apply to character and mean not ‘serious’ but ‘noble’: tragedy is an action that reveals the nobility of the character.

  7. Analysis of Antoinette’s Tragedy in Wide Sargasso Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英波; 王丹邱

    2015-01-01

    Jean Rhys published Wide Sargasso Sea in 1966,which won her the Royal Society of Literature Award.The article explores the fac-tors contributing to the protagonist Antoinette’s tragedy,namely social factors,family factors and personal factors and demonstrates the inevitability of Antoinette’s tragedy.

  8. Laugh and Learn: Using Humor to Teach Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Colleen A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how one high school English teacher used humor when teaching Shakespearean tragedy. Describes how this improved students' attitudes and appreciation of the tragedies, helped them appreciate literature devices in the plays, and helped them review prior to their exam. (SR)

  9. Surrounding Circumstances and Tragedy of Tess%Surrounding Circumstances and Tragedy of Tess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红英

    2011-01-01

    As an influential and noticeable English novelist and poet, Tomas Hardy helped to link the literary traditions between 19^th' century and 20^th century. Among the many studies on him and his works, the one on the tragedy of Tess D 'urbervills is an import

  10. A Streetcar Named Desire——A Tragedy of Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昀

    2007-01-01

    A Streetcar Named Desire is a tragedy.Blanche,a beautiful woman,finally goes insane.She has an indecent past.She tells lies and is indulgent in her behavior toward men.All these seem to suggest that she deserves such a consequence.However,the fact is that Blanche once was a pure girl who dreamed of true love and happy family.It is the cruel reality that results in her tragedy.Compared with her,Stella's tragedy is a tragedy of toleration.Unlike Blanche,Stella prefers to tolerate when confronting with the reality.The tragedy of Blanche and Stella is typical of the time in which women cannot enjoy the same rights as men.

  11. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  12. Emma’s Tragedy in Madame Bovary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯云菊

    2008-01-01

    Madame Bovary,a masterpiece of Gustave Flaubert,describes the tragic experience of Emma,the heroine.As it is known,every tragedy has its social and personal factors,and social factors are usually decisive under certain circumstances.Emma,a good girl in inherent quality,weak in characters and full of illusion of life,admires the gracious life in the upper class.This paper explores the dark side of the society and reaches a conclusion that Emma’s tragic fate is mainly due to social factors.

  13. An Analysis of the Tragedy of Candide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洵; 吴昌荣

    2012-01-01

      “Voltaire, the French poet, dramatis, historian and philosopher was an outspoken and aggressive enemy of every injus⁃tice such as tyranny, bigotry, cruelty, but especially of intolerance. He was noted for his characteristic wit, satire, and critical ca⁃pacity. His works are outstanding embodiment of principles of French Enlightment”(wangzuoliang,2007:240). The paper is ana⁃lyzing the reasons leading to candide’s tragedy by exploring into the social background, the Christianity embodied in it and the contradiction between id and superego.

  14. Social Environment Elements in Tess's Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琼英

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,the author will explore the social environment elements in Tess's tragedies in three aspects.Firstly,Tess of the d'Urbervilles reflects the destruction of agrarian structure of Wessex.Secondly,the clash between the agrarian England and industrialization is revealed in this novel,together with the hypocrisy of Victorian morality its conflict with the modem idea.Thirdly,as the impact of Darwinism,the doubt on the Divine Hand in Creation comes to some people's mind.

  15. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  16. Chernobyl birds have smaller brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andea; Rudolfsen, Geir; Mousseau, Timothy A

    2011-02-04

    Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans. Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals. Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.

  17. The consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Chioșilă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available These days marks 30 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, followed by massive radioactive contamination of the environment and human in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, and resulted in many deaths among people who intervened to decrease the effects of the nuclear disaster. The 26 April 1986 nuclear accident contaminated all European countries, but at a much lower level, without highlighted consequences on human health. In special laboratories, the main radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Sr-90 were also analyzed in Romania from environmental samples, food, even human subjects. These radionuclides caused the population to receive a low dose of about 1 mSv in 1986 that is half of the dose of the natural background radiation (2.4 mSv per year. As in all European countries (excluding Ukraine, Belarus and Russia this dose of about 1 mSv fell rapidly by 1990, reaching levels close to ones before the accident at the nuclear tests.

  18. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  19. Exploration of Causes for Tess's Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董冰琼

    2008-01-01

    A general social appearance that a great 1iterature works unfold is more abundant,specific and real than provisions of politics,history and philosophy give us.Just as Karl Marx says."The briIiiant contemporary school of novelists in England.whose eloquent and graphic portrayals of the-world have revealed more political and social truths than all the professional politicians.publicists,and moralists put together,had described every section of the middle class of ‘most respectable' pensioners and holders of government bonds,who look down on all kinds of business as something vulgar,down to the stall shopkeepers and lawyers' clerks",when he commented on the great critical realists of the 19th century.It is Thomas Hardy who was a great literature rriter in late 19th century,and his novels enjoyed great prestige among the people at that time.In his novel,Tess of the d'Urbervilles,Tess was a tragic character.Deliberating the whole novel,such a conclusion can be drawn:It was necessary to couse Tess's tragedy.She was not only the victim in Victorian time,but also the victim of the contemporary,which including her helpless parents,cruel inducer,Alec.and her nominal husband,Angel Clare.Unlucky Tess's fate urge me to explore the causes for the tragedy.

  20. Analysis of Tess’s Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗春芳

    2014-01-01

    Thomas Hardy is a famous critical realistic writer at the turn of the 19th century. Tess of the D’ Urbervilles which was published in 1891 is the most influential masterpiece of all his works. In this nov-el, Hardy demonstrates his deep sense of moral sympathy for England’s lower class, particularly for rural woman. Under Hardy’s pen, the heroine Tess is created as a beautiful, innocent and pure woman, who has the quality of endurance and self-sacrifice. Tess has long been regarded as the most exceptional woman character in English literary history. However, the life of this pure woman is tragic. First, she is seduced, then abandoned and finally driven to murder for which she is hanged. Tess’s tragedy is not ac-cidental. Living in a society overwhelmed by capitalist law, hypocritical morality and ethics ad social evil forces, Tess, a poor peasant girl, inevitably leads a tragic life and finally goes to her collapse. In addition, two persons who are very closely related to Tess’s fate, Alec and Angel, directly and indirectly affect her. Moreover, the weakness in Tess’s character is also responsible for her tragic ending. Tess fights against the society helplessly. In the end, she turns out to be the sacrificial victim of the society like all other things which disobey the morality and ethics. Thus, in this paper, the author tries to analyze the various causes of Tess’s tragedy.

  1. Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.

    1987-11-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the prostate of coalminers of Donbas--liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-12-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in prostate of Donbas's coalminer-non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a prostatic gland changes.

  3. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the testis of coal miners of Donbas-liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-01-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in testis of Donbas's coalminer - non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident, which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a testis changes.

  4. Integrating Research on Thyroid Cancer after Chernobyl — the Chernobyl Tissue Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G.A.; Bethel, J.A.; Galpine, A.; Krznaric, M.; Unger, K.

    2011-01-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. In response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer after Chernobyl, the Chernobyl Tissue Bank was established. The project is supported by the governments of Ukraine and Russia, and financially supported (in total around US$3million) by the European Commission, the National Cancer Institute of the USA and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation of Japan. The project began collecting a variety of biological samples from patients on 1 October 1988, and has supplied material to 21 research projects in Japan, the USA and Europe. The establishment of the Chernobyl Tissue Bank has facilitated cooperation between these research projects and the combination of clinical and research data provides a paradigm for cancer research in the molecular biological age. PMID:21345659

  5. Chernobyl birds have smaller brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.

  6. Chernobyl radionuclide distribution and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izrael, Yury A

    2007-11-01

    The accident at Unit No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on 26 April 1986 presented severe challenges in radiation protection. Early activity measurements defined the contaminated areas in order to determine what persons should be evacuated on the basis of the exposure limit at that time of 100 mSv (10 rem) for accidents. The immediate definition of these areas was accomplished with specially equipped aircraft capable of measuring external gamma-exposure rate and radionuclide spectra. Over time, maps of 137Cs contamination (the most important long-lived radionuclide) have become more and more sophisticated and have been used for further determinations of the control of the consequences of the accident. About 70% of the total release of 137Cs was deposited in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine; but there was also widespread deposition throughout the countries of Western Europe. Two atlases of contamination throughout Europe were prepared, and the Russian atlas included data on other radionuclides and on external gamma-exposure rates. The radiocesiums behaved as volatile radionuclides because of the volatility of cesium. In contrast to the typical pattern after nuclear weapons tests, 90Sr behaved only as a refractory element, as its volatile precursors krypton and rubidium had already decayed within the reactor. Nearly all of the refractory elements (strontium, plutonium, etc.) released by the accident were confined to the 30-km zone around the reactor. A proposal is made to develop a more complete atlas of 137Cs deposition from the accident that would include the entire Northern Hemisphere. Water was not an important vector of exposure to human beings following the accident.

  7. Chernobyl accident. [Radiation monitoring in UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1986-07-01

    A brief report is given of the implications for the UK from the radioactivity released during the Chernobyl accident. Results of radio-activity monitoring around the UK are given and the additional radiation doses to the UK population are evaluated.

  8. Andronikos I Komnenos: A Greek Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry J. MAGOULIAS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Annals of Niketas Choniates depict Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos (1183-1185 in certain aspects of his lifestyle as a mirror image of his first cousin, Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (1143-1180. The life and death of Andronikos I Komnenos provide us with a window into the aesthetic, moral, intellectual, religious, economic and emotional world of Byzantine society in the 12th century. It was thanks to the Byzantine empire that the ancient texts were preserved and transmitted. Ancient Greek culture and reason, in particular, continued to inform Christian values while, at the same time, both could be in radical conflict. The tragic reign of Andronikos as presented by Niketas Choniates conforms to Aristotle's principles of classical drama, but there is a fundamental disagreement between the author of the Poetics and the historian as to what constitutes tragedy, which underlines this conflict.

  9. Discussing the Unfathomable: Classroom-based Responses to Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardia, Diana; Bierwert, Crisca; Cook, Constance E.; Miller, A. T.; Kaplan, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    Describes how, when asked to devote the day following the September 11 tragedy to class discussions, University of Michigan instructors benefited from the skills and classroom strategies honed by colleagues whose classes regularly deal with complex human realities. (EV)

  10. Quantum ten a story of passion, tragedy, ambition and science

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Sheilla

    2014-01-01

    Jones weaves together the personal and the scientific in a heartwarming -- and heartbreaking -- story of the men who struggled to create quantum physics ... a story of passion, tragedy, ambition and science.

  11. A Comparison Between Aristotle's Tragedy Theory And That of Boileau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美姣

    2010-01-01

    In this article,the author intends to illustrate and clarify the differences and similarities reflected from their representative works in both Aristotle's and Bioleau's tragedy theory."Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious,complete and of a certain magnitude":Aristotle holds that tragedy is composed of six elements:plot-structure.character,style,spectacle,and lyric poetry and that"tragedy should evoke fear and pity".According to Boileau,"Tragic art was said to provide an idealizing imitation of the terrifying 1n which pain is transformed into pleasure"and he helieves that"Only the true is beautiful",reason must be respected".

  12. Species richness and abundance of forest birds in relation to radiation at Chernobyl

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A.P Møller; T.A Mousseau

    2007-01-01

    .... Recent conclusions from the UN Chernobyl forum and reports in the popular media concerning the effects of radiation from Chernobyl on animals have left the impression that the Chernobyl exclusion...

  13. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  14. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France: dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France); Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  15. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  16. The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range

  17. The lesson of the Chernobyl disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milhaud, G. (Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 Paris (FR))

    1991-01-01

    On april 26, 1986 a major nuclear disaster took place at 1 h 24 min local time, destroying the fourth reactor of the Chernobyl plant. Five years later the consequences of the disaster are still not fully known. Nevertheless the long term future of nuclear energy in the world is uncertain. Questions need to be answered by observing hard facts if emotional attitudes are not to prevail over reality. The reactor and its core were destroyed by an explosion, causing two radioactive jet emissions of iodine 131, followed by caesium 137. Both elements are mainly incorporated in the body via food. The Chernobyl disaster was a consequence of inadequate safety regulations and human error. Enforcement of strict regulations are likely to be highly effective in preventing a further catastrophe. However, governments should consider another possibility. What would be the consequences for public health if a terroristic act deliberately destroyed a nuclear power station.

  18. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  19. Health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. The clearest effect to be seen to date is the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in children. The evidence for increased leukaemia is less clear, but there are indications of increased leukaemia incidence in Russian clean-up workers. There is also evidence of increases in breast cancer, cataract and cardiovascular disease. However, to date the largest public health problem caused by the accident is the mental health impact.

  20. Post-Chernobyl fallout in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osvath, I.; Dovlete, C. [Inst. of Environmental Research and Engineering, Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Bucharest (Romania)

    1992-07-01

    As part of the Romanian environmental radioactivity monitoring programme, fallout samples have been systematically collected and analyzed for gamma emitters. Chernobyl fallout space-time patterns. radionuclide concentration ratios and deposition velocities have been determined. The resuspension process has been studied, environmental half-lives for {sup 137}Cs and resuspension factors have been evaluated. Hot particles have been identified in some of the deposition samples. (author)

  1. Airborne Chernobyl radioactivity in College Park, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitto, M.E. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (USA) New York State Dept. of Health, Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, Albany, NY (USA)); Faller, S.H. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (USA) Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (USA)); Anderson, D.L. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (USA) Food and Drug Administration Lab., National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA)); McCarthy, L.E. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (USA) Gerghty and Miller, Inc., Plainview, NY (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides collected on filters in College Park, Maryland during May, 1986 have been determined by gamma-ray analysis. Measurements indicate that following an extensive wash-out of radioactivity, {sup 103}Ru was enriched in the upper atmosphere relative to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 131}I. Absolute concentrations of particulate and gas-phase radionuclides and the observed enrichment of {sup 103}Ru are in agreement with other studies. (orig.).

  2. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  3. Chernobyl: an unbelievable failure to help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertell, Rosalie

    2008-01-01

    The disaster at the Chernobyl power reactor near Kiev, which began on April 26, 1986, was one of the world's worst industrial accidents. Yet the global community, usually most generous in its aid to a stricken community, has been slow to understand the scope of the disaster and reach out to the most devastated people of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. This article probes the causes of this confusion of perception and failure of response; clearly the problem is one of communication. Has the International Atomic Energy Agency betrayed the victims of the Chernobyl disaster because of its plans to promote the "peaceful atom" nuclear program in the developing world? Has the World Health Organization failed to provide clear, reliable information on the health effects resulting from the disaster? Are other historical problems or actors interfering with reasonable handling of the late effects of a nuclear disaster? Most importantly, what can be done to remedy this situation, to assist those most hurt by the late effects of Chernobyl and prevent such injustice in future? With the current promotion of nuclear energy as a "solution" to global climate change, we need to take a sober second look at the nuclear energy experiment and management of its hazards.

  4. Chernobyl lessons learned review of N Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, E.T.; McNeece, J.P.; Omberg, R.P.; Stepnewski, D.D.; Lutz, R.J.; Henry, R.E.; Bonser, K.D.; Miller, N.R.

    1987-10-01

    A broad-base review of the N Reactor plant, design characteristics, administrative controls and responses unique to upset conditions has been completed. The review was keyed to Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-defined issues associated with the Chernobyl accident. Physical features of N Reactor that preclude an accident like Chernobyl include: lack of autocatalytic reactivity insertion (i.e., negative coolant void and power coefficents) and two separate, fast-acting scram systems. Administrative controls in place at N Reactor would effectively protect against the operator errors and safety violations that set up the Chernobyl accident. Several items were identified where further near-term action is appropriate to ensure effectiveness of existing safety features: Resolve a question concerning the exact point at which Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) activation by manual actions should be implemented or deferred if automatic ECCS trip fails. Ensure appropriate revision of the Emergency Response Guides and full communication of the correct procedure to all Operations, Safety and cognizant Technology staff. Train reactor operators in the currently recognized significance of the Graphite and Shield Cooling System (GSCS) in severe accident situations and cover this appropriately in the Emergency Response Guides. Complete reviews which establish an independent verification that pressure tube rupture will not propagate to other tubes. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. The Commons revisited: The tragedy continues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, Bob [Otago University, Dunedin, Otago (New Zealand). Physics Department

    2007-11-15

    Garrett Hardin's classic paper ''Tragedy of the Commons'' published in Science in 1968 struck a chord with scientists and non-scientists alike and has continued to provide a key reference point to how a number of ''Commons''-related problems can be viewed. Hardin's paper will be in looked at in view of both anthropogenic global warming and peak oil and some of the solutions he posed for the ''population problem'' applied to the post-peak era. Possible solutions are compared with the Kyoto Protocol for global warming and the Rimini Protocol for peak oil. A carbon-indexed, universal tax on non-renewable energy resources 'Unitax' is mooted as a longer-term possibility to overcoming both global warming and the financing of post-peak oil problems. Alas, the process of dealing with global warming and peak oil seems to be falling into the ''no technical solution'' category that Hardin identified for population. (author)

  6. 非虚构视野下《切尔诺贝利的回忆:核灾难口述史》探析%Analysis on Memories of Chernobyl:Oral History of Nuclear Disaster in the Perspective of Non-fiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘源

    2016-01-01

    非虚构小说是一种融历史与文学于一体的小说,白俄罗斯女作家阿列克谢耶维奇的《切尔诺贝利的回忆:核灾难口述史》就是这样一部小说,作品体现了非虚构的真实和位移。作者之所以能写出这样的作品,在于她在查阅了大量的历史纪录的基础上,从核爆炸这个独到的视角,深入到采访对象之中,以细节还原历史的真实,使人们重新回想那段灾难的历史。作品在全面展现核灾难的同时还体现出了特定时代背景下人们的信仰和使命———国家意识和牺牲精神,对当今社会核事业发展也具有一定的警示作用。%Non-fiction is a kind of novels mixing history and literature. Memories of Chernobyl:Oral History of Nuclear Disaster is one of these novels. It reflects non-fictional and real displacement. In the unique perspective of nuclear explosion, based on the consultation of a lot of history records, it restores the details of historical truth from in-depth interviewees, so that people recall the historical disaster again. The works fully demonstrates the nuclear disaster, and at the same time reflects people's beliefs and mission in the particular background-national consciousness and sacrifice spirit, which has some warnings for nuclear development in today's society.

  7. Lessons from Chernobyl and prognosis for Fukushima: radiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Victor K

    2012-03-01

    The following are considered: results of large-scale radiation epidemiological studies of the health effects of the Chernobyl accident, radiation risks for emergency workers and the affected population; and verification of ICRP risk models taking into account data on the Chernobyl accident and preliminary prognostic estimates of potential radiological consequences of the Fukushima disaster.

  8. Reporting on Radiation: A Content Analysis of Chernobyl Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluates how well the media guided readers and viewers through the Chernobyl disaster. Concludes that the press and television did not provide enough radiation and risk information in their coverage of the Chernobyl accident, but what was provided was appropriate, even-handed, and conservative. (NKA)

  9. Eugene O'Neill's Innovations in Tragedy:From the Per-spective of Triple World of Modern Tragedy%从现代悲剧三重世界看尤金·奥尼尔对悲剧艺术的创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      本文采用任生名《西方现代悲剧论稿》中提出的阐释悲剧的新范式,探讨奥尼尔对于悲剧的创新。奥尼尔对于现代社会悲剧的创新在于他颠覆了传统悲剧的概念:悲剧的主人公从王子贵族演变成平常百姓;悲剧的起因从严肃的行为演变成日常琐事;悲剧的世界是“上帝已死”的世界。奥尼尔对于现代精神悲剧的创新在于对剧中人物内心世界的探索。在现代人本体悲剧这一层,奥尼尔用象征展示了现代人荒谬的处境。%This thesis is based on Ren Shengming's new model explaining the nature of tragedy. One of the most prominent con-tributions O'Neill has made to modern social tragedy is his use of common people as the protagonists of tragedy.Eugene O'Neill's exploration of human psyche is with unprecedented scope and depth in his plays. Eugene O'Neill contributes to modern onto-logical tragedy by revealing in his plays the absurd existence of human beings, pointing directly to anthropological ontology.

  10. From Alec and Angel to see Tess’s tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任晨爽

    2014-01-01

    “Love is ever matter of comedies, and how and then tragedies.” says the prose writer and philosopher Francis Bacon. Love is beautiful, while the unfortunate love is destined to a tragedy. The love of Tess with Angle Clare and Alec d' Urbervil e is also the tragedy in Tess of the D' urbervil es of Thomas Hardy who is a cross-century literary giants. He is one of the most famous writers in the Victorian era, and is known as“Shakespeare in the English novels”. Tess of the D' urbervil es is one of his famous novels and it is the combination of Hardy’ pessimism and fatalism. Of course, Tess’ tragic fate has thousands of thousands contact with Alec and Angle Clare. In Hardy’ writing, Tess is a pure, beautiful, kind-hearted, and nearly a perfect peasant girl and a series of happenings make the girl go to death. Tess lives in the capital society. The self-supporting peasants are displaced and impoverished, and are forced to work under capitalist exploitation. Her parents’ vanity makes her go to work in Alec’s farm where she loses the most precious chastity of women. While when she begins to choose the new life and struggles to get rid of the moral bound, her husband Angel Clare leaves her after he knows the impurity past of Tess. The two men in Tess’ life help to create the tragedy. Tess ruins herself by a extreme way. This thesis is trying to make comments on the influences of the two men--Alec and Angle to Tess’ tragedy. If the ravages of body by Alec is the beginning of the tragedy, then the mental torture ultimately destroyed Tess and make her to despair and destruction.

  11. On the Elements of Tragedy in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冶静芳

    2014-01-01

    As the masterpiece of Nathaniel Hawthorn’s writing, The Scarlet Letter not only brings him fame forever, but also gives us more about people’s life in Puritan society in 17th. Since this novel is so important and excellent, the thesis mainly focus-es on probing into the theme of elements of tragedy in The Scarlet Letter. According to the whole story, the love tragedy is attrib-uted to four factors: the Puritan beliefs of original sin, the attitude of public on love outside marriage, the personalities of the main characters, and the differences between dream and reality.

  12. On the Hero’s Tragedy in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Great Gatsby is the representative work of F.Scott Fitzgerald,the famous American novelist in the 20th century.In a deep and concise tone,it tells readers a tragedy about the break of the American Dream.Gatsby lived in the Jazz Age and pursued his dream persistently but finally failed.Through his tragedy,we can discover the social root of his failure,the impetuousness of the Lost Generation and the disenchantment of the American Dream.

  13. Risk of hematological malignancies among Chernobyl liquidators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesminiene, Ausrele; Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Ivanov, Viktor K.; Malakhova, Irina V.; Kurtinaitis, Juozas; Stengrevics, Aivars; Tekkel, Mare; Anspaugh, Lynn R.; Bouville, André; Chekin, Sergei; Chumak, Vadim V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Gapanovich, Vladimir; Golovanov, Ivan; Hubert, Phillip; Illichev, Sergei V.; Khait, Svetlana E.; Krjuchkov, Viktor P.; Maceika, Evaldas; Maksyoutov, Marat; Mirkhaidarov, Anatoly K.; Polyakov, Semion; Shchukina, Natalia; Tenet, Vanessa; Tserakhovich, Tatyana I.; Tsykalo, Aleksandr; Tukov, Aleksandr R.; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study of hematological malignancies was conducted among Chernobyl liquidators (accident recovery workers) from Belarus, Russia and Baltic countries in order to assess the effect of low-to-medium dose protracted radiation exposures on the relative risk of these diseases. The study was nested within cohorts of liquidators who had worked in 1986–87 around the Chernobyl plant. 117 cases (69 leukemia, 34 non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and 14 other malignancies of lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue) and 481 matched controls were included in the study. Individual dose to the bone marrow and uncertainties were estimated for each subject. The main analyses were restricted to 70 cases (40 leukemia, 20 NHL and 10 other) and their 287 matched controls with reliable information on work in the Chernobyl area. Most subjects received very low doses (median 13 mGy). For all diagnoses combined, a significantly elevated OR was seen at doses of 200 mGy and above. The Excess Relative Risk (ERR) per 100 mGy was 0.60 (90% confidence interval (CI): −0.02, 2.35). The corresponding estimate for leukemia excluding chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) was 0.50 (90%CI −0.38, 5.7). It is slightly higher than, but statistically compatible with, those estimated from a-bomb survivors and recent low dose-rate studies. Although sensitivity analyses showed generally similar results, we cannot rule out the possibility that biases and uncertainties could have led to over or underestimation of the risk in this study. PMID:19138033

  14. TRAC laboratory monitoring of Chernobyl radioactive debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, R.A.

    1986-06-09

    A severe accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant number 4 in the Soviet Union on April 25, 1986. An explosion released large amounts of radioactive debris, primarily fission products, to the atmosphere. As winds carried debris from the Soviet Union, scientists in Europe and the United States reported detecting fission product activities in air samples. Monitoring by the Tracking Radioactive Atmospheric Contaminants (TRAC) mobile laboratory showed concentrations in the Southeastern United States were well below those considered hazardous. This document provides details of this monitoring effort.

  15. "Hamlet" Meets "Chushingura": Traditions of the Revenge Tragedy. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This lesson seeks to sensitize students to the similarities and difference between cultures by comparing the Shakespearean and the Bunraki/Kabuki dramas of Japan. In the lesson, the focus of this comparison is the complex nature of revenge explored in "The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark" and "Chusingura," or "The…

  16. Analysis Martin’s Tragedy in Martin Eden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 卢芳; 李思萌

    2013-01-01

    Jack London, the famous American novelist in twentieth century, whose whole life is full of romantic color. Martin Eden is the immortal work of Jack London, which is a semi-autobiography novel. This paper will interpret Jack London’s most important work Martin Eden from the analysis of its protagonist Martin Eden’s tragedy.

  17. At Northern Illinois U., Leaders Grapple with a Tragedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    At even the best-prepared universities, there is no playbook for handling the crush of tough decisions that comes after a mass shooting rocks an otherwise quiet campus. While colleges and universities have always had tragedies, recent occurences like the shootings at Northern Illinois University and Virginia Tech have fundamentally changed the way…

  18. Children's Literature in a Time of National Tragedy. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mei-Yu

    This digest is intended to guide parents and teachers in helping children deal with the attacks of September 11, 2001 through the use of literature. It begins with suggestions, guidelines, and strategies which parents and teachers can use to help children deal with the tragedy, and it discusses the role of literature in helping children at a time…

  19. On the Causes of Jude's Tragedy in Jude the Obscure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰

    2015-01-01

    Thomas Hardy's Jude the Obscure is a tragic novel, which shows the fight between flesh and spirit. From which, we can appreciate connotation of the character and environment novels and feel the Victorian period's social factors. This thesis aims at analyzing the real causes of Jude's tragedy from the social institution and his personal limitation hid in the tragic appearance.

  20. The Complexities of Honor in the "Maid's Tragedy."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Barbara J.

    1979-01-01

    Contests the frequently espoused critique of Beaumont and Fletcher's work as morally irresponsible through an analysis of their play, "The Maid's Tragedy." Proposes that it achieves emotional and moral profundity emanating from a complex moral vision. Analyzes the play's philosophical intention and reveals the dramatic discovery of truth behind…

  1. Attempts to Save Tragedy in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Przybyszewska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the issue of genre-transformation of tragedy in 19th-century Polish drama. The fundamental question is tragedy’s potential after liberation from the most important structural categories of the genre: the three unities, catharsis and anagnorisis. The discussion on the 19th-century patterns of tragedy, derived from contemporary theory, criticism, and theatrical production, are based on research by Marek Dybizbański, who presented an interesting analysis of the problem, which was an important indicator of contemporary literary thought, in his study called Tragedia polska drugiej połowy XIX wieku — wzorce i odstępstwa [The Polish Tragic Drama in Late 19th Century — Patterns and Divergence]. The issues discussed were: disproportion between expectations and effects, indicated by repertoires and contemporary debate on drama, lack of standard productions of tragedy, matched by great surplus of texts that tried to set the standard, and by programmatic declarations on how to do it. The author, following Dybizbański’s discussion, focuses on the question why the 19th century in Poland was, for tragedy, a lost time.

  2. Chernobyl fallout and cancer incidence in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Anssi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Kurttio, Päivi; Patama, Toni; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Verkasalo, Pia; Hakulinen, Timo

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since the Chernobyl accident, but its health consequences remain to be well established. Finland was one of the most heavily affected countries by the radioactive fallout outside the former Soviet Union. We analyzed the relation of the estimated external radiation exposure from the fallout to cancer incidence in Finland in 1988-2007. The study cohort comprised all ∼ 3.8 million Finns who had lived in the same dwelling for 12 months following the accident (May 1986-April 1987). Radiation exposure was estimated using data from an extensive mobile dose rate survey. Cancer incidence data were obtained for the cohort divided into four exposure categories (the lowest with the first-year committed dose effect was observed for men, or other cancer sites. Our analysis of a large cohort over two decades did not reveal an increase in cancer incidence following the Chernobyl accident, with the possible exception of colon cancer among women. The largely null findings are consistent with extrapolation from previous studies suggesting that the effect is likely to remain too small to be empirically detectable and of little public health impact.

  3. Observations on the Chernobyl Disaster and LNT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    2010-01-28

    The Chernobyl accident was probably the worst possible catastrophe of a nuclear power station. It was the only such catastrophe since the advent of nuclear power 55 years ago. It resulted in a total meltdown of the reactor core, a vast emission of radionuclides, and early deaths of only 31 persons. Its enormous political, economic, social and psychological impact was mainly due to deeply rooted fear of radiation induced by the linear non-threshold hypothesis (LNT) assumption. It was a historic event that provided invaluable lessons for nuclear industry and risk philosophy. One of them is demonstration that counted per electricity units produced, early Chernobyl fatalities amounted to 0.86 death/GWe-year), and they were 47 times lower than from hydroelectric stations ( approximately 40 deaths/GWe-year). The accident demonstrated that using the LNT assumption as a basis for protection measures and radiation dose limitations was counterproductive, and lead to sufferings and pauperization of millions of inhabitants of contaminated areas. The projections of thousands of late cancer deaths based on LNT, are in conflict with observations that in comparison with general population of Russia, a 15% to 30% deficit of solid cancer mortality was found among the Russian emergency workers, and a 5% deficit solid cancer incidence among the population of most contaminated areas.

  4. 5. Nonmalignant diseases after the Chernobyl catastrophe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablokov, Alexey V

    2009-11-01

    This section describes the spectrum and the scale of the nonmalignant diseases that have been found among exposed populations. Adverse effects as a result of Chernobyl irradiation have been found in every group that has been studied. Brain damage has been found in individuals directly exposed--liquidators and those living in the contaminated territories, as well as in their offspring. Premature cataracts; tooth and mouth abnormalities; and blood, lymphatic, heart, lung, gastrointestinal, urologic, bone, and skin diseases afflict and impair people, young and old alike. Endocrine dysfunction, particularly thyroid disease, is far more common than might be expected, with some 1,000 cases of thyroid dysfunction for every case of thyroid cancer, a marked increase after the catastrophe. There are genetic damage and birth defects especially in children of liquidators and in children born in areas with high levels of radioisotope contamination. Immunological abnormalities and increases in viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases are rife among individuals in the heavily contaminated areas. For more than 20 years, overall morbidity has remained high in those exposed to the irradiation released by Chernobyl. One cannot give credence to the explanation that these numbers are due solely to socioeconomic factors. The negative health consequences of the catastrophe are amply documented in this chapter and concern millions of people.

  5. e-Human Grid Ecology - understanding and approaching the inverse tragedy of the commons in the e-Grid society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoch, Tobias A; Baumgärtner, Volkmar; de Zeeuw, Luc V; Grosveld, Frank G; Egger, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    With ever-new technologies emerging also the amount of information to be stored and processed is growing exponentially and is believed to be always at the limit. In contrast, however, huge resources are available in the IT sector alike e.g. the renewable energy sector, which are often even not at all used. This under-usage bares any rational especially in the IT sector where e.g. virtualisation and grid approaches could be fast implemented due to the great technical and fast turnover opportunities. Here, we describe this obvious paradox for the first time as the Inverse Tragedy of the Commons, in contrast to the Classical Tragedy of the Commons where resources are overexploited. From this perspective the grid IT sector attempting to share resources for better efficiency, reveals two challenges leading to the heart of the paradox: i) From a macro perspective all grid infrastructures involve not only mere technical solutions but also dominantly all of the autopoietic social sub-systems ranging from religion to policy. ii) On the micro level the individual players and their psychology and risk behaviour are of major importance for acting within the macro autopoietic framework. Thus, the challenges of grid implementation are similar to those of e.g. climate protection. This is well described by the classic Human Ecology triangle and our extension to a rectangle: invironment-individual-society-environment. Extension of this classical interdisciplinary field of basic and applied research to an e-Human Grid Ecology rational, allows the Inverse Tragedy of the Commons of the grid sector to be understood and approached better and implies obvious guidelines in the day-to-day management for grid and other (networked) resources, which is of importance for many fields with similar paradoxes as in (e-)society.

  6. Condition, Reproduction and Survival of Barn Swallows from Chernobyl

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. P. Møller; T. A. Mousseau; G. Milinevsky; A. Peklo; E. Pysanets; T. Szép

    2005-01-01

    1. We investigated the relationship between radiation arising from the fall-out due to the explosion of the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, Ukraine, and body condition, rate of reproduction and survival...

  7. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later; Propos sur Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M

    2006-07-01

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  8. Marine dispersion of caesium 137 released from Sellafield and Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandle, D.; Beechey, J.

    1991-09-01

    This modelling study examines the dispersion within the shelf seas surrounding the UK, of 137Cs discharged from Sellafield between 1969 and 1988 together with the atmospheric deposition following Chernobyl (April 1986). The close agreement obtained between computed and observed distributions lends confidence to estimates of flushing times-fundamental parameters in determining pollutant concentrations. Moreover, this study confirms, to first-order, the estimates of Chernobyl fall-out provided by atmospheric dispersion models.

  9. Willy's Responsibility for His Own Tragedy%Willy' s Responsibility for His Own Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅娟

    2010-01-01

    Death of a salesman written in 1949, it is a tragedy of a common American. The main character, Willy Lornan is a salesman, who has hst his hold on reality. Willy, who has constantly placed high value on being admired, dreamed of dying the "death of a salesman" . In his illusionary world, he was living a life of comfort and finishing deals through contractors on the phone. Instead, allof Willy' s objectives seem to have failed: he is laid off from his job, nobody among his old friends remember him, his son Biff has not turn out the man he expected he would be, and he is forced to rely on loans from his former competitor.Willy Loman who has two sons, Biff everyone around Willy experiences success and wealth, Willy and his family are too far from success. Willy wants to be successful for the wealth and dignity, but his dream is never fulfilled and materialized at all. In this situation, Willy tries to receive satisfaction from his sons. For instance, he wants Biff to become a business success even though Biff wants to work outside on a cattle ranch. Biff has an internal struggle between pleasing his father and doing what he feels is right.

  10. Genetic and ecological studies of animals in Chernobyl and Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Validity of thyroid cancer incidence data following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2011-12-01

    The only clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is thyroid carcinoma in patients exposed during childhood or adolescence. Significant increases in thyroid disease were observed as soon as 4 y after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Morphological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is clearly visible, depends mainly on the nuclear criteria. Outdated equipment and insufficient quality of histological specimens impeded reliable evaluation of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has always been limited in the former Soviet Union. The great number of advanced tumors observed shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect (detection of previously neglected cancers) and by the fact that many patients were brought from non-contaminated areas and registered as Chernobyl victims. It is also worth noting that exaggeration of the Chernobyl cancer statistics facilitated the writing of dissertations, financing of research, and assistance from outside the former Soviet Union. "Chernobyl hysteria" impeded nuclear energy production in some countries, thus contributing to higher prices for fossil fuel. The concluding point is that since post-Chernobyl cancers tend on average to be in a later stage of tumor progression, some published data on molecular or immunohistochemical characteristics of Chernobyl-related cancers require reevaluation.

  12. 《氓》中女主人公悲剧原因探究%To Explore the Cause of Heroine Tragedy in“Meng”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华晓波

    2014-01-01

    《氓》中女主人公的爱情无疑是个悲剧,中学语文教学大纲中的观点不够全面。试从女主人公性格、家庭经济、男女婚后关系处理等角度重新解读,并试图揭示这个悲剧在现代离婚率居高不下的今天具有的现实意义。%The heroine’s love in“meng”is a tragedy, middle school Chinese syllabus view is not comprehensive.Try to reinterpret from the perspective of the heroine character, family economy, men and women relationship after marriage, and reveal realistic significance of the tragedy in modern high divorce rate today.

  13. Psychosocial effects of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    The psychological factors surrounding the Chernobyl disaster include the sudden trauma of evacuation, long-term effects of being a refugee, disruption of social networks, illness, separation and its effects on families, children's perception and effects on their development and the threat of a long-term consequence with an endless future. Added to this was the breakdown of the Soviet Union with consequent collapse of health services, increasing poverty and malnutrition. These complexities made necessary new individual and social treatment methods developed in UNESCO Community Centres, within which some positives have resulted, such as the development of individual and group self help and the professions of counselling, social work and community development, practices which did not previously exist in the Soviet Union.

  14. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  15. Tragedies by Life--A slight analysis of the main characters in Sons and Lovers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙灵

    2003-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ.Introduction Traditionally, tragedies refer to those calamitous events with unhappy endings, which occur on a violent and vigorous scale. However, D. H. Lawrence expresses his own understanding of tragedy from a new angle, which adds a fresh color to its original definition. Frederick J. Hoffman notes in his Freudianism and the Literary Mind: ...Tragedy for him (Lawrence)consists not in sentimental or significant dying, but in ‘ the inner war which is raged between people who love each other...'.

  16. The Reception of Ancient Greek Tragedy in England 1660-1760

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, M

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation enquires into some of the forms that the reception of ancient Greek tragedy took in England between 1660 and 1760. It looks at those critics and translators who engaged most with ancient Greek tragedy and whose engagement was accompanied by an interest in ancient theory and native English literature. Chapter 1, after examining works by George Gascoigne and Francis Kinwelmershe, Thomas Goffe, Thomas May and Christopher Wase, considers William Joyner’s original tragedy The Roma...

  17. Adaptive Learning in the Tragedy of the Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Andrés García

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The joint utilisation of a commonly owned resource often causes the resource to be overused, this is known as The tragedy of the Commons. This paper analyses the effects of adaptive learning in such kind of situations using genetic programming. In a game theoretical approach, the situation considers not only the strategic interaction among players, but also the dynamics of a changing enviroment linked strongly to the players' actions and payoffs. The results of an analytical game are used to formulate a simulation game for the commons, the a series of computational experiments are conducted, obtaining evolved game strategies that are examined in comparison with those predicted by the analytical model. The obtained results are similar to those predicted by classic game theory, but not always leading to a tragedy.

  18. The Tragedy of V.S. Naipaul's Miguel Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanyar Kareem Abdul

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad (V.S. Naipaul was born in Trinidad in 1932. His works have been an enduring focus between rich and poor, colonizer and colonized. In The New York Review of Books, Naipaul has been called '”a master of English prose,” which indicates his weight in modern literature, especially in post colonialism. The paper depicts a dark area and tragedy in Miguel Street throughout the characters and their dialogues. Naipaul is famous for his sad-given-tonic moment in his novels. The paper also provides examples and explanations behind the tragedy of the novel and what the characters suffer from: misunderstanding, poverty, or losing humanity that no more communication works out. Miguel Street is a place where all the tragic moments happen in the novel. Each section of the story ends with sadness and disappointment.   Keywords: Tragic moment, Tragic novel, Trinidad society

  19. Reciprocity and the Tragedies of Maintaining and Providing the Commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Kölle, Felix; Quercia, Simone

    2017-09-01

    Social cooperation often requires collectively beneficial but individually costly restraint to maintain a public good1-4, or it needs costly generosity to create one1,5. Status quo effects6 predict that maintaining a public good is easier than providing a new one. Here we show experimentally and with simulations that even under identical incentives, low levels of cooperation (the 'tragedy of the commons'2) are systematically more likely in Maintenance than Provision. Across three series of experiments, we find that strong and weak positive reciprocity, known to be fundamental tendencies underpinning human cooperation7-10, are substantially diminished under Maintenance compared to Provision. As we show in a fourth experiment, the opposite holds for negative reciprocity ('punishment'). Our findings suggest that incentives to avoid the 'tragedy of the commons' need to contend with dilemma-specific reciprocity.

  20. A Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Laura's Tragedy in The Glass Menagerie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈争

    2014-01-01

    The Glass Menagerie is William’s first successful play. It tells a tragic story of the life of the Wingfields. The Wingfields all lead a tragic life, especially the daughter, Laura. This thesis applies Sigmund Freud ’s theory of personality, the theory of anxi-ety and defence mechanism to give the readers a further understanding of the inner world of Laura so as to understand her erratic behavior and the true causes of her tragedy.

  1. Chernobyl, 13 years after; Tchernobyl, 13 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regniault-Lacharme, Mireille; Metivier, Henri [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1999-04-01

    This is an annual report, regularly issued by IPSN, that presents the ecological and health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. The present status of the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, which Ukraine engaged to stop definitively in year 2000, is summarized. The only reactor unit now in operation is Chernobylsk-3 Reactor which poses two safety questions: evolution of cracks in part of the tubing and behaviour of the pressure tubes. Although, some improvements in the RBMK reactor types were introduced, problems remain that make IPSN to stress the requirement of stopping this NPP completely. In the contaminated territories surrounding Chernobyl incidence rate of infant thyroid cancers continues to grow, reaching values 10 to 100 times higher than the natural rate. In France the IPSN analyzed 60,000 records carried out in 17 sites during May 1986 and April 1989. It was estimated that the individual dose received during 60 years (1986-2046) by the inhabitants of the most affected zone (eastern France) is lower than 1.5 mSv, a value lower than 1% of the natural cosmic and telluric radioactivity exposure for the same period. For the persons assumed to live in the most attacked forests (from eastern France) and nourishing daily with venison and mushrooms the highest estimate is 1 mSv a year. Concerning the 'hot spots', identified in mountains by IPSN and CRIIRAD, the doses received by excursionists are around 0.015 mSv. For an average inhabitant of the country the dose piled up in the thyroid due to iodine-131 fallout is estimated to 0.5-2 mSv for an adult and 6.5-16 mSv for an infant. These doses are 100 to 1000 times lower than the ones to which the infants living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl are exposed to. The contents of the report is displayed in the following six chapters: 1. Chernobyl in some figures; 2. The 'sarcophagus' and the reactors of the Chernobyl NPP; 3. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident;. 4. The impact of

  2. Sexual conflict and the tragedy of the commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Daniel J; Dieckmann, Ulf; Kokko, Hanna

    2011-06-01

    It is widely understood that the costs and benefits of mating can affect the fecundity and survival of individuals. Sexual conflict may have profound consequences for populations as a result of the negative effects it causes males and females to have on one another's fitness. Here we present a model describing the evolution of sexual conflict, in which males inflict a direct cost on female fitness. We show that these costs can drive the entire population to extinction. To males, females are an essential but finite resource over which they have to compete. Population extinction owing to sexual conflict can therefore be seen as an evolutionary tragedy of the commons. Our model shows that a positive feedback between harassment and the operational sex ratio is responsible for the demise of females and, thus, for population extinction. We further show that the evolution of female resistance to counter harassment can prevent a tragedy of the commons. Our findings not only demonstrate that sexual conflict can drive a population to extinction but also highlight how simple mechanisms, such as harassment costs to males and females and the coevolution between harassment and resistance, can help avert a tragedy of the commons caused by sexual conflict.

  3. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John=

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  4. New Understanding of Henchard's Tragedy in "The Mayor of Casterbridge"%New Understanding of Henchard's Tragedy in "The Mayor of Casterbridge"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪雅君

    2012-01-01

    No masterpiece by great writers is single-sided. It is always polyhedron and is bound to show new sides if we read it in a different perspective. Traditionally, "the Mayor of Casterbridge", one of the important novels by Thomas Hardy, is an illustration of the inevitable doom of the patriarchal economy in the English countryside in the 19th century England due to the merciless squeeze by industrial expansion. However, considering the widespread accepted theory of Adam Smith's economic man and moral man, we could find that man are always in conflict between the two. Someone who are very rational and perfectly informed to pur- sue their own profits and wealth regardless of others' interests could always successfully gain their wealth with the cost of losing their own happiness, while others who always care about someone else, put themselves in someone else's places, and regard some- one else's happiness as their concerns could eventually get their real happiness and sweet life with a sympathetic heart. Adam Smith thinks that the egoism (economic man) and the altruism (moral man) are both human's natural instincts. Only a moderately prudent balance and union between the two could both develop the economy and gain the happiness. In "The Mayor of Caster- bridge", I-Ienchard's tragedy just lies in the abundance of egoism but the shortage of altruism. That's to say, he possesses too many characteristics of economic man but too little of moral man. Then Henchard inevitably begins his tragic way with no repen- tance.

  5. Rehabilitation of the living environment in Belarus territories affected by the Chernobyl accident: the Core programme; Rehabilitation des conditions de vie dans les territoires de Bielorussie affectes par l'accident de Tchernobyl: le programme CORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trafimchik, Z. [Cooperation pour la Rehabilitation des Conditions de Vie dans les Territoires Contamines par la Catastrophe de Tchernobyl (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-15

    The paper is a description of the CORE Programme that is testing since 2003 in the Republic of Belarus for the duration of 5 years an innovative approach of rehabilitation of the living conditions after the Chernobyl catastrophe based on the involvement of the affected population. The background information on the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences in the Republic of Belarus is presented. The paper contains the description of the CORE organizational structures, application in practice of the participatory approach, the Programme achievements and perspectives. (author)

  6. [Health effects of the Chernobyl disaster. Fifteen years afterwards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra Anta, M A; Amor Cabrera, M A; Díaz Mier, F; Cámara Moraño, C

    2002-04-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident of 1986 released large quantities of radioactive material causing heavy contamination in widespread areas of the former Soviet Union. Each summer, several hundred children visit Spain from Chernobyl. In this article we describe the accident, the environmental contamination, the mechanisms of radiation injury and the dose-response relationships. We review the health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation and the health impact of the Chernobyl catastrophe. We propose guidelines for the medical management and evaluation of children on temporary visits. The health status of adults and especially that of children in Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation has been adversely affected. According to present knowledge, Chernobyl has given rise to a marked increase in the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer, psychological consequences and socioeconomic disruption. Many studies report that the incidence of other diseases has increased, but not all health problems seen after the nuclear accident can be attributed to radiation. Given the long latency period for diseases induced by radiation exposure, long-term follow-up of all potentially affected individuals is important. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident the international community is still learning scientific, medical and humanitarian lessons.

  7. 78 FR 23667 - Honoring the Victims of the Tragedy in Boston, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... April 19, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 8958--Honoring the Victims of the Tragedy in Boston... April 16, 2013 Honoring the Victims of the Tragedy in Boston, Massachusetts By the President of...

  8. "The Misfortune of a Man Like Ourselves": Robert Cormier's "The Chocolate War" as Aristotelian Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Kara

    1999-01-01

    Examines criticism of and resistance to Robert Cormier's young adult novel "The Chocolate War." Argues that the book should be taught as tragedy and that teachers should pay their high school students the compliment of assuming their humanity and thus their need and ability to grapple with true tragedy. (SR)

  9. Reconsidering Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socol, Yehoshua

    2015-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident led to major human suffering caused by the evacuation and other counter-measures. However, the direct health consequences of the accident-related radiation exposures, besides the acute effects and small number of thyroid cancers, have not been observed. This absence is challenged by some influential groups affecting public policies who claim that the true extent of radiogenic health consequences is covered up. We consider such claims. The most conservative (in this case - overestimating) linear no-threshold hypothesis was used to calculate excess cancer expectations for cleanup workers, the population of the contaminated areas and the global population. Statistical estimations were performed to verify whether such expected excess was detectable. The calculated cancer excess for each group is much less than uncertainties in number of cancer cases in epidemiological studies. Therefore the absence of detected radiation carcinogenesis is in full correspondence with the most conservative a priori expectations. Regarding the cover-up claims, rational choice analysis was performed. Such analysis shows that these claims are ill-founded. The present overcautious attitude to radiological hazards should be corrected in order to mitigate the present suffering and to avoid such suffering in the future.

  10. Chernobyl fallout measurements in some Mediterranean biotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barci, G; Dalmasso, J; Ardisson, G

    1988-03-01

    The radioactivity of various terrestrial vegetation leaves characteristic of Mediterranean countries has been measured after the Chernobyl accident. In addition, we paid particular attention to lichens and seaweed which are considered as bioindicators of radioactive contamination. Most measurements were performed non-destructively using both coaxial and planar HPGe detectors. For odd mass radionuclides having low energy lines, such as 125Sb or 141Ce the sensitivity of the planar HPGe detector is better than the coaxial detector. The concentration of long-lived fission nuclides remaining three months after the accident were found to be enhanced in needle form leaves and in lichens. The seaweed Sphaerococcus exhibits a strong specific activity for iodine and ruthenium elements and poor concentration for caesium nuclides. The activity ratios of different isotopes of the same element measured in vegetation samples agree well with values found in airborne aerosols by other authors. The activation nuclide 110mAg is found in all samples with the same ratio 110mAg/137Cs = (1.0 +/- 0.2).10(-2) as in the soil deposition.

  11. Radiation damage aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmentier, N.; Nenot, J.C. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire)

    1989-01-01

    During the night of 25 to 26 April 1986, the most severe nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl power stations. It resulted in the irradiation of 237 workers at dose levels justifying medical care. The most severe cases (115) were hospitalized in Moscow, with 20 patients with doses higher than 6 Gy. In most cases, the treatment was classical, based on transfusion of red cells and platelets, and heavy supportive therapy. For 19 patients with severe aplasia, transplantations of bone marrow (13) or foetal liver (6) were decided. Of these patients only one survived, which justifies the statement from U.S.S.R. physicians: after an accident the indications of grafting are limited and its risks may not justify its use. Most of the complications were related to radiation burns which involved 56 victims and resulted in fatal outcomes in at least 19 patients. The population was evacuated from a 30 km zone around the site; based on direct measurements and calculations, the collective dose was evaluated at 1.6 x 10{sup 4} man Sv, with an individual average lower than 250 mSv. The European part of U.S.S.R. with 75 million persons is supposed to have received a collective dose likely to increase the natural mortality by less than 0.1%. The numbers with cancer in the Northern Hemisphere might increase by 0.004% over the next 50 years.

  12. Radiation damage aspects of the chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, N.; Nenot, J. C.

    During the night of 25 to 26 April 1986, the most severe nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl power station, about 150km north of Kiev, in the Ukraine. It resulted in the irradiation of 237 workers at dose levels justifying medical care. The most severe cases (115) were hospitalized in Moscow, with 20 patients with doses higher than 6 Gy. In most cases, the treatment was classical, based on transfusion of red cells and platelets, and heavy supportive therapy. For 19 patients with severe aplasia, transplantations of bone marrow (13) or foetal liver (6) were decided. Of these patients only one survived, which justifies the statement from U.S.S.R. physicians: after an accident the indications of grafting are limited and its risks may not justify its use. Most of the complications were related to radiation burns which involved 56 victims and resulted in fatal outcomes in at least 19 patients. The population was evacuated from a 30 km zone around the site; based on direct measurements and calculations, the collective dose was evaluated at 1.6 × 10 4 man Sv, with an individual average lower than 250 mSv. The European part of U.S.S.R. with 75 million persons is supposed to have received a collective dose likely to increase the natural mortality by less than 0.1%. The numbers with cancer in the Northern Hemisphere might increase by 0.004% over the next 50 years.

  13. The impact of Chernobyl on health and labour market performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Hartmut; Wadsworth, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    Using longitudinal data from Ukraine we examine the extent of any long-lasting effects of exposure to the Chernobyl disaster on the health and labour market performance of the adult workforce. Variation in the local area level of radiation fallout from the Chernobyl accident is considered as a random exogenous shock with which to try to establish its causal impact on poor health, labour force participation, hours worked and wages. There appears to be a significant positive association between local area-level radiation dosage and perception of poor health, though much weaker associations between local area-level dosage and other specific self-reported health conditions. There is also some evidence to suggest that those who lived in areas more exposed to Chernobyl-induced radiation have significantly lower levels of labour market performance 20 years on. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Elevated frequency of abnormalities in barn swallows from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Mousseau, T A; de Lope, F; Saino, N

    2007-08-22

    Ever since the Chernobyl accident in 1986, that contaminated vast areas in surrounding countries with radiation, abnormalities and birth defects have been reported in human populations. Recently, several studies suggested that the elevated frequency of such abnormalities can be attributed to poverty and stress in affected human populations. Here, we present long-term results for a free-living population of barn swallows, Hirundo rustica, demonstrating the presence of 11 morphological abnormalities in populations around Chernobyl, but much less frequently in an uncontaminated Ukrainian control population and three more distant control populations. The presence of these abnormalities in barn swallows is associated with reduced viability. These findings demonstrate a link between morphological abnormalities and radiation in an animal population that cannot be attributed to poverty and stress. The most parsimonious hypothesis for abnormalities in animal and human populations alike is that the effects are caused by the same underlying cause, viz. radiation derived from the Chernobyl accident.

  15. Aspermy, sperm quality and radiation in Chernobyl birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Mousseau, Timothy A; Rudolfsen, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, large amounts of radionuclides were emitted and spread in the environment. Animals living in such contaminated areas are predicted to suffer fitness costs including reductions in the quality and quantity of gametes. We studied whether aspermy and sperm quality were affected by radioactive contamination by examining ejaculates from wild caught birds breeding in areas varying in background radiation level by more than three orders of magnitude around Chernobyl, Ukraine. The frequency of males with aspermy increased logarithmically with radiation level. While 18.4% of males from contaminated areas had no sperm that was only the case for 3.0% of males from uncontaminated control areas. Furthermore, there were negative relationships between sperm quality as reflected by reduced sperm velocity and motility, respectively, and radiation. Our results suggest that radioactive contamination around Chernobyl affects sperm production and quality. We are the first to report an interspecific difference in sperm quality in relation to radioactive contamination.

  16. Social Conventions and Human Tragedy in the Acorn Gatherer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SA Huan

    2016-01-01

    The Acorn-gatherer, written by Richard Jeffries gives a tragic picture of the country life in the late Victorian Age. Through the tragic life and death of the illegitimate child, Jeffries exposes the people’s oppressions and misfortunes as the result of religious moralities and social conventions. The article is to expound the essence of the boy’s human tragedy through reli-gious origins, moral alienation, and distorted ethics in addition to the contrastive interpretation between his bitter situation and the sweet nature.

  17. Personal Reasons for Isabel's Tragedy in Her Spiritual World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代奎

    2014-01-01

    在《贵妇人的画像》这部小说中,所有的角色和情节都是围绕着女主人公伊莎贝尔所展开。本文着重分析了导致伊莎贝尔悲剧的个人原因。%The Portrait of a Lady, All the characters and plots in the novel exist around the marriage of the heroine Isabel Archer. The paper focuses on the personal reasons that lead to Isabel's tragedy.

  18. The body image in ancient tragedy: a verbal visuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisana De Carli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two tragedies of Sophocles and two others from Seneca are analyzed in order to identify the visuality given to the body through the word, image built for the character’s body, their levels of meaning and reverberation in text and scene. This information can be characterized as internal rubric because such data supports the scene’s construction. Thus, structure and content engender enhancing body's significance on scene either by its presence or a verbal visual, figuring a semantic occupation, which configures as one of the marks of the ancient theater.

  19. "LITTLE TRAGEDIES": THE POLYPHONY OF MUSIC, WORDS AND VISUAL IMAGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaeva Julia E.

    2015-01-01

    The music for three-part television movie Little Tragedies (1979) on Pushkin’s literature works (directed by M.Schweitzer, music composed by A.Schnittke) has been investigated. The trinity of music, poetic words and visual imagery, and their amazing consistency and reciprocal functioning has been considered in aspect of polyphony as the universal logical principle of building an art form. All the music of the TV movie grows out of two leitmotifs. And theirs varied implementation in the film i...

  20. THE COVERAGE OF THE TRAGEDIES IN THE AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Portas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available News about tragedies or disasters is one of the biggest challenges for journalists. These are extreme situations in which they must combine the inalienable right to truthful information with other inalienable rights, including respect for the privacy of people suffering. For this, the role of the professionals is crucial, but also the role of the audiovisual media companies. Journalists should to understand that in a tragic event involved people react in public, but that doesn't mean they are making public their reaction. A good reporter knows to discern what is news, what to ask, how and when to do it and, if appropriate, how to spread

  1. Chernobyl, 16 years later; Tchernobyl, 16 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

  2. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  3. 种族身份危机和女性生存悲剧--从视角转换的角度解读菲利普·罗斯《人性的污秽》%Ethnic Identity Crisis and Female Existential Tragedy:Interpretation of The Human Stain Through Perspective Shifting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何朝辉

    2016-01-01

    《人性的污秽》是美国作家菲利普·罗斯对当代美国社会进行深度描写的一部杰作。它具体而细微地再现了黑人种族他者面对强势的白人权力话语时产生的身份危机和伪装身份的命运悲剧,细致深刻地描写了女性他者面对白人男性话语时所产生的身份异化现象和无声反抗的生存悲剧,灵活运用的多重叙述视角及其之间的巧妙转换,深化了小说中的种族身份问题和女性生存悲剧,突显了小说的思想内涵和社会意义。小说中的叙事书写体现了罗斯对叙述技巧的熟练掌握与灵活运用,也反映了他对当代美国社会中的种族歧视和权力话语的敏锐观察和深刻批判。%As a masterpiece of American writer Philip Roth, The Human Stain delineates the contemporary American society in a profound way. It specifically reflects the identity crisis and the tragic fate of an Other of black ethnicity in face of white power discourse, and subtly depicts the identity alienation and existential tragedy of a female Other in face of white male discourse. The flexible application of different narrative angles and the crafty variations among them deepen the ethnic identity crisis and the female existential tragedy in the novel, foregrounding its thematic meaning and social significance. The narrative writing in the novel indicates that Philip Roth is not only a narrative master skillfully and flexibly using various narrative techniques but also a great novelist with acute observation and severe critique for racial discrimination and power discourse in contemporary American society.

  4. 《欲望号街车》中布兰奇悲剧命运成因的弗洛伊德式解读%An Interpretation of the Cause for Blanche’ s Tragedy in A Streetcar Named Desire from the Perspective of Freud’ s Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐亦珊

    2016-01-01

    《欲望号街车》是美国优秀剧作家田纳西·威廉姆斯创作生涯中最广为人知的作品之一,对其女主角布兰奇·杜波依丝的研究一直层出不穷。本文致力于用弗洛伊德人格结构理论中的“本我”、“自我”和“超我”概念分析布兰奇·杜波依丝悲剧命运的成因。布兰奇成长于美国旧南方,深受南方传统价值观的影响。南方战败后,布兰奇经历了婚姻失败的创伤和自我救赎的失败,最终走向了自我毁灭。正是因为在这一过程中布兰奇的本我和超我矛盾锐化,自我无法调节本我、超我和现实之间的矛盾,造就了她的悲剧命运。%A Streetcar Named Desire is one of the most popular plays written by the American playwright Tennessee Williams. The study on the heroine Blanche Dubois is also never short of popularity. This thesis focuses on the analysis of Blanche’ s tragedy from Freud’ s famous theory on the structure of mind ( id, ego and superego) . It is the deep influence from the southern tradition, the youthful trau⁃ma in marriage and the failure in self-salvation that lead Blanche to self-destruction. The conflict between Blanche’ s id and supere⁃go and the ego’ s failure in mediating among the id, superego and reality caused Blanche’ s tragedy.

  5. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  6. The Tragedy of the “Tragedy of the Commons”: Why Coining Too Good a Phrase Can Be Dangerous

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkshaw, Robert; Hawkshaw, Sarah; Sumaila, U.

    2012-01-01

    A deep reading of Hardin (1968) reveals that he had a lot more to say about the use and regulation of resources such as fisheries than he is given credit for in the literature. It appears that he is typically cited just so that authors can use the phrase “tragedy of the commons” to invoke the specter of looming catastrophe and then tie that to whatever solution they have proposed. We argue in this contribution that there is a lot more in Hardin’s essay that either contradicts or greatly compl...

  7. An Analysis of the Cultural Roots of Pecola' Tragedy%An Analysis of the Cultural Roots of Pecola'Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛妮

    2016-01-01

    The Bluest Eye is Toni Morrison's first great masterpiece, who received the Nobel Prize. It describes the tragic fate of a black girl during the great depression, revealing the impact of the white cultural values of the United States on the soul of black people. This essay will explore the Cultural roots of the tragedy of Pocola from the two aspects: the shock of the White culture and the loss of Black culture. It revealed that only way that the blacks stick to their traditional foundation can they realize their self-value.

  8. The Tragedy of the “Tragedy of the Commons”: Why Coining Too Good a Phrase Can Be Dangerous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Rashid Sumaila

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A deep reading of Hardin (1968 reveals that he had a lot more to say about the use and regulation of resources such as fisheries than he is given credit for in the literature. It appears that he is typically cited just so that authors can use the phrase “tragedy of the commons” to invoke the specter of looming catastrophe and then tie that to whatever solution they have proposed. We argue in this contribution that there is a lot more in Hardin’s essay that either contradicts or greatly complicates the arguments he is cited as an authority for.

  9. How does the body make itself heard through «reason»? Commentary on the paragraphs 16, 17 and 18 of The birth of tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Roberta Silva-Proll Dozo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to enquire about the relationship between body and reason in The birth of the Tragedy. So with that, we begin (1 examining the notion of Trieb in relation with the artistic function that is assigned to Dionisio and Apolo. Then, (2 we will approximate to the notion of tragic wisdom from the perspective of the body. To continue, (3 we will deal with the distinction between rationality and instinct, attending to different ways of understanding the reason. Finally, in (4 we ask about the possibility to reach a new balance for the thought

  10. The Topos of the Ephemeral in the Ancient Greek Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana PETCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fragment of the human condition, the ephemeral which lives within us. Trying to see how much the ephemeral ‘topos’ can be transfered to the performance level, particularly in the staging of the ancient tragedy. An intrusion in the history of this cause gives us the possibility to review in raccourcis its multiple semnifications. The second part of the article draws Hecuba’s portrait into a double mirror, the story of the Troy queen represents the myth of unstable happiness of the ancient world. Ambivalent picture of the character-ephemeris is built between the text of Euripides and modern perfomances on the stages of English, American, Australian and Romanian theatres.We also analyzed a few texts less approached from the directorial point of view, one the one hand in order to nuance the ephemerality topos and, on the other hand, in order to let them out of their shadow corner. The Aeschylian writings, The Seven against Thebes, The Persians and Euripides’ two tragedies Phoenician Women and The Suppliants have been our fundament to discovering new valences of the perishable and to showing the way that this motif can take from reading to scenic practice.

  11. Tragedy of the commons among antibiotic resistance plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeff

    2012-04-01

    As social interactions are increasingly recognized as important determinants of microbial fitness, sociobiology is being enlisted to better understand the evolution of clinically relevant microbes and, potentially, to influence their evolution to aid human health. Of special interest are situations in which there exists a "tragedy of the commons," where natural selection leads to a net reduction in fitness for all members of a population. Here, I demonstrate the existence of a tragedy of the commons among antibiotic resistance plasmids of bacteria. In serial transfer culture, plasmids evolved a greater ability to superinfect already-infected bacteria, increasing plasmid fitness when evolved genotypes were rare. Evolved plasmids, however, fell victim to their own success, reducing the density of their bacterial hosts when they became common and suffering reduced fitness through vertical transmission. Social interactions can thus be an important determinant of evolution for the molecular endosymbionts of bacteria. These results also identify an avenue of evolution that reduces proliferation of both antibiotic resistance genes and their bacterial hosts. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. On protecting the inexperienced reader from Chernobyl myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonov, M I

    2012-06-01

    The health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident continue to attract the attention of experts, decision-makers and the general public, and now these consequences have been given added relevance by the similar accident in 2011 at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) in Japan. Expert analysis of radiation levels and effects has been conducted by international bodies--UNSCEAR in 2008 and the Chernobyl Forum during 2003-5. At the same time, three Russian and Belarusian scientists, Yablokov, Nesterenko and Nesterenko (2009 Chernobyl. Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences)) published both in Russian and English a substantial review of the consequences of Chernobyl based mostly on Russian-language papers. In this book, they suggested a departure from analytical epidemiological studies in favour of ecological ones. This erroneous approach resulted in the overestimation of the number of accident victims by more than 800 000 deaths during 1987-2004. This paper investigates the mistakes in methodology made by Yablokov et al and concludes that these errors led to a clear exaggeration of radiation-induced health effects. Should similar mistakes be made following the 2011 accident at Fukushima-1 NPP this could lead quite unnecessarily to a panic reaction by the public about possible health effects and to erroneous decisions by the authorities in Japan.

  13. SOME HEALTH INDEXES OF CHERNOBYL LIQUIDATORS (DELAYED EFFECTS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O. V. Baranova; T. M. Koroleva; V. M. Shubik

    2012-01-01

    .... Disorders of immunity and health of the liquidators in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is due to the combined effect of low radiation doses, psychological stress and other factors of non-radiation nature.

  14. How mobile robots have helped at Chernobyl and other accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meieran, H.B.

    1988-04-01

    The use of mobile robots at several recent accidents including Chernobyl is described. The robots assumed, with varying degrees of success, many of the tasks and missions that are normally conducted by the emergency response team. Lessons learned from the experiences, together with operational and performance problems are discussed. (U.K.).

  15. A Dynamic Model of the Tragedy of the Commons in Marketing-Intensive Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a dynamic model and analyzes its process that may plunge the business ecosystem into ToC (the Tragedy of the Commons. When developing the model, we have in mind some industries where the marketing competition to secure a large installed base is intense. The social commerce industry is a representative example of this type of industries, but the scope of this study is not limited to the industry. We first introduce a previous study focusing on the static Nash equilibrium, and then present an extended version of the basic model in a dynamic perspective. According to our analyses on the dynamic equilibria together with their stability, there may be a unique interior equilibrium, but it is highly likely unstable. In addition, possible (near boundary equilibria are also unstable for a wide range of parameter values. We also conduct some numerical experiments and discover cycles as solutions to some particular instances. Since those cycles contain the ToC traps, a policy measure or regulation may need to be employed. Our approach and results will help to figure out a clue to escape from the ToC trap, thereby shedding new light on the sustainable growth of the business ecosystem, which is prone to excessive marketing competition.

  16. Regressive Progression: The Quest for Self-Transcendence in Western Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahee Hadaegh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Regressive progression is a concept which interestingly describes the developmental process of Western tragedy based on the recurring motif of the quest for the higher self and Nietzsche’s understanding of Dionysian tragic hero. This motif reveals itself in three manifestations - action, imagination and inaction- respectively visible in the three major dramatic eras of the Renaissance tragedy, European nineteenth-century drama, and the Absurd Theatre. Although the approach of the quest regressively shifts from action to inaction, the degree of success of the tragic questers in approximating the wished-for higher self reveals a progressive line in the developmental process of Western tragedy.

  17. INTERNATIONAL ASSESSMENTS OF IMPACTS OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: THE CHERNOBYL FORUM (2003–2005 AND UNSCEAR (2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Balonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiological consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP were recently revisited by the UN Chernobyl Forum (2003-2005 and UNSCEAR (2005-2008. For the first time environmental impacts were considered in detail, including radioactive contamination of terrestrial and aquatic environments, application and effectiveness of countermeasures and effects on biota. Updated dosimetric data were presented for more than half a million of emergency and recovery operation workers, about 100 million inhabitants of the three most affected countries, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and for 500 million inhabitants of other European countries. Several hundred of the emergency workers received high radiation doses; of whom 28 persons died in 1986 due to acute radiation sickness. Children at the time of the accident, who drank milk with high levels of radioactive iodine, received high doses to the thyroid. Since early 1990s there was the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among them. Also in 1990s there was some increase of leukaemia in most exposed workers. The UN Chernobyl Forum concluded that severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem. The vast majority of the population need not live in fear of serious health consequences from the Chernobyl accident.

  18. On the Destiny of Tragedy in Contemporary Era%论悲剧在当代的命运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华

    2015-01-01

    The theory of the death of tragedy represented by George Steiner thinks that tragedy is dead in modern era .In terms of tragedy as a form of drama ,Steiner’s idea is of rationality .Williams thinks that we could not discuss tragedy only from the tradition of tragedy ,but should combine the tradition of tragedy with the experience of tragedy .Every era has its own experience of tragedy with its special emotional structure .Looked from the experience of tragedy ,tragedy has not died in modern time ,but shown a revolutionary tragedy .Continued with the line of Williams ,the notion of tragedy has widely pierced into the visual media represented by TV ,film ,etc .In modern time ,tragedy has become a kind of culture .%以斯坦纳为代表的“悲剧消亡论”认为,悲剧在现代已经消亡。从作为一种戏剧形式的悲剧来说,斯坦纳的观点具有其合理性。威廉斯认为不能仅从悲剧传统来论述悲剧,应将悲剧传统和悲剧经验相结合。每个时代都有其包含特定情感结构的悲剧经验,从悲剧经验入手,悲剧在现代并没消亡,而是表现为革命悲剧。延续威廉斯的这一思路,悲剧观念在当代已广泛渗入到以电视、电影为代表的视觉媒介之中,悲剧在当代表现为一种文化悲剧。

  19. "LITTLE TRAGEDIES": THE POLYPHONY OF MUSIC, WORDS AND VISUAL IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaeva Julia E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The music for three-part television movie Little Tragedies (1979 on Pushkin’s literature works (directed by M.Schweitzer, music composed by A.Schnittke has been investigated. The trinity of music, poetic words and visual imagery, and their amazing consistency and reciprocal functioning has been considered in aspect of polyphony as the universal logical principle of building an art form. All the music of the TV movie grows out of two leitmotifs. And theirs varied implementation in the film is exemplified on examples of polyphonic analysis (music/words/images of fragments from the four main film sections, such as "Scene from Faust", "Mozart and Salieri", "The Covetous Knight", and "A Feast in Time of Plague".

  20. Hamlet and Pfister forms (A tragedy in four acts)

    CERN Document Server

    Minac, Jan

    2009-01-01

    In the mid-1960s A. Pfister discovered extraordinary, strongly multiplicative forms which are now called Pfister forms. From that time on, these forms played a dominant role in the theory of quadratic forms. One of the key properties of a Pfister form q is that q extended to a suitable transcendental extension, has the polynomial q as its similarity factor. Pfister's original proof used clever matrix calculations. Here we show that the desired isometry is induced by the multiplication of a suitable field element. We further consider the surprising possibility that Pfister's forms were already known by Hamlet, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, and that they in fact led to a terrible tragedy which is yet filled with a haunting beauty and mystery that can still inspire us to this day.

  1. Intertextuality in Ancient Greek Tragedy: The Case of Euripidean Orestes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Zabel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of intertextuality in understanding Euripides’ Orestes, beginning with an overview of intertextuality theories, especially those from the domain of structuralism, i.e. by Julia Kristeva (and Mikhail Bakhtin, Roland Barthes, Michael Riffaterre, and Gérard Genette. The second part of the paper discusses the theoretical implications of intertextuality for classical philology and provides a literature review of intertextuality in Orestes. The concluding part presents three possible objections to Zeitlin’s argument about the intertextuality of Orestes. A discussion of the social context of the tragedy is followed by an account of the structuralists’ understanding of language and rounded off with speculations on the possibility of intertextuality in oral literature.

  2. Ritual, Myth and Tragedy: Origins of Theatre in Dionysian Rites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Berberovic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the deep, dark forests and in the lush green valleys, worshippers of Dionysus celebrated the eternal cycles of death and rebirth, symbolized in the sacred mask of the wild god. Drunk and intoxicated, wearing the mask of Dionysus, the actor is at once the shaman and the priest. Channeling the presence of the fearsome divinity, he drinks the sacred wine and eats the raw flesh of his prey. In this eternal moment, he becomes one with the god and the beast residing inside of him. Within Ancient Greek culture, the sacred rites of Dionysus have been appropriated and transformed to theatre performances. The shaman became the actor, the participants became the audience, the sacred altar became the stage. From myth as a ritual performance emerged the theatre of tragedy, in which the undying spirit of Dionysus, majestic and terrifying, speaks to us even today.

  3. Shakespeare's Tragedy of the Crazy Child: An Application of Transactional Analysis to Literary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Bryant

    1976-01-01

    Suggests that transactional analysis is a useful tool in providing insight into literary works and in offering a precise vocabulary with which to share observations, and gives a sample analysis of Shakespeare's tragedy "Othello." (JM)

  4. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Radiological Protection and Human Health Div. (DRPH), Radiobiology and Epidemiology Dept., 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany); Bazyka, D. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  5. Application of TREECS (trademark) to Strontium 90 for Borschi Watershed near Chernobyl, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    fission product resulting from the accident in 1986, poses a health concern around and down-gradient from Chernobyl due to its high specific...Res., Spec. Issue 1, 48-56. Freed, R., Smith, L., and Bugai, D. 2004. The effective source areas of 90Sr a stream near Chernobyl , Ukraine. J...near Chernobyl , Ukraine by Mark S. Dortch PURPOSE: The Training Range Environmental Evaluation and Characterization System (TREECS™) (http

  6. [Remote effects of the Chernobyl accident: evaluation of the maxillodental status of the children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevbitov, A V

    2004-01-01

    Examinations of children exposed to the Chernobyl factor showed deterioration of the maxillodental status, presenting as a decrease in the incidence of normal-for-age status in comparison with children from the control group. The incidence of dental abnormalities in children whose parents participated in the Chernobyl accident aftermath is increased by 240,09%. The determination of remote effects of the Chernobyl accident for the health status of Russian children requires a differentiated approach and deserves a special study.

  7. Analysis of Blanche’s Tragedy Life in the Streetcar Named Desire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安晓芳

    2014-01-01

    the Streetcar named Desire, written by Tennessee Williams, is a well-known play and of course wins a great honor for Tennessee Williams. Many critics gave it lot of attention and make many comments on the heroin ’s tragedy life, according to the study of the predecessors, this paper will make an analysis of the causes of the heroin ’s tragedy life .

  8. SOME HEALTH INDEXES OF CHERNOBYL LIQUIDATORS (DELAYED EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Baranova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve to twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, liquidators that have been exposed to a wide range of doses (200-890 mSv show radiophobia. The achieved level of adaptation to life is associated with overstrain in emotional and somatic spheres. At relatively higher exposure levels, morbidity is increased, specially pathology of the cardiovascular system. Growth in the number of cataracts is absent, but involutional changes of retina vessels are increased. Suppression of innate and acquired humoral and cellular immunity and autoallergic shifts play significant role in the identified health problems. Disorders of immunity and health of the liquidators in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is due to the combined effect of low radiation doses, psychological stress and other factors of non-radiation nature.

  9. 15 years after Chernobyl. Nuclear power and climate change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2001-04-01

    Fifteen years after two massive explosions and a subsequent fire released a giant radioactive cloud into the atmosphere over the Chernobyl nuclear power plant located in what used to be the USSR, 388 farms with 230,000 sheep in Wales, England and Scotland are still subject to restriction orders. The contamination levels stand at several hundred Becquerels of cesium per kilogram of meat, too much to be consumed by human beings. The sheep have to be moved for some time to low or non-contaminated pastures in order to allow the bodies to loose some of their radioactivity before they can be slaughtered. For many countries the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe came a public turning point for the future of nuclear energy. (author)

  10. Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?; Tchernobyl: quelles consequences sanitaires?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Assistance Publique, Hopitaux de Parix (AP-HP), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-11-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  11. Cerebral basis of posttraumatic stress disorder following the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, Konstantin N; Zdanevich, Nataliya A

    2013-04-01

    Whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following radiation emergency has psychopathological, neurocognitive, and neurophysiological peculiarities is at issue. The goal was to explore the features and cerebral basis of "radiation" PTSD in the survivors of the Chernobyl accident. Subjects and Methods The cross-sectional study included 241 people, 219 of whom have been diagnosed with PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria, among them 115 clean-up workers of the Chernobyl accident (34 with acute radiation sickness), 76 evacuees from the Chernobyl exclusion zone, 28 veterans of the war in Afghanistan, and 22 healthy unexposed individuals. Psychometric examinations, neurocognitive assessments, computerized electroencephalography, and cerebral vascular Doppler were used. "Radiation" PTSD includes "flashforward" phenomena and anticipating stress (projection of fear and danger to the future); somatoform disorders (depression, trait and state anxiety); and neurocognitive deficit (impaired memory and attention, auditory-verbal memory and learning, proactive and retroactive interference, cerebellar and stem symptoms, intellectual changes). The intima-media component, thickness of common carotid arteries, and common and left internal carotid arteries stenosis rates are increased in the liquidators. Changes of bioelectrical brain activity as a decrease of beta- and theta-power, together with an increase of alpha-power, were found in the Chernobyl accident survivors with PTSD. PTSD following radiation emergency is characterized by comorbidity of psychopathology, neurocognitive deficit, and cerebrovascular pathology with increased risk of cerebral atherosclerosis and stroke. The cerebral basis of this PTSD is proposed to be an abnormal communication between the pyramidal cells of the neocortex and the hippocampus, and deep brain structures. It is recommended that a system of emergency and long-term psychological

  12. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  13. Gene signature of the post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Rusinek, Dagmara; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Malgorzata; Kowalska, Malgorzata; Jarzab, Barbara [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Swierniak, Michal [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Medical University of Warsaw, Genomic Medicine, Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, Warsaw (Poland); Dom, Genevieve; Maenhaut, Carine; Detours, Vincent [Universite libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Institute of Interdisciplinary Research, Bruxelles (Belgium); Unger, Kristian [Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital, Human Cancer Studies Group, Division of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Helmholtz-Zentrum, Research Unit Radiation Cytogenetics, Munich (Germany); Bogdanova, Tetiana [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kiev (Ukraine); Thomas, Geraldine [Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital, Human Cancer Studies Group, Division of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Likhtarov, Ilya [Academy of Technological Sciences of Ukraine, Radiation Protection Institute, Kiev (Ukraine); Jaksik, Roman [Silesian University of Technology, Systems Engineering Group, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Informatics, Gliwice (Poland); Chmielik, Ewa [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Tumour Pathology, Gliwice (Poland); Jarzab, Michal [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, IIIrd Department of Radiation Therapy, Gliwice (Poland); Swierniak, Andrzej [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Automatic Control, Gliwice (Poland)

    2016-07-15

    Following the nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and later in Fukushima, the nuclear community has been faced with important issues concerning how to search for and diagnose biological consequences of low-dose internal radiation contamination. Although after the Chernobyl accident an increase in childhood papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was observed, it is still not clear whether the molecular biology of PTCs associated with low-dose radiation exposure differs from that of sporadic PTC. We investigated tissue samples from 65 children/young adults with PTC using DNA microarray (Affymetrix, Human Genome U133 2.0 Plus) with the aim of identifying molecular differences between radiation-induced (exposed to Chernobyl radiation, ECR) and sporadic PTC. All participants were resident in the same region so that confounding factors related to genetics or environment were minimized. There were small but significant differences in the gene expression profiles between ECR and non-ECR PTC (global test, p < 0.01), with 300 differently expressed probe sets (p < 0.001) corresponding to 239 genes. Multifactorial analysis of variance showed that besides radiation exposure history, the BRAF mutation exhibited independent effects on the PTC expression profile; the histological subset and patient age at diagnosis had negligible effects. Ten genes (PPME1, HDAC11, SOCS7, CIC, THRA, ERBB2, PPP1R9A, HDGF, RAD51AP1, and CDK1) from the 19 investigated with quantitative RT-PCR were confirmed as being associated with radiation exposure in an independent, validation set of samples. Significant, but subtle, differences in gene expression in the post-Chernobyl PTC are associated with previous low-dose radiation exposure. (orig.)

  14. Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

    2012-09-01

    Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination.

  15. Aspermy, sperm quality and radiation in Chernobyl birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, large amounts of radionuclides were emitted and spread in the environment. Animals living in such contaminated areas are predicted to suffer fitness costs including reductions in the quality and quantity of gametes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied whether aspermy and sperm quality were affected by radioactive contamination by examining ejaculates from wild caught birds breeding in areas varying in background radiation level by more than three orders of magnitude around Chernobyl, Ukraine. The frequency of males with aspermy increased logarithmically with radiation level. While 18.4% of males from contaminated areas had no sperm that was only the case for 3.0% of males from uncontaminated control areas. Furthermore, there were negative relationships between sperm quality as reflected by reduced sperm velocity and motility, respectively, and radiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that radioactive contamination around Chernobyl affects sperm production and quality. We are the first to report an interspecific difference in sperm quality in relation to radioactive contamination.

  16. Experiences using laser Doppler vibrometers at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarovoi, Leonid K.; Robur, Lubomir I.; Siegmund, Georg; Tushev, Dmitry

    2000-05-01

    The implementation of laser vibrometers into various branches of industry solves complex technical problems as well as raising the authority of laser vibrometry as unique measurement tool. From this point of view, the nuclear industry is an interesting and attractive application field with specific and rigorous exploitation conditions of measuring systems. The objective of this work was to evaluate all advantages and disadvantages of the laser Doppler vibrometry with respect to nuclear power plant (NPP) equipment examination. The Chernobyl NPP is the ideal place for these purposes. The diagnostic ability on different Chernobyl NPP systems (e.g. third power unit main circulators, bearing shaft of fifth turbo-generator and various pipelines) has been demonstrated using laser Doppler vibrometers. The measurements performed by laser vibrometers were checked by standard Chernobyl NPP vibration measurement tools. The laser Doppler vibrometers (CLV, Polytec GmbH and LDV, Kiev University) have been tested and have shown full functionality in NPP zone at 0.5 sievert/hour radiation levels, high electromagnetic fields (magnetic component up to 5 kA/m) and significant vibrations.

  17. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@colostate.edu; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents.

  18. Natural and man-made radioactivity: Chernobyl soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Flowers, Alan

    2014-05-01

    In 1986 a reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant suffered a large explosion. The result had wide-ranging impacts. 31 severely exposed emergency workers died from acute radiation syndrome and 19 more later died from different causes. The perhaps controversial prediction by some authors is that around 4,000 will eventually die as a result of the increased cancer risk. A 19-mile restriction zone exists around the former reactor, but during the past 25 years radiation levels have fallen and it is now possible to take part in conducted tours of the deserted city of Pripyat, and the Chernobyl reactor site. Soil levels, however, remain highly radioactive, particularly in the restricted area. Kingston University holds:- • Soil profile sets from 3 locations in Belarus, with repeats at same location 1996 and 2000. • Lake sediment core samples. • Soil profiles at forestry sites. • Surface samples in a region suspected to have actinide content at 200km from Chernobyl. In addition to the above the impact of naturally occurring radon on human health around Chernobyl should not be ignored. About 23 per cent of homes in Ukraine are estimated to have radon levels above 100 Bq m-3, whilst concentrations of 10,000 Bq m-3 or more are known to exist in public water supplies. Some researchers have also suggested that mean annual doses of irradiation of the population caused by radon and it's progeny in air in buildings exceeds the doses received now by inhabitants of settlements located in the territories polluted by Chernobyl-derived nuclides in the Mogilev and Gomel regions in Belarus. This project incorporates a temporal comparison of transport results in undisturbed soils variously over a number of years, demonstrating relative measurements using both the original and new samples. This project will also focus on lake sediments from Southern Belarus and is a 'work in progress'. However, what we can say at this stage is that it is notable that the long lived isotopes of Cs-137

  19. Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  20. Increase of regional total cancer incidence in north Sweden due to the Chernobyl accident?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondel, Martin; Hjalmarsson, Peter; Hardell, Lennart; Carlsson, Göran; Axelson, Olav

    2004-12-01

    Is there any epidemiologically visible influence on the cancer incidence after the Chernobyl fallout in Sweden? A cohort study was focused on the fallout of caesium-137 in relation to cancer incidence 1988-1996. In northern Sweden, affected by the Chernobyl accident in 1986, 450 parishes were categorised by caesium-137 deposition: accident.

  1. Tragedy and triumph in orbit the eighties and early nineties

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben

    2012-01-01

    April 12, 2011, was the 50th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's pioneering journey into space. To commemorate this momentous achievement, Springer-Praxis is producing a mini series of books that reveals how humanity's knowledge of flying, working, and living in space has grown in the last half century. Tragedy and Triumph in Orbit, the fourth book in the series, explores the tumultuous events of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s, a time when a reinvigorated Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union bred further distrust and intense competition between the two old foes. As the Shuttle sought to fulfill its mandate of regular, routine access to space, a fatal Achilles heel in the system remained undetected until, one freezing January day in 1986, it made itself known with horrifying suddenness on millions of television screens across the world. Systemic flaws, and the urgent need to resolve them, led to several years of introspection, while the Soviet program seemed to prosper and cosmonauts sp...

  2. Lessons learned from post-accident management at Chernobyl: the P.a.r.e.x. project; Retour d'experience sur la gestion post-accidentelle de Tchernobyl: le projet Parex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriard Dubreuil, G. [Mutadis Consultants, 75 - Paris (France); Lochard, J.; Bataille, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Ollagnon, H. [AgroParisTech, 75 - Paris (France); Baude, St. [Mutadis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-07-15

    Return of experience on Chernobyl post-accident management: the PAREX study Belarus is the country the most affected by the Chernobyl fallouts and is among the most significant experiences in the nuclear post-accident field. Despite specificities inherent to the political and social situation in Belarus, the experience of post-accidental management in this country holds a wealth of lessons in the perspective of preparation to a post-accidental situation in the French and European context. Through the PAREX project (2005-2006), the French Nuclear Safety Authority analysed the return of experience of Chernobyl post-accident management from 1986 to 2005 in order to draw its lessons in the perspective of a preparation policy. The study was led by a group of experts and involved the participation of a pluralistic group of about thirty participants (public authorities, local governments, NGOs, experts, operators). PAREX highlighted the complexity of a situation of long-lasting radioactive contamination (diversity of stakeholders and of dimensions at stake: health, environment, economy, society...). Beyond traditional public crisis management tools and frameworks, post-accident strategies also involves in the longer term a territorial and social response, which relies on local capacities of initiative. Preparation to such process requires experimenting new modes of operation that allow a diversity of local actors to take part to the response to a situation of contamination and to the surveillance system, with the support of public authorities. The conclusions of PAREX include a set of recommendations in this perspective. (authors)

  3. DRAMA--TRAGEDY (OEDIPUS, MACBETH, GHOSTS), COMEDY (THE RIVALS, MAJOR BARBARA). LITERATURE CURRICULUM V, TEACHER AND STUDENT VERSIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    TRAGIC AND COMIC FORMS OF DRAMA ARE EXPLORED IN THIS TWO-PART 11TH-GRADE LITERATURE UNIT. A SECTION ON TRAGEDY, TREATING THREE PLAYS, EMPHASIZES STRUCTURAL DIVISIONS, CONVENTIONS, AND SUBJECT MATTER PECULIAR TO THIS TYPE OF DRAMA. FOLLOWING A DISCUSSION OF THE CLASSICAL GREEK THEATRE AND THE ARISTOTELIAN VIEW OF TRAGEDY, THE FORM AND THEME OF…

  4. An Inevitable Tragedy-On Tess’s Fate in Tess of the D’Urbervilles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑素娟

    2014-01-01

    In the novel Tess of the D’urbervilles, Tess is successfully depicted. She is portrayed as a brave girl, hard-working, beau-tiful and innocent. Alec represents a brutal and destructive force, which triggers Tess’s tragedy. Angle’s inveterate old-fashioned prejudices made him relentlessly abandon Tess. Yet what Hardy tries to show is that the disintegration of rural economy in Eng-land brought about by the intrusion of capitalist relations as well as the hypocritical morality of the time are the obvious causes of Tess’s tragedy. Meanwhile, Hardy also attacks the injustice of the law. In the novel, he believes a woman is helpless in the hands of fate and Tess is trapped in the web of fate. Her tragedy is fated and inevitable.

  5. RADIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bebeshko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the position of a 25-years’ experience to overcome the health effects of Chernobyl the dynamics of the radiation environment, the first summarizing at the international level (1988, the results of completed research and practical monitoring are analyzed. Cohort of acute radiation syndrome (ARS survivors under medical observation at the S.I. "Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" is the largest. Within the 25 years the functional state of the major organs and body systems, and metabolic homeostasis for this category of persons were studied, a comprehensive assessment of their health, mental and physical performance were given, and risk factors and peculiarities of stochastic and non-stochastic pathology courses were identified, as well as a system of rehabilitation patients after ARS was developed. ARS survivors are suffering from chronic diseases of internal organs and systems (from 5-7 to 10-12 diagnoses at the same time. A correlation between acute radiation effects and specific HLA phenotypes were revealed. The dynamics of the immune system recovery after irradiation was studied. The role and prognostic value of telomere length and programmed cell death of lymphocytes in the formation of the cellular effects of ionizing radiation were determined for the first time. Differences between spontaneous and radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemias were found. Dose-dependent neuropsychiatric, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and neuroimaging deviations were identified after irradiation at doses above 0.3 Sv. It was shown that the lymphocytes of Chernobyl clean-up workers with doses 350 – 690 mGy can induce "the bystander effect" in the non-irradiated cells even after 19 years after exposure. The rates of cancer incidence and mortality of victims, the lessons and key problems to be solved in the third decade after the Chernobyl accident are considered.

  6. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-12-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  7. Airborne Gamma-ray Measurements in the Chernobyl Plume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grasty, R. L.; Hovgaard, Jens; Multala, J.

    1997-01-01

    On 29 April 1986, the Geological Survey of Finland (GSF) survey aircraft with a gamma ray spectrometer flew through a radioactive plume from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The aircraft became contaminated and the gamma spectrometer measured radioactivity in the plume as well as radioactivity...... on the aircraft. By using simple assumptions on the build-up of contamination it has been possible to separate the signals from contamination and from plume. The analysis further showed that even a detector/spectrometer with low energy resolution is able to identify a contamination with iodine....

  8. THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT AND HEALTH (TWO POINTS OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shubik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents two alternative points of view on the relationship of health malfunctions after the Chernobyl accident with radiation effect or with the factors of non-radiation nature (social, stress, nutrition peculiarities, etc.. An analysis of literature data and results of author’s own research of radiosensitive indicators of immunity condition, having essential value for the immediate and long term consequences of radiation effect was done. Possible correlation between health malfunctions of the population living in the regions, contaminated by the radionuclides, and combined effect of radiation and factors of non-radiation nature is shown.

  9. Chernobyl radioactivity in surface air over Washington D. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, S.H.; Kuroda, P.K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (USA). Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab.); Krask, D.J. (District of Columbia Dept. of Consumer, and Regulatory Affairs, Washington, DC (USA). Air Monitoring Section)

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in airborne particulate matter over Washington D.C. have been determined by gamma-ray analysis of air filter samples collected during the months of May, June, and July 1986. The results indicate that long-lived nuclides were present in levels comparable to those measured previously at other eastern locations. Extensive washout of radioactivity occurred apparently as a result of heavy rainfall on May 20, and was followed by the arrival of airborne debris with elevated {sup 103}Ru/{sup 137}Cs and {sup 106}Ru/{sup 137}Cs activity ratios. (orig.).

  10. Radiophobia: long-term psychological consequences of Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, Ross H

    2002-02-01

    The primary health effect of Chernobyl has been widespread psychological distress in liquidators (workers brought in for cleanup), evacuees, residents of contaminated areas, and residents of adjacent noncontaminated areas. Several psychoneurological syndromes characterized by multiple unexplained physical symptoms including fatigue, sleep and mood disturbances, impaired memory and concentration, and muscle and/or joint pain have been reported in the Russian literature. These syndromes, which resemble chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia, are probably not due to direct effects of radiation because they do not appear to be dose related to radiation exposure and because they occur in areas of both high and low contamination.

  11. Chernobyl, fifteen years after; Tchernobyl, 15 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This work has been constituted around four questions: the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor, and the sarcophagus around it; the health consequences of the accident on the persons that have worked on the damaged reactor and on the population in the countries the most exposed to fallout,; the situation of contaminated territories around the power plant and their management today; the last question concerns especially the France with the consequences of the radioactive cloud and what we know about the health risks induced by this event. (N.C.)

  12. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... of the complexity of T2DM, we propose a systems biology approach to advance the understanding of origin, onset, development, prevention, and treatment of this complex disease. This systems-based strategy is based on new study design principles and the integrated application of omics technologies: we pursue...

  13. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  14. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: a review of the environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5,300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340-800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. © 2013.

  15. Tragedy behind Daisy Miller' s Death: From the Perspective of Archetypal Criticism%Tragedy behind Daisy Miller' s Death: From the Perspective of Archetypal Criticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董娅

    2012-01-01

    The conflicts happened among those American expatriates in Europe is the main plot in Daisy Miller and also the main reason for Daisy' s death. The archetypal analysis on the conflicts shows that those American expatriates, who are constantly in the paradoxical and conflicting mental state between home culture and European culture ,are much more eager to assert their identity, and thus Daisy, who behaves inconsistently with the European standard, becomes inevitably their target. Persona works a lot in those American expatriates and either their too much use of it or Daisy' s too little use of it mainly account for the tragic ending of the novella.

  16. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

  17. Historical mutation rates predict susceptibility to radiation in Chernobyl birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Erritzøe, J; Karadas, F; Mousseau, T A

    2010-10-01

    Extreme environmental perturbations are rare, but may have important evolutionary consequences. Responses to current perturbations may provide important information about the ability of living organisms to cope with similar conditions in the evolutionary past. Radioactive contamination from Chernobyl constitutes one such extreme perturbation, with significant but highly variable impact on local population density and mutation rates of different species of animals and plants. We explicitly tested the hypothesis that species with strong impacts of radiation on abundance were those with high rates of historical mutation accumulation as reflected by cytochrome b mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates during past environmental perturbations. Using a dataset of 32 species of birds, we show higher historical mitochondrial substitution rates in species with the strongest negative impact of local levels of radiation on local population density. These effects were robust to different estimates of impact of radiation on abundance, weighting of estimates of abundance by sample size, statistical control for similarity in the response among species because of common phylogenetic descent, and effects of population size and longevity. Therefore, species that respond strongly to the impact of radiation from Chernobyl are also the species that in the past have been most susceptible to factors that have caused high substitution rates in mitochondrial DNA. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. 8. Atmospheric, water, and soil contamination after Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablokov, Alexey V; Nesterenko, Vassily B; Nesterenko, Alexey V

    2009-11-01

    Air particulate activity over all of the Northern Hemisphere reached its highest levels since the termination of nuclear weapons testing--sometimes up to 1 million times higher than before the Chernobyl contamination. There were essential changes in the ionic, aerosol, and gas structure of the surface air in the heavily contaminated territories, as measured by electroconductivity and air radiolysis. Many years after the catastrophe aerosols from forest fires have dispersed hundreds of kilometers away. The Chernobyl radionuclides concentrate in sediments, water, plants, and animals, sometimes 100,000 times more than the local background level. The consequences of such a shock on aquatic ecosystems is largely unclear. Secondary contamination of freshwater ecosystems occurs as a result of Cs-137 and Sr-90 washout by the high waters of spring. The speed of vertical migration of different radionuclides in floodplains, lowland moors, peat bogs, etc., is about 2-4 cm/year. As a result of this vertical migration of radionuclides in soil, plants with deep root systems absorb them and carry the ones that are buried to the surface again. This transfer is one of the important mechanisms, observed in recent years, that leads to increased doses of internal irradiation among people in the contaminated territories.

  19. Chernobyl fallout in a Swedish spruce forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, E.J.; Synnott, H.J.; Johanson, K.J.; Fawaris, B.H.; Nielsen, S.P.; Horrill, A.D.; Kennedy, V.H.; Barbayiannis, N.; Veresoglou, D.S.; Dawson, D.E.; Colgan, P.A.; McGarry, A.T

    2000-03-01

    An assessment of the distribution of Chernobyl fallout in a Swedish forest was carried out and showed more than 95% of the {sup 137}Cs in the system to be of Chernobyl origin. The data show that approximately 87% of total fallout is found in soils, 6% in the bryophyte layer and 7% in standing biomass of trees. The mean deposition of {sup 137}Cs in the system (including soils, bryophytes, understorey vegetation, fungi, trees, moose and roe deer) was 54 kBq m{sup -2}. Fungi, understorey vegetation and ruminant populations collectively contained approximately 1% of total radiocaesium in the system. However, actual concentrations in these sample types were higher than in any other category, mostly exceeding the limit of 1500 Bq kg{sup -1} for consumption of wild produce in Sweden. These categories represent the principal foodstuffs responsible for radiation transfer to man from the system and though negligible in total biomass there is potential for significant dose transfer to individuals who are regular consumers of wild forest produce.

  20. Ionizing radiation from Chernobyl affects development of wild carrot plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratyński, Zbyszek; Arias, Javi Miranda; Garcia, Cristina; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders P.; Pajares, Antonio Jesús Muñoz; Piwczyński, Marcin; Tukalenko, Eugene

    2016-12-01

    Radioactivity released from disasters like Chernobyl and Fukushima is a global hazard and a threat to exposed biota. To minimize the deleterious effects of stressors organisms adopt various strategies. Plants, for example, may delay germination or stay dormant during stressful periods. However, an intense stress may halt germination or heavily affect various developmental stages and select for life history changes. Here, we test for the consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation on plant development. We conducted a common garden experiment in an uncontaminated greenhouse using 660 seeds originating from 33 wild carrots (Daucus carota) collected near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. These maternal plants had been exposed to radiation levels that varied by three orders of magnitude. We found strong negative effects of elevated radiation on the timing and rates of seed germination. In addition, later stages of development and the timing of emergence of consecutive leaves were delayed by exposure to radiation. We hypothesize that low quality of resources stored in seeds, damaged DNA, or both, delayed development and halted germination of seeds from plants exposed to elevated levels of ionizing radiation. We propose that high levels of spatial heterogeneity in background radiation may hamper adaptive life history responses.

  1. Chernobyl-what do we need to know?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Following a succession of technical malfunctions and human errors, reactor No.4 of Chernobyl nuclear power plant explodes on April 26, 1986. Radioactive dust, aerosols, and gases (including iodine and caesium) are ejected into the atmosphere. The regions worst hit are in the immediate vicinity of the plant (Belarus, Ukraine) but deposits are very uneven, producing a 'leopard spot' type of pattern (Russian Federation). In Europe, propelled by easterly winds, the radioactive cloud disperses increasingly, scattering deposits over the whole Europe. At the beginning of May, the cloud arrives over France. The eastern portion of the country is most strongly affected. For the contamination, ground, water, and agriculture are contaminated by caesium deposits in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation. In France, ground contamination is slight, fourteen years later, however, it is still detectable. It is hard to assess the impact on health in the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant; among children in southern Belarus, the number of thyroid cancers has risen one hundred-fold. The doses delivered in France represent generally less than 1% of the average annual dose from radioactivity of natural origin. But some of the doses received were higher. Today, the protective sarcophagus covering the damaged reactor is fragile. Reactor No.3, still in operation, continues to pose a risk but the shutdown is provide for december 2000. (N.C.)

  2. The Chernobyl experience in the area of retrospective dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumak, Vadim V

    2012-03-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986 at a nuclear power plant located less than 150 km north of Kiev, was the largest nuclear accident to date. The unprecedented scale of the accident was determined not only by the amount of released activity, but also by the number of workers and of the general public involved, and therefore exposed to increased doses of ionising radiation. Due to the unexpected and large scale of the accident, dosimetry techniques and practices were far from the optimum; personal dosimetry of cleanup workers (liquidators) was not complete, and there were no direct measurements of the exposures of members of the public. As a result, an acute need for retrospective dose assessment was dictated by radiation protection and research considerations. In response, substantial efforts have been made to reconstruct doses for the main exposed cohorts, using a broad variety of newly developed methods: analytical, biological and physical (electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of teeth, thermoluminescence of quartz) and modelling. This paper reviews the extensive experience gained by the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Ukraine in the field of retrospective dosimetry of large cohorts of exposed population and professionals. These dose reconstruction projects were implemented, in particular, in the framework of epidemiological studies, designed to follow-up the medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident and study health effects of ionizing radiation, particularly Ukrainian-American studies of cataracts and leukaemia among liquidators.

  3. Post-Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplow, J.S.; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology and Hydrology,

    2015-07-01

    The data set ''Post Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain'' was developed to enable data collected by the Natural Environment Research Council after the Chernobyl accident to be made publicly available. Data for samples collected between May 1986 (immediately after Chernobyl) to spring 1997 are presented. Additional data to radiocaesium concentrations are presented where available. The data have value in trying to assess the contribution of new sources of radiocaesium in the environment, providing baseline data for future planned releases and to aid the development and testing of models.

  4. CHERNOBYL HEALTH RADIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON THE POPULATION OF RUSSIA: DATA OF THE NATIONAL REGISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Ivanov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Summarized radiation-epidemiological data on health effects of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP registered in the follow-up period 1986-2006 on the Russian population are reported. Two groups of population: Chernobyl Emergency accident workers and residents of the most contaminated with radionuclides territories are examined. Impact of radiation-associated risk of solid cancers and leukaemia in these groups is assessed. Prognostic estimates of health effects of the Chernobyl accident on the Russian population are offered in the article.

  5. The Italian debate on nuclear energy in the post Chernobyl age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantone, M.C. [Milano Univ., Dipt. di Fisica and INFN (Italy); Sturloni, G. [SISSA, Innovations in the Communication of Science, Trieste (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Italy entered with enthusiasm into the production of nuclear energy for civil use at the end of 50. By 1966 - with an overall output of 3.9 billions kWh - Italy had become the fourth world producer of electricity generated by nuclear reactions, the second one in Europe after Great Britain. Chernobyl's 1986 disaster, which so much shook public opinion all over Europe, had particularly important economic and political consequences in Italy. In a controversial referendum, held in November 1987, Italian citizens voted for the repeal of three laws which promoted the installation of nuclear power plants on the Italian soil and the participation of ENEL (National Institution for the Electrical Energy) to plant constructions abroad. The 1987 referendum was interpreted by the Italian government as an opposition to nuclear power generation - the following year, the four Italian plants (Garigliano, Latina, Trino Vercellese, Caorso) ceased their activity and plans to build new plants were abandoned. This decision marked the ruin of Italian research on nuclear energy, that in the 30 had known a glorious era thanks to Enrico Fermi works. As the 20. Anniversary of Chernobyl's accident is drawing near, the University of Milan and ICS-research group (Innovations in Communication of Science) at SISSA, Trieste, have decided to analyse jointly the reasons which brought Italy to give up its nuclear energy production. In the present scenario of controversies concerning the development of science and technology, in which European countries exchange experiences of best practice to involve the public in decision making processes, Italy reaction to Chernobyl accident can indeed be considered paradigmatic in that it anticipated crucial risks governance issues in today relationship between science and society. The research project draws on methodologies used in media studies and on socio linguistic analysis, as developed by risk perception and risk

  6. Analysis of Shakespeare's Tragedies with Aristotle's Theories of Tragedy%以亚里斯多德的悲剧理论分析莎士比亚的悲剧作品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健; 张云岗; 高巨华

    2005-01-01

    亚里斯多德对文学作品中的悲剧理论的阐述在文学的发展史上起着重要的作用.他的情节结构理论和悲剧理论的其他六部分,常被用来分析莎士比亚的作品.%Aristotle's literary theories of tragedy play a significant role in the development of literature. In this article, his plot theory as well as the six parts of his theories of tragedy are analyzed and applied to the analysis of Shakespear's tragedies.

  7. Tragedy of the Commons Fisheries Management Simulation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the "Fishing Game" is that students will understand some of the issues that occur when multiple stakeholders share, and profit from, common and finite resources. Garrett Hardin described this as "The Tragedy of the Commons." The global fisheries provide a timely example of the over-exploitation of a shared resource. The forests, our water supplies, and atmosphere are other examples of "commons" that we must manage effectively. The "Fishing Game" is loosely based on the "Fishbanks Game" of Dennis Meadows. The student plays against two virtual fishing companies in an effort to make as much money as possible, while exploring the management issues that arise when trying to sustain the fish population for future profits. The player selects each of four realistic management scenarios. These are 1) free for all, 2) limited fishing season, 3) marine reserves, and 4) catch shares. For each scenario the student makes decisions about how many ships to build and how many to send to each of two fishing areas. A simple population model works in the background to determine the catch and number of new fish that are added to the population through birth each year. The student sets the management parameters for each of the scenarios. A modeling tool is used to determine the optimum parameters for each management scenario. The player will quickly find that a single aggressive player whose profit motive trumps concern over the sustainability of the population will almost always win under all scenarios except the 4'th. When the season is limited, everybody fishes harder. With marine reserves, catches will drop, but the population will not disappear completely. Only catch shares sustain the population while providing reasonable long term profit for the fishing companies. For each management scenario, the player is asked a pre and a post play thought question. After all scenarios are played, the student can edit the post versions of the thought questions, plus several added

  8. Simulating the Tragedy of the Commons with the Fishing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, W. A.

    2009-12-01

    The "Tragedy of the Commons" (Garrett Hardin) exemplifies the challenges and conflicts that occur when a common resource is shared by multiple users whose motive is profit. The global fisheries provide a timely example of the over-exploitation of a shared resource. The "Fishing Game" was inspired by the "Fishbanks Game" of Dennis Meadows. The student plays against two virtual fishing companies in an effort to make as much money as possible, while exploring the management issues that arise when trying to sustain the fish population for future profits. The game is played with four realistic management scenarios. These are 1) free for all, 2) limited fishing season, 3) marine reserves, and 4) catch shares. For each scenario the student makes decisions about how many ships to build and how many to send to each of two fishing areas. A simple population model works in the background to determine the catch and number of new fish that are added to the population through birth each year. The student sets the management parameters for each of the scenarios. Each of the scenarios can be modeled by the student to determine the optimum parameters. The player will quickly find that a single aggressive player whose profit motive trumps concern over the sustainability of the population will almost always win under all scenarios except the 4’th. When the season is limited, everybody fishes harder. With marine reserves, catches will drop, but the population will not disappear completely. Only catch shares sustain the population while providing reasonable long term profit for the fishing companies. For each management scenario, the player is asked a pre and a post thought question asking what issues they think are relevant. After all scenarios are played, the student can edit the post versions of the thought questions, plus several added questions about their experience with the game. The game results and answers to the questions are then automatically emailed to the instructor, or

  9. Józef Tischner’s Conception of Aesthetic Tragedy: Enchantment and Seduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Ziółkowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available [Language of the article: Polish] The article analyzes essential factors for Józef Tischner’s conception of aesthetic tragedy, namely enchantment and sedution. For Tischner, the aesthetic tragedy takes place in the realm of interpersonal relations. The article describes the discoverer of the beauty as the one who becomes aware of that he cannot appropriate the beauty discovered; nevertheless, he still hopes that there must be a form of persuasion able to convince the beauty to be his possession voluntarily. According to Tischner, the way in which the enchanted and the beauty discovered by him seek to possess each other is the relation of seduction. Seduction, however, by its nature is a paradoxical phenomenon; for it is always associated with the consciousness of a renouncement which is to come. The fact that the artist and his work are doomed to part shows that the aesthetic tragedy is a drama not only of the work, but also of the artist; it is their mutual tragedy which stems from an illusory hope for the overcoming of the irremovable necessity of parting. The act of seduction undertaken in hope for having each other as a property becomes the reason of a parting for participating subjects, a parting which—according to Tischner—is announced in drama as the bane of man.

  10. Social Relations That Generate and Sustain Solidarity after a Mass Tragedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawdon, James; Ryan, John

    2011-01-01

    Numerous researchers discuss the solidarity-producing effects of crime, natural disasters and mass tragedies; however, there is much we do not understand about the processes involved in the phenomena. We specify the social relationships that "generate" and "sustain" solidarity by building on Hunter's descriptions of the…

  11. A Tragedy of Human being——On Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵广发

    2012-01-01

      Wuthering Heights,as the only masterpiece of Emily Bronte,is actually a vivid depiction of a great love story and a tragedy of human alienation,as well as an in-depth analysis of a poignant suffering of a noble soul.

  12. An Analysis of Tess’s Tragedy in Tess of the d’Urbervilles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡爱洁

    2014-01-01

    Thomas Hardy is an outstanding novelist in the nineteenth century. He has produced numerous works including nov-els and poetry. His tragic novel Tess of the d’Urbervilles has a great impact on the world literature. The paper is focused on the ex-ploration of Tess’s tragedy through her life experiences.Tess’s tragedy can be illustrated by three factors-her family aspects, love experiences and her social images, which also contribute collectively to poor Tess’s destiny. The social background of the period provides a basis for the novel, and the deformed social values and morality is the root of her tragedy, together with her personal temperament and the Christian religious influences. Christian mores of self-sacrifice, wide love and purity have a great effect on characters in the novel.In the fourth part, there is some enlightenment from Tess ’s tragedy. It is believed that women play a cru-cial role in society. Tess is a woman with good qualities and her experiences give a warning to women today: the proper treat-ment of one’s behaviors and the social rules is critical.

  13. Readings on the Tragedies of William Shakespeare. The Greenhaven Press Literary Companion to British Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Clarice, Ed.

    Designed for young adults, this book on William Shakespeare's tragedies is one of an anthology series providing accessible resources for students researching great literary lives and works. Contributing writers' essays in the book are taken from a wide variety of sources and are edited to accommodate the reading and comprehension levels of young…

  14. De commons zijn niet overal een tragedie, maar wel in het Groene Hart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn de Tragedy of the Commons voert Hardin (1968) een denkbeeldig dorp ten tonele, waar de gemeenschappelijke weidegronden verloren gaan door overheersend eigenbelang van de herders. Privatisering of vergaande regulering van het gebruik zouden de enige oplossingen zijn. In dit artikel wor

  15. [The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonenberg, Anna; Leoniak, Marcin; Zarzycki, Wiesław

    2006-01-01

    The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to "epidemic" of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.

  16. WDC-A Meteorological and Oceanographic Data from Chernobyl for 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WDCA Chernobyl Data consists of digital data set DSI-9681, archived at the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). World Data Center for Meteorology...

  17. Chernobyl. Answers to your questions; Tchernobyl. Des reponses a vos questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, this document takes stock on the existing information and enhance the elements which can be set with certainty. The accident is recalled and the environmental and biological effects are presented. (A.L.B.)

  18. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazjuk, G.; Nikolaev, D.; Novikova, I. [Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, Minsk (Belarus); Satow, Yukio

    1998-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that a great number of residents in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine were exposed to radiation due to radioactive nuclides ejected from the Chernobyl reactor, which increased genetic load, manifested in particular, as chromosome aberrations. The increase was registered for unstable and stable, chromatid and chromosome types of aberrations. Proceeding from the findings that the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes (which are the main indicator of radiation mutagenesis at chromosome level) was increasing simultaneously with the increase of other aberrations which are common for chemical mutagenesis and from the fact that actual mutation incidences exceeded the calculated figures for the doses obtained, one can not exclude the possibility that chromosome aberrations found in the population affected by the Chernobyl disaster are caused not only by ionizing radiation but also by various mutagens, and the doses based on physical dosimetry could be underestimated. It is quite obvious that the level of chromosome aberrations can be used as a biological indicator of harmful mutagenic effects on the organism. However, the method is not yet capable of (or only partially suited for) detecting the actual genetic risk even in the cases when aberrations are found in gametes, not in peripheral blood lymphocytes as usually done. The study of the dynamics of genetic losses, as spontaneous abortions and perinatal death due to inherited anomalies, and the study of the dynamics of malformed children births are probably the most reliable methods to determine genetic risk due to any mutagenic factor affecting the population, including ionizing radiation. This is related to the fact that there are a great sequence of events (gamete selection, preimplantation and embryonal death) occurring between gamete mutations (to say nothing about a somatic one) and births of children with congenital diseases. It is nearly impossible to count them and this leads to

  19. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by (137)Cesium ((137)Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as (132)Te-(132)I, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h(-1) per initial (137)Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2), whereas it was 100 μGy h(-1) around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2) for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  20. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by 137Cesium (137Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as 132Te-132I, 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h−1 per initial 137Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m−2, whereas it was 100 μGy h−1 around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m−2 for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums (134Cs + 137Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. PMID:26568603

  1. 30 years life with Chernobyl, 5 years life with Fukushima. Health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima; 30 Jahre Leben mit Tschernobyl, 5 Jahre Leben mit Fukushima. Gesundheitliche Folgen der Atomkatastrophen von Tschernobyl und Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claussen, Angelika; Rosen, Alex

    2016-02-15

    The IPPNW report on health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima covers the following issues: Part.: 30 years life with Chernobyl: Summarized consequences of Chernobyl, the accident progression, basic data of the catastrophe, estimation of health hazards as a consequence of the severe accident of Chernobyl, health consequences for the liquidators, health consequences for the contaminated population, mutagenic and teratogenic effects. Part B: 5 years life with Fukushima: The start of the nuclear catastrophe, emissions and contamination, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on human health, thyroid surveys in the prefecture Fukushima, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on the ecosystem, outlook.

  2. Chernobyl: 25 years later; Tchernobyl: 25 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, Carlos

    2011-11-24

    On April 26, 1986, the reactor no.4 of the Chernobyl power plant exploded. The power plant is located in northern Ukraine at 3 km of Pripyat (the 'atom town'), a new city which counted 50.000 habitants at the time of the accident. The evacuation of the city was decided on April 27 only and finally 250.000 people from Bielorussia, Russia and Ukraine were relocated between April and December 1986 with no return back for most of them. This book is a collection of pictures taken in the Pripyat area, in buildings of a ghost town abandoned for 25 years and left to the wear of time and to pillaging. (J.S.)

  3. The Chernobyl accident: EPR dosimetry on dental enamel of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, G. E-mail: gianni@fismedw2.univaq.it; Colacicchi, S.; Sgattoni, R.; Giannoni, M

    2001-07-01

    The radiation dose on tooth enamel of children living close to Chernobyl has been evaluated by EPR. The sample preparation was reduced to a minimum of mechanical steps to remove a piece of enamel. A standard X-ray tube at low energy was used for additive irradiation. The filtration effect of facial soft tissue was taken into account. The radiation dose for a group of teeth slightly exceeds the annual dose, whereas for another group the dose very much exceeds the annual dose. Since the higher dose is found in teeth whose enamel have much lower EPR sensitivity to the radiation, it can be suggested that for these teeth the native signal could alter the evaluation of the smaller radiation signal.

  4. Unusual nuclide concentrations in air after the 1986 Chernobyl event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, S.H.; Kuroda, P.K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (USA). Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of 1.0-year {sup 106}Ru, 2.8-year {sup 125}Sb, 2.1-year {sup 134}Cs, and 30-year {sup 137}Cs were measured for a total of 39 air filter samples collected at Chico, California, and Reno, Nevada, during the month of May 1986. Radioactive debris in which {sup 106}Ru, {sup 125}Sb, and {sup 134}Cs were enriched relative to {sup 137}Cs reached the west coast of the United States during the first week of May 1986. The air mass that carried this debris seems to have circled the world and reached the west coast for the second time 3 weeks later during the last week of May 1986. Results obtained in this study indicate that the initial release of nuclear debris from the Chernobyl reactor took place in a manner similar to the atmospheric injection of radionuclides from a nuclear weapon's test. (orig.).

  5. The Chernobyl accident: EPR dosimetry on dental enamel of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, G; Colacicchi, S; Sgattoni, R; Giannoni, M

    2001-07-01

    The radiation dose on tooth enamel of children living close to Chernobyl has been evaluated by EPR. The sample preparation was reduced to a minimum of mechanical steps to remove a piece of enamel. A standard X-ray tube at low energy was used for additive irradiation. The filtration effect of facial soft tissue was taken into account. The radiation dose for a group of teeth slightly exceeds the annual dose, whereas for another group the dose very much exceeds the annual dose. Since the higher dose is found in teeth whose enamel have much lower EPR sensitivity to the radiation, it can be suggested that for these teeth the native signal could alter the evaluation of the smaller radiation signal.

  6. An analysis of A Rose for Emily from a Feminism Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红灿

    2013-01-01

    A Rose for Emily is an excellent short story by American author William Faulkner in the 20th century. It is about the tragic fate of the aristocratic lady Emily. This paper analyses the reasons of Emily's tragedy, her awakening and the failure of her revolt from a feminism perspective.

  7. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  8. Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

    1996-07-01

    Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

  9. Of Comedy and Tragedy: A Commentary on Adalberto Aguirre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Jose E.

    2005-01-01

    Jos Limn maintains that Professor Aguirres account may be construed as fundamentally a story of California, albeit one told from a Chicano perspective. It is based less on any red-blooded forms of racism and more on the Roycean, Protestant, individualistic, comedic Anglo California that, in its relentless optimisms and perpetual newness, simply…

  10. The tragedy of the commons, the public goods dilemma, and the meaning of rivalry and excludability in evolutionary biology

    OpenAIRE

    Dionisio, F; Gordo, I.

    2006-01-01

    Problem: In the study of conflicts, both economists and evolutionary biologists use the concepts ‘tragedy of the commons’ and ‘public goods dilemma’. What is the relationship between the economist and evolutionist views of these concepts? Model features: The economics literature defines the tragedy of the commons and the public goods dilemma in terms of rivalry and excludability of the good. In contrast, evolutionists define these conflicts based on fitness functions with two c...

  11. Hope, Arkansas to Hope, Albania: naivete and idealism to reality and tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B C

    2000-06-01

    The wars in Croatia, Bosnia and Kosovo were perpretrated by a radical nationalist Serbian cultural political consciousness that the American cultural political consciousness and leadership had difficulty responding to and understanding. There is a great cultural divide between a 'pathology' in Serbian culture, Milosević's radical nationalism, and a humane 'naivete' in American cultural consciousness. I discuss why, finally, American political leadership, Bill Clinton from Hope, Arkansas, responded to the tragedy of these wars. However, we are still left with the question of good vs evil: What is the course of human history; psychotic political leadership causing repetitive human tragedy or can there be a higher humane and moral order to human cultural events?

  12. The tragedy of the commodity and the farce of AquAdvantage Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Rebecca; Longo, Stefano B

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration is expected to approve AquAdvantage Salmon as the first genetically modified animal for human consumption. The genetic modifications allow the proprietary fish to grow at a rate twice as fast as a wild salmon, leading to greater ‘efficiency’ in terms of reduced costs and reduced time to market. This article provides an analysis of the ways in which AquAdvantage Salmon exemplifies capitalist market forces controlling and guiding the terms of salmon recovery and conservation. The authors trace historical developments within the salmon industry to demonstrate how capitalist commodity production has impacted fishing communities. They reject the oft-cited ‘tragedy of the commons’ hypothesis offered to explain fisheries crises. In its place, they offer the conceptual framework of the ‘tragedy of the commodity’ to explore how capitalist market forces and complicit state regulations amplify rather than resolve global environmental problems.

  13. On the Travesty of the Tragedy of the Commons: Hardin's Nontrivial Error

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Garrett Hardin’s "Tragedy of the Commons" remains one of the most frequently cited works across the spectrum of science — indeed, a visit to the website of the influential journal which published this paper in 1968 reveals that this revolutionary communique remains amongst its ‘top articles’. But Hardin's enduring, influential theoretical development presents a serious problem: it is not a single theory, but rather four major theories in a stormy sea of ill-conceived and untenable auxiliary ...

  14. Fernando Pessoa’s Fausto and the concept of Subjective Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Alexandre Xavier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to show, in an embryonic format, how Fernando Pessoa embodied the subjective process, presented in all his work through a heteronimic construction, in his writing project of Portuguese Faust. Consistent with the idea of Static Drama, Pessoa’s Fausto sights the construction of an animistic and apathetic tragedy, supported on a discursive monologism and the tragic conception of existence.

  15. The Oedipus Cycle: developmental mythology, Greek tragedy, and the sociology of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datan, N

    1988-01-01

    The Oedipus complex of Freud is based on the inevitability of the tragic fate of a man who fled his home to escape the prophecy of parricide. Thus, he fulfilled it by killing a stranger who proved to be his father. As Freud does, this consideration of the tragedy of Oedipus takes as its point of departure the inevitability of the confrontation between father and son. Where Freud looks to the son, however, I look to the father, who set the tragedy in motion by attempting to murder his infant son. Themes ignored in developmental theory but axiomatic in gerontology are considered in this study of the elder Oedipus. The study begins by noting that Oedipus ascended the throne of Thebes not by parricide but by answering the riddle of the Sphynx and affirming the continuity of the life cycle which his father denied. In the second tragedy of the Oedipus Cycle of Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus, this affirmation is maintained. As Oedipus the elder accepts the infirmities of old age and the support of his daughter Antigone, Oedipus the king proves powerful up to the very end of his life when he gives his blessing not to the sons who had exiled him from Thebes, but to King Theseus who shelters him in his old age. Thus, the Oedipus cycle, in contrast to the "Oedipus complex," represents not the unconscious passions of the small boy, but rather the awareness of the life cycle in the larger context of the succession of the generations and their mutual interdependence. These themes are illuminated by a fuller consideration of the tragedy of Oedipus.

  16. The End of the American Dream——On the Tragedy of Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Great Gatsby is considered as F. Scott Fitzgerald' s most important book. This paper will concentrate on the symbolic meaning of Gatsby's tragedy-the end of the mythical American dream. Gatsby's personal experience approximates the whole of the American dream. This paper gives a detailed analysis on the formation of his dream,his great efforts in realizing his dream and his disillusionment.

  17. Scandal and Tragedy Or Acquisition Lessons Relearned by the F-35 Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    SCANDAL and TRAGEDY? Or Acquisition Lessons Relearned by the F -35 PROGRAM Col Roger Witek, USAF (Ret.) Major defense acquisition programs...with previous joint aircraft programs ( F -111, V-22, T-6) and now with the F -35 program, chal- lenges associated with Balancing Requirements...government agency/think tank reports and scholarly journals on the F -35 program, and the mining and coding of questionnaires given to subject matter

  18. The myth of king Oedipus versus the "Molinism" of Corneille's great tragedies

    OpenAIRE

    Boštjan Marko Turk

    2015-01-01

    he article tries to shed light on the internal dynamics in the plays by Pierre Corneille. As a comparative basis it uses the story about king Oedipus as it was first presented by Sophocles. In this connection it researches the role of coincidence or hamartia, as defined by Aristotle and comes to the conclusion that coincidence has an important role in the genesis of the great tragedies, although it is not so explicit as with Sophocles.

  19. Different appropriations of greek tragedy in contemporary drama: Irish and otherwise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munira Hamud Mutran

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available With the support of some versions which take Sophocles' Antigone as a point of departure, this essay reflects on the process of rewriting a classic. In a comparative approach, two European Antigones and three in SouthAmerican drama are examined before a discussion of the methods and purposes which the Irish playwrights used when reworking myth in Antigone and other Greek tragedies.

  20. 论《推销员之死》的悲剧性%On the Tragedy of Death of a Salesman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕方源

    2007-01-01

    Death of a Salesman was the masterpiece of Arthur Miller.Arthur Miller broke the mold of the formulaic tragedies of previous era since Aristotle and redefined that the common people was as apt a subject for tragedies in its highest sense as kings were,which made Death of a Salesman a modern tragedy.The tragic flaws in Willy Loman - his stubborn pursuit of and his false faith in the American dream,which finally caused his death - made him a tragic hero.In this play,Arthur Miller showed his optimistic view on life in tragedy.

  1. The story catches you and you fall down: tragedy, ethnography, and "cultural competence".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janelle S

    2003-06-01

    Anne Fadiman's The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures (Noonday Press, 1997) is widely used in "cultural competence" efforts within U.S. medical school curricula. This article addresses the relationship between theory, narrative form, and teaching through a close critical reading of that book that is informed by theories of tragedy and ethnographies of medicine. I argue that The Spirit Catches You is so influential as ethnography because it is so moving as a story; it is so moving as a story because it works so well as tragedy; and it works so well as tragedy precisely because of the static, reified, essentialist understanding of "culture" from which it proceeds. If professional anthropologists wish our own best work to speak to "apparitions of culture" within medicine and other "cultures of no culture," I suggest that we must find compelling new narrative forms in which to convey more complex understandings of "culture."

  2. A teoria nietzscheana da tragédia The nietzschean theory of tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernandes Weber

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendo como referência O Nascimento da Tragédia de Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, busca-se explicitar a particularidade da concepção nietzscheana de tragédia a partir de um duplo movimento: 1 Reconstrução das principais teses dos primeiros parágrafos da obra; 2 Demonstração da vinculação daquelas teses à tradição estética alemã do final do século XVII e do início do século XIX. Com isso se realça e reedita o diálogo intenso de Nietzsche com aquela tradição e se mostra as inovações e a radicalidade da sua interpretação da tragédia.Having as a reference the work The Birth of Tragedy by Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, it is our purpose to explicit the characteristics of Nietzsche's conception of tragedy based on a double movement: 1 Reconstruction of the first theses of the first paragraphs of the abovementioned work; 2 Demonstration of the link between those theses and the aesthetic German tradition of the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. It is thus enhanced and revised Nietzsche's intense dialogue with that tradition and it is shown the innovations and the radicality of his interpretation of tragedy.

  3. An oscillating tragedy of the commons in replicator dynamics with game-environment feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Joshua S; Eksin, Ceyhun; Paarporn, Keith; Brown, Sam P; Ratcliff, William C

    2016-11-22

    A tragedy of the commons occurs when individuals take actions to maximize their payoffs even as their combined payoff is less than the global maximum had the players coordinated. The originating example is that of overgrazing of common pasture lands. In game-theoretic treatments of this example, there is rarely consideration of how individual behavior subsequently modifies the commons and associated payoffs. Here, we generalize evolutionary game theory by proposing a class of replicator dynamics with feedback-evolving games in which environment-dependent payoffs and strategies coevolve. We initially apply our formulation to a system in which the payoffs favor unilateral defection and cooperation, given replete and depleted environments, respectively. Using this approach, we identify and characterize a class of dynamics: an oscillatory tragedy of the commons in which the system cycles between deplete and replete environmental states and cooperation and defection behavior states. We generalize the approach to consider outcomes given all possible rational choices of individual behavior in the depleted state when defection is favored in the replete state. In so doing, we find that incentivizing cooperation when others defect in the depleted state is necessary to avert the tragedy of the commons. In closing, we propose directions for the study of control and influence in games in which individual actions exert a substantive effect on the environmental state.

  4. The chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baverstock, Keith; Williams, Dillwyn

    2006-09-01

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 caused widespread radioactive contamination and enormous concern. Twenty years later, the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a generally reassuring statement about the consequences. Accurate assessment of the consequences is important to the current debate on nuclear power. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and consider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths ; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects, such as mini-satellite instability, which is potentially important. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment of Chernobyl's future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties over the dose from and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. Because of the problems with the international response to Chernobyl, the United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry.

  5. Species richness and abundance of forest birds in relation to radiation at Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, A P; Mousseau, T A

    2007-10-22

    The effects of low-level radiation on the abundance of animals are poorly known, as are the effects on ecosystems and their functioning. Recent conclusions from the UN Chernobyl forum and reports in the popular media concerning the effects of radiation from Chernobyl on animals have left the impression that the Chernobyl exclusion zone is a thriving ecosystem, filled with an increasing number of rare species. Surprisingly, there are no standardized censuses of common animals in relation to radiation, leaving the question about the ecological effects of radiation unresolved. We conducted standardized point counts of breeding birds at forest sites around Chernobyl differing in level of background radiation by over three orders of magnitude. Species richness, abundance and population density of breeding birds decreased with increasing level of radiation, even after controlling statistically for the effects of potentially confounding factors such as soil type, habitat and height of the vegetation. This effect was differential for birds eating soil invertebrates living in the most contaminated top soil layer. These results imply that the ecological effects of Chernobyl on animals are considerably greater than previously assumed.

  6. Radiation-induced effects on plants and animals: findings of the United Nations Chernobyl Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Thomas G; Alexakhin, Rudolph; Balonov, Mikhail; Gentner, Norman; Hendry, Jolyn; Prister, Boris; Strand, Per; Woodhead, Dennis

    2007-11-01

    Several United Nations organizations sought to dispel the uncertainties and controversy that still exist concerning the effects of the Chernobyl accident. A Chernobyl Forum of international expertise was established to reach consensus on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident. This review is a synopsis of the subgroup that examined the radiological effects to nonhuman biota within the 30-km Exclusion Zone. The response of biota to Chernobyl irradiation was a complex interaction among radiation dose, dose rate, temporal and spatial variation, varying radiation sensitivities of the different taxons, and indirect effects from other events. The radiation-induced effects to plants and animals within the 30-km Exclusion Zone around Chernobyl can be framed in three broad time periods relative to the accident: an intense exposure period during the first 30 d following the accident of 26 April 1986; a second phase that extended through the first year of exposure during which time the short-lived radionuclides decayed and longer-lived radionuclides were transported to different components of the environment by physical, chemical and biological processes; and the third and continuing long-term phase of chronic exposure with dose ratesChernobyl area, are placed in context of what was known about radioecological effects prior to the accident.

  7. A probabilistic dispersion model applied to the long-range transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Mikkelsen, T.

    1999-01-01

    . A corresponding effective deposition length for caesium, R-Cs, defined las the effective distance from Chernobyl to where the aerosols have been deposited, is found to be R-Cs approximate to 1000 km. From the observations of the regional variability of the Chernobyl fallout a simple probabilistic assessment...

  8. 移位的神话,命定的悲剧——《威尼斯之死》的原型批评%Displaced Myth, Destined Tragedy--- The Mythological Archetype in Death in Venice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖晶

    2012-01-01

    Death in Venice, a novel by Thomas Mann, the whirling myth in it. Many critics studied the artist's becomes a shining and classical tragedy from the perspective works due to archetype, but most of them attributed the reason to the balance of emotion and reason without analyzing the roots of tragedy. By analyzing the myth elements in the novel with the help of myth archetype criticism, the paper argues that the tragedy of the artist, which is doomed, is an inevitable outcome of their pursuit of aestheticism.%托马斯·曼的小说《威尼斯之死》因其扑朔迷离的神话色彩成为一部光芒璀璨的经世之作。许多批评家都从神话原型对艺术家的悲剧进行分析。但是大部分评论文章都简单地把艺术家悲剧的原因归咎于情感与理智的失衡,没有对艺术家悲剧的源头进行分析和论证。文章运用神话原型批评对小说中的神话元素加以分析,论证了艺术家的悲剧是他们追求唯美主义的必然结果,这一悲剧是注定的。

  9. Chernobyl seed project. Advances in the identification of differentially abundant proteins in a radio-contaminated environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Mammad Oglu Rashydov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants have the ability to grow and successfully reproduce in radio-contaminated environments, which has been highlighted by nuclear accidents at Chernobyl (1986 and Fukushima (2011. The main aim of this article is to summarize the advances of the Chernobyl seed project which has the purpose to provide proteomic characterization of plants grown in the Chernobyl area. We present a summary of comparative proteomic studies on soybean and flax seeds harvested from radio-contaminated Chernobyl areas during two successive generations. Using experimental design developed for radio-contaminated areas, altered abundances of glycine betaine, seed storage proteins, and proteins associated with carbon assimilation into fatty acids were detected. Similar studies in Fukushima radio-contaminated areas might complement these data. The results from these Chernobyl experiments can be viewed in a user-friendly format at a dedicated web-based database freely available at www.chernobylproteomics.sav.sk.

  10. Chernobyl seed project. Advances in the identification of differentially abundant proteins in a radio-contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Plants have the ability to grow and successfully reproduce in radio-contaminated environments, which has been highlighted by nuclear accidents at Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). The main aim of this article is to summarize the advances of the Chernobyl seed project which has the purpose to provide proteomic characterization of plants grown in the Chernobyl area. We present a summary of comparative proteomic studies on soybean and flax seeds harvested from radio-contaminated Chernobyl areas during two successive generations. Using experimental design developed for radio-contaminated areas, altered abundances of glycine betaine, seed storage proteins, and proteins associated with carbon assimilation into fatty acids were detected. Similar studies in Fukushima radio-contaminated areas might complement these data. The results from these Chernobyl experiments can be viewed in a user-friendly format at a dedicated web-based database freely available at http://www.chernobylproteomics.sav.sk.

  11. Tragedy of the few? A political ecology perspective of the right to the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjimichael, Maria; Bruggeman, Adriana; Lange, Manfred A.

    2014-01-01

    communities are often already affected by a number of developments such as tourism and the expansion of the oil and gas sector. To ensure balanced decision making, EIAs should become integrated assessments that also explore the potential social impacts of a development and address the desires and concerns......, the Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) and Environmental Monitoring Reports, and (iii) by conducting interviews with relevant stakeholders. Even though the regulatory framework seemed to be in compliance with EU and national regulations, this was often questioned by stakeholders. Serious conflicts between...... the leasing and therefore the exclusion of others from an area of public domain. This paper is a study into the governance of marine aquaculture in the island of Cyprus by (i) unfolding the regulatory framework for marine aquaculture, (ii) analysing the environmental protections tools related to aquaculture...

  12. A compartmental model for post-Chernobyl resuspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovlete, C. [Institute of Environmental Research and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Osvath, I. [Institute of Environmental Research and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)

    1993-12-31

    A simple compartmental model is proposed to describe the transfer of Cs-137 between the lower (boundary) layer of the atmosphere and the ground for short and long term. The experimental basis for the evaluation of the model parameters (the exchange rates between the compartments), consists of the monthly deposition data sequences between 1986 - 1992 for 16 sampling stations on Romanian territory, as well as the data regarding the immediate impact (May 1986) of the Chernobyl accident on the atmosphere in Romania As a result of fitting the experimental data, the model parameters have been estimated and an analytical expression has been found for Cs-137 concentration in air as a function of these parameters and time. The site dependence of each parameter (exchange rate) has been studied. As a conclusion a new analytic expression for the resuspension factor is proposed, containing its dependence on initial conditions and the exchange rates between the model compartments. The theoretical predictions regarding the resuspension factor are in good agreement with the experimental results obtained using air concentration data from the respective sites. (orig.)

  13. Mechanical decontamination tests in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, K.G.; Barkovsky, A.N.; Fogh, C.L.; Mishine, A.S.; Olsen, S.K.; Ponamarjov, A.V.; Prip, H.; Ramzaev, V.P.; Vorobiev, B.F

    1998-08-01

    Decontamination was carried out around three houses in Novo Bobovichi, Russia, in the summer of 1997. It was demonstrated that significant reductions in the dose rate both indoor (DRF = 0.27) and outdoor (DRF = 0.17) can be achieved when a careful cleaning is undertaken. This report describes the decontamination work carried out and the results obtained. The roof of one of the houses was replaced with a new roof. This reduced the Chernobyl related dose rate by 10% at the ground floor and by 27% at the first floor. The soil around the houses was removed by a bobcat, while carefully monitoring the ground for residual contamination with handheld dose meters. By monitoring the decline in the dose rate during the different stages of the work the dose reducing effect of each action has been estimated. This report also describes a test of a skim-and-burial plough developed especially for treatment of contaminated land. In the appendices of the report the measurement data is available for further analysis. (au) 24 tabs., 75 ills., 33 refs.

  14. Strong effects of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl on mutation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we use a meta-analysis to examine the relationship between radiation and mutation rates in Chernobyl across 45 published studies, covering 30 species. Overall effect size of radiation on mutation rates estimated as Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient was very large (E = 0.67; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.59 to 0.73), accounting for 44.3% of the total variance in an unstructured random-effects model. Fail-safe calculations reflecting the number of unpublished null results needed to eliminate this average effect size showed the extreme robustness of this finding (Rosenberg's method: 4135 at p = 0.05). Indirect tests did not provide any evidence of publication bias. The effect of radiation on mutations varied among taxa, with plants showing a larger effect than animals. Humans were shown to have intermediate sensitivity of mutations to radiation compared to other species. Effect size did not decrease over time, providing no evidence for an improvement in environmental conditions. The surprisingly high mean effect size suggests a strong impact of radioactive contamination on individual fitness in current and future generations, with potentially significant population-level consequences, even beyond the area contaminated with radioactive material.

  15. Radioactivity: lessons learned from Chernobyl; Radioactivite: les lecons de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O.; Rouat, S.; Mulot, R.; Chauveau, L.; Khalatbari, A.; Riou-Milliot, S.

    2011-05-15

    A set of articles draws lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident and indicates how they can be applied to the Fukushima accident. Notably, it describes contamination mechanisms and how food, milk, vegetables, water organisms become hazardous. It highlights the influence of the initial contamination concentration. Then, it addresses soil contamination where caesium 137 reveals itself not much mobile and concentrated in surface layers. As far as oceans are concerned, they are said to be able to absorb radioactivity: 60 years of anthropic radioactive releases apparently did not have any obvious negative impact on sea environment. Underground waters are affected with some delay, and radioactive dusts which are present in the atmosphere fall with the rain and may appear again later in case of forest fires as it has been noticed. A brief article presents the French radioactivity detection network. The lack of knowledge on the effect of low doses is also commented. The technological aspect is addressed, with the development of automatic means of intervention. A last article gives an overview of the situation in the Fukushima area, indicates and comments contamination levels

  16. Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rissanen

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited.

  17. International program on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisel, W

    1995-05-01

    The International Program on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1991. Currently, the technical part of IPHECA consists of five projects addressing the following areas of priority health problems or needs: thyroid, hematology, brain damage in utero, epidemiological registry and oral health. Important findings are: 1) a significant increase of thyroid cancer in children in Belarus and Ukraine since 1989, and in Russia since 1992 though not so pronounced. A relationship between detected thyroid cancers and radiation exposure is yet to be established, 2) no increase yet in the incidence of hemoblastoses in the three States, 3) no relationship established between mental retardation and radiation exposure in utero in 4,500 children investigated. The importance of dosimetry and biological indicators of radiation damage has been recognized by IPHECA. Several methods of biological and physical dosimetry are being employed using instrumentation provided by IPHECA. Some preliminary results indicate: 1) unstable aberrations can indicate an integral exposure but it is heavily biased to recent exposures, 2) when comparing healthy persons and patients with hematological diseases in contaminated areas, there is a higher ratio of total aberrations compared to their background and that the level of stable is lower than unstable aberrations, and 3) by applying electron spin resonance (ESR) it has been shown that the individual distribution of doses approaches a log-normal one, especially for adults, and that a peak shift towards higher doses is noticeable for children.

  18. A Rose for Emily: An Interpretation from Feminist Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲红英

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the underlying causes for the madness of Emily from a feminist perspective. The causes of Emily's tragedy lie in the feudal paternalism and feminine morality of Puritanism governing the south of America. Two purposes are supposed to be fulfilled while exploring these causes. One is to help the audience gain a better understanding for the spirit of the story; the other is to encourage the audience to contemphte the destiny of women and reconstruct female values.

  19. Sunlight-exposed biofilm microbial communities are naturally resistant to chernobyl ionizing-radiation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragon, Marie; Restoux, Gwendal; Moreira, David; Møller, Anders Pape; López-García, Purificación

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta) and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in terms of general diversity patterns, despite increased mutation levels at the single

  20. Nuclear power debate and public opinion in Belarus: From Chernobyl to Ostrovets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikau, Aliaksandr

    2016-05-05

    The Belarusian government's decision of the last decade to build a nuclear power plant near the city of Ostrovets, in northern Belarus, has proven to be controversial, resulting in a great deal of debate about nuclear energy in the country. The debate was inevitably shaped by the traumatic event that affected Belarus - the Chernobyl nuclear accident of 1986. The Belarusian authorities have consistently promoted a positive view of nuclear energy to the population in order to overcome the so-called 'Chernobyl syndrome' and deliberately shaped nuclear risk communication. As a result, the issue of trust remains crucial in all nuclear debates in Belarus.

  1. Reduced abundance of insects and spiders linked to radiation at Chernobyl 20 years after the accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A

    2009-06-23

    Effects of low-level radiation on abundance of animals are poorly known. We conducted standardized point counts and line transects of bumble-bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies and spider webs at forest sites around Chernobyl differing in background radiation by over four orders of magnitude. Abundance of invertebrates decreased with increasing radiation, even after controlling for factors such as soil type, habitat and height of vegetation. These effects were stronger when comparing plots differing in radiation within rather than among sites, implying that the ecological effects of radiation from Chernobyl on animals are greater than previously assumed.

  2. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  3. Chernobyl nuclear accident revealed from the 7010 m Muztagata ice core record

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN LiDe; YAO TanDong; WU GuangJian; LI Zhen; XU BaiQing; LI YueFang

    2007-01-01

    The total activity variation with depth from a 41.6 m Muztagata ice core drilled at 7010 m,recorded not only the 1963 radioactive layer due to the thermonuclear test,but also clearly the radioactive peak released by the Chernobyl accident in 1986.This finding indicates that the Chernobyl nuclear accident was clearly recorded in alpine glaciers in the Pamirs of west China,and the layer can be potentially used for ice core dating in other high alpine glaciers in the surrounding regions.

  4. Chernobyl. Tsjernobyl; Sluttrapport fra NINA's radiooekologiprogram 1986-1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaare, E.; Jonsson, B.; Skogland, T. (eds.)

    1991-04-01

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs.

  5. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  6. Interpretation of Clyde’ s Ethical Causes in An American Tragedy%《美国的悲剧》中克莱德的伦理成因解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧

    2015-01-01

    美国作家德莱塞的经典现实主义小说《美国的悲剧》中含有丰富的伦理内涵,从文学伦理学的角度看,其主人公克莱德的经历蕴含着真丰富的伦理因素。文章从克莱德自身出发,就他的伦理身份认同、所面临的危机和选择以及内心的冲突等方面,探求造成其陷入道德困境和欲望悲剧深渊的成因,既而分析该人物所蕴含的伦理因素。%From the perspective of the literary ethics, An American Tragedy, a classic realist novel by the American writer Theodore Dreiser, contains rich ethical connotations.This article discusses the reasons why the hero Clyde fell into the abyss of moral dilemmas and desire tragedy, to further analyze the ethical factors of Clyde from the fol-lowing aspects:Clyde himself, his ethical identity, the crises faced and the inner conflicts.

  7. Atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garger, E.; Lev, T.; Talerko, N. [Inst. of Radioecology UAAS, Kiev (Ukraine); Galeriu, D. [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Garland, J. [Consultant (United Kingdom); Hoffman, O.; Nair, S.; Thiessen, K. [SENES, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, C. [Centre for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (United States); Mueller, H. [GSF - Inst. fuer Strahlenschultz, Neuherberg (Germany); Kryshev, A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    Resuspension can be an important secondary source of contamination after a release has stopped, as well as a source of contamination for people and areas not exposed to the original release. The inhalation of resuspended radionuclides contributes to the overall dose received by exposed individuals. Based on measurements collected after the Chernobyl accident, Scenario R was developed to provide an opportunity to test existing mathematical models of contamination resuspension. In particular, this scenario provided the opportunity to examine data and test models for atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides at several different locations from the release, to investigate resuspension processes on both local and regional scales, and to investigate the importance of seasonal variations of these processes. Participants in the test exercise were provided with information for three different types of locations: (1) within the 30-km zone, where local resuspension processes are expected to dominate; (2) a large urban location (Kiev) 120 km from the release site, where vehicular traffic is expected to be the dominant mechanism for resuspension; and (3) an agricultural area 40-60 km from the release site, where highly contaminated upwind 'hot spots' are expected to be important. Input information included characteristics of the ground contamination around specific sites, climatological data for the sites, characteristics of the terrain and topography, and locations of the sampling sites. Participants were requested to predict the average (quarterly and yearly) concentrations of 137 Cs in air at specified locations due to resuspension of Chernobyl fallout; predictions for 90 Sr and 239 + 240 Pu were also requested for one location and time point. Predictions for specified resuspension factors and rates were also requested. Most participants used empirical models for the resuspension factor as a function of time K(t), as opposed to process-based models. While many of

  8. Elevated frequency of cataracts in birds from chernobyl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Alexander Mousseau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Radiation cataracts develop as a consequence of the effects of ionizing radiation on the development of the lens of the eye with an opaque lens reducing or eliminating the ability to see. Therefore, we would expect cataracts to be associated with reduced fitness in free-living animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the incidence of lens opacities typical of cataracts in more than 1100 free-living birds in the Chernobyl region in relation to background radiation. The incidence of cataracts increased with level of background radiation both in analyses based on a dichotomous score and in analyses of continuous scores of intensity of cataracts. The odds ratio per unit change in the regressor was 0.722 (95% CI 0.648, 0.804, which was less than odds ratios from investigations of radiation cataracts in humans. The relatively small odds ratio may be due to increased mortality in birds with cataracts. We found a stronger negative relationship between bird abundance and background radiation when the frequency of cataracts was higher, but also a direct effect of radiation on abundance, suggesting that radiation indirectly affects abundance negatively through an increase in the frequency of cataracts in bird populations, but also through direct effects of radiation on other diseases, food abundance and interactions with other species. There was no increase in incidence of cataracts with increasing age, suggesting that yearlings and older individuals were similarly affected as is typical of radiation cataract. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that cataracts are an under-estimated cause of morbidity in free-living birds and, by inference, other vertebrates in areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

  9. Elevated frequency of cataracts in birds from chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Møller, Anders Pape

    2013-01-01

    Radiation cataracts develop as a consequence of the effects of ionizing radiation on the development of the lens of the eye with an opaque lens reducing or eliminating the ability to see. Therefore, we would expect cataracts to be associated with reduced fitness in free-living animals. We investigated the incidence of lens opacities typical of cataracts in more than 1100 free-living birds in the Chernobyl region in relation to background radiation. The incidence of cataracts increased with level of background radiation both in analyses based on a dichotomous score and in analyses of continuous scores of intensity of cataracts. The odds ratio per unit change in the regressor was 0.722 (95% CI 0.648, 0.804), which was less than odds ratios from investigations of radiation cataracts in humans. The relatively small odds ratio may be due to increased mortality in birds with cataracts. We found a stronger negative relationship between bird abundance and background radiation when the frequency of cataracts was higher, but also a direct effect of radiation on abundance, suggesting that radiation indirectly affects abundance negatively through an increase in the frequency of cataracts in bird populations, but also through direct effects of radiation on other diseases, food abundance and interactions with other species. There was no increase in incidence of cataracts with increasing age, suggesting that yearlings and older individuals were similarly affected as is typical of radiation cataract. These findings suggest that cataracts are an under-estimated cause of morbidity in free-living birds and, by inference, other vertebrates in areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

  10. The true cost of maternal death: individual tragedy impacts family, community and nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Suellen; Belizán, José M

    2015-01-01

    The death of a woman in pregnancy and childbirth is globally considered an individual tragedy and a human rights violation. Given the inequities in death that occur to marginalized, poor, and vulnerable women in low and middle income countries, there is no doubt that maternal death is a horrific injustice. However, the long term global burden of disease goes far beyond this tragedy. Recent research is demonstrating that there are disastrous consequences in infant and child mortality, loss of economic opportunities, spiraling cycles of poverty in the families and communities where women die giving birth. The journal Reproductive Health has published a supplement "The True Cost of Maternal Death," which includes original research from two major study groups. Harvard's Francois-Xavier Bagnoud (FXB) Center for Health and Human Rights conducted a multi-country, mixed methods study of the impact of maternal mortality on newborn health and survival, family functioning, interrupted education and economic degradation in four high maternal mortality countries, Tanzania, South Africa, Malawi, and Ethiopia. A collaborative group from Family Care International (FCI), the International Center of Research on Women (ICRW), and the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI)-Center for Disease Control (CDC)-Research Collaboration conducted research into true costs of maternal death in Kenya. These articles demonstrate the enormous costs that ripple out from the maternal death, and the intergenerational and multi-sectorial disruptions related to maternal mortality. It is important in this period of post-MDG strategy planning period that donors, governments, and NGOs be aware not only of the individual level tragedy of the loss of a mother's life, but also the financial and health costs associated with maternal mortality, and to keep the focus on maternal health as a key issue in all aspects of development, not just health.

  11. On Causes of Teddy’s Tragedy in Shutter Island by Psychoanalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴彦凤

    2013-01-01

    Shutter Island is a movie directed by Martin Scorsese. It tells a story about a psychotic, Teddy, who committed a seri⁃ous crime and lived in fantasy from then on. A group of psychologists tried to help him by exposing the reality and forcing him to face it. At last, Teddy’s memory was recovered. Yet he chose to receive lobotomy to end his pain. From Freud’s psychoanalytic point of view, Teddy’s tragedy is caused by the conflict between his id, ego and superego, and his fantasy world is a result of self-defense mechanism.

  12. An Analysis of Factors That Cause Jude’s and Sue’s Tragedies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘兰兰

    2014-01-01

    Hardy’s novels are dominated with an atmosphere of fatalism, as may be found in his Jude the Obscure. This paper aims to analyze the character of the hero and the heroine, Jude and Sue, by revealing the contradiction and inconsistency con-cealed in their desires and deeds. As rebellious as they are, Jude and Sue never escape the confines of conventionalities while con-fronted with conservative forces. It is not only because of overwhelming power of conservatism but also a tragedy out of their seemingly rebellious compromise.

  13. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident; Aspectos vigentes en Chernobyl a veinte anos del accidente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo, C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cas@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the

  14. Fukushima and Chernobyl. A first comparison of health hazards; Fukushima et Tchernobyl. Une 1. comparaison des risques sanitaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R.

    2011-07-15

    After having evoked the heavy consequences of the Fukushima accident as an industrial disaster (destructions and reconstruction, dismantling costs), the author discusses the classification of this accident in comparison with that of Chernobyl in terms of radioactive releases and levels. He outlines the quality of decisions regarding emergency response regarding population rescue, protection and care. He discusses the medical and health consequences. He outlines the differences with the situation met on the Chernobyl site, comments the results of different health and epidemiological surveys performed about Chernobyl

  15. Differences and similarities between behavior of Fukushima-derived and Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplev, Alexei; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Golosov, Valentin; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Takase, Tsugiko; Yoschenko, Vasyl; Zheleznyak, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of radiocesium (r-Cs) of accidental origin is governed by the ratio of its chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining the rates of leaching, fixation-remobilization, as well as sorption-desorption of the mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). R-Cs in the environment is strongly bound to soil and sediment particles containing micaceous clay minerals (illite, vermiculite, etc.). This is associated with two basic processes - high selective reversible sorption and fixation. Climate and geographical conditions for Fukushima Prefecture of Japan and Chernobyl zone differ. For example, the catchments of the Chernobyl zone are flat and characterized by low slopes, while Fukushima's watersheds are hilly with steep slopes. Annual precipitation also differs substantially, with annual average for Fukushima about 3 times higher than at Chernobyl. The soils on the north-east coast of the Honshu island that were primarily affected by the radioactive contamination from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident differ significantly from the Chernobyl zone soils. The proportion of clays such as illite, vermiculite etc. is 20-30% at Fukushima, which is higher than in the sandy loam soils of the Chernobyl zone. In addition to the landscape differences, the speciation of r-Cs in fallout was also different between Fukushima and Chernobyl. It is a challenge to compare r-Cs behavior in FDNPP and Chernobyl zones. Comparative analysis has been carried out for r-Cs wash-off parameters and the distribution coefficient Kd in rivers and surface runoff on Fukushima and Chernobyl contaminated areas for the first years after the accidents. The r-Cs distribution coefficient in Fukushima rivers was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than correspondent values for rivers and surface runoff of the Chernobyl zone. This suggests higher ability of Fukushima soils and sediments to bind r-Cs. The normalized

  16. Chernobyl Nuclear Catastrophe and the High Risk Potential for Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowinsky, Ivan Z.

    1993-01-01

    This report considers potential effects of the 1986 nuclear explosion at the Chernobyl (Ukraine) nuclear reactor. Approximately 17 million people, of whom 2.5 million were below the age of 5, are thought to have suffered some radioactive contamination. Many of these children are at high risk for mental retardation and learning disorders.…

  17. Radiation and other risk issues in Norwegian newspapers ten years after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Aa.; Reitan, J.B.; Toennesen, A.; Waldahl, R.

    1997-09-01

    Content analysis of risk articles has been performed in 1996 for five Norwegian newspapers four weeks before and four weeks after the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The main focus has been on radiation and/or nuclear risks. The report is part of an international project on risk perception and communication. 94 refs.

  18. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchok, H L; Chieco, N [comps.

    1986-10-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base.

  19. Refractive properties of separate erythrocytes of Chernobyl clean-up workers at different pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarevica, Gunta; Freivalds, Talivaldis; Bruvere, Ruta; Gabruseva, Natalija; Leice, Alevtine; Zvagule, Tija

    2000-04-01

    This study is focused on the modifications in erythrocytes of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident clean-up workers as a late health effect of short-term impact of high level radioactive contamination. As a result, a new method based on erythrocyte refractive index properties at different pH has been elaborated.

  20. A Pedagogical Chernobyl: Can It Be Overcome in the Next Few Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the effects of "pedagogical Chernobyl" in Belarus schools, which stem from the Soviet model, that carry the same defects and shortcomings as the schools of Russia, and the deterioration of the state of health of their children and adolescents. Furthermore, he evaluates the sizes of schoolbooks, in the…

  1. Chernobyl exposure as stressor during pregnancy and behaviour in adolescent offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); D.M. Dick (Danielle); E. Sihvola; L. Pulkkinen (Lea); R.J. Rose (Richard); J. Kaprio (Jaakko)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Research in animals has shown that exposure to stressors during pregnancy is associated with offspring behavioural disorders. We aimed to study the effect of in utero exposure to the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, and maternal anxiety presumably associated with that exposure, on

  2. Fitness loss and germline mutations in barn swallows breeding in Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellegren, Hans; Lindgren, Gabriella; Primmer, C.R. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Animal Breeding and Genetics Dept., Uppsala (Sweden); Moeller, A.P. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie. Lab. d`Ecologie, Paris, 75 (France)

    1997-10-09

    The severe nuclear accident at Chernobyl in 1986 resulted in the worst reported accidental exposure of radioactive material to free-living organisms. Short-term effects on human populations inhabiting polluted areas include increased incidence of thyroid cancer, infant leukaemia, and congenital malformations in newborns. Two recent studies have reported, although with some controversy, that germline mutation rates were increased in humans and voles living close to Chernobyl, but little is known about the viability of the organisms affected. Here we report an increased frequency of partial albinism, a morphological aberration associated with a loss of fitness, among barn swallows, Hirundo rustica, breeding close to Chernobyl. Heretability estimates indicate that mutations causing albinism were at least partly of germline origin. Furthermore, evidence for an increased germline mutation rate was obtained from segregation analysis at two hypervariable microsatellite loci, indicating that mutation events in barn swallows from Chernobyl were two- to tenfold higher than in birds from control areas in Ukraine and Italy. (author).

  3. Has fallout from the Chernobyl accident caused childhood leukaemia in Europe? An update on epidemiologic evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, W. [Bremen Inst. for Prevention Research and Social Medicine (BIPS), Bremen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Background: According to radiation risk estimates uniformly adopted by various official organizations, exposure to Chernobyl fallout is unlikely to have caused any measurable health risk in central Europe. Methods and Results: A reevaluation of ECLIS (European Childhood Leukaemia and Lymphoma Incidence Study), a large IARC-coordinated project revealed a slightly higher leukaemia incidence in the most contaminated European regions, and an increasing trend with estimated cumulative excess radiation dose. The excess corresponds to 20 cases of childhood leukaemia in the study area until 1991. Recent evidence from Greece and Germany indicate significantly higher risks in the cohort of children in utero at the time of the initial fallout. In Greece, a positive trend was observed over three regions of increasing average fallout contamination (p=0.005). Conclusion: Chernobyl fallout could well have caused a small, but significant excess of childhood leukaemia cases in Europe. The etiologic mechanism might include an induction of chromosome aberrations in early pregnancy. Increased risks in the birth cohort exposed in utero correspond to 11 excess cases in Greece and another 11.4 excess cases in Germany alone. Exposure misclassification and underascertainment of incident cases render post-Chernobyl risk estimates probably too low. If indeed Chernobyl fallout has caused childhood leukaemia cases in Europe, we would also expect an increased incidence for other childhood cancers and excess malignancies in adults as well as non-malignant diseases of all ages. Neither of these endpoints have as yet been systematically studied. (orig.)

  4. Chernobyl exposure as stressor during pregnancy and behaviour in adolescent offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); D.M. Dick (Danielle); E. Sihvola; L. Pulkkinen (Lea); R.J. Rose (Richard); J. Kaprio (Jaakko)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Research in animals has shown that exposure to stressors during pregnancy is associated with offspring behavioural disorders. We aimed to study the effect of in utero exposure to the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, and maternal anxiety presumably associated with that exposure, on

  5. Chernobyl exposure as stressor during pregnancy and behaviour in adolescent offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Dick, D.M.; Sihvola, E.; Pulkkinen, L.; Rose, R.J.; Kaprio, J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Research in animals has shown that exposure to stressors during pregnancy is associated with offspring behavioural disorders. We aimed to study the effect of in utero exposure to the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, and maternal anxiety presumably associated with that exposure, on behaviour

  6. Thirty years after the Chernobyl accident: What lessons have we learnt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, N A; Fesenko, S; Konoplev, A; Skuterud, L; Smith, J T; Voigt, G

    2016-06-01

    April 2016 sees the 30(th) anniversary of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. As a consequence of the accident populations were relocated in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine and remedial measures were put in place to reduce the entry of contaminants (primarily (134+137)Cs) into the human food chain in a number of countries throughout Europe. Remedial measures are still today in place in a number of countries, and areas of the former Soviet Union remain abandoned. The Chernobyl accident led to a large resurgence in radioecological studies both to aid remediation and to be able to make future predictions on the post-accident situation, but, also in recognition that more knowledge was required to cope with future accidents. In this paper we discuss, what in the authors' opinions, were the advances made in radioecology as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The areas we identified as being significantly advanced following Chernobyl were: the importance of semi-natural ecosystems in human dose formation; the characterisation and environmental behaviour of 'hot particles'; the development and application of countermeasures; the "fixation" and long term bioavailability of radiocaesium and; the effects of radiation on plants and animals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation ecology issues associated with murine rodents and shrews in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Maklyuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the "soil-to-plant" chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy h(-1) in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the "Red Forest"). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy h(-1), respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  8. RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  9. Iodine-129 and Caesium-137 in Chernobyl contaminated soil and their chemical fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Fogh, C.L.; Kucera, J.

    2003-01-01

    Soil samples from areas in Belarus, Russia and Sweden contaminated by the Chernobyl accident were analysed for I-129 by radiochemical neutron activation analysis, as well as for Cs-137 by gamma-spectrometry. The atomic ratio of I-129/(CS)-C-137 in the upper layer of the examined soil cores ranged...

  10. [Specific Features of Scots Pine Seeds Formation in the Remote Period after the Chernobyl NPP Accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geras'kin, S A; Vasiliev, D V; Kuzmenkov, A G

    2015-01-01

    The results of long-term (2007-2011) observations on the quality of seed progeny in Scots pine populations inhabiting the sites within the Bryansk region contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. Formed under the chronic exposure seeds are characterized by a high interannual variability, which is largely determined by weather conditions.

  11. Thyroid examination in highly radiation-exposed workers after the Chernobyl accident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); M. Steinert (Marianna); J.W. Dietrich (Johannes); R.U. Peter (Ralf Uwe); D. Belyi (David); G. Wagemaker (Gerard); S. Rosinger (Silke); T.M. Friedner (Theodor); M. Weiss (Melanie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractContext: Radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl nuclear accident that happened on the morning of 26th April 1986 had a major impact on thyroid health in the Belarus region. Objective: Observational study of a cohort of 99 adults, most strongly exposed to ionizing radioactivity.

  12. Thyroid examination in highly radiation-exposed workers after the Chernobyl accident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); M. Steinert (Marianna); J.W. Dietrich (Johannes); R.U. Peter (Ralf Uwe); D. Belyi (David); G. Wagemaker (Gerard); S. Rosinger (Silke); T.M. Friedner (Theodor); M. Weiss (Melanie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractContext: Radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl nuclear accident that happened on the morning of 26th April 1986 had a major impact on thyroid health in the Belarus region. Objective: Observational study of a cohort of 99 adults, most strongly exposed to ionizing radioactivity. Des

  13. EFFECT OF CHRONIC RADIATION ON PLANT-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS IN 30-KM CHERNOBYL ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriev A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It was established in pot experiments that infection with powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. tritici Em. Marchal and brown rust (Puccinia triticana Erikss. & Henn. of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars ('Mironovskaya 808', 'Polesskay 70', and 'Kiyanka' grown from seeds, collected in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, was 1.5–2.0 times higher than that of plants grown from control seeds. On filed plots in the Chernobyl zone, wheat plant resistance to biotic stress was reduced. At artificial infection with brown rusts, the disease development was enhanced on plots with increased radiation background. One of the mechanisms of declined phytoimmunity potential under the action of low doses of chronic irradiation is evidently a reduced activity of plant proteinase inhibitors. Thus, in wheat and rye (Secale cereale L., cv. ‘Saratovskaya’ kernels, their activity reduced by 35–60% as compared to control. Active form and race formation in the population of the grass stem rust causal agent (Puccinia graminis Pers. was observed in the Chernobyl zone. A “new” population of this fungus with high frequency of more virulent clones than in other Ukraine regions was distinguished. The results obtained independently in greenhouse and field trials performed in the Chernobyl zone demonstrated radiation stress influence on the pathogen–plant system. They indicate a necessity of monitoring the microevolutionary processes occurring in both plants and their pathogens under conditions of technogenic stresses.

  14. Effects of non-human species irradiation after the Chernobyl NPP accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geras'kin, S A; Fesenko, S V; Alexakhin, R M

    2008-08-01

    The area affected by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 has become a unique test site where long-term ecological and biological consequences of a drastic change in a range of environmental factors as well as trends and intensity of selection are studied in natural settings. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident for biota varied from an enhanced rate of mutagenesis to damage at the ecosystem level. The review comprehensively brings together key data of the long-term studies of biological effects in plants and animals inhabiting over 20 years the Chernobyl NPP zone. The severity of radiation effects was strongly dependent on the dose received in the early period after the accident. The most exposed phytocenoses and soil animals' communities exhibited dose dependent alterations in the species composition and reduction in biological diversity. On the other hand, no decrease in numbers or taxonomic diversity of small mammals even in the most radioactive habitat was shown. In a majority of the studies, in both plant and animal populations from the Chernobyl zone, in the first years after the accident high increases in mutation rates were documented. In most cases the dose-effect relationships were nonlinear and the mutation rates per unit dose were higher at low doses and dose rates. In subsequent years a decline in the radiation background rate occurred faster than reduction in the mutation rate. Plant and animal populations have shown signs of adaptation to chronic exposure. In adaptation to the enhanced level of exposure an essential role of epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression regulation was shown. Based on the Chernobyl NPP accident studies, in the present review attempts were made to assess minimum doses at which ecological and biological effects were observed.

  15. The Implication of Aristotle’s Aesthetics of Tragedy for the Philosophy of Education%亚里士多德悲剧美学在教育哲学上的蕴义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄藿

    2016-01-01

    Aristotle’s Poetics set the foundation for western aesthetics theories.The book discusses the formats and conditions for writing tragedy,which provides theoretical foundation for literature writing including tragedy.Aristotle differs from his master Plato in dealing with arts and poets.The latter looked down upon arts and proposed to banish poets from the polis.Aristotle held that the role of poets should be viewed objectively.He tried to define literature writing especially tragedy,which is very popular in ancient creek,from a new perspective.He took a positive stance towards tragedy and said,“Tragedy,then,is an imitation of an action that is serious,complete,and of a certain magnitude;in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament,the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play;in the form of action,not of narrative;with incidents arousing pity and fear,wherewith to accomplish its catharsis of such emotions.”Aristotle pointed out that the most important effect of tragedy is to cure and purify audi-ence’s hearts.Tragedy reflects the true aspect of human nature.The pity and fear aroused by the actions in tragedy can show the noble characters of true hero,resonate with people’s feelings and soul,and fur-ther release and improve audience’s emotions.This makes it possible for Aristotle’s Aesthetics of Tragedy Aristotle to complement other ethics theories and achieve goals that they cannot meet.%亚里士多德的《创作学》(或译为《诗学》),是西方美学理论的基础,全书讨论悲剧创作相关的形式与实质的条件,为悲剧与其他文类创作提供了理论的基础。亚里士多德与其师柏拉图贬抑诗人与艺术的立场相左,主张以一种客观超然的眼光来看待诗人与剧作家的角色,把文艺创作,尤其是古希腊流行的悲剧,尝试从新的角度来定义:悲剧是透过戏剧行动的模拟,表现戏剧行动者的崇高品格,以完整的布局

  16. 试论鲍照悲剧意识的形成原因%Reasons for Bao Zhao's Tragedy Consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国周

    2011-01-01

    From the existing poems, the poet Bao Zhao has a strong sense of tragedy. Investigating the reasons, three planes we can discuss at least. Perspective from personal circumstances, Bao Zhao was born in a poor family, and life experience was bad, valetudinarianism, suffering from pains, and feeling more difficult to reach the ideal expectations. From system reality perspectives, the family system, political struggle heavily sinister horrifying, cultural autocratic intensifies, plus reality, made Bao Zhao at loose ends. From cultural trend perspectives, the traditional tragic life experience and aesthetic psychology of sadness as beauty in the Han and Wei Dynasties influenced Bao Zhao deeply.%从现存诗文看,诗人鲍照有强烈的悲剧意识。究其形成原因,至少有三个层面可以讨论。从个人境遇层面看,鲍照家境贫寒,身世不旺,体弱多病,饱受病痛折磨,且倍感理想难达,事与愿违;从制度现实层面看,门阀制度森严,政治斗争险恶惨烈,文化专制加剧,加上现实龌龊不公,让鲍照无所适从;从文化思潮层面看,传统悲剧性生命体验及汉魏以来以悲为美的审美心理对鲍照影响很深。

  17. Terrestrial invertebrate population studies in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.; Stone, D.M. [Enviros, 61 The Shore, Leith, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Copplestone, D.; Gilhen, M.C. [Liverpool Univ., Environmental Research and Consultancy (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 caused the release to atmosphere of substantial amounts of radioactivity. Precise estimates of the release vary. The USSR State Committee presented information to a meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986 indicating a release of some 2.9x10{sup 5} TBq {sup 137}Cs and 2x10{sup 5} TBq {sup 90}Sr, with a total fission/activation product release of 1.7x10{sup 6} TBq. Other commentators suggest that up to double this amount may have been released. Estimates of deposition likewise vary, although it is probable that about half the released activity was deposited within 20 km of the release point, predominantly following two plume trajectories to the north and west. This resulted in the death of pine trees over 400 ha, the abandonment of 100,000 to 150,000 ha of agricultural land and the establishment of an exclusion zone extending to 30 km from the site. High levels of radionuclide contamination continue to prevail within the exclusion zone. Nonetheless, over the past fifteen years, re-colonisation has been widespread. Mixed deciduous woodlands, with a high proportion of birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), have become established in the forest areas, while agricultural land has succeeded to tall grassland and scrub. Field sites established in this study exhibited external gamma dose rates varying from 0.1 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} to 140 {mu}Sv h{sup -1}. Corresponding mean concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in the top 20 cm of soil varied from about 6.10{sup 2} to 3.10{sup 6} Bq kg{sup -1} dw. This study summarises observations over the period 2001 to 2004. Sub-surface activity, as measured by bait lamina penetration, appears to be inversely correlated with concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in soil. Likewise, at the very highest levels of contamination, there is some loss of invertebrate diversity; although little associated change in overall biomass. Between years, population densities and

  18. Chernobyl post-accident management: the ETHOS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, G H; Lochard, J; Girard, P; Guyonnet, J F; Le Cardinal, G; Lepicard, S; Livolsi, P; Monroy, M; Ollagnon, H; Pena-Vega, A; Pupin, V; Rigby, J; Rolevitch, I; Schneider, T

    1999-10-01

    ETHOS is a pilot research project supported by the radiation protection research program of the European Commission (DG XII). The project provides an alternative approach to the rehabilitation of living conditions in the contaminated territories of the CIS in the post-accident context of Chernobyl. Initiated at the beginning of 1996, this 3-y project is currently being implemented in the Republic of Belarus. The ETHOS project involves an interdisciplinary team of European researchers from the following institutions: the Centre d'etude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire CEPN (radiological protection, economics), the Institute National d'Agronomie de Paris-Grignon INAPG (agronomy, nature & life management), the Compiegne University of Technology (technological and industrial safety, social trust), and the Mutadis Research Group (sociology, social risk management), which is in charge of the scientific co-ordination of the project. The Belarussian partners in the ETHOS project include the Ministry of Emergencies of Belarus as well as the various local authorities involved with the implementation site. The ETHOS project relies on a strong involvement of the local population in the rehabilitation process. Its main goal is to create conditions for the inhabitants of the contaminated territories to reconstruct their overall quality of life. This reconstruction deals with all the day-to-day aspects that have been affected or threatened by the contamination. The project aims at creating a dynamic process whereby acceptable living conditions can be rebuilt. Radiological security is developed in the ETHOS project as part of a general improvement in the quality of life. The approach does not dissociate the social and the technical dimensions of post-accident management. This is so as to avoid radiological risk assessment and management being reduced purely to a problem for scientific experts, from which local people are excluded, and to take into

  19. Asymmetrical Contributions to the Tragedy of the Commons and Some Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Jacquet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Garrett Hardin’s popular essay on “The Tragedy of the Commons”, he presents a model of a shared commons where herdsmen graze their cattle to illustrate the tension between group and self-interest that characterizes so many social dilemmas. However, Hardin is not explicit that consumption can actually vary widely among herdsman, although later, when discussing population growth, he clarifies that “people vary”. People do indeed vary, and here we explore further the prevalence of asymmetrical contributions to the tragedy of the commons. We also provide several examples to demonstrate that asymmetries have been frequently underappreciated by conservation initiatives. Given that many of today’s major environmental problems, such as climate change, freshwater shortages, and overfishing, are problems of users or groups of users over-consuming common resources asymmetrically, we believe identifying patterns of consumption is a necessary first step in solving any social dilemma, and can help elucidate priority areas for conservation.

  20. Intralocus Sexual Conflict and the Tragedy of the Commons in Seed Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David; Martinossi-Allibert, Ivain; Grieshop, Karl; Lind, Martin I; Maklakov, Alexei A; Arnqvist, Göran

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of male traits that inflict direct harm on females during mating interactions can result in a so-called tragedy of the commons, where selfish male strategies depress population viability. This tragedy of the commons can be magnified by intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) whenever alleles that reduce fecundity when expressed in females spread in the population because of their benefits in males. We evaluated this prediction by detailed phenotyping of 73 isofemale lines of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified genetic variation in life history and morphology, as well as associated covariance in male and female adult reproductive success. In parallel, we created replicated artificial populations of each line and measured their productivity. Genetic constraints limited independent trait expression in the sexes, and we identified several instances of sexually antagonistic covariance between traits and fitness, signifying IaSC. Population productivity was strongly positively correlated to female adult reproductive success but uncorrelated with male reproductive success. Moreover, male (female) phenotypic optima for several traits under sexually antagonistic selection were exhibited by the genotypes with the lowest (highest) population productivity. Our study forms a direct link between individual-level sex-specific selection and population demography and places life-history traits at the epicenter of these dynamics.

  1. Institutional property rights structure, common pool resource (CPR), tragedy of the urban commons: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, G.; Ho, C. S.; Ali, H. M.

    2014-02-01

    There have been a plethora of researches on the significance of public open space (POS) in contributing to societies' sustainability. However, by virtue of identified maladaptive policy-based-property rights structure, such a shared good becomes vulnerable to tragedy of the urban commons (overexploitation) that subsequently leads to burgeoning number of mismanaged POS e.g., degraded and unkempt urban public spaces. By scrutinising the literatures within property rights domain and commons resources, an objective is highlighted in this paper which is to insightfully discourse institutional property rights structure pertaining to the mechanism, roles and interrelationship between property-rights regimes, bundle of property rights and resource domains; types of goods on how they act upon and tie in the POS with the social quandary. In summary, urban POS tragedy can potentially be triggered by the institutional structure especially if the ownership is left under open-access resource regime and ill-defined property rights which both successively constitute the natures of Common Pool Resource (CPR) within the commons, POS. Therefore, this paper sparks an idea to policy makers that property rights structure is a determinant in sustainably governing the POS in which adaptive assignment of property regimes and property rights are impelled.

  2. Antibiotic use as a tragedy of the commons: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kieran S; Blumberg, Seth; Enanoria, Wayne T A; Ackley, Sarah; Sippl-Swezey, Nicolas; Lietman, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Many believe antibiotic use results in a tragedy of the commons, since overuse may lead to antibiotic resistance and limiting use would benefit society. In contrast, mass antibiotic treatment programs are thought to result in community-wide benefits. A survey was conducted to learn the views of infectious disease experts on the individual- and societal-level consequences of antibiotic use. The survey instrument was designed to elicit opinions on antibiotic use and resistance. It was sent via SurveyMonkey to infectious disease professionals identified through literature searches. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. A total of 1,530 responses were received for a response rate of 9.9%. Nearly all participants believed antibiotic use could result in a tragedy of the commons, at least in certain circumstances (96.0%). Most participants did not believe mass antibiotic treatment programs could produce societal benefits in an antibiotic-free society (91.4%) or in the United States (94.2%), though more believed such programs would benefit antibiotic-free societies compared to the United States (P commons and do not believe that mass treatment programs benefit individuals or society.

  3. Everybody loses: intraspecific competition induces tragedy of the commons in Allenby's gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Tal, Oded; Embar, Keren; Kotler, Burt P; Saltz, David

    2015-01-01

    Interference competition may lead to a tragedy of the commons in which individuals driven by self-interest reduce the fitness of the entire group. We investigated this hypothesis in Allenby's gerbils, Gerbillus andersoni allenbyi, by comparing foraging behaviors of single vs. pairs of gerbils. We recorded strong interference competition within the foraging pairs. Competition reduced the amount of time the gerbils spent foraging, as well as foraging efficiency since part of the foragers' attention was directed toward detecting competitors (apparent predation risk). Single gerbils harvested significantly more food than the combined efforts of two gerbils foraging together. Competition reduced the success of both individuals within a pair by more than 50%, making this a case of the tragedy of the commons where each individual's investment in competition reduces the success of all individuals within the group, including its own. Despite their great costs, competitive behaviors will be selected for as long as one individual achieves higher fitness than the other. In nature, interspecific interactions, such as predation risk, may act to reduce and regulate the deleterious effects of intraspecific competition.

  4. Radioactive compounds in Norwegian nutrition after the Chernobyl accident; Radioaktive stoffer i norske matvarer etter Tsjernobyl ulykken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The newsletter presents results from studies of various nutrients produced in Norway after the Chernobyl accident. The focus is on caesium in milk, cattle, sheep, goats, reindeer and fresh water fish. Some agricultural aspects are mentioned.

  5. The fascination for the circle. Commentary on the paragraphs 13, 14 and 15 of The birth of tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Santos Guerrero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to fix the attention on the functioning of the figure of the circle inside the thought of the young Nietzsche of The birth of tragedy.  At the same time, in it there is a thesis about the origin of the fascination that the above mentioned figure exercises in the Nietzschean text

  6. The fascination for the circle. Commentary on the paragraphs 13, 14 and 15 of The birth of tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Santos Guerrero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to fix the attention on the functioning of the figure of the circle inside the thought of the young Nietzsche of The birth of tragedy.  At the same time, in it there is a thesis about the origin of the fascination that the above mentioned figure exercises in the Nietzschean text

  7. The reverse tragedy of the commons: an exploratory account of incentives for under-exploitation in an open innovation environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle A.; Raivio, Tuomas; Lähteenmäki-smith, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    also render IP effectively worthless and block innovation in the short to medium term. We propose that the tragedy is borne out of the interaction between enterprise characteristics, a competitive setting and the framework that is set by the policy intervention. This finding is pertinent to policy...

  8. To Be, or Not to Be:Comparison of Oedipus the King and Hamlet the Prince of Denmark as Tragedies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi-lin

    2016-01-01

    Oedipus the King and Hamlet the Prince of Denmark are two classic tragedies. They successfully achieved the dramat-ic and tragic effects, and fulfilled three essential elements expounded by Aristotle, that is, complicated plot, emotion of pity and fear, and action of reversal effect. However, the two dramas are quite different in the three elements.

  9. Health consequences of Chernobyl. 25 years after the reactor catastrophy; Gesundheitliche Folgen von Tschernobyl. 25 Jahre nach der Reaktorkatastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflugbeil, Sebastian; Schmitz-Feuerhake, Inge [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenschutz e.V., Berlin (Germany); Paulitz, Henrik; Claussen, Angelika [Internationale Aerzte fuer die Verhuetung des Atomkrieges, Aerzte in sozialer Verantwortung e.V. (IPPNW), Berlin (Germany). Deutsche Sektion

    2011-04-15

    The report is an evaluation of studies indicating health effects as a consequence of the reactor catastrophe in Chernobyl. The most exposed population include the cleaning personnel (liquidators), the population evacuated from the 30 km zone, the populations in highly contaminated regions in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, the European population in lass contaminated regions. The following issues are discussed: the liquidators, infant mortality, genetic and teratogenic damages, thyroid carcinoma and other thyroid diseases, carcinogenic diseases and leukemia, other diseases following the Chernobyl catastrophe.

  10. Sunlight-Exposed Biofilm Microbial Communities Are Naturally Resistant to Chernobyl Ionizing-Radiation Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragon, Marie; Restoux, Gwendal; Moreira, David; Møller, Anders Pape; López-García, Purificación

    2011-01-01

    Background The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta) and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in terms of general

  11. Downward migration of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in soils in Poland and Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matisoff, Gerald, E-mail: gerald.matisoff@case.edu [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7216 (United States); Ketterer, Michael E. [Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5698 (United States); Rosen, Klas [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Mietelski, Jerzy W. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Vitko, Lauren F. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7216 (United States); Persson, Henning [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Lokas, Edyta [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu move down into the soil profile. {yields} {sup 137}Cs is from Chernobyl fallout; {sup 239,240}Pu is from stratospheric fallout from the 1960s. {yields} Solute transport and bioturbation models describe some but not all of the radionuclide profiles. - Abstract: Vertical profiles of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu were measured in soils collected from two sites in southern Sweden and three sites in southern Poland and were modeled using both a solute transport model and a bioturbation model to better understand their downward migration. A time series of measured {sup 137}Cs profiles indicates that {sup 137}Cs from Chernobyl was found at the soil surface in 1986 but it has migrated progressively downward into the soil 4.5-25.5 cm since. However, because of dispersion during the migration and mixing following Chernobyl deposition and the much higher activities of {sup 137}Cs from Chernobyl, stratospheric fallout of {sup 137}Cs from the 1960s cannot be identified as a second {sup 137}Cs activity maximum lower in the soil column at any of the sites. Conversely, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio indicates that no Chernobyl-derived Pu is present in any of the cores with the exception of one sample in Sweden. This difference may be attributed to the nature of the release from Chernobyl. Cesium volatilized at the reactor temperature during the accident, and was released as a vapor whereas Pu was not volatile and was only released in the form of minute fuel particles that traveled regionally. Both the solute diffusion and the bioturbation models accurately simulate the downward migration of the radionuclides at some sites but poorly describe the distributions at other sites. The distribution coefficients required by the solute transport model are about 100 times lower than reported values from the literature indicating that even though the solute transport model can simulate the profile shapes, transport as a

  12. Sunlight-exposed biofilm microbial communities are naturally resistant to chernobyl ionizing-radiation levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ragon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in

  13. The Bhopal gas tragedy: could it have happened in a developed country?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, J.P. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Kanpur (India)

    2002-01-01

    The Bhopal gas tragedy occurred in December 1984 wherein approximately 41 tonnes of deadly MIC was released in the dead of night. It caused the death of over 3000 people and continued life-long misery for over 300,000 with certain genetic defects passed on to the next generation. It happened in a plant operated by a multinational, Union Carbide Corporation, in a developing country, India. The tragedy has changed the chemical process industry (CPI) forever. The results have been new legislation with better enforcement, enhancement in process safety, development of inherently safer plants, harsher court judgements, pro-active media and NGOs, rights-conscious public, and a CPI management willing to invest in safety related equipment and training. These have already resulted in savings of several hundred lives and over a billion dollars in accident damages [Kletz, T. (1998a). Process plants: a handbook of inherently safer designs. London: Taylor and Francis. Sutton, I. Chemical Engineering, 106(5), (1999). 114]. However, thousands did not have to die for the world to realise the disaster potential of CPI. The question that still remains is whether such an accident could have happened in a developed country. The answer is 'yes', as a number of major accidents in the developed countries since 1984, such as the Piper Alpha oil platform fire (1988, 167 killed), the Zeebrugge ferry disaster (1987, 167 killed), Phillips petroleum fire and explosion (1989,23 killed), the Challenger disaster (1986,7 killed), Esso Australia Longford explosion (1998, 2 killed) have demonstrated. One or more of the following are the primary reasons for such disasters: The indifferent attitude of the management towards safety, the lax enforcement of the existing regulations by the regulatory bodies as well as unusual delays in the judicial systems. Such conditions can happen regardless of the level of development in a country. Hence, the Bhopal gas tragedy could have happened in a

  14. [Methods of mathematical modeling in morphological diagnostics of Chernobyl factor influence on the testes of coal miners of Donbas--the Chernobyl disaster fighters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 29 parameters in testicles at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of testicles was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of testicles tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine.

  15. Fluctuations of the Concentration of Cs-137 Aerosol in Chernobyl,Fukushima and Kawasaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Yohei; Hatano, Yuko; Okada, Yukiko; Hirose, Katsumi

    2017-04-01

    Statistical analysis is applied to a time series of the airborne concentration of Cs-137. In order to extract fractal characteristics of the fluctuations, we employed the Hurst analysis. Interestingly, the Hurst index is around 1/3, which is common to the Chernobyl data, Fukushima data, and Kawasaki data. The Kawasaki data is measured by the Tokyo City University, located at 40km south to Tokyo. We proposed a stochastic differential equation, based on an advection equation with winds fluctuating probabilistically. The averaged solution of the equation is compared with measured data. We found that the index of the power of the time is -4/3, which is common to the three cases, Chernobyl, Fukushima and Kawasaki.

  16. Disaster policy and nuclear liability: Insights from post-Chernobyl agriculture in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William A.; Kwaczek, Adrienne S.; Mooney, Sian

    1989-09-01

    The recent events at Chernobyl have again brought the issues of nuclear safety to the forefront of the nuclear power debate. Fortunately, our experience with such incidents has been very limited, but it is important to learn as much as possible from such events so as to minimize the cost and effect of any other nuclear incidents, be they small or large. Much of the discussion about the possible effects of nuclear incidents has centered around the human cost in terms of health. While this is undoubtedly of paramount concern, the effect of the release of radiation from Chernobyl on the agricultural resource base in Europe can provide valuable insights on how to reduce the costs associated with the contamination of agricultural areas. This article outlines some of the lessons that can be learned using the livestock-raising industry in northern Wales as an example.

  17. Medical lessons learned from chernobyl relative to nuclear detonations and failed nuclear reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Cham E

    2012-12-01

    The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 involved the largest airborne release of radioactivity in history, more than 100 times as much radioactivity as the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs together. The resulting emergency response, administrative blunders, and subsequent patient outcomes from this large-scale radiological disaster provide a wealth of information and valuable lessons for those who may find themselves having to deal with the staggering consequences of nuclear war. Research findings, administrative strategies (successful and otherwise), and resulting clinical procedures from the Chernobyl experience are reviewed to determine a current utility in addressing the appropriate protocols for a medical response to nuclear war. As various myths are still widely associated with radiation exposure, attention is given to the realities of a mass casualty medical response as it would occur with a nuclear detonation.

  18. Thyroid Cancer in Ukrainian Population Groups Affected by the Chernobyl Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Prysyazhnyuk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study goal was to investigate thyroid cancer morbidity in population groups affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe. The study period comprised 1994-2006 for clean-up workers and 1990-2006 for Chernobyl evacuees and residents of contaminated territories. A significant increase of thyroid cancer incidence was registered in all observed population groups. The most significant excess over the national level was identified in clean-up workers. This amounted to a factor of 5.9, while it was 5.5 for the evacuees and 1.7 for the residents. The highest thyroid cancer risk was observed in persons exposed to radioiodine in childhood and adolescence.

  19. Modelling transport and deposition of caesium and iodine from the Chernobyl accident using the DREAM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brandt

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A tracer model, DREAM (the Danish Rimpuff and Eulerian Accidental release Model, has been developed for modelling transport, dispersion and deposition (wet and dry of radioactive material from accidental releases, as the Chernobyl accident. The model is a combination of a Lagrangian model, that includes the near source dispersion, and an Eulerian model describing the long-range transport. The performance of the transport model has previously been tested within the European Tracer Experiment, ETEX, which included transport and dispersion of an inert, non-depositing tracer from a controlled release. The focus of this paper is the model performance with respect to the deposition of 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I from the Chernobyl accident, using different relatively simple and comprehensive parameterizations. The performance, compared to measurements, of different combinations of parameterizations of wet and dry deposition schemes has been evaluated, using different statistical tests.

  20. Will we ever know for Chernobyl?; Saura-t-on un jour pour Tchernobyl?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinger, C.

    2012-01-15

    Millions of people have been living near the Chernobyl power plant and as a consequence have been submitted to low radiation doses for 26 years principally through food ingestion. A recent survey of scientific studies about the radiation effects shows that most research work is dedicated to thyroid while the long-term follow-up of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors have shown that other organs are likely to be concerned with an increase of different cancers and of no-cancerous pathologies like cardio-vascular diseases. The European project ARCH (Agenda for Research on Chernobyl Health) recommends to perform a broader range of studies than focusing on the thyroid and to set a collaborative platform to assure the financing and the coordination of these new topics of research. (A.C.)

  1. An arch to deal with Chernobyl; Une arche pour liquider Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-10-15

    The preliminary works for the construction of a giant arch to cover the old sarcophagus of Chernobyl's ex-reactor No.4 are in progress. This building will have two functions: a safety barrier around the sarcophagus and a protection against bad weather in order to prepare the future dismantling of the inside using robots. The main contractor of the project is Novarka, a Bouygues-Vinci consortium who won the contract on September 18, 2007 in front of the US CH2M Hill. The end of the works is planned to March 31, 2012. 430 million euros have been invested for the improvement of Chernobyl's site safety. (J.S.)

  2. Chernobyl: the true, the possible and the false; TCHERNOBYL Le vrai, le probable et le faux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report discusses the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It also highlights the misunderstanding associated with the use by the media of different radioactivity measurement units. It comments some figures about casualties, and the fact that some much higher figures are often stated. It evokes the issue of thyroid cancer in children of the region, discusses other possible public health consequences, the issue of congenital anomalies, the opinion of French physicists on the increase of thyroid cancers in France, and the question of the discrimination between spontaneous and radio-induced cancers. A second part discusses the risk of cancer and its perception in France: validity of the soil contamination assessment, possibility of an accident like Chernobyl and Fukushima in France

  3. Ruthenium-103, iodine-131, tellurium-132, and cesium-137 in air after the Chernobyl event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.K.; Faller, S.H.; Kuroda, P.K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (USA). Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne fission products during the month following the Chernobyl event, were analyzed by gamma-ray counting of 283 air filter samples that were collected at 20 different locations in the western United States. While the presence of {sup 103}Ru, {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs was detected in many of the air filter samples, 78.2-hour {sup 132}Te was detected in only 19 samples all from the sampling stations located in the State of Nevada. The results obtained in this study indicate that the release of {sup 131}I from the Chernobyl reactor was roughly 50 percent greater than that of {sup 137}Cs, while the release of {sup 137}Cs was about 8 times that of {sup 103}Ru and 25 percent greater than that of {sup 132}Te. (orig.).

  4. Distribution of radionuclides in the environment in Northern Italy after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berzero, A. (Pavia Univ. (Italy). Lab. Energia Nucleare Applicata); Borroni, P.A.; Oddone, M. (Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Chimica Generale); Crespi, V.C.; Genova, N.; Meloni, S. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia (Italy). Centro di Radiochimica ed Analisi per Attivazione)

    1992-03-01

    Soon after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the air-pumping stations in Pavia (northern Italy) were alerted. In a few days, a rapid increase in radionuclide concentration in air particulates was observed. Consequently, an environmental radioactivity monitoring programme was started in which several matrices such as soil, grass, vegetables and cows' milk were subjected to direct gamma-ray spectrometry. The radioactivity distribution and its variation with time is presented, discussed and compared with other available data. Detection limits, precision and accuracy are also reported, and depth profiles in soils for {sup 137}Cs are presented and correlated with soil quality parameters. A survey of environmental radioactivity in soil, in a search for residual Chernobyl fallout, was carried out and a map of the {sup 137}Cs distribution over a large area in northern Italy is presented and discussed. (author).

  5. International cooperation mass screening. Whole body cesium-137 measurements for the residents in Chernobyl area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    1997-03-01

    The level of radiation exposure in children in the former Soviet Union area caused by the Chernobyl accident was investigated on the basis of whole body {sup 137}Cs count. The subjects were totally 87,430 (42,114 boys and 45,316 girls) in Mogilev and Gomel Belarus, Bryansk Russian Federation and Kiev and Zhitomir Ukraine. They received Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project Health examinations for May 1991 to December 1994 and were 5-16 y old at the time of examination. The median whole body {sup 137}Cs count per body weight varied from 20 to 50 Bq kg{sup -1} except several cases in Gomel and Bryansk oblast. (The `oblast` is the largest administrative district constituting the country.) Corresponding annual effective dose equivalents were all less than the public dose limit of 1 mSv y{sup -1}. (author)

  6. Medical Consequences of Chernobyl with Focus on the Endocrine System - Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Thomas P; Límanová, Zdeňka; Potluková, Eliška

    2015-01-01

    In the last 70 years, atomic disasters have occurred several times. The nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl in 1986 in North-Central Ukraine was a unique experience in population exposures to radiation by all ages, and ongoing studies have brought a large amount of information effects of radiation on human organism. Concerning the deteriorating global security situation and the strong rhetoric of some of the world leaders, the knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation and the preventive measures designed to decrease the detrimental effects of radiation gains a new dimension, and involves all of us. This review focuses on the long-term effects of Chernobyl catastrophe especially on the endocrine system in children and in adults, and includes a summary of preventive measures in case of an atomic disaster.

  7. Medical consequences of Chernobyl with focus on the endocrine system: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Thomas P; Límanová, Zdeňka; Potluková, Eliška

    2015-01-01

    In the last 70 years, atomic disasters have occurred several times. The nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl in 1986 in North-Central Ukraine was a unique experience in population exposures to radiation by all ages, and ongoing studies have brought a large amount of information on effects of radiation on human organism. Concerning the deteriorating global security situation and the strong rhetoric of some of the world leaders, the knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation and the preventive measures designed to decrease the detrimental effects of radiation gains a new dimension, and involves all of us. This review focuses on the long-term effects of Chernobyl catastrophe especially on the endocrine system in children and in adults, and includes a summary of preventive measures in case of an atomic disaster.

  8. On the possible physical mechanism of Chernobyl catastrophe and the unsoundness of official conclusion

    CERN Document Server

    Rukhadze, A A; Filippov, D V

    2003-01-01

    The official conclusion about the origin and mechanism of the Chernobyl catastrophe is shown to essentially contradict experimental facts available from the accident. In the frame of existing physical models of nuclear fission reactor, it is shown analytically that under conditions of the accident the period of runaway of reactor at the fourth power generating unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) should be either 10 times slower or 100 times faster than that observed. A self-consistent hypothesis is suggested for the probable birth of magnetic charges, during the turbine generator test under it's own momentum test, at the fourth power generating unit of CNPP, and for the impact of these charges on the reactivity coefficient.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  10. Tragedy's Aftermath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Research has established a link between the experience of trauma and school misbehavior and academic failure. Surveys show that as many as a quarter of children in rough Chicago neighborhoods have witnessed a shooting, but helping these children is proving to be difficult. Traumatized students often misbehave in school and fall behind, but many…

  11. Tragedy's Aftermath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Research has established a link between the experience of trauma and school misbehavior and academic failure. Surveys show that as many as a quarter of children in rough Chicago neighborhoods have witnessed a shooting, but helping these children is proving to be difficult. Traumatized students often misbehave in school and fall behind, but many…

  12. Protecting the public's health following the Virginia Tech tragedy: issues of law and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, James G

    2007-09-01

    Assessing legal responsibility in the aftermath of the April 2007 tragedy at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) is inevitable. Beyond assigning blame, law- and policymakers should examine ways to protect the public from future incidences of gun violence on campuses and other settings. Although no combination of legal responses may fully deter individuals who are intent on causing significant harm, select legal reforms have the potential to prevent future acts of gun violence. These reforms include considering more restrictive gun laws nationally, reporting individuals with known mental impairments that may endanger themselves or others to federal or state databases, and refining laws that limit institutions from acting in advance to address prospectively dangerous people. Each of these reforms has the potential to reduce acts of gun violence to improve the public's health, but also implicates individual rights and interests.

  13. ANALYSIS ON TESS'TRAGEDY%浅析苔丝的悲剧成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋方

    2012-01-01

    Tess is the heroine of Britain famous writer Tomas Hardy 's works Tess of the D. Urbervilles. Her life is zigzag, her destiny is tragic, but the reason of causing Tess 'pitiful destiny is various. In this paper, the author makes some detailed discussion and analysis on the tragedy, from family, society and nature ways.%苔丝是英国著名作家托马撕·哈代最杰出的悲剧作品《德伯家的苔丝》中的女主人公。她一生曲折,命运悲惨,造成苔丝悲剧的原因是复杂的。本文将从社会、家庭、命运及性格等方面进行阐述。

  14. Brett:Women’s Tragedy and Values in the 1920s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yang

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, Brett from Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises is criticized for her embodiment of various decaying indica-tions. In appearance, that is the very conclusion a plain reader can draw from the text. But taking the specific historic and literal background into the inter-textual reading, a critic reader will surely discern a series of qualities in Brett to argue for her inner in-nocent self which was so damaged by the reality. The author implies his“iceberg”to the effect that most readers are liable to ig-nore or neglect. Close reading reveals the deep-rooted sympathy in the author’s inner heart. This sympathy is not only directed to Brett, but all those in tragedies in that historic era and this sympathy later functions to highlight women’s values in the au-thor’s viewpoint.

  15. Using blackmail, bribery, and guilt to address the tragedy of the virtual intellectual commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, P. C.; Cook, R. B.; Wilson, B. E.; Gentry, M. J.; Horta, L. M.; McGroddy, M.; Morrell, A. L.; Wilcox, L. E.

    2008-12-01

    One goal of the NSF's vision for 21st Century Cyberinfrastructure is to create a virtual intellectual commons for the scientific community where advanced technologies perpetuate transformation of this community's productivity and capabilities. The metadata describing scientific observations, like the first paragraph of a news story, should answer the questions who? what? why? where? when? and how?, making them discoverable, comprehensible, contextualized, exchangeable, and machine-readable. Investigators who create good scientific metadata increase the scientific value of their observations within such a virtual intellectual commons. But the tragedy of this commons arises when investigators wish to receive without giving in return. The authors of this talk will describe how they have used combinations of blackmail, bribery, and guilt to motivate good behavior by investigators participating in two major scientific programs (NASA's component of the Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia; and the US Climate Change Science Program's North American Carbon Program).

  16. On the Comparison of the Images of the Protagonists and the Conflicts of the Plots between William Shakespeare and Guan Hanqing's Tragedies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡新莲

    2005-01-01

    This paper tries to compare the most representative tragedies of Shakespeare and Guan Hanqing and to find the differences in two aspects, namely, the images of the protagonists and the conflicts of the plots.

  17. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Design Register-based cohort study. Setting Estonia. Participants An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Methods Morbidity ...

  18. RADIATION HYGIENIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NPP AND THE TASKS OF THEIR MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the role and results of activities of Rospotrebnadzor bodies and institutions in the field of ensuring population radiation protection during various periods since accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Radiation hygienic characterization of territories affected by radioactive contamination from the accident, population exposure dose range, issues of ensuring radiological well-being of population and ways of their solution are being presented in the paper.

  19. The mental health of clean-up workers 18 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, K; Havenaar, J M; Tintle, N L; Guey, L T; Kotov, R; Bromet, E J

    2008-04-01

    The psychological aftermath of the Chernobyl accident is regarded as the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident to date. Yet the mental health of the clean-up workers, who faced the greatest radiation exposure and threat to life, has not been systematically evaluated. This study describes the long-term psychological effects of Chernobyl in a sample of clean-up workers in Ukraine. The cohorts were 295 male clean-up workers sent to Chernobyl between 1986 and 1990 interviewed 18 years after the accident (71% participation rate) and 397 geographically matched controls interviewed as part of the Ukraine World Mental Health (WMS) Survey 16 years after the accident. The World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered. We examined group differences in common psychiatric disorders, suicide ideation and severe headaches, differential effects of disorder on days lost from work, and in the clean-up workers, the relationship of exposure severity to disorder and current trauma and somatic symptoms. Analyses were adjusted for age in 1986 and mental health prior to the accident. Relatively more clean-up workers than controls experienced depression (18.0% v. 13.1%) and suicide ideation (9.2% v. 4.1%) after the accident. In the year preceding interview, the rates of depression (14.9% v. 7.1%), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (4.1% v. 1.0%) and headaches (69.2% v. 12.4%) were elevated. Affected workers lost more work days than affected controls. Exposure level was associated with current somatic and PTSD symptom severity. Long-term mental health consequences of Chernobyl were observed in clean-up workers.

  20. Cancer risk among Chernobyl cleanup workers in Estonia and Latvia, 1986-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Mati; Rahu, Kaja; Auvinen, Anssi; Tekkel, Mare; Stengrevics, Aivars; Hakulinen, Timo; Boice, John D; Inskip, Peter D

    2006-07-01

    Two cohorts of Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia (4,786 men) and Latvia (5,546 men) were followed from 1986 to 1998 to investigate cancer incidence among persons exposed to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident. Each cohort was identified from various independent sources and followed using nationwide population and mortality registries. Cancers were ascertained by linkage with nationwide cancer registries. Overall, 75 incident cancers were identified in the Estonian cohort and 80 in the Latvian cohort. The combined-cohort standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for all cancers was 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.34) and for leukemia, 1.53 (95% CI = 0.62-3.17; n = 7). Statistically significant excess cases of thyroid (SIR = 7.06, 95% CI = 2.84-14.55; n = 7) and brain cancer (SIR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.07-3.83; n = 11) were found, mainly based on Latvian data. However, there was no evidence of a dose response for any of these sites, and the relationship to radiation exposure remains to be established. Excess of thyroid cancer cases observed may have been due to screening, the leukemia cases included 2 unconfirmed diagnoses, and the excess cases of brain tumors may have been a chance finding. There was an indication of increased risk associated with early entry to the Chernobyl area and late follow-up, though not statistically significant. Further follow-up of Chernobyl cleanup workers is warranted to clarify the possible health effects of radiation exposure.

  1. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: cohort description and related epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Tekkel, Mare; Veidebaum, Toomas; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Bigbee, William L; Hartshorne, Michael F; Inskip, Peter D; Boice, John D

    2015-12-01

    The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers was one of the first investigations to evaluate the possible health consequences of working in the Chernobyl area (the 30 km exclusion zone and/or adjacent territories) after the 1986 reactor accident. The cohort consists of 4831 men who were dispatched in 1986-1991 for tasks involving decontamination, construction of buildings, transport, radiation measurement, guard duty or other activities. By 31 December 2012, the follow-up of the cohort yielded 102 158 person-years of observation. Exposure and health data were collected by postal questionnaires, biodosimetry evaluations, thyroid screenings, and record-linkages with cancer, causes of death and health insurance reimbursement registers and databases. These data cover socio-demographic factors, employment history, aspects of health behaviour, medical history, work and living conditions in the Chernobyl area, biomarkers of exposure, cancer and non-cancer disease occurrence and causes of death. Cancer incidence data were obtained for 1986-2008, mortality data for 1986-2011 and non-cancer morbidity data for 2004-2012. Although the cohort is relatively small, it has been extensively examined and benefited from comprehensive nationwide population and health registers. The major finding was an increased risk of suicide. Thyroid examinations did not reveal an association with thyroid nodular disease and radiation dose, but did indicate the importance of accounting for screening when making comparisons with unscreened populations. No risk of leukaemia was observed and risks higher than 2.5-fold could be excluded with 95% confidence. Biodosimetry included GPA analyses and chromosomal translocation analyses and indicated that the Estonian cleanup workers experienced a relatively low mean exposure of the order of 0.1 Gy. One value of the Estonian study is in the methodologic processes brought to bear in addressing possible health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Twenty

  2. Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accidenr of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer {Rangifer tarandus are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their wintet diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating ftom natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic.

  3. Immunological effects of low dose radiation. Absent or minor effects of Chernobyl fallout in Norway?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitan, J.B.; Bergan, T.D.; Strand, P. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Melbye, O.J. [Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway)

    1998-01-01

    In this pilot study of those Norwegian individuals most heavily exposed to the Chernobyl Fallout, immunological parameters generally stayed within normal limits. However, some parameter, apparently within the assumed normal range did, in fact correlate to the estimated individual dose as assessed by wholebody counting of radiocaesium content. The small possible effects revealed in this study may represent real biological effects, but do not necessarily represent a health detriment. 43 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. METHODOLOGY OF INTERNAL DOSE RECONSTRUCTION FOR THE RUSSIAN POPULATION AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Balonov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents methodology of the internal dose reconstruction from I-131 and caesium radionuclides received by population of Russia after the Chernobyl accident. The direct measurements of radionuclides content in a human body were the most relevant data for internal dose reconstruction. Assessment of radionuclides intake with food products was considered as the second priority and application of radioecological models as the third priority when measurement data were absent.

  5. Re-evaluation of internal exposure from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, I.; Skrkal, J. [National Radiation Protection Institute, Srobarova (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-01

    Doses from internal and external exposure due to the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were estimated early in 1986. Later on, with more eimental results, doses from internal exposure were calculated more precisely. The initial predictions were rather conservative leading thus to higher doses than it appeared one year later. Monitoring of the environment, food chain and monitoring of internal contamination has been performed on the whole territory of the country since 1986 up to present time and has thus enabled reevaluation of the original estimates and also prediction of doses in future. This paper is focused mainly on evaluation of in vivo measurements of people. Use of the sophisticate software I.M.B.A. Professional Plus led to new estimation of committed effective doses and calculated inhalation intakes of radionuclides lead to estimation of content of radionuclides in the air. Ingestion intakes were also evaluated and compared with estimates from the results of measurements of food chain. Generally, the doses from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were low; however, as a few radionuclides have been measurable in environment, food chain and human body (137 Cs up to present), it is a unique chance for studying behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere. Experience and conclusions which follow from the monitoring of the Chernobyl accident are unique for running and development of monitoring networks. Re evaluation of internal doses to the Czech population from the Chernobyl accident, using alternative approach, gave generally smaller doses than original estimation; still, the difference was not significant. It was shown that the doses from inhalation of 131 I and 137 Cs were greater than originally estimated, whereas doses from ingestion intake were lower than the originally estimated ones. (authors)

  6. Distribution and migration of long lived radionuclides in the environment around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hikaru; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Ueno, Takashi; Nagao, Seiya; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Miki; Hanzawa, Yukiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Characteristics of the distribution and migration of long lived radionuclides in the environment around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (30 km exclusion zone) has been investigated. Research items are, (i) Distribution of long lived radionuclides in the surface environment, (ii) Speciation of long lived radionuclides in the surface environment, (iii) Characteristics of the migration in the surface environment, (iv) Characteristics of the uptake into the vegetables, (v) Prediction of future radioecological situation in the environment, respectively. (author)

  7. The spatial distribution of caesium-137 over Northern Ireland from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlins, B. G.; Scheib, C.; Tyler, A.N.; Jones, D.; Webster, R; Young, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of caesium-137 (137Cs) across the land is of much interest because it can tell us about the redistribution of the radionuclide as a result of soil erosion, differential migration through the soil—or its complement, differential retention in the soil. Any such inferences from survey measurements depend on the assumption of a broadly even distribution from weapons testing fallout, and the substantial deposition of 137Cs in rain following the Chernobyl accide...

  8. [90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl nuclear plant exlusion zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B

    2001-01-01

    The content of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated.

  9. Non-thyroid cancer in Northern Ukraine in the post-Chernobyl period: Short Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hatch, M.; Ostroumova, E.; Brenner, A.; Federenko, Z; Gorokh, Y; Zvinchuk, O; Shpak, V.; Tereschenko, V.; Tronko, M.; Mabuchi, K

    2015-01-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Ukraine in 1986 led to widespread radioactive releases into the environment - primarily of radioiodines and cesium – heavily affecting the northern portions of the country, with settlement-averaged thyroid doses estimated to range from 10 mGy to more than 10 Gy. The increased risk of thyroid cancer among exposed children and adolescents is well-established but the impact of radioactive contamination on the risk of other types of cancer is much les...

  10. [The genetic sequelae for plant populations of radioactive environmental pollution in connection with the Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V A; Abramov, V I; Kal'chenko, V A; Fedotov, I S; Rubanovich, A V

    1996-01-01

    Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., and Pinus sylvestris L., growing within 30 km of Chernobyl and Bryansk region have been analyzed for the frequency of embryonic lethal mutations on Arabidopsis and frequency of chlorophyll mutations and chromosome aberrations by pine. On pine also have been analyzed rate of mutations at enzyme loci in endosperms of seeds. Dose dependence of the value genetic damage on level of radioactive pollution was observed.

  11. Does Chernobyl-derived radiation impact the developmental stability of Asellus aquaticus 30years on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Neil; Smith, Jim T; Nagorskaya, Liubov L; Gudkov, Dmitri I; Ford, Alex T

    2017-01-15

    Effects of long-term, environmentally relevant doses of radiation on biota remain unclear due to a lack of studies following chronic exposure in contaminated environments. The 1986 Chernobyl accident dispersed vast amounts of radioactivity into the environment which persists to date. Despite three decades of research, impacts of the incident on non-human organisms continues to be contested within the scientific literature. The present study assessed the impact of chronic radiation exposure from Chernobyl on the developmental stability of the model aquatic isopod, Asellus aquaticus using fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as an indicator. Fluctuating asymmetry, defined as random deviations from the expected perfect bilateral symmetry of an organism, has gained prominence as an indicator of developmental stability in ecotoxicology. Organisms were collected from six lakes along a gradient of radionuclide contamination in Belarus and the Ukraine. Calculated total dose rates ranged from 0.06-27.1μGy/h. Fluctuating asymmetry was assessed in four meristic and one metrical trait. Significant differences in levels of pooled asymmetry were recorded between sample sites independent of sex and specific trait measured. However, there was no correlation of asymmetry with radiation doses, suggesting that differences in asymmetry were not attributed to radionuclide contamination and were driven by elevated asymmetry at a single site. No correlation between FA and measured environmental parameters suggested a biotic factor driving observed FA differences. This study appears to be the first to record no evident increase in developmental stability of biota from the Chernobyl region. These findings will aid in understanding the response of organisms to chronic pollutant exposure and the long term effects of large scale nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima.

  12. Molecular bio-dosimetry for carcinogenic risk assessment in survivors of Bhopal gas tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradyumna Kumar Mishra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available December 2014 marked the 30th year anniversary of Bhopal gas tragedy. This sudden and accidental leakage of deadly poisonous methyl isocyanate (MIC gas instigated research efforts to understand the nature, severity of health damage and sufferings of 570 000 ailing survivors of this tragedy. In a decade-long period, our systematic laboratory investigations coupled with long-term molecular surveillance studies have comprehensively demonstrated that the risk of developing an environmental associated aberrant disease phenotype, including cancer, involves complex interplay of genomic and epigenetic reprogramming. These findings poised us to translate this knowledge into an investigative framework of “molecular biodosimetry” in a strictly selected cohort of MIC exposed individuals. A pragmatic cancer risk-assessment strategy pursued in concert with a large-scale epidemiological study might unfold molecular underpinnings of host-susceptibility and exposureresponse relationship. The challenges are enormous, but we postulate that the study will be necessary to establish a direct initiation-promotion paradigm of environmental carcinogenesis. Given that mitochondrial retrograde signaling-induced epigenetic reprogramming is apparently linked to neoplasticity, a cutting-edge tailored approach by an expert pool of biomedical researchers will be fundamental to drive these strategies from planning to execution. Validating the epigenomic signatures will hopefully result in the development of biomarkers to better protect human lives in an overburdened ecosystem, such as India, which is continuously challenged to meet population demands. Besides, delineating the mechanistic links between MIC exposure and cancer morbidity, our investigative strategy might help to formulate suitable regulatory policies and measures to reduce the overall burden of occupational and environmental carcinogenesis.

  13. Global sand trade is paving the way for a tragedy of the sand commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A.; Brandt, J.; Lear, K.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the first 40 years of the 21st century, planet Earth is highly likely to experience more urban land expansion than in all of history, an increase in transportation infrastructure by more than a third, and a great variety of land reclamation projects. While scientists are beginning to quantify the deep imprint of human infrastructure on biodiversity at large scales, its off-site impacts and linkages to sand mining and trade have been largely ignored. Sand is the most widely used building material in the world. With an ever-increasing demand for this resource, sand is being extracted at rates that far exceed its replenishment, and is becoming increasingly scarce. This has already led to conflicts around the world and will likely lead to a "tragedy of the sand commons" if sustainable sand mining and trade cannot be achieved. We investigate the environmental and socioeconomic interactions over large distances (telecouplings) of infrastructure development and sand mining and trade across diverse systems through transdisciplinary research and the recently proposed telecoupling framework. Our research is generating a thorough understanding of the telecouplings driven by an increasing demand for sand. In particular, we address three main research questions: 1) Where are the conflicts related to sand mining occurring?; 2) What are the major "sending" and "receiving" systems of sand?; and 3) What are the main components (e.g. causes, effects, agents, etc.) of telecoupled systems involving sand mining and trade? Our results highlight the role of global sand trade as a driver of environmental degradation that threatens the integrity of natural systems and their capacity to deliver key ecosystem services. In addition, infrastructure development and sand mining and trade have important implications for other sustainability challenges such as over-fishing and global warming. This knowledge will help to identify opportunities and tools to better promote a more sustainable use

  14. Rehabilitation of the living conditions in the contaminated territories after Chernobyl: the ETHOS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, Gilles [Mutadis, Paris (France); Schneider, Thierry [CEPN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2001-07-01

    European surveys undertaken in the context of the EU/CIS co-operation programme to evaluate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident (1991-1995), provided an extensive assessment of the social and psychological effects of the accident on liquidators, relocated populations and inhabitants of contaminated territories. Further investigations carried out in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia revealed strong social disturbance and stress phenomena amongst the populations of the contaminated areas. In these areas, the environmental contamination was a basic concern for most of the inhabitants and was creating a climate of widespread anxiety, focused on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident and especially that of the children. The inhabitants of the contaminated territories experienced an overall depreciation of many different types of values: social, economic, aesthetic, symbolic, ethical, political, etc. The quality of life was perceived as being irreversibly affected: some people expressed the situation by saying that 'Nothing will be the same again', when speaking about their lives 'before' and 'After' the accident. The feeling of insecurity, the lack of trust of the population in the scientific, medical and political authorities and the impression of being deprived of means to avoid radiological hazards perceived as all-pervasive in everyday life, created the general feeling of a loss of control over the situation. The ETHOS project ended in December 1998. Twelve missions representing about 600 man-days of the European participants have been performed. But the project also entailed a considerable involvement of the local population as well as from the local, regional and national authorities. The assessment of the outcomes of this project has been undertaken by the research team with its Belarussian partners. When considering globally the village of Olmany a first question was to determine to what extent some global objective changes

  15. Post-Chernobyl investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in Adriatic Sea pilchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franić, Zdenko; Petrinec, Branko; Branica, Gina; Marović, Gordana; Kubelka, Dragan; Franić, Zrinka

    2012-08-01

    Investigations in the post-Chernobyl period (1986-2009) of radiocaesium activity concentrations in Adriatic pilchards are presented. Compared with pre-Chernobyl period, the Chernobyl nuclear accident caused increase of (137)Cs activity concentrations in pilchards. By fitting the measured (137)Cs activity concentrations to the theoretical curve was estimated to be 1.5±0.4 y for 1986-90 and 5.8±0.4 y for 1991-2009 and the bimodal behaviour for the ecological half-life of (137)Cs in pilchards has been observed. Estimated annual effective doses received by (134)Cs and (137)Cs intake due to consumption for an adult member of Croatian population are small. Collective dose for the 1986-2009 period was 4.9+0.3 person-Sv. The observed (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio in pilchards was similar to the ratio that has been found in other environmental samples. The concentration factor for pilchards was roughly estimated to be 93.7±39.2 l kg(-1), which is consistent with the values observed elsewhere.

  16. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident: fears, rumours and the truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Mati

    2003-02-01

    The impact of the world's worst nuclear disaster at Chernobyl in 1986 is reviewed within a framework of a triad of fear, rumour and truth. The scope of the accident, Soviet secrecy about it, and the lack of general awareness of, or disregard for, the effects of radiation created a fertile ground for persistent fears and rumours attributing any health problem to Chernobyl. Scientifically correct answers to health issues have been the means to combat disinformation, and to replace interconnected fears, misconceptions and rumours. To date, according to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 Report, based on a review of epidemiological and radiobiological studies, the main radiation-related effect of the Chernobyl accident is an increased risk of childhood thyroid cancer. In addition, the accident has had serious non-radiation-related psychological consequences on the residents of the contaminated territories, resettled populations and clean-up workers. Researchers in search of the truth through epidemiological reasoning are facing serious challenges which are reviewed within this article.

  17. Abundance of adult ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movila, A; Deriabina, T; Morozov, A; Sitnicova, N; Toderas, I; Uspenskaia, I; Alekhnovici, A

    2012-08-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear disaster resulted in contamination of vast areas in Europe. To date, there is little knowledge about the effects of radioactive contamination on tick species. We sampled ticks from vegetation and large-sized wild mammals belonging to orders Carnivora and Artiodactyla at sites with 0.76, 1.91, and 4.50 mSv/hr ionizing radiation background values in the Polesky State Radio-Ecological Reserve of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster zone in spring 2010. Altogether, 122 questing ticks were collected from vegetation. Among collected ticks, Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius) was, by far, the most abundant species (99.2%), followed by Ixodes ricnus (L.) (0.8%), which was collected only at the 0.76 mSv/hr site. The average sex ratio female∶male was 2.9∶1.0. In parallel with the present study, we examined 3 Sus scrofa (L.), 2 Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray), and 1 Alces alces (L.) at the 4.50 mSv/hr site; 96 D. reticulatus ticks were found on 2 N. procyonoides specimens. The mean density and the intensity of infestation were 16 ticks per animal and 48 ticks per infested animal, respectively. Future investigations are warranted to further characterize the role of various tick vectors, vertebrate reservoirs, and diversity of tick-borne pathogens in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

  18. Carotenoids, sexual signals and immune function in barn swallows from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camplani, A; Saino, N; Møller, A P

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids have been hypothesized to facilitate immune function and act as free-radical scavengers, thereby minimizing the frequency of mutations. Populations of animals exposed to higher levels of free radicals are thus expected to demonstrate reduced sexual coloration if use of carotenoids for free-radical scavenging is traded against use for sexual signals. The intensity of carotenoid-based sexual coloration was compared among three populations of barn swallows Hirundo rustica differing in exposure to radioactive contamination. Lymphocyte and immunoglobulin concentrations were depressed, whereas the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, an index of stress, was enhanced in Chernobyl swallows compared to controls. Spleen size was reduced in Chernobyl compared to that of two control populations. Sexual coloration varied significantly among populations, with the size of a secondary sexual character (the length of the outermost tail feathers) being positively related to coloration in the two control populations, but not in the Chernobyl population. Thus the positive covariation between coloration and sexual signalling disappeared in the population subject to intense radioactive contamination. These findings suggest that the reliable signalling function of secondary sexual characters breaks down under extreme environmental conditions, no longer providing reliable information about the health status of males. PMID:10406129

  19. Monitoring of Individual Doses of Populations Residing in the Territories Contaminated after Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumak, V.V.; Likhtarev, I.A.; Pavlenko, J.V. [Acad of Medical Science of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1999-07-01

    To provide instrumental validation of radioecological dosimetric models used for estimation of external doses to the Chernobyl population, about 1000 direct dose measurements were conducted in 1996-1997 in 54 settlements in contaminated territories of Ukraine. The areas covered by the measurements have {sup 137}Cs contamination density ranging from 55 to 491 kBq.m{sup -2}. Individual dose measurements were conducted using standard LiF dosemeters, type Harshaw 8814 (TLD-100), and automated TLD system Harshaw 8800. Relatively low contamination and, thus, an unfavourable 'Chernobyl/natural background' dose ratio, called for sophisticated analysis of experimental results. Linear regression of dose relative to {sup 137}Cs contamination density which was conducted in two different ways provided consistent results. Annual background dose, as derived from the results of individual dose measurements, is about 1.1 mSv per annum; the Chernobyl related component is expressed by the rate of 1.24-1.3 {mu}Sv per kBq.m{sup -2} per annum. These results are in reasonable agreement with somewhat conservative modelling parameters which are assumed to be 1.91 {mu}Sv per kBq.m{sup -2} per annum for the case of the rural population. (author)

  20. ANALYSIS OF STABILITY OF TRINUCLEOTIDE TTC MOTIFS IN COMMON FLAX PLANTED IN THE CHERNOBYL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Lancíková

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is one of the oldest domesticated plants — it was cultivated as early as in ancient Egypt and Samaria 10,000 years ago to serve as a source of fiber and oil, whence it later spread around the world. Compared with other plants, the flax genome consists of a high number of repetitive sequences, middle repetitive sequences and small repetitive sequences of nucleotides. The aim of the study was to analyze the stability of the existing trinucleotides motifs of microsatellite DNA of the flax genome (genotype Kyivskyi, growing in the Chernobyl conditions. The Chernobyl area is the most extensive “natural” laboratory suitable for the study of radiation effects. Over the last 20 years, the researches collected important knowledge about the effects of low and high radiation doses on the DNA isolated from the plant material growing on the remediated fields near Chernobyl and the plant material from fields contaminated by radioactive cesium 137Cs and strontium 90Sr. Using eight pairs of microsatellite primers, we successfully amplified the samples from the remediated fields. For each primer in the control samples and remediated samples, we detected 1 to 3 fragments per locus, each in size up to 120 to 250 base pairs. The applied microsatellite primers confirmed the monomorphic condition of microsatellite loci.

  1. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A.; Salomaa, S. [eds.] [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.; Tekkel, M. [eds.] [Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T. [ed.] [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, J.D. Jr. [ed.] [Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  2. Dosimetry for a study of low-dose radiation cataracts among Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumak, V V; Worgul, B V; Kundiyev, Y I; Sergiyenko, N M; Vitte, P M; Medvedovsky, C; Bakhanova, E V; Junk, A K; Kyrychenko, O Y; Musijachenko, N V; Sholom, S V; Shylo, S A; Vitte, O P; Xu, S; Xue, X; Shore, R E

    2007-05-01

    A cohort of 8,607 Ukrainian Chernobyl clean-up workers during 1986-1987 was formed to study cataract formation after ionizing radiation exposure. Study eligibility required the availability of sufficient exposure information to permit the reconstruction of doses to the lens of the eye. Eligible groups included civilian workers, such as those who built the "sarcophagus" over the reactor, Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Workers, and military reservists who were conscripted for clean-up work. Many of the official doses for workers were estimates, because only a minority wore radiation badges. For 106 military workers, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of extracted teeth were compared with the recorded doses as the basis to adjust the recorded gamma-ray doses and provide estimates of uncertainties. Beta-particle doses to the lens were estimated with an algorithm devised to take into account the nature and location of Chernobyl work, time since the accident, and protective measures taken. A Monte Carlo routine generated 500 random estimates for each individual from the uncertainty distributions of the gamma-ray dose and of the ratio of beta-particle to gamma-ray doses. The geometric mean of the 500 combined beta-particle and gamma-ray dose estimates for each individual was used in the data analyses. The median estimated lens dose for the cohort was 123 mGy, while 4.4% received >500 mGy.

  3. THE EVALUATION OF VORONEZH REGION RADIATION CONTAMINATION IMPACT OVER THIRTY YEARS’ PERIOD FOLLOWING THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Stepkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at radiation contamination impact assessment due to the 1986 Chernobyl accident in Voronezh Region territory more than 600 kilometers away from the ground zero. The major Chernobyl accident impact assessment indicators were the characteristics of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides’ soil surface contamination (Ci/km2 as well as the average annual effective dose of critical population group ( mSv/year over 1986–2014. The Population oncological morbidity indicators were analyzed (all malignant neoplasms, including those in thyroid gland, lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue in the territories contrastingly differing on the levels of radiation factor impact. The study covered the period of 2010–2014.It was established that for Voronezh Region territories referred to as the post- Chernobyl radioactively contaminated zone over 29 years period the maximum soil surface contamination by 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides reduced by 1.90 and 1.91 times (from 3,15 Ci/km2 to 1,66 Ci/km2 and from 0,063 Ci/km2 to 0,0033 Ci/km2, respectively.Currently the relationship was not found between the radioactive contamination density in Voronezh Region and the levels of malignant neoplasms for the local residents.The present situation related to radiation factor impact on Voronezh Region territories remains stable and safe. Mindful of the indicators results the assessment of ionizing sources impact did not identify any exceeding the normative values.

  4. Art as tragic overcoming. An approach to the philosophical problem of the origin of the tragic choir. Commentary on the paragraphs 7 and 8 of The birth of tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Quejido Alonso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From Nietzsche's statement that "the tragedy born of the tragic chorus, and was originally chorus and nothing but chorus" (GT, 7, we will try to show how, since the first Nietzschean conception of tragedy, this fundamental element of his thought can be characterized, beyond next differences, as an ever transient overcoming of nihilism. Thus, by analyzing the aphorisms 7 and 8 of The Birth of Tragedy, we will show how these elements appear through Nietzsche's interpretation of the tragic chorus

  5. Art as tragic overcoming. An approach to the philosophical problem of the origin of the tragic choir. Commentary on the paragraphs 7 and 8 of The birth of tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Quejido Alonso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From Nietzsche's statement that "the tragedy born of the tragic chorus, and was originally chorus and nothing but chorus" (GT, 7, we will try to show how, since the first Nietzschean conception of tragedy, this fundamental element of his thought can be characterized, beyond next differences, as an ever transient overcoming of nihilism. Thus, by analyzing the aphorisms 7 and 8 of The Birth of Tragedy, we will show how these elements appear through Nietzsche's interpretation of the tragic chorus

  6. An exploration of the social stratification function of consumerism in An American Tragedy%解析《美国悲剧》中消费主义的社会层化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽红; 闰桂娥

    2009-01-01

    The essay employs theories and approaches of sociology and economics in the area of social stratification and consumerism to analyze the great works, An American Tragedy in order to explore the prominent influence of consumerism on the stratification of American society, in the perspective of the growing gaps between social groups enlarged and the increasing tendency of convergence and exclusion among social individuals caused by consumer-ism. The conclusion of the study indicates that consumerism greatly accelerates the process of stratification in Amer-ican social structure. The obvious negative impacts of consumerism are the key factors leading to American tragedy which serves to be an alert while developing economy and constructing the harmonious society.%运用经济学、社会学领域关于消费主义理论和社会分层的研究方法,从消费语境下日益凸显的下层群体和上层群体之间的不同消费方式和生活方式、下层与上层之间的越界与排斥等视角解析这部公认的伟大作品.旨在探讨消费主义对美国社会结构的巨大层化作用.研究认为把消费看作是人生最高目的的消费主义对美国社会结构的演变产生了不可估量的影响,消费主义思想意识是加速美国社会群体层化的深层根源.其负面影响对如今经济发展与构建和谐社会仍具警示作用.

  7. Dreams of 'Abbasid Caliphs: Suspense and Tragedy in al-Tabarī’s History of Prophets and Kings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststeijn, J.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of an analysis of three dreams by al-Mahdī, al-Rashīd and al-Amīn it is argued that the dreams in the Taʾrīkh al-rusul wa-l-mulūk are used to add suspense and tragedy to al-Tạ barī’s presentation of events.

  8. The Coming Sino-U.S. Clash?——A Review of The Tragedy of Great Power Politics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Xinchun; Huang Jing

    2008-01-01

    Eight years ago, Professor John J. Mearsheimer of the University of Chicago argued that a Sino-U.S. confrontation was inevitable in the first 20 years of the 21st century. In the light of the 20 years" development in Northeast Asia since the end of the Cold War, however, all scenarios and explanations given in The Tragedy of Great Power Politics are incorrect.

  9. 诺思罗普·弗莱的悲剧观%Northrop Frye’s View of Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小晶; 周红兵

    2016-01-01

    在弗莱的文学批评体系中,悲剧不仅是通常意义上的文学体裁,还是弗莱所谓“虚构型”文学中的一种基本倾向,以及一种比平常的文学体裁更广阔的文学叙事范畴、叙事结构(mythoi)。弗莱的悲剧观,既是体裁论,又是批评观;弗莱拓展了体裁意义上的悲剧,但同时也淡化了悲剧的审美和哲学意义。因为弗莱结构主义的文学观,他的悲剧观放弃了历史、政治维度,并且进一步牺牲了悲剧的人生实践意义。%Tragedy is firstly a western literature genre generally ,secondly a base tendency of the western fiction literature ,and thirdly a literary narrative category or a mythoi in Frye ’ s literary criticism system . Frye’s view of tragedy is a genre view and also a criticism view .He extended the genre sense of the tragedy , and also desalinated the tragedy’s aesthetic and philosophical significance .Because of his structuralism liter‐ary view ,Frye’s tragedy opinion gave up the historical and political dimensions ,and further more sacrificed the tragedy’s life practice meaning .

  10. The Analyses of Shakespeare's Art Tragedy%莎士比亚悲剧艺术特征探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽锋

    2014-01-01

    The famous playwright Shakespeare lived in the time of English Renaissance Literature . His plays are known as one of insur-mountable peak on human drama. In his plays, the tragedy works made the highest achievements, not only has the bright time character-istic, and has a unique style of Shakespeare's plays. These shocking tragedy works have the characteristic of strong artistic appeal. Based on the four great tragedies of Shakespeare, this paper discusses some main features of the Shakespeare tragedy works and hope to provide readers for a beneficial reference .%著名戏剧作家莎士比亚(William Shakespeare)生活在英国的文艺复兴时期,他所创作的戏剧作品被誉为人类戏剧艺术上不可逾越的顶峰之一。在莎士比亚的戏剧作品中,悲剧的成就最高,不仅有着鲜明的时代特色,又有莎士比亚剧作的独特风格。从这些震撼人心的悲剧来看,具有强烈的艺术感染力。本文立足于莎士比亚的四大悲剧,从若干方面研究了莎士比亚悲剧艺术的主要特征,希望能够为读者理解莎士比亚悲剧提供有益的参考。

  11. 尼采希腊悲剧观念的起源%Origin of Nietzsche's Greek Tragedy Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张典

    2011-01-01

    Nietzsche proposes in"The Birth of Tragedy" that the unity of opposites between Dionysus spirit and Apollo spirit produces Greek tragedy spirit that cannot be separated. Nietzsche argues a- gainst Socrates' tool rationality by using Greek tragedy spirit. German Romanticism and the German classical humanism spirit determines of Nietzsche's understanding on Greek tragedy spirit. Nietzsche' s Dionysian ideas mainly come from German Romanticism, Nietzsche's ideas of Apollo spirit, primari- ly come from Schiller, Goethe, Beethoven and Hegel, etc.%尼采在《悲剧的诞生》中提出了日神和酒神精神的对立统一产生了希腊悲剧精神,酒神精神与日神精神是不可分开的。尼采主要以希腊悲剧精神观念反对苏格拉底开创的工具理性。德国浪漫派和德国古典人文主义精神决定了尼采对希腊悲剧精神的认识,尼采的酒神观念主要来自德国浪漫派,尼采的日神观念主要从莱辛、文克尔曼、席勒、歌德、贝多芬和黑格尔等古典人文主义者处取来。

  12. Spanish Tragedy of the Golden Age in its European Context: the Tragical Canon in France and England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Álvarez Sellers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tragedy was born in Greece and was subsequently claimed and defended in Europe during the Renaissance and Baroque but, this being a gender as orthodox as changeable, it will be necessary to resort to a new reading of its components in order to adapt them to the reality of the Golden Age. Humanism promotes this recovery of the classical world and generates a significant literature on drama precepts that will not develop the same way in all European countries. While Italy and France opt for the acceptance and conversion of the ideas of Aristotle and Horace into style rules, Spain and England cannot fail to point out the dramatic dissonance between stage theory and practice, and, the aim of pleasing the public, will prevail as a benchmark of success over fidelity to the classical precepts. However, despite theoretical differences, the French drama as the English and the Spanish drama will be committed to the development of tragedy. We will discuss some ideas about drama rules in France and England and their connection with what is represented on stage, as well as the nature and intensity of the government’s support to the theatre, in order to contextualize and show the differences with respect to the Spanish Baroque tragedy.

  13. Preventing the tragedy of the commons through punishment of over-consumers and encouragement of under-consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareva, Irina; Morin, Benjamin; Karev, Georgy

    2013-04-01

    The conditions that can lead to the exploitative depletion of a shared resource, i.e., the tragedy of the commons, can be reformulated as a game of prisoner's dilemma: while preserving the common resource is in the best interest of the group, over-consumption is in the interest of each particular individual at any given point in time. One way to try and prevent the tragedy of the commons is through infliction of punishment for over-consumption and/or encouraging under-consumption, thus selecting against over-consumers. Here, the effectiveness of various punishment functions in an evolving consumer-resource system is evaluated within a framework of a parametrically heterogeneous system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Conditions leading to the possibility of sustainable coexistence with the common resource for a subset of cases are identified analytically using adaptive dynamics; the effects of punishment on heterogeneous populations with different initial composition are evaluated using the reduction theorem for replicator equations. Obtained results suggest that one cannot prevent the tragedy of the commons through rewarding of under-consumers alone--there must also be an implementation of some degree of punishment that increases in a nonlinear fashion with respect to over-consumption and which may vary depending on the initial distribution of clones in the population.

  14. From Chernobyl to Fukushima: the effect of low doses; De Tchernobyl a Fukushima. L'effet des faibles doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A.

    2011-07-01

    This Power Point presentation describes the Fukushima's reactors, recalls some data about the earthquake and tsunami, and indicates their consequences for the operation of the power station (notably the loss of cooling means). It identifies some design errors for the Chernobyl's and Fukushima's power stations, outlines differences between these two cases. It gives assessment of doses receives by external irradiation around Fukushima, of the dose rate evolution, of the sea contamination. It gives some data about the Chernobyl accident (radioactivity evolution). After some data about health consequences of Chernobyl, health risks and more particularly biological risks associated to low doses are described. Protection measures are evoked, as well as psycho-social impacts

  15. On Lessing’s Theory of Bourgeois Tragedy%莱辛的市民悲剧观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁克秀

    2015-01-01

    Especially inBriefwechsel überdas TrauerspielandHamburgische Dramaturgie Gotthold Ephraim Lessing expounds his theory of bourgeois tragedy with the core of Mitleid(sympathy).For a further understanding of Lessing’s Theory of Bourgeois Tragedy, a survey and analysis of the main viewpoints are carried out in this paper.The sympathy for the tragedy protagonists,as an emotional reac-tion and a moral potential,leads the audience to the moral improvement.Only through the identiifcation of the audience with the tragedy protagonists can the sympathy arise and this identiifcation is mainly dependent on the similarity of the audience to the tragedy protagonists and the probability of the plot.Basing his theory on a new interpretation of Aristoteles conceptseleos andphobos,Lessing argues that they are both methods of moral improvement.%莱辛关于市民悲剧的论述,集中在《关于悲剧的通信》和《汉堡剧评》中。为进一步加深对莱辛市民悲剧主要观点的理解,本文对两书中的基本观点进行了梳理和分析。莱辛的悲剧构想中最核心的概念是同情,同情既是一种情感反应又是一种道德力量,它最终会使观众得到道德上的改善。同情的产生有赖于观众对悲剧主人公的认同感,舞台上塑造的人物与观众相似并且情节的发展真实可信才会使观众产生认同。莱辛对亚里斯多德的恐惧和怜悯概念进行了重新解释并认为两者是悲剧实现其教化作用的手段。

  16. The potential use of Chernobyl fallout data to test and evaluate the predictions of environmental radiological assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.; Hoffman, F.O.; Blaylock, B.G.; Eckerman, K.F.; Lesslie, P.A.; Miller, C.W.; Ng, Y.C.; Till, J.E.

    1988-06-01

    The objectives of the Model Validation Committee were to collaborate with US and foreign scientists to collect, manage, and evaluate data for identifying critical research issues and data needs to support an integrated assessment of the Chernobyl nuclear accident; test environmental transport, human dosimetric, and health effects models against measured data to determine their efficacy in guiding decisions on protective actions and in estimating exposures to populations and individuals following a nuclear accident; and apply Chernobyl data to quantifications of key processes governing the environmental transport, fate and effects of radionuclides and other trace substances. 55 refs.

  17. Comparative modeling analyses of Cs-137 fate in the rivers impacted by Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheleznyak, M.; Kivva, S. [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The consequences of two largest nuclear accidents of the last decades - at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) (1986) and at Fukushima Daiichi NPP (FDNPP) (2011) clearly demonstrated that radioactive contamination of water bodies in vicinity of NPP and on the waterways from it, e.g., river- reservoir water after Chernobyl accident and rivers and coastal marine waters after Fukushima accident, in the both cases have been one of the main sources of the public concerns on the accident consequences. The higher weight of water contamination in public perception of the accidents consequences in comparison with the real fraction of doses via aquatic pathways in comparison with other dose components is a specificity of public perception of environmental contamination. This psychological phenomenon that was confirmed after these accidents provides supplementary arguments that the reliable simulation and prediction of the radionuclide dynamics in water and sediments is important part of the post-accidental radioecological research. The purpose of the research is to use the experience of the modeling activities f conducted for the past more than 25 years within the Chernobyl affected Pripyat River and Dnieper River watershed as also data of the new monitoring studies in Japan of Abukuma River (largest in the region - the watershed area is 5400 km{sup 2}), Kuchibuto River, Uta River, Niita River, Natsui River, Same River, as also of the studies on the specific of the 'water-sediment' {sup 137}Cs exchanges in this area to refine the 1-D model RIVTOX and 2-D model COASTOX for the increasing of the predictive power of the modeling technologies. The results of the modeling studies are applied for more accurate prediction of water/sediment radionuclide contamination of rivers and reservoirs in the Fukushima Prefecture and for the comparative analyses of the efficiency of the of the post -accidental measures to diminish the contamination of the water bodies. Document

  18. Psychological and perceived health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: a 20-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J; Havenaar, Johan M

    2007-11-01

    The mental health impact of Chernobyl is regarded by many experts as the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident to date. This paper reviews findings reported during the 20-y period after the accident regarding stress-related symptoms, effects on the developing brain, and cognitive and psychological impairments among highly exposed cleanup workers. With respect to stress-related symptoms, the rates of depressive, anxiety (especially post-traumatic stress symptoms), and medically unexplained physical symptoms are two to four times higher in Chernobyl-exposed populations compared to controls, although rates of diagnosable psychiatric disorders do not appear to be elevated. The symptom elevations were found as late as 11 y after the accident. Severity of symptomatology is significantly related to risk perceptions and being diagnosed with a Chernobyl-related health problem. In general, the morbidity patterns are consistent with the psychological impairments documented after other toxic events, such as the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Three Mile Island accident, and Bhopal. With respect to the developing brain of exposed children who were in utero or very young when the accident occurred, the World Health Organization as well as American and Israeli researchers have found no significant associations of radiation exposure with cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairments in highly exposed cleanup workers have been reported by Ukrainian researchers, but these findings have not been independently confirmed. A seminal study found a significant excess death rate from suicide in cleanup workers, suggesting a sizable emotional toll. Given the magnitude and persistence of the adverse mental health effects on the general population, long-term educational and psychosocial interventions should be initiated that target primary care physicians, local researchers, and high risk populations, including participants in ongoing cohort studies.

  19. Thyroid cancer incidence among people living in areas contaminated by radiation from the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Elaine

    2007-11-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, massive amounts of radioactive materials were released into the environment and large numbers of individuals living in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine were exposed to radioactive iodines, primarily 131I. Iodine-131 concentrated in the thyroid gland of residents of the contaminated areas, with children and adolescents being particularly affected. In the decade after the accident, a substantial increase in thyroid cancer incidence was observed among exposed children in the three affected countries, and compelling evidence of an association between pediatric thyroid cancer incidence and radiation exposure to the thyroid gland accumulated. The data currently available suggest that both the magnitude and patterns of thyroid cancer risk are generally consistent with those reported following external exposure. Based on data from case-control studies, iodine deficiency appeared to enhance the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure from Chernobyl. Results from a recent large cohort study, however, did not support these findings. Data on adult exposure are limited and not entirely consistent. Similarly, information on thyroid cancer risks associated with in utero exposure is insufficient to draw conclusions. The lack of information on these two population groups indicates an important gap that needs to be filled. Twenty years after the accident, excess thyroid cancers are still occurring among persons exposed as children or adolescents, and, if external radiation can be used as a guide, we can expect an excess of radiation-associated thyroid cancers for several more decades. Since considerable uncertainties about the long-term health effects from Chernobyl remain, continued follow-up of the exposed populations should provide valuable information.

  20. Validation of biokinetic models for strontium. Analysis of the Techa River and Chernobyl data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstykh, E.I.; Degteva, M.O.; Kozheurov, V.P. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Repin, V.S.; Novak, N.Y.; Berkovski, V.; Nosske, D.

    2000-05-01

    The ICRP models used in radiation protection to estimate doses resulting from internal irradiation are based on biokinetic models for different radionuclides. Strontium-90 was one of the main sources of environmental contamination due to accidents in the ''Mayak'' plutonium production complex (Southern Urals, 1949-1956) and the Chernobyl accident (1986). Over 800 measurements of bone-autopsy, and 31,000 Whole body Counter {sup 90}Sr measurements for Techa River population were made at URCRM (Chelyabinsk). Measurements of {sup 90}Sr contents in skeleton were performed for residents of the area contaminated due to Chernobyl accident (RPI, Kiev). These unique data allowed to validate the predictions of {sup 90}Sr biokinetic models at different times after ingestion, and in the case of complicated rate of intake. Model validation can be considered as best approach for quantifying the reliability of the model's predictions. Available data on {sup 90}Sr content in human skeleton were analyzed. {sup 90}Sr measurements cover the long period after start of intake: from 2 to 45 years after contamination (Techa River data). Model predictions for all age groups were compared with Techa River and Chernobyl data. For adult persons calculated and measured values of {sup 90}Sr body content were found to be very close, especially over the first 15 years after the major intake. After the majority of measured people had attained the age of 45 years and changes of calcium metabolism resulted in a significant increase of strontium elimination rate. The particularities of bone mineral turnover in old persons are not considered in the framework of the ICRP model. The latter feature resulted in a divergence between the model curve and the results of {sup 90}Sr measurements for old persons. For children and adolescents the differences between calculated values and measured {sup 90}Sr body contents are more significant. The comparison of different strontium

  1. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 3 study of the health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, S.; Kellerer, A.; Pott-Born, R. [Munich Univ., Radiobiological Institute (Germany); Gagniere, B. [CIRE Ouest, 35 - Rennes (France); Mansoux, H.; Rutschkowsky, N.; Valenty, M.; Calmont, I.; Brun-Yaba, Ch. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Verger, P. [ORS PACA, 13 - Marseille (France); Franc, B. [Hopital Ambroise-Pare, 92 - Boulogne (France); Robert-Gnansia, E. [European Instituteof Genomutations, 69 - Lyon (France); Briend, A. [Scientific and Technical Institute of Nutrition and Alimentation/CNAM, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-03-15

    The results of the French-German Initiative Health Effects project, conducted over a period of four years, were presented to the international authorities at a congress held in October 2004 in Kiev and are summarised below. Thyroid cancer increase in children and young adults seems clearly related to exposure at young ages in 1986. For the other cancers sites, the observed results do not add any decisive elements that would make it possible to quantify the impact of post-Chernobyl irradiation: the trend observed in time is similar in both exposed and non-exposed areas in most situations. These observations do not exclude the fact that an increase of leukaemia may exist for those exposed as children; it may be too low to be detectable in a statistically significant way. Similarly, the higher rate of congenital malformations observed during recent years cannot be attributed to radiation, because the same trend over time is observed both in contaminated and non-contaminated areas in Belarus. Reliable and up-to-date knowledge has been collected in a H.E.D.A.C. database, it should facilitate communication concerning the health impact of the Chernobyl accident. The main results published at national or international level, will be made available to the public and the international scientific community via modern distribution methods and will contribute to the development of a necessary cohesion between international research programmes and work carried out locally. Contact the web site: www.fgi.icc.gov.ua For detailed information, final reports are available: contact with mentioned investigators is proposed (see authors of final reports) or contact scientific coordinator M. Tirmarche at I.R.S.N. (France) D. Bazyka at R.C.R.M., Kiev in charge of the database and communication of scientific results at Chernobyl Center.

  2. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, S B; Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G; Sidorov, I G; Proskurnin, V Yu

    2013-10-01

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m(-3), respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq (137)Cs and 22 Bq (90)Sr per m(3) as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly (90)Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of (90)Sr and (137)Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995-1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Long term alterations of blood plasma albumin in Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inta Kalnina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Albumin is the most generously represented protein in human blood plasma. Therefore it is important to follow and assess the transport function of albumin in clinic researches. Disturbances in structural/functional properties of albumin play an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases and immune state in patients. Changes in albumin transformation can serve as a diagnostic and prognostic criterion in pathologies. ABM (3-aminobenzanthrone derivative developed at the Daugavpils University, Latvia has been previously shown as a potential biomarker for determination of the immune state of patients with different pathologies. The aim of this study was to determine the several aspects of plasma albumin alterations in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers in long term period in relation with humans having no professional contact with radioactivity. The following parameters were examined: (1 spectral characteristics of ABM in blood plasma; (2 and #8216;effective and #8217; and total albumin (EA and TA concentration in blood plasma; (3 quantitative parameters of albumin auto-fluorescence; (4 albumin binding site characteristics. Screening of the individuals with a period of 25-26 years after the work in Chernobyl revealed two groups of patients differing in structural and functional albumin properties; first on conformations of plasma albumin, and second characteristics of tryptophanyl region of the molecule. The revealed structural modifications of albumin are dependent on radiation-induced factors. Concomitant diseases such as diabetes mellitus or cardio-vascular diseases reinforce radiation-induced effects. In conclusion, ABM is a sensitive probe for albumin alterations and can be used to elucidate the changes in protein systems. Significant differences in albumin dynamics exist between control (donors and groups of Chernobyl clean-up workers. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(3.000: 165-170

  4. Reindeer husbandry, the Swedish market for reindeer meat, and the Chernobyl effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostedt, G

    1998-12-31

    Reindeer husbandry in Sweden is an exclusive right for the Sami, northern Scandinavia`s indigenous people, and a cornerstone in the Sami culture. During the latest decades reindeer husbandry has however been under significant pressure for different reasons, among them low profitability. Part of the explanation for the low profitability lies in the effects of the Chernobyl accident. Due to the prevailing winds at the time of the accident northern Sweden, and consequently the grazing areas for the reindeer husbandry, was relatively heavily affected by radioactive fallout. This meant that reindeer meat suffered from a relatively high level of contamination. This has had effects both on the supply, since large numbers of reindeer had to be discarded, and on the demand, since the problem with contamination induced preference shifts away from reindeer meat. The purpose of this paper is to present an economic model of the Swedish reindeer husbandry and the market for reindeer meat, and to report some econometric results based on a data set from 1973/74 to 1995/96 on prices, quantities and other variables connected to the Swedish reindeer herding industry. The time period covers the main aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. In the theoretical section a model for the reindeer herder`s supply of reindeer meat is presented. The model is based on the fact that most reindeer herders only receive part of their income from reindeer husbandry. In the econometric section the demand and supply curves that are relevant for the reindeer herding industry are identified, using two-stage least squares regression. The most striking feature of the empirical results is a `backward-bending` supply function for the number of slaughtered reindeer, which is consistent with the theoretical model. The results also show a strong negative demand effect on reindeer meat after the Chernobyl accident 8 refs, 10 figs. Arbetsrapport 268

  5. Airborne and deposited radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. A review of investigations in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paatero, J. (Finnish Meteorogical Inst., Helsinki (Finland)); Haemeri, K. (Helsinki Univ., Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Jaakkola, T. (Helsinki Univ., Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland)); Jantunen, M. (National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland)); Koivukoski, J. (Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Government (Finland)); Saxen, R. (STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-07-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident happened in the former Soviet Union on 26 April 1986. The accident destroyed one of the RBMK-1000 type reactors and released significant radioactive contamination into the environment. At first the emissions were transported north-westwards over Poland, the Baltic States, Finland, Sweden and Norway. During 27 April 1986 emissions were spreading to eastern-central Europe, southern Germany, Italy and Yugoslavia. Radioactivity mapping over Finland between 29 April and 16 May 1986 showed that the ground deposition in Finland covered southern and central parts of the country but had an irregular distribution. The highest (over 100 muR h-1 [1 muSv h-1]) contamination disclosed by the mapping was around the city of Uusikaupunki in western Finland and the city of Kotka in southeastern Finland. The Uusikaupunki region was an area of heavy fallout associated with the air mass that was located in the Chernobyl area at the time of the accident. The fallout pattern of reftractory nuclides, e.g. plutonium isotopes, had their spatial maximum in this region. Medical consequences in Finland were luckily mild, the most important symptoms being psychological ones. No increase in thyroid cancer or birth defect occurrence has been observed. The Chernobyl accident boosted the radioecological research which had already been calming down after the last atmospheric nuclear test in China in October 1980. Important new results concerning e.g. hot particles have been achieved. The most important effects of the accident in Finland were, however, the increase of public awareness of environmental issues in general and especially of nuclear energy. In Finland, the nuclear energy programme was halted until 2002 when the Parliament of Finland granted a licence to build the fifth nuclear reactor in Finland. (orig.)

  6. Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasi, A. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-03-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

  7. Contamination of North- and Baltic Sea as a result of the accident of Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nies, H.; Wedekind, C.

    1987-01-01

    The input from 'Chernobyl' can be distinguished from other sources of artificial radionuclides, such as the reprocessing plants at La Hague and Sellafield, by its characteristic nuclide spectrum. The input occurred to quite different strength of activity in the different areas of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea; a rapid vertical dilution within the water column resulted in a rapid decrease of the initial activity concentration. The sediments are contaminated by the vertical transport of sinking suspended particulate matter, which adsorb the activity from the surrounding water.

  8. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy in Chernobyl disaster clean-up workers (a 20-year study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsonnaya, I V; Shumakher, G I; Golovin, V A

    2010-05-01

    Results obtained over 20-years of following 536 Chernobyl clean-up workers and 436 control subjects are presented. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy developed more frequently in persons exposed to radiation at age 30 years. As compared with the control group, workers were characterized by early onset of disease, faster progression, stable symptomatology for 5-6 years, and further progression of disease in the form of autonomic dysfunction, psycho-organic syndrome, and epilepsy. Major strokes were also more common in clean-up workers.

  9. [Discirculatory encephalopathy in liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear power station: a twenty-year study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsonnaia, I V; Shumakher, G I; Golovin, V A

    2009-01-01

    A comparative twenty-year study of 536 liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster and 436 patients without radiation anamnesis has been carried out. Discirculatory encephalopathy (DE) was more often developed in subjects exposed to radiation at the age 30 years. Compared to individuals from the general population, it is characterized by the earlier onset, malignant progression, rapid increase of signs of cerebral affection during the first two years after exposure to radiation, stability of clinical symptoms during the following 5-6 years and further progressive cerebral decompensation with early autonomic dysfunction, psychoorganic syndrome, epilepsy. Moreover, severe stroke is a common complication of DE in liquidators.

  10. Sources of contradictions in the evaluation of population genetic consequences after the chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazko, V I; Glazko, T T

    2013-01-01

    The review covers the analysis of our own and published data pertaining to population and genetic consequences in various mammalian species under conditions of high levels of ionizing radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The findings indicate that these conditions have promoted the reproduction of heterozygotes in polyloci spectra of molecular genetic markers and animals with a relatively increased stability of the chromosomal apparatus. The prospects of using the reproductive "success" of the carriers of these characteristics as an integral indicator of the selective influence of environmental stress factors are discussed.

  11. Chernobyl 30 years on. Key remediation and safety projects are 'on track'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-06-15

    Thirty years after the accident at Chernobyl, key remediation and safety projects are on track and construction of the vital Euro 1.5 bn (US Dollars 1.6 bn) New Safe Confinement (NSC) is almost finished with commissioning scheduled for November 2017, the company in charge of construction and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) told NucNet. The NSC is the most high profile and expensive element of the US Dollars 2.15 bn Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP), a framework developed to overcome the consequences of the accident.

  12. RADIATION CONDITIONS IN KALUGA REGION 30 YEARS AFTER CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ashitko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes radiation conditions in the Kaluga region 30 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The Chernobyl NPP accident caused radioactive contamination of nine Kaluga region territories: Duminichsky, Zhizdrinsky, Kuibyshevsky, Kirovsky, Kozelsky, Ludinovsky, Meshchovsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts. Radioactive fallout was the strongest in three southern districts: Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky, over there cesium-137 contamination density is from 1 to 15Ci/km. According to the Russian Federation Government Order in 2015 there are 300 settlements (S in the radioactive contamination zone, including 14 settlements with caesium-137 soil contamination density from 5 to 15 Ci/ km2 and 286 settlements with the contamination density ranging from 1 to 5 Ci/km2. In the first years after the Chernobyl NPP accident in Kaluga region territories, contaminated with caesium-137, there were introduced restrictive land usage, were carried out agrochemical activities (ploughing, mineral fertilizer dressing, there was toughened laboratory radiation control over the main doze-forming foodstuff. All these measures facilitated considerable decrease of caesium-137 content in local agricultural produce. Proceeding from the achieved result, in 2002 there took place the transition to more tough requirements SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01. Analysis of investigated samples from Zhizdrinsky, Ulyanovsky and Hvastovichsky districts demonstrated that since 2005 meat samples didn’t exceed the standard values, same for milk samples since 2007. Till the present time, the use of wild-growing mushrooms, berries and wild animals meat involves radiation issues. It was demonstrated that average specific activity of caesium-137 in milk samples keeps decreasing year after year. Long after the Chernobyl NPP accident, the main products forming internal irradiation doses in population are the wild-growing mushrooms and berries. Population average annual

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF ADDRESS REHABILITATION STRATEGY FOR THE RURAL TERRITORIES AFFECTED BY THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Panov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodological approach for the justification of rational countermeasure options in agricultural production in the long term after the Chernobyl NPP accident is presented. Settlements and collective farms located on the contaminated territory were divided categories based on the contamination density of 137Cs and in the first case on annual internal doses and on risk of the overestimation of standards, restricting the use of agricultural products (in the second case. For each category of the farms the ranking of rehabilitation options and the time periods when their application would be of importance were justified and estimated.

  14. Evaluation of the long-rang dispersion of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, K.S.; Jeong, H.J.; Kim, E.H.; Hwang, W.T.; Han, M.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Nuclear Environmental Research Div., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to predict and minimize the radiological damage for the surrounding environment since the Chernobyl accident. There are many nuclear power plants in the region of Northeast Asia. It is necessary to develop a long-range atmospheric dispersion model for the radiological emergency preparedness against a nuclear accident. From this viewpoint, a Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S.(Long-range Accident Dose Assessment System) was initially developed for the evaluation the long-range dispersion in Korea since 2001. The model designed to estimate air concentrations and dry deposition as well as wet deposition at distances up to some thousands of kilometers from the source point in a horizontal direction. The validation study of the model was firstly performed by comparing the measured values of E.T.E.X. exercise. The developed model was also applied to simulate the movements of the radioactive materials at the Chernobyl accident. An intercomparison and validation study among the long-range models was performed through the A.T.M.E.S.(Atmospheric Transport Model Evaluation Study) project under auspices of the IAEA/W.M.O. (world meteorological organization) in 1992. As a consequence of A.T.M.E.S., it was observed that in a real emergency case, under conditions of urgency and stress, many of the models would have had different results. So, one of the main recommendations was the launch of a long-range atmospheric tracer experiment in conditions as close as possible to those which could be found in a real emergency case, with the advantage of a complete knowledge of the source term. In this study, numerical simulations were carried out to estimate the concentration distributions of {sup 137}Cs. The calculated results agreed well with them by Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, a three dimensional Lagrangian particle model named L.A.D.A.S. was developed to evaluate the characteristics of a long-range atmospheric

  15. Speciation of caesium-137 and plutonium-isotopes in Chernobyl soil

    OpenAIRE

    Holmstrand, Marte Varpen

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident (1986) in present day Ukraine, was the first INES level 7 nuclear accident in the history of nuclear power. About 6-8 tonnes of spend uranium fuel were released and the fallout contained a series of short- and long lived radionuclides. The main deposition was in an area 30 km around the ChNPP, and the southern parts of Belarus. The area was permanently evacuated and called the exclusion zone. Some of the most long lived radionuclides released...

  16. The monitoring of herbaceous seeds in the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taskaev, A.I.; Frolova, N.P.; Popova, O.N.; Shevchenko, V.A. (AN SSSR, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation). Komi Filial AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Obshchej Genetiki)

    1992-02-01

    Species of wild herbaceous plants growing over a period of 3 years under chronic irradiation resulting from the Chernobyl accident were studied. Examining the mass of 1000 seeds and their germination did not yield any significant differences between groups of seeds of the same species collected from the different contaminated zones. Nor did the frequency of aberrant cells in roots of germinated seeds reveal any significant differences between the zones. Seeds of Plantago lanceolata growing in areas with higher levels of radiation, did appear to be more sensitive to additional gamma-irradiation. (author). 5 refs.; 7 figs.; 5 tabs.

  17. The Chernobyl murder. The nuclear Goulag; Le crime de Tchernobyl. Le goulag nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchertkoff, W

    2006-07-01

    The authors of this book are the Chernobyl victims of the 26 April 1986 nuclear accident: millions of poor farmers, contaminated young mothers and children which eat every days radionuclides; ''Liquidators'', sacrificed to stop the fire of the power plants; invalids and also doctors and scientists which refuse the nuclear lobby. This book presents the two Byelorussian scientists which have risk their career and their health to help the contaminated populations. This book takes stock on the today nuclear policy and becomes alarm in seeing the development of the nuclear program in many countries. (A.L.B.)

  18. Screening effects on thyroid cancer risk estimates for populations affected by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P.; Kaiser, J. C.; Vavilov, S.E.; Bogdanova, T.; Tronko, N. D.

    2004-07-01

    Simulation calculations are performed in order to explore the ecological bias in studies as they are performed with settlement specific data in the aftemath of the Chernobyl accident. Based on methods, that were developed by Lubin for exploring the ecologic bias due to smoking in indoor radon studies of lung cancer, the influence of the introduction of ultrasound devices and enhanced medical surveillance on the detection and reporting of thyroid cancer cases was investigated. Calculations were performed by simulating thyroid doses of one million children in a total of 744 settlements and assuming a linear dependence of the risk on dose and various scenarios of the screening. The dose distributions simulate the distributions similar to those used in previous ecologic studies of the thyroid cancer risk in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident. The ecologic bias was defined as the ratio of risk coefficients derived from an ecological study to the corresponding risk factor in the underlying risl model. the ecologic bias was estimated for each of the screening scenarios. Analytical equations were derived that allow the exact numerical compuation of the bias which is determined by covariance terms between the increased detection and reporting on one side and thyroid dose values (individual and averaged for the settlements) on the other side. Nested in th epopulation data, a cohort study was simulated with 10 000 individuals and an average thyroid dose of 0.3 Gy. the present study underlines the different scopes of the ecologic and cohort study designs perfomed in the aftermed of the Chernobyl accident. Whereas the ecologic studies give an estimate of the excess thyroid cancer risks per unit dose under the conditions of a health care system as it is typical for the affected countries after the Chernobyl accident, the cohort study gives risk estimates within a well screened cohort. Due to the strong screening effects, excess absoulte risks in the ecological study cohort are

  19. The Chernobyl – Thirty Years After The Post – Accidental Radiological – Hygienic and Medical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the result of the Chernobyl NPP accident more than 200 thousand square kilometers of the European territories were contaminated by Cs-137 in the amount of above 37 kBq/m2 (1 Ci/km2 . Belorussia, Russia and Ukraine amount up to 70% of this entire affected area. More than 600 000 people were engaged in the accidental cleanup operations, 340000 were evacuated or relocated within 1986-1991. The early stage evacuation efficacy is confirmed by the absence of acute radiation syndrome among the population and by the prevented collective dose which amounts to no less than 10 000 man/Sv. The effective measure to reduce the internal radiation dose to the population at the early accidental stage was introduction of maximum tentative permissive levels of radionuclide content in the foodstuffs.Among the identified post -accident medical consequences of the Chernobyl is the radiation syndrome found in 134 emergency cleanup workers within the first 24 hours of the accident’s development. Out of that number, 28 people died within the first four months, 19 people died before 2006. The accident’s liquidators developed radiation -induced leukemia ( the attributive risk value is 45-60% . People exposed to high radiation doses display the statistically significant 18% morbidity increase of all types of solid cancers at the doses above 150 mSv. There is the statistically significant information indicating the increased amount of thyroid cancer morbidity among those who were just children and teenagers at the time of the accident. The adverse psychological consequences are accounted for not just the fear of overexposure but also for the disturbance of the habitual lifestyle especially mindful of the forced relocation.The longterm protection measures, radionuclide decay and selfcleaning of the contaminated areas resulted in the drastic reduction of the population dose in the radioactively contaminated territories. In 2015, only in some settlements of the Briansk

  20. Tragedy of the Commons, Business Growth and the Fundamental Sustainability Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Garrity

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the major issues involved in Hardin’s [1] tragedy of the commons, written over 44 years ago, and examines whether these issues are still relevant today. We assert that this model still provides important insight to aid in the solution to our global problems. In particular, we maintain that the underlying issues of growth against limits and bounded rationality are still not adequately recognized and addressed; this underlies many of the reasons for our unsustainable world. Examples from fisheries management are used to examine potential solutions and reveal weaknesses in current approaches. We show how our current, restricted mental models promote social injustice and blind us to developing sustainable solutions. Both the neo-liberal economic view of business that directly seeks growth and the new sustainable development view that indirectly supports growth are leading our global economy in the wrong direction and away from prosperity and sustainability. Current thinking has not realized Hardin’s message that sustainability is of the class of no technology solution problems. We conclude with recommendations to radically advance a new world view and business paradigm.

  1. Aristoteles se siening van dramatiese spanning in die tragedie en die invloed daarvan op moderne dramateorie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cilliers

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle’s remarks about dramatic suspense in the Poetics are so diffuse and divergent in nature that it seems highly unlikely that he meant them to be regarded as a systematic theory on this subject. Yet his views in this regard - although set down in writing some 2400 years ago - are still in many respects the basis of modern drama theory. The emphasis which he places on the linear plot and on causal connection is an early recognition of two very important requisites for unity in a drama. The phases in the course of action which he pointed out and on which scholars like Scaliger, Freytag and Verhagen have built their theories, are still accepted in broad outline today. The desirability of concentrated action and of the identification of the spectator with the dramatis personae are factors which are still valid. And finally, his discussion of the effect which tragedy has on the spectators is the point of departure of modern reader-oriented theories.

  2. Antibiotic resistance as collateral damage: the tragedy of the commons in a two-disease setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Daozhou; Lietman, Thomas M; Porco, Travis C

    2015-05-01

    We propose a simple two-disease epidemic model where one disease exhibits only a drug-sensitive strain, while the other exhibits both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains. Treatment for the first disease may select for resistance in the other. We model antibiotic use as a mathematical game through the study of individual incentives and community welfare. The basic reproduction number is derived and the existence and local stability of the model equilibria are analyzed. When the force of infection of each disease is unaffected by the presence of the other, we find that there is a conflict of interest between individual and community, known as a tragedy of the commons, under targeted treatment toward persons infected by the single strain disease, but there is no conflict under mass treatment. However, we numerically show that individual and social incentive to use antibiotics may show disaccord under mass treatment if the restriction on the transmission ability of the dually infected people is removed, or drug resistant infection is worse than drug sensitive infection, or the uninfected state has a comparative disutility over the infected states. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Northwick Park tragedy--protecting healthy volunteers in future first-in-man trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsing, T; Kendall, M J

    2007-06-01

    The development of potentially powerful drugs which may become effective in the treatment for disorders currently difficult to manage presents the pharmaceutical industry and the scientific community with a major challenge. Such drugs with novel modes of action and the capacity to modify the body's immune system could also be very toxic. The possibility became a tragic reality on March 13th 2006 when TGN1412 was given to six healthy volunteers at Northwick Park hospital. All six became seriously ill. Fortunately none died but some were left with serious residual defects. The British Secretary of State for Health set up an Expert Scientific Group to investigate this tragic event. The report had to make recommendations designed to prevent a recurrence whilst not unduly delaying or discouraging the development of new drugs designed to treat cancers and other serious disorders. They made 22 recommendations. The drug TGN1412 had been shown to be well tolerated by non-human primates. A recent report on non-human primates in research recommended their continued use in some forms of research, for example on brain disorders. However, they also recommended that non-human primates should be used sparingly and only when justified scientifically. Their treatment should be optimal and research on them should be restricted to selected centres of expertise. The tragedy at Northwick Park should encourage the Pharmaceutical Industry to rethink their use of non-human primates in drug toxicity testing and hopefully to reduce their use and treat them better.

  4. 论森鸥外《舞姬》爱情悲剧的原因%Analysis of Love Tragedy in Mori Ougai's Maihime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭燕燕

    2015-01-01

    《舞姬》是森鸥外的处女作,是日本浪漫主义文学的先锋之作。《舞姬》是一个浪漫的爱情悲剧,造成丰太郎和爱丽丝的爱情悲剧的原因是多方面的。东西方文化剧烈冲突的社会环境是造成《舞姬》爱情悲剧的根本原因,丰太郎自我解放的不彻底性是悲剧的直接原因。爱丽丝的缺乏独立软弱的性格成为《舞姬》爱情悲剧的间接原因。%Maihime is the maiden work of Mori Ogai's novels . It is also among the representative work of his earlier creative writings about the romanticism literature . Maihime is a romantic love tragedy . There are many reasons for Toyotaro and Alice's love tragedy . Social environments which have violent cultural conflicts between East and West are the root cause of the love tragedy . Incompleteness of Toyotaro's self-liberation is the direct cause of the tragedy . Alice's independence and weakness in her character become the indirect cause of the love tragedy .

  5. An Analysis of Causes of Hester' s Tragedy in The Scarlet Letter%探析《红字》中海斯特的悲剧成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭佳

    2012-01-01

    This paper probes into the causes of Hester' s tragedy. Hester' s tragedy is caused by that time society, which is dark and chaotic; Puritan religion, which is ruthless; personal attributes, which is containing evil, hypocrite, weakness and naivet6. This role enlightens us readers as to reflections on women' s status and on social transformation. Hester' s tragedy is sympathetic. It is not only the tragedy of Hester but also the tragedy of that era.%本文深入剖析了小说《红字》中的女主人公海斯特的悲剧成因。美国殖民地时期黑暗和混乱的社会环境、无情的清教思想、各个人物的性格缺陷导致了海斯特的悲剧。小说所塑造的这一悲剧的女主角形象启发读者去思考在任何社会背景下女性的地位;启发我们去思考有关社会变革方面的问题。海斯特的悲剧值得同情,这不仅仅是她个人的悲剧,同时也反映了美国殖民地时期整个社会的悲剧。

  6. Asymmetric interaction paired with a super-rational strategy might resolve the tragedy of the commons without requiring recognition or negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun-Zhou; Wang, Rui-Wu; Jensen, Christopher X. J.; Li, Yao-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Avoiding the tragedy of the commons requires that one or more individuals in a group or partnership ``volunteer'', benefiting the group at a cost to themselves. Recognition and negotiation with social partners can maintain cooperation, but are often not possible. If recognition and negotiation are not always the mechanism by which cooperative partnerships avoid collective tragedies, what might explain the diverse social cooperation observed in nature? Assuming that individuals interact asymmetrically and that both ``weak'' and ``strong'' players employ a super-rational strategy, we find that tragedy of the commons can be avoided without requiring either recognition or negotiation. Whereas in the volunteer's dilemma game a rational ``strong'' player is less likely to volunteer to provide a common good in larger groups, we show that under a wide range of conditions a super-rational ``strong'' player is more likely to provide a common good. These results imply that the integration of super-rationality and asymmetric interaction might have the potential to resolve the tragedy of the commons. By illuminating the conditions under which players are likely to volunteer, we shed light on the patterns of volunteerism observed in variety of well-studied cooperative social systems, and explore how societies might avert social tragedies.

  7. Doses to members of the general public and observed effects on biota: Chernobyl Forum update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, Lynn R

    2007-01-01

    The Chernobyl Forum was organized by the United Nations to examine the health and environmental effects of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. This paper is concerned with the environmental effects, as determined by Expert Group Environment. The accident resulted in release of a large amount of radioactive materials over a period of 10 days. These materials were deposited throughout Europe with the three more affected countries being Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. More than 5 million persons lived on territories in these countries judged to be contaminated at >37kBqm(-2). Many countermeasures were employed to mitigate the effects of the accident. The collective effective dose to the residents of the contaminated territories is estimated to be about 55,000 person-Sv. Effects on non-human biota were observed that ranged from minor to lethal; the current increase in the number and diversity of species in the most contaminated area is due to absence of human pressure.

  8. A multilevel analysis of long-term psychological distress among Belarusians affected by the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, G P; Baker, J A; Falkner, K; Chegerova, T; Pryshchepava, A; Chegerov, V; Zevon, M; Bromet, E; Havenaar, J; Valdismarsdottir, H; Moysich, K B

    2008-11-01

    Radiation contamination and sociopolitical instability following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster have had a profound impact on Belarus. To investigate the factors that impact long-term mental health outcomes of this population almost 20 years after the disaster. Cross-sectional study. In-person interviews were conducted with 381 men and women from two geographic areas of differing radiation contamination within Belarus. Participants completed surveys of demographics, psychosocial factors and psychological distress. Individual-level characteristics were combined with household-level measures of radiation contamination exposure and family characteristics to create multilevel predictive models of psychological distress. Between-household effects accounted for 20% of variability in depression and anxiety scores, but only 8% of variability in somatization scores. Degree of chronic daily stressors showed a significant positive relationship with psychological distress, whereas mastery/controllability showed a significant inverse relationship with distress. At household level, perceived family problems, but not level of residential radiation contamination, was the best predictor of distress. Multilevel modelling indicates that long-term psychological distress among Belarusians affected by the Chernobyl disaster is better predicted by stress-moderating psychosocial factors present in one's daily life than by level of residential radiation contamination.

  9. Plants from Chernobyl zone could shed light on genome stability in radioactive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Galina; Talalaiev, Oleksandr; Doonan, John

    2016-07-01

    For nearly 30 years, despite of chronic radiation, flora in Chernobyl zone continue to flourish, evidencing the adaptation of plants to such an environment. Keeping in mind interplanetary missions, this phenomenon is a challenge for plant space research since it highlights the possible mechanisms of genome protection and stabilization in harmful environment. Plants are sessile organisms and, contrary to animals, could not escape the external impact. Therefore, plants should evolve the robust system allowing DNA-protection against damage, which is of special interest. Our investigations show that Arabidopsis thaliana from Chernobyl zone tolerate radiomimetics and heavy metals better than control plants from non-polluted areas. Besides, its genome is less affected by such mutagens. qPCR investigations have revealed up-regulation of some genes involved in DNA damage response. In particular, expression of ATR is increased slightly and downstream expression of CycB1:1 gene is increased significantly after bleomycin treatment suggesting role of ATR-dependent pathway in genome stabilization. Several DNA repair pathways are known to exist in plants. We continue investigations on gene expression from different DNA repair pathways as well as cell cycle regulation and investigation of PCD hallmarks in order to reveal the mechanism of plant tolerance to radiation environment. Our investigations provide unique information for space researchers working on biotechnology of radiation tolerant plants.

  10. Phytoremediation of radiocesium-contaminated soil in the vicinity of Chernobyl, Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dushenkov, S. [Phytotech, Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States); Mikheev, A.; Prokhnevsky, A.; Ruchko, M.; Sorochinsky, B. [National Academy of Science, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering

    1999-02-01

    Remediation of soil contaminated with {sup 137}Cs remains one of the most challenging tasks after the Chernobyl 1986 accident. The objectives of this research were to (1) identify extractants that may be used to solubilize {sup 137}Cs in soil solution, (2) study the effect of soil amendments on {sup 137}Cs accumulation by plants, and (3) evaluate the applicability of phytoextraction for environmental restoration of soil contaminated with {sup 137}Cs. The availability of {sup 137}Cs to the plants in Chernobyl soil was limited, because this radionuclide was tightly bound to exchange sites of soil particles or incorporated into the crystalline structure of primary and secondary minerals. Out of 20 soil amendments tested to increase {sup 137}Cs desorption/solubility in the soil, ammonium salts were found to be the most practical soil amendment that can potentially increase {sup 137}Cs bioavailability. Among the screened plants, Amaranth cultivars had the highest {sup 137}Cs accumulation. Three sequential crops of Indian mustard grown in one vegetation season at the experimental plot resulted in a small decrease of {sup 137}Cs specific activity within the top 15 cm of soil. Further improvements are necessary to make phytoremediation technology a feasible option for restoration of {sup 137}Cs-contaminated territories.

  11. Radiocaesium Activity Concentrations in Potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl Accident and Dose Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Franic, Z; Marovic, G; Petrinec, B

    2007-01-01

    Systematic investigations of 137Cs and 134Cs activity concentrations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period (1986-2005) in the Republic of Croatia are summarized. The correlation between 137Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r2=0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 18 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of 137Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.8 +/- 1.1 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. Thi...

  12. Mesoscale modelling of radioactive contamination formation in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talerko, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    This work is devoted to the reconstruction of time-dependent radioactive contamination fields in the territory of Ukraine in the initial period of the Chernobyl accident using the model of atmospheric transport LEDI (Lagrangian-Eulerian DIffusion model). The modelling results were compared with available 137Cs air and ground contamination measurement data. The 137Cs atmospheric transport over the territory of Ukraine was simulated during the first 12 days after the accident (from 26 April to 7 May 1986) using real aerological information and rain measurement network data. The detailed scenario of the release from the accidental unit of the Chernobyl nuclear plant has been built (including time-dependent radioactivity release intensity and time-varied height of the release). The calculations have enabled to explain the main features of spatial and temporal variations of radioactive contamination fields over the territory of Ukraine on the regional scale, including the formation of the major large-scale spots of radioactive contamination caused by dry and wet deposition.

  13. Workshop on short-term health effects of reactor accidents: Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-08

    The high-dose early-effects research that has been continued has been done in the context of infrequent accidents with large radiation sources and the use of bone marrow transfusions for treating malignancies, especially leukemia. It thus seemed appropriate to bring together those who have done research on and have had experience with massive whole-body radiation. The objectives were to review what is known about the acute effects of whole-body irradiation, to review the current knowledge of therapy, and particularly of the diagnostic and immunologic problems encountered in bone marrow therapy, and to compare this knowledge with observations made to date on the Chernobyl accident radiation casualties. Dr. Robert Gale, who had helped to care for these casualties, was present at the Workshop. It was hoped that such a review would help those making continuing clinical and pathological observations on the Chernobyl casualties, and that these observations would provide a basis for recommendations for additional research that might result in improved ability to manage successfully this type of severe injury.

  14. Mesoscale modelling of radioactive contamination formation in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talerko, Nikolai [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, 53 Melnikov Street, Kyiv 04050 (Ukraine)]. E-mail: nick@rpi.kiev.ua

    2005-03-01

    This work is devoted to the reconstruction of time-dependent radioactive contamination fields in the territory of Ukraine in the initial period of the Chernobyl accident using the model of atmospheric transport LEDI (Lagrangian-Eulerian DIffusion model). The modelling results were compared with available {sup 137}Cs air and ground contamination measurement data. The {sup 137}Cs atmospheric transport over the territory of Ukraine was simulated during the first 12 days after the accident (from 26 April to 7 May 1986) using real aerological information and rain measurement network data. The detailed scenario of the release from the accidental unit of the Chernobyl nuclear plant has been built (including time-dependent radioactivity release intensity and time-varied height of the release). The calculations have enabled to explain the main features of spatial and temporal variations of radioactive contamination fields over the territory of Ukraine on the regional scale, including the formation of the major large-scale spots of radioactive contamination caused by dry and wet deposition.

  15. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident; Radiologische Folgen des Tschernobyl-Ungluecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P.

    1996-05-01

    Large areas of Belarus, Russia, and the Ukraine have been highly contaminated by the radioactive fallout from the reactor accident at Chernobyl. The most affected areas are around Chernobyl and east of Gomel in Belarus, where part of the radioactive fallout came down with rain. The article maps the radioactive contamination through cesium 137 and iodine 131, and summarizes the immediate action taken at the time, as well as long-term remedial action for decontamination of soils. Data are given on the radiation exposure of the population, in particular doses to the thyroid, and prognoses on the incidence of thyroid cancer. (VHE) [Deutsch] Durch den Reaktorunfall von Tschernobyl wurden groessere Flaechen von Belarus, Russland und der Ukraine stark radioaktiv kontaminiert. Besonders betroffen sind die Umgebung von Tschernobyl sowie die Gegend oestlich von Gomel (Belarus), wo die radioaktive Wolke teilweise ausregnete. Der Artikel beschreibt die Belastung mit Caesium 137 und Iod 131 sowie die ergriffenen Sofortmassnahmen und die langfristigen Massnahmen zur Dekontamination der betroffenen Boeden. Die Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung, v.a. die Schilddruesendosen, werden beschrieben, fuer Schilddruesenkrebs werden Prognosen gegeben. (VHE)

  16. Caesium 137 in northern Swedish moose: The first year after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danell, K.; Nelin, P. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Wildlife Ecology); Wickman, G. (Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Radiation Physics Dept.)

    1989-01-01

    Levels of /sup 137/ caesium were monitored in northern Sweden during the first year after the Chernobyl accident (April 1986). Samples were collected from 3661 moose in an area where the deposited /sup 137/ caesium ranged from two to 60 kilo-becquerel per m/sup 2/. Concentrations of caesium in moose muscle correlated positively with the ground deposition of caesium. On average, the caesium levels found in moose after Chernobyl were about 470 Bq per kg fresh mass for calves and close to 300 for older animals. The average level in moose before the accident was 33 Bq per kg. Among moose older than one year, higher concentrations were found in females than in the males. There was a pronounced seasonal variation in the /sup 137/ caesium concentration found in moose. Within the investigation area the presence of caesium in moose resulted in a minor proportion of the hunters discarding the animals shot and/or terminating the hunt before the end of the season.

  17. Non-thyroid cancer in Northern Ukraine in the post-Chernobyl period: Short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, M; Ostroumova, E; Brenner, A; Federenko, Z; Gorokh, Y; Zvinchuk, O; Shpak, V; Tereschenko, V; Tronko, M; Mabuchi, K

    2015-06-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Ukraine in 1986 led to widespread radioactive releases into the environment - primarily of radioiodines and cesium - heavily affecting the northern portions of the country, with settlement-averaged thyroid doses estimated to range from 10 mGy to more than 10 Gy. The increased risk of thyroid cancer among exposed children and adolescents is well established but the impact of radioactive contamination on the risk of other types of cancer is much less certain. To provide data on a public health issue of major importance, we have analyzed the incidence of non-thyroid cancers during the post-Chernobyl period in a well-defined cohort of 13,203 individuals who were cancers identified through linkage with the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine for the period 1998 through 2009. We compared the observed and expected number of cases in three cancer groupings: all solid cancers excluding thyroid, leukemia, and lymphoma. Our analyses found no evidence of a statistically significant elevation in cancer risks in this cohort exposed at radiosensitive ages, although the cancer trends, particularly for leukemia (SIR=1.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.69; 4.13), should continue to be monitored.

  18. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 1 safety state of the sarcophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretzsch, G.; Roloff, R.; Roloff, R.; Artmann, A. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagenund Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) (Germany); Lhomme, V. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Berberich, G. [Erftstadt-Gymnich (Germany); Selesnew, A

    2005-07-01

    The data collected and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative are an excellent basis for the intended specialist application at the Chernobyl Centre as well as for an extended use in connection with the restoration of the Sarcophagus as part of the 'Shelter Implementation Plan' performed under the auspices of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The major goals of the S.I.P. are the stabilisation of the existing Sarcophagus and the erection of a New Safe Confinement (N.S.C.) around the already existing Sarcophagus, the degasifier wing and the turbine building.This N.S.C. is to safely confine the radioactive materials for at least 100 years and is to allow their retrieval from inside if need be as well as the dismantling of the old structure.In addition, the database can be used for obtaining information needed for project descriptions, safety analysis reports, etc. The Ukrainian safety authority S.N.R.C.U. (State Nuclear Regulatory Committee of Ukraine) and its technical safety organisation, the State Scientific-Technical Center (S.S.T.C.), have also signaled their interest in using the database.Further information on the F.G.I. and on the 'Radioecology and Health Programmes' can be found at: www.fgi1-chernobyl.de.vu; www.grs.de, www.irsn.fr; www.fgi.icc.gov.ua. (N.C.)

  19. VERTICAL MIGRATION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE VICINITY OF THE CHERNOBYL CONFINEMENT SHELTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Studies on vertical migration of Chernobyl-origin radionuclides in the 5-km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the area of the Red Forest experimental site were completed. Measurements were made by gamma spectrometric methods using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with beryllium windows. Alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium were determined by the measurement of the x-rays from their uranium progeny. The presence of {sup 60}Co, {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 154,155}Eu, and {sup 241}Am in all soil layers down to a depth of 30 cm was observed. The presence of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am were noted in the area containing automorphous soils to a depth of 60 cm. In addition, the upper soil layers at the test site were found to contain {sup 243}Am and {sup 243}Cm. Over the past ten years, the {sup 241}Am/{sup 137}Cs ratio in soil at the experimental site has increased by a factor of 3.4, nearly twice as much as would be predicted based solely on radioactive decay. This may be due to 'fresh' fallout emanating from the ChNPP Confinement Shelter.

  20. [Genetic effects in populations of plants growing in the zone of Kyshtym and Chernobyl accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V A; Kal'chenko, V A; Abramov, V I; Rubanovich, A V; Shevchenko, V V; Grinikh, L I

    1999-01-01

    Studies to analyze the genetic processes in natural populations of plants were started on the territory of the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) in 1962 and in the zone of the Chernobyl accident in May 1986. The main directions of the genetic studies in both radioactive areas were similar: 1) study of the mutation process intensity depending on the dose and dose rate and analysis of dose-effect relationships for different genetic changes (point mutations, chromosome aberrations in mitosis and meiosis) in irradiated plant populations; 2) study of the mutation process dynamics in generations of chronically (prolongly) irradiated populations of plants; 3) analysis of microevolutionary processes in irradiated plant populations. The report presents an analysis of observed dose-effect relationships under the action of radiation on populations of Arabidopsis thaliana, Pinus sylvestris and a number of other plant species. Analysis of the mutation processes dynamics in 8 Arabidopsis populations growing in the zone of the Chernobyl catastrophe has demonstrated that the level of the embryo lethal mutations 10 years after the accident in the irradiated populations significantly exceeds the control level. The following phenomena observed in chronically irradiated populations have also been considered: increased radioresistance of irradiated populations (radioadaptation), the appearance of abnormal karyotypes and selective markers upon chronic irradiation. The authors call attention to the high importance of monitoring of genetic processes in irradiated plant populations for understanding of the action of radiation on human populations.

  1. Distribution of pre- and post-Chernobyl radiocaesium with particle size fractions of soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spezzano, Pasquale [ENEA, Sezione Metodi di Analisi e Prevenzione del Rischio Antropico, Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    The association of radiocaesium with particle size fractions separated by sieving and settling from soils sampled eight years after the Chernobyl accident has been determined. The three size fractions were: <2 {mu}m, 2-63 {mu}m and >63 {mu}m. {sup 137}Cs in the soil samples was associated essentially with the finer size fractions, which generally showed specific activities 3-5 times higher than the bulk samples. Activity ratios of {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs in the clay-sized fractions appear to be lower with respect to the corresponding values in bulk soil samples. This result indicates that some differences still exists in the particle size distribution between {sup 137}Cs originating from nuclear weapons, which has been in the soil for decades after fallout, and {sup 137}Cs coming from the Chernobyl accident, eight years after the deposition event. This behaviour could be related to 'ageing' processes of radiocaesium in soils.

  2. Leukemia and Thyroid Tumour in an East-Slovakian District after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icso, J.; Szoelloesova, M

    1998-07-01

    The incidence of leukaemia and thyroid gland tumour in the 10 year period after the Chernobyl accident has been investigated in Roznava-district with {gamma}86,000 inhabitants (east Slovakia, 1600 km SW of Chernobyl), and compared with a control period before the accident. A 2.1 times higher cumulative incidence of acute lymphatic leukaemia (median age: 11 y) and 1.3 times higher of thyroid gland tumour (median age: 47 y) was found compared with the same period before the accident. There was no increase in acute myeloid leukaemia, nor in chronic cases. A statistical analysis using the {gamma}{sup 2}-test, however, showed the results were not significant. Most of all the cases were in 1990-95 (45% of all cases), thyroid tumours were cumulating in 1992 and 1994 (53%). Although an association with an exposure to radiation was not proved, the results could support a hypothesis of a positive correlation even in such a relatively distant area of east Slovakia. (author)

  3. Evidence for selection in response to radiation exposure: Pinus sylvestris in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchma, Oleksandra, E-mail: oleksandra.kuchma@googlemail.com [Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding, Buesgen Institute, Georg-August University Goettingen, Buesgenweg 2, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Finkeldey, Reiner, E-mail: rfinkel@gwdg.de [Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding, Buesgen Institute, Georg-August University Goettingen, Buesgenweg 2, Goettingen 37077 (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Changes of genetic structures due to viability selection are likely to occur in populations exposed to rapidly and extremely changing environmental conditions after catastrophic events. However, very little is known about the extent of selective responses and in particular the proportion of the genome involved in putatively adaptive reactions for non-model plants. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) in order to investigate genetic differences between pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees which were partially exposed to extreme environmental conditions. Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation in the Chernobyl exclusion zone with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees with a similar origin. Six percent of the investigated loci (15 of 222 loci) were identified as candidates for selective responses. Moderate differentiation was observed between groups of trees showing either weak or strong phenotypic responses to high radiation levels. - Highlights: > Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation were investigated. > Pines with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees. > AFLP markers were used to reveal evidences of selection processes. > 15 of 222 loci are identified as candidates for selective responses. > Moderate differentiation is observed between irradiated and control trees. - Genetic responses to the exposure of trees to radiation in the Chernobyl zone may involve adaptive changes at a comparatively large part of the genome.

  4. Classification of hot particles from the Chernobyl accident and nuclear weapons detonations by non-destructive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheltonozhsky, V; Mück, K; Bondarkov, M

    2001-01-01

    Both after the Chernobyl accident and nuclear weapon detonations, agglomerates of radioactive material, so-called hot particles, were released or formed which show a behaviour in the environment quite different from the activity released in gaseous or aerosol form. The differences in their characteristic properties, in the radionuclide composition and the uranium and actinide contents are described in detail for these particles. While nuclear bomb hot particles (both from fission and fusion bombs) incorporate well detectable trace amounts of 60Co and 152Eu, these radionuclides are absent in Chernobyl hot particles. In contrast, Chernobyl hot particles contain 125Sb and 144Ce which are absent in atomic bomb HPs. Obvious differences are also observable between fusion and fission bombs' hot particles (significant differences in 152Eu/l55Eu, 154Eu/155Eu and 238Pu/239Pu ratios) which facilitate the identification of HPs of unknown provensence. The ratio of 239Pu/240Pu in Chernobyl hot particles could be determined by a non-destructive method at 1:1.5. A non-destructive method to determine the content of non-radioactive elements by Kalpha-emission measurements was developed by which inactive Zr, Nb, Fe and Ni could be verified in the particles.

  5. Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Near-surface final repository for the NPP Chernobyl, Ukraine; Oberflaechennahes Endlager fuer das KKW Tschernobyl, Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, Heiko [NUKEM Technologies GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    NUKEM Technologies has realized the project of near-surface final radioactive waste storage at the site of the NPP Chernobyl. The complex includes facilities for treatment and processing of solid wastes, interim storage facilities for high-level waste and a near-surface final repository for conditioned radioactive waste. The project is funded by the European Union in the frame of TACIS.

  7. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the

  8. Community-Driven Hypothesis Testing: A Solution for the Tragedy of the Anticommons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Oliveira, José Manuel; Trump, Benjamin D; Wood, Matthew D; Linkov, Igor

    2017-07-11

    Shared ownership of property and resources is a longstanding challenge throughout history that has been amplifying with the increasing development of industrial and postindustrial societies. Where governments, project planners, and commercial developers seek to develop new infrastructure, industrial projects, and various other land-and resource-intensive tasks, veto power shared by various local stakeholders can complicate or halt progress. Risk communication has been used as an attempt to address stakeholder concerns in these contexts, but has demonstrated shortcomings. These coordination failures between project planners and stakeholders can be described as a specific kind of social dilemma that we describe as the "tragedy of the anticommons." To overcome such dilemmas, we demonstrate how a two-step process can directly address public mistrust of project planners and public perceptions of limited decision-making authority. This approach is examined via two separate empirical field experiments in Portugal and Tunisia, where public resistance and anticommons problems threatened to derail emerging industrial projects. In both applications, an intervention is undertaken to address initial public resistance to such projects, where specific public stakeholders and project sponsors collectively engaged in a hypothesis-testing process to identify and assess human and environmental health risks associated with proposed industrial facilities. These field experiments indicate that a rigorous attempt to address public mistrust and perceptions of power imbalances and change the pay-off structure of the given dilemma may help overcome such anticommons problems in specific cases, and may potentially generate enthusiasm and support for such projects by local publics moving forward. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. A tragedy of errors? Institutional dynamics and land tenure in Finnmark, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Marin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer herding in Finnmark has been widely perceived during the last few decades as a perfect example of the tragedy of the commons. The present article claims that this discourse relies on flawed assumption regarding land tenure. Our historical analysis of the term ‘common’ in relation to resources in Finnmark shows the term to reflect a misunderstanding of local categories, practices, and concerns related to pastures, territories, and natural resources more generally. In this sense, it exposes a case of ‘mistaken identity’ between the formal legal conception of ‘commons’ and the customary rules and thinking of reindeer herders. We turn to different strands of critical institutionalism to analyse the processes of institutional change that have allowed these errors and misunderstandings to be formalised and naturalised in the current governance system. We show that a process of institutional bargaining between the Norwegian Parliament, the Sámi Parliament, and the International Labour Organisation has recently re-enforced an alien conception of a ‘commons’ to which ambiguous groups of people have equivocal rights. In parallel, a process of institutional layering of new regulatory actors and rules on top of existing ones has taken place. This regulatory ratcheting has resulted in the blurring of the authorities and jurisdictions intrinsic in the customary tenure system. Moreover, the new layers of regulations have actively overemphasized the Sámi customary obligation of sharing resources to legitimize the new, ambiguous, conception of commons. This process is explained as one of institutional bricolage based on naturalisation by analogy and authority processes that allow certain powerful actors to influence the production of institutional arrangements favourable to them. All three processes underline the negotiated, dynamic nature of institutional change. We propose this integrative analysis of institutional and general social

  10. Non-social adaptation defers a tragedy of the commons in Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahl, Kyle L; Walsh, Jessica; Gilbert, Kerrigan; Schuster, Martin

    2015-08-01

    In a process termed quorum sensing (QS), the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses diffusible signaling molecules to regulate the expression of numerous secreted factors or public goods that are shared within the population. But not all cells respond to QS signals. These social cheaters typically harbor a mutation in the QS receptor gene lasR and exploit the public goods produced by cooperators. Here we show that non-social adaptation under growth conditions that require QS-dependent public goods increases tolerance to cheating and defers a tragedy of the commons. The underlying mutation is in the transcriptional repressor gene psdR. This mutation has no effect on public goods expression but instead increases individual fitness by derepressing growth-limiting intracellular metabolism. Even though psdR mutant populations remain susceptible to invasion by isogenic psdR lasR cheaters, they bear a lower cheater load than do wild-type populations, and they are completely resistant to invasion by lasR cheaters with functional psdR. Mutations in psdR also sustain growth near wild-type levels when paired with certain partial loss-of-function lasR mutations. Targeted sequencing of multiple evolved isolates revealed that mutations in psdR arise before mutations in lasR, and rapidly sweep through the population. Our results indicate that a QS-favoring environment can lead to adaptations in non-social, intracellular traits that increase the fitness of cooperating individuals and thereby contribute to population-wide maintenance of QS and associated cooperative behaviors.

  11. THE RECEPTION OF GREEK TRAGEDY IN THE “OLD” AND THE “NEW” SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Van Zyl Smit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reception studies in Classics are, as Lorna Hardwick (2003:iii remarks in the preface to her recently published survey, changing rapidly. They include the study of translations, adaptations and performances of ancient Greek and Latin texts. This article concentrates on the reception of only one genre of Greek literature in South Africa and cannot pretend to deal with it exhaustively. Nevertheless the examination of a substantial number of translations, adaptations and productions of Greek tragedies in this country in the twentieth century reveals a continuing fascination with these classics. It also discloses aspects of the social, cultural and political circumstances of the milieu in which they were reinterpreted.

  12. Radiation-epidemiological Study of Cerebrovascular Diseases in the Cohort of Russian Recovery Operation Workers of the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashcheev, V V; Chekin, S Yu; Maksioutov, M A; Tumanov, K A; Menyaylo, A N; Kochergina, E V; Kashcheeva, P V; Gorsky, A I; Shchukina, N V; Karpenko, S V; Ivanov, V K

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) in the cohort of Russian workers involved in recovery tasks after the Chernobyl accident. The studied cohort consists of 53,772 recovery operation workers (liquidators) who arrived in the zone of the Chernobyl accident within the first year after this accident (26 April 1986-26 April 1987). The mean external whole body dose in the cohort was 0.161 Gy, while individual doses varied from 0.0001 Gy to 1.42 Gy. During the follow-up period 1986-2012, a total of 23,264 cases of CeVD were diagnosed as a result of annual health examinations. A Poisson regression model was applied for estimation of radiation risks and for an assessment of other risk factors of CeVD. The following factors were considered as risk factors for CeVD: the dose, duration of the liquidators' work in the Chernobyl zone, and the concomitant diseases (hypertension, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, and diabetes). The baseline incidence of CeVD is statistically significantly (p < 0.001) associated with all studied concomitant diseases. The incidence of CeVD has revealed a statistically significant dose response with the lack of a latent period and with the average ERR/Gy = 0.45, 95% CI: (0.28, 0.62), p < 0.001. Radiation risks of CeVD statistically significantly (p = 0.03) varied with the duration of liquidators' stay in the Chernobyl zone; for those who stayed in the Chernobyl zone less than 6 wk, ERR/Gy = 0.64, 95% CI = (0.38; 0.93), p < 0.001. Among studied concomitant diseases, diabetes mellitus statistically significantly (p = 0.002) increases the radiation risk of CeVD: for liquidators with diagnosed diabetes, ERR/Gy = 1.29.

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Two Female Protagonists’Love Tragedy in The Age of Innocence:A Feminist Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵天毓

    2015-01-01

    As an American modern woman writer,Edith Wharton(1862-1937)occupies an important position in realism literature of the late 19th and early 20th century,which is best known for her stories and ironic novels about upper class people in the “Old New York”.Meanwhile, as a woman writer,she has a deep understanding of the status and role of woman at that time.This thesis employs feminist theory as theoretical foundation and adopts content analysis and comparison and contrast as the research methods.It first gives a brief introduction to the background of feminism;then it deals with the oppression of woman in the Old New York society.After that,it mainly makes a comparative analysis of two female protagonists,so as to prove the oppression of woman and the limitation of their self-development at that time.No matter what they choose,com-prise or resistance,they have to submit to the society eventually.In addition,it also points out the limitations of the present thesis and brings up some suggestions for further studies in the future.

  14. Imperfect conformation of experimental and epidemiological data for frequency of RET/РТС gene rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma for the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushenkova L.N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In an overview and analytical study of the epidemiological data on the frequency of RET/РТС gene rearrangements in sporadic and radiogenic (patients after radiotherapy, residents of contaminated after the Chernobyl disaster areas, victims after the atomic bombings, etc. carcinomas of the thyroid gland were examined. In general, the observed epidemiological laws were confirmed in radiobiology experiments by irradiation of different cultures of thyroid cells and ex vivo with the exception of Chernobyl cohorts. Induction of RET/РТС gene rearrangements by 131l exposure in children carcinomas of Chernobyl residents in mice did not observe too. It is concluded that the situation with the frequency of RET/РТС rearrangements in thyroid carcinoma in Chernobyl cohorts once again confirms the multifactorial nature of the induction and development of these tumors with a contribution of radiation and non-radiation factors (iodine deficiency and different stresses.

  15. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte-Pradines, C., E-mail: catherine.lecomte-pradines@irsn.fr [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Bonzom, J.-M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Della-Vedova, C. [Magelis, 6, rue Frederic Mistral, 84160 Cadenet (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, K. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LM2E, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Villenave, C. [ELISOL Environment, Building 12, Campus de la Gaillarde, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 2 (France); Gaschak, S. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Coppin, F. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, L2BT, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Dubourg, N. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, GARM Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Maksimenko, A. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France)

    2014-08-15

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h{sup −1}. These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H′). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h{sup −1}. This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites

  16. Abundance and diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in lakes exposed to Chernobyl-derived ionising radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Nagorskaya, L.L. [Institute of Zoology NAS Belarus, 27, Academicheskaya st., 220072, Minsk (Belarus); Smith, J.T., E-mail: Jim.Smith@port.ac.uk [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Bldg, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3QL (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Littoral (lake shore) macroinvertebrate communities were studied in eight natural lakes affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The lakes spanned a range in {sup 137}Cs contamination from 100 to 15500 kBq m{sup -2} and estimated external dose rates ranged from 0.13 to 30.7 {mu}Gy h{sup -1}. General linear models were used to assess whether abundance of individuals, taxon richness, Berger-Parker dominance and Shannon-Wiener diversity varied across the lakes. Step-wise multiple regressions were used to relate variation in total abundance, taxon richness, Berger-Parker dominance, Shannon-Wiener diversity, taxon richness within major groups of macroinvertebrates and abundance of the more common individual taxa to the measured environmental characteristics (conductivity, pH, total hardness and phosphate; lake area, lake maximum depth and total external dose) of the lakes. No evidence was found in this study that the ecological status of lake communities has been influenced by radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident. Indeed, the most contaminated lake, Glubokoye, contained the highest richness of aquatic invertebrates. Taxon richness in the eight study lakes varied from 22 (Svyatskoe no. 7) to 42 (Glubokoye) which spans a range typical for uncontaminated lakes in the region. Since {sup 90}Sr is readily-absorbed by Mollusca, estimated dose rates to this group exceeded those for other invertebrate groups in two lakes (Perstok and Glubokoye). However this study found no association between mollusc diversity or abundance of individual snail species and variation between lakes in the external radiation dose. Indeed Glubokoye, the lake most contaminated by {sup 90}Sr, had the highest richness of freshwater snails per sample (an average of 8.9 taxa per sample). - Highlights: > We studied the effect of radiation on macroinvertebrates in Chernobyl affected lakes. > Abundance, taxon richness, Berger-Parker dominance, Shannon-Wiener diversity evaluated. > No

  17. Inverse modeling of the Chernobyl source term using atmospheric concentration and deposition measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Evangeliou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of an inverse modeling study for the determination of the source term of the radionuclides 134Cs, 137Cs and 131I released after the Chernobyl accident. The accident occurred on 26 April 1986 in the Former Soviet Union and released about 1019 Bq of radioactive materials that were transported as far away as the USA and Japan. Thereafter, several attempts to assess the magnitude of the emissions were made that were based on the knowledge of the core inventory and the levels of the spent fuel. More recently, when modeling tools were further developed, inverse modeling techniques were applied to the Chernobyl case for source term quantification. However, because radioactivity is a sensitive topic for the public and attracts a lot of attention, high-quality measurements, which are essential for inverse modeling, were not made available except for a few sparse activity concentration measurements far from the source and far from the main direction of the radioactive fallout. For the first time, we apply Bayesian inversion of the Chernobyl source term using not only activity concentrations but also deposition measurements from the most recent public data set. These observations refer to a data rescue attempt that started more than 10 years ago, with a final goal to provide available measurements to anyone interested. In regards to our inverse modeling results, emissions of 134Cs were estimated to be 80 PBq or 30–50 % higher than what was previously published. From the released amount of 134Cs, about 70 PBq were deposited all over Europe. Similar to 134Cs, emissions of 137Cs were estimated as 86 PBq, on the same order as previously reported results. Finally, 131I emissions of 1365 PBq were found, which are about 10 % less than the prior total releases. The inversion pushes the injection heights of the three radionuclides to higher altitudes (up to about 3 km than previously assumed (≈ 2.2 km in order

  18. Specificity of Cs-137 redistribution in toposequence of arable soils cultivated after the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey; Baranchukov, Vladimir; Berezkin, Victor; Moiseenko, Fedor; Kirov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Investigations performed after the Chernobyl accident showed high spatial variation of radionuclide contamination of the soil cover in elementary landscape geochemical systems (ELGS) that characterize catena's structure. Our studies of Cs-137 distribution along and cross the slopes of local ridges in natural forested key site revealed a cyclic character of variation of the radionuclide surface activity along the studied transections (Korobova et al, 2008; Korobova, Romanov, 2009; 2011). We hypothesized that the observed pattern reflects a specific secondary migration of Cs-137 with water, and that this process could have taken place in any ELGS. To test this hypothesis a detailed field measurement of Cs-137 surface activity was performed in ELGS in agricultural area cultivated after the Chernobyl accident but later withdrawn from land-use. In situ measurements carried out by field gamma-spectrometry were accompanied by soil core sampling at the selected points. Soil samples were taken in increments of 2 cm down to 20 cm and of 5 cm down to 40 cm. The samples were analyzed for Cs-137 in laboratory using Canberra gamma-spectrometer with HP-Ge detector. Obtained results confirmed the fact of area cultivation down to 20 cm that was clearly traced by Cs-137 profile in soil columns. At the same time, the measurements also showed a cyclic character of Cs-137 variation in a sequence of ELGS from watershed to the local depression similar to that found in woodland key site. This proved that the observed pattern is a natural process typical for matter migration in ELGS independently of the vegetation type and ploughing. Therefore, spatial aspect is believed to be an important issue for development of adequate technique for a forecast of contamination of agricultural production and remediation of the soil cover on the local scale within the contaminated areas. References Korobova, E.M., Romanov, S.L., 2009. A Chernobyl 137Cs contamination study as an example for the spatial

  19. EXPERIENCE OF RADIATION-HYGIENIC MONITORING MANAGEMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION SITUATION IN THE BRYANSK REGION TERRITORY AFTER 25 YEARS SINCE THE DAY OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Trapeznikova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly presents the experience of the radiation-hygienic monitoring system creation in the territory contaminated with the radionuclides due to the Chernobyl accident and application of the radiation hygienic monitoring data for the assessment of protective measures efficiency. Radiation situation data for the territory of the Bryansk region after 25 years of Chernobyl accident and dynamics of the population average annual effective exposure dose are being presented.

  20. Neurobehavioral and cognitive performances of children exposed to low-dose radiation in the Chernobyl accident: the Israeli Chernobyl Health Effects Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar Joseph, N; Reisfeld, D; Tirosh, E; Silman, Z; Rennert, G

    2004-09-01

    Exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation after the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine could potentially have influenced the neurobehavioral and cognitive performances of exposed children. A cohort study of adolescents who were children at the time of the accident and who subsequently emigrated to Israel was conducted in 1998-2001. A total of 1,629 children (59% of all 2,769 invited) were included in the study (41% from higher contamination areas, 25% from lower contamination areas, 34% from noncontaminated areas). Mean scores of the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices Test were highest in children in all exposure groups whose parents had a high level of education. No overall relation was found between the cognitive function scores of the child and his/her putative radiation exposure level. Conners' test T scores did not differ significantly by level of exposure. Mothers of all exposure groups who were pregnant at the time of the accident gave their children significantly higher Conners' test scores than did those who were not pregnant. Scores for hyperactivity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were significantly higher among those who were in utero at the time of the accident. These results do not show differences of neurobehavioral or cognitive performance in exposed versus nonexposed children. There is a possible behavioral effect among offspring of pregnant mothers or mothers of very young children in all exposure levels.

  1. Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in heather honey and its dependence on deposition patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, S; Sanderson, D C

    1999-10-01

    Gamma-ray spectra were measured from Scottish heather honey samples gathered from hive locations with associated airborne gamma-ray survey data. The honeys all contained radiocesium, with activity concentrations ranging from 43-680 Bq kg(-1) 137Cs, and 134Cs/137Cs ratios consistent with Chernobyl deposition. Activity concentrations in honey were highly correlated with ground deposition within 2.5 km of the hive location over two successive years. Both isotope ratios and the quantitative relationships between environmental and food levels suggest that weapons testing fallout is significantly less available than recent deposition. The implications for design of future monitoring programs and radiological consequences are discussed. The whole-body retention of 137Cs in honey ingested by a volunteer was consistent with the ICRP's metabolic model for cesium.

  2. Management, administrative and operational causes of the accident: Chernobyl nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, G. [California State Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred in April 1986, was the result of management, administrative, operational, technical and design flaws. The accident released millions of curies of mixed fission products including 70-100 PBq of {sup 137}Cs. At the time of the accident, science, engineering and safety in the former Soviet Union were dominated by an atmosphere of politics, group think and `dingoes tending the sheep`. This corrupted safety culture exacerbated the poor design of the reactor. The results of this study strongly suggest that the cultural, political, managerial and operational attributes of the Soviet `system` performed in a synergistic manner to significantly contribute to the initiation of the accident. (authors). 16 refs.

  3. Articulating the signs of danger: lay experiences of post-Chernobyl radiation risks and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinskaya, Olga

    2011-05-01

    This essay examines lay experiences of radiation--the hazard imperceptible with unaided senses--and how these experiences are shaped. Analysis is conducted on the basis of participant observation and interviews in Belarusian rural areas affected after the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident. I argue that radiation risks and health effects are not always obvious or immediately observable for those experiencing them, and they should be articulated. The paper compares various opportunities for articulation, including the context of radiological testing and administrative contexts, and describes the kinds of articulations they make possible. I conclude that limited opportunities for articulation result in limited lay recognition of radioactive contamination and their own health effects. The analysis implies that affected lay populations cannot always be assumed to be the most risk-conscious and hold special knowledge about radiation effects independently of scientific and administrative definitions of it.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY OF UKRAINE THROUGH THE PRISM OF MEMORY ON CHERNOBYL DISASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Perga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach to the research of individual, collective and historical memory — through the prism of environmental disasters. Although they lead not only to physical but also to mental trauma in modern scientific discourse this aspect has not become a subject of special studies. In the example of Chernobyl disaster traumatic experience of 50 residents of Kiev, who received indirect effects of the accident, is analyzed. It is shown the formation a stable distrust of the authorities of the USSR, which is transferred to the present and entails a negative assessment of the environmental policy of independent Ukraine. Factors, which cause such situation and its relationship with the views of respondents on their future, are established. The conclusion of the feasibility of using the questionnaire method for determining the main trends traumatic impact of environmental disasters on individual memory is done. Directions for further in-depth research in this area are proposed.

  5. [Clinical and experimental parallels between immunological observations of irradiated animals and patients injured during Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'tsev, V N

    2011-01-01

    Immunological parameters in different periods of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) of experimental animals and Chernobyl reactor accident-injured patients have been studied. 148 patients and experimental animals (123 dogs and 198 monkeys) were observed after radiation exposure of different levels (from a sub-lethal dose to the minimal absolute lethal dose). We have found the increase in the C-reactive protein, fluctuation of normal antibody titers and the complement in blood serum, as well as the growing number of skin microbes after exposures to lethal doses. Experimental results match clinical data in terms of ARS progress phases but differ from the latter in terms of the time of clinical manifestations. The highest rate of clinical manifestations is observed on the 7-14 days for experimental animals (rats, dogs and monkeys) and on the 20-30 days for patients after radiation exposure. Regenerative processes in animals run faster than those in humans.

  6. Countermeasures to the Chernobyl accident in the Nordic countries: Public reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Rundmo, T.; Eraenen, L.; Ekstroem, H

    1998-01-01

    In Sweden the TMI accident was the direct cause to a decision to hold a national referendum on nuclear power on March 23, 1980. The referendum and the subsequent political decision to phase out nuclear power by 2010 to some extent neutralized the issue and nuclear attitudes returned to a mildly positive state. However, the Chernobyl accident in 1986 again changed the scene. Just as the TMI accident had been something of a surprise to many, the Chernobyl accident and its consequences in Scandinavia were not anticipated. Attitudes to nuclear power became quite negative immediately after the accident but they soon resumed their initial mildly positive position again. Even if the radioactive fall-out never reached truly alarming levels authorities in Finland, Norway and Sweden took measures to counteract the effects of radioactivity and to protect the population. This was done in a very heated atmosphere and intense attention was paid by the mass media. Trust in authorities and governments was put to a stringent test during these days 10 years ago. Several psychologists, sociologists and mass media researchers were active from the very beginning to document the events taking place, e.g. by means of surveys of the public opinion. The reports they wrote were usually in local languages and much of this material was never published in print but remained as project reports. It is the purpose of the present project to localize these report and to summarize and interpret their contents, and to give bibliographical information about where the sources can be located. Different experiences and conditions in the three countries account for somewhat different approaches of the three country chapters. There is no doubt that Chernobyl was a very significant social and psychological event in the three countries discussed in the present report. It was also regarded by many as a significant threat to public health, although radiation experts assured the public that the direct effects

  7. Post-Chernobyl accident radioactivity measurements in the Comunidad Autonoma de Valencia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, J; Ballesteros, L; Serradell, V

    1992-03-01

    Increased atmospheric radioactivity after the accident in Chernobyl was first detected on air filters. Measurements were begun in Valencia on May 2, 1986, with the maximum activity being observed around May 3-4, 1986. As a consequence of this accident, annual campaigns of measurements on migrating birds (several species of aquatic birds and song-thrushes) were started. The data corresponding to the campaign immediately after the accident (1986/87) show a generalized contamination (approximately 50% of the measured specimens). Significant levels of 134Cs, 137Cs and 110Agm were found. It is important to note that 110Agm is only present in Aythya ferina. In the successive campaigns in 1988/89 and 1989/91 few samples were found to be contaminated and only 137Cs was identified. Strontium-90 was measured and identified in some specimens, mainly in their bones.

  8. Experimental study of radioactive aerosols in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Lomonosova, E.M.; Zhuk, I.V.; Yaroshevich, O.I.; Kudrjashov, V.P.; Mironov, V.P

    1999-12-01

    Study of radioactive aerosols in the relocation zone and in the populated areas have been carried out for a number of years. The experiments on modelling resuspension were performed while conducting agricultural work. Nuclear track radiography and alpha spectrometry with radiochemical extraction of plutonium were used as analytical methods for the determination of the transuranium elements contents. The distributions of radioactive particles were obtained as to activity and sizes. Specific activity of 'hot particles' increases with decreasing diameter. In aerosols selected at a distance of more than 10 km from the Chernobyl NPP pure fuel particles with sizes of more than 5 {mu}m were not found. The activity of the finely dispersed fraction of aerosols, which is more dangerous when inhaled by the organism, is comparable with a total activity of large particles.

  9. Frequency of trisomy 21 in Germany before and after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, K.; Pelz, J.; Wegner, R.D.; Schulzke, I.; Struck, E. (Institut fuer Humangenetik, Berlin (DE))

    1991-01-01

    For Berlin (West) the rate of trisomy 21 among newborn and all prenatally diagnosed cases can be almost completely recorded, including the maternal age distribution. During the 9-year-period from 1980 to 1988 the average number of trisomy 21 per month was about 2, following a Poisson distribution. A significant increase (P < 0.01) was observed in January 1987, excatly 9 months after the Chernobyl accident. In a supraregional study based on > 30 000 prenatal diagnoses performed in 1986, no significant effect could be observed. However, the highest rates of trisomy 21 were observed in the more heavily contaminated, southern part of Germany. The majority of these fetuses were conceived during the period of greatest radioactive exposure. The data are discussed with respect to the effect of low-dose radiation around the time of conception on the induction of non-disjunction in man.

  10. Consequences to health of the Chernobyl accident; Helbredsmaessige konsekvenser af reaktorulykken i Tjernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewerin, I. [Royal Dental College, Dept. of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 has been and still is the subject of great interest. Journalistic reports often contain exaggerations and undocumented statements and much uncertainty about the true consequences of the accident prevails in the population. This article reviews the current literature with the focus on reports from official commissions and documentation in the form of controlled studies. The fatal deterministic consequences comprise about 30 victims. The most important outcome is a marked increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in the most heavily contaminated area. Furthermore, pronounced psychosocial problems are dominant in the population of the contaminated area. Other significant and documented health consequences are not seen. (au)

  11. Investigation of radionuclides and anthropic tracer migration in groundwater at the Chernobyl site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal La Salle, Corinnne; Simonucci, Caroline; Roux, Céline; Bugai, Dmitry; Aquilina, Luc; Fourré, Elise; Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Labasque, Thierry; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Fifield, Keith; Team Aster Team; Van Meir, Nathalie; Kashparov, Valeriy; Diez, Olivier; Bassot, Sylvain; Lancelot, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Following the reactor 4 explosion of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP), at least 1019 Bq of radionuclides (RN) were released in the environment. In order to protect workers and prevent further atmospheric RN dispersion in the area adjacent to the ChNPP, contaminated wastes including fuel particles, topsoil layer and forest remains were buried in approximately 800 shallow trenches in the sand formation in the Red Forest waste dump site [1]. No containment measures were taken, and since then RN have leaked to the unsaturated zone and to the groundwater. Since 1999, migration of RN in the vicinity of the trench 22 at Red Forest site has been investigated within the frame of the EPIC program carried out by IRSN in collaboration with UIAR and IGS [2, 3]. A plume of 90Sr was shown downgradient from the trench 22 with activites reaching 3750 Bq/L [2]. In 2008, further studies were initiated through the TRASSE research group, based on a collaboration between IRSN and CNRS. These programs aim at combining groundwater dating with RN migration monitoring studies in order to constrain RN transport models [3]. Groundwater residence time was investigated based on 3H/He and CFC. Both tracers led to ages ranging from modern (1-3 y) at 2 m depth below the groundwater table to significantly higher apparent ages of 50-60 y at 27 m below the groundwater table [3]. 36Cl/Cl ratios 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than the theoretical natural ratio are measured in groundwater. Similarly, SF6 shows concentrations as high as 1200 pptv while natural concentrations are in the order of 6-7 pptv. Based on apparent groundwater ages, both contaminations are linked to the Chernobyl explosion. Hence those tracers show excellent potential to constrain conservative and reactive transport, respectively. In contrast, 238U/235U ratio down gradient from trench 22 remains similar to the natural ratio. This suggests that either most of the U contained in the trench is in a non soluble form

  12. Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management at Chernobyle Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahner, S.; Fomin, V. V.

    2002-02-26

    In the framework of the preparation for the decommissioning of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) an Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM) will be built under the EC TACIS Program in the vicinity of ChNPP. The paper will present the proposed concepts and their integration into existing buildings and installations. Further, the paper will consider the safety cases, as well as the integration of Western and Ukrainian Organizations into a cohesive project team and the requirement to guarantee the fulfillment of both Western standards and Ukrainian regulations and licensing requirements. The paper will provide information on the status of the interim design and the effects of value engineering on the output of basic design phase. The paper therefor summarizes the design results of the involved design engineers of the Design and Process Providers BNFL (LOT 1), RWE NUKEM GmbH (LOT 2 and General) and INITEC (LOT 3).

  13. Radiological effects on populations of Oligochaeta in the Chernobyl contaminated zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsytsugina, V.G.; Polikarpov, G.G. E-mail: ggp@iur.sebastopol.ua

    2003-07-01

    A detailed investigation of 3 populations of Oligochaete species (Dero obtusa, Nais pseudobtusa and Nais pardalis) has been carried out in contaminated lake of the close-in Chernobyl zone and in a control lake. Hydrochemical indices and concentrations of heavy metals, chloro-organi compounds and {sup 90}Sr in bottom sediments have been measured. Absorbed doses were calculated on the basis of the results of radiochemical analysis an assessed directly with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Stimulation of paratomous division (asexual reproduction) was found in one species of worm (D. obtusa), and activation of sexual reproduction in the two other specie studied. An increase in the amount of cytogenetic damage in the somatic cells of worms from the contaminated lake was found and an attempt was made to assess the relative contributions of radiation and chemical exposure on the basis of analyses of inter-cellular aberration distributions and the types of chromosome aberrations observed in the cells.

  14. [Formation of paroxysmal brain activity in the liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsonnaya, I V; Shumacher, G I; Efremushkin, G G; Gelobetskaya, E D

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on the formation of paroxysmal brain activity (PBA) in the liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in view of their age on the date of exposure to radiation. EEG examinations were performed in 105 liquidators of the consequences of the nuclear disaster (LCND) and 90 people without radiation anamnesis (control group). It has been determined that the formation of paroxysmal brain activity in LCND occurs 3.5 times more frequent (pradiation. The history of the exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with the increased risk of the development of convulsive PBA as focal seizures by 5.5 times (pRadiation effect on LCND under 30 years old increases (as compared to the control group) the risk of the formation of elevated paroxysmal brain activity by 19 times (peffect of ionizing radiation on the development of PBA related to the age on the date of exposure to radiation was found.

  15. Strontium-90 concentrations in human teeth in south Ukraine, 5 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulev, Y D; Polikarpov, G G; Prigodey, E V; Assimakopoulos, P A

    1994-10-28

    Approximately 1000 human teeth, collected in South Ukraine, in 1990-1991, were measured for 90Sr concentration. The teeth were grouped into 18 samples according to the age and sex of the donors. Measured levels of 90Sr concentrations were lower by a factor of 10 than measurements taken in the mid-1960s and mid-1970s. An interesting feature of the data is a 3-fold enhancement of contamination levels in the 25-45 year-old age group of the male population. A possible explanation for this anomaly is that this age group contains a significant number of men who were mobilized immediately after the Chernobyl accident for clean-up operations within the 30-km zone around the damaged nuclear power plant.

  16. (137)Cs contamination over Transylvania region (Romania) after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begy, R Cs; Simon, H; Vasilache, D; Kelemen, Sz; Cosma, C

    2017-12-01

    Following the radionuclide releases due to Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, various studies were completed by researchers all over the world in order to measure the surface contaminations by artificial radionuclides. The aim of this study was to evaluate (137)Cs surface contamination and to create an inventory distribution for Transylvania region (Romania) after the Chernobyl event using γ spectrometric measurements on soil samples collected from 153 locations. The results were compared to measured data from the Danube Delta and Moldova Republic, as well as to (137)Cs concentrations from the rest of Europe reported by literature. The (137)Cs surface concentrations in soil samples ranged between 0.4±0.1kBqm(-2) and 301.1±3.0kBqm(-2), having an average of 8.3±0.2kBqm(-2), with more elevated values in the mountain areas (18.3±0.6kBqm(-2)) compared to the hills and plains (2.6±0.1kBqm(-2)). Taking into consideration the cardinal regions, the northern and western regions received the least amount of (137)Cs (2.9±0.1kBqm(-2)), while the southern part received 16.3±0.6kBqm(-2). Sampling points with eastern slope exposure received the highest average (27.8±0.5kBqm(-2)), while southern, north-western and north-eastern ones received less than 8kBqm(-2). Two hotspots are reported at Iezer-Ighiel (72.7±5.9kBqm(-2)) and Tulgheș areas (51.5±0.6kBqm(-2)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation hazards in children - lessons from Chernobyl, Three Mile Island and Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushiki, Shinji

    2013-03-01

    On March 11, 2011, Japan was hit by the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster. Firstly, this review focuses on what happened after the accidents at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station in 1979 and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, in terms of the effects of these incidents on health. The most critical issue when considering the effects of radiation on the health of children was the increase of thyroid cancer, as clearly demonstrated among people who were children or adolescence at the time of the Chernobyl accident. Therefore, in the early days after a nuclear accident, the primary concern should be efforts to prevent the exposure of children to radioactive iodine through inhalation and ingestion, because radioactive iodine preferentially accumulates in the thyroid. In the longer term, another concern is exposure to radionuclides with long half-lives, including cesium137 and cesium134, with physical half-lives of 30 and 2 years, respectively. Secondly, fetal radiation risks and radiobiological studies on low-level radiation are briefly reviewed, with reference to the effects upon the developing brain. A fetal dose of 100 mSv may increase the risk of an effect on brain development, especially neuronal migration, based upon the results of experiments with rodents. Finally, this review proposes that research on the health effects of low level radiation should be prioritized so that accurate information on the effects of radiation can be disseminated and prevent the prevalence of unnecessary fear lacking scientific justification. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A 25 year retrospective review of the psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, E J; Havenaar, J M; Guey, L T

    2011-05-01

    The Chernobyl Forum Report from the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster concluded that mental health effects were the most significant public health consequence of the accident. This paper provides an updated review of research on the psychological impact of the accident during the 25 year period since the catastrophe began. First responders and clean-up workers had the greatest exposure to radiation. Recent studies show that their rates of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder remain elevated two decades later. Very young children and those in utero who lived near the plant when it exploded or in severely contaminated areas have been the subject of considerable research, but the findings are inconsistent. Recent studies of prenatally exposed children conducted in Kiev, Norway and Finland point to specific neuropsychological and psychological impairments associated with radiation exposure, whereas other studies found no significant cognitive or mental health effects in exposed children grown up. General population studies report increased rates of poor self-rated health as well as clinical and subclinical depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Mothers of young children exposed to the disaster remain a high-risk group for these conditions, primarily due to lingering worries about the adverse health effects on their families. Thus, long-term mental health consequences continue to be a concern. The unmet need for mental health care in affected regions remains an important public health challenge 25 years later. Future research is needed that combines physical and mental health outcome measures to complete the clinical picture. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-05-14

    To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Register-based cohort study. Estonia. An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Site-specific cancer risk in the Baltic cohort of Chernobyl cleanup workers, 1986–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Hakulinen, Timo; Smailyte, Giedre; Stengrevics, Aivars; Auvinen, Anssi; Inskip, Peter D.; Boice, John D.; Rahu, Mati

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess site-specific cancer risk in the Baltic cohort of Chernobyl cleanup workers 1986–2007. Methods The Baltic cohort includes 17,040 men from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania who participated in the environmental cleanup after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in 1986–1991, and who were followed for cancer incidence until the end of 2007. Cancer cases diagnosed in the cohort and in the male population of each country were identified from the respective national cancer registers. The proportional incidence ratio (PIR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate the site-specific cancer risk in the cohort. For comparison and as it was possible, the site-specific standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for the Estonian sub-cohort, which was not feasible for the other countries. Results Overall, 756 cancer cases were reported during 1986–2007. A higher proportion of thyroid cancers in relation to the male population was found (PIR=2.76; 95%CI 1.63–4.36), especially among those who started their mission shortly after the accident, in April–May 1986 (PIR=6.38; 95% CI 2.34–13.89). Also, an excess of oesophageal cancers was noted (PIR=1.52; 95% CI 1.06–2.11). No increased PIRs for leukaemia or radiation-related cancer sites combined were observed. PIRs and SIRs for the Estonian sub-cohort demonstrated the same site-specific cancer risk pattern. Conclusion Consistent evidence of an increase in radiation-related cancers in the Baltic cohort was not observed with the possible exception of thyroid cancer, where conclusions are hampered by known medical examination including thyroid screening among cleanup workers. PMID:23683549